WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex forest site

  1. The choice of forest site for recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agimass, Fitalew; Lundhede, Thomas; Panduro, Toke Emil

    2018-01-01

    logit as well as a random parameter logit model. The variables that are found to affect the choice of forest site to a visit for recreation include: forest area, tree species composition, forest density, availability of historical sites, terrain difference, state ownership, and distance. Regarding......In this paper, we investigate the factors that can influence the site choice of forest recreation. Relevant attributes are identified by using spatial data analysis from a questionnaire asking people to indicate their most recent forest visits by pinpointing on a map. The main objectives...

  2. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  3. Complexity of Forest Management: Exploring Perceptions of Dutch Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilske O. de Bruin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Challenges of contemporary forest management are frequently referred to as complex. This article empirically studies complexity in forest management decision-making. In contrast to what is often assumed in the literature, this article starts by assuming that complexity does not just consist of an external descriptive element, but also depends on how decision-makers perceive the system at hand. This “perceived complexity” determines decision-making. We used a straightforward interpretation of perceived complexity using two criteria: the number of factors considered and the uncertainty perceived about these factors. The results show that Dutch forest managers generally consider forest management decision-making to be complicated (many factors to consider rather than complex (many uncertain factors to consider. Differences in sources of complexity confirm the individual character of perceived complexity. The factors perceived to be most relevant for decision-making (the forest itself, the organization’s objective, the cost of management, public opinion, national policies and laws, and new scientific insights and ideas are generally seen as rather certain, although “complexity reduction” may play a role that can adversely affect the quality of decision-making. Additional use of more open-ended, forward-looking methods, such as qualitative foresight tools, might enable addressing uncertainty and complexity, and thereby enhance decision-making in forest management to prepare for increasing complexity in the future.

  4. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  5. Prediction of glycosylation sites using random forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirst Jonathan D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post translational modifications (PTMs occur in the vast majority of proteins and are essential for function. Prediction of the sequence location of PTMs enhances the functional characterisation of proteins. Glycosylation is one type of PTM, and is implicated in protein folding, transport and function. Results We use the random forest algorithm and pairwise patterns to predict glycosylation sites. We identify pairwise patterns surrounding glycosylation sites and use an odds ratio to weight their propensity of association with modified residues. Our prediction program, GPP (glycosylation prediction program, predicts glycosylation sites with an accuracy of 90.8% for Ser sites, 92.0% for Thr sites and 92.8% for Asn sites. This is significantly better than current glycosylation predictors. We use the trepan algorithm to extract a set of comprehensible rules from GPP, which provide biological insight into all three major glycosylation types. Conclusion We have created an accurate predictor of glycosylation sites and used this to extract comprehensible rules about the glycosylation process. GPP is available online at http://comp.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/glyco/.

  6. Quattor: managing (complex) grid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouvin, M

    2008-01-01

    Quattor is a tool developed to efficiently manage fabrics with hundreds or thousands of Linux machines, while still being able to manage smaller clusters easily. It was originally developed inside the European Data Grid (EDG) project and is now in use at more than 50 grid sites running gLite middleware, ranging from small LCG T3s to very large sites like CERN. Quattor's ability to factorize and to reuse common parts of service configurations permitted the development of the QWG templates: a complete set of standard templates to configure the OS and gLite middleware. Any site can just import and customize the configuration without editing the bulk of the templates. Collaboration around these templates results in a very efficient sharing of installation and configuration information between those sites using them

  7. Using advanced surface complexation models for modelling soil chemistry under forests: Solling forest, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonten, Luc T.C.; Groenenberg, Jan E.; Meesenburg, Henning; Vries, Wim de

    2011-01-01

    Various dynamic soil chemistry models have been developed to gain insight into impacts of atmospheric deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and other elements on soil and soil solution chemistry. Sorption parameters for anions and cations are generally calibrated for each site, which hampers extrapolation in space and time. On the other hand, recently developed surface complexation models (SCMs) have been successful in predicting ion sorption for static systems using generic parameter sets. This study reports the inclusion of an assemblage of these SCMs in the dynamic soil chemistry model SMARTml and applies this model to a spruce forest site in Solling Germany. Parameters for SCMs were taken from generic datasets and not calibrated. Nevertheless, modelling results for major elements matched observations well. Further, trace metals were included in the model, also using the existing framework of SCMs. The model predicted sorption for most trace elements well. - Highlights: → Surface complexation models can be well applied in field studies. → Soil chemistry under a forest site is adequately modelled using generic parameters. → The model is easily extended with extra elements within the existing framework. → Surface complexation models can show the linkages between major soil chemistry and trace element behaviour. - Surface complexation models with generic parameters make calibration of sorption superfluous in dynamic modelling of deposition impacts on soil chemistry under nature areas.

  8. Using advanced surface complexation models for modelling soil chemistry under forests: Solling forest, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonten, Luc T.C., E-mail: luc.bonten@wur.nl [Alterra-Wageningen UR, Soil Science Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Groenenberg, Jan E. [Alterra-Wageningen UR, Soil Science Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Meesenburg, Henning [Northwest German Forest Research Station, Abt. Umweltkontrolle, Sachgebiet Intensives Umweltmonitoring, Goettingen (Germany); Vries, Wim de [Alterra-Wageningen UR, Soil Science Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Various dynamic soil chemistry models have been developed to gain insight into impacts of atmospheric deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and other elements on soil and soil solution chemistry. Sorption parameters for anions and cations are generally calibrated for each site, which hampers extrapolation in space and time. On the other hand, recently developed surface complexation models (SCMs) have been successful in predicting ion sorption for static systems using generic parameter sets. This study reports the inclusion of an assemblage of these SCMs in the dynamic soil chemistry model SMARTml and applies this model to a spruce forest site in Solling Germany. Parameters for SCMs were taken from generic datasets and not calibrated. Nevertheless, modelling results for major elements matched observations well. Further, trace metals were included in the model, also using the existing framework of SCMs. The model predicted sorption for most trace elements well. - Highlights: > Surface complexation models can be well applied in field studies. > Soil chemistry under a forest site is adequately modelled using generic parameters. > The model is easily extended with extra elements within the existing framework. > Surface complexation models can show the linkages between major soil chemistry and trace element behaviour. - Surface complexation models with generic parameters make calibration of sorption superfluous in dynamic modelling of deposition impacts on soil chemistry under nature areas.

  9. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated

  10. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  11. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Turton, Stephen M; Pert, Petina L; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F

    2016-07-20

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m(2) of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  12. Vegetation diversity of the Scots pine stands in different forest sites in the Turawa Forest District

    OpenAIRE

    Stefańska-Krzaczek, Ewa; Pech, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The utility of phytocenotic indices in the diagnosis and classification of forest sites might be limited because of vegetation degeneration in managed forests. However, even in secondary communities it may be possible to determine indicator species, although these may differ from typical and well known plant indicators. The aim of this work was to assess the vegetation diversity of Scots pine stands in representative forest site types along a moisture and fertility gradient. In total ...

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of data analysis in quantitative assessment of natural resources remains significant in the sustainable management of complex tropical forest resources. Analyses of data from complex tropical forest stands have not been easy or clear due to improper data management. It is pivotal to practical researches ...

  14. Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyustov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest V.K. Khlustov Head of the Forestry Department of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A.Timiryazev doctor of agricultural sciences, professor The efficiency of forest management can be improved substantially by development and introduction of principally new models of forest growth and productivity dynamics based on regionalized site specific parameters. Therefore an innovative information system was developed. It describes the current state and gives a forecast for forest stand parameters: growth, structure, commercial and biological productivity depend on type of site quality. In contrast to existing yield tables, the new system has environmental basis: site quality type. The information system contains set of multivariate statistical models and can work at the level of individual trees or at the stand level. The system provides a graphical visualization, as well as export of the emulation results. The System is able to calculate detailed description of any forest stand based on five initial indicators: site quality type, site index, stocking, composition, and tree age by elements of the forest. The results of the model run are following parameters: average diameter and height, top height, number of trees, basal area, growing stock (total, commercial with distribution by size, firewood and residuals), live biomass (stem, bark, branches, foliage). The system also provides the distribution of mentioned above forest stand parameters by tree diameter classes. To predict the future forest stand dynamics the system require in addition the time slot only. Full set of forest parameters mention above will be provided by the System. The most conservative initial parameters (site quality type and site index) can be kept in the form of geo referenced polygons. In this case the system would need only 3 dynamic initial parameters (stocking, composition and age) to

  15. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  16. Site productivity and forest carbon stocks in the United States: Analysis and implications for forest offset project planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeli M. Hoover; James E. Smith

    2012-01-01

    The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide...

  17. Siting wind farms in and around forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, N. [Natural Power Consultants, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of assessing the impact of trees on wind resources. Turbulence is generated and also absorbed by trees. Disturbances generated at tree level are then transported upwards and down-wind by the wind. The turbulence induced by trees can be felt kilometers downwind of forests at wind turbine hub heights. Wind speeds can be less than predicted, and significant over-estimations can occur with modelled results. The effects of high shear and high turbulence can also have an impact on power curve performance and lead to higher levels of mechanical stress. A SCADA analysis was used to demonstrate the impact of forests on power curves. Wind power predictions near forests can be optimized by using a full year of data capture at hub height, full rotor measurements, and a consideration of seasonal variations. Accurate tree maps are needed to determine the effects of trees on wind shear. Various forestry scenarios were modelled to demonstrate the effects of forestry management over time. tabs., figs.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    The importance of data analysis in quantitative assessment of natural resources .... Data collection design is an important process in complex forest statistical ... Ideally, the sample size should be equal among groups and sufficiently large.

  19. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  20. Shifting conceptions of complexity in forest management and silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Fahey; Brandon C. Alveshere; Julia I. Burton; Anthony W. D' Amato; Yvette L. Dickinson; William S. Keeton; Christel C. Kern; Andrew J. Larson; Brian J. Palik; Klaus J. Puettmann; Michael R. Saunders; Christopher R. Webster; Jeff W. Atkins; Christopher M. Gough; Brady S. Hardiman

    2018-01-01

    In the past several decades, a trend in forestry and silviculture has been toward promoting complexity in forest ecosystems, but how complexity is conceived and described has shifted over time as new ideas and terminology have been introduced. Historically, ecologically-focused silviculture has focused largely on manipulation of structural complexity, but often with...

  1. Performance Potential at one Complex, Specific Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    disciplines: performance, drama, dance and music. Complex rules of “borders” between audience and actors/performers appeared to be present and active during this long happening. Different narrative genres were active simultaneously during the experimental session. A lot of complex and surprising phenomena...... and combinations of spatial, dramaturgical, narrative and interactive challenges, which appear to be of special interest for the kind of experiences an audience might gather in a site like this, originally created with totally different intentions. Or was it?...

  2. A Basal Area Increment-Based Approach of Site Productivity Evaluation for Multi-Aged and Mixed Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of forest site productivity are essential for environmental planning and forest management. In this study, we developed a new productivity index, hereafter termed basal area potential productivity index (BAPP, to estimate site productivity for irregular and complex forests characterized by multi-aged, multi-species, and multi-layer stands. We presented the biological relevance of BAPP with its computational details. We also compared BAPP against basal area realized productivity (BARP in order to verify the practicability and reliability of BAPP. Time-series data of the national forest inventory on 1912 permanent sample plots that were located in two main forest types and consisted of oak-dominated mixed forests and other broadleaf forests in northeast China were used to demonstrate the application of BAPP. The results showed that the value of BAPP for each sample plot was larger than or equal to the corresponding BARP value for each forest type. For appropriately managed stands with relatively better site conditions, the values of both BARP and BAPP were almost identical. The values of the difference between BAPP and BARP could therefore be used to effectively assess forest site productivity. Meanwhile, BAPP also provides much reliable and valuable information that can aid decision-making in forest management.

  3. 77 FR 12002 - Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Site-Specific Invasive Plant Treatment Project and Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Invasive Plant Treatment Project and Forest Plan Amendment Number 28 AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Forest. The current Forest-wide treatment approach pre-dates the Pacific Northwest Region Invasive Plant... interdisciplinary analysis: (1) Whether or not to authorize site- specific invasive plant treatments using...

  4. Relationship Between Site Disturbance and Forest Harvesting Equipment Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim McDonald; Emily Carter; Steve Taylor; John Tobert

    1998-01-01

    A study was done to evaluate the use of global positioning systems (GPS) to track the position of forest harvesting equipment and use the information to assess site impacts. GPS units were attached to tree-length harvesting machinery in two clearcuts (1 feller-buncher, 2 skidders). Position of the equipment was recorded at 2-second intervals throughout the harvest of...

  5. Forest microbiome: diversity, complexity and dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2017), s. 109-130 ISSN 0168-6445 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06763S; GA ČR GA13-27454S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15086 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : forests * microbiome * habitat Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 12.198, year: 2016

  6. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively. Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations

  7. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the

  8. Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Danner, E.M.; Doak, D.F.; Konar, B.; Springer, A.M.; Steinberg, P.D.; Tinker, M. Tim; Williams, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of species and populations change almost continuously. Understanding the processes responsible is perhaps ecology’s most fundamental challenge. Kelp-forest ecosystems in southwest Alaska have undergone several phase shifts between alga- and herbivore-dominated states in recent decades. Overhunting and recovery of sea otters caused the earlier shifts. Studies focusing on these changes demonstrate the importance of top-down forcing processes, a variety of indirect food-web interactions associated with the otter-urchin-kelp trophic cascade, and the role of food-chain length in the coevolution of defense and resistance in plants and their herbivores. This system unexpectedly shifted back to an herbivore-dominated state during the 1990s, because of a sea-otter population collapse that apparently was driven by increased predation by killer whales. Reasons for this change remain uncertain but seem to be linked to the whole-sale collapse of marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea. We hypothesize that killer whales sequentially "fished down" pinniped and sea-otter populations after their earlier prey, the great whales, were decimated by commercial whaling. The dynamics of kelp forests in southwest Alaska thus appears to have been influenced by an ecological chain reaction that encompassed numerous species and large scales of space and time.

  9. LBA-ECO CD-04 Dendrometry, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A dendrometry study was conducted at the logged forest tower site, km 83 site, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil over a period of 4 years following the...

  10. Forest complex of Belarus at the modern stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Игорь Шарухо

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The forest is one of the main types of natural resources, the national wealth of the country that has that resource. Forests play an important role not only in maintaining the gas balance of the atmosphere, but also serve as a source of building material, fuel, paper and other useful products. The article presents information about the changes and the current state of the timber industry complex of the Republic of Belarus for the years of independence (since 1991. At the present stage of development of the forest industry was given much attention. This contributes to the high availability of forest resources, which at the moment is 40%. This factor does not only take place from the point of view of satisfaction of domestic needs but also export. Functional role of the complex – provision of economy and population in timber and products from it, as well as a variety of wild and non-wood forest products. The leading place belongs to the complex industrial activities, but a fundamental part of his development is the forestry sector, which supplies them with wood. In connection with the transition of Belarus from OKUD international standard (OKRB 005-2006 statistical reporting according to the 01.01.2011 in the article it is timber industry the timber industry. Timber industry complex of the country has a high export orientation. But the possibility of export potential is not fully used. From sales, the country receives considerably less than Europe. The reason lies in a shallow wood processing. High country’s forest cover attracts investors (China, European countries. With the participation of investors built a number of businesses. The main task of the complex in the coming years is to increase its competitiveness and efficiency and renewal of fixed assets, modernization of existing and establishment of new production facilities for deep processing of wood raw material.

  11. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zald, Harold S.J.; Spies, Thomas A.; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J.; Olsen, Keith A.; Steel, E. Ashley

    2016-01-01

    was also affected by finer scale topographic conditions associated with sheltered sites. Past wildfires only had a small influence on current ALC density, which may be a result of long times since fire and/or prevalence of non-stand replacing fire. Our results indicate that forest ALC density depends on a suite of multi-scale environmental drivers mediated by complex mountain topography, and that these relationships are dependent on stand age. The high and context-dependent spatial variability of forest ALC density has implications for quantifying forest carbon stores, establishing upper bounds of potential carbon sequestration, and scaling field data to landscape and regional scales. PMID:27041818

  12. EVALUATING THE NOVEL METHODS ON SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELING IN COMPLEX FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Tu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of species distribution has become a focus in ecology. For predicting a result more effectively and accurately, some novel methods have been proposed recently, like support vector machine (SVM and maximum entropy (MAXENT. However, high complexity in the forest, like that in Taiwan, will make the modeling become even harder. In this study, we aim to explore which method is more applicable to species distribution modeling in the complex forest. Castanopsis carlesii (long-leaf chinkapin, LLC, growing widely in Taiwan, was chosen as the target species because its seeds are an important food source for animals. We overlaid the tree samples on the layers of altitude, slope, aspect, terrain position, and vegetation index derived from SOPT-5 images, and developed three models, MAXENT, SVM, and decision tree (DT, to predict the potential habitat of LLCs. We evaluated these models by two sets of independent samples in different site and the effect on the complexity of forest by changing the background sample size (BSZ. In the forest with low complex (small BSZ, the accuracies of SVM (kappa = 0.87 and DT (0.86 models were slightly higher than that of MAXENT (0.84. In the more complex situation (large BSZ, MAXENT kept high kappa value (0.85, whereas SVM (0.61 and DT (0.57 models dropped significantly due to limiting the habitat close to samples. Therefore, MAXENT model was more applicable to predict species’ potential habitat in the complex forest; whereas SVM and DT models would tend to underestimate the potential habitat of LLCs.

  13. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Litter Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Above-ground litter productivity was measured in a 18 ha plot adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para,...

  14. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Area Index, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Leaf area index was estimated in an 18 ha plot at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. The plot was adjacent to the...

  15. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Area Index, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf area index was estimated in an 18 ha plot at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. The plot was adjacent to the eddy flux...

  16. The influence of site factors on nitrogen mineralization in forest soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of site factors on nitrogen mineralization in forest soils of the ... on N mineralization, as well as the effect of N mineralization on forest productivity. ... of the natural log of mean annual temperature, geological substrate and total N ...

  17. Transforming Pinus pinaster forest to recreation site: preliminary effects on LAI, some forest floor, and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Melih; Bolat, İlyas

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of forest transformation into recreation site. A fragment of a Pinus pinaster plantation forest was transferred to a recreation site in the city of Bartın located close to the Black Sea coast of northwestern Turkey. During the transformation, some of the trees were selectively removed from the forest to generate more open spaces for the recreationists. As a result, Leaf Area Index (LAI) decreased by 0.20 (about 11%). Additionally, roads and pathways were introduced into the site together with some recreational equipment sealing parts of the soil surface. Consequently, forest environment was altered with a semi-natural landscape within the recreation site. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of forest transformation into recreation site particularly in terms of the LAI parameter, forest floor, and soil properties. Preliminary monitoring results indicate that forest floor biomass is reduced by 26% in the recreation site compared to the control site. Soil temperature is increased by 15% in the recreation site where selective removal of trees expanded the gaps allowing more light transmission. On the other hand, the soil bulk density which is an indicator of soil compaction is unexpectedly slightly lower in the recreation site. Organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(total)) together with the other physical and chemical parameter values indicate that forest floor and soil have not been exposed to much disturbance. However, subsequent removal of trees that would threaten the vegetation, forest floor, and soil should not be allowed. The activities of the recreationists are to be concentrated on the paved spaces rather than soil surfaces. Furthermore, long-term monitoring and management is necessary for both the observation and conservation of the site.

  18. Fundamentals of the spatially distributed simulation of the water balance of forest sites in a low-range mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schwärzel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For a sustainable forest management, a site-specific knowledge on the water balance is a prerequisite. A simple and popular field method for assessing the water balance of forest sites is based on overlaying relief and soil information. Furthermore, climatic influence on the water balance is often restricted to longtime average values of precipitation and air temperature (whole year and/or growing season. However, the impacts of climate change and climatic extremes, as well as silvicultural changes, are inadequately considered. To overcome these short-comings, we integrated the 1D-SVAT model BROOK90 and a radiation model in a GIS to simulate the spatially distributed components of water balance of forest sites. In this paper, we present the model concept and show an approach to describe the influence of a complex terrain on parameters controlling the spatial distribution of energy and water fluxes.

  19. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the 32 P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation

  20. Multifractal analysis of forest fires in complex regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Orozco, C. D.; Kanevski, M.; Golay, J.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires can be studied as point processes where the ignition points represent the set of locations of the observed events in a defined study region. Their spatial and temporal patterns can be characterized by their fractal properties; which quantify the global aspect of the geometry of the support data. However, a monofractal dimension can not completely describe the pattern structure and related scaling properties. Enhancements in fractal theory had developed the multifractal concept which describes the measures from which interlinked fractal sets can be retrieved and characterized by their fractal dimension and singularity strength [1, 2]. The spatial variability of forest fires is conditioned by an intermixture of human, topographic, meteorological and vegetation factors. This heterogeneity makes fire patterns complex scale-invariant processes difficult to be depicted by a single scale. Therefore, this study proposes an exploratory data analysis through a multifractal formalism to characterize and quantify the multiscaling behaviour of the spatial distribution pattern of this phenomenon in a complex region like the Swiss Alps. The studied dataset is represented by 2,401 georeferenced forest fire ignition points in canton Ticino, Switzerland, in a 40-years period from 1969 to 2008. Three multifractal analyses are performed: one assesses the multiscaling behaviour of fire occurrence probability of the support data (raw data) and four random patterns simulated within three different support domains; second analysis studies the multifractal behavior of patterns from anthropogenic and natural ignited fires (arson-, accident- and lightning-caused fires); and third analysis aims at detecting scale-dependency of the size of burned area. To calculate the generalized dimensions, Dq, a generalization of the box counting methods is carried out based on the generalization of Rényi information of the qth order moment of the probability distribution. For q > 0, Dq

  1. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This site is in...

  2. Bulgarian Rila mountain forest ecosystems study site: site description and SO42-, NO3- deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl Zeller; Christo Bojinov; Evgeny Donev; Nedialko Nikolov

    1998-01-01

    Bulgaria's forest ecosystems (31 percent of the country's area) are considered vulnerable to dry and wet pollution deposition. Coniferous forests that cover one-third of the total forest land are particularly sensitive to pollution loads. The USDA Forest Service, Sofia University, and the Bulgarian Forest Research Institute (FRI) established a cooperative...

  3. Effects of organizational complexity and resources on construction site risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forteza, Francisco J; Carretero-Gómez, Jose M; Sesé, Albert

    2017-09-01

    Our research is aimed at studying the relationship between risk level and organizational complexity and resources on constructions sites. Our general hypothesis is that site complexity increases risk, whereas more resources of the structure decrease risk. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach was adopted to validate our theoretical model. To develop our study, 957 building sites in Spain were visited and assessed in 2003-2009. All needed data were obtained using a specific tool developed by the authors to assess site risk, structure and resources (Construction Sites Risk Assessment Tool, or CONSRAT). This tool operationalizes the variables to fit our model, specifically, via a site risk index (SRI) and 10 organizational variables. Our random sample is composed largely of small building sites with general high levels of risk, moderate complexity, and low resources on site. The model obtained adequate fit, and results showed empirical evidence that the factors of complexity and resources can be considered predictors of site risk level. Consequently, these results can help companies, managers of construction and regulators to identify which organizational aspects should be improved to prevent risks on sites and consequently accidents. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy partitioning at treeline forest and tundra sites and its sensitivity to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, P.M. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada); Rouse, W.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to examine the inter-annual variability in energy fluxes of treeline tundra and forest and to investigate the sensitivity of forest and tundra energy balances to climatic changes. A five year record of energy balance data from contiguous wetland tundra and subarctic forest sites near Churchill, Manitoba was analyzed. The data included snow free periods only. Wind direction was used as an analogue for changing climatic conditions where onshore winds are cooler and moister than offshore winds. Sensible and latent heat fluxes at both sites varied significantly between onshore and offshore wind regimes. The differences between onshore and offshore fluxes at the tundra site were larger than for the forest. The tundra-to-forest Bowen ratios decreased with increasing vapour pressure deficit and increasing air temperature. Results suggest that energy partitioning in the wetland tundra is more sensitive to climate change than in the treeline forests. 22 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  5. Assessing the Sensitivity of Mountain Forests to Site Degradation in the Northern Limestone Alps, Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Reger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of some land-use practices (such as overstocking with wild ungulates, historical clear-cuts for mining, and locally persisting forest pasture, protective forests in the montane vegetation belt of the Northern Limestone Alps are now frequently overaged and poorly structured over large areas. Windthrow and bark beetle infestations have generated disturbance areas in which forests have lost their protective functions. Where unfavorable site conditions hamper regeneration for decades, severe soil loss may ensue. To help prioritize management interventions, we developed a geographic information system-based model for assessing sensitivity to site degradation and applied it to 4 test areas in the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria and Bavaria. The model consists of (1 analysis of site conditions and forest stand structures that could increase sensitivity to degradation, (2 evaluation of the sensitivity of sites and stands, and (3 evaluation and mapping of mountain forests' sensitivity to degradation. Site conditions were modeled using regression algorithms with data on site parameters from pointwise soil and vegetation surveys as responses and areawide geodata on climate, relief, and substrate as predictors. The resulting predictor–response relationships were applied to test areas. Stand structure was detected from airborne laser scanning data. Site and stand parameters were evaluated according to their sensitivity to site degradation. Sensitivities of sites and stands were summarized in intermediate-scale sensitivity maps. High sensitivity was identified in 3 test areas with pure limestone and dolomite as the prevailing sensitivity level. Moderately sensitive forests dominate in the final test area, Grünstein, where the bedrock in some strata contains larger amounts of siliceous components (marl, mudstone, and moraines; degraded and slightly sensitive forests were rare or nonexistent in all 4 test areas. Providing a comprehensive overview

  6. Functional Complexity and Web Site Design : Evaluating the Online Presence of UNESCO World Heritage Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Menno D.T.; Wu, Yuguang

    2018-01-01

    Functional complexity is a widespread and underresearched phenomenon in Web sites. This article explores a specific case of functional complexity by analyzing the content of UNESCO World Heritage Web sites, which have to meet demands from both World Heritage and tourism perspectives. Based on a

  7. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  8. Prediction of protein-protein interaction sites in sequences and 3D structures by random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mile Sikić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying interaction sites in proteins provides important clues to the function of a protein and is becoming increasingly relevant in topics such as systems biology and drug discovery. Although there are numerous papers on the prediction of interaction sites using information derived from structure, there are only a few case reports on the prediction of interaction residues based solely on protein sequence. Here, a sliding window approach is combined with the Random Forests method to predict protein interaction sites using (i a combination of sequence- and structure-derived parameters and (ii sequence information alone. For sequence-based prediction we achieved a precision of 84% with a 26% recall and an F-measure of 40%. When combined with structural information, the prediction performance increases to a precision of 76% and a recall of 38% with an F-measure of 51%. We also present an attempt to rationalize the sliding window size and demonstrate that a nine-residue window is the most suitable for predictor construction. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our prediction methods by modeling the Ras-Raf complex using predicted interaction sites as target binding interfaces. Our results suggest that it is possible to predict protein interaction sites with quite a high accuracy using only sequence information.

  9. The forgotten D : challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD

    OpenAIRE

    Mertz, O.; Muller, D.; Sikor, T.; Hett, C.; Heinimann, A.; Castella, Jean-Christophe; Lestrelin, Guillaume; Ryan, C. M.; Reay, D. S.; Schmidt-Vogt, D.; Danielsen, F.; Theilade, I.; van Noordwijk, M.; Verchot, L. V.; Burgess, N. D.

    2012-01-01

    International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder agriculture, agroforestry and p...

  10. Influence of Microclimate on Semi-Arid Montane Conifer Forest Sapflux Velocity in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirouin, K. R.; Barnard, D. M.; Barnard, H. R.

    2016-12-01

    Microclimate variation in complex terrain is key to our understanding of large-scale climate change effects on montane ecosystems. Modern climate models forecast that semi-arid montane ecosystems in the western United States are to experience increases in temperature, number of extreme drought events, and decreases in annual snowpack, all of which will potentially influence ecosystem water, carbon, and energy balances. In this study, we developed response curves that describe the relationships between stem sapflux velocity, air temperature (Tair), incoming solar radiation (SWin), soil temperature (Tsoil), and soil moisture content (VWC) in sites of Pinus contorta and Pinus ponderosa distributed along an elevation and aspect gradient in the montane zone of the Central Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA. Among sites we found sapflux velocity to be significantly correlated with all four environmental factors (p physiological differences, the highest elevation south-facing P. contorta site behaved similarly to the south-facing P. ponderosa, suggesting that environmental drivers may dominate the response. In response to Tair, peak sapflux velocity occurred at 12-13 degrees C at all sites except the mid-slope north-facing P. contorta site, which also had the lowest Tsoil. The responses of stem sapflux velocity to climate drivers indicate that forest transpiration is regulated by microclimate gradients across small spatial scales in complex terrain, which need to be characterized in order to understand broader ecosystem dynamics and the role that large-scale climate change will play in these systems.

  11. LBA-ECO CD-10 Forest Litter Data for km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single text file which reports litter type and mass in the old-growth upland forest at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest...

  12. Site-occupany of bats in relation to forested corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris D Hein; Steven B Castleberry; Karl V. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Although use of corridors by some wildlife species has been extensively examined, use by bats is poorly understood. From 1 June to 31 August (2004~200S), we used Anabat II detectors to examine bat activity and species occupancy relative to forested corridors on an intensively managed forest landscape in southern South Carolina, USA. We...

  13. Surveying marbled murrelets at inland forested sites: a guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W.C. Paton; C. John Ralph; Harry R. Carter; S. Kim Nelson

    1990-01-01

    The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), a seabird, nests in forested stands from southeast Alaska south to Santa Cruz, California. Because of this species' close association with old-growth forests, researchers and land managers need a method to assess murrelet distribution and use patterns throughout its range. This guide describes a...

  14. VARIABILITY IN NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND CARBON STORAGE IN BIOMASS ACROSS OREGON FORESTS - AN ASSESSMENT INTEGRATING DATA FROM FOREST INVENTORIES, INTENSIVE SITES, AND REMOTE SENSING. (R828309)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a combination of data from USDA Forest Service inventories, intensivechronosequences, extensive sites, and satellite remote sensing, to estimate biomassand net primary production (NPP) for the forested region of western Oregon. Thestudy area was divided int...

  15. Forest meteorology research within the Oak Ridge site, eastern deciduous forest biome, USIBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Matt, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The data presented here indicate that the diurnal trends in forest microclimate are dominated by the diurnal trend in incident solar radiation amounts and the diurnal changes in solar elevations. Absolute values of these microclimatic variables, on the other hand, reflect strongly, the synoptic climatic conditions present and, to a lesser degree, the interactions among synoptic climatic parameters, forest structure, forest physiology, and soil moisture conditions. The seasonal changes in forest microclimate are the result of changes in incident radiation amounts, earth-sun geometry, and phenological change in forest structure along with seasonal changes in synoptic climatic parameters. The temporal and spatial variations of solar radiation within and above a deciduous forest composed predominately of tulip poplar (biriodendron tulipifera) were documented and on attempt was made to relate the variations to forest structure

  16. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  17. Evidence that soil aluminum enforces site fidelity of southern New England forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...

  18. Diffusion of Sites versus Polymers in Polyelectrolyte Complexes and Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Hadi M; Schlenoff, Joseph B

    2017-10-18

    It has long been assumed that the spontaneous formation of materials such as complexes and multilayers from charged polymers depends on (inter)diffusion of these polyelectrolytes. Here, we separately examine the mass transport of polymer molecules and extrinsic sites-charged polyelectrolyte repeat units balanced by counterions-within thin films of polyelectrolyte complex, PEC, using sensitive isotopic labeling techniques. The apparent diffusion coefficients of these sites within PEC films of poly(diallyldimethylammonium), PDADMA, and poly(styrenesulfonate), PSS, are at least 2 orders of magnitude faster than the diffusion of polyelectrolytes themselves. This is because site diffusion requires only local rearrangements of polyelectrolyte repeat units, placing far fewer kinetic limitations on the assembly of polyelectrolyte complexes in all of their forms. Site diffusion strongly depends on the salt concentration (ionic strength) of the environment, and diffusion of PDADMA sites is faster than that of PSS sites, accounting for the asymmetric nature of multilayer growth. Site diffusion is responsible for multilayer growth in the linear and into the exponential regimes, which explains how PDADMA can mysteriously "pass through" layers of PSS. Using quantitative relationships between site diffusion coefficient and salt concentration, conditions were identified that allowed the diffusion length to always exceed the film thickness, leading to full exponential growth over 3 orders of magnitude thickness. Both site and polymer diffusion were independent of molecular weight, suggesting that ion pairing density is a limiting factor. Polyelectrolyte complexes are examples of a broader class of dynamic bulk polymeric materials that (self-) assemble via the transport of cross-links or defects rather than actual molecules.

  19. 77 FR 4559 - Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, NC; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-R4-SFUND 2012-; FRL-9624-1] Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest... settlement for resolution of past response and future costs concerning the Ecusta Mill Superfund Site located... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ecusta Mill Superfund...

  20. Remediation management of complex sites using an adaptive site management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, John; Spreng, Carl; Hawley, Elisabeth L; Deeb, Rula

    2017-12-15

    Complex sites require a disproportionate amount of resources for environmental remediation and long timeframes to achieve remediation objectives, due to their complex geologic conditions, hydrogeologic conditions, geochemical conditions, contaminant-related conditions, large scale of contamination, and/or non-technical challenges. A recent team of state and federal environmental regulators, federal agency representatives, industry experts, community stakeholders, and academia worked together as an Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) team to compile resources and create new guidance on the remediation management of complex sites. This article summarizes the ITRC team's recommended process for addressing complex sites through an adaptive site management approach. The team provided guidance for site managers and other stakeholders to evaluate site complexities and determine site remediation potential, i.e., whether an adaptive site management approach is warranted. Adaptive site management was described as a comprehensive, flexible approach to iteratively evaluate and adjust the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key aspects of adaptive site management were described, including tools for revising and updating the conceptual site model (CSM), the importance of setting interim objectives to define short-term milestones on the journey to achieving site objectives, establishing a performance model and metrics to evaluate progress towards meeting interim objectives, and comparing actual with predicted progress during scheduled periodic evaluations, and establishing decision criteria for when and how to adapt/modify/revise the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key findings will be published in an ITRC Technical and Regulatory guidance document in 2017 and free training webinars will be conducted. More information is available at www.itrc-web.org. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. LBA-ECO CD-04 Meteorological and Flux Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tower flux measurements of carbon dioxide,water vapor, heat, and meteorological variables were obtained at the Tapajos National Forest, km 83 site, Santarem, Para,...

  2. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Litter Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Above-ground litter productivity was measured in a 18 ha plot adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National...

  3. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This...

  4. Developing methodology for description of biosphere evolution at Olkiluoto disposal site utilising forest studies at other land uplift sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikondn, A.T.K.; Afo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in addition to the existing repository for low and intermediate level waste. When creating biosphere models for safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. A special characteristic of the site, as well as the coastal area of the Gulf of Bothnia in general, is the land uplift (6-9 mm/a). This continuously exposes new land to soil-formation processes and provides surfaces for colonization by plant communities. The forest vegetation succession on stony, fine-grained till soils starts from deciduous shoreline vegetation and ends in almost pure Norway spruce forests. This has enabled to study ecological and microbiological processes in soils and forests of different developmental stages, to monitor forest condition and the factors affecting it in sites locating close to each other. It has also made possible gradient studies of the succession of boreal mire ecosystems without a need to wait thousands of years. Applying a methodology described in the full paper, a descriptive model on the evolution of the biosphere will be established to indicate possible ecosystem distributions and main characteristics on the area on the basis of above-mentioned studies carried out by Finnish Forest Research Institute, and of results of the site investigations at Olkiluoto. In future, the evolution description will be used as a basis for selection of appropriate ecosystem modules and parameter values in the subsequent coupled assessment model systems. (author)

  5. UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/protein complexation sites screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilbaud, P.; Pible, O

    2004-07-01

    Uranium(VI) is likely to make strong coordination with some proteins in the plasma and in targeted cells. In the frame of a nuclear toxicology program, a biochemical strategy has been developed to identify these targets in complex biological media. The present work focuses on an approach based on the screening of 3D protein structures in order to identify proteins able to bind UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and the corresponding complexation sites in these proteins. Our preliminary results show that indeed a few proteins display a high affinity to uranyl salt. The site of interaction may be mapped using molecular modeling, providing coherent results with the biochemical data. (authors)

  6. Monitoring air quality with lichens: A comparison between mapping in forest sites and in open areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policnik, Helena; Simoncic, Primoz; Batic, Franc

    2008-01-01

    Four different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping were used for the assessment of air quality in the region under the influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (Salek Valley, Slovenia). Three methods were based on the presence of different lichen species (VDI, EU and ICP-Forest), the fourth on a frequency and coverage assessment of different growth forms of epiphytic lichens, e.g. crustose, foliose and fruticose (SI). A comparison of the results from the assessment of air quality between forest sites (ICP-Forest, SI) and open areas (VDI, EU and SI), obtained by the different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping, is presented in the contribution. Data showed that lichen species richness is worse in forest sites in comparison with open areas. From the data obtained it can be concluded that epiphytic lichen mapping in open areas is a better method for the assessment of air pollution in a given area than mapping in forest sites. The species-based methods in open areas are more powerful and useful for air quality assessment in polluted research areas than the SI and ICP-Forest methods. - The mapping of epiphytic lichens in open areas is more suitable for air quality assessment than mapping in forest sites in the Salek Valley, Slovenia

  7. When the shifting agriculture is gone: functionality of Atlantic Coastal Forest in abandoned farming sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn agriculture has been practiced for a very long time by the traditional populations (caiçaras on Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. After a few years of use the plots are abandoned to fallow. We examined the processes of litter production and decomposition and the relationships between forest lands used by caiçara populations and landscape functionality. Five and 25-year-old forests growing on areas once used for subsistence agriculture were compared to a near-climax forest site. No significant differences between the three areas were noted in terms of litter production over a 2-yr period; the average litter productions were 9,927, 8,707 and 10,031 kg/ha/yr for the 5-year, 25-year and climax forests respectively. N and K nutrient input through litter was greatest in the climax forest; P and Mg input was greatest in the 5-yr forest; and Na greatest in the 25-yr forest. Ground litter accumulation (3,040-3,730 kg/ha/yr was not significantly different in the three areas. Litter turnover times (1/K were 0.33, 0.42 and 0.38 for the 5-yr, 25-yr and climax forests respectively. These secondary forests cover almost all of Ilha Grande and demonstrate low species diversity, but they have production and decomposition systems similar to those of mature forests.

  8. 76 FR 18713 - Malheur National Forest; Oregon; Malheur National Forest Site-Specific Invasive Plants Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... species that currently are not found on the Forest. Treatment could be anywhere on Forest Service system.... Electronic comments in acceptable plain text (.txt), rich text (.rtf), or Word (.doc) may be submitted to... wildlife habitat, out-compete native plants, impair water quality and watershed health, and adversely...

  9. Cosmic-ray neutron transport at a forest field site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mie; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Desilets, Darin

    2017-01-01

    -ray neutron intensity is essential (e.g., the effect of vegetation, litter layer and soil type). In this study the environmental effect is examined by performing a sensitivity analysis using neutron transport modeling. We use a neutron transport model with various representations of the forest and different...

  10. Deposition of nitrogen oxides and ozone to Danish forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.; Hummelshøj, P.

    1995-01-01

    of the influence of meteorological factors. The viscous sub-layer resistance is derived by a new theory, taking the bluff roughness elements of the forest and the dimension of the needles/leaves as well as the LAI into account. The fluxes of nitrogen dioxide and ozone are related to the fluxes of water vapour...

  11. Charcoal kiln sites, associated landscape attributes and historic forest conditions: DTM-based investigations in Hesse (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background An examination of the distribution of ancient charcoal kiln sites in the forest landscape seems to be worthwhile, since general trends in the selection of suitable kiln site locations in the past might become obvious. In this way forest landscape elements with a more intense usage by charcoal burning can be identified. By doing this, we can expect to gain information on the former condition and tree species composition of woodland. Investigations on the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in relation to landscape attributes are sparse, however, probably due to the high on-site mapping effort. The outstanding suitability of LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs for the detection of charcoal kiln sites has been recently proved. Hence, DTM-based surveys of charcoal kiln sites represent a promising attempt to fill this research gap. Methods Based on DTM-based surveys, we analyzed the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in two forest landscapes in the German federal state of Hesse: Reinhardswald and Kellerwald-Edersee National Park. In doing so, we considered the landscape attibutes "tree species composition", “water supply status”, “nutrient supply status”, “soil complex classes”, “altitude”, “exposition”, and “inclination”. Results We found that charcoal kiln sites were established preferably on hillside locations that provided optimal growing and regeneration conditions for European beech (Fagus sylvatica due to their acidic brown soils and sufficient water supply. These results are in line with instructions for the selection of appropriate kiln site locations, found in literature from the 18th to the 19th century. Conclusions We conclude that there were well-stocked, beech-dominated deciduous forest stands in northern Hesse before 1800, particularly at poorly accessible hillside locations. These large stocks of beech wood were utilized by the governments of the different Hessian territories

  12. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  13. LBA-ECO CD-10 Forest Litter Data for km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a single text file which reports litter type and mass in the old-growth upland forest at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67,...

  14. Integrating conservation objectives into forest management: coppice management and forest habitats in Natura 2000 sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mairota, P.; Buckley, P.; Suchomel, C.; Heinsoo, K.; Verheyen, K.; Hédl, Radim; Terzuolo, P. G.; Sindaco, R.; Carpanelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, AUG 2016 (2016), s. 560-568 ISSN 1971-7458 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * habitats directive * forest habitat types Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  15. Fidelity of bats to forest sites revealed from mist-netting recaptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2011-01-01

    Although site fidelity to permanent roost structures by bats is generally known, long-term fidelity to areas such as foraging or drinking sites is unknown. Furthermore, mist-net recaptures of bats over multiple years are rarely reported. Extensive mist-net surveys were conducted over the course of 8 y in the Ouachita National Forest of central Arkansas, United States...

  16. Sugar maple: abundance and site relationships in the pre- and post- settlement forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon G. Whitney

    1999-01-01

    A review of the available historical evidence provides a picture of sugar maple's site relationstiips in the presettlement forest and its changing statis over the last 300 years. Sugar maple was widely distributed throughout the Northeast during the presettlerment period. it was particularly abundant on the richer, better drained, silt-rich sites. A comparison of...

  17. Summer droughts limit tree growth across 10 temperate species on a productive forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weemstra, M.; Eilmann, B.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Sterck, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on climate impacts on tree annual growth are mainly restricted to marginal sites. To date, the climate effects on annual growth of trees in favorable environments remain therefore unclear despite the importance of these sites in terms of forest productivity. Because species respond

  18. Global warming and stress complexes in forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson; Jeremy J. Littell

    2009-01-01

    A warmer climate in western North America will likely affect forests directly through soil moisture stress and indirectly through increased extent and severity of disturbances. We propose that stress complexes, combinations of biotic and abiotic stresses, compromise the vigor and ultimate sustainability of forest ecosystems. Across...

  19. Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Ketola, R.A.; Laturnus, F.

    2000-01-01

    the initial soil air concentration after 38 h, while the concentrations of the other volatile chlorinated compounds investigated remained fairly constant. The observed chloroform concentration profiles and release rates may indicate a biogenic formation of chloroform in the upper soil layer of spruce forests...... of the annual anthropogenic chloroform emissions, and, therefore, the terrestrial environment can be considered as an important contributor to the atmospheric chloroform input. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Are more complex physiological models of forest ecosystems better choices for plot and regional predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Process-based forest ecosystem models vary from simple physiological, complex physiological, to hybrid empirical-physiological models. Previous studies indicate that complex models provide the best prediction at plot scale with a temporal extent of less than 10 years, however, it is largely untested as to whether complex models outperform the other two types of models...

  1. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  2. Validation of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (v.5.1) against eddy covariance data for 10 European forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collalti, A.; Marconi, S.; Ibrom, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (FEM) in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. A new carbon allocation module, coupled with new both phenological...... over Europe without a site-related calibration, the model has been deliberately parametrized with a single set of species-specific parametrizations for each forest ecosystem. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites...... sites we evaluate whether a more accurate representation of forest structural characteristics (i.e. cohorts, forest layers) and species composition can improve model results. In two of the three sites results reveal that model slightly increases its performances although, statistically speaking...

  3. Site quality influence over understory plant diversity in old-growth and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Gallo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effects and interactions of shelterwood forest harvesting and site qualities over understory plant species diversity and composition were compared among primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests.Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, on three pure conditions (one and six year-old harvested, and primary without previous harvesting forests and three site qualities (high, medium and low.Material and Methods: Understory richness and cover (% were registered in five replicates of 1 hectare each per treatment. Taxonomic species were classified in categories (groups, origin and life forms. Two-way ANOVAs and multivariate analyses were conducted.Main results: Shelterwood harvesting and site quality significantly influenced understory cover and richness, which allow the introduction of native and exotic species and increasing of dicot and monocot covers. In dicots, monocots, exotics and total groups, higher richness and covers were related to time. Meanwhile, cover reached similar high values in all site qualities on dicot, native and total groups. On the other hand, monocot and exotic richness and cover remain similar in primary and recently harvested forests, and greatly increased in old harvested forests. Mosses and ferns were among the most sensitive groups.Research highlights: Impacts of shelterwood cut depend on site quality of the stands and time since harvesting occurs. For this, different site quality stands should received differential attention in the development of conservation strategies, as well as variations in the shelterwood implementation (as irregularity and patchiness should be considered to better promote understory plant species conservation inside managed areas.Key words: plant species conservation; years after harvesting; forest management; Tierra del Fuego.

  4. Disturbance, complexity, and succession of net ecosystem production in North America’s temperate deciduous forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Christopher; Curtis, Peter; Hardiman, Brady; Scheuermann, Cynthia; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2016-06-29

    Century-old forests in the U.S. upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North Amer- ica’s terrestrial carbon (C) sink, but these forests’ production and C sequestration capacity are expected to soon decline as fast-growing early successional species die and are replaced by slower growing late successional species. But will this really happen? Here we marshal empirical data and ecological theory to argue that substantial declines in net ecosystem production (NEP) owing to reduced forest growth, or net primary production (NPP), are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests over the next several decades. Forest age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, suggest slight declines in NEP and increasing or stable NPP during middle successional stages. We revisit long-held hypotheses by EP Odum and others that suggest low-severity, high-frequency disturbances occurring in the region’s aging forests will, against intuition, maintain NEP at higher-than- expected rates by increasing ecosystem complexity, sustaining or enhancing NPP to a level that largely o sets rising C losses as heterotrophic respiration increases. This theoretical model is also supported by biological evidence and observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA. Ecosystems that experience high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity can exhibit substantial declines in production during middle stages of succession. However, observations from these ecosystems have exerted a disproportionate in uence on assumptions regarding the trajectory and magnitude of age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is a wide ecological space for forests to maintain NPP and, in doing so, lessens the declines in NEP, with signi cant implications for the future of the North American carbon sink. Our intellectual frameworks for understanding forest C cycle dynamics and resilience need to

  5. Soil microbial diversity, site conditions, shelter forest land, saline water drip-irrigation, drift desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengzhong; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu; Xu, Xinwen

    2013-10-01

    Soil microbes in forest land are crucial to soil development in extreme areas. In this study, methods of conventional culture, PLFA and PCR-DGGE were utilized to analyze soil microbial quantity, fatty acids and microbial DNA segments of soils subjected to different site conditions in the Tarim Desert Highway forest land. The main results were as follows: the soil microbial amount, diversity indexes of fatty acid and DNA segment differed significantly among sites with different conditions (F 84%), followed by actinomycetes and then fungi (<0.05%). Vertical differences in the soil microbial diversity were insignificant at 0-35 cm. Correlation analysis indicated that the forest trees grew better as the soil microbial diversity index increased. Therefore, construction of the Tarim Desert Highway shelter-forest promoted soil biological development; however, for enhancing sand control efficiency and promoting sand development, we should consider the effects of site condition in the construction and regeneration of shelter-forest ecological projects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Accident hazard evaluation and control decisions on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1971-01-01

    Accident hazard associated with trees on recreation sites is inherently concerned with probabilities. The major factors include the probabilities of mechanical failure and of target impact if failure occurs, the damage potential of the failure, and the target value. Hazard may be evaluated as the product of these factors; i.e., expected loss during the current...

  7. Spatial Upscaling of Soil Respiration under a Complex Canopy Structure in an Old‐Growth Deciduous Forest, Central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilanee Suchewaboripont

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural complexity, especially canopy and gap structure, of old‐growth forests affects the spatial variation of soil respiration (Rs. Without considering this variation, the upscaling of Rs from field measurements to the forest site will be biased. The present study examined responses of Rs to soil temperature (Ts and water content (W in canopy and gap areas, developed the best fit modelof Rs and used the unique spatial patterns of Rs and crown closure to upscale chamber measurements to the site scale in an old‐growth beech‐oak forest. Rs increased with an increase in Ts in both gap and canopy areas, but the effect of W on Rs was different between the two areas. The generalized linear model (GLM analysis identified that an empirical model of Rs with thecoupling of Ts and W was better than an exponential model of Rs with only Ts. Moreover, because of different responses of Rs to W between canopy and gap areas, it was necessary to estimate Rs in these areas separately. Consequently, combining the spatial patterns of Rs and the crown closure could allow upscaling of Rs from chamber‐based measurements to the whole site in the present study.

  8. On the complexity of measuring forests microclimate and interpreting its relevance in habitat ecology: the example of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Boehnke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological field research on the influence of meteorological parameters on a forest inhabiting species is confronted with the complex relations between measured data and the real conditions the species is exposed to. This study highlights this complexity for the example of Ixodes ricinus. This species lives mainly in forest habitats near the ground, but field research on impacts of meteorological conditions on population dynamics is often based on data from nearby official weather stations or occasional in situ measurements. In addition, studies use very different data approaches to analyze comparable research questions. This study is an extensive examination of the methodology used to analyze the impact of meteorological parameters on Ixodes ricinus and proposes a methodological approach that tackles the underlying complexity. Methods Our specifically developed measurement concept was implemented at 25 forest study sites across Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Meteorological weather stations recorded data in situ and continuously between summer 2012 and autumn 2015, including relative humidity measures in the litter layer and different heights above it (50 cm, 2 m. Hourly averages of relative humidity were calculated and compared with data from the nearest official weather station. Results Data measured directly in the forest can differ dramatically from conditions recorded at official weather stations. In general, data indicate a remarkable relative humidity decrease from inside to outside the forest and from ground to atmosphere. Relative humidity measured in the litter layer were, on average, 24% higher than the official data and were much more balanced, especially in summer. Conclusions The results illustrate the need for, and benefit of, continuous in situ measurements to grasp the complex relative humidity conditions in forests. Data from official weather stations do not accurately represent actual humidity conditions in

  9. On the complexity of measuring forests microclimate and interpreting its relevance in habitat ecology: the example of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Denise; Gebhardt, Reiner; Petney, Trevor; Norra, Stefan

    2017-11-06

    Ecological field research on the influence of meteorological parameters on a forest inhabiting species is confronted with the complex relations between measured data and the real conditions the species is exposed to. This study highlights this complexity for the example of Ixodes ricinus. This species lives mainly in forest habitats near the ground, but field research on impacts of meteorological conditions on population dynamics is often based on data from nearby official weather stations or occasional in situ measurements. In addition, studies use very different data approaches to analyze comparable research questions. This study is an extensive examination of the methodology used to analyze the impact of meteorological parameters on Ixodes ricinus and proposes a methodological approach that tackles the underlying complexity. Our specifically developed measurement concept was implemented at 25 forest study sites across Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Meteorological weather stations recorded data in situ and continuously between summer 2012 and autumn 2015, including relative humidity measures in the litter layer and different heights above it (50 cm, 2 m). Hourly averages of relative humidity were calculated and compared with data from the nearest official weather station. Data measured directly in the forest can differ dramatically from conditions recorded at official weather stations. In general, data indicate a remarkable relative humidity decrease from inside to outside the forest and from ground to atmosphere. Relative humidity measured in the litter layer were, on average, 24% higher than the official data and were much more balanced, especially in summer. The results illustrate the need for, and benefit of, continuous in situ measurements to grasp the complex relative humidity conditions in forests. Data from official weather stations do not accurately represent actual humidity conditions in forest stands and the explanatory power of short period and

  10. IUFRO Symposium on forest site and continuous productivity: Seattle, Washington, August 22-28, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Ballard; Stanley P. Gessel

    1983-01-01

    This Symposium was planned by members of the IUFRO Site Group (S1.02) as part of their on-going activities to facilitate the worldwide exchange of ideas among individual research workers and to promote the dissemination of research results in the area of forest site productivity. The Symposium consisted of three days of indoor sessions followed by a 2-1/2-day field...

  11. Towards understanding household-level forest reliance in Cambodia - study sites, methods, and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ra, Koy; Pichdara, Lonn; Dararath, Yem

    There is growing international interest in the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction. In consequence, this broad area of investigation has been subject to increased research; one major international research project is that facilitated by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). This ......). This project covers a large number of sites in 26 countries throughout the tropics. The present report contains contextual details, methodological information and preliminary findings for the PEN sites in Cambodia....

  12. Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Berry

    1987-01-01

    In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of Soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious...

  13. Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in the Southeast U.S. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November, 2005 and September, 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency as well as relat...

  14. Application of two forest succession models at sites in Northeast Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasch, P.; Lindner, M.

    1995-06-01

    In order to simulate potential impacts of climate change on forests, two succession models were applied to sites in the Northeast German lowlands. The models, which had been developed for Alpine (FORECE) and Boreal (FORSKA) forests differ from each other in the way they represent tree growth processes and the impact of environmental factors on establishment and growth. Both models were adjusted and compared with each other at sites that are situated along an ecological gradient from maritime to subcontinental climate. These sites are extending the former environmental space of model application towards water limited conditions, which under a predicted climatic change may have increasing importance for European forests. First results showed that FORECE was unrealistically sensitive to changes in soil moisture. On the other hand, FORSKA generally simulated very low biomasses. Since the structure of FORSKA seemed to be better suited for the simulation of changing environmental conditions, this model was chosen for further model development, applications and sensitivity analyses. Among other changes, establishment rates were increased and some environmental response factors were analysed. The function of account for resource depletion was modified. After the modifications for Central European conditions were made, there was a decrease in performance for the Boreal site. Both simulated total biomasses and species composition had changed. We conclude, that with currently available models, realistic forest dynamics within different climatic zones of Europe cannot be simulated without more substantial model modifications. (orig.)

  15. Organic Matter Decomposition following Harvesting and Site Preparation of a Forested Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; M. Davidian; M.F. Jurgensen; R. Lea

    1996-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation is an important process that affects ecosystem function in many northern wetlands. The cotton strip assay (CSA)was used to measure the effect of harvesting and two different site preparation treatments, bedding and trenching, on organic matter decomposition in a forested wetland. A Latin square experimental design was used to determine the...

  16. Estimating actual evapotranspiration for forested sites: modifications to the Thornthwaite Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Ann T. Wolf

    1998-01-01

    A previously coded version of the Thornthwaite water balance model was used to estimate annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) for 29 forested sites between 1900 and 1993 in the Upper Great Lakes area. Approximately 8 percent of the data sets calculated AET in error. Errors were detected in months when estimated AET was greater than potential evapotranspiration. Annual...

  17. Foliar and soil chemistry at red spruce sites in the Monongahela National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie J. Connolly

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, soil and foliar chemistry were sampled from 10 sites in the Monongahela National Forest which support red spruce. Soils were sampled from hand-dug pits, by horizon, from the O-horizon to bedrock or 152 cm, and each pit was described fully. Replicate, archived samples also were collected.

  18. Longleaf pine site response to repeated fertilization and forest floor removal by raking and prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Ludovici; Robert Eaton; Stanley Zarnoch

    2018-01-01

    Removal of forest floor litter by pine needle raking and prescribed burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands on Coastal Plain sites in the Southeastern United States. Repeated removal of litter by raking and the loss of surface organic matter from controlled burns can affect the...

  19. Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur at the Howland Integrated Forest Study site, Howland, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. McLaughlin; Ivan J. Fernandez; Stewart M. Goltz; Lindsey E. Rustad; Larry Zibilske

    1996-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of C, N, and S was studied for six years at the Howland Integrated Forest Study (HIFS) site by measuring those constituents in major above- and below-ground pools and fluxes. Leaching losses of C from the solum were much less than CO2 efflux, with a mean annual leaching rate of 31.2 kg ha-1 yr

  20. Forest Soil Productivity on the Southern Long-Term Soil Productivity Sites at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Allan E. Tiarks; Felipe G. Sanchez; Michael Elliott-Smith; Rick Stagg

    2004-01-01

    Forest management operations have the potential to reduce soil productivity through organic matter and nutrient removal and soil compaction. We measured pine volume, bulk density, and soil and foliar nitrogen and phosphorus at age 5 on the 13 southern Long-Term Soil Productivity study sites. The treatments were organic matter removal [bole only (BO), whole tree (WT),...

  1. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region.

  2. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  3. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  4. Effect of the degree of anthropization in the structure, at three sites fragmented evergreen piedmont forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gabriel Sánchez Villacis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian Amazon is recognized worldwide for its extraordinary megadiversity and multiplicity of forest goods and services. However, the inadequate practices of extractive use of non-timber forest products, the clearing of extensive areas of forests for the development of oil activity and the unsustainable use of timber as economic sustenance of communities have led to structural and functional changes In ecosystems. The study was carried out in three sites of a degraded evergreen forest of the eastern Amazon (Mera, Shell and Puyo in order to evaluate the effect of the degree of intervention on the forest structure. A floristic inventory was carried out with 60 plots of 25 x 25 m2 and tree species ≥ 2.5 cm d1.30 and species in natural regeneration phase with h <2 m were measured. We found 35 families, 65 genera, 101 species and 2 298 individuals, with Arecaceae, Fabaceae and Moraceae being the most representative botanical families. The degree of anthropization was highly modified where Mera was the best state of conservation. It was evidenced a low floristic diversity with patterns of alteration in the vertical and horizontal structure, distinguished phytosociologically by two strata in the sites of Shell and Puyo and by three in Mera, indicator of structural changes.

  5. Plant hydraulic strategies and their variability at high latitudes: insights from a southern Canadian boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.; Matheny, A. M.; Maillet, J.; Baltzer, J. L.; Stephens, J.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Sonnentag, O.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal forests cover about one third of the world's forested area with a large part of the boreal zone located in Canada. These high-latitude ecosystems respond rapidly to environmental changes. Plant water stress and the resulting drought-induced mortality has been recently hypothesised as a major driver of forest changes in western Canada. Although boreal forests often exhibit low floristic complexity, local scale abiotic heterogeneities may lead to highly variable plant functional traits and thus to diverging plant responses to environmental changes. However, detailed measurements of plant hydraulic strategies and their inter- and intra-specific variability are still lacking for these ecosystems. Here, we quantify plant water use and hydraulic strategies of black spruce (Picea mariana) and larch (Larix laricina), that are widespread in the boreal zone, at a long-term monitoring site located in central Saskatchewan (53.99° N, 105.12° W; elevation 628.94 m a.s.l.). The site is characterized by a mature black spruce overstorey that dominates the landscape with few larch individuals. The ground cover consists mainly of mosses with some peat moss and lichens over a rich soil organic layer. Tree-level sap flux density, measured with Granier-style thermal dissipation probes (N=39), and concurrently recorded radial stem dynamics, measured with high frequency dendrometers (N=13), are used to quantify plant hydraulic functioning during the 2016 growing season. Hydrometeorological measurements, including soil moisture and micrometeorological data, are used to describe environmental constraints in plant water use. Tree-level dynamics are then integrated to the landscape and compared with ecosystem-level evapotranspiration measurements from an adjacent eddy-covariance flux tower. This experimental design allows us to quantify the main environmental drivers that shape plant hydraulic strategies in this southern boreal zone and to provide new insights into the inter- and

  6. Quercus rubra-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of disturbed urban sites and mature forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Amy S; Handel, Steven N; Dighton, John; Horton, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    The presence and quality of the belowground mycorrhizal fungal community could greatly influence plant community structure and host species response. This study tests whether mycorrhizal fungal communities in areas highly impacted by anthropogenic disturbance and urbanization are less species rich or exhibit lower host root colonization rates when compared to those of less disturbed systems. Using a soil bioassay, we sampled the ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities associating with Quercus rubra (northern red oak) seedlings in soil collected from seven sites: two mature forest reference sites and five urban sites of varying levels of disturbance. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fungi colonizing root tips revealed that colonization rates and fungal species richness were significantly lower on root systems of seedlings grown in disturbed site soils. Analysis of similarity showed that EMF community composition was not significantly different among several urban site soils but did differ significantly between mature forest sites and all but one urban site. We identified a suite of fungal species that occurred across several urban sites. Lack of a diverse community of belowground mutualists could be a constraint on urban plant community development, especially of late-successional woodlands. Analysis of urban EMF communities can add to our understanding of urban plant community structure and should be addressed during ecological assessment before pragmatic decisions to restore habitats are framed.

  7. Seed Bank Variation under Contrasting Site Quality Conditions in Mixed Oak Forests of Southeastern Ohio, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Ch.J.; McCarthy, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Seed bank composition was sampled in 192-2.5 m 2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years) and six second-growth ((∼125 years) mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sorensen's coefficient <10%), emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (ρ<.01) higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%-60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect) strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on post harvest forest development.

  8. Seed Bank Variation under Contrasting Site Quality Conditions in Mixed Oak Forests of Southeastern Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Small

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed bank composition was sampled in 192–2.5 m2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years and six second-growth (∼125 years mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sørensen's coefficient <10%, emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (P<.01 higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%–60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on postharvest forest development.

  9. Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginger M. Thurston

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Active restoration is one strategy to reverse tropical forest loss. Given the dynamic nature of climates, human populations, and other ecosystem components, the past practice of using historical reference sites as restoration targets is unlikely to result in self-sustaining ecosystems. Restoring sustainable ecological processes like pollination is a more feasible goal. We investigated how flower cover, planting design, and landscape forest cover influenced bird pollinator visits to Inga edulis trees in young restoration sites in Costa Rica. I. edulis trees were located in island plantings, where seedlings had been planted in patches, or in plantation plantings, where seedlings were planted to cover the restoration area. Sites were located in landscapes with scant (10–21% or moderate (35–76% forest cover. Trees with greater flower cover received more visits from pollinating birds; neither planting design nor landscape forest cover influenced the number of pollinator visits. Resident hummingbirds and a migratory bird species were the most frequent bird pollinators. Pollination in the early years following planting may not be as affected by details of restoration design as other ecological processes like seed dispersal. Future work to assess the quality of various pollinator species will be important in assessing this idea.

  10. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  11. COMPLEX NETWORK SIMULATION OF FOREST NETWORK SPATIAL PATTERN IN PEARL RIVER DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest network-construction uses for the method and model with the scale-free features of complex network theory based on random graph theory and dynamic network nodes which show a power-law distribution phenomenon. The model is suitable for ecological disturbance by larger ecological landscape Pearl River Delta consistent recovery. Remote sensing and GIS spatial data are available through the latest forest patches. A standard scale-free network node distribution model calculates the area of forest network’s power-law distribution parameter value size; The recent existing forest polygons which are defined as nodes can compute the network nodes decaying index value of the network’s degree distribution. The parameters of forest network are picked up then make a spatial transition to GIS real world models. Hence the connection is automatically generated by minimizing the ecological corridor by the least cost rule between the near nodes. Based on scale-free network node distribution requirements, select the number compared with less, a huge point of aggregation as a future forest planning network’s main node, and put them with the existing node sequence comparison. By this theory, the forest ecological projects in the past avoid being fragmented, scattered disorderly phenomena. The previous regular forest networks can be reduced the required forest planting costs by this method. For ecological restoration of tropical and subtropical in south China areas, it will provide an effective method for the forest entering city project guidance and demonstration with other ecological networks (water, climate network, etc. for networking a standard and base datum.

  12. Empirical test of the influence of global warming and forest disturbance on ant fauna at the Gwangneung Forest Long Term Ecological Research site, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of forest disturbance and climate change on the ant fauna at the Long Term Ecological Research site in Gwangneung Forest, Korea in 2003 and 2012. After forest disturbance, the occurrence and abundance of ants belonging to the functional groups of forest ground forager and soil and litter dweller are predicted to decrease, while the occurrence and abundance of ants belonging to the open land forager and forest vegetation forager functional groups are predicted to increase. In terms of the effects of climate change, if the optimum temperature of the ants is lower than the annual average temperature in the survey area, the occurrence and abundance of the ants are predicted to decrease and vice versa. Ant surveys were carried out using pitfall traps. Changes in the dominant species, occurrence, and abundance mostly corresponded to the predictions for forest disturbance, but did not match the prediction for an increase in temperature.

  13. Soil organic matter status in forest soils - possible indicators for climate change induced site shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Nadine; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2010-05-01

    The quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) and SOM pools and thus the soil properties related to carbon sequestration and water retention are not constant but exhibit considerable variation through changing climate. In total changes in soil fertility and an increase in plant stress are expected. This is relevant for northwest Europe as well and may have economic and social impacts since functions of forests for wood production, groundwater recharge, soil protection and recreation might be affected. The study is done by comparative investigation of selected sites at four watersheds that represent typical forest stands in the region of Luxembourg and South West Germany. The aim is to identify SOM storage and stability in forest soils and its dependence on site properties and interaction with tree stand conditions. According to state of the art fractionation schemes functional C pools in forest soils and their stabilization mechanisms are investigated. In particular, distribution patterns are determined depending on location, tree stand and climatic conditions. Aim is to identify characteristics of SOM stability through fractionation of SOM according to density, particle size and chemical extractability and their subsequent analytical characterization. So far, reasons about the origin, composition and stabilization mechanisms underlying the different SOM pools are not fully understood. Presented are different patterns of distribution of SOM in relation to land use and site conditions, as well as similarities and differences between the different forest soils and results in addition to passive OM pool, which is mainly responsible for long-term stabilization of carbon in soils. These are aligned with selected general' soil properties such as pH, CEC and texture.

  14. Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles R. Berry

    1987-09-01

    In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

  15. Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Priya; Khlystov, Andrey; Walker, John; Aneja, Viney

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in southeastern US. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November 2005 and September 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency, as well as in relation to meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. Nucleation events occurred on 69% of classifiable observation days. Nucleation frequency was highest in spring. The highest daily nucleation (class A and B ev...

  16. Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, forests have been strongly influenced by human land-use for millennia. Here, we studied the importance of anthropogenic historical factors as determinants of understorey species distributions in a 967 ha Danish forest complex using 156 randomly placed 100-m2 plots, 15 environmental, 9...... dispersal and a strong literature record as ancient-forest species, were still concentrated in areas that were high forest in 1805. Among the younger forests, there were clear floristic differences between those on reclaimed bogs and those not. Apparently remnant populations of wet-soil plants were still...

  17. Foliage litter quality and annual net N mineralization: comparison across North American forest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Neal A; Binkley, Dan

    1997-07-01

    The feedback between plant litterfall and nutrient cycling processes plays a major role in the regulation of nutrient availability and net primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. While several studies have examined site-specific feedbacks between litter chemistry and nitrogen (N) availability, little is known about the interaction between climate, litter chemistry, and N availability across different ecosystems. We assembled data from several studies spanning a wide range of vegetation, soils, and climatic regimes to examine the relationship between aboveground litter chemistry and annual net N mineralization. Net N mineralization declined strongly and non-linearly as the litter lignin:N ratio increased in forest ecosystems (r 2  = 0.74, P mineralization decreased linearly as litter lignin concentration increased, but the relationship was significant (r 2  = 0.63, P mineralization across this range of sites (r 2  litter lignin:N ratio and net N mineralization from forest floor and mineral soil was similar. The litter lignin:N ratio explained more of the variation in net N mineralization than climatic factors over a wide range of forest age classes, suggesting that litter quality (lignin:N ratio) may exert more than a proximal control over net N mineralization by influencing soil organic matter quality throughout the soil profile independent of climate.

  18. Ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation in rain forests of low altitude on complex metamorphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cantos Cevallos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation of the low altitude rain forest on a metamorphic complex, Quibiján-Naranjal del Toa sector, a floristic inventory was carried out, 36 sample plots of 20 x 25 m in the forest in both sides of Toa's riverside. Tree species with d1,3 e» 5 cm were measured, a total of 1507 individuals represented in 52 species belonging to 49 genera and 24 families were identified and evaluated. Both forests were statistically compared in terms of richness, composition, structure, diversity and abundance, with a high alpha and beta diversity. The species with the highest value index of ecological importance were determined. The families Fabaceae, Moraceae, Lauraceae and Meliaceae are the most representative in terms of species and genera. The most important species are Hibiscus elatus, Calophyllum utile, Carapa guianensis, Buhenavia capitata, y Guarea guara, among others, which stand out as the most abundant. Economic occupation was adequate in a few plots and incomplete in most of the sampling units. Taking into account the results obtained, we propose silvicultural actions aimed at sustainable forest management through the application of improvement shorts and the method of enrichment in dense spaced-groups for the rehabilitation and the achievement of the expected multiethane forest.

  19. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen at five subtropical forested sites in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi Yun; Mulder, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of reactive nitrogen (N) in precipitation have been reported for many cities in China. Due to increased use of fossil fuels and expansion in agriculture, further increases in deposition of ammonia (NH x ) and reactive N oxides (NO y ) are predicted. Increased deposition of reactive N is likely to affect N dynamics and N runoff in forest ecosystems. Yet, in China little work has been done to quantify the levels of atmospheric N deposition in such systems. Here, we assess the deposition of inorganic N (ammonium, NH 4 + and nitrate, NO 3 - ) for five subtropical forest ecosystems in remote and urban areas of South China. Annual volume-weighted concentrations in bulk precipitation range from 0.18 to 1.55 mg NH 4 + -N L - 1 and from 0.12 to 0.74 mg NO 3 - -N L - 1 . These values are large and several times greater than those reported for remote sites of the world. The fluxes of total inorganic N (TIN) in wet-only deposition range from 0.8 to 2.3 g N m - 2 yr - 1 , with NH 4 + -N contributing 54% to 77%. Both the tree canopy and the ground vegetation layer are important in determining the net N flux reaching the forest floor, but the net effect varies from site to site. At TieShanPing (TSP), close to Chongqing city, and at CaiJiaTang (CJT), near Shaoshan (Hunan province), the canopy represents a net source of N, probably due to dry deposition. At the other three sites (LiuChongGuan (LCG), LeiGongShan (LGS), both in Guizhou province, and LiuXiHe (LXH) in Guangdong), a net loss of reactive N from precipitation water occurs in the canopy, probably due to uptake processes. The total annual atmospheric TIN load is estimated to range from at least 0.8 g N m - 2 yr - 1 to 4.0 g N m - 2 yr - 1 , with a considerable contribution from dry deposition. Concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N in tree canopy throughfall are greater than those in North America. Also the contribution of NH 4 + -N to TIN fluxes in throughfall (40% to 70%) is greater than in North

  20. The Italian forest sites of FunDivEUROPE: a new FP7 project on the functional significance of forest biodiversity in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussotti F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian forest sites of FunDivEUROPE: a new FP7 project on the functional significance of forest biodiversity in Europe. FunDivEUROPE is a new project aiming at a deeper understanding of the role of forest diversity on ecosystem functions and service provisioning for society. This project combines three scientific platforms: experimental, exploratory and inventory. The exploratory platform is based on the observation of a broad range of properties, traits and ecological processes on a network of ca. 240 natural forest sites representing a gradient of tree species diversity in six focal regions of Europe (Spain, Italy, Germany, Poland, Finland and Romania. The Italian sites are located on the hills of central and Southern Tuscany and represent the category “thermophilous deciduous forest”. Almost one year of fieldwork was needed to select and characterize 36 plots measuring 30 x 30 m. Selection was based on criteria concerning tree mixtures and richness, structural parameters and main environmental variables. The main features of these sites are synthetically presented in this paper together with a short description of the project structure and scope. The aim is also to enhance dissemination of the potential implications for a sustainable forest management in Italy.

  1. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  2. Final Report, 2011-2014. Forecasting Carbon Storage as Eastern Forests Age. Joining Experimental and Modeling Approaches at the UMBS AmeriFlux Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Peter [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Bohrer, Gil [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Gough, Christopher [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States); Nadelhoffer, Knute [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-03-12

    At the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) AmeriFlux sites (US-UMB and US-UMd), long-term C cycling measurements and a novel ecosystem-scale experiment are revealing physical, biological, and ecological mechanisms driving long-term trajectories of C cycling, providing new data for improving modeling forecasts of C storage in eastern forests. Our findings provide support for previously untested hypotheses that stand-level structural and biological properties constrain long-term trajectories of C storage, and that remotely sensed canopy structural parameters can substantially improve model forecasts of forest C storage. Through the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), we are directly testing the hypothesis that forest C storage will increase due to increasing structural and biological complexity of the emerging tree communities. Support from this project, 2011-2014, enabled us to incorporate novel physical and ecological mechanisms into ecological, meteorological, and hydrological models to improve forecasts of future forest C storage in response to disturbance, succession, and current and long-term climate variation

  3. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Black Hills, and Manitou, Colorado test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some current beetle-killed ponderosa pine can be detected on S190-B photography imaged over the Bear Lodge mountains in the Black Hills National Forest. Detections were made on SL-3 imagery (September 13, 1973) using a zoom lens microscope to view the photography. At this time correlations have not been made to all of the known infestation spots in the Bear Lodge mountains; rather, known infestations have been located on the SL-3 imagery. It was determined that the beetle-killed trees were current kills by stereo viewing of SL-3 imagery on one side and SL-2 on the other. A successful technique was developed for mapping current beetle-killed pine using MSS imagery from mission 247 flown by the C-130 over the Black Hills test site in September 1973. Color enhancement processing on the NASA/JSC, DAS system using three MSS channels produced an excellent quality detection map for current kill pine. More importantly it provides a way to inventory the dead trees by relating PCM counts to actual numbers of dead trees.

  4. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  5. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  6. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  7. Remote Sensing for Mapping RAMSAR Heritage Site at Sungai Pulai Mangrove Forest Reserve, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmadi, I.M.; Pakhriazad, H.Z.; Norlida, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Sungai Pulai Mangrove Forest Reserve (SPMFR) is the largest reverin mangrove system in Johore. In 2003 about 9,126 ha of the Sungai Pulai mangrove was designated as a RAMSAR site. RAMSAR sites are wetland areas that are deemed to have international importance and are included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance. The SPMFR plays a significant socio-economic role to the adjacent 38 villages. Satellite remote sensing is a useful source of information where it provides timely and complete coverage for vegetation mapping especially in mangroves where the accessibility is difficult. This study was carried out to identify and map land cover types using SPOT-4 imagery at the Sungai Pulai-RAMSAR site and its surrounding areas. Through unsupervised classification technique a total of seven classes of land cover type were mapped, where about 90 % mapping accuracy was gained from the accuracy assessment. Later, vegetation densities were classified into five levels namely very high, high, medium, low and very low based on crown density scale using vegetation indices model such as NDVI, AVI and OSAVI. Results from NDVI and OSAVI model were almost similar but AVI model detected more on medium vegetation which did not show the real ground condition. The study concludes that SPOT-4 imagery was able to discriminate mangrove area clearly from other land covers type. Vegetation indices model can be used as a tool for mapping vegetation density level in the SPMFR and its surrounding area. Therefore VIs models from remote sensing are useful to monitor and manage the mangrove forest for sustainable management and preserve the SPMFR as a RAMSAR site in Peninsular Malaysia. (author)

  8. More than just drought: complexity of recruitment patterns in Mediterranean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Understanding community dynamics during early life stages of trees is critical for the prediction of future species composition. In Mediterranean forests drought is a major constraint for regeneration, but likely not the only factor determining the observed spatial patterns. We carried out a sowing experiment aimed at identifying main filters during seed-seedling transition. Specifically, we studied seed fate (predation, fungi infection, emergence) and subsequent seedling performance (mortality during the first summer and overall recruitment after 2 years) of four co-occurring Mediterranean tree species (Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Juniperus thurifera, Pinus nigra). We related these processes to the dominant species composition, microhabitat heterogeneity, herb cover and seed mass. The identity of the dominant species in the forest canopy was more important for recruitment than the forest canopy being dominated by conspecific vs. heterospecific species. The patterns we found suggest that biotic interactions such as facilitation (lower mortality under the canopies) and herb competition (during emergence of J. thurifera) are relevant during recruitment. Moreover, our results pointed to ontogenetic conflicts regarding the seed mass of Q. faginea and to density-dependent seed mortality for Q. ilex, rarely described in Mediterranean ecosystems. We propose that our study species experience population growth in forests dominated by heterospecifics where the recruitment success depends on habitat heterogeneity and on moderated biotic and abiotic stresses created by each species. Our results reveal patterns and mechanisms involved in recruitment constraints that add complexity to the well-known drought-related processes in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  9. Sustainable forest management of Natura 2000 sites: a case study from a private forest in the Romanian Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Walentowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and forest management are analyzed for a 500 ha privately owned forest within the Natura 2000 area “ROSCI0122 Muntii Fagaras”. Habitat types and indicator species are identified to measure environmental quality. Working towards an integrated approach to conservation, a range of options that will result in sustainable forest management are then considered. For beech forests light heterogeneity emerges as a crucial management target to ensure tree species richness and structural diversity as a basis for saving indicator species such as Morimus funereus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Bolitophagus reticulatus and Xestobium austriacum. For spruce forests thinning over a broad range of diameters and maintenance of veteran trees would provide habitats for indicator species such asOlisthaerus substriatus. The populations of a number of bird species would be increased by strip-harvesting slopes: species such as Tetrao urogallus, Bonasia bonasia and Ficedula parva prefer forest margins. Steep slopes, and the areas around springs and watercourses, as well as rock faces, should remain unmanaged. Future management should start with a grid-based inventory to create an objective database of forest structure and life. An example is presented for high-elevation spruce forest. The inventory should quantify the variations in diameter, height and volume of trees per unit area. Such data would allow the advanced planning of forest operations. We discuss a wide range of administrative and organizational changes; changes that are needed for the sustainable forest management of the vast close-to-natural forests of the Muntii Fagaras, the maintenance of the Nardusgrasslands and the protection of wetland vegetation around springs and streams in this Natura 2000-area. 

  10. Determination of the Sites with Conservation Priority in Research Forests of Yasouj University Based on Physiographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zolfaghari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarding high economic and conservative values of Zagros forests, and livelihood dependency of local people these recourses, determination of sites with higher conservation index can help us to maintain biodiversity of these forests more efficiently. Therefore, 49 plots with 450 m2 in area accompanied by 1, 10 and 45 m2 subplots were taken as systematic random design in research forests of Yasouj University. The number of species in each plot and subplot was recorded. The conservation values for different physiographic regions of forest were calculated using integrative parameters such as the number of species per plot, number of rare species per plot, number of tree species per plot, Jaccards similarity coefficient and slope of species-log(area. Comparing the conservation index in different physiographic sites revealed that the areas located in the north, hills and lower altitudes can be considered for in situ conservation due to higher number of trees, rare species and total plant species, species-log (area slope and lower amount of Jaccard similarity coefficient. But, vegetative sites located in lower slopes and south, because of lower conservation index, can be used for other multipurpose forestry activities. Using this index for different forest areas can be potentially conducted for better conservation and management of Zagros forests.

  11. Sustainable forest management of Natura 2000 sites: a case study from a private forest in the Romanian Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and forest management are analyzed for a 500 haprivately owned forest within the Natura 2000 area “ROSCI0122 MunţiiFăgăraş”. Habitat types and indicator species are identified to measure environmental quality. Working towards an integrated approach to conservation, a range of options that will result in sustainable forest management are then considered. For beech forests light heterogeneity emerges as a crucial management target to ensure tree species richness and structural diversity as a basis for saving indicator species such as Morimus funereus, Cucujus cinnaberinus,Bolitophagus reticulatus and Xestobium austriacum. For spruceforests thinning over a broad range of diameters and maintenance of veteran trees would provide habitats for indicator species such as Olisthaerus substriatus. The populations of a number of bird species would be increased by strip-harvesting slopes: species such as Tetrao urogallus, Bonasia bonasia and Ficedula parva prefer forest margins. Steep slopes, and the areas around springs and watercourses, as well as rock faces, should remain unmanaged. Future management should start with a grid-based inventory to create an objective database of forest structure and life. An example is presented for high-elevation spruce forest. The inventory should quantify the variations in diameter, height and volume of trees per unit area. Such data would allowthe advanced planning of forest operations. We discuss a wide range ofadministrative and organizational changes; changes that are needed for the sustainable forest management of the vast close-to-natural forests of the Munţii Făgăraş, the maintenance of the Nardus grasslands and the protection of wetland vegetation around springs and streams in this Natura 2000-area.

  12. Complex effects of mammalian grazing on extramatrical mycelial biomass in the Scandes forest-tundra ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowles, Tage; Lindwall, Frida; Ekblad, Alf; Bahram, Mohammad; Furneaux, Brendan R; Ryberg, Martin; Björk, Robert G

    2018-01-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are widespread in high-latitude ecosystems and are potentially of great importance for global carbon dynamics. Although large herbivores play a key part in shaping subarctic plant communities, their impact on mycorrhizal dynamics is largely unknown. We measured extramatrical mycelial (EMM) biomass during one growing season in 16-year-old herbivore exclosures and unenclosed control plots (ambient), at three mountain birch forests and two shrub heath sites, in the Scandes forest-tundra ecotone. We also used high-throughput amplicon sequencing for taxonomic identification to investigate differences in fungal species composition. At the birch forest sites, EMM biomass was significantly higher in exclosures (1.36 ± 0.43 g C/m 2 ) than in ambient conditions (0.66 ± 0.17 g C/m 2 ) and was positively influenced by soil thawing degree-days. At the shrub heath sites, there was no significant effect on EMM biomass (exclosures: 0.72 ± 0.09 g C/m 2 ; ambient plots: 1.43 ± 0.94). However, EMM biomass was negatively related to Betula nana abundance, which was greater in exclosures, suggesting that grazing affected EMM biomass positively. We found no significant treatment effects on fungal diversity but the most abundant ectomycorrhizal lineage/cortinarius, showed a near-significant positive effect of herbivore exclusion ( p  = .08), indicating that herbivory also affects fungal community composition. These results suggest that herbivory can influence fungal biomass in highly context-dependent ways in subarctic ecosystems. Considering the importance of root-associated fungi for ecosystem carbon balance, these findings could have far-reaching implications.

  13. Ozone concentrations at a selected high-elevation forest site downwind Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    Torres-Jardón, R.*, Rosas-Pérez, I., Granada-Macías, L. M., Ruiz-Suárez, L. G. Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM, México D. F. México * rtorres@unam.mx For many years, the vegetation of forest species such as Abies religiosa in natural parks located in the southwest mountains of Mexico City has attracted much attention since these parks have been experiencing a severe decline of unclear etiology. The high ozone levels in the area and the observed naked eye macroscopic, histological and cytological injuries on these species, strongly suggest an important contribution of tropospheric ozone to this deterioration process. Apart of historical short monitoring campaigns for measuring ozone levels in these mountains, it is known just a little is known about the present exposure levels at which the local vegetation is exposed. A continuous ozone analyzer has been in operation since 2011 at a high-elevation forest site (Parque Nacional Miguel Hidalgo, PNMH; 3110 m above mean sea level) located downwind of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in order to characterize the local ozone diel amplitude and its seasonal trend, as well as the influence of MCMA on the local O3 concentrations. Hourly average ozone data in PNMH shows that in general, the diel of ozone concentrations in the forest site has a statistical significant correlation with the pattern of ozone levels observed in several monitoring sites (smog receptor sites) within the MCMA, although the high elevation O3 levels are relatively lower than those in the urban area (around 2200 m above mean sea level). It is possible that a part of the oxidants in the air masses are removed by sink deposition processes during the air mass transport across the hills. The diel amplitude of ozone concentrations is small in the cold season, increasing as the seasons advance to June. As in the city, the highest ozone concentrations occur in April or May and the lowest levels during the rainy season, which extends from

  14. The Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest US-NR1 AmeriFlux site - Part 1: Data acquisition and site record-keeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sean P.; Maclean, Gordon D.; Blanken, Peter D.; Oncley, Steven P.; Semmer, Steven R.; Monson, Russell K.

    2016-09-01

    The Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux site (US-NR1) has been measuring eddy-covariance ecosystem fluxes of carbon dioxide, heat, and water vapor since 1 November 1998. Throughout this 17-year period there have been changes to the instrumentation and improvements to the data acquisition system. Here, in Part 1 of this three-part series of papers, we describe the hardware and software used for data-collection and metadata documentation. We made changes to the data acquisition system that aimed to reduce the system complexity, increase redundancy, and be as independent as possible from any network outages. Changes to facilitate these improvements were (1) switching to a PC/104-based computer running the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) In-Situ Data Acquisition Software (NIDAS) that saves the high-frequency data locally and over the network, and (2) time-tagging individual 10 Hz serial data samples using network time protocol (NTP) coupled to a GPS-based clock, providing a network-independent, accurate time base. Since making these improvements almost 2 years ago, the successful capture of high-rate data has been better than 99.98 %. We also provide philosophical concepts that shaped our design of the data system and are applicable to many different types of environmental data collection.

  15. Parameter optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of an ecosystem model at a forest flux tower site in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Huang, Zhihong; Yan, Wende

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem models are useful tools for understanding ecological processes and for sustainable management of resources. In biogeochemical field, numerical models have been widely used for investigating carbon dynamics under global changes from site to regional and global scales. However, it is still challenging to optimize parameters and estimate parameterization uncertainty for complex process-based models such as the Erosion Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), a modified version of CENTURY, that consider carbon, water, and nutrient cycles of ecosystems. This study was designed to conduct the parameter identifiability, optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of EDCM using our developed EDCM-Auto, which incorporated a comprehensive R package—Flexible Modeling Framework (FME) and the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) algorithm. Using a forest flux tower site as a case study, we implemented a comprehensive modeling analysis involving nine parameters and four target variables (carbon and water fluxes) with their corresponding measurements based on the eddy covariance technique. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the plant production-related parameters (e.g., PPDF1 and PRDX) are most sensitive to the model cost function. Both SCE and FME are comparable and performed well in deriving the optimal parameter set with satisfactory simulations of target variables. Global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis indicate that the parameter uncertainty and the resulting output uncertainty can be quantified, and that the magnitude of parameter-uncertainty effects depends on variables and seasons. This study also demonstrates that using the cutting-edge R functions such as FME can be feasible and attractive for conducting comprehensive parameter analysis for ecosystem modeling.

  16. Status of chemical elements in Atlantic Forest tree species near an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.L.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental quality assessment studies have been conducted with tree species largely distributed in the Atlantic Forest. Leaf and soil samples were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) nearby the industrial complex of Cubatao, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results were compared to background values obtained in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB). The higher As, Fe, Hg and Zn mass fractions in the tree leaves of PESM indicated anthropogenic influence on this conservation unit. (author)

  17. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10 -12 to 10 -6 Ci/g of 90 Sr or 137 Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of 90 Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer's diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed

  18. Forest decline research in Northrhine-Westphalia at the regional research site Eggegebirge/Velmerstot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, B.; Koeth, I.; Krause, G.H.M.; Thiele, V.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984 Northrhine Westfalia established a research program 'Air Pollution and Forest Decline'. Results of various experiments, carried out on the level of 1. epidemiological observations, 2. semi-controlled experiments in open-to-chambers as well as 3. controlled fumigation experiments are presented as an overview. Emphasis is put on field experiments at the regional research site Eggegebirge/Velmerstot, where the Landesanstalt fuer Immissionsschutz analysed among others yearly nutrient cycling and leaching phenomena of injured and healthy spruce trees (type: montanious yellowing). Deposition measurements were carried on a horizontal and vertical trajectory outside and inside a young spruce stand. Preliminary results showed that atmospheric acidic deposition accounts only for 1/3 of the acidification of the soil within the stand, where acidification processes are most prevalent. (orig.) [de

  19. Experimental and numerical study of atmospheric turbulence and dispersion in stable conditions and in near field at a complex site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An experimental program has been designed in order to study pollutants dispersion at a complex site with a focus on stable conditions, which are still challenging for numerical modelling. This experimental program is being conducted at the SIRTA site in a southern suburb of Paris and consists in measuring, in near field, the turbulence and the pollutants dispersion. The aim of this program is to characterize the fine structure of turbulence and associated dispersion through high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. Then, these measurements allow to validate and improve the performance of CFD simulation for turbulence and dispersion in a heterogeneous field. The instrumental set up includes 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring continuously wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and 6 photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) measuring gas concentration at 50 Hz during tracer tests. Intensive observations periods (IOPs) with gas releases have been performed since March 2012. First of all, a detailed study of flow on the site is made, because it must be characterised and properly simulated before attempting to simulate the pollutants dispersion. This study is based on two years of continuous measurements and on measurements performed during IOPs. Turbulence strong anisotropy in the surface layer is characterized by calculating variances, integral length scales and power spectra of the three wind velocity components. Propagation of turbulent structures between sensors has been characterized with velocity correlations. Energy spectra show several slopes in different frequency regions. Also, data analyses show impact of terrain heterogeneity on the measurements. The forest to the north of the experimental field modifies wind velocity and direction for a large northerly sector. It induces a strong directional wind shear and a wind deceleration below the forest height. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CFD code, Code-Saturne, in RANS mode with a standard k

  20. Experimental and numerical study of atmospheric turbulence and dispersion in stable conditions and in near field at a complex site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An experimental program has been designed in order to study pollutants dispersion at a complex site with a focus on stable conditions, which are still challenging for numerical modelling. This experimental program is being conducted at the SIRTA site in a southern suburb of Paris and consists in measuring, in near field, the turbulence and the pollutants dispersion. The aim of this program is to characterize the fine structure of turbulence and associated dispersion through high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. Then, these measurements allow to validate and improve the performance of CFD simulation for turbulence and dispersion in a heterogeneous field. The instrumental set up includes 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring continuously wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and 6 photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) measuring gas concentration at 50 Hz during tracer tests. Intensive observations periods (IOPs) with gas releases have been performed since March 2012.First of all, a detailed study of flow on the site is made, because it must be characterised and properly simulated before attempting to simulate the pollutants dispersion. This study is based on two years of continuous measurements and on measurements performed during IOPs. Turbulence strong anisotropy in the surface layer is characterized by calculating variances, integral length scales and power spectra of the three wind velocity components. Propagation of turbulent structures between sensors has been characterized with velocity correlations. Energy spectra show several slopes in different frequency regions. Also, data analyses show impact of terrain heterogeneity on the measurements. The forest to the north of experimental field modifies wind velocity and direction for a large northerly sector. It induces a strong directional wind shear and a wind deceleration below the forest height. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CFD code Code-Saturne in RANS mode with a standard κ

  1. Influences of climate, fire, and topography on contemporary age structure patterns of Douglas-fir at 205 old forest sites in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Poage; Peter J. Weisberg; Peter C. Impara; John C. Tappeiner; Thomas S. Sensenig

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of forest development is basic to understanding the ecology, dynamics, and management of forest ecosystems. We hypothesized that the age structure patterns of Douglas-fir at 205 old forest sites in western Oregon are extremely variable with long and (or) multiple establishment periods common, and that these patterns reflect variation in regional-scale climate...

  2. Pollen sources in the Bojanów forest complex identified on honeybee pollen load by microscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Stawiarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine sources of pollen for the honeybee in the Bojanów forest complex, Nowa Dęba Forest District (southeastern Poland. Sampling of pollen loads from bees extended from the beginning of May until the end of September 2016 and was carried out at 7-day intervals using pollen traps mounted at the entrance of beehives. A total of 73 pollen load samples were collected from the study area. Fifty-nine taxa from 31 plant families were identified in the analyzed material. From 4 to 21 taxa (average 9.5 were recorded in one sample. The pollen of Brassicaceae (“others”, Taraxacum type, Solidago type, and Rumex had the highest frequency in the pollen loads examined. Apart from these four taxa, pollen grains of Rubus type, Poaceae (“others”, Calluna, Fagopyrum, Trifolium repens s. l., Phacelia, Aster type, Melampyrum, Quercus, Cornus, and Veronica were recorded in the dominant pollen group. The forest habitat taxa that provided pollen rewards to honeybees in the Bojanów forest complex were the following: Rubus, Calluna, Prunus, Tilia, Frangula alnus, Pinus, Quercus, Cornus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix, and Vaccinium. Apart from forest vegetation, the species from meadows and wastelands adjacent to this forest complex, represented by Taraxacum, Rumex, Plantago, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, and Solidago, proved to be an important source of pollen. The study indicates that forest communities are a valuable source of pollen for pollinating insects from early spring through to late fall.

  3. Technical note: Application of geophysical tools for tree root studies in forest ecosystems in complex soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Rodríguez-Robles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While semiarid forests frequently colonize rocky substrates, knowledge is scarce on how roots garner resources in these extreme habitats. The Sierra San Miguelito Volcanic Complex in central Mexico exhibits shallow soils and impermeable rhyolitic-rock outcrops, which impede water movement and root placement beyond the soil matrix. However, rock fractures, exfoliated rocks and soil pockets potentially permit downward water percolation and root growth. With ground-penetrating radar (GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT, two geophysical methods advocated by Jayawickreme et al. (2014 to advance root ecology, we advanced in the method development studying root and water distribution in shallow rocky soils and rock fractures in a semiarid forest. We calibrated geophysical images with in situ root measurements, and then extrapolated root distribution over larger areas. Using GPR shielded antennas, we identified both fine and coarse pine and oak roots from 0.6 to 7.5 cm diameter at different depths into either soil or rock fractures. We also detected, trees anchoring their trunks using coarse roots underneath rock outcroppings. With ERT, we tracked monthly changes in humidity at the soil–bedrock interface, which clearly explained spatial root distribution of both tree species. Geophysical methods have enormous potential in elucidating root ecology. More interdisciplinary research could advance our understanding in belowground ecological niche functions and their role in forest ecohydrology and productivity.

  4. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, F.; Figueiredo, T. de; Martins, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa (CS). Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12 degree centigrade and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity), in plots with an area of 375 m{sup 2} each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m{sup 2} quadrat), forest species (8 PM and 8 CS) and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i) more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii) the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii) the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv) the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes. (Author)

  5. Vegetation Succession on Degraded Sites in the Pomacochas Basin (Amazonas, N Peru—Ecological Options for Forest Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Walentowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Andes of northern Peru are still widely covered with forests, but increasingly suffer from habitat fragmentation. Subsequent soil degradation often leads to the abandonment of overused forests and pastures. Ecological knowledge on the restoration potential, e.g., on dependencies of soil conditions and altitude, is scarce. Therefore, we compared soil and vegetation patterns along nine transects within the upper Pomacochas Basin, which is an important biodiversity corridor along the Andes, between remaining forests, succession sites and pastures. Anthropogenic successional and disturbance levels, geological substrate, and altitude have the most important ecological impacts on vegetation and tree species composition. Species responded to sandstone versus calcareous substrates, but also to depths of the organic soil layer, and light conditions. The absence of organic layers under pastures contrasted with the accumulation of thick organic layers under forest cover. Vegetation composition at succession sites revealed certain starting points (herbal stage, bush stage, or secondary forest for restoration that will determine the length of regeneration paths. Pre-forest patches of Alchornea sp. and Parathesis sp. may act as habitat stepping stones for expeditiously restoring biocorridors for wildlife. The key findings can contribute to the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity in a fragile ecoregion.

  6. Atmospheric particulate mercury at the urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    Particulate mercury concentrations were investigated during intensive field campaigns at the urban and forest sites in central Poland, between April 2013 and October 2014. For the first time, quantitative determination of total particulate mercury in coarse (PHg2.2) and fine (PHg0.7) aerosol samples was conducted in Poznań and Jeziory. The concentrations in urban fine and coarse aerosol fractions amounted to mercury concentrations. A strong impact of meteorological conditions (wind velocity, air mass direction, air temperature, and precipitation amount) on particulate mercury concentrations was also observed. In particular, higher variation and concentration range of PHg0.7 and PHg2.2 was reported for wintertime measurements. An increase in atmospheric particulate mercury during the cold season in the study region indicated that coal combustion, i.e., residential and industrial heating, is the main contribution factor for the selected particle size modes. Coarse particulate Hg at the urban site during summer was mainly attributed to anthropogenic sources, with significant contribution from resuspension processes and long-range transport. The highest values of PHg0.7 and PHg2.2 were found during westerly and southerly wind events, reflecting local emission from highly polluted areas. The period from late fall to spring showed that advection from the southern part of Poland was the main factor responsible for elevated Hg concentrations in fine and coarse particles in the investigated region. Moreover, September 2013 could be given as an example of the influence of additional urban activities which occurred approx. 10 m from the sampling site-construction works connected with replacement of the road surface, asphalting, etc. The concentrations of particulate Hg (>600.0 pg m(-3)) were much higher than during the following months when any similar situation did not occur. Our investigations confirmed that Hg in urban aerosol samples was predominantly related to local

  7. Compilation of woody species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Da Silva Duarte, Leandro; Marcilio-Silva, Vinicius; Dos Santos Seger, Guilherme Dubal; Liebsch, Dieter; Marques, Márcia C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity conservation because of its high levels of endemism and threatened areas. Three main forest types, differentiated by their floras, compose the Atlantic Forest: ‘Atlantic Forest’ sensu strictu, ‘Araucaria Mixed Forest’ and ‘Seasonal Forest’. The flora comprises taxa from the Amazon forest, Cerrado gallery forests and the Andean region, which makes the Atlantic Forest a relevant study system for ecologists and biogeographers. Here, we present da...

  8. Bayesian spatial prediction of the site index in the study of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqian Sun; Zhuoqiong He; John Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Bayesian spatial method for analysing the site index data from the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP). Based on ecological background and availability, we select three variables, the aspect class, the soil depth and the land type association as covariates for analysis. To allow great flexibility of the smoothness of the random field,...

  9. Development of floristic diversity in 10-year-old restoration forests on a bauxite mined site in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Parrotta; O. H. Knowles; J.M. Wunderle Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of plant and animal diversity were studied in a 10-year-old native species reforestation area at a bauxite-mined site at porto Trombetas in western Para State, Brazil. Understorey and overstorey floristic composition and structure, understorey light conditions, forest floor development and soil properties were evaluated in a total of 38 78.5-m2

  10. Direct radiative feedback due to biogenic secondary organic aerosol estimated from boreal forest site observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihavainen, Heikki; Asmi, Eija; Aaltonen, Veijo; Makkonen, Ulla; Kerminen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 °C) was −97 ± 66 mW m −2 K −1 (mean ± STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (f AOD ) and −63 ± 40 mW m −2 K −1 when using measurements of the ‘dry’ aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (f σ ). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution. (letter)

  11. Rac1 GTPase activates the WAVE regulatory complex through two distinct binding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Xing, Wenmin; Yang, Sheng; Henry, Lisa; Doolittle, Lynda K; Walz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Rho GTPase Rac1 activates the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) to drive Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization, which underpins diverse cellular processes. Here we report the structure of a WRC-Rac1 complex determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Surprisingly, Rac1 is not located at the binding site on the Sra1 subunit of the WRC previously identified by mutagenesis and biochemical data. Rather, it binds to a distinct, conserved site on the opposite end of Sra1. Biophysical and biochemical data on WRC mutants confirm that Rac1 binds to both sites, with the newly identified site having higher affinity and both sites required for WRC activation. Our data reveal that the WRC is activated by simultaneous engagement of two Rac1 molecules, suggesting a mechanism by which cells may sense the density of active Rac1 at membranes to precisely control actin assembly. PMID:28949297

  12. Final Technical Report: The effects of climate, forest age, and disturbance history on carbon and water processes at AmeriFlux sites across gradients in Pacific Northwest forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-12-03

    Investigate the effects of disturbance and climate variables on processes controlling carbon and water processes at AmeriFlux cluster sites in semi-arid and mesic forests in Oregon. The observations were made at three existing and productive AmeriFlux research sites that represent climate and disturbance gradients as a natural experiment of the influence of climatic and hydrologic variability on carbon sequestration and resulting atmospheric CO2 feedback that includes anomalies during the warm/ dry phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  13. Model synthetic complexes of the hydrogenase with different protonation sites; Complexes synthetiques modeles de l'hydrogenase avec differents sites de protonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capon, J.F.; Gloaguen, F.; Morvan, D.; Schollhammer, Ph.; Talarmin, J.; Yaouanc, J.J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, UMR CNRS 6521, Chimie, Electrochimie Moleculaires et Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, 29 - Brest (France)

    2005-07-01

    The data obtained until now seem to indicate that the hydrogen production by hydrogenases induces a proton-hydride coupling. In taking the structures of theses enzymes active sites (determined by X-ray diffraction) as a basis, it can be thought that this proton-hydride coupling is facilitated by the juxtaposition of two protonation sites, the metallic center M and the basic group of an E ligand of the coordination sphere. Contrarily to the supposed running of the hydrogenases enzymes, the homogeneous catalysts of the protons reduction, described in the literature, present a reactivity which is either on an alone metallic site or on a metal-metal bond. This work deals then with the preparation of complexes having two juxtaposed protonation sites. Some iron dinuclear compounds have been synthesized and their properties studied. (O.M.)

  14. Lacustrine sedimentation in an altitude forest site, central Andes, Bolivia. Palaeo-climatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifeddine, A.; Bertaux, J.; Mourguiart, Ph.; Disnar, J.R.; Laggoun-Defarge, F.; Argollo, J.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological study of a 755 cm length core sampled in the middle of a marshy depression surrounded by a cloud forest in the central Andes reveals that this site has recorded important environmental variations during the last 50 000 years. For the most part (625 cm) the core is composed of detrital rich sediments deposited during the Upper Pleistocene. The highest amount of detrital influx underlines the Last Glacial Maximum which ranges from ca 29,000 14 C yr B.P. to ca 16,000 14 C yr B.P. (ca 18,500 cal yr B.P.), between two relatively humid phases. The sedimentation of the present Interglacial, starting at ca 12,500 14 C yr B.P. (14,500 cal yr B.P.), is mainly organic, as a consequence of the great development of soils and the forest vegetal cover the catchment area. The maximum extension of this vegetal cover ranging from 12,500 to ca 10,500 14 C yr B.P. (14,500 and 12,400 cal yr B.P.) is followed from 10,500 to 8,000 14 C yr B.P. (12,400 and 8,800 cal yr B.P.) by a drier period is revealed by the occurrence of micro-charcoals in the sediment. Between ca 8,000 and 4,000 14 C yr B.P. (8,800 and 4,500 cal yr B.P.), the sharp increase of micro-charcoals content, likely related to palaeo-fires, underlines an intensification of this dry trend. (authors)

  15. Carotenoid-binding sites of the major light-harvesting complex II of higher plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, Roberta; Weiss, Saskia; Bassi, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins with modified carotenoid composition have been obtained by in vitro reconstitution of the Lhcb1 protein overexpressed in bacteria. The monomeric protein possesses three xanthophyll-binding sites. The L1 and L2 sites, localized by electron

  16. Long-term deer exclusion has complex effects on a suburban forest understory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faison, Edward K.; Foster, David R.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory by deer is one of the leading biotic disturbances on forest understories (i.e., herbs, small shrubs, and small tree seedlings). A large body of research has reported declines in height, abundance, and reproductive capacity of forbs and woody plants coupled with increases in abundance of graminoids, ferns, and exotic species due to deer herbivory. Less clear is the extent to which (and the direction in which) deer alter herbaceous layer diversity, where much of the plant diversity in a forest occurs. We examined the effect of 15 y of deer exclusion on the understory of a suburban hardwood forest in Connecticut exposed to decades of intensive herbivory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We compared species richness (at subplot and plot scale), individual species and life form group abundance (% cover), and community composition between grazed and exclosure plots, as well as between mesic and wet soil blocks. Forb cover was more than twice as abundant in exclosure as in grazed plots, whereas sedge (Carex spp.) cover was 28 times more abundant, and exotic species cover generally higher in grazed than in exclosure plots. Native and exotic species richness were both higher in grazed than exclosure plots at the subplot scale, and native herbaceous richness was higher in grazed plots at both spatial scales. In contrast, native shrub richness increased with deer exclusion at the plot scale. Our results suggest that deer exclusion had contrasting effects on species richness, depending on plant life form, but that overall richness of both exotic and native plants declined with deer exclusion. In addition, site heterogeneity remained an important driver of vegetation dynamics even in the midst of high deer densities.

  17. Changing forest water yields in response to climate warming: results from long-term experimental watershed sites across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F; Spargo, Adam T; Jones, Julia A; Buttle, Jim M; Adams, Mary B; Beall, Fred D; Booth, Eric G; Campbell, John L; Clow, Dave; Elder, Kelly; Green, Mark B; Grimm, Nancy B; Miniat, Chelcy; Ramlal, Patricia; Saha, Amartya; Sebestyen, Stephen; Spittlehouse, Dave; Sterling, Shannon; Williams, Mark W; Winkler, Rita; Yao, Huaxia

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is projected to affect forest water yields but the effects are expected to vary. We investigated how forest type and age affect water yield resilience to climate warming. To answer this question, we examined the variability in historical water yields at long-term experimental catchments across Canada and the United States over 5-year cool and warm periods. Using the theoretical framework of the Budyko curve, we calculated the effects of climate warming on the annual partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield. Deviation (d) was defined as a catchment's change in actual ET divided by P [AET/P; evaporative index (EI)] coincident with a shift from a cool to a warm period – a positive d indicates an upward shift in EI and smaller than expected water yields, and a negative d indicates a downward shift in EI and larger than expected water yields. Elasticity was defined as the ratio of interannual variation in potential ET divided by P (PET/P; dryness index) to interannual variation in the EI – high elasticity indicates low d despite large range in drying index (i.e., resilient water yields), low elasticity indicates high d despite small range in drying index (i.e., nonresilient water yields). Although the data needed to fully evaluate ecosystems based on these metrics are limited, we were able to identify some characteristics of response among forest types. Alpine sites showed the greatest sensitivity to climate warming with any warming leading to increased water yields. Conifer forests included catchments with lowest elasticity and stable to larger water yields. Deciduous forests included catchments with intermediate elasticity and stable to smaller water yields. Mixed coniferous/deciduous forests included catchments with highest elasticity and stable water yields. Forest type appeared to influence the resilience of catchment water yields to climate warming, with conifer and deciduous catchments more susceptible to

  18. Nitrogen in soil water at five nitrogen-enriched forest sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, Eva

    2001-01-01

    Increased inputs of N to forest land may increase acidification and eutrophication. This thesis deals with N in soil water at 50 cm depth in N-enriched coniferous forests in Sweden. The experimental sites were enriched in N, either by fertilization or deposition. Soil water was collected by suction cups at varying degrees of N enrichment, after clear felling at two sites in central (Billingsjoen) and S Sweden (Farabol), and in three closely situated Norway spruce stands in SW Sweden. Billingsjoen was fertilized with ammonium nitrate at totals of 360-1800 kg N ha -1 , and Farabol with urea at totals of 600 kg N ha -1 . At clearfelling, which was performed six and seven years after the last fertilization, the soil N storage was increased by fertilization at Billingsjoen but not at Farabol. At Billingsjoen, the soil-water concentration of nitrate increased with increasing N dose. The increased nitrate concentrations reduced pH by up to nearly two units. In the eighth year after clear felling, the effects on all major cations and anions in the control, the 360 and 1800 kg N ha -1 treatments were examined. At the high N dose, nitrate and aluminium had significantly increased, and the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity had decreased, compared with the control and the low N dose. At Farabol, the estimated total leaching of nitrate-N in the control surpassed that of the N treatment by approximately 40%. The difference in leaching appears attributable to the greater biomass and N storage of the field-layer vegetation in the N treatment than in the control. At Farabol, the field-layer vegetation seems to have acted as an important sink for N as opposed to the Billingsjoen clearcut where the field layer was sparse. The Norway spruce stands in SW Sweden had a similar N deposition, but the concentrations of nitrate in soil water and estimated leaching rates differed substantially. In the soil with the highest leaching rate, potential nitrification was largest and the C to N

  19. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: San Juan National Forest - Dolores Ranger District, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    This report summarizes the results from an energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Dolores Ranger District in the San Juan National Forest in Colorado. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the assessment with United States Forest Service (USFS) personnel on August 16-17, 2016, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use and implement renewable energy technologies. The assessment is approximately an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements.

  20. Ozone, OH and NO3 sink terms at a coniferous forest site in Central Germany: Role of biogenic VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, B.; Bourtsoukidis, S.; Haunold, W.; Sitals, R.; Jacobi, S.

    2012-04-01

    sink terms during daytime. The contributions of monoterpene and isoprene reactions strengthened towards the summer period, while sesquiterpene reactions slowed down. Hydroxyl radical: The picture becomes much more complex for OH. Besides the reaction with nitrogen dioxide, isoprene and monoterpenes were key destructing agents of OH with estimated contributions of about 50-60%, increasing towards the summertime. Contributions of their oxidation products to the total sink of OH are supposed to be less than 20% but showing more intense during summer and less towards cooler periods. Sesquiterpene OH-reactions only contributed to 10% with a maximum of about 20% at the early April. Nitrate radical: NO3 displayed a mixture of the sinks of OH and ozone. The dominant destruction takes place via NOx-reactions (about 50%) and the remainder primarily via monoterpene (36±20%), sesquiterpene (11±8%) and isoprene (2±1%) OH-reactions. From our observations at this particular site it is apparent that the spruce forest provides a quite efficient variety of pathways to compensate oxidation stress. This is essentially displayed in the variation of emission pattern of different compound classes with different reactivity for the three major oxidation agents. One needs to be aware of the fact that the sink is highly variable in space, too. Therefore we conclude: In order to understand and describe the oxidation tolerance of a certain ecosystem one needs to detect at least the reactive hydrocarbons. [1] Jenkin, M.E., Shallcross, D. E., and Harvey, J. N.: Development and application of a possible mechanism for the generation of cis-pinic acid form the ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene. Atmos.Environ., 34, 2837-2850, 2000.

  1. Optimal number of coarse-grained sites in different components of large biomolecular complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitskiy, Anton V; Saunders, Marissa G; Voth, Gregory A

    2012-07-26

    The computational study of large biomolecular complexes (molecular machines, cytoskeletal filaments, etc.) is a formidable challenge facing computational biophysics and biology. To achieve biologically relevant length and time scales, coarse-grained (CG) models of such complexes usually must be built and employed. One of the important early stages in this approach is to determine an optimal number of CG sites in different constituents of a complex. This work presents a systematic approach to this problem. First, a universal scaling law is derived and numerically corroborated for the intensity of the intrasite (intradomain) thermal fluctuations as a function of the number of CG sites. Second, this result is used for derivation of the criterion for the optimal number of CG sites in different parts of a large multibiomolecule complex. In the zeroth-order approximation, this approach validates the empirical rule of taking one CG site per fixed number of atoms or residues in each biomolecule, previously widely used for smaller systems (e.g., individual biomolecules). The first-order corrections to this rule are derived and numerically checked by the case studies of the Escherichia coli ribosome and Arp2/3 actin filament junction. In different ribosomal proteins, the optimal number of amino acids per CG site is shown to differ by a factor of 3.5, and an even wider spread may exist in other large biomolecular complexes. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is valuable for the optimal construction of CG models of such complexes.

  2. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for open-quotes pre-screeningclose quotes of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Macromycetes diversity of pine-tree plantings on a post-fire forest site in Notecka Forest (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study on fungi in pine-tree plantings after the last great fire in Notecka Forest. The occurrence of 134 species of fungi and 3 species of myxomycetes was recorded in 25 permanent study areas investigated between 1993 and 1998. The particpalion of bio-ecological of macromycetes was described in the context of vegetation changes in the years following the fire.

  4. Tethered balloon measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds at a Boreal forest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs were performed at Hyytiälä, a Boreal forest site in Southern Finland as part of the OSOA (origin and formation of secondary organic aerosol project in August 2001. At this site, frequent formation of new particles has been observed and the role of biogenic VOCs in this process is still unclear. Tethered balloons served as platforms to collect VOC samples within the planetary boundary layer at heights up to 1.2 km above ground during daytime. Mean mixed layer concentrations of total monoterpenes varied between 10 and 170 pptv, with a-pinene, limonene and D3-carene as major compounds, isoprene was detected at levels of 2-35 pptv. A mixed layer gradient technique and a budget approach are applied to derive surface fluxes representative for areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometres. Effects of spatial heterogeneity in surface emissions are examined with a footprint analysis. Depending on the source area considered, mean afternoon emissions of the sum of terpenes range between 180 and 300 mg m-2 h-1 for the period of 2-12 August 2001. Surface fluxes close to Hyytiälä were higher than the regional average, and agree well with mean emissions predicted by a biogenic VOC emission model. Total rates of monoterpene oxidation were calculated with a photochemical model. The rates did not correlate with the occurrence of new particle formation, but the ozone pathway was of more importance on days with particle formation. Condensable vapour production from the oxidation of monoterpenes throughout the mixed layer can only account for a fraction of the increase in aerosol mass observed at the surface.

  5. Challenges for Community-Based Forest Management in the KoloAla Site Manompana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Zora Lea; Sorg, Jean-Pierre; Felber, Hans Rudolph

    2013-03-01

    Following the IUCN 5th World Congress on Protected Areas in 2003, the then-President of Madagascar decided to increase the area of Madagascar's protected areas from 1.7 to 6 million ha. To combine the aims of protection and timber production, a new concept was developed through the establishment of community-based forest management (CBFM) sites, called KoloAla. However, experience shows that similar management transfers to communities in Madagascar have only been successful in a very few cases. We aimed to explore the success to be expected of this new approach in the particular case of the Manompana corridor at Madagascar's eastern coast. In a first step, the readiness of the corridor's resource users for CBFM has been analysed according to the seven resource users' attributes developed by Ostrom that predict an effective self-organized resource management. In a second step, we explored how KoloAla addresses known challenges of Madagascar's CBFM. Analyses lead in a rather sober conclusion. Although KoloAla attempts to address the goals of poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation and timber production under a single umbrella, it does so in a rather non-innovative way. Challenges with regard to the state's environmental governance, agricultural inefficiency and thus deforestation remain unsolved.

  6. Technical Note: Approximate Bayesian parameterization of a complex tropical forest model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, F.; Dislich, C.; Wiegand, T.; Huth, A.

    2013-08-01

    Inverse parameter estimation of process-based models is a long-standing problem in ecology and evolution. A key problem of inverse parameter estimation is to define a metric that quantifies how well model predictions fit to the data. Such a metric can be expressed by general cost or objective functions, but statistical inversion approaches are based on a particular metric, the probability of observing the data given the model, known as the likelihood. Deriving likelihoods for dynamic models requires making assumptions about the probability for observations to deviate from mean model predictions. For technical reasons, these assumptions are usually derived without explicit consideration of the processes in the simulation. Only in recent years have new methods become available that allow generating likelihoods directly from stochastic simulations. Previous applications of these approximate Bayesian methods have concentrated on relatively simple models. Here, we report on the application of a simulation-based likelihood approximation for FORMIND, a parameter-rich individual-based model of tropical forest dynamics. We show that approximate Bayesian inference, based on a parametric likelihood approximation placed in a conventional MCMC, performs well in retrieving known parameter values from virtual field data generated by the forest model. We analyze the results of the parameter estimation, examine the sensitivity towards the choice and aggregation of model outputs and observed data (summary statistics), and show results from using this method to fit the FORMIND model to field data from an Ecuadorian tropical forest. Finally, we discuss differences of this approach to Approximate Bayesian Computing (ABC), another commonly used method to generate simulation-based likelihood approximations. Our results demonstrate that simulation-based inference, which offers considerable conceptual advantages over more traditional methods for inverse parameter estimation, can

  7. LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) collected from tethered balloon-sampling platforms above selected forest and...

  8. Effect of Disturbance Regimes on Spatial Patterns of Tree Species in Three Sites in a Tropical Evergreen Forest in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Thi Ngoc Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of disturbance regimes on the spatial patterns of the five most abundant species were investigated in three sites in a tropical forest at Xuan Nha Nature Reserve, Vietnam. Three permanent one-ha plots were established in undisturbed forest (UDF, lightly disturbed forest (LDF, and highly disturbed forest (HDF. All trees ≥5 cm DBH were measured in twenty-five 20 m × 20 m subplots. A total of 57 tree species belonging to 26 families were identified in the three forest types. The UDF had the highest basal area (30 m2 ha−1, followed by the LDF (17 m2 ha−1 and the HDF (13.0 m2 ha−1. The UDF also had the highest tree density (751 individuals ha−1 while the HDF held the lowest (478 individuals ha−1. Across all species, there were 417 “juveniles,” 267 “subadults,” and 67 “adults” in the UDF, while 274 “juveniles,” 230 “subadults,” and 36 “adults” were recorded in the LDF. 238 “juveniles,” 227 “subadults,” and 13 “adults” were obtained in the HDF. The univariate and bivariate data with pair- and mark-correlation functions of intra- and interspecific interactions of the five most abundant species changed in the three forest types. Most species indicated clumping or regular distributions at small scale, but a high ratio of negative interspecific small-scale associations was recorded in both the LDF and HDF sites. These were, however, rare in the UDF.

  9. Evaluation of Two Statistical Methods Provides Insights into the Complex Patterns of Alternative Polyadenylation Site Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Rui; You, Leiming; Xu, Anlong; Fu, Yonggui; Huang, Shengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Switching between different alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites plays an important role in the fine tuning of gene expression. New technologies for the execution of 3’-end enriched RNA-seq allow genome-wide detection of the genes that exhibit significant APA site switching between different samples. Here, we show that the independence test gives better results than the linear trend test in detecting APA site-switching events. Further examination suggests that the discrepancy between these two statistical methods arises from complex APA site-switching events that cannot be represented by a simple change of average 3’-UTR length. In theory, the linear trend test is only effective in detecting these simple changes. We classify the switching events into four switching patterns: two simple patterns (3’-UTR shortening and lengthening) and two complex patterns. By comparing the results of the two statistical methods, we show that complex patterns account for 1/4 of all observed switching events that happen between normal and cancerous human breast cell lines. Because simple and complex switching patterns may convey different biological meanings, they merit separate study. We therefore propose to combine both the independence test and the linear trend test in practice. First, the independence test should be used to detect APA site switching; second, the linear trend test should be invoked to identify simple switching events; and third, those complex switching events that pass independence testing but fail linear trend testing can be identified. PMID:25875641

  10. Modeling dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest surface environments: Application to a contaminated forest site near Fukushima and assessment of potential impacts of soil organic matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Masakazu, E-mail: ohta.masakazu@jaea.go.jp; Nagai, Haruyasu; Koarashi, Jun

    2016-05-01

    A process-based model for {sup 137}Cs transfer in forest surface environments was developed to assess the dynamic behavior of Fukushima-derived {sup 137}Cs in a Japanese forest. The model simulation successfully reproduced the observed data from 3 year migration of {sup 137}Cs in the organic and mineral soil layers at a contaminated forest near Fukushima. The migration of {sup 137}Cs from the organic layer to the mineral soil was explained by the direct deposition pattern on the forest floor and the turnover of litter materials in the organic layer under certain ecological conditions. Long-term predictions indicated that more than 90% of the deposited {sup 137}Cs would remain within the top 5 cm of the soil for up to 30 years after the accident, suggesting that the forest acts as an effective long-term reservoir of {sup 137}Cs with limited transfer via the groundwater pathway. The model was also used to explore the potential impacts of soil organic matter (SOM) interactions on the mobility and bioavailability of {sup 137}Cs in the soil–plant system. The simulation results for hypothetical organic soils with modified parameters of {sup 137}Cs turnover revealed that the SOM-induced reduction of {sup 137}Cs adsorption elevates the fraction of dissolved {sup 137}Cs in the soil solution, thereby increasing the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs without substantially altering the fractional distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the soil. Slower fixation of {sup 137}Cs on the flayed edge site of clay minerals and enhanced mobilization of the clay-fixed {sup 137}Cs in organic-rich soils also appeared to elevate the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs by increasing the fraction of the soil-adsorbed (exchangeable) {sup 137}Cs. A substantial proportion (approximate 30%–60%) of {sup 137}Cs in these organic-rich soils was transferred to layers deeper than 5 cm decades later. These results suggested that SOM influences the behavior of {sup 137}Cs in forests over a prolonged

  11. Engineering evaluation of a formerly utilized MED/AEC site. Site A and Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This engineering evaluation report (EER) addresses one of these MED/AEC sites known as Site A/Plot M, located in Palos Park, Illinois. The EER describes in technical detail a number of options for remedial action that could be taken with respect to the contamination at Site A/Plot M and presents estimates of the costs associated with these options. A companion document, Environmental Analysis Report on a Formerly Utilized MED/AEC Site, Site A and Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois (ANL/ES-79), has also been prepared. It describes in detail the existing site environment and evaluates the environmental impacts of the various remedial options discussed in this report. This EER contributes to a better understanding of the mitigation or resolution of environmental problems posed by the subject MED/AEC site and serves as a basis for determining whether or not remedial actions are warranted. The knowledge derived from the evaluation of a number of remedial options should be helpful in the final disposition of other MED/AEC sites located elsewhere

  12. Using Florida Keys Reference Sites As a Standard for Restoration of Forest Structure in Everglades Tree Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.S.; Sah, J.P.; Ruiz, P.L.; Ross, M.S.; Ogurcak, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    In south Florida, tropical hardwood forests (hammocks) occur in Everglades tree islands and as more extensive forests in coastal settings in the nearby Florida Keys. Keys hammocks have been less disturbed by humans, and many qualify as old-growth, while Everglades hammocks have received much heavier use. With improvement of tree island condition an important element in Everglades restoration efforts, we examined stand structure in 23 Keys hammocks and 69 Everglades tree islands. Based on Stand Density Index and tree diameter distributions, many Everglades hammocks were characterized by low stocking and under-representation in the smaller size classes. In contrast, most Keys forests had the dense canopies and open under stories usually associated with old-growth hardwood hammocks. Subject to the same caveats that apply to off-site references elsewhere, structural information from mature Keys hammocks can be helpful in planning and implementing forest restoration in Everglades tree islands. In many of these islands, such restoration might involve supplementing tree stocking by planting native trees to produce more complete site utilization and a more open under story.

  13. The dependence of natural regeneration of forest trees on upper soil conditions and acidity at damaged sites in the Black Forest, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littek, T.

    1993-06-01

    It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of different upper soil conditions on the germination and establishment, as well as the growth, of young plants of various tree species. For this purpose, four test plots in the region of the Black Forest were laid out, in which, by various means of site preparation and fertilization, the upper soils were changed. Natural seeding of common spruce, European silver-fir, beech, sycamore maple, European mountainash, and grey alder was simulated by means of controlled sowing. For comparison, a greenhouse experiment was carried out, examining the germination and development of the same tree species in various soil substrata, using different fertilizers, and under the influence of artificial acid rain. The most important results - with a high level of variation depending on the tree species examined - can be summarized as follows: Based on the results of field and greenhouse experiments, as well as on the investigations of other authors, it can be concluded that natural regeneration of forest stands is considerably impeded under conditions of increasing soil acidity and by high acid depositions. This is seen directly as the result of unfavorable chemical conditions in the upper soil, as well as indirectly due to deteriorating competitiveness against other vegetation. Site preparation and lime or dolomite fertilization can be important measures in the practice of forestry, to encourage natural regeneration in highly acidic sites with an unfavourable humus layer and a high presence of competing vegetation. (orig./UWA). 2 figs., 85 tabs., 269 refs [de

  14. Public Preferences Across Europe for Different Forest Stand Types as Sites for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Edwards

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Delphi survey involving experts in forest preference research was carried out to derive scores for the recreational value of 240 forest stand types across Europe. The survey was organized around four regional panels: Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe, and Iberia. In each region, 60 forest stand types were defined according to five forest management alternatives (FMAs on a continuum of management intensity, four phases of development (establishment, young, medium, and adult, and three tree species types (conifer, broadleaved, and mixed stands of conifer and broadleaved. The resulting scores were examined using conjoint analysis to determine the relative importance of the three structural attributes (FMA, phase of development, and tree species type, and each level or component of the attributes. The findings quantify the extent to which forest visitors prefer a degree of management to unmanaged forest nature reserves across the four regions. Phase of development was shown to make the highest contribution to the recreational value of forests while the contribution of tree species type was shown to be relatively unimportant. While the results are indicative, they provide evidence to support long-term retention and low-impact silviculture in forests where recreation is a primary objective of management.

  15. Opportunities and uses of biochar on forest sites in North America [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman; Sean C. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the...

  16. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulston, John W; Wear, David N; Vose, James M

    2015-01-23

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr(-1)) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr(-1)). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr(-1), respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr(-1)) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr(-1)). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

  17. Modeling complex effects of multiple environmental stresses on carbon dynamics of Mid-Atlantic temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough

    2007-01-01

    We used our GIS variant of the PnET-CN model to investigate changes of forest carbon stocks and fluxes in Mid-Atlantic temperate forests over the last century (1900-2000). Forests in this region are affected by multiple environmental changes including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition and tropospheric ozone, and extensive land disturbances. Our...

  18. Influence of competition and age on tree growth in structurally complex old-growth forests in northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomas Aakala; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing tree growth in structurally complex forests remain poorly understood. Here we assessed the influence of competition on Pinus resinosa (n = 224) and Pinus strobus (n = 90) growth in four old-growth stands in Minnesota, using mixed effects models. A subset of trees, with...

  19. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Davies, Stuart J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Bennett, Amy C. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Muller-Landau, Helene C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Joseph Wright, S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Abu Salim, Kamariah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Alonso, Alfonso [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Baltzer, Jennifer L. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Basset, Yves [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Broadbent, Eben N. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Brockelman, Warren Y. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Biology; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh [Dept. of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand). Research Office; Burslem, David F. R. P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Butt, Nathalie [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Cao, Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Cardenas, Dairon [Sinchi Amazonic Inst. of Scientific Research, Bogota (Colombia); Chuyong, George B. [Univ. of Buea (Cameroon). Dept. of Botany and Plant Physiology; Clay, Keith [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Cordell, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Dattaraja, Handanakere S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deng, Xiaobao [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Detto, Matteo [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Du, Xiaojun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Duque, Alvaro [Univ. Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Forestales; Erikson, David L. [National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Ewango, Corneille E. N. [Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Conservation Forestiere (CEFRECOF); Fischer, Gunter A. [Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Tai Po, Hong Kong (China); Fletcher, Christine [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Foster, Robin B. [The Field Museum, Chicago, IL (United States). Botany Dept.; Giardina, Christian P. [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Gilbert, Gregory S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Environmental Studies Dept.; Gunatilleke, Nimal [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Gunatilleke, Savitri [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Hao, Zhanqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. of Forest and Soil Ecology. Inst. of Applied Ecology; Hargrove, William W. [USDA-Forest Service Station Headquarters, Asheville, NC (United States). Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center; Hart, Terese B. [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Hau, Billy C. H. [Univ. of Hong Kong (China). School of Biological Sciences. Kadoorie Inst.; He, Fangliang [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Howe, Robert W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Hubbell, Stephen P. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources; Jansen, Patrick A. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Resource Ecology Group; Jiang, Mingxi [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Wuhan (China). Wuhan Botanical Garden; Johnson, Daniel J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Kanzaki, Mamoru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Kassim, Abdul Rahman [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Kenfack, David [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Kibet, Staline [National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya); Univ. of Nairobi (Kenya). Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology Dept.; Kinnaird, Margaret F. [Mpala Research Centre, Nanyuki (Kenya); Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States). Global Conservation Programs; Korte, Lisa [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Kral, Kamil [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Kumar, Jitendra [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Larson, Andrew J. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). College of Forestry and Conservation. Dept. of Forest Management; Li, Yide [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Li, Xiankun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Guilin (China). Guangxi Inst. of Botany; Liu, Shirong [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection; Lum, Shawn K. Y. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). National Inst. of Education. Natural Sciences and Science Education Academic Group; Lutz, James A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Wildland Resources Dept.; Ma, Keping [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Maddalena, Damian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Makana, Jean-Remy [Wildlife Conservation Society, Brazzaville (Democratic Republic of the Congo); Malhi, Yadvinder [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Marthews, Toby [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Mat Serudin, Rafizah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; McMahon, Sean M. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; McShea, William J. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Memiaghe, Hervé R. [Inst. de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, Libreville (Gabon). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique; Mi, Xiangcheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Mizuno, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Morecroft, Michael [Natural England, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Myers, Jonathan A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology; Novotny, Vojtech [New Guinea Binatang Research Centre, Madang (Papua New Guinea); Univ. of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Faculty of Science. Biology Centre; de Oliveira, Alexandre A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Biosciences. Ecology Dept.; Ong, Perry S. [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Orwig, David A. [Harvard Univ., Petersham, MA (United States). Harvard Forest; Ostertag, Rebecca [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Dept. of Biology; den Ouden, Jan [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group; Parker, Geoffrey G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; Phillips, Richard P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Sack, Lawren [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Sainge, Moses N. [Tropical Plant Exploration Group (TroPEG), Mundemba (Cameroon); Sang, Weiguo [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Sri-ngernyuang, Kriangsak [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Sukumar, Raman [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Sun, I-Fang [National Dong Hwa Univ., Hualian (Taiwan). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies; Sungpalee, Witchaphart [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Tan, Sylvester [Sarawak Forest Dept., Kuching (Malaysia); Thomas, Sean C. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry; Thomas, Duncan W. [Washington State Univ., Vancouver, WA (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Thompson, Jill [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik, Scotland (United Kingdom); Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Pedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies; Turner, Benjamin L. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Uriarte, Maria [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology; Valencia, Renato [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Ecuador, Quito (Ecuador). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Vallejo, Marta I. [Inst. Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota (Colombia); Vicentini, Alberto [National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil); Vrška, Tomáš [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Wang, Xihua [East China Normal Univ. (ECNU), Shanghai (China). School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences; Wang, Xugao [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Weiblen, George [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology; Wolf, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Biology. Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Xu, Han [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Yap, Sandra [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Zimmerman, Jess [Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies

    2014-09-25

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services, including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamic research sites useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. The broad suite of measurements made at the CTFS-ForestGEO sites make it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. ongoing research across the network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in a era of global change

  20. Faunal diversity in a semi-evergreen forest of Bornadi-Khalingduar Complex of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Chakraborty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bornadi-Khalingduar Complex under the Manas Tiger Reserve, Assam is known to be an important area for wildlife movement to and from India and Bhutan. The contiguous landscape encompassing the two neighbouring countries provides a good habitat for diversity of wildlife and also as an important corridor area.  We carried out an opportunistic camera-trapping exercise to document the faunal diversity in the area. A month-long exercise photo-captured a total of 19 species belonging to 12 families, including the Leopard, Wild Dog, Leopard Cat, Binturong, Elephant, Sambar, Barking Deer and various birds. These findings of the study reveal the importance, threats and potential of the area and recommendations have been made to secure this corridor for continuous animal movement. Anthropogenic disturbance is a major deterrent to undisturbed animal movement in this area with resultant forest fragmentation and degradation. This indicates the need for effective conservation strategies in order to maintain the remnants of this corridor complex.  

  1. Initial Response of Pine Seedlings and Weeds to Dried Sewage Sludge in Rehabilitation of an Eroded Forest Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Berry

    1977-01-01

    Dried sewage sludge was applied at rates of 0, 17, 34, and 69 metric tons/ha on a badly eroded forest site in the Piedmont region of northeast Georgia. Production of weed bio mass varied directly with amount of sludge applied. Heigh growth for both shortleafand loblolly pine seedlings appeared to be greater on plots receiving 17 metric tons of sludge/ha, bu differences...

  2. Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Total Aboveground Biomass in Forest Stands: Site-scale Test of Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, S.; Shi, Y.; Ni, X.; Simard, M.; Myneni, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Sparseness in in-situ observations has precluded the spatially explicit and accurate mapping of forest biomass. The need for large-scale maps has raised various approaches implementing conjugations between forest biomass and geospatial predictors such as climate, forest type, soil property, and topography. Despite the improved modeling techniques (e.g., machine learning and spatial statistics), a common limitation is that biophysical mechanisms governing tree growth are neglected in these black-box type models. The absence of a priori knowledge may lead to false interpretation of modeled results or unexplainable shifts in outputs due to the inconsistent training samples or study sites. Here, we present a gray-box approach combining known biophysical processes and geospatial predictors through parametric optimizations (inversion of reference measures). Total aboveground biomass in forest stands is estimated by incorporating the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Two main premises of this research are: (a) The Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations (ASRL) theory can provide a relationship between tree geometry and local resource availability constrained by environmental conditions; and (b) The zeroth order theory (size-frequency distribution) can expand individual tree allometry into total aboveground biomass at the forest stand level. In addition to the FIA estimates, two reference maps from the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) were produced to evaluate the model. This research focuses on a site-scale test of the biomass model to explore the robustness of predictors, and to potentially improve models using additional geospatial predictors such as climatic variables, vegetation indices, soil properties, and lidar-/radar-derived altimetry products (or existing forest canopy height maps). As results, the optimized ASRL estimates satisfactorily

  3. Mutations at the Qo-Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex Strongly Affect Oxygen Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2017-01-01

    The homodimeric bc1 protein complex is embedded in membranes of mitochondria and photosynthetic bacteria, where it transports protons across the membrane to maintain an electrostatic potential used to drive ATP synthesis as part of the respiratory or photosynthetic pathways. The reaction cycle...... at the Qo-sites, and, moreover, different behavior of the two monomers of the bc1 complex is observed. The conformational differences at the Qo-sites of the two monomers are studied in detail and discussed. The anionic form of semiquinone was identified as leading to the greatest opportunity for side...

  4. MODIS snow cover mapping accuracy in a small mountain catchment – comparison between open and forest sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous global and regional validation studies have examined MODIS snow mapping accuracy by using measurements at climate stations, which are mainly at open sites. MODIS accuracy in alpine and forested regions is, however, still not well understood. The main objective of this study is to evaluate MODIS (MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow cover products in a small experimental catchment by using extensive snow course measurements at open and forest sites. The MODIS accuracy is tested in the Jalovecky creek catchment (northern Slovakia in the period 2000–2011. The results show that the combined Terra and Aqua images enable snow mapping at an overall accuracy of 91.5%. The accuracies at forested, open and mixed land uses at the Červenec sites are 92.7%, 98.3% and 81.8%, respectively. The use of a 2-day temporal filter enables a significant reduction in the number of days with cloud coverage and an increase in overall snow mapping accuracy. In total, the 2-day temporal filter decreases the number of cloudy days from 61% to 26% and increases the snow mapping accuracy to 94%. The results indicate three possible factors leading to misclassification of snow as land: patchy snow cover, limited MODIS geolocation accuracy and mapping algorithm errors. Out of a total of 27 misclassification cases, patchy snow cover, geolocation issues and mapping errors occur in 12, 12 and 3 cases, respectively.

  5. Characterization of organic nitrogen in aerosols at a forest site in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xie, Mingjie; Hays, Michael D.; Edgerton, Eric; Schwede, Donna; Walker, John T.

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the composition of organic particulate matter in PM2.5 in a remote montane forest in the southeastern US, focusing on the role of organic nitrogen (N) in sulfur-containing secondary organic aerosol (nitrooxy-organosulfates) and aerosols associated with biomass burning (nitro-aromatics). Bulk water-soluble organic N (WSON) represented ˜ 14 % w/w of water-soluble total N (WSTN) in PM2.5 on average across seasonal measurement campaigns conducted in the spring, summer, and fall of 2015. The largest contributions of WSON to WSTN were observed in spring ( ˜ 18 % w/w) and the lowest in the fall ( ˜ 10 % w/w). On average, identified nitro-aromatic and nitrooxy-organosulfate compounds accounted for a small fraction of WSON, ranging from ˜ 1 % in spring to ˜ 4 % in fall, though were observed to contribute as much as 28 % w/w of WSON in individual samples that were impacted by local biomass burning. The highest concentrations of oxidized organic N species occurred during summer (average of 0.65 ng N m-3) along with a greater relative abundance of higher-generation oxygenated terpenoic acids, indicating an association with more aged aerosol. The highest concentrations of nitro-aromatics (e.g., nitrocatechol and methyl-nitrocatechol), levoglucosan, and aged SOA tracers were observed during fall, associated with aged biomass burning plumes. Nighttime nitrate radical chemistry is the most likely formation pathway for nitrooxy-organosulfates observed at this low NOx site (generally chemistry and deposition of reactive N.

  6. Forest road and fuel break siting with respect to reference fire intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastaugh, C. S.; Molina, D. M.

    2012-11-01

    Forest roads and permanent fuel breaks are an important part of fire suppression infrastructure, but due to maintenance and environmental costs many forest agencies seek to reduce the extent of these networks. The question of which roads should be retained or where fuel breaks should be established is contentious, and few quantified methods exist to aid management decisions. This study uses GIS procedures and develops a metric for road network vulnerability, which may be used to determine the relative effectiveness of a road network or a particular fuel break as a fire control line. The method constructs reference fire intensities, and compares the fire intensity at roadsides or fuel breaks with the overall forest average. In the case study area in Victoria's Central Highlands (southeast Australia), average fire intensities on the forest road network are found to closely match the forest average, indicating that roads in their current locations are not skewed towards more dangerous parts of the forest. The fuel break network however is likely to face fire intensities substantially greater than those in the average forest area. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Aneja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in southeastern US. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November 2005 and September 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency, as well as in relation to meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. Nucleation events occurred on 69% of classifiable observation days. Nucleation frequency was highest in spring. The highest daily nucleation (class A and B events frequency (81% was observed in April. The average total particle number concentration on nucleation days was 8,684 cm−3 (10 < Dp < 250 nm and 3,991 cm−3 (10 < Dp < 25 nm with a mode diameter of 28 nm with corresponding values on non-nucleation days of 2,143 cm−3, 655 cm−3, and 44.5 nm, respectively. The annual average growth rate during nucleation events was 2.7 ± 0.3 nm·h−1. Higher growth rates were observed during summer months with highest rates observed in May (5.0 ± 3.6 nm·h−1. Winter months were associated with lower growth rates, the lowest occurring in February (1.2 ± 2.2 nm·h−1. Consistent with other studies, nucleation events were more likely to occur on days with higher radiative flux and lower relative humidity compared to non-nucleation days. The daily minimum in the condensation sink, which typically occurred 2 to 3 h after sunrise, was a good indicator of the timing of nucleation onset. The intensity of the event, indicated by the total particle number concentration, was well correlated with photo-synthetically active radiation, used here as a surrogate for total global radiation, and relative humidity. Even though the role of biogenic VOC in the initial nuclei formation is not understood from this study, the relationships with chemical precursors and secondary aerosol products associated with nucleation, coupled with diurnal boundary layer dynamics and seasonal meteorological patterns, suggest that H2SO4 and biogenic

  8. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites - 13426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L. [ARCADIS, U.S., 2000 Powell St., 7th Floor, Emeryville, California 94608 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The goal of United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE)'s environmental remediation programs is to restore groundwater to beneficial use, similar to many other Federal and state environmental cleanup programs. Based on past experience, groundwater remediation to pre-contamination conditions (i.e., drinking water standards or non-detectable concentrations) can be successfully achieved at many sites. At a subset of the most complex sites, however, complete restoration is not likely achievable within the next 50 to 100 years using today's technology. This presentation describes several approaches used at complex sites in the face of these technical challenges. Many complex sites adopted a long-term management approach, whereby contamination was contained within a specified area using active or passive remediation techniques. Consistent with the requirements of their respective environmental cleanup programs, several complex sites selected land use restrictions and used risk management approaches to accordingly adopt alternative cleanup goals (alternative endpoints). Several sites used long-term management designations and approaches in conjunction with the alternative endpoints. Examples include various state designations for groundwater management zones, technical impracticability (TI) waivers or greater risk waivers at Superfund sites, and the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or other passive long-term management approaches over long time frames. This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and approaches for groundwater remediation at complex sites under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed

  9. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites - 13426

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE)'s environmental remediation programs is to restore groundwater to beneficial use, similar to many other Federal and state environmental cleanup programs. Based on past experience, groundwater remediation to pre-contamination conditions (i.e., drinking water standards or non-detectable concentrations) can be successfully achieved at many sites. At a subset of the most complex sites, however, complete restoration is not likely achievable within the next 50 to 100 years using today's technology. This presentation describes several approaches used at complex sites in the face of these technical challenges. Many complex sites adopted a long-term management approach, whereby contamination was contained within a specified area using active or passive remediation techniques. Consistent with the requirements of their respective environmental cleanup programs, several complex sites selected land use restrictions and used risk management approaches to accordingly adopt alternative cleanup goals (alternative endpoints). Several sites used long-term management designations and approaches in conjunction with the alternative endpoints. Examples include various state designations for groundwater management zones, technical impracticability (TI) waivers or greater risk waivers at Superfund sites, and the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or other passive long-term management approaches over long time frames. This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and approaches for groundwater remediation at complex sites under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed to evaluate

  10. Inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress. [Manitou, Colorado, Atlanta, Georgia, and Black Hills test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Eucalyptus tree stands killed by low temperatures in December 1972 were outlined by image enhancement of two separate dates of ERTS-1 images (January 22, 1973-I.D. 1183-18175 and April 22, 1973-I.D. 1273-18183). Three stands larger than 500 meters in size were detected very accurately. In Colorado, range and grassland communities were analyzed by visual interpretation of color composite scene I.D. 1028-17135. It was found that mixtures of plant litter, amount and kind of bare soil, and plant foliage cover made classification of grasslands very difficult. Changes in forest land use were detected on areas as small as 5 acres when ERTS-1 color composite scene 1264-15445 (April 13, 1973) was compared with 1966 ASCS index mosaics (scale 1:60,000). Verification of the changes were made from RB-57 underflight CIR transparencies (scale 1:120,000).

  11. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Evan; Beh, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes. In this review, we consider passive and facilitated models for lipid transfer at PM–ER contact sites. Besides the tethering proteins, we examine the roles of an additional repertoire of lipid and protein regulators that prime and propagate PM–ER membrane association. We conclude that instead of being simple mediators of membrane association, regulatory components of membrane contact sites have complex and multilayered functions. PMID:26949334

  12. How does litter quality and site heterogeneity interact on decomposer food webs of a semi-natural forest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Christensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The relative importance of litter quality and site heterogeneity on population dynamics of decomposer food webs was investigated in a semi-natural mixed deciduous forest in Denmark. Litterbags containing beech or ash leaves were placed in four plots. Plots were located within gaps and under closed...... at the end of the study period. At the first sampling, where bacterial activity prevailed, the relative abundance of the two dominant bacterial-feeders, Rhabditidae (fast growing) and Plectus spp. (slower growing), depended more on site than litter type. At the second sampling where fungal activity became...... in the decomposer food web, site effects were also detected and nematode functional groups responded more to site than to litter quality early on in the decomposition process....

  13. Jointly optimizing selection of fuel treatments and siting of forest biomass-based energy production facilities for landscape-scale fire hazard reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Daugherty; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Landscape-scale fuel treatments for forest fire hazard reduction potentially produce large quantities of material suitable for biomass energy production. The analytic framework FIA BioSum addresses this situation by developing detailed data on forest conditions and production under alternative fuel treatment prescriptions, and computes haul costs to alternative sites...

  14. Black-chinned hummingbird nest-site selection and nest survival in response to fuel reduction in a southwestern riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread efforts to avert wildfire by reducing the density of flammable vegetation, little is known about the effects of this practice on the reproductive biology of forest birds. We examined nest-site selection and nest survival of the Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) in New Mexico riparian forests treated or not for fuel...

  15. Evaluating Site-Specific and Generic Spatial Models of Aboveground Forest Biomass Based on Landsat Time-Series and LiDAR Strip Samples in the Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Deo; Matthew Russell; Grant Domke; Hans-Erik Andersen; Warren Cohen; Christopher Woodall

    2017-01-01

    Large-area assessment of aboveground tree biomass (AGB) to inform regional or national forest monitoring programs can be efficiently carried out by combining remotely sensed data and field sample measurements through a generic statistical model, in contrast to site-specific models. We integrated forest inventory plot data with spatial predictors from Landsat time-...

  16. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Ruth D. Yanai; Charles T. Driscoll; Mario Montesdeoca; Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar...

  17. Using model analyses and surface-atmosphere exchange measurements from the Howland AmeriFlux Site in Maine, USA, to improve understanding of forest ecosystem C cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, David Y.; Davidson, Eric A.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Dail, D. B.; Scott, N.

    2013-03-25

    Summary of research carried out under Interagency Agreement DE-AI02-07ER64355 with the USDA Forest Service at the Howland Forest AmeriFlux site in central Maine. Includes a list of publications resulting in part or whole from this support.

  18. Identification of Ubiquinol Binding Motifs at the Qo-Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barragan, Angela M.; Crofts, Antony R.; Schulten, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    for the function of the bc1 complex is the initial redox process that involves a bifurcated electron transfer in which the two electrons from a quinol substrate are passed to different electron acceptors in the bc1 complex. The electron transfer is coupled to proton transfer. The overall mechanism of quinol...... all atom molecular dynamics and quantum chemical calculations to reveal the binding modes of quinol at the Qo-site of the bc1 complex from Rhodobacter capsulatus. The calculations suggest a novel configuration of amino acid residues responsible for quinol binding and support a mechanism for proton...

  19. Estimating Catchment-Scale Snowpack Variability in Complex Forested Terrain, Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, A. A.; Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Swetnam, T.

    2011-12-01

    Difficulty estimating snowpack variability across complex forested terrain currently hinders the prediction of water resources in the semi-arid Southwestern U.S. Catchment-scale estimates of snowpack variability are necessary for addressing ecological, hydrological, and water resources issues, but are often interpolated from a small number of point-scale observations. In this study, we used LiDAR-derived distributed datasets to investigate how elevation, aspect, topography, and vegetation interact to control catchment-scale snowpack variability. The study area is the Redondo massif in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM, a resurgent dome that varies from 2500 to 3430 m and drains from all aspects. Mean LiDAR-derived snow depths from four catchments (2.2 to 3.4 km^2) draining different aspects of the Redondo massif varied by 30%, despite similar mean elevations and mixed conifer forest cover. To better quantify this variability in snow depths we performed a multiple linear regression (MLR) at a 7.3 by 7.3 km study area (5 x 106 snow depth measurements) comprising the four catchments. The MLR showed that elevation explained 45% of the variability in snow depths across the study area, aspect explained 18% (dominated by N-S aspect), and vegetation 2% (canopy density and height). This linear relationship was not transferable to the catchment-scale however, where additional MLR analyses showed the influence of aspect and elevation differed between the catchments. The strong influence of North-South aspect in most catchments indicated that the solar radiation is an important control on snow depth variability. To explore the role of solar radiation, a model was used to generate winter solar forcing index (SFI) values based on the local and remote topography. The SFI was able to explain a large amount of snow depth variability in areas with similar elevation and aspect. Finally, the SFI was modified to include the effects of shading from vegetation (in and out of

  20. Structural complexity and land-surface energy exchange along a gradient from arctic tundra to boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C.; Beringer, J.; Chapin, F. S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Question: Current climate changes in the Alaskan Arctic, which are characterized by increases in temperature and length of growing season, could alter vegetation structure, especially through increases in shrub cover or the movement of treeline. These changes in vegetation structure have consequences for the climate system. What is the relationship between structural complexity and partitioning of surface energy along a gradient from tundra through shrub tundra to closed canopy forest? Location: Arctic tundra-boreal forest transition in the Alaskan Arctic. Methods: Along this gradient of increasing canopy complexity, we measured key vegetation characteristics, including community composition, biomass, cover, height, leaf area index and stem area index. We relate these vegetation characteristics to albedo and the partitioning of net radiation into ground, latent, and sensible heating fluxes. Results: Canopy complexity increased along the sequence from tundra to forest due to the addition of new plant functional types. This led to non-linear changes in biomass, cover, and height in the understory. The increased canopy complexity resulted in reduced ground heat fluxes, relatively conserved latent heat fluxes and increased sensible heat fluxes. The localized warming associated with increased sensible heating over more complex canopies may amplify regional warming, causing further vegetation change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  1. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains documented field measurements of NPP components for 39 old-growth tropical forests distributed worldwide between latitudes 23.58 N and 23.58...

  2. A meta-database comparison from various European Research and Monitoring Networks dedicated to forest sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Clarke, N.; Olejnik, Janusz; Hansen, K.; de Vries, W.; Lundin, L.; Tuovinen, J-P.; Fischer, R.; Urbaniak, M.; Paoletti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 1-9 ISSN 1971-7458 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Research and Monitoring Network * Meta- database * Forest * Monitoring Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2013

  3. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffet, M.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Oberdorfer, J.A. (San Jose State Univ., CA (USA)); McIlvride, W.A. (Weiss Associates, Oakland, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  4. Control of dry season evapotranspiration over the Amazonian forest as inferred from observations at a southern Amazon forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negrón Juárez, R.I.; Hodnett, M.G.; Fu, R.; Goulden, M.L.; Randow, von C.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which soil water storage can support an average dry season evapotranspiration (ET) is investigated using observations from the Rebio Jarú site for the period of 2000 to 2002. During the dry season, when total rainfall is less than 100 mm, the soil moisture storage available to root

  5. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Mitch; Howard, Bryan; Weyerman, Wade; Mctaggart, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  6. Climatic Characteristics of the Subtropical Mountainous Cloud Forest at the Yuanyang Lake Long-Term Ecological Research Site, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ling Lai

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the climatic characteristics in a subtropical mountainous cloud forest at the Yuanyang Lake long-term ecological research site, weather data collected from January 1994 to December 2004 were analyzed in the present study. The obvious seasonal changes in climatic factors were observed at this site. The annual mean air temperature was 12.7°C. The lowest temperature was recorded in February (monthly mean 5.9°C, and the highest one was taken in July (monthly mean 18.1°C. Winter featured light rain with a prolonged occurrence of fog, resulting in a large reduction of radiation. In summer, fog occurred once in the early morning and the other time from afternoon to evening. The latter one was associated with the wind direction changes and usually accompanied with short moderate to heavy convective rain. Consequently the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD was high in the morning but reduced drastically in the afternoon. Typhoons occurred in the summer had contributed to 37% of the annual rainfall, usually resulting in torrential rain events and sharp increases in the water level of this lake. As a matter of fact, perhumid environment of this site was attributed to abundant rainfall (mean annual precipitation 3396 mm and high frequency (up to 40% of foggy time. Such conditions would reduce the intensity of solar radiation and PPFD. The average annual solar radiation at the site was 2475 MJ m-2, and annual PPFD was 5713 mol m-2. The average degree of reduction of PPFD under foggy condition was up to 88%. Such climatic characteristics are suggested to constrain the growth of plants and play an important role in competition among plant species in this cloud forest. It is considered that the distinct seasonal fluctuation in environmental factors, perhumid and dim light conditions are the most distinguished characteristics of this subtropical mountainous cloud forest ecosystem.

  7. Treatment Complexity in Cystic Fibrosis: Trends over Time and Associations with Site-Specific Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Gregory S.; Ren, Clement L.; Konstan, Michael W.; Millar, Stefanie J.; Pasta, David J.; Quittner, Alexandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have increasing treatment complexity and high treatment burden. We describe trends in treatment complexity and evaluate its relationship with health outcomes. Methods Using Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF) data, we developed a treatment complexity score (TCS) from 37 chronic therapies and assessed change by age group (6–13, 14–17, and 18+ years) over a three year period. Differences in average site TCS were evaluated by quartiles based on FEV1, BMI, or Treatment Burden score on the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R). Results TCS scores were calculated for 7252 individual patients (42% child, 16% adolescent, 43% adult) across 153 sites. In 2003, mean TCS was 11.1 for children, 11.8 for adolescents, and 12.1 for adults. In all 3 age groups, TCS increased over 3 years; the increase in TCS from 2003–2005 for children was 1.25 (95% CI 1.16–1.34), for adolescents 0.77 (0.62–0.93), and for adults 1.20 (1.08–1.31) (all pbased on FEV1 quartile. Mean TCS was higher in the highest BMI z-score quartile. Across all 3 versions of the CFQ-R, mean TCS was lower at sites in the highest quartiles (lowest burden) for CFQ-R Treatment Burden scores. Conclusion Treatment complexity was highest among adults with CF, although over 3 years, we observed a significant increase in treatment complexity in all age groups. Such increases in treatment complexity pose a challenge to patient self-management and adherence. Future research is needed to understand the associations between treatment complexity and subsequent health outcomes to reduce treatment burden and improve disease management. PMID:23352205

  8. Influence of environmental variables on the shrub and tree species distribution in two Semideciduous Forest sites in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sheila Isabel do C; Martins, Sebastião V; de Barros, Nairam F; Dias, Herly Carlos T; Kunz, Sustanis H

    2008-09-01

    The floristic variations of shrub and tree components were studied in two sites of Semideciduous Forest, initial forest and mature forest, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, in order to analyze the floristic similarity and the correlations between environmental variables and the distribution of tree species in these forests. Individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > or = 4.8 cm were sampled in twenty 10 x 30 m plots (10 plots in each site). The plots were distributed systematically at 10 m intervals. The environmental variables analyzed were: the canopy openness and soil chemical and texture characteristics. The two forest sites showed clear differences in the levels of canopy openness and soil fertility, factors that reflect the floristic and successional differences of the shrub and tree component, revealed by the low similarity between these forests by cluster analysis. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of environmental variables and species abundance indicated that the species in these forests studied are distributed under strong influence of canopy openness, moisture and soil fertility.

  9. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  10. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Siegel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption.

  11. Optimization of wind farm micro-siting for complex terrain using greedy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.X.; Chen, K.; He, Z.Y.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    An optimization approach based on greedy algorithm for optimization of wind farm micro-siting is presented. The key of optimizing wind farm micro-siting is the fast and accurate evaluation of the wake flow interactions of wind turbines. The virtual particle model is employed for wake flow simulation of wind turbines, which makes the present method applicable for non-uniform flow fields on complex terrains. In previous bionic optimization method, within each step of the optimization process, only the power output of the turbine that is being located or relocated is considered. To aim at the overall power output of the wind farm comprehensively, a dependent region technique is introduced to improve the estimation of power output during the optimization procedure. With the technique, the wake flow influences can be reduced more efficiently during the optimization procedure. During the optimization process, the turbine that is being added will avoid being affected other turbines, and avoid affecting other turbine in the meantime. The results from the numerical calculations demonstrate that the present method is effective for wind farm micro-siting on complex terrain, and it produces better solutions in less time than the previous bionic method. - Highlights: • Greedy algorithm is applied to wind farm micro-siting problem. • The present method is effective for optimization on complex terrains. • Dependent region is suggested to improve the evaluation of wake influences. • The present method has better performance than the bionic method

  12. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O.; Siegel, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption

  13. Complex terrain alters temperature and moisture limitations of forest soil respiration across a semiarid to subalpine gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Erin Michele; Barnard, H.R.; Adams, H.R.; Burns, M.A.; Gallo, E.; Brooks, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Forest soil respiration is a major carbon (C) flux that is characterized by significant variability in space and time. We quantified growing season soil respiration during both a drought year and a nondrought year across a complex landscape to identify how landscape and climate interact to control soil respiration. We asked the following questions: (1) How does soil respiration vary across the catchments due to terrain-induced variability in moisture availability and temperature? (2) Does the relative importance of moisture versus temperature limitation of respiration vary across space and time? And (3) what terrain elements are important for dictating the pattern of soil respiration and its controls? Moisture superseded temperature in explaining watershed respiration patterns, with wetter yet cooler areas higher up and on north facing slopes yielding greater soil respiration than lower and south facing areas. Wetter subalpine forests had reduced moisture limitation in favor of greater seasonal temperature limitation, and the reverse was true for low-elevation semiarid forests. Coincident climate poorly predicted soil respiration in the montane transition zone; however, antecedent precipitation from the prior 10 days provided additional explanatory power. A seasonal trend in respiration remained after accounting for microclimate effects, suggesting that local climate alone may not adequately predict seasonal variability in soil respiration in montane forests. Soil respiration climate controls were more strongly related to topography during the drought year highlighting the importance of landscape complexity in ecosystem response to drought.

  14. Integrative measurements focusing on carbon, energy and water fluxes at the forest site 'Hohes Holz' and the grassland 'Grosses Bruch'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Corinna; Claudia, Schütze; Sara, Marañón-Jiménez; Sebastian, Gimper; Matthias, Zink; Luis, Samaniego; Matthias, Cuntz

    2017-04-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the optimization of Carbon sequestration by ecosystems have become priority objectives for current climate change policies. In this context, the long term research project TERENO and the research infrastructure ICOS have been established. The eddy covariance technique allows obtaining an integrative estimate of the ecosystem carbon, water and energy balances at the ecosystem level. The relative contributions of evaporation and transpiration as well as carbon sources and sinks need, however, to be determined separately for thorough process understanding. Two different ecosystem observatories have recently been established in the Magdeburger Börde: a deciduous forest (Hohes Holz) and a meadow (Grosses Bruch). A comprehensive system of instrumentation provides continuous data for the evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes at the 1500 ha large forest site, including a 50 m high eddy covariance (EC) tower for micrometeorological investigations in different heights above and below canopy, throughfall and stem flow sensors, a soil moisture and temperature sensor network, soil respiration chambers, sap flow sensors, and ancillary analysis of trees such a dendrometer and leaf area index measurements. Eddy covariance measurements allow the assessment of the carbon (Net Ecosystem Exchange, NEE) and water balance at the ecosystem scale. To better understand the contributing processes we partition water und carbon fluxes of the forest ecosystem by different methods. Tower-based data of NEE are therefore complemented and validated by continuous automatic and manual campaign measurements of soil effluxes and their drivers. Water fluxes into the ecosystem are partitioned by stem flow and throughfall measurements and a distributed soil moisture network. Gap fraction in the forest has a strong influence on the distribution on the water fluxes and is therefore determined on a regular basis. Since the establishment of the

  15. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  16. Crystal structure of equine serum albumin in complex with cetirizine reveals a novel drug binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handing, Katarzyna B; Shabalin, Ivan G; Szlachta, Karol; Majorek, Karolina A; Minor, Wladek

    2016-03-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is the main transporter of drugs in mammalian blood plasma. Here, we report the first crystal structure of equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with antihistamine drug cetirizine at a resolution of 2.1Å. Cetirizine is bound in two sites--a novel drug binding site (CBS1) and the fatty acid binding site 6 (CBS2). Both sites differ from those that have been proposed in multiple reports based on equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence studies for mammalian albumins as cetirizine binding sites. We show that the residues forming the binding pockets in ESA are highly conserved in human serum albumin (HSA), and suggest that binding of cetirizine to HSA will be similar. In support of that hypothesis, we show that the dissociation constants for cetirizine binding to CBS2 in ESA and HSA are identical using tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Presence of lysine and arginine residues that have been previously reported to undergo nonenzymatic glycosylation in CBS1 and CBS2 suggests that cetirizine transport in patients with diabetes could be altered. A review of all available SA structures from the PDB shows that in addition to the novel drug binding site we present here (CBS1), there are two pockets on SA capable of binding drugs that do not overlap with fatty acid binding sites and have not been discussed in published reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics, sources and evolution of fine aerosol (PM1) at urban, coastal and forest background sites in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalaite, A.; Holzinger, R.; Remeikis, V.; Röckmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of organic aerosol (OA) samples collected on PM1 filters was determined as a function of desorption temperature to investigate the main sources of organic carbon and the effects of photochemical processing on atmospheric aerosol. The filter samples were collected at an urban (54°38‧ N, 25°18‧ E), coastal (55°55‧ N, 21°00‧ E) and forest (55°27‧ N, 26°00' E) site in Lithuania in March 2013. They can be interpreted as winter-time samples because the monthly averaged temperature was -4 °C. The detailed chemical composition of organic compounds was analysed with a thermal desorption PTR-MS. The mass concentration of organic aerosol at the forest site was roughly by a factor of 30 lower than at the urban and coastal site. This fact could be an indication that in this cold month the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was very low. Moreover, the organic aerosol collected at the forest site was more refractory and contained a larger fraction of heavy molecules with m/z > 200. The isotopic composition of the aerosol was used to differentiate the two main sources of organic aerosol in winter, i.e. biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel (FF) combustion. Organic aerosol from biomass burning is enriched in 13C compared to OA from fossil fuel emissions. δ13COC values of the OA samples showed a positive correlation with the mass fraction of several individual organic compounds. Most of these organic compounds contained nitrogen indicating that organic nitrogen compounds formed during the combustion of biomass may be indicative of BB. Other compounds that showed negative correlations with δ13COC were possibly indicative of FF. These compounds included heavy hydrocarbons and were on the average less oxidized than the bulk organic carbon. The correlation of δ13COC and the O/C ratio was positive at low but negative at high desorption temperatures at the forest site. We propose that this might be due to

  18. Examining conifer canopy structural complexity across forest ages and elevations with LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; Jonathan D. Bakker; Robert J. McGaughey; James A. Lutz; Rolf F. Gersonde; Jerry F. Franklin

    2010-01-01

    LiDAR measurements of canopy structure can be used to classify forest stands into structural stages to study spatial patterns of canopy structure, identify habitat, or plan management actions. A key assumption in this process is that differences in canopy structure based on forest age and elevation are consistent with predictions from models of stand development. Three...

  19. Radiological survey of the low-level radioactive waste burial site at the Palos Forest Preserve, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two landfill sites containing low-level radioactive waste material, Site A and Plot M, are located 14 miles southwest of Chicago, Illinois in the Palos Forest Preserve. Site A is the former location of the Argonne National Laboratory. Buried at Site A in 1956 were the dismantled reactor shells, building walls, and cooling towers from three of the world's first nuclear reactors. Plot M was used from 1943 to 1949 for burial of low-level radioactive wastes derived from Site A operations and from the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory. Tritiated water was detected in 1973 in some of the Forest Preserve picnic wells located 500 to 1000 yards north of Plot M. An extensive surveillance program was initiated in 1976 to: (1) study the elevated tritium content of some picnic wells and its observed seasonal fluctuations, (2) establish if other radionuclides buried in Plot M or remaining at Site A have migrated, (3) establish the rate of groundwater movement in the glacial till and underlying dolomite aquifer, (4) determine the tritium content of the till and aquifer, and (5) predict future tritium levels in the well water. Several test wells were installed in the soil and dolomite bedrock to monitor radioactivity in groundwater, measure water levels, and provide other geohydrological information. Tritium has migrated from the Plot M burial trenches into the surrounding drift. The tritium plume, the contaminated zone in the drift in which tritium concentrations exceed 10 nanocuries per liter of water (nCi/L), has migrated at least 165 feet horizontally northward and 130 feet vertically downward to the bedrock surface. Small amounts of other radionuclides - uranium, plutonium, and strontium-90 - have been found in boreholes beneath the concrete cap covering Plot M, but not in the subsoil outside of the Plot. The radionuclide concentrations found to date are too low to result in any measureable radiation exposure to the public

  20. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site's radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials)

  1. Effects Of Very Intensive Forest Biomass Harvesting On Short And Long Term Site Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Stupak, Inge; Clarke, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Intensified forest biomass utilisation causes export of substantial amounts of nutrients from the forest ecosystem. Compared to conventional stems-only harvesting, the most intensive biomass sce nario causes increases in nutrient exports of up to 6-7 times whereas the biomass export increases only...... up to 2 times (Stupak et al. 2007a). High concentrations of nutrients in small branches, twigs, and leaves compared to stems are the main reason. The extensive export of nutrients related to intensive biomass extraction have for many years caused concern for the long-term fertility of the system...

  2. Mercury concentrations and pools in four Sierra Nevada forest sites, and relationships to organic carbon and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Obrist

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data on mercury (Hg concentrations, stochiometric relations to carbon (C and nitrogen (N, and Hg pool sizes in four Sierra Nevada forest sites of similar exposure and precipitation regimes, and hence similar atmospheric deposition, to evaluate how ecosystem parameters control Hg retention in ecosystems. In all four sites, the largest amounts of Hg reside in soils which account for 94–98% of ecosystem pools. Hg concentrations and Hg/C ratios increase in the following order: Green Needles/Leavesr2=0.58 and N and C (r2=0.64 in decomposing litter, but a positive correlation between litter Hg and N (r2=0.70. These inverse relations may reflect preferential retention of N and Hg over C during decomposition, or may be due to older age of decomposed litter layers which are exposed to longer-term atmospheric Hg deposition in the field. The results indicate that litter Hg levels depend on decomposition stage and may not follow generally observed positive relationships between Hg and organic C.

    Mineral soil layers show strong positive correlations of Hg to C across all sites and soil horizons (r2=0.83, but Hg concentrations are even more closely related to N with a similar slope to that observed in litter (r2=0.92. Soil N levels alone explain over 90% of Hg pool sizes across the four Sierra Nevada forest sites. This suggests that soil organic N and C groups provide sorption sites for Hg to retain atmospheric deposition. However, the patterns could be due to indirect relationships where high soil N and C levels reflect high ecosystem productivity which leads to corresponding high atmospheric Hg deposition inputs via leaf litterfall and plant senescence. Our results also show that two of the sites previously affected by

  3. Descriptions of representative contaminated sites and facilities within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Buck, J.W.; Clark, L.L.; Fletcher, J.F.; Glantz, C.S.; Holdren, G.R.; Huesties, L.R.; Williams, M.D.; Oates, L.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated efforts to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that will analyze the existing environmental restoration and waste management program and evaluate alternatives for an integrated program. The alternatives being evaluated include (1) a open-quotes No Actionclose quotes alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), (2) an Applicable, Relevant, and Appropriate Requirements (ARAR)-driven alternative, (3) a land-use-driven alternative, (4) a health-risk-driven alternative, and (5) a combination land-use and health-risk-driven alternative. The analytical approach being taken to evaluate each of these alternatives is to perform a remedial engineering analysis and human health and ecosystem effects analyses on every contaminated site and facility in the DOE complex. One of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) roles in this approach has been to compile the source term and environmental setting data needed to drive each of these analyses. To date, over 10,000 individual contaminated sites and facilities located throughout the DOE complex of installations have been identified and at least some minimal data compiled on each. The PEIS analyses have been appreciably simplified by categorizing all of these contaminated sites and facilities into six broad categories: (1) contaminated buildings, (2) contaminated soils, (3) solid waste sites (e.g., burial grounds), (4) liquid containment structures (e.g., tanks), (5) surface water sites, and (6) contaminated groundwater sites. A report containing a complete description of each of these thousands of contaminated sites and facilities would be tremendously large and unwildy, as would separate reports describing the application of the analytical methodologies to each

  4. Requirement of histidine 217 for ubiquinone reductase activity (Qi site) in the cytochrome bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K A; Dutton, P L; Daldal, F

    1994-01-25

    Folding models suggest that the highly conserved histidine 217 of the cytochrome b subunit from the cytochrome bc1 complex is close to the quinone reductase (Qi) site. This histidine (bH217) in the cytochrome b polypeptide of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been replaced with three other residues, aspartate (D), arginine (R), and leucine (L). bH217D and bH217R are able to grow photoheterotrophically and contain active cytochrome bc1 complexes (60% of wild-type activity), whereas the bH217L mutant is photosynthetically incompetent and contains a cytochrome bc1 complex that has only 10% of the wild-type activity. Single-turnover flash-activated electron transfer experiments show that cytochrome bH is reduced via the Qo site with near native rates in the mutant strains but that electron transfer between cytochrome bH and quinone bound at the Qi site is greatly slowed. These results are consistent with redox midpoint potential (Em) measurements of the cytochrome b subunit hemes and the Qi site quinone. The Em values of cyt bL and bH are approximately the same in the mutants and wild type, although the mutant strains have a larger relative concentration of what may be the high-potential form of cytochrome bH, called cytochrome b150. However, the redox properties of the semiquinone at the Qi site are altered significantly. The Qi site semiquinone stability constant of bH217R is 10 times higher than in the wild type, while in the other two strains (bH217D and bH217L) the stability constant is much lower than in the wild type. Thus H217 appears to have major effects on the redox properties of the quinone bound at the Qi site. These data are incorporated into a suggestion that H217 forms part of the binding pocket of the Qi site in a manner reminiscent of the interaction between quinone bound at the Qb site and H190 of the L subunit of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center.

  5. Studies on numerical site calibration over complex terrain for wind turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daisuke; MATSUSHITA; Hikaru; MATSUMIYA; Yoshinori; HARA; Satoshi; WATANABE; Akinori; FURUKAWA

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of wind turbine performance over complex terrain is very difficult because of the document of standard IEC61400-12 is adapted for flat or slightly complex topography.And the cost of constructing a meteorological mast is higher with scaling wind turbine up.We have proposed a numerical site calibration(NSC) technique in order to estimate the inflow velocity at the position of wind turbine by using CFD tool to calculate the flow field around the site.The present paper shows the problems for the procedure of NSC in which a commercial nonlinear CFD tool and the improvement method are used to gain a more accurate result.It is clarified that the wind turbine performance which is estimated by using the wind speed on the meteorological mast has a good result for annual energy production.

  6. Comparison of horizontal and vertical advective CO2 fluxes at three forest sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feigenwinter, C.; Bernhofer, C.; Eichelmann, U.; Heinesch, B.; Hertel, M.; Janouš, Dalibor; Kolle, O.; Lagergren, F.; Lindroth, A.; Minerbi, S.; Moderow, U.; Mölder, M.; Montagnani, L.; Queck, R.; Rebmann, C.; Vestin, P.; Yernaux, M.; Zeri, M.; Ziegler, W.; Aubinet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 1 (2008), s. 12-24 ISSN 0168-1923 Grant - others:-(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-505572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest ecosystems * advection * net ecosystem exchange * carbon balance * ADVEX Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.668, year: 2008

  7. Planted Black Walnut Does Well on Cleared Forest Sites -- if Competition is Controlled

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Krajicek

    1975-01-01

    After seven growing seasons, survival of black walnut seedlings planted in cleared forest openings did not differ by competition control treatments. The trees grew somewhat larger where all competing vegetation was controlled but almost as large where only herbaceous competition was controlled. Controlling only woody vegetation was no better than no control of any...

  8. Effects of structural complexity on within-canopy light environments and leaf traits in a northern mixed deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, Alexander T; Curtis, Peter S

    2017-10-01

    Canopy structure influences forest productivity through its effects on the distribution of radiation and the light-induced changes in leaf physiological traits. Due to the difficulty of accessing and measuring forest canopies, few field-based studies have quantitatively linked these divergent scales of canopy functioning. The objective of our study was to investigate how canopy structure affects light profiles within a forest canopy and whether leaves of mature trees adjust morphologically and biochemically to the light environments characteristic of canopies with different structural complexity. We used a combination of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and hemispherical photographs to quantify canopy structure and light environments, respectively, and a telescoping pole to sample leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA), nitrogen on an area basis (Narea) and chlorophyll on a mass basis (Chlmass) were measured in red maple (Acer rubrum), american beech (Fagus grandifolia), white pine (Pinus strobus), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) at different heights in plots with similar leaf area index but contrasting canopy complexity (rugosity). We found that more complex canopies had greater porosity and reduced light variability in the midcanopy while total light interception was unchanged relative to less complex canopies. Leaf phenotypes of F. grandifolia, Q. rubra and P. strobus were more sun-acclimated in the midstory of structurally complex canopies while leaf phenotypes of A. rubrum were more shade-acclimated (lower LMA) in the upper canopy of more complex stands, despite no differences in total light interception. Broadleaf species showed further differences in acclimation with increased Narea and reduced Chlmass in leaves with higher LMA, while P. strobus showed no change in Narea and Chlmass with higher LMA. Our results provide new insight on how light distribution and leaf acclimation in mature trees might be altered when natural and anthropogenic

  9. Observations concerning the quinol oxidation site of the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Edward A.; Huang, Li-Shar

    2003-09-07

    A direct hydrogen bond between ubiquinone/quinol bound at the QO site and a cluster-ligand histidine of the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) is described as a major determining factor explaining much experimental data on position of the ISP ectodomain, EPR lineshape and midpoint potential of the iron-sulfur cluster, and the mechanism of the bifurcated electron transfer from ubiquinol to the high and low potential chains of the bc1 complex.

  10. Age-related patterns of forest complexity and carbon storage in pine and aspen-birch ecosystems of northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Douglas N. Kastendick

    2010-01-01

    Forest managers are seeking strategies to create stands that can adapt to new climatic conditions and simultaneously help mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2. Adaptation strategies often focus on enhancing resilience by maximizing forest complexity in terms of species composition and size structure, while mitigation involves sustaining carbon...

  11. Annual variation in canopy openness, air temperature and humidity inthe understory of three forested sites in southern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of physical factors affecting community structure in Atlantic Forest remnants of southern Bahia state, Brazil, we analyzed the annual variation in the understory microclimate of a hillside forest fragment in the ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso’ (RST and a rustic cacao agroforestry system (Cabruca, located nearby the RST. Canopy openness (CO, air temperature (Ta, air relative humidity (RH and vapor pressure deficit (VPD data were collected between April, 2005 and April, 2006 at the base (RSTB, 340 m and the top (RSTT, 640 m of the RST and at the Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Data of rainfall, Ta, RH and VPD were also collected in an open area (OA, 270 m. The highest rainfalls (> 100 mm occurred in November, 2005 and April, 2006, whereas October, 2005 was the driest month (< 20 mm. CO ranged between 2.5 % in the CB (April, 2006 and 7.7 % in the RST (October, 2005. Low rainfall in October, 2005 affected VPDmax in all sites. Those effects were more pronounced in OA, followed by CB, RSTB and RSTT. During the period of measurements, the values of Ta, RH and VPD in CB were closer to the values measured in OA than to the values measured inside the forest.

  12. Unsymmetrical dizinc complexes as models for the active sites of phosphohydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarenmark, Martin; Csapó, Edit; Singh, Jyoti; Wöckel, Simone; Farkas, Etelka; Meyer, Franc; Haukka, Matti; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2010-09-21

    The unsymmetrical dinucleating ligand 2-(N-isopropyl-N-((2-pyridyl)methyl)aminomethyl)-6-(N-(carboxylmethyl)-N-((2-pyridyl)methyl)aminomethyl)-4-methylphenol (IPCPMP or L) has been synthesized to model the active site environment of dinuclear metallohydrolases. It has been isolated as the hexafluorophosphate salt H(4)IPCPMP(PF(6))(2) x 2 H(2)O (H(4)L), which has been structurally characterized, and has been used to form two different Zn(II) complexes, [{Zn(2)(IPCPMP)(OAc)}(2)][PF(6)](2) (2) and [{Zn(2)(IPCPMP)(Piv)}(2)][PF(6)](2) (3) (OAc = acetate; Piv = pivalate). The crystal structures of and show that they consist of tetranuclear complexes with very similar structures. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicate that the tetranuclear complexes dissociate into dinuclear complexes in solution. Potentiometric studies of the Zn(II):IPCPMP system in aqueous solution reveal that a mononuclear complex is surprisingly stable at low pH, even at a 2:1 Zn(II):L ratio, but a dinuclear complex dominates at high pH and transforms into a dihydroxido complex by a cooperative deprotonation of two, probably terminally coordinated, water molecules. A kinetic investigation indicates that one of these hydroxides is the active nucleophile in the hydrolysis of bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)phosphate (BDNPP) enhanced by complex 2, and mechanistic proposals are presented for this reaction as well as the previously reported transesterification of 2-hydroxypropyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNP) promoted by Zn(II) complexes of IPCPMP.

  13. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Holz, Barbara A. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy G. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the

  14. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Holz, Barbara A. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy G. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-01-09

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the

  15. Use of ground-based radiometers for L-Band Freeze/Thaw retrieval in a boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Derksen, C.; Toose, P.; Pappas, C.; Mavrovic, A.; El Amine, M.; Royer, A.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The boreal forest is the second largest land biome in the world and thus plays a major role in the global and regional climate systems. The extent, timing and duration of the seasonal freeze/thaw (F/T) state influences vegetation developmental stages (phenology) and, consequently, constitutes an important control on how boreal forest ecosystems exchange carbon, water and energy with the atmosphere. Recently, new L-Band satellite-derived F/T information has become available. However, disentangling the seasonally differing contributions from forest overstory and understory vegetation, and the ground surface to the satellite signal remains challenging. Here we present results from an ongoing campaign with two L-Band surface-based radiometers (SBR) installed on a micrometeorological tower at the Southern Old Black Spruce site (53.99°N / 105.12°W) in central Saskatchewan. One radiometer unit is installed on top of the tower viewing the multi-layer vegetation canopy from above. A second radiometer unit is installed within the multi-layer canopy, viewing the understory and the ground surface only. The objectives of our study are to (i) disentangle the L-Band F/T signal contribution of boreal forest overstory from the combined understory and ground surface contribution, and (ii) link the L-Band F/T signal to related boreal forest structural and functional characteristics. Analysis of these radiometer measurements made from September to November 2016 shows that when the ground surface is thawed, the main contributor to both radiometer signals is soil moisture. The Pearson correlation coefficient between brightness temperature (TB) at vertical polarization (V-pol) and soil permittivity is 0.79 for the radiometer above the canopy and 0.74 for the radiometer below the canopy. Under cold conditions when the soil was thawed (snow insulation) and the trees were frozen (below 0°C), TB at V-pol is negatively correlated with tree permittivity. The freezing tree contribution to

  16. Structural Complexity and Ecosystem Functions in a Natural Mixed Forest under a Single-Tree Selection Silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Yoshida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of forest management has become broader, and it is essential to harmonize timber production with conservation of the forest ecosystem. Selection cutting is recognized as a major alternative of clear-cutting, because it can maintain the complexity and heterogeneity of a natural forest; however, its long-term evaluations are limited. This study compared various attributes of stand structures, which are indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem carbon stock between managed and unmanaged blocks (12.6 ha area in total in a natural mixed forest in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. We found that 30 years’ implementation of single-tree selection did not affect the volume, size structure, species diversity nor spatial distribution of overstory trees in the managed stands. Also, the total carbon stock in the managed stands was almost equal to that of the unmanaged stands. In contrast, several structural attributes and indicator elements that are significant for biodiversity (such as large-diameter live trees, dead trees, cavities, epiphytic bryophytes, and some avian guilds showed marked decrease in the managed stands. We conclude that it is required to leave these structures and elements to some extent for deriving the merit of the management as an alternative silvicultural regime in the region.

  17. Growth dynamics of fine roots in a coniferous fern forest site close to Forsmark in the central part of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Hans; Stadenberg, Ingela

    2007-12-01

    The seasonal growth dynamics of live and dead roots for trees and the field layer species (g/m 2 , varying diameter fractions) and live/dead ratios were analysed at a fresh/moist coniferous fern forest site close to the nuclear power plant at Forsmark in the central eastern parts of Sweden. The changes in depth distribution of fine roots were observed at depth intervals of the top humus horizon down to 40 cm in the mineral soil profile. The bulk of living fine roots of trees ( 2 . The total quantity of fine roots (live + dead) amounted to 543, 434, 314 and 546 g/m 2 . Considerable quantities of fine roots (< 1 mm in diameter) were attributed to field-layer species (about 18% of the total biomass during the whole period of investigation). The turnover rate (the rate of construction of new roots) for tree fine roots < 1 mm in diameter amounted to at least the size of the average fine-root biomass. Our methods of estimating fine-root production and mortality, involved periodic measurements of live and dead dry weight of the fine roots from sequential core samples of the forest soil. The collected data give a proper and instant measure of the spatial and temporal distribution of fine roots in the undisturbed soil-profile. Data from other fine-root investigations suggest turnover rates in agreement with our present findings. Differences between root growth and turnover should be expected between trees of different age, tree species and different forest sites, but also between different years. Substantial variations in fine-root biomass, necromass and live/dead ratios are found in different forest sites. Correct methods for estimating the amount of live and dead fine-roots in the soil at regular time intervals are essential for any calculation of fine-root turnover. Definition of root vitality differs in literature, making it difficult to compare results from different root investigators. Our investigation clarifies the importance of using distinct morphological criteria

  18. Quality analysis applied on eddy covariance measurements at complex forest sites using footprint modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rebmann, C.; Göckede, M.; Foken, T.; Aubinet, M.; Aurela, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C.; Buchmann, N.; Carrara, A.; Cescatti, A.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Elbers, J. A.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Guyon, D.; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Knohl, A.; Laurila, T.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Markkanen, T.; Miglietta, F.; Moncrieff, J.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Nardino, M.; Ourcival, J.-M.; Rambal, S.; Rannik, Ü.; Rotenberg, E.; Sedlák, Pavel; Unterhuber, G.; Vesala, T.; Yakir, D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, - (2005), s. 121-141 ISSN 0177-798X Grant - others:Carboeuroflux(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Eddy covariance * Quality assurance * Quality control * Footprint modelling * Heterogeneity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.295, year: 2005

  19. Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, J.; Turnipseed, A.; Guenther, A. B.; Karl, T. G.; Day, D. A.; Gochis, D.; Huffman, J. A.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; DeMott, P. J.; Tobo, Y.; Patton, E. G.; Hodzic, A.; Cui, Y. Y.; Harley, P. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Monson, R. K.; Eller, A. S. D.; Greenberg, J. P.; Barth, M. C.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Geron, C.; Offenberg, J.; Ryan, M. G.; Fornwalt, P. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Keutsch, F. N.; DiGangi, J. P.; Chan, A. W. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kim, S.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, R. L.; Smith, J. N.

    2014-06-01

    The Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) project seeks to understand the feedbacks and inter-relationships between hydrology, biogenic emissions, carbon assimilation, aerosol properties, clouds and associated feedbacks within water-limited ecosystems. The Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory (MEFO) was established in 2008 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research to address many of the BEACHON research objectives, and it now provides a fixed field site with significant infrastructure. MEFO is a mountainous, semi-arid ponderosa pine-dominated forest site that is normally dominated by clean continental air but is periodically influenced by anthropogenic sources from Colorado Front Range cities. This article summarizes the past and ongoing research activities at the site, and highlights some of the significant findings that have resulted from these measurements. These activities include - soil property measurements; - hydrological studies; - measurements of high-frequency turbulence parameters; - eddy covariance flux measurements of water, energy, aerosols and carbon dioxide through the canopy; - determination of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their influence on regional atmospheric chemistry; - aerosol number and mass distributions; - chemical speciation of aerosol particles; - characterization of ice and cloud condensation nuclei; - trace gas measurements; and - model simulations using coupled chemistry and meteorology. In addition to various long-term continuous measurements, three focused measurement campaigns with state-of-the-art instrumentation have taken place since the site was established, and two of these studies are the subjects of this special issue: BEACHON-ROCS (Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study, 2010) and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study, 2011).

  20. Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, J.; Turnipseed, A.; Guenther, A. B.; Karl, T. G.; Day, D. A.; Gochis, D.; Huffman, J. A.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; DeMott, P. J.; Tobo, Y.; Patton, E. G.; Hodzic, A.; Cui, Y.; Harley, P. C.; Hornbrook, R. H.; Apel, E. C.; Monson, R. K.; Eller, A. S. D.; Greenberg, J. P.; Barth, M.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Geron, C.; Offenberg, J.; Ryan, M. G.; Fornwalt, P. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Keutsch, F. N.; DiGangi, J. P.; Chan, A. W. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kim, S.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Smith, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    The Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) project seeks to understand the feedbacks and inter-relationships between hydrology, biogenic emissions, carbon assimilation, aerosol properties, clouds and associated feedbacks within water-limited ecosystems. The Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory (MEFO) was established in 2008 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research to address many of the BEACHON research objectives, and it now provides a fixed field site with significant infrastructure. MEFO is a mountainous, semi-arid ponderosa pine-dominated forest site that is normally dominated by clean continental air, but is periodically influenced by anthropogenic sources from Colorado Front Range cities. This article summarizes the past and ongoing research activities at the site, and highlights some of the significant findings that have resulted from these measurements. These activities include: - soil property measurements, - hydrological studies, - measurements of high-frequency turbulence parameters, - eddy covariance flux measurements of water, energy, aerosols and carbon dioxide through the canopy, - biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their influence on regional atmospheric chemistry, - aerosol number and mass distributions, - chemical speciation of aerosol particles, - characterization of ice and cloud condensation nuclei, - trace gas measurements, and - model simulations using coupled chemistry and meteorology. In addition to various long-term continuous measurement, three focused measurement campaigns with state-of-the-art instrumentation have taken place since the site was established, and two of these are the subjects of this special issue: BEACHON-ROCS (Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study, 2010) and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study, 2011).

  1. Influence of stocking, site quality, stand age, low-severity canopy disturbance, and forest composition on sub-boreal aspen mixedwood carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Michael; D’Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Low-severity canopy disturbance presumably influences forest carbon dynamics during the course of stand development, yet the topic has received relatively little attention. This is surprising because of the frequent occurrence of such events and the potential for both the severity and frequency of disturbances to increase as a result of climate change. We investigated the impacts of low-severity canopy disturbance and average insect defoliation on forest carbon stocks and rates of carbon sequestration in mature aspen mixedwood forests of varying stand age (ranging from 61 to 85 years), overstory composition, stocking level, and site quality. Stocking level and site quality positively affected the average annual aboveground tree carbon increment (CAAI), while stocking level, site quality, and stand age positively affected tree carbon stocks (CTREE) and total ecosystem carbon stocks (CTOTAL). Cumulative canopy disturbance (DIST) was reconstructed using dendroecological methods over a 29-year period. DIST was negatively and significantly related to soil carbon (CSOIL), and it was negatively, albeit marginally, related to CTOTAL. Minima in the annual aboveground carbon increment of trees (CAI) occurred at sites during defoliation of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner), and minima were more extreme at sites dominated by trembling aspen than sites mixed with conifers. At sites defoliated by forest tent caterpillar in the early 2000s, increased sequestration by the softwood component (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) compensated for overall decreases in CAI by 17% on average. These results underscore the importance of accounting for low-severity canopy disturbance events when developing regional forest carbon models and argue for the restoration and maintenance of historically important conifer species within aspen mixedwoods to enhance stand-level resilience to disturbance agents and maintain

  2. Strong topographic sheltering effects lead to spatially complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S

    2014-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Combined use of stable isotopes and fallout radionuclides as soil erosion indicators in a forested mountain site, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, K.; Mabit, L.; Alewell, C.; Park, J.H.; Sandor, T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and to validate the suitability of the stable nitrogen and carbon isotope signature as soil erosion indicators in a mountain forest site in South Korea. Our approach is based on the comparison of the isotope signature of ''stable'' landscape positions (reference sites), which are neither affected by erosion nor deposition, with eroding sites. For undisturbed soils we expect that the enrichment of δ 15 N and δ 13 C with soil depth, due to fractionation during decomposition, goes in parallel with a decrease in nitrogen and carbon content. Soil erosion processes potentially weaken this correlation. The 137 Cs method and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were applied for the soil erosion quantification. Erosion rates obtained with the 137 Cs method range from 0.9 t ha -1 yr -1 to 7 t ha -1 yr -1 . Considering the steep slopes of up to 40 and the erosive monsoon events (R factor of 6600 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 ), the rates are plausible and within the magnitude of the RUSLE-modeled soil erosion rates, varying from 0.02 t ha -1 yr -1 to 5.1 t ha -1 yr -1 . The soil profiles of the reference sites showed significant (p < 0.0001) correlations between nitrogen and carbon content and its corresponding δ 15 N and δ 13 C signatures. In contrast, for the eroding sites this relationship was weaker and for the carbon not significant. These results confirm the usefulness of the stable carbon isotope signature as a qualitative indicator for soil disturbance. We could show further that the δ 15 N isotope signature can be used similarly for uncultivated sites. We thus propose that the stable δ 15 N and δ 13 C signature of soil profiles could serve as additional indicators confirming the accurate choice of the reference site in soil erosion studies using the 137 Cs method.

  4. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas C; Cook, Bruce D; Shimabukuro, Yosio E

    2015-12-01

    Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas with complex topography present a challenge for lidar remote sensing. We compared digital terrain models (DTM) derived from airborne lidar data from a mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil to 35 ground control points measured with survey grade GNSS receivers. The terrain model generated from full-density (~20 returns m -2 ) data was highly accurate (mean signed error of 0.19 ± 0.97 m), while those derived from reduced-density datasets (8 m -2 , 4 m -2 , 2 m -2 and 1 m -2 ) were increasingly less accurate. Canopy heights calculated from reduced-density lidar data declined as data density decreased due to the inability to accurately model the terrain surface. For lidar return densities below 4 m -2 , the bias in height estimates translated into errors of 80-125 Mg ha -1 in predicted aboveground biomass. Given the growing emphasis on the use of airborne lidar for forest management, carbon monitoring, and conservation efforts, the results of this study highlight the importance of careful survey planning and consistent sampling for accurate quantification of aboveground biomass stocks and dynamics. Approaches that rely primarily on canopy height to estimate aboveground biomass are sensitive to DTM errors from variability in lidar sampling density.

  5. Site properties for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in semi-natural forests of south western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    We explored the semi-natural forests in south western Anatolia along a gradient between Mediterranean and continental climates to determine the site requirements of Juniperus excelsa in Turkey. We hypothesized that environmental variables and indicator species can be used to predict differences in occurrence and cover of J. excelsa and can therefore support decision making in reforestation management planning. Plant species composition and environmental variables were assessed in 153 plots. Association between J. excelsa and other plant species and environmental variables were analyzed using Fisher exact probability tests and stepwise discriminant analysis. High altitude (> 1000 m) as a proxy for an Oromediterranean climate, and high surface stoniness as a proxy for low competition by other tree species, are positive site properties for J. excelsa. The tree species avoids Eumediterranean and Supramediterranean plant communities. Twelve plant species, including the herbs Dianthus zonatus, Ajuga chamaepitys and Paronchia carica and the shrub Cotoneaster nummularia may be used as site indicators for J. excelsa restoration. Platanus orientalis, with similar site requirements but at present negatively associated to J. excelsa due to competitive effects, may be considered an additional indicator if stand conversion (harvesting and replacing P. orientalis) is part of the management plan.

  6. Molecular characterization of a complex site-specific radiation-induced DNA double-strand break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, K.; Dizdaroglu, M.; Jaruga, P.; Neumann, R.D.; Winters, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation lethality is a function of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Current models propose the lethality of a DSB to be a function of its structural complexity. We present here for the first time a map of damage associated with a site-specific double-strand break produced by decay of 125 I in a plasmid bound by a 125 I-labeled triplex forming oligonucleotide ( 125 I-TFO). The E. coli DNA repair enzymes, endonuclease IV (endo IV), endonuclease III (endo III), and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which recognize AP sites, and pyrimidine and purine base damage respectively, were used as probes in this study. 125 I-TFO bound plasmid was incubated with and without DMSO at -80 deg C for 1 month. No significant difference in DSB yield was observed under these conditions. A 32 base pair fragment from the upstream side of the decay site was isolated by restriction digestion and enzymatically probed to identify damage sites. Endo IV treatment of the 5'-end labeled upper strand indicated clustering of AP sites within 3 bases downstream and 7 bases upstream of the targeted base. Also, repeated experiments consistently detected an AP site 4 bases upstream of the 125 Itarget base. This was further supported by complementary results with the 3'-end labeled upper strand. Endo IV analysis of the lower strand also shows clustering of AP sites near the DSB end. Endo III and Fpg probing demonstrated that base damage is also clustered near the targeted break site. DSBs produced in the absence of DMSO displayed a different pattern of enzyme sensitive damage than those produced in the presence of DMSO. Identification of specific base damage types within the restriction fragment containing the DSB end was achieved with GC/MS. Base damage consisted of 8-hydroguanine, 8-hydroxyadenine, and 5-hydroxycytosine. These lesions were observed at relative yields of 8-hydroguanine and 5-hydroxycytosine to 8-hydroxyadenine of 7.4:1 and 4.7:1, respectively, in the absence

  7. Validation of chemical analyses of atmospheric deposition in forested European sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin ULRICH

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the activities of the Integrated Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests and of the EU Regulation 2152/2003, a Working Group on Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analyses has been created to assist the participating laboratories in the analysis of atmospheric deposition, soil and soil solution, and leaves/needles. As part of the activity of the WG, this study is a statistical analysis in the field of water analysis of chemical concentrations and relationships between ions, and between conductivity and ions for different types of samples (bulk or wet-only samples, throughfall, stemflow considered in forest studies. About 5000 analyses from seven laboratories were used to establish relationships representative of different European geographic and climatic situations, from northern Finland to southern Italy. Statistically significant differences between the relationships obtained from different types of solutions, interacting with different types of vegetation (throughfall and stemflow samples, broad-leaved trees and conifers and with varying influence of marine salt were tested. The ultimate aim is to establish general relationships between ions, and between conductivity and ions, with relative confidence limits, which can be used as a comparison with those established in single laboratories. The use of such techniques is strongly encouraged in the ICPF laboratories to validate single chemical analyses, to be performed when it is still possible to replicate the analysis, and as a general overview of the whole set of analyses, to obtain an indication of the laboratory performance on a long-term basis.

  8. Strategic planning model for achieving stakeholder involvement in environmental at DOE weapons complex sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1994-01-01

    Within today's reality a public manager often needs to develop cooperative relationships among a number of individual, program, and organizational stakeholders to accomplish particular projects, programs, or policies. A DOE site manager charged with accomplishing environmental restoration and conversion at former weapons production sites is no exception. Important reasons for this include the technical and political complexity of the clean-up problem; limits on the funding, authority, and other resources available to DOE; authority, responsibilities, and interests of other stakeholders; and the ever present potential for conflict among stakeholders, and power of any one to hinder, if not halt, the clean-up process if conflicts aren't managed and cooperative relationships established and maintained

  9. Architecture of the 99 bp DNA-six-protein regulatory complex of the lambda att site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingmin; Mierke, Dale F; Biswas, Tapan; Lee, Sang Yeol; Landy, Arthur; Radman-Livaja, Marta

    2006-11-17

    The highly directional and tightly regulated recombination reaction used to site-specifically excise the bacteriophage lambda chromosome out of its E. coli host chromosome requires the binding of six sequence-specific proteins to a 99 bp segment of the phage att site. To gain structural insights into this recombination pathway, we measured 27 FRET distances between eight points on the 99 bp regulatory DNA bound with all six proteins. Triangulation of these distances using a metric matrix distance-geometry algorithm provided coordinates for these eight points. The resulting path for the protein-bound regulatory DNA, which fits well with the genetics, biochemistry, and X-ray crystal structures describing the individual proteins and their interactions with DNA, provides a new structural perspective into the molecular mechanism and regulation of the recombination reaction and illustrates a design by which different families of higher-order complexes can be assembled from different numbers and combinations of the same few proteins.

  10. Exquisite Modulation of the Active Site of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Adenylosuccinate Synthetase in Forward Reaction Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawat, Vishakha; Mehrotra, Sonali; Balaram, Hemalatha; Puranik, Mrinalini

    2016-05-03

    In enzymes that conduct complex reactions involving several substrates and chemical transformations, the active site must reorganize at each step to complement the transition state of that chemical step. Adenylosuccinate synthetase (ADSS) utilizes a molecule each of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GTP) and aspartate to convert inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) into succinyl adenosine 5'-monophosphate (sAMP) through several kinetic intermediates. Here we followed catalysis by ADSS through high-resolution vibrational spectral fingerprints of each substrate and intermediate involved in the forward reaction. Vibrational spectra show differential ligand distortion at each step of catalysis, and band positions of substrates are influenced by binding of cosubstrates. We found that the bound IMP is distorted toward its N1-deprotonated form even in the absence of any other ligands. Several specific interactions between GTP and active-site amino acid residues result in large Raman shifts and contribute substantially to intrinsic binding energy. When both IMP and GTP are simultaneously bound to ADSS, IMP is converted into an intermediate 6-phosphoryl inosine 5'-monophosphate (6-pIMP). The 6-pIMP·ADSS complex was found to be stable upon binding of the third ligand, hadacidin (HDA), an analogue of l-aspartate. We find that in the absence of HDA, 6-pIMP is quickly released from ADSS, is unstable in solution, and converts back into IMP. HDA allosterically stabilizes ADSS through local conformational rearrangements. We captured this complex and determined the spectra and structure of 6-pIMP in its enzyme-bound state. These results provide important insights into the exquisite tuning of active-site interactions with changing substrate at each kinetic step of catalysis.

  11. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  12. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area

  13. Prevention of the wind migration of Semipalatinsk test site contaminated topsoil by inter-polymer complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudaibergenov, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that Semipalatinsk Test Site has been contaminated by radionuclides mainly as a result of atmospheric, aboveground and underground intensive nuclear tests during more than 40 years. Survey of residual radioactivity in the soil at ten Semipalatinsk Test Site areas showed that a great number of Plutonium-239, 240, Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 are concentrated in the depth of soil layer 0-8 cm. The residual radioactivity within the Semipalatinsk Test Site is tightly bound to the topsoil as a result of extreme heating and melting of the soils during the tests. The maximal amount of radionuclides is accumulated on the fine soil particles having 0.1-1.0 mm size. Wind erosion is responsible for suspension of contaminated soil particles in the air and further spreading of contamination far away. For instance, dust particles of diameter 0,05-0,1 mm are dropped within a couple of kilometers of the erosion site, while particles of about 0.005-0.01 mm diameter can move hundreds and thousands of kilometers. According to the results of the Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kazakhstan, in “Degelen” massive, where the intensive nuclear tests were carried out, the concentration of radionuclides in air increases for Sr-90 up to 5 times, for Pu-239,240 up to 100-250 times during the elevation of thin dust from the ground surface. In this connection agglomeration of thin dust containing radionuclides is of primary importance to protect the population from inhalation of re-suspended dust. Inter-polymer complexes are water-insoluble, moisture and gas permeable substances that form a “cobweb” on the surface of soil particles and consequently leading to formation of protective crust. Inter-polymer complexes enhance the intrusion of water into the soil, resulting in increased soil moisture to promote seed germination and plant growth. Inter-polymer complexes are also able to accumulate radionuclides via inclusion of metal ions into the Inter

  14. Distinguishing Active Site Characteristics of Chlorite Dismutases with Their Cyanide Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, Zachary; Celis, Arianna I; Mayfield, Jeffery A; Lorenz, Megan; Rodgers, Kenton R; DuBois, Jennifer L; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S

    2018-03-06

    O 2 -evolving chlorite dismutases (Clds) efficiently convert chlorite (ClO 2 - ) to O 2 and Cl - . Dechloromonas aromatica Cld ( DaCld) is a highly active chlorite-decomposing homopentameric enzyme, typical of Clds found in perchlorate- and chlorate-respiring bacteria. The Gram-negative, human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae contains a homodimeric Cld ( KpCld) that also decomposes ClO 2 - , albeit with an activity 10-fold lower and a turnover number lower than those of DaCld. The interactions between the distal pocket and heme ligand of the DaCld and KpCld active sites have been probed via kinetic, thermodynamic, and spectroscopic behaviors of their cyanide complexes for insight into active site characteristics that are deterministic for chlorite decomposition. At 4.7 × 10 -9 M, the K D for the KpCld-CN - complex is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that of DaCld-CN - and indicates an affinity for CN - that is greater than that of most heme proteins. The difference in CN - affinity between Kp- and DaClds is predominantly due to differences in k off . The kinetics of binding of cyanide to DaCld, DaCld(R183Q), and KpCld between pH 4 and 8.5 corroborate the importance of distal Arg183 and a p K a of ∼7 in stabilizing complexes of anionic ligands, including the substrate. The Fe-C stretching and FeCN bending modes of the DaCld-CN - (ν Fe-C , 441 cm -1 ; δ FeCN , 396 cm -1 ) and KpCld-CN - (ν Fe-C , 441 cm -1 ; δ FeCN , 356 cm -1 ) complexes reveal differences in their FeCN angle, which suggest different distal pocket interactions with their bound cyanide. Conformational differences in their catalytic sites are also reported by the single ferrous KpCld carbonyl complex, which is in contrast to the two conformers observed for DaCld-CO.

  15. Comparison between AOT40 and ozone uptake in forest trees of different species, age and site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Nunn, A. J.; Kozovits, A. R.; Reiter, I. M.; Heerdt, C.; Winkler, J. B.; Baumgarten, M.; Häberle, K.-H.; Grams, T. E. E.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Havranek, W. M.

    The current AOT40 concept for inferring risks in forest trees by ozone (O 3) injury is based on an accumulated external O 3 exposure rather than an internal O 3 dose or uptake rate. AOT40 assumes O 3 concentrations below 40 nl l -1 and night-time exposure to be negligible. Hence, this concept is rather inconsistent with observed forest conditions. In contrast, the flux concept of cumulative O 3 uptake (CU) into the leaves has the potential of reflecting a physiologically meaningful internal O 3 dose experienced by trees. In this paper, we relate AOT40 to cumulative O 3 uptake into European beech ( Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce ( Picea abies), European larch ( Larix decidua) and cembran pine ( Pinus cembra) trees differing in size, age and site conditions. We demonstrate that the flux concept can be extended to the tree and the stand level, making use of sap flow measurements through tree trunks. Although in both seedlings and adult trees AOT40 may show some linearity in correlations with average CU, the latter varies, at given AOT40, by 25±11% within and between species. This is because O 3 flux is primarily influenced by stomatal aperture, the latter being affected by climate, canopy position, leaf and tree age while varying between species. In particular, if weighed by detoxification capacity, we suggest, therefore, O 3 uptake related air quality indices to be promoted towards ecologically meaningful standards in forest protection, overcoming the shortcomings of exposure concepts. As O 3 injury results from the balance between O 3 uptake and detoxification in the leaf mesophyll, we conclude the flux concept in combination with measures of biochemical defence to have the capacity for predicting tree response to O 3 stress.

  16. Simple proxies for estimating the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kontkanen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation products of monoterpenes likely have a crucial role in the formation and growth of aerosol particles in boreal forests. However, the continuous measurements of monoterpene concentrations are usually not available on decadal timescales, and the direct measurements of the concentrations of monoterpene oxidation product have so far been scarce. In this study we developed proxies for the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. For deriving the proxies we used the monoterpene concentration measured with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS during 2006–2013. Our proxies for the monoterpene concentration take into account the temperature-controlled emissions from the forest ecosystem, the dilution caused by the mixing within the boundary layer and different oxidation processes. All the versions of our proxies captured the seasonal variation of the monoterpene concentration, the typical proxy-to-measurements ratios being between 0.8 and 1.3 in summer and between 0.6 and 2.6 in winter. In addition, the proxies were able to describe the diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration rather well, especially in summer months. By utilizing one of the proxies, we calculated the concentration of oxidation products of monoterpenes by considering their production in the oxidation and their loss due to condensation on aerosol particles. The concentration of oxidation products was found to have a clear seasonal cycle, with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The concentration of oxidation products was lowest in the morning or around noon and highest in the evening. In the future, our proxies for the monoterpene concentration and their oxidation products can be used, for example, in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.

  17. Comparison of the composition of forest soil litter derived from three different sites at various decompositional stages using FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberhauer, G.; Rafferty, B.; Strebl, F.; Gerzabek, M. H.

    1998-06-01

    Transmission Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy was used to compare organic soil layers originating from three different sites in two climatic regions. A variety of bands characteristic of molecular structures and functional groups have been identified for these samples from a humic podsol, a dystric cambisol and a spodo dystric cambisol. Similar results were obtained for all three soils. From L to H soil horizons, an increase of the band at 1630 cm -1 and decrease of bands in the region from 1510 cm -1 to 1230 cm -1 were observed. The band at 1630 cm -1 can be assigned to carboxylic and aromatic groups. The decline of the peak intensity at 1510 cm -1 is significantly correlated to the total carbon content and C/N ratio. The mineral material of the Ah horizons leads to an increase of the band at 1050 cm -1 due to IR-absorbance of the Si-O bond and to an appearance of bands in the region from 900 to 400 cm -1 , which are characteristic for clay and quartz minerals. Analysis of the FTIR absorbance showed that intensities of distinct peaks (e.g., at 1510 cm -1 ) can be a measure of decomposition of forest litter. Therefore, the proposed simple FTIR method has potential for identification and differentiation of organic soil horizons originating from known tree litter. The similarity of the characteristics of the spectra of the three soil profiles investigated suggests a broad applicability of this method to distinguish organic forest soil horizons. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FTIR spectroscopy offers a simple, powerful, non-destructive tool for the investigation of decomposition of L to H horizons in forest soils. (author)

  18. Mapping vegetation and fuels for fire management on the Gila National Forest Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Scott A. Mincemoyer; Kirsten M. Schmidt; Donald G. Long; Janice L. Garner

    2000-01-01

    (Please note: This PDF is part of a CD-ROM package only and was not printed on paper.) Fuels and vegetation spatial data layers required by the spatially explicit fire growth model FARSITE were developed for all lands in and around the Gila National Forest in New Mexico. Satellite imagery, terrain modeling, and biophysical simulation were used to create the three...

  19. Saving the Lower Tana River Forest Complex: Can P-GIS help?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The programme. The overall objective of this pan-african programme of research is to contribute to making available good quality, reliable and accessible information systems through the application of the P-GIS approach to improve natural resource management (water, land and forest in particular) and promote food ...

  20. NPP Temperate Forest: OTTER Project Sites, Oregon, USA, 1989-1991, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates and associated field measurements for six sites located along the 250-km, west-east transect of the...

  1. Forest report 2013; Waldzustandsbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  2. Effects of different types of moderate severity disturbance on forest structural complexity and ecosystem functioning: A story of ice and fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, R. T.; Atkins, J.; Gough, C. M.; Hardiman, B. S.; Haber, L.; Stuart-Haentjens, E.; David, O.; Campbell, J. L.; Rustad, L.; Duffy, M.

    2017-12-01

    Disturbances that alter the structure and function of forest ecosystems occur along a continuum of severity. In contrast to the extremes of the disturbance gradient (i.e., stand-replacing disturbance and small gap formation), moderate severity disturbances are poorly understood, even though they make up the majority of the gradient and their spatial extent (and likely overall importance to regional disturbance regimes) often exceeds that of more severe disturbances. Moderate severity disturbances originate from a variety of causes, such as fires, ice storms, or pest and pathogen outbreaks, and each of these could reshape structure and function in different ways. Observational data from a limited number of sites shows that moderate disturbance can increase ecosystem complexity, but the generality of this effect has not been tested across a broad range of disturbance types and severities. Here, we utilize data from a set of five case studies of experimental or natural moderate disturbance to assess the effects of different types and severities of disturbance on forest canopy structural complexity (CSC) and the relationship of canopy structure with ecosystem functioning. Using pre- and post-disturbance measures of CSC derived from aerial and terrestrial LiDAR, UAV imagery, and Landsat data we quantified changes in CSC following an experimental ice storm, a low-severity surface fire, Beech Bark Disease and Hemlock Wooly Adelgid outbreaks, and experimental accelerated succession. Our initial findings indicate that different disturbance types have highly variable effects on CSC, and also that progressive increases in disturbance severity alter CSC differently among disturbance types. Differential effects of variable disturbance types on CSC has implications for the carbon cycle, as forest structure is strongly linked with both growth-limiting resource (e.g., nutrients and light) acquisition and net primary productivity. Understanding how different types and severities of

  3. Infirmity and injury complexity are risk factors for surgical-site infection after operative fracture care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachoura, Abdo; Guitton, Thierry G; Smith, R Malcolm; Vrahas, Mark S; Zurakowski, David; Ring, David

    2011-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgical-site infections prolong hospital stays, double rehospitalization rates, and increase healthcare costs. Additionally, patients with orthopaedic surgical-site infections (SSI) have substantially greater physical limitations and reductions in their health-related quality of life. However, the risk factors for SSI after operative fracture care are unclear. We determined the incidence and quantified modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for SSIs in patients with orthopaedic trauma undergoing surgery. We retrospectively indentified, from our prospective trauma database and billing records, 1611 patients who underwent 1783 trauma-related procedures between 2006 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed and demographics, surgery-specific data, and whether the patients had an SSI were recorded. We determined which if any variables predicted SSI. Six factors independently predicted SSI: (1) the use of a drain, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-3.8); (2) number of operations OR 3.4, 95% CI (2.0-6.0); (3) diabetes, OR 2.1, 95% CI (1.2-3.8); (4) congestive heart failure (CHF), OR 2.8, 95% CI (1.3-6.5); (5) site of injury tibial shaft/plateau, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-4.2); and (6) site of injury, elbow, OR 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.7). The risk factors for SSIs after skeletal trauma are most strongly determined by nonmodifiable factors: patient infirmity (diabetes and heart failure) and injury complexity (site of injury, number of operations, use of a drain). Level II, prognostic study. See the Guideline for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Safety assessment document for the environmental test complex (Building 834) at Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if accidents occurring at the 834 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. (However, there are a few recommendations to further enhance the structural integrity of these facilities). Additional lightning protection for these facilities is being installed. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. A criticality or a high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exceptions to this policy are that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, a planned or accidental actuation will not effect the safe containment of the fissile material within the assembly). Even though the possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium is remote, the off-site lung doses were calculated and found to be below the accepted standards. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  5. Recycled Uranium Mass Balance Project Y-12 National Security Complex Site Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report has been prepared to summarize the findings of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) Mass Balance Project and to support preparation of associated U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) site reports. The project was conducted in support of DOE efforts to assess the potential for health and environmental issues resulting from the presence of transuranic (TRU) elements and fission products in recycled uranium (RU) processed by DOE and its predecessor agencies. The United States government used uranium in fission reactors to produce plutonium and tritium for nuclear weapons production. Because uranium was considered scarce relative to demand when these operations began almost 50 years ago, the spent fuel from U.S. fission reactors was processed to recover uranium for recycling. The estimated mass balance for highly enriched RU, which is of most concern for worker exposure and is the primary focus of this project, is summarized in a table. A discrepancy in the mass balance between receipts and shipments (plus inventory and waste) reflects an inability to precisely distinguish between RU and non-RU shipments and receipts involving the Y-12 Complex and Savannah River. Shipments of fresh fuel (non-RU) and sweetener (also non-RU) were made from the Y-12 Complex to Savannah River along with RU shipments. The only way to distinguish between these RU and non-RU streams using available records is by enrichment level. Shipments of {le}90% enrichment were assumed to be RU. Shipments of >90% enrichment were assumed to be non-RU fresh fuel or sweetener. This methodology using enrichment level to distinguish between RU and non-RU results in good estimates of RU flows that are reasonably consistent with Savannah River estimates. Although this is the best available means of distinguishing RU streams, this method does leave a difference of approximately 17.3 MTU between receipts and shipments. Slightly depleted RU streams received by the Y-12 Complex from ORGDP and

  6. Deciduous forest responses to temperature, precipitation, and drought imply complex climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingying; Wang, Xiaojing; Silander, John A

    2015-11-03

    Changes in spring and autumn phenology of temperate plants in recent decades have become iconic bio-indicators of rapid climate change. These changes have substantial ecological and economic impacts. However, autumn phenology remains surprisingly little studied. Although the effects of unfavorable environmental conditions (e.g., frost, heat, wetness, and drought) on autumn phenology have been observed for over 60 y, how these factors interact to influence autumn phenological events remain poorly understood. Using remotely sensed phenology data from 2001 to 2012, this study identified and quantified significant effects of a suite of environmental factors on the timing of fall dormancy of deciduous forest communities in New England, United States. Cold, frost, and wet conditions, and high heat-stress tended to induce earlier dormancy of deciduous forests, whereas moderate heat- and drought-stress delayed dormancy. Deciduous forests in two eco-regions showed contrasting, nonlinear responses to variation in these explanatory factors. Based on future climate projection over two periods (2041-2050 and 2090-2099), later dormancy dates were predicted in northern areas. However, in coastal areas earlier dormancy dates were predicted. Our models suggest that besides warming in climate change, changes in frost and moisture conditions as well as extreme weather events (e.g., drought- and heat-stress, and flooding), should also be considered in future predictions of autumn phenology in temperate deciduous forests. This study improves our understanding of how multiple environmental variables interact to affect autumn phenology in temperate deciduous forest ecosystems, and points the way to building more mechanistic and predictive models.

  7. Plant traits, productivity, biomass and soil properties from forest sites in the Pacific Northwest, 1999–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Law, Beverly E.

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait measurements are needed for evaluating ecological responses to environmental conditions and for ecosystem process model development, parameterization, and testing. We present a standardized dataset integrating measurements from projects conducted by the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research and Regional Analysis- Pacific Northwest (TERRA-PNW) research group between 1999 and 2014 across Oregon and Northern California, where measurements were collected for scaling and modeling regional terrestrial carbon processes with models such as Biome-BGC and the Community Land Model. The dataset contains measurements of specific leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf carbon and nitrogen for 35 tree and shrub species derived from more than 1,200 branch samples collected from over 200 forest plots, including several AmeriFlux sites. The dataset also contains plot-level measurements of forest composition, structure (e.g., tree biomass), and productivity, as well as measurements of soil structure (e.g., bulk density) and chemistry (e.g., carbon). Publically-archiving regional datasets of standardized, co-located, and geo-referenced plant trait measurements will advance the ability of earth system models to capture species-level climate sensitivity at regional to global scales. PMID:26784559

  8. Plant traits, productivity, biomass and soil properties from forest sites in the Pacific Northwest, 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Law, Beverly E.

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait measurements are needed for evaluating ecological responses to environmental conditions and for ecosystem process model development, parameterization, and testing. We present a standardized dataset integrating measurements from projects conducted by the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research and Regional Analysis- Pacific Northwest (TERRA-PNW) research group between 1999 and 2014 across Oregon and Northern California, where measurements were collected for scaling and modeling regional terrestrial carbon processes with models such as Biome-BGC and the Community Land Model. The dataset contains measurements of specific leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf carbon and nitrogen for 35 tree and shrub species derived from more than 1,200 branch samples collected from over 200 forest plots, including several AmeriFlux sites. The dataset also contains plot-level measurements of forest composition, structure (e.g., tree biomass), and productivity, as well as measurements of soil structure (e.g., bulk density) and chemistry (e.g., carbon). Publically-archiving regional datasets of standardized, co-located, and geo-referenced plant trait measurements will advance the ability of earth system models to capture species-level climate sensitivity at regional to global scales.

  9. Non-timber Forest Products, Their Vulnerability and Conservation in a Designated UNESCO Heritage Site of Arunanchal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Apatani, non-nomadic tribe, have evolved an ecologically sustainable system of rural forestry in Ziro Valley, a proposed heritage site of UNESCO. They have been using non-timber forest products (NTFPs grown in homestead and nearby forests for a very long period. The present study was aimed at identification of priority NTFPs and uses, their availability status and availability trend, conservation need, and sustainability interventions. Qualitative methods of research like, exploratory survey, questionnaire survey, focus group discussion, semi-structured interview of key informants, etc. were employed for data collection. The Apatani used 112 priority NTFPs for food supplement, herbal medicine, house building material and other purposes. However, on the basis of ecological importance such NTFPs were categorized as very low, low, moderate, high, and very high vulnerable species. Twenty vulnerable species like Antiitari ayi (Actinidia callosa, Biiling (Choerospondias axillaris, Henchi (Rubus niveus, Jojuru ayi (Coccinia grandis, Ngiilyang Khiiko (Centella asiatica etc. should be conserved and seventeen not vulnerable species at this stage like, Padii hamang (Cardamine hirsute, Sankhe (Quercus griffithii, Bije (Phyllostachys manii, Hiigu hamang (Oenanthe javanica, Kiira (Quercus dealbata , etc. could be commercialized. However, a balance needed to be struck between commercialization and conservation by adopting a comprehensive policy based on scientific and traditional Apatani knowledge for harvesting and regeneration of NTFPs. Homegardening or community farming is recommended for sustainable supply of commercially important species to be domasticated.

  10. Estimating HAPs and radionuclide emissions from a laboratory complex at a nuclear processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.A.; Faugl, T.

    1993-01-01

    A unique methodology was developed for conducting an air emission inventory (AEI) at a DOE nuclear processing facility. This methodology involved the use of computer-assisted design (CAD) drawings to document emission points, computerized process drawings to document industrial processes leading to emissions, and a computerized data base of AEI forms to document emission estimates and related process data. A detailed air emissions inventory for operating years 1985--1991 was recently implemented for the entire site using this methodology. One industrial area at the DOE Site is comprised of laboratory facilities that provide direct support to the nuclear reactor and recovery operations, developmental studies to support reactor and separation operations, and developmental studies to support waste handling and storage. The majority of the functions are conducted in a single large building complex wherein bench scale and pilot scale experiments are carried out involving radionuclides, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and other chemicals reportable under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act (SARA) Title 111. The results of the inventory showed that HAP and radionuclide emissions from the laboratory complex were relatively minor

  11. Amazon rainforest exchange of carbon and subcanopy air flow: Manaus LBA site--a complex terrain condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóta, Julio; Fitzjarrald, David Roy; da Silva Dias, Maria A F

    2012-01-01

    On the moderately complex terrain covered by dense tropical Amazon Rainforest (Reserva Biologica do Cuieiras--ZF2--02°36'17.1'' S, 60°12'24.4'' W), subcanopy horizontal and vertical gradients of the air temperature, CO(2) concentration and wind field were measured for the dry and wet periods in 2006. We tested the hypothesis that horizontal drainage flow over this study area is significant and can affect the interpretation of the high carbon uptake rates reported by previous works at this site. A similar experimental design as the one by Tóta et al. (2008) was used with a network of wind, air temperature, and CO(2) sensors above and below the forest canopy. A persistent and systematic subcanopy nighttime upslope (positive buoyancy) and daytime downslope (negative buoyancy) flow pattern on a moderately inclined slope (12%) was observed. The microcirculations observed above the canopy (38 m) over the sloping area during nighttime presents a downward motion indicating vertical convergence and correspondent horizontal divergence toward the valley area. During the daytime an inverse pattern was observed. The micro-circulations above the canopy were driven mainly by buoyancy balancing the pressure gradient forces. In the subcanopy space the microcirculations were also driven by the same physical mechanisms but probably with the stress forcing contribution. The results also indicated that the horizontal and vertical scalar gradients (e.g., CO(2)) were modulated by these micro-circulations above and below the canopy, suggesting that estimates of advection using previous experimental approaches are not appropriate due to the tridimensional nature of the vertical and horizontal transport locally. This work also indicates that carbon budget from tower-based measurement is not enough to close the system, and one needs to include horizontal and vertical advection transport of CO(2) into those estimates.

  12. Top-down, Bottom-up and Sideways: The Multilayered Complexities of Multi-level Actors Shaping Forest Governance and REDD+ Arrangements in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ward, Dawn; Larson, Anne M; Ruesta, Harold Gordillo

    2018-01-03

    This study examines the role multilevel governance plays in the adoption of sustainable landscape management initiatives in emerging arrangements aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). It sheds light on the challenges these multiple layers of actors and interests encounter around such alternatives in a subnational jurisdiction. Through transcript analysis of 93 interviews with institutional actors in the region of Madre de Dios, Peru, particularly with regard to five sites of land-use change, we identified the multiple actors who are included and excluded in the decision-making process and uncovered their complex interactions in forest and landscape governance and REDD+ arrangements. Madre de Dios is a useful case for studying complex land-use dynamics, as it is home to multiple natural resources, a large mix of actors and interests, and a regional government that has recently experienced the reverberations of decentralization. Findings indicate that multiple actors shaped REDD+ to some extent, but REDD+ and its advocates were unable to shape land-use dynamics or landscape governance, at least in the short term. In the absence of strong and effective regional regulation for sustainable land use alternatives and the high value of gold on the international market, illegal gold mining proved to be a more profitable land-use choice. Although REDD+ created a new space for multilevel actor interaction and communication and new alliances to emerge, the study questions the prevailing REDD+ discourse suggesting that better coordination and cooperation will lead to integrated landscape solutions. For REDD+ to be able to play a role in integrated landscape governance, greater attention needs to be paid to grassroots actors, power and authority over territory and underlying interests and incentives for land-use change.

  13. Study of the transfer of radionuclides in trees at a forest site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barci-Funel, G.; Dalmasso, J.; Barci, V.L.; Ardisson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr from soil to trees (conifers) was studied in a forest area, the Boreon massif, 30 km north of Nice in South Eastern France. This area has been highly contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Besides the γ-emitting fission products, the α-emitters 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu and the pure β-emitter 90 Sr were measured in different parts of the studied trees (roots, branches, twigs, etc.). As has already been reported by other authors, the radionuclide activities in the tree rings are not correlated with the fallout deposition. They were found varying according to the sap flux in the tree and higher in sapwood than in heartwood. For cesium the root absorption was found to be lower than the atmospheric deposition. Soil-to-plant concentration factors were calculated for 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239+240 Pu

  14. A cross-site comparison of factors influencing soil nitrification rates in northeastern USA forested watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D.S.; Wemple, B.C.; Jamison, A.E.; Fredriksen, G.; Shanley, J.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Campbell, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated N deposition is continuing on many forested landscapes around the world and our understanding of ecosystem response is incomplete. Soil processes, especially nitrification, are critical. Many studies of soil N transformations have focused on identifying relationships within a single watershed but these results are often not transferable. We studied 10 small forested research watersheds in the northeastern USA to determine if there were common factors related to soil ammonification and nitrification. Vegetation varied between mixed northern hardwoods and mixed conifers. Watershed surface soils (Oa or A horizons) were sampled at grid or transect points and analyzed for a suite of chemical characteristics. At each sampling point, vegetation and topographic metrics (field and GIS-based) were also obtained. Results were examined by watershed averages (n = 10), seasonal/watershed averages (n = 28), and individual sampling points (n = 608). Using both linear and tree regression techniques, the proportion of conifer species was the single best predictor of nitrification rates, with lower rates at higher conifer dominance. Similar to other studies, the soil C/N ratio was also a good predictor and was well correlated with conifer dominance. Unlike other studies, the presence of Acer saccharum was not by itself a strong predictor, but was when combined with the presence of Betula alleghaniensis. Topographic metrics (slope, aspect, relative elevation, and the topographic index) were not related to N transformation rates across the watersheds. Although found to be significant in other studies, neither soil pH, Ca nor Al was related to nitrification. Results showed a strong relationship between dominant vegetation, soil C, and soil C/N. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Complex evaluation of ecology situation and soil productivity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, perspectives of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', L.; Ptiskaya, L.; Lyashenko; Pisak, R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of the Project. The goal of the project is complex evaluation of environmental resources at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site and perspectives of their cultivation with taking into account radioactive pollution. Scope of Activities. The following main works at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site: - estimate of climate, climatic resources and their changes; - organization and realization of complex visual and tool-making air survey (geo botanical, utter satellite spectrometric, radiometric); - reception and computer treatment of space information; - organization and realization of surface expedition field works (radiometric measurements and geo botanical observations); - realization of laboratory analysis for exposure of radio nucleus content in soil, plant and water; - treatment of materials of geo botanical survey, construction of plant and soil maps; - treatment of materials of aero spectrometric and space survey, calculation of vegetation cover productivity, drawing up of computer maps; - assessment of desert and steppe zone vegetation dynamic under artificial and climate impact.Expected Results. The following main investigation results will be obtained first for the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site and area around it. 1. Objective modern characteristics of radioactive land pollution. Distribution of radio nucleus in soil and vegetation cover. 2. Modern characteristics climatic resources assessment under possible climate change. 3. New maps of vegetation and soil cover, biological and feed productivity of the lands of the polygon at the scale 1:100 000 -1:1 500 000 taking into account climatic resources of the region. 4. Dynamics of desert and steppe zone vegetation assessment under radiation impact and possible climate change. 5. Features of vegetation restoration under constant radiation influence. 6. Basis of perspectives of land cultivation in the Semipalatinsk polygon area and recommendation on rehabilitation soil and

  16. Lys and Arg in UBI: A specific site for a stable Tc-99m complex?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Ramirez, Flor de Maria; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Murphy, Consuelo Arteaga de; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Hnatowich, Donald J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to help establish if ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 fragment (UBI) contains a specific site for 99m Tc labeling by a new direct method under alkaline conditions. Since this peptide does not have cysteine residues, it is possible that neighboring arginine and lysine in the peptide amino acid sequence (Thr-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys-Arg-Arg-Met-Gln-Tyr-Asn-Arg-Arg) could be a specific coordination site to form a stable 99m Tc-UBI complex. Following direct labeling, the in vitro stability of 99m Tc-UBI was compared to UBI radiolabeled by one indirect method using HYNIC/tricine and HYNIC/tricine/EDDA. Radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-UBI averaged 97% compared to 88% for 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI/tricine and 98% for 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI/tricine/EDDA. Both 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI (tricine or EDDA) and 99m Tc-UBI showed stability in human serum and solutions of cysteine. 99m Tc-UBI radiochemical purity 24 h after dilution in 0.9% NaCl was greater than 90% at pH 9 and greater than 95% at pH 6.5. Under one set of experimental conditions, in vitro binding to bacteria of 99m Tc-UBI was 35% and identical to that of 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI/tricine and 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI/tricine/EDDA at 32% and 31% respectively. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-UBI in mice showed a rapid renal clearance. To help identify the site(s) of 99m Tc binding following direct labeling, molecular mechanics and quantum-mechanical calculations were performed which showed that the amine groups of Arg 7 and Lys are the most probable site. The calculations show that these groups can form a square pyramid with two water molecules for the Tc cation (dxysp 3 ). It will be necessary to isolate and characterize the 99 Tc(V)(O)-UBI . (H 2 O) n complex to confirm these results

  17. How to Commission, Operate and Maintain a Large Future Accelerator Complex From Far Remote Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A study on future large accelerators [1] has considered a facility, which is designed, built and operated by a worldwide collaboration of equal partner institutions, and which is remote from most of these institutions. The full range of operation was considered including commissioning, machine development, maintenance, trouble shooting and repair. Experience from existing accelerators confirms that most of these activities are already performed remotely. The large high-energy physics experiments and astronomy projects, already involve international collaborations of distant institutions. Based on this experience, the prospects for a machine operated remotely from far sites are encouraging. Experts from each laboratory would remain at their home institution but continue to participate in the operation of the machine after construction. Experts are required to be on site only during initial commissioning and for particularly difficult problems. Repairs require an on-site non-expert maintenance crew. Most of the interventions can be made without an expert and many of the rest resolved with remote assistance. There appears to be no technical obstacle to controlling an accelerator from a distance. The major challenge is to solve the complex management and communication problems

  18. Identification of specific sources of airborne particles emitted from within a complex industrial (steelworks) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2018-06-01

    A case study is provided of the development and application of methods to identify and quantify specific sources of emissions from within a large complex industrial site. Methods include directional analysis of concentrations, chemical source tracers and correlations with gaseous emissions. Extensive measurements of PM10, PM2.5, trace gases, particulate elements and single particle mass spectra were made at sites around the Port Talbot steelworks in 2012. By using wind direction data in conjunction with real-time or hourly-average pollutant concentration measurements, it has been possible to locate areas within the steelworks associated with enhanced pollutant emissions. Directional analysis highlights the Slag Handling area of the works as the most substantial source of elevated PM10 concentrations during the measurement period. Chemical analyses of air sampled from relevant wind directions is consistent with the anticipated composition of slags, as are single particle mass spectra. Elevated concentrations of PM10 are related to inverse distance from the Slag Handling area, and concentrations increase with increased wind speed, consistent with a wind-driven resuspension source. There also appears to be a lesser source associated with Sinter Plant emissions affecting PM10 concentrations at the Fire Station monitoring site. The results are compared with a ME2 study using some of the same data, and shown to give a clearer view of the location and characteristics of emission sources, including fugitive dusts.

  19. How to Commission, Operate and Maintain a Large Future Accelerator Complex From Far Remote Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, Nan

    2001-12-07

    A study on future large accelerators [1] has considered a facility, which is designed, built and operated by a worldwide collaboration of equal partner institutions, and which is remote from most of these institutions. The full range of operation was considered including commissioning, machine development, maintenance, troubleshooting and repair. Experience from existing accelerators confirms that most of these activities are already performed 'remotely'. The large high-energy physics experiments and astronomy projects, already involve international collaborations of distant institutions. Based on this experience, the prospects for a machine operated remotely from far sites are encouraging. Experts from each laboratory would remain at their home institution but continue to participate in the operation of the machine after construction. Experts are required to be on site only during initial commissioning and for particularly difficult problems. Repairs require an on-site non-expert maintenance crew. Most of the interventions can be made without an expert and many of the rest resolved with remote assistance. There appears to be no technical obstacle to controlling an accelerator from a distance. The major challenge is to solve the complex management and communication problems.

  20. On-site customization of silicone stents: towards optimal palliation of complex airway conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, David P; Dutau, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Stents may be indicated as treatment of benign and malignant conditions of the central airways. Occasionally, aberrant and/or distorted airways secondary to therapy or surgery may preclude the use of commercially manufactured stents. The customization of stents is well described for nonpulmonary diseases, but to date there are only limited data in the literature on prosthesis customization for airway disease. To review all the different techniques and indications of on-site silicone stent customizations and their related complications. A retrospective study was undertaken to identify all patients who underwent treatment with a silicone stent which was customized on site by the physician. The study included subjects treated during an 8-year period. Forty-nine on-site customizations were performed in 43 patients (34 males, mean age 63 +/- 5.2 years). Stent customization was performed in 5.4% of the cases. Stent customization was performed for malignant and benign disease in 35 (81.3%) and 8 (18.7%) cases, respectively. In all cases, the stent deployed successfully and performed well while in situ. Stent manipulation did not increase complications. Customization of airway stents by the physician can lead to successful stenting of difficult airway lesions with a good short-term safety profile. Standard commercially available stents may have resulted in suboptimal management of complex airway pathologies. A prospective study is warranted to further investigate the safety profile and complications associated with stent customization. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon in precipitation over urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of carbon species in rainwater (bulk deposition) was studied for the first time at two sites located in urban area of Poznań City and protected woodland area (Jeziory), in central Poland, between April and December 2013. The mean concentration of total carbon (TC) for the first site was 5.86 mg L(-1), whereas for the second, 5.21 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration accounted for, on average, 87 and 91 % of total carbon in precipitation at urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Significant changes in TC concentrations in rainwater were observed at both sites, indicating that atmospheric transformation, transport, and removal mechanisms of carbonaceous particles were affected by seasonal fluctuations in biogenic/anthropogenic emission and meteorological conditions (i.e., precipitation height and type, atmospheric transport). During the warm season, the DOC concentration in rainwater was mostly influenced by mixed natural and anthropogenic sources. In contrast, during the cold season, the DOC concentration significantly increased mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities, i.e., intensive coal combustion, domestic wood burning, high-temperature processes, etc. In addition, during the winter measurements, significant differences in mean DOC concentration (Kruskal-Wallis test, p urban and non-urban sites. These data imply that carbonaceous compounds are of crucial importance in atmospheric chemistry and should be considered as an important parameter while considering wet deposition, reactions with different substances, especially over polluted environments.

  2. "I know, therefore I adapt?" Complexities of individual adaptation to climate-induced forest dieback in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Oakes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual actions to avoid, benefit from, or cope with climate change impacts partly shape adaptation; much research on adaptation has focused at the systems level, overlooking drivers of individual responses. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies of environmental behavior identify a complex web of cognitive, affective, and evaluative factors that motivate stewardship. We explore the relationship between knowledge of, and adaptation to, widespread, climate-induced tree mortality to understand the cognitive (i.e., knowledge and learning, affective (i.e., attitudes and place attachment, and evaluative (i.e., use values factors that influence how individuals respond to climate-change impacts. From 43 semistructured interviews with forest managers and users in a temperate forest, we identified distinct responses to local, climate-induced environmental changes that we then categorized as either behavioral or psychological adaptations. Interviewees developed a depth of knowledge about the dieback through a combination of direct, place-based experiences and indirect, mediated learning through social interactions. Knowing that the dieback was associated with climate change led to different adaptive responses among the interviewees, although knowledge alone did not explain this variation. Forest users reported psychological adaptations to process negative attitudes; these adaptations were spurred by knowledge of the causes, losses of intangible values, and impacts to a species to which they held attachment. Behavioral adaptations exclusive to a high level of knowledge included actions such as using the forests to educate others or changing transportation behaviors to reduce personal energy consumption. Managers integrated awareness of the dieback and its dynamics across spatial scales into current management objectives. Our findings suggest that adaptive management may occur from the bottom up, as individual managers implement new practices in

  3. A dynamic simulation model of the Savannah River Site high level waste complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.V.; Aull, J.E.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed, dynamic simulation entire high level radioactive waste complex at the Savannah River Site has been developed using SPEEDUP(tm) software. The model represents mass transfer, evaporation, precipitation, sludge washing, effluent treatment, and vitrification unit operation processes through the solution of 7800 coupled differential and algebraic equations. Twenty-seven discrete chemical constituents are tracked through the unit operations. The simultaneous simultaneous simulation of concurrent batch and continuous processes is achieved by several novel, customized SPEEDUP(tm) algorithms. Due to the model's computational burden, a high-end work station is required: simulation of a years operation of the complex requires approximately three CPU hours on an IBM RS/6000 Model 590 processor. The model will be used to develop optimal high level waste (HLW) processing strategies over a thirty year time horizon. It will be employed to better understand the dynamic inter-relationships between different HLW unit operations, and to suggest strategies that will maximize available working tank space during the early years of operation and minimize overall waste processing cost over the long-term history of the complex. Model validation runs are currently underway with comparisons against actual plant operating data providing an excellent match

  4. Administrative goals and safety standards for hazard control on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1973-01-01

    For efficient control of tree hazard on recreation sites, a specific administrative goal must be selected. A safety standard designed to achieve the selected goal and a uniform hazard-rating procedure will then promote a consistent level of safety at an acceptable cost. Safety standards can be established with the aid of data for past years, and dollar evaluations are...

  5. Response of Competing Vegetation to Site Preparation on West Gulf Coastal Plain Commercial Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Henry A. Pearson; Ronald E. Thill; V. Clark Baldwin; Alton Martin

    1995-01-01

    The response of woody and herbaceous vegetation to site preparation, subsoil texture, and fertilization was measured on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The influences of these treatments on competing vegetation were short-term. Drastic soil disturbance and fertilization briefly increased herbage production. Shear-windrow and shear-disk were generally the most effective...

  6. Growth of 11 introduced tree species on selected forest sites in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G Buck; Roger H. Imoto

    1982-01-01

    Growth and volume data for trees on 25 plots reprsenting 11 introduced species in Hawaii were recorded during a 21-year period. Tree were measured at about 5-year intervals to determine overall growth and stand development. The sites selected were considered better-than-average in terms of elevation, amount of precipitation, and soil quality. Except for redwood, stands...

  7. Sugar maple seedling anatomy and element localization at forest sites with differing nutrient levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn J. McQuattie; Robert P. Long; Thomas J. Hall

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings often have poor survival on acidic unglaciated portions of the Allegheny Plateau. Greater survival is found after lime treatment of unglaciated sites or on glaciated areas of the Plateau. The difference in survival rate may depend in part on the acidity or chemical composition of the soil.

  8. Effective tree hazard control on forested recreation sites...losses and protection costs evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1967-01-01

    Effectiveness of hazard control was evaluated by analyzing data on tree failures, accidents, and control costs on California recreation sites. Results indicate that reduction of limb hazard in oaks and bole hazard in conifers is the most effective form of control. Least effective is limb hazard reduction in conifers. After hazard control goals or control budgets have...

  9. Illustrating harvest effects on site microclimate in a high-elevation forest stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.B. Fowler; T.D. Anderson

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional contour surfaces were drawn for physiologically active radiation (PAR) and air and soil temperatures from measurements taken at a high-elevation site (1450 m) near the crest of the Cascade Range in central Washington. Measurements in a clearcut were compared with measurements from an adjacent uncut stand. Data for 31 days in July and August 1985...

  10. Structure and properties of silver sulfate complexes derived from dipyridyl methylthio ligands with secondary donor site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Hua; Yan, Hao-Jie; Chen, Hui; Liu, Rui-Heng; Li, Ai-Min; Wang, Guo [Beijing Key Laboratory for Optical Materials and Photonic Devices, Department of Chemistry, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Wan, Chong-Qing, E-mail: wancq@cnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Optical Materials and Photonic Devices, Department of Chemistry, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry in China, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Dipyridyl sulphide ligands 4-(pyridin-4-ylmethylthio)pyridine (abbreviated as L1) and 3-(pyridin-4-ylmethylthio)pyridine (abbreviated as L2) have been designed and used as μ-{sub N},{sub N}-bridging linkages to construct coordination polymers with free –S–CH{sub 2}– groups as secondary donor sites. By use solvent control method, coordination polymers ([Ag{sub 3}SO{sub 4}(L1){sub 3}](Cl)·4.5H{sub 2}O){sub ∞}(1), ([Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(L1){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O·2CH{sub 3}OH){sub ∞}(2), ([Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(L2){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O){sub ∞}(3) and ([Ag{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(L2){sub 4}]·5H{sub 2}O){sub ∞}(4) with different architectures were obtained. Complexes 1, 3 and 4 feature 1D channel with different sizes and structures. Complex 1 exhibits guest exchange by THF and 1,4-dioxane, and Hg{sup 2+} sorption ability from solution due to its relative larger channel and available bonding sites of –S– exposed to the channel region. All complexes have been characterized through single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), FT-IR spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. The guest exchange and Hg{sup 2+} sorption were monitored and identified, and the structure-property relationship of coordination polymers 1–4 are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polymers of silver(I) sulfate with secondary donor sites are shown guest exchange property and Hg{sup 2+} absorb ability from solution. This work provides a new method to construct functional materials with potential application. - Highlights: • New example of constructing functional coordination polymer with secondary donor methylthio group. • Guest exchange and interesting Hg(II) absorb ability from solution are investigated. • New method to construct functional materials with potential application.

  11. Combined use of stable isotopes and fallout radionuclides as soil erosion indicators in a forested mountain site, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusburger, K.; Mabit, L.; Alewell, C. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Environmental Geosciences; Park, J.H. [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Sandor, T. [Central Agricultural Office Food and Feed Safety Directorate (Hungary). Radioanalytical Reference Lab.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and to validate the suitability of the stable nitrogen and carbon isotope signature as soil erosion indicators in a mountain forest site in South Korea. Our approach is based on the comparison of the isotope signature of ''stable'' landscape positions (reference sites), which are neither affected by erosion nor deposition, with eroding sites. For undisturbed soils we expect that the enrichment of δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C with soil depth, due to fractionation during decomposition, goes in parallel with a decrease in nitrogen and carbon content. Soil erosion processes potentially weaken this correlation. The {sup 137}Cs method and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were applied for the soil erosion quantification. Erosion rates obtained with the {sup 137}Cs method range from 0.9 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} to 7 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Considering the steep slopes of up to 40 and the erosive monsoon events (R factor of 6600 MJ mm ha{sup -1} h{sup -1} yr {sup -1}), the rates are plausible and within the magnitude of the RUSLE-modeled soil erosion rates, varying from 0.02 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} to 5.1 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The soil profiles of the reference sites showed significant (p < 0.0001) correlations between nitrogen and carbon content and its corresponding δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C signatures. In contrast, for the eroding sites this relationship was weaker and for the carbon not significant. These results confirm the usefulness of the stable carbon isotope signature as a qualitative indicator for soil disturbance. We could show further that the δ{sup 15}N isotope signature can be used similarly for uncultivated sites. We thus propose that the stable δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C signature of soil profiles could serve as additional indicators confirming the accurate choice of the reference site in soil erosion studies using the {sup 137}Cs method.

  12. Element fluxes through European forest ecosystems and their relationships with stand and site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, W. de; Salm, C. van der; Reinds, G.J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a European wide assessment of element budgets, using available data on deposition, meteorology and soil solution chemistry at 121 Intensive Monitoring plots. Input fluxes from the atmosphere were derived from fortnightly or monthly measurements of bulk deposition and throughfall, corrected for canopy uptake. Element outputs from the forest ecosystem were derived by multiplying fortnightly or monthly measurements of the soil solution composition at the bottom of the root zone with simulated unsaturated soil water fluxes. Despite the uncertainties in the calculated budgets, the results indicate that: (i) SO 4 is still the dominant source of actual soil acidification despite the generally lower input of S than N, due to the different behaviour of S (near tracer) and N (strong retention); (ii) base cation removal due to man-induced soil acidification is limited; and (iii) Al release is high in areas with high S inputs and low base status. - An assessment of element budgets, using available data on deposition, meteorology and soil solution chemistry at 121 Intensive Monitoring plots in Europe

  13. Site-selective electroless nickel plating on patterned thin films of macromolecular metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mutsumi; Yamagiwa, Hiroki; Asakawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Makoto; Kurashina, Tadashi; Fukawa, Tadashi; Shirai, Hirofusa

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate a simple route to depositing nickel layer patterns using photocross-linked polymer thin films containing palladium catalysts, which can be used as adhesive interlayers for fabrication of nickel patterns on glass and plastic substrates. Electroless nickel patterns can be obtained in three steps: (i) the pattern formation of partially quaterized poly(vinyl pyridine) by UV irradiation, (ii) the formation of macromolecular metal complex with palladium, and (iii) the nickel metallization using electroless plating bath. Metallization is site-selective and allows for a high resolution. And the resulting nickel layered structure shows good adhesion with glass and plastic substrates. The direct patterning of metallic layers onto insulating substrates indicates a great potential for fabricating micro/nano devices.

  14. Optimization Review: Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Central Treatment Plant (CTP), Kellogg, Shoshone County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site includes all areas of the Coeur d’Alene Basin where mining-related contamination occurred and encompasses a 21-square mile “Box” along Interstate 90 surrounding the former smelter complex.

  15. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 1996 annual report wetlands research related to the Pen Branch restoration effort on the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Kolka, R.K. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Trettin, C.C. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.

  16. Seed longevity and dormancy state suggest management strategies for garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) in deciduous forest sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mame E. Redwood; Glenn R. Matlack; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2018-01-01

    An effective management plan for invasive herb populations must consider the potential for regeneration from the soil seedbank. To test chis potential, we examined two species, Japanese scilcgrass and garlic mustard, at deciduous forest sites in southeastern Ohio. Seeds were buried in nylon mesh bags and recovered at regular intervals over 24 mo. Recovered seeds were...

  17. Environmental stress in German forests; assessment of critical deposition levels and their exceedances and meteorological stress for crown condition monitoring sites in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, de W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimations of meteorological stress and atmospheric deposition were made for the systematic 8 x 8 km2 forest condition monitoring network in Germany for the years 1987-1995. Winter cold and late frost were important temperature stress variables and relative transpiration was a good

  18. Age-related patterns of forest complexity and carbon storage in pine and aspen-birch ecosystems of northern Minnesota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.B.; Kastendick, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    Forest managers are now developing strategies to mitigate increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and help stands to adapt to new climatic conditions. This study characterized the influence of stand age on carbon storage and sequestration in chronosequences of even-aged red pine and aspen-birch stands in northern Minnesota. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of age-related management strategies on carbon storage and forest complexity. The pine chronosequences ranged from 7 to 160 years. Aspen chronosequences ranged from 6 to 133 years. Field measurements of the trees were compiled into 5 carbon pools. Carbon storage variables were averaged within each stand in order to conduct a regression analysis. The study showed that forest complexity was positively related to stand age in all of the measured response variables except species richness. Relationships between compositional complexity and stand age depended on forest type. Total carbon storage also increased with age. Results of the study showed that age plays an important role in overall ecosystem carbon storage. The study can be used to provide insights into the overall costs and benefits of forest management strategies that favour younger or older forests. 45 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Facilitating Site Specific and Citizens Advisory Boards: Running Effective Meetings that Involve Complex Technical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.

    2009-01-01

    the Board with a different level of knowledge and interest? A facilitator need not be a scientist or an engineer, but he or she must be proactive in learning the site issues, responsive to concerns about meeting content that is too technical or not technical enough, and resilient when working with individuals for whom the goals of the Board are not necessarily their own. When an SSAB or a CAB is working together purposively with ground rules understood and respect given to each Board member, a facilitator is free to develop effective processes to help Board participants and the members of the public focus on the content and substance of their work together. What are the processes that confront the challenge of ensuring that SSAB and CAB members understand complex technical cleanup issues? How can a facilitator be effective in working with members of the public so that their input is as valuable as possible while balanced with the goals of the Board? This paper will explore the unique environments of this nation's SSABs and CABs; discuss the nature of issues that come before the Boards; examine the make-up of the Boards regarding their potential for understanding complex technical issues and discuss facilitation techniques that provide structure while encouraging participation, interactive work on the tasks at hand, and satisfaction. (authors)

  20. Analysis of a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system for a residential complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy use and costs of the on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES) which provides electric power from an on-site power plant and recovers heat that would normally be rejected to the environment is compared to a conventional system purchasing electricity from a utility and a phosphoric acid fuel cell powered system. The analysis showed that for a 500-unit apartment complex a fuel OS/IES would be about 10% more energy conservative in terms of total coal consumption than a diesel OS/IES system or a conventional system. The fuel cell OS/IES capital costs could be 30 to 55% greater than the diesel OS/IES capital costs for the same life cycle costs. The life cycle cost of a fuel cell OS/IES would be lower than that for a conventional system as long as the cost of electricity is greater than $0.05 to $0.065/kWh. An analysis of several parametric combinations of fuel cell power plant and state-of-art energy recovery systems and annual fuel requirement calculations for four locations were made. It was shown that OS/IES component choices are a major factor in fuel consumption, with the least efficient system using 25% more fuel than the most efficient. Central air conditioning and heat pumps result in minimum fuel consumption while individual air conditioning units increase it, and in general the fuel cell of highest electrical efficiency has the lowest fuel consumption.

  1. Evapotranspiration patterns in complex upland forests reveal contrasting topographic thresholds of non-linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, D.; Sheridan, G. J.; Benyon, R. G.; Bolstad, P. V.; Nyman, P.; Lane, P. N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Large areas of forest are often treated as being homogeneous just because they fall in a single climate category. However, we observe strong vegetation patterns in relation to topography in SE Australian forests and thus hypothesise that ET will vary spatially as well. Spatial heterogeneity evolves over different temporal scales in response to climatic forcing with increasing time lag from soil moisture (sub-yearly), to vegetation (10s -100s of years) to soil properties and topography (>100s of years). Most importantly, these processes and time scales are not independent, creating feedbacks that result in "co-evolved stable states" which yield the current spatial terrain, vegetation and ET patterns. We used up-scaled sap flux and understory ET measurements from water-balance plots, as well as LiDAR derived terrain and vegetation information, to infer links between spatio-temporal energy and water fluxes, topography and vegetation patterns at small catchment scale. Topography caused variations in aridity index between polar and equatorial-facing slopes (1.3 vs 1.8), which in turn manifested in significant differences in sapwood area index (6.9 vs 5.8), overstory LAI (3.0 vs 2.3), understory LAI (0.5 vs 0.4), sub-canopy radiation load (4.6 vs 6.8 MJ m-2 d-1), overstory transpiration (501 vs 347 mm a-1) and understory ET (79 vs 155 mm a-1). Large spatial variation in overstory transpiration (195 to 891 mm a-1) was observed over very short distances (100s m); a range representative of diverse forests such as arid open woodlands and wet mountain ash forests. Contrasting, non-linear overstory and understory ET patterns were unveiled between aspects, and topographic thresholds were lower for overstory than understory ET. While ET partitioning remained stable on polar-facing slopes regardless of slope position, overstory contribution gradually decreased with increasing slope inclination on equatorial aspects. Further, we show that ET patterns and controls underlie strong

  2. Temporal change in soil carbon stability at a paired old-growth douglas-fir forest/clear-cut site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest ecosystems are estimated to contain one-half of the total terrestrial carbon (C) pool (1146 Pg), with two-thirds of this C (787 Pg) residing in forest soils. Given the magnitude of this C pool, it is critical to understand the effects of forest management practices on soil...

  3. LBA-ECO TG-07 Ground-based Biometry Data at km 83 Site, TapajosNational Forest: 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Keller; M.W. Palace

    2009-01-01

    A field inventory of trees was conducted in March of 1997 in a logging concession at the Tapajos National Forest, south of Santarem, Para, Brazil. The inventory was conducted by the foresters and technicians of the Tropical Forest Foundation (FFT) and included all trees with diameter at breast height greater than or equal to 35 cm. Four blocks of approximately 100 ha...

  4. Connecting non-timber forest products stakeholders to information and knowledge: A case study of an Internet web site

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Matt Winn; A.L. Hammett

    2009-01-01

    Many products are harvested from forests that are not timber-based but are based on plant materials. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) have not been fully incorporated into economic development programs, yet they provide significant monetary benefits for rural entrepreneurs. Interest in NTFPs as alternative forest enterprises and sources of additional income has...

  5. Chemodynamics of EDTA in a simulated mixed waste: the Hanford Site's complex concentrate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Enormous stockpiles of mixed wastes at the USDOE's Hanford Site, the original US plutonium production facility, await permanent disposal. One mixed waste derived from reprocessing spent fuel was found to contain numerous nuclear related organics including chelating agents like EDTA and complexing agents, which have been used as decontamination agents, etc. Their presence in actual mixed wastes indicates that the organic content of nuclear wastes is dynamic and complicate waste management efforts. The subjects of this report is the chemo-degradation of EDTA degradation in a simulant Hanford's complex concentrate waste. The simulant was prepared by adding EDTA to an inorganic matrix, which was formulated based on past analyses of the actual waste. Aliquots of the EDTA simulant were withdrawn at different time points, derivatized via methylation and analyzed by gas chromatography and Gc/MS to monitor the disappearance of EDTA and the appearance of its' degradation products. This report also compares the results of EDTA's chemo-degradation to the g-radiolysis of EDTA in the simulant, the subject of a recently published article. Finally based on the results of these two studies, an assesment of the potential impact of EDTA degradation on the management of mixed wastes is offered. (J.P.N.)

  6. Re-Inversion of Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography Data from the Hanford Site B-Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2013-05-01

    This report documents the three-dimensional (3D) inversion results of surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data collected over the Hanford Site B-Complex. The data were collected in order to image the subsurface distribution of electrically conductive vadose zone contamination resulting from both planned releases of contamination into subsurface infiltration galleries (cribs, trenches, and tile fields), as well as unplanned releases from the B, BX, and BY tank farms and/or associated facilities. Electrically conductive contaminants are those which increase the ionic strength of pore fluids compared to native conditions, which comprise most types of solutes released into the subsurface B-Complex. The ERT data were collected and originally inverted as described in detail in report RPP-34690 Rev 0., 2007, which readers should refer to for a detailed description of data collection and waste disposal history. Although the ERT imaging results presented in that report successfully delineated the footprint of vadose zone contamination in areas outside of the tank farms, imaging resolution was not optimized due to the inability of available inversion codes to optimally process the massive ERT data set collected at the site. Recognizing these limitations and the potential for enhanced ERT characterization and time-lapse imaging at contaminated sites, a joint effort was initiated in 2007 by the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of Science (DOE-SC), with later support by the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), to develop a high-performance distributed memory parallel 3D ERT inversion code capable of optimally processing large ERT data sets. The culmination of this effort was the development of E4D (Johnson et al., 2010,2012) In 2012, under the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), the U.S. Department of Energy – Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation

  7. Model-experiment synthesis at two FACE sites in the southeastern US. Forest ecosystem responses to elevated CO[2]. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A. P.; Zaehle, S.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Medlyn, B. E.; Dietze, M.; Hickler, T.; Iversen, C. M.; Jain, A. K.; Luo, Y.; McCarthy, H. R.; Parton, W. J.; Prentice, C.; Thornton, P. E.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.; Warlind, D.; Warren, J.; Weng, E.; Hanson, P. J.; Oren, R.; Norby, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem observations from two long-term Free-Air CO[2] Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Duke forest and Oak Ridge forest) were used to evaluate the assumptions of 11 terrestrial ecosystem models and the consequences of those assumptions for the responses of ecosystem water, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes to elevated CO[2] (eCO[2]). Nitrogen dynamics were the main constraint on simulated productivity responses to eCO[2]. At Oak Ridge some models reproduced the declining response of C and N fluxes, while at Duke none of the models were able to maintain the observed sustained responses. C and N cycles are coupled through a number of complex interactions, which causes uncertainty in model simulations in multiple ways. Nonetheless, the major difference between models and experiments was a larger than observed increase in N-use efficiency and lower than observed response of N uptake. The results indicate that at Duke there were mechanisms by which trees accessed additional N in response to eCO[2] that were not represented in the ecosystem models, and which did not operate with the same efficiency at Oak Ridge. Sequestration of the additional productivity under eCO[2] into forest biomass depended largely on C allocation. Allocation assumptions were classified into three main categories--fixed partitioning coefficients, functional relationships and a partial (leaf allocation only) optimisation. The assumption which best constrained model results was a functional relationship between leaf area and sapwood area (pipe-model) and increased root allocation when nitrogen or water were limiting. Both, productivity and allocation responses to eCO[2] determined the ecosystem-level response of LAI, which together with the response of stomatal conductance (and hence water-use efficiency; WUE) determined the ecosystem response of transpiration. Differences in the WUE response across models were related to the representation of the relationship of stomatal conductance to CO[2] and

  8. Exemplifying whole-plant ozone uptake in adult forest trees of contrasting species and site conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Angela J.; Wieser, Gerhard; Metzger, Ursula; Loew, Markus; Wipfler, Philip; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Whole-tree O 3 uptake was exemplified for Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua in stands at high and low altitude and contrasting water availability through sap flow measurement in tree trunks, intrinsically accounting for drought and boundary layer effects on O 3 flux. O 3 uptake of evergreen spruce per unit foliage area was enhanced by 100% at high relative to low elevation, whereas deciduous beech and larch showed similar uptake regardless of altitude. The responsiveness of the canopy conductance to water vapor and, as a consequence, O 3 uptake to soil moisture and air humidity did not differ between species. Unifying findings at the whole-tree level will promote cause-effect based O 3 risk assessment and modeling. - Sap flow-based assessment of whole-tree O 3 uptake reflects similar responsiveness of canopy conductance and O 3 uptake across contrasting tree species and site conditions

  9. Crystal structure of equine serum albumin in complex with cetirizine reveals a novel drug-binding site

    OpenAIRE

    Handing, Katarzyna B.; Shabalin, Ivan G.; Szlachta, Karol; Majorek, Karolina A.; Minor, Wladek

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is the main transporter of drugs in mammalian blood plasma. Here, we report the first crystal structure of equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with antihistamine drug cetirizine at a resolution of 2.1 ?. Cetirizine is bound in two sites ? a novel drug binding site (CBS1) and the fatty acid binding site 6 (CBS2). Both sites differ from those that have been proposed in multiple reports based on equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence studies for mammalian albumins as cetirizi...

  10. Charge Transfer at the Qo-Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex Leads to Superoxide Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Salo, Adrian; Husen, Peter; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2017-01-01

    The cytochrome bc1 complex is the third protein complex in the electron transport chain of mitochondria or photosynthetic bacteria, and it serves to create an electrochemical gradient across a cellular membrane, which is used to drive ATP synthesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate...... interactions involving an occasionally trapped oxygen molecule (O2) at the so-called Qo site of the bc1 complex, which is one of the central active sites of the protein complex, where redox reactions are expected to occur. The investigation focuses on revealing the possibility of the oxygen molecule...... to influence the normal operation of the bc1 complex and acquire an extra electron, thus becoming superoxide, a biologically toxic free radical. The process is modeled by applying quantum chemical calculations to previously performed classical molecular dynamics simulations. Investigations reveal several...

  11. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bq g{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behaviour patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size. (author).

  12. Post-translational modifications near the quinone binding site of mammalian complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2013-08-23

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 44 protein subunits with one arm buried in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion and the orthogonal arm protruding about 100 Å into the matrix. The protruding arm contains the binding sites for NADH, the primary acceptor of electrons flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and a chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters that carries the electrons one at a time from FMN to a coenzyme Q molecule bound in the vicinity of the junction between the two arms. In the structure of the closely related bacterial enzyme from Thermus thermophilus, the quinone is thought to bind in a tunnel that spans the interface between the two arms, with the quinone head group close to the terminal iron-sulfur cluster, N2. The tail of the bound quinone is thought to extend from the tunnel into the lipid bilayer. In the mammalian enzyme, it is likely that this tunnel involves three of the subunits of the complex, ND1, PSST, and the 49-kDa subunit. An arginine residue in the 49-kDa subunit is symmetrically dimethylated on the ω-N(G) and ω-N(G') nitrogen atoms of the guanidino group and is likely to be close to cluster N2 and to influence its properties. Another arginine residue in the PSST subunit is hydroxylated and probably lies near to the quinone. Both modifications are conserved in mammalian enzymes, and the former is additionally conserved in Pichia pastoris and Paracoccus denitrificans, suggesting that they are functionally significant.

  13. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  14. Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen oxides at a hardwood forest site in northern Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Seok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of CO2, O3, and NOx (NO + NO2 were investigated at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS, a mid-latitude, low elevation hardwood forest site, during the 2007–2008 winter season. An automated trace gas sampling system was used to determine trace gas concentrations in the snowpack at multiple depths continuously throughout the snow-covered period from two adjacent plots. One natural plot and one with the soil covered by a Tedlar sheet were setup for investigating whether the primary source of measured trace gases was biogenic (i.e., from the soil or non-biogenic (i.e., from the snowpack. The results were compared with the “White on Green” study conducted at the Niwot Ridge (NWT Long Term Ecological Research site in Colorado. The average winter CO2 flux ± s.e. from the soil at UMBS was 0.54 ± 0.037 µmol m-2 s-1 using the gradient diffusion method and 0.71 ± 0.012 µmol m-2 s-1 using the eddy covariance method, and in a similar range as found for NWT. Observed snowpack-O3 exchange was also similar to NWT. However, nitrogen oxides (NOx fluxes from snow at UMBS were 10 times smaller than those at NWT, and fluxes were bi-directional with the direction of the flux dependent on NOx concentrations in ambient air. The compensation point for the change in the direction of NOx flux was estimated to be 0.92 nmol mol-1. NOx in snow also showed diurnal dependency on incident radiation. These NOx dynamics in the snow at UMBS were notably different compared to NWT, and primarily determined by snow-atmosphere interactions rather than by soil NOx emissions.

  15. Vertical fogwater flux measurements above an elevated forest canopy at the Lägeren research site, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Reto; Bützberger, Patrick; Eugster, Werner

    During the winter of 2001/2002 wet and occult deposition measurements were performed at the Lägeren research site ( 690 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland. Two types of fog were observed: radiation fog (RF) and fog associated with atmospheric instabilities (FAI). The deposition measurements were performed above the forest canopy on a 45 m high tower. Occult deposition was measured by means of the eddy covariance method. Due to the large differences of microphysical properties of the two fog types, the liquid water fluxes were much higher (6.9 mg m -2 s-1) during RF than during FAI (0.57 mg m -2 s-1) . Fogwater concentrations were considerably enhanced during RF compared with FAI. The comparison of fog and rain revealed that fogwater nutrient concentrations were 3-66 times larger than concentrations in precipitation. The considerably larger water fluxes and nutrient concentrations of RF resulted in much higher nutrient deposition compared with FAI. In winter when RF was quite frequent, occult deposition was the dominant pathway for nitrate and ammonium deposition. Daily fluxes of total inorganic nitrogen were 1.89 mg m -2 d-1 by occult and 1.01 mg m -2 d-1 by wet deposition. The estimated contribution of occult deposition to total annual nitrogen input was 16.4% or 4.3 kg N ha -1 yr-1, and wet deposition contributed 26.5% ( 6.9 kg N ha -1 yr-1) . As a consequence, critical loads of annual N-input were exceeded, resulting in a significant over-fertilization at the Lägeren site.

  16. An interaction site of the envelope proteins of Semliki Forest virus that is preserved after proteolytic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinyong; Kielian, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Semliki Forest virus (SFV) membrane fusion is mediated by the viral E1 protein at acidic pH and regulated by the dimeric interaction of E1 with the E2 membrane protein. During low pH-triggered fusion, the E2/E1 heterodimer dissociates, freeing E1 to drive membrane fusion. E2 is synthesized as a precursor, p62, which is processed to mature E2 by the cellular protease furin. Both the dissociation of the p62/E1 dimer and the fusion reaction of p62 virus have a more acidic pH threshold than that of the mature E2 virus. We have previously isolated SFV mutations that allow virus growth in furin-deficient cells. Here we have used such pci mutations to compare the interactions of the p62/E1 and E2/E1 dimers. Our data suggest that there is an important p62/E1 dimer interaction site identified by an E2 R250G mutation and that this interaction is maintained after processing to the mature E2 protein

  17. Size of Specially Protected Forest Sites for Raptors: What Size of These Sites Should be for Protect the Raptor’s Breeding Territories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of various types of felling on the occupation of breeding territories by different species of raptors mainly in the Altai Territory forests. Responses of birds of prey to the disturbance factor are also analyzed. Flight initiation distance is determined for each species. A review of international and Russian experience of buffer zones and specially protected forest areas (SPFA around nests of raptors was made. On this basis, the article presents the sizes of specially protected forest areas, thus it is possible to preserve breeding territories of different birds of prey species.

  18. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Mitochondrial cardiolipin/phospholipid trafficking: the role of membrane contact site complexes and lipid transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlattner, Uwe; Tokarska-Schlattner, Malgorzata; Rousseau, Denis; Boissan, Mathieu; Mannella, Carmen; Epand, Richard; Lacombe, Marie-Lise

    2014-04-01

    Historically, cellular trafficking of lipids has received much less attention than protein trafficking, mostly because its biological importance was underestimated, involved sorting and translocation mechanisms were not known, and analytical tools were limiting. This has changed during the last decade, and we discuss here some progress made in respect to mitochondria and the trafficking of phospholipids, in particular cardiolipin. Different membrane contact site or junction complexes and putative lipid transfer proteins for intra- and intermembrane lipid translocation have been described, involving mitochondrial inner and outer membrane, and the adjacent membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. An image emerges how cardiolipin precursors, remodeling intermediates, mature cardiolipin and its oxidation products could migrate between membranes, and how this trafficking is involved in cardiolipin biosynthesis and cell signaling events. Particular emphasis in this review is given to mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase D and mitochondrial creatine kinases, which emerge to have roles in both, membrane junction formation and lipid transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Computational discovery of picomolar Q(o) site inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Wang, Fu; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Huang, Li-Shar; Wu, Jia-Wei; Berry, Edward A; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2012-07-11

    A critical challenge to the fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is its low-throughput nature due to the necessity of biophysical method-based fragment screening. Herein, a method of pharmacophore-linked fragment virtual screening (PFVS) was successfully developed. Its application yielded the first picomolar-range Q(o) site inhibitors of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, an important membrane protein for drug and fungicide discovery. Compared with the original hit compound 4 (K(i) = 881.80 nM, porcine bc(1)), the most potent compound 4f displayed 20 507-fold improved binding affinity (K(i) = 43.00 pM). Compound 4f was proved to be a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate cytochrome c, but a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. Additionally, we determined the crystal structure of compound 4e (K(i) = 83.00 pM) bound to the chicken bc(1) at 2.70 Å resolution, providing a molecular basis for understanding its ultrapotency. To our knowledge, this study is the first application of the FBDD method in the discovery of picomolar inhibitors of a membrane protein. This work demonstrates that the novel PFVS approach is a high-throughput drug discovery method, independent of biophysical screening techniques.

  2. HPLC studies of aquatic humic compounds and complexes from the Drigg Research Site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes an investigation into the applicability of high performance liquid chromatographic techniques for the separation of the complex mixtures of organic acids commonly found in groundwaters. This work has shown that reverse phase ion-pair chromatography using a large pore stationary phase can be successfully applied to humic material in both natural and concentrated groundwater from the Drigg Research Site. The methodology separates the organic species into a number of well resolved components the majority of which have a molecular weight of greater than 500 Dalton. Separations obtained have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed using a Diode array spectrophotometer. The components in excess of 500 Dalton show UV absorption spectra similar to humic and fulvic acids where as the component with a molecular weight of less than 500 Dalton shows a sharp UV absorption cutoff at 230 nm. It was noted that this component was not removed by passage through DEAEA cellulose. Reverse phase HPLC was also investigated, and results were found to be consistent with a separation based on an ion-repulsion/size exclusion mechanism. It was concluded that any separation based on this mechanism is likely to suffer from poor inter run reproducibility and must therefore be discounted as a suitable method. Similarly, ion-suppression reverse phase was shown to be equally impracticable, requiring a mobile phase pH of less than 2 to obtain separation (this low pH renders a silica based stationary phase unstable). (author)

  3. Atmospheric dispersion experiments over complex terrain in a spanish valley site (Guardo-90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    An intensive field experimental campaign was conducted in Spain to quantify atmospheric diffusion within a deep, steep-walled valley in rough, mountainous terrain. The program has been sponsored by the spanish companies of electricity and is intended to validate existing plume models and to provide the scientific basis for future model development. The atmospheric dispersion and transport processes in a 40x40 km domain were studied in order to evaluate SO 2 and SF 6 releases from an existing 185 m chimney and ground level sources in a complex terrain valley site. Emphasis was placed on the local mesoscale flows and light wind stable conditions. Although the measuring program was intensified during daytime for dual tracking of SO 2 /SF 6 from an elevated source, nighttime experiments were conducted for mountain-valley flows characterization. Two principle objectives were pursued: impaction of plumes upon elevated terrain, and diffusion of gases within the valley versus diffusion over flat, open terrain. Artificial smoke flows visualizations provided qualitative information: quantitative diffusion measurements were obtained using sulfur hexafluoride gas with analysis by highly sensitive electron capture gas chromatographs systems. Fourteen 2 hours gaseous tracer releases were conducted

  4. Remote Sensing Assessment of Forest Disturbance across Complex Mountainous Terrain: The Pattern and Severity of Impacts of Tropical Cyclone Yasi on Australian Rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson I. Negrón-Juárez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Topography affects the patterns of forest disturbance produced by tropical cyclones. It determines the degree of exposure of a surface and can alter wind characteristics. Whether multispectral remote sensing data can sense the effect of topography on disturbance is a question that deserves attention given the multi-scale spatial coverage of these data and the projected increase in intensity of the strongest cyclones. Here, multispectral satellite data, topographic maps and cyclone surface wind data were used to study the patterns of disturbance in an Australian rainforest with complex mountainous terrain produced by tropical cyclone Yasi (2011. The cyclone surface wind data (H*wind was produced by the Hurricane Research Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (HRD/NOAA, and this was the first time that this data was produced for a cyclone outside of United States territory. A disturbance map was obtained by applying spectral mixture analyses on satellite data and presented a significant correlation with field-measured tree mortality. Our results showed that, consistent with cyclones in the southern hemisphere, multispectral data revealed that forest disturbance was higher on the left side of the cyclone track. The highest level of forest disturbance occurred in forests along the path of the cyclone track (±30°. Levels of forest disturbance decreased with decreasing slope and with an aspect facing off the track of the cyclone or away from the dominant surface winds. An increase in disturbance with surface elevation was also observed. However, areas affected by the same wind intensity presented increased levels of disturbance with increasing elevation suggesting that complex terrain interactions act to speed up wind at higher elevations. Yasi produced an important offset to Australia’s forest carbon sink in 2010. We concluded that multispectral data was sensitive to the main effects of complex topography on disturbance

  5. Modelling the carbon budget of intensive forest monitoring sites in Germany using the simulation model BIOME-BGC

    OpenAIRE

    Jochheim, H.; Puhlmann, M.; Beese, F.; Berthold, D.; Einert, P.; Kallweit, R.; Konopatzky, A.; Meesenburg, H.; Meiwes, K.-J.; Raspe, S.; Schulte-Bisping, H.; Schulz, C.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that by calibrating the simulation model BIOME-BGC with mandatory and optional Level II data, within the ICP Forest programme, a well-founded calculation of the carbon budget of forest stands is achievable and, based on succeeded calibration, the modified BIOME-BGC model is a useful tool to assess the effect of climate change on forest ecosystems. peerReviewed

  6. Chemical characterization of organic aerosol above a mid-latitude forest reveals a complex mixture of highly-functionalized chemical species and diverse structural features with temporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Ditto, J.; Barnes, E.; Khare, P.

    2017-12-01

    Highly-functionalized organic compounds are known to be a major component of the complex mixture of the particle-phase compounds that comprise organic aerosol, yet little is known about the identity of many of these compounds, and their formation pathways and roles in atmospheric processes are poorly understood. We present results from the comprehensive chemical speciation of PM10 organic aerosols collected in July 2016 at the remote mid-latitude forest field site during PROPHET. Samples were analyzed via liquid and gas chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS×MS) following electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). 8 hr samples were collected during day- and night-time sampling periods rather than more typical 24-hour samples. This analysis of the organic aerosol yielded over 12,000 unique compounds for which we have high accuracy molecular masses, formulas, and additional information on structural features using MS×MS. O:C ratios were 0.3 on average, yet the top 10% of compounds ranged 0.7-2.3. 70% and 69% of day- and night-time samples were nitrogen-containing, whereas 26% and 24% contained sulfur, respectively. Within these broader molecular categories, we observed a wide variety of molecular features that reveal a diversity of functional groups and moieties. In this presentation, we present the results of our speciation, temporal variability, connections to air parcel back trajectories and other bulk properties, and potential formation pathways.

  7. Soil microbial biomass under pine forests in the north-western Spain: influence of stand age, site index and parent material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahia, J.; Perez-Ventura, L.; Cabaneiro, A.; Diaz-Ravina, M.

    2006-07-01

    The effects of stand age, site index and parent material on soil biochemical properties related to biomass (extractable C, microbial C and metabolic quotient) were examined in the 0-15 cm mineral soil layers of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris stand from NW Spain. Two productivity levels (low and high site index), two ages (young and old) and two parent soil materials (granite and acid schists) were considered. The data indicated that there were differences in microbial parameters in soils under different species. In general in P. pinaster forest higher values of biochemical parameters expressed on organic C basis, were observed in the stands of high site index as compared with the low ones; in contrast, in P. sylvestris no differences among stand site index were detected. In both species different results were also observed depending on parent material and a significant effect of stand age was detected for extractable C and microbial C in P. pinaster forest developed over granite. The data seem to indicate that measured parameters may have the potential to be used as indicators of the effect of forest management on soil organic matter quality. (Author) 25 refs.

  8. The low molecular weight protein PsaI stabilizes the light-harvesting complex II docking site of photosystem I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plöchinger, Magdalena; Torabi, Salar; Rantala, Marjaana

    2016-01-01

    PsaI represents one of three low molecular weight peptides of PSI. Targeted inactivation of the plastid PsaI gene in Nicotiana tabacum has no measurable effect on photosynthetic electron transport around PSI or on accumulation of proteins involved in photosynthesis. Instead, the lack of Psa......I destabilizes the association of PsaL and PsaH to PSI, both forming the light-harvesting complex (LHC)II docking site of PSI. These alterations at the LHCII binding site surprisingly did not prevent state transition but led to an increased incidence of PSI-LHCII complexes, coinciding with an elevated...

  9. Size of Specially Protected Forest Sites for Raptors: What Size of These Sites Should be for Protect the Raptor’s Breeding Territories?

    OpenAIRE

    Igor V. Karyakin; Elvira G. Nikolenko; Sergey V. Bakka

    2018-01-01

    The article analyzes the influence of various types of felling on the occupation of breeding territories by different species of raptors mainly in the Altai Territory forests. Responses of birds of prey to the disturbance factor are also analyzed. Flight initiation distance is determined for each species. A review of international and Russian experience of buffer zones and specially protected forest areas (SPFA) around nests of raptors was made. On this basis, the article presents the sizes o...

  10. Growth dynamics of fine roots in a coniferous fern forest site close to Forsmark in the central part of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Hans; Stadenberg, Ingela (SLU, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    The seasonal growth dynamics of live and dead roots for trees and the field layer species (g/m2, varying diameter fractions) and live/dead ratios were analysed at a fresh/moist coniferous fern forest site close to the nuclear power plant at Forsmark in the central eastern parts of Sweden. The changes in depth distribution of fine roots were observed at depth intervals of the top humus horizon down to 40 cm in the mineral soil profile. The bulk of living fine roots of trees (< 1 mm in diameter) were found in the mineral soil horizon the total profile down to 40 cm of the mineral soil, where 89, 82, 83 and 89% of the total amount in the whole profile were found. The upper 2.5 cm part of the humus layer contained 83, 81, 100 and 100% of all roots of the humus layer on the four different sampling occasions. High amounts of living fine roots were found in the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil horizon viz. 84, 76, 91 and 69% of the total mineral soil layer. Consequently, both the top soil horizons of the humus and the mineral soil layers were heavily penetrated by living fine roots. The highest proportion of living fine roots was found in the top 2.5 cm of the humus layer. Accordingly, the live/dead ratio of fine roots (< 1 mm in diameter) decreased from the top of the humus layer to the lower part of mineral soil horizon from 8.0-0.3, 0.8-0.2, 4.4-0.4 and 3.3-0.7 (g g-1) for the four sampling occasions, respectively. We concluded that the decrease in the live/ dead ratio was related to decreased vitality with depth of the fine roots in the soil profile. The highest live/dead ratio was found in the upper 2.5 cm of the humus layer for both the tree and field-layer species. This distribution pattern was most evident for tree fine roots < 1 mm in diameter. The mean fine-root biomass (live tissue < 1 mm in diameter) of tree species for the total profile varied on the four sampling occasions between 317, 113, 139 and 248 g m-2. The related fine root necromass (dead tissue

  11. Underestimation of soil carbon stocks by Yasso07, Q, and CENTURY models in boreal forest linked to overlooking site fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťupek, Boris; Ortiz, Carina; Hashimoto, Shoji; Stendahl, Johan; Dahlgren, Jonas; Karltun, Erik; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    The soil organic carbon stock (SOC) changes estimated by the most process based soil carbon models (e.g. Yasso07, Q and CENTURY), needed for reporting of changes in soil carbon amounts for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and for mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by soil carbon management, can be biased if in a large mosaic of environments the models are missing a key factor driving SOC sequestration. To our knowledge soil nutrient status as a missing driver of these models was not tested in previous studies. Although, it's known that models fail to reconstruct the spatial variation and that soil nutrient status drives the ecosystem carbon use efficiency and soil carbon sequestration. We evaluated SOC stock estimates of Yasso07, Q and CENTURY process based models against the field data from Swedish Forest Soil National Inventories (3230 samples) organized by recursive partitioning method (RPART) into distinct soil groups with underlying SOC stock development linked to physicochemical conditions. These models worked for most soils with approximately average SOC stocks, but could not reproduce higher measured SOC stocks in our application. The Yasso07 and Q models that used only climate and litterfall input data and ignored soil properties generally agreed with two third of measurements. However, in comparison with measurements grouped according to the gradient of soil nutrient status we found that the models underestimated for the Swedish boreal forest soils with higher site fertility. Accounting for soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content) and structure (bulk density) in CENTURY model showed no improvement on carbon stock estimates, as CENTURY deviated in similar manner. We highlighted the mechanisms why models deviate from the measurements and the ways of considering soil nutrient status in further model development. Our analysis suggested that the models indeed lack other predominat drivers of SOC stabilization

  12. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronika Leitold; Michael Keller; Douglas C Morton; Bruce D Cook; Yosio E Shimabukuro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas...

  13. Monitoring of radionuclides in the forest ecosystems of the Krasnoyarsk region in the 30 km area around the mining and chemical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dement'eva, D.V.; Bolsunovskij, A.Ya.

    2010-01-01

    The study addresses accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms and berry shrubs in the forest ecosystems around the mining and chemical complex (MCC, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia). Results of determination of radionuclide levels in mushrooms and shrubs were used to calculate transfer factors. (authors)

  14. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....

  15. Seeing the Forest from the Sky: Joint Airpower Through the Lens of Complex Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    such as wind, water, shifting soil, insects, animals, 2 and the influence of people. For thousands of years, most fields of human inquiry have...expressed in the different ways one might use a can of tennis balls: while most tennis players can reasonably cope with the complexity of hitting each...only bounced off of each other according to the laws of ballistics, but could actually react to one another and the tennis players , changing their

  16. Final Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Y-12 National Security Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) a separately organized agency within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for providing the Nation with nuclear weapons and ensuring that those nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable. As one of the DOE major production facilities, the Y-12 National Security Complex has been DOE's primary site for enriched uranium processing and storage, and one of the manufacturing facilities for maintaining the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the emphasis of the U.S. weapons program has shifted dramatically over the past few years from developing and producing new weapons to dismantlement and maintenance of a smaller, enduring stockpile. The ''Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' [SSM PEIS], DOE/EIS-0236, issued in September 1996, evaluated alternatives for maintaining the safety and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile without underground nuclear testing or production of new-design weapons. In the SSM PEIS Record of Decision (ROD), DOE decided to maintain the national security missions at the Y-12 National Security Complex, but to downsize Y-12 consistent with reduced requirements. These national security missions include (1) maintaining the capability and capacity to fabricate secondaries, limited life components, and case parts for nuclear response; (2) evaluating components and subsystems returned from the stockpile; (3) storing enriched uranium that is designated for national security purposes; (4) storing depleted uranium and lithium parts; (5) dismantling nuclear weapons secondaries returned from the stockpile; (6) processing uranium and lithium (which includes chemical recovery, purification, and conversion of enriched uranium and lithium to a form suitable for long-term storage and/or further use); and (7) providing support to weapons laboratories. During the

  17. Radionuclides in a deciduous forest surrounding a shallow-land-burial site in the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Kirby, L.J.; McShane, M.C.

    1981-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if radioactive materials buried in trenches at the Maxey Flats burial ground in eastern Kentucky have migrated into the surrounding oak-hickory forest. Forest floor litter, minearl soil, and tree leaves were sampled and the radionuclide content measured

  18. Nonnative invasive plants in the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine, USA: influence of site, silviculture, and land use history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Olson; Laura S. Kenefic; Alison C. Dibble; John C. Brissette

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of nonnative invasive plants on approximately 175 ha comprising a long-term, 60-year-old U.S. Forest Service silvicultural experiment and old-field stands in the Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) in central Maine. Stands in the silvicultural experiment were never cleared for agriculture, but have been repeatedly partially cut. Our...

  19. Introduction to the Special Section--Bat Habitat Use in Eastern North American Temperate Forests: Site, Stand, an Landscape Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; W. Mark Ford

    2006-01-01

    Forest bats of eastern North America select habitats for roosting, foraging, and winter hibernation/migration over a myriad of scales. An understanding of forest-bat habitat use over scales of time and space is important for their conservation and management. The papers in this Special Section report studies of bat habitat use across multiple scales from locations...

  20. Forest canopy uptake of atmospheric nitrogen deposition at eastern U.S. conifer sites: Carbon storage implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman Sievering; Ivan Fernandez; John Lee; John Hom; Lindsey Rustad

    2000-01-01

    Dry deposition determinations, along with wet deposition and throughfall (TF) measurements, at a spruce fir forest in central Maine were used to estimate the effect of atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N) uptake on forest carbon storage. Using nitric acid and particulate N as well as TF ammonium and nitrate data, the growing season (May-October) net canopy uptake of...

  1. Changing forest water yields in response to climate warming: results from long-term experimental watershed sites across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irena F. Creed; Adam T. Spargo; Julia A. Jones; Jim M. Buttle; Mary B. Adams; Fred D. Beall; Eric G. Booth; John L. Campbell; Dave Clow; Kelly Elder; Mark B. Green; Nancy B. Grimm; Chelcy Miniat; Patricia Ramlal; Amartya Saha; Stephen Sebestyen; Dave Spittlehouse; Shannon Sterling; Mark W. Williams; Rita Winkler; Huaxia. Yao

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is projected to affect forest water yields but the effects are expected to vary.We investigated how forest type and age affect water yield resilience to climate warming. To answer this question, we examined the variability in historical water yields at long-term experimental catchments across Canada and the United States over 5-year cool and warm...

  2. Description of Some Ecological Factors in Three Forest Sites in Lorestan Province and Their Impact on Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. Essential Oil Yield and Chemical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mir-Azadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the side effects of chemical drugs, special attention is given recently to pharmaceutical plants. Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. is one of the valuable pharmaceutical plants, which is distributed over the vast areas of Iran. Yield and components of essential oil of this plant is dependent on ecological and genetic factors. In order to describe some ecological factors that affect myrtle in Lorestan province, three forest sites (Sepiddasht, Chame-moord, and Hamzeh Camp were selected. Some effective ecological factors on type of essential oil were measured and compared among the sites. To compare the yield and components of essential oil, myrtle leaves were collected during flowering stage in each site. Leaves were dried in open air conditions and the oil was extracted by distillation. Yield of essential oil was calculated and its components were identified by GC and GC/MS. Results showed that maximum yield belongs to Sepiddasht site. The altitude and soil Na, P, and organic carbon content of this site is quite different from other two sites. The main components of essential oils of these three sites had considerable differences. The amount of 9,10 anthracenedione was 29.1% in Sepiddasht site, while it was not found in the oil of Chame-moord site. It seems that differences in ecological and soil properties of the tree sites could have major effect on essential oil yield and its composition.

  3. Physico-Chemical behaviour analysis of air pollutants in a complex coastal site: Castellon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, M. D.; Martin, M.; Plaza, J.; Millan, M.

    1989-01-01

    In January, July and August 1988 two experimental campaigns were launched in the surroundings of the Castellon industrial area located at the Spanish East coast and considered as a complex coastal site. The objective was to complement the mosaic on meso-scale flows on the pollutants concentration fields. A careful study of pollutants concentration cycles related to meteorological parameters, enables the characterization of concentration patterns at the chosen location. Surface atmospheric dynamic in this area in controlled by local cycles of NW nocturnal drainage and E-SSE diumal sea-breeze lows. These cycles are also affected by the formation of thermal low over the center of thee peninsula on summer days. Large scale synoptic conditions appear more frequently during the winter. A transportable laboratory was used to register ten minutes averaged values of O 3 , NO, HO 2 and SO 2 . This unit was placed in the zone of influence of the coastal industries during the sea-breeze regime. The temporal evolution of the pollutant concentrations was analyzed and shows the existence of repeated patters of ground level concentrations under similar meteorological conditions. High ozone values have been detected to be associated with the sea-breeze onset. On the basis of short-term backward trajectories, it has been possible to identity the source of the SO 2 and NO 2 peaks. The obtained concentration values can have a broad origin: rural, marine, traffic, oil fired power plant and refinery emissions, and urban plume. Summer and winder data obtained under similar meteorological conditions have been compared. The temporal evolution of the pollutant concentrations is very similar. (Author) 15 refs

  4. Physico-chemical behaviour analysis of air pollutants in a complex coastal site: Castellon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, M.D.; Martin, M.; Plaza, J.; Millan, M.

    1989-01-01

    In Jaunary, July and August 1988 two experimental campaigns were launched in the surroundings of the Castellon industrial area located at the Spanish East coast and considered as a complex coastal site. The objetive was to complement the mosaic on meso-scale flows on the pollutants concentration fields. A careful study of pollutants concentration cycles related to meteorological parameters, enables the characterization of concentration patterns at the chose location. Surface atmospheric dynamic in this area in controlled by local cycles of NW nocturnal drainage and E-SSE diumal sea-breeze flows. These cycles arae also affected by the formation of thermal low over the center of the peninsula on summer days. Large scale synoptic conditions appear more frequently during the winter. A transportable laboratory was used to register ten minutes averaged values of O 3 , NO, NO 2 and SO 2 . This unit was placed in the zone of influence of the coastal industries during the sea-breeze regime. The temporal evolution of the pollutant concentrations was analyzed and shows the existence of repeated patterns of ground level concentrations under similar meteorological conditions. High ozone values have been detected to be associated with the sea-breeze onset. On the basis of short-term backward trajectories, it has been possible ot identify the source of the SO 2 and NO 2 peaks. The obtained concentration values can have a broad origin: rural, marine, traffic, oil fired power plant and refinery emissions, and urban plume. Summer and winter data obtained under similar meteorological conditions have been compared. The temporal evolution of the pollutant concentrations is very similar. (Author)

  5. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference site pool for ecological assessments in environmentally complex regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Peter R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Mazor, Raphael D.; Schiff, Kenneth C.; Stein, Eric D.; May, Jason; Brown, Larry R.; Herbst, David B.; Gillette, D.D.; Lunde, Kevin; Hawkins, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Many advances in the field of bioassessment have focused on approaches for objectively selecting the pool of reference sites used to establish expectations for healthy waterbodies, but little emphasis has been placed on ways to evaluate the suitability of the reference-site pool for its intended applications (e.g., compliance assessment vs ambient monitoring). These evaluations are critical because an inadequately evaluated reference pool may bias assessments in some settings. We present an approach for evaluating the adequacy of a reference-site pool for supporting biotic-index development in environmentally heterogeneous and pervasively altered regions. We followed common approaches for selecting sites with low levels of anthropogenic stress to screen 1985 candidate stream reaches to create a pool of 590 reference sites for assessing the biological integrity of streams in California, USA. We assessed the resulting pool of reference sites against 2 performance criteria. First, we evaluated how well the reference-site pool represented the range of natural gradients present in the entire population of streams as estimated by sites sampled through probabilistic surveys. Second, we evaluated the degree to which we were successful in rejecting sites influenced by anthropogenic stress by comparing biological metric scores at reference sites with the most vs fewest potential sources of stress. Using this approach, we established a reference-site pool with low levels of human-associated stress and broad coverage of environmental heterogeneity. This approach should be widely applicable and customizable to particular regional or programmatic needs.

  6. Localization of the AP-3 adaptor complex defines a novel endosomal exit site for lysosomal membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peden, A.A.; Oorschot, V.; Hesser, B.A.; Austin, C.D.; Scheller, R.H.; Klumperman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The adaptor protein (AP) 3 adaptor complex has been implicated in the transport of lysosomal membrane proteins, but its precise site of action has remained controversial. Here, we show by immuno-electron microscopy that AP-3 is associated with budding profiles evolving from a tubular endosomal

  7. CONSTRUCTION OF AGGREGATE NATIONAL ECONOMIC MODEL WITH DETAILED REPRESENTATION OF THE FOREST COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blam Yu. Sh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy of the industrial forecasts often exacerbated by the lack of direct connection with the economic forecasts on the macro level. On the other hand it is desirable to simulate the industrial strategy in a fairly high degree of isolation, so that it does not depend at every moment on description of other activities or levels of hierarchy. To study the effects of national economic relations on the development of industrial complex we propose to use a spatial model of the national economy, which describes modalities of the researched industries in more detail. Quantitative parameters, obtained using basic Interregional Cross-sectoral Optimization Model (OMMM against the external development of the industrial complex, are used to form an aggregated model with a detailed representation with unsignificant loss of information. Thus, the above described model is intended to harmonize national economic decisions with forecasts obtained from industry models in real terms. The conversion procedure is based on the properties of the model of «mutual» problems and information from basic OMMM. The final result is a production-transport cost model within a «traditional» industrial structure.

  8. FANCI Regulates Recruitment of the FA Core Complex at Sites of DNA Damage Independently of FANCD2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Castella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA-BRCA pathway mediates repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The FA core complex, a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, participates in the detection of DNA lesions and monoubiquitinates two downstream FA proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI (or the ID complex. However, the regulation of the FA core complex itself is poorly understood. Here we show that the FA core complex proteins are recruited to sites of DNA damage and form nuclear foci in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. ATR kinase activity, an intact FA core complex and FANCM-FAAP24 were crucial for this recruitment. Surprisingly, FANCI, but not its partner FANCD2, was needed for efficient FA core complex foci formation. Monoubiquitination or ATR-dependent phosphorylation of FANCI were not required for the FA core complex recruitment, but FANCI deubiquitination by USP1 was. Additionally, BRCA1 was required for efficient FA core complex foci formation. These findings indicate that FANCI functions upstream of FA core complex recruitment independently of FANCD2, and alter the current view of the FA-BRCA pathway.

  9. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Quon; Christopher T. Beh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer...

  10. Quality control of CarboEurope flux data - Part 1: Coupling footprint analyses with flux data quality assessment to evaluate sites in forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göckede, M.; Foken, T.; Aubinet, M.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a site evaluation approach combining Lagrangian Stochastic footprint modeling with a quality assessment approach for eddy-covariance data to 25 forested sites of the CarboEurope-IP network. The analysis addresses the spatial representativeness of the flux measurements, instrumental...... of the surrounding terrain, while the latent heat flux is subject to instrumentation-related problems. The Planar-Fit coordinate rotation proved to be a reliable tool for the majority of the sites using only a single set of rotation angles. Overall, we found a high average data quality for the CarboEurope-IP network...... effects on data quality, spatial patterns in the data quality, and the performance of the coordinate rotation method. Our findings demonstrate that application of a footprint filter could strengthen the CarboEurope-IP flux database, since only one third of the sites is situated in truly homogeneous...

  11. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site

  12. Enhancing evidence informed policymaking in complex health systems: lessons from multi-site collaborative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Etienne V; Becerril Montekio, Victor; Young, Taryn; Song, Kayla; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline; Tran, Nhan

    2016-03-17

    There is an increasing interest worldwide to ensure evidence-informed health policymaking as a means to improve health systems performance. There is a need to engage policymakers in collaborative approaches to generate and use knowledge in real world settings. To address this gap, we implemented two interventions based on iterative exchanges between researchers and policymakers/implementers. This article aims to reflect on the implementation and impact of these multi-site evidence-to-policy approaches implemented in low-resource settings. The first approach was implemented in Mexico and Nicaragua and focused on implementation research facilitated by communities of practice (CoP) among maternal health stakeholders. We conducted a process evaluation of the CoPs and assessed the professionals' abilities to acquire, analyse, adapt and apply research. The second approach, called the Policy BUilding Demand for evidence in Decision making through Interaction and Enhancing Skills (Policy BUDDIES), was implemented in South Africa and Cameroon. The intervention put forth a 'buddying' process to enhance demand and use of systematic reviews by sub-national policymakers. The Policy BUDDIES initiative was assessed using a mixed-methods realist evaluation design. In Mexico, the implementation research supported by CoPs triggered monitoring by local health organizations of the quality of maternal healthcare programs. Health programme personnel involved in CoPs in Mexico and Nicaragua reported improved capacities to identify and use evidence in solving implementation problems. In South Africa, Policy BUDDIES informed a policy framework for medication adherence for chronic diseases, including both HIV and non-communicable diseases. Policymakers engaged in the buddying process reported an enhanced recognition of the value of research, and greater demand for policy-relevant knowledge. The collaborative evidence-to-policy approaches underline the importance of iterations and continuity

  13. LBA-ECO CD-10 H2O Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single text file which reports vertical profiles of H2O vapor concentrations measured at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest...

  14. LBA-ECO TG-07 Ground-based Biometry Data at km 83 Site, Tapajos National Forest: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A field inventory of trees was conducted in March of 1997 in a logging concession at the Tapajos National Forest, south of Santarem, Para, Brazil. The inventory was...

  15. From trees to forest: relational complexity network and workload of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Yang, Jiazhong; Wu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a relational complexity (RC) network framework based on RC metric and network theory to model controllers' workload in conflict detection and resolution. We suggest that, at the sector level, air traffic showing a centralised network pattern can provide cognitive benefits in visual search and resolution decision which will in turn result in lower workload. We found that the network centralisation index can account for more variance in predicting perceived workload and task completion time in both a static conflict detection task (Study 1) and a dynamic one (Study 2) in addition to other aircraft-level and pair-level factors. This finding suggests that linear combination of aircraft-level or dyad-level information may not be adequate and the global-pattern-based index is necessary. Theoretical and practical implications of using this framework to improve future workload modelling and management are discussed. We propose a RC network framework to model the workload of air traffic controllers. The effect of network centralisation was examined in both a static conflict detection task and a dynamic one. Network centralisation was predictive of perceived workload and task completion time over and above other control variables.

  16. Seeing the forest through the trees: uncovering phenomic complexity through interactive network visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy L; Denny, Joshua C; Kreda, David A; Alterovitz, Gil

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to uncover unrecognized phenomic relationships using force-based network visualization methods, based on observed electronic medical record data. A primary phenotype was defined from actual patient profiles in the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II database. Network visualizations depicting primary relationships were compared to those incorporating secondary adjacencies. Interactivity was enabled through a phenotype visualization software concept: the Phenomics Advisor. Subendocardial infarction with cardiac arrest was demonstrated as a sample phenotype; there were 332 primarily adjacent diagnoses, with 5423 relationships. Primary network visualization suggested a treatment-related complication phenotype and several rare diagnoses; re-clustering by secondary relationships revealed an emergent cluster of smokers with the metabolic syndrome. Network visualization reveals phenotypic patterns that may have remained occult in pairwise correlation analysis. Visualization of complex data, potentially offered as point-of-care tools on mobile devices, may allow clinicians and researchers to quickly generate hypotheses and gain deeper understanding of patient subpopulations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Characterisation of Beaver Habitat Parameters That Promote the Use of Culverts as Dam Construction Sites: Can We Limit the Damage to Forest Roads?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Tremblay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of forest roads as foundations for dam construction by beavers is a recurrent problem in the management of forest road networks. In order to limit the damage to forest roads, our goal was to calculate the probability of beaver dam installation on culverts, according to surrounding habitat parameters, which could allow for improvement in the spatial design of new roads that minimise conflicts with beavers. Comparisons of culverts with (n = 77 and without (n = 51 dams in northwestern Quebec showed that catchment surface, cumulate length of all local streams within a 2-km radius, and road embankment height had a negative effect on the probability of dam construction on culverts, while flow level and culvert diameter ratio had a positive effect. Nevertheless, predicted probabilities of dam construction on culverts generally exceeded 50%, even on sites that were less favourable to beavers. We suggest that it would be more reasonable to take their probable subsequent presence into account at the earliest steps of road conception. Installing mitigation measures such as pre-dams during road construction would probably reduce the occurrence of conflicts with beavers and thus reduce the maintenance costs of forest roads.

  18. Reforestation Sites Show Similar and Nested AMF Communities to an Adjacent Pristine Forest in a Tropical Mountain Area of South Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  19. Contrasting Spatial Patterns in Active-Fire and Fire-Suppressed Mediterranean Climate Old-Growth Mixed Conifer Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Danny L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Collins, Brandon M.; North, Malcolm P.; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbanc...

  20. Dynamics of translocation and substrate binding in individual complexes formed with active site mutants of {phi}29 DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Joseph M; Wang, Hongyun; Lázaro, José M; Salas, Margarita; Lieberman, Kate R

    2014-03-07

    The Φ29 DNA polymerase (DNAP) is a processive B-family replicative DNAP. Fluctuations between the pre-translocation and post-translocation states can be quantified from ionic current traces, when individual Φ29 DNAP-DNA complexes are held atop a nanopore in an electric field. Based upon crystal structures of the Φ29 DNAP-DNA binary complex and the Φ29 DNAP-DNA-dNTP ternary complex, residues Tyr-226 and Tyr-390 in the polymerase active site were implicated in the structural basis of translocation. Here, we have examined the dynamics of translocation and substrate binding in complexes formed with the Y226F and Y390F mutants. The Y226F mutation diminished the forward and reverse rates of translocation, increased the affinity for dNTP in the post-translocation state by decreasing the dNTP dissociation rate, and increased the affinity for pyrophosphate in the pre-translocation state. The Y390F mutation significantly decreased the affinity for dNTP in the post-translocation state by decreasing the association rate ∼2-fold and increasing the dissociation rate ∼10-fold, implicating this as a mechanism by which this mutation impedes DNA synthesis. The Y390F dissociation rate increase is suppressed when complexes are examined in the presence of Mn(2+) rather than Mg(2+). The same effects of the Y226F or Y390F mutations were observed in the background of the D12A/D66A mutations, located in the exonuclease active site, ∼30 Å from the polymerase active site. Although translocation rates were unaffected in the D12A/D66A mutant, these exonuclease site mutations caused a decrease in the dNTP dissociation rate, suggesting that they perturb Φ29 DNAP interdomain architecture.

  1. Using a Full Complex Site Transfer Function to Estimate Strong Ground Motion in Port-au-Prince (Haiti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ST Fleur, S.; Courboulex, F.; Bertrand, E.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Hough, S. E.; Boisson, D.; Momplaisir, R.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the possible impact of a future earthquake in the urban area of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), we have implemented a simulation approach for complex ground motions produced by an earthquake. To this end, we have integrated local site effect in the prediction of strong ground motions in Port-au-Prince using the complex transfer functions method, which takes into account amplitude changes as well as phase changes. This technique is particularly suitable for basins where a conventional 1D digital approach proves inadequate, as is the case in Port-au-Prince. To do this, we use the results of the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) approach of St Fleur et al. (2016) to estimate the amplitude of the response of the site to a nearby rock site. Then, we determine the phase difference between sites, interpreted as changes in the phase of the signal related to local site conditions, using the signals of the 2010 earthquake aftershocks records. Finally, the accelerogram of the simulated earthquake is obtain using the technique of the inverse Fourier transform. The results of this study showed that the strongest soil motions are expected in neighborhoods of downtown Port-au-Prince and adjacent hills. In addition, this simulation method by complex transfer functions was validated by comparison with recorded actual data. Our simulated response spectra reproduce very well both the amplitude and the shape of the response spectra of recorded earthquakes. This new approach allowed to reproduce the lengthening of the signal that could be generated by surface waves at certain stations in the city of Port-au-Prince. However, two points of vigilance must be considered: (1) a good signal-to-noise ratio is necessary to obtain a robust estimate of the site-reference phase shift (ratio at least equal to 10); (2) unless the amplitude and phase changes are measured on strong motion records, this technique does not take non-linear effects into account.

  2. A decade of monitoring at Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) sites: can we observe trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Thimonier, Anne; Schmitt, Maria; Walthert, Lorenz; Waldner, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity from 1995 or later until 2007 were investigated at several forest sites throughout Switzerland to assess the effects of air pollution abatements on deposition and the response of the soil solution chemistry. Deposition of the major elements was estimated from throughfall and bulk deposition measurements at nine sites of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research network (LWF) since 1995 or later. Soil solution was measured at seven plots at four soil depths since 1998 or later. Trends in the molar ratio of base cations to aluminum (BC/Al) in soil solutions and in concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N (NO(3)-N + NH(4)-N), sulfate (SO(4)-S), and base cations (BC) were used to detect changes in soil solution chemistry. Acid deposition significantly decreased at three out of the nine study sites due to a decrease in total N deposition. Total SO(4)-S deposition decreased at the nine sites, but due to the relatively low amount of SO(4)-S load compared to N deposition, it did not contribute to decrease acid deposition significantly. No trend in total BC deposition was detected. In the soil solution, no trend in concentrations and fluxes of BC, SO(4)-S, and inorganic N were found at most soil depths at five out of the seven sites. This suggests that the soil solution reacted very little to the changes in atmospheric deposition. A stronger reduction in base cations compared to aluminum was detected at two sites, which might indicate that acidification of the soil solution was proceeding faster at these sites.

  3. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  4. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yanai, Ruth D; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar concentrations of Hg averaged 16.3 ng g-1 among the hardwood species, which was significantly lower than values in conifers, which averaged 28.6 ng g-1 (p < 0.001). Similarly, bark concentrations of Hg were lower (p < 0.001) in hardwoods (7.7 ng g-1) than conifers (22.5 ng g-1). For wood, concentrations of Hg were higher in yellow birch (2.1-2.8 ng g-1) and white pine (2.3 ng g-1) than in the other species, which averaged 1.4 ng g-1 (p < 0.0001). Sites differed significantly in Hg concentrations of foliage and bark (p = 0.02), which are directly exposed to the atmosphere, but the concentration of Hg in wood depended more on species (p < 0.001) than site (p = 0.60). The Hg contents of tree tissues in hardwood stands, estimated from modeled biomass and measured concentrations at each site, were higher in bark (mean of 0.10 g ha-1) and wood (0.16 g ha-1) than in foliage (0.06 g ha-1). In conifer stands, because foliar concentrations were higher, the foliar pool tended to be more important. Quantifying Hg in tree tissues is essential to understanding the pools and fluxes of Hg in forest ecosystems.

  5. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Ruth D.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T.

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar concentrations of Hg averaged 16.3 ng g-1 among the hardwood species, which was significantly lower than values in conifers, which averaged 28.6 ng g-1 (p < 0.001). Similarly, bark concentrations of Hg were lower (p < 0.001) in hardwoods (7.7 ng g-1) than conifers (22.5 ng g-1). For wood, concentrations of Hg were higher in yellow birch (2.1–2.8 ng g-1) and white pine (2.3 ng g-1) than in the other species, which averaged 1.4 ng g-1 (p < 0.0001). Sites differed significantly in Hg concentrations of foliage and bark (p = 0.02), which are directly exposed to the atmosphere, but the concentration of Hg in wood depended more on species (p < 0.001) than site (p = 0.60). The Hg contents of tree tissues in hardwood stands, estimated from modeled biomass and measured concentrations at each site, were higher in bark (mean of 0.10 g ha-1) and wood (0.16 g ha-1) than in foliage (0.06 g ha-1). In conifer stands, because foliar concentrations were higher, the foliar pool tended to be more important. Quantifying Hg in tree tissues is essential to understanding the pools and fluxes of Hg in forest ecosystems. PMID:29684081

  6. Soil surface CO2 efflux measurements in Norway spruce forests. Comparison between four different sites across Europe — from boreal to alpine forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Pavelka, Marian; Montagnani, L.; Kutsch, W.; Lindroth, A.; Juszczak, R.; Janouš, Dalibor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 192, JAN (2013), s. 295-303 ISSN 0016-7061 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08021; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Soil CO2 efflux * Forest * Chamber method * Q10 * Soil temperature * Spatial variability Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2013

  7. Implementation of Waste Minimization at a complex R ampersand D site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, R.E.; Thuot, J.R.; Devgun, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Under the 1994 Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal of 50% reduction in waste at its facilities by the end of 1999. Each DOE site is required to set site-specific goals to reduce generation of all types of waste including hazardous, radioactive, and mixed. To meet these goals, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, has developed and implemented a comprehensive Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (PP/WMin) Program. The facilities and activities at the site vary from research into basic sciences and research into nuclear fuel cycle to high energy physics and decontamination and decommissioning projects. As a multidisciplinary R ampersand D facility and a multiactivity site, ANL generates waste streams that are varied, in physical form as well as in chemical constituents. This in turn presents a significant challenge to put a cohesive site-wide PP/WMin Program into action. In this paper, we will describe ANL's key activities and waste streams, the regulatory drivers for waste minimization, and the DOE goals in this area, and we will discuss ANL's strategy for waste minimization and it's implementation across the site

  8. Site-specific covalent attachment of DNA to proteins using a photoactivatable Tus-Ter complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdah, Dahdah B; Morin, Isabelle; Moreau, Morgane J J; Dixon, Nicholas E; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2009-06-07

    Investigations into the photocrosslinking kinetics of the protein Tus with various bromodeoxyuridine-substituted Ter DNA variants highlight the potential use of this complex as a photoactivatable connector between proteins of interest and specific DNA sequences.

  9. Integrated Project Management Planning for the Deactivation of the Savannah River Site F-Canyon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.G.

    2000-12-01

    This paper explains the planning process that is being utilized by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to take the F-Canyon Complex facilities from operations to a deactivated condition awaiting final decommissioning.

  10. Conformational coupling between receptor and kinase binding sites through a conserved salt bridge in a signaling complex scaffold protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi R Ortega

    Full Text Available Bacterial chemotaxis is one of the best studied signal transduction pathways. CheW is a scaffold protein that mediates the association of the chemoreceptors and the CheA kinase in a ternary signaling complex. The effects of replacing conserved Arg62 of CheW with other residues suggested that the scaffold protein plays a more complex role than simply binding its partner proteins. Although R62A CheW had essentially the same affinity for chemoreceptors and CheA, cells expressing the mutant protein are impaired in chemotaxis. Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations (MD, NMR spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD, we addressed the role of Arg62. Here we show that Arg62 forms a salt bridge with another highly conserved residue, Glu38. Although this interaction is unimportant for overall protein stability, it is essential to maintain the correct alignment of the chemoreceptor and kinase binding sites of CheW. Computational and experimental data suggest that the role of the salt bridge in maintaining the alignment of the two partner binding sites is fundamental to the function of the signaling complex but not to its assembly. We conclude that a key feature of CheW is to maintain the specific geometry between the two interaction sites required for its function as a scaffold.

  11. Local and Regional Economic Benefits from Forest Products Production Activities at the Savannah River Site: 1955-Present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeter, L.; Blake, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    SRS was established in 1951 as a nuclear materials production facility; however, decline in the defense mission budget at SRS has created a major economic impact on the community in the Central Savannah River Area. SRS has been offsetting these effects by producing revenue (80 million dollars to date) from the sale of forest products since 1955 primarily trees, but also pine straw. Revenue has been re-invested into the infrastructure development, restoration and management of natural resources. Total asset value of the forest-land has increased from 21 million to over 500 million dollars in the same period

  12. Dual binding mode of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex reveals a novel universal adapter site on the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Markus; Spreter, Thomas; Beckmann, Roland; Beatrix, Birgitta

    2010-06-18

    Nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) was identified in eukaryotes as the first cytosolic factor that contacts the nascent polypeptide chain emerging from the ribosome. NAC is present as a homodimer in archaea and as a highly conserved heterodimer in eukaryotes. Mutations in NAC cause severe embryonically lethal phenotypes in mice, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAC is quantitatively associated with ribosomes. Here we show that NAC contacts several ribosomal proteins. The N terminus of betaNAC, however, specifically contacts near the tunnel exit ribosomal protein Rpl31, which is unique to eukaryotes and archaea. Moreover, the first 23 amino acids of betaNAC are sufficient to direct an otherwise non-associated protein to the ribosome. In contrast, alphaNAC (Egd2p) contacts Rpl17, the direct neighbor of Rpl31 at the ribosomal tunnel exit site. Rpl31 was also recently identified as a contact site for the SRP receptor and the ribosome-associated complex. Furthermore, in Escherichia coli peptide deformylase (PDF) interacts with the corresponding surface area on the eubacterial ribosome. In addition to the previously identified universal adapter site represented by Rpl25/Rpl35, we therefore refer to Rpl31/Rpl17 as a novel universal docking site for ribosome-associated factors on the eukaryotic ribosome.

  13. Multiple complex odontomas and subsequent occurrence of an ossifying fibroma at the same site as the removed odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou Matsuo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of multiple complex odontomas and the subsequent occurrence of an ossifying fibroma at the same site as one of the removed odontomas. A 3-year-old Japanese boy presented three complex odontomas at the unerupted deciduous first and second molars and permanent first molar on the left side of the mandible. The two odontomas at the deciduous teeth were immediately extirpated, and, after 2 years of follow-up, the odontoma at the unerupted permanent first molar was removed. At the age of 7 years, a small odontoma surrounding the deciduous second molar emerged as a recurrence. When the patient was 9 years old, an ossifying fibroma occurred near the apex of the first premolar, i.e., the site where one of the original odontomas existed. Furthermore, a small radiopaque mass over the crown of the unerupted permanent second molar was observed at the age of 10 years; this mass was probably an additional fourth complex odontoma. This is not only a rare case report of ossifying fibroma associated with multiple complex odontomas but also a valuable time course observation of the development of such odontogenic tumors.

  14. PreBötzinger complex and pacemaker neurons: hypothesized site and kernel for respiratory rhythm generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the sites and mechanisms underlying the generation of respiratory rhythm is of longstanding interest to physiologists and neurobiologists. Recently, with the development of novel experimental preparations, especially in vitro en bloc and slice preparations of rodent brainstem, p...... activity of pacemaker or group-pacemaker neurons....

  15. Favela as a Brazilian Heritage Site : The complexities and shifting realities from an ethnographic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chagas Cavalcanti, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Favelas are a world heritage site since 2012. This particular fact triggers a binary opposition in informal settlements study: from the materialist perspective to the idealist one. That includes neoliberal effects, such as commodification, and a romantic depiction of the favela. An ethnographic

  16. HPLC studies of aquatic humic compounds and complexes from the Drigg research site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.

    1992-01-01

    The work described in this report forms part of a multidisciplinary project, the broad objective of which is to study the ability of natural organic compounds present in groundwater to form mobile complexes with radionuclides. Other components of this work include the development of High Performance Liquid Chromatogaphic techniques (HPLC) to extract natural organic material from groundwater with minimal alteration, the separation of those organic fractions that complex with cations, and the development of geochemical speciation models to describe or predict metal binding. 17 Refs., 25 Figs., 4 Tabs

  17. Spectral contribution of understory to forest reflectance in a boreal site: an analysis of EO-1 Hyperion data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rautianien, M.; Lukeš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 171, dec (2015), s. 98-104 ISSN 0034-4257 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest reflectance model * hyperspectral * boreal * leaf area index * understory Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.881, year: 2015

  18. Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: Site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Ortega; A. Turnipseed; A. B. Guenther; T. G. Karl; D. A. Day; D. Gochis; J. A. Huffman; A. J. Prenni; E. J. T. Levin; S. M. Kreidenweis; P. J. DeMott; Y. Tobo; E. G. Patton; A. Hodzic; Y. Y. Cui; P. C. Harley; R. S. Hornbrook; E. C. Apel; R. K. Monson; A. S. D. Eller; J. P. Greenberg; M. C. Barth; P. Campuzano-Jost; B. B. Palm; J. L. Jimenez; A. C. Aiken; M. K. Dubey; C. Geron; J. Offenberg; M. G. Ryan; P. J. Fornwalt; S. C. Pryor; F. N. Keutsch; J. P. DiGangi; A. W. H. Chan; A. H. Goldstein; G. M. Wolfe; S. Kim; L. Kaser; R. Schnitzhofer; A. Hansel; C. A. Cantrell; R. L. Mauldin; J. N. Smith

    2014-01-01

    The Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen (BEACHON) project seeks to understand the feedbacks and interrelationships between hydrology, biogenic emissions, carbon assimilation, aerosol properties, clouds and associated feedbacks within water-limited ecosystems. The Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory (MEFO) was...

  19. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  20. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site's centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million

  1. Elucidating the Protonation Site of Vanadium Peroxide Complexes And the Implications for Biomimetic Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.J.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Pecoraro, V.L.

    2009-05-27

    Coordination complexes of vanadium(5+) played a key role in understanding the structure and mechanism of vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases, particularly the effects of protonation on peroxide coordination to dioxovanadium(5+) species, and in the activation of the peroxo-oxovanadium(5+) complex for substrate oxidation. There has been no spectroscopic evidence that could test the presence of a hydroxo intermediate in a catalytically active oxovanadium(5+) complex. Herein we report the use of the pre-edge transition in X-ray absorption spectroscopy as a spectroscopic signature for V{double_bond}O bonding. Displacement of oxo donors with hydrogen peroxide or chloride donors dramatically decreases the pre-edge intensity, confirming that the source of the intense pre-edge feature is closely related to the {pi}-bonding associated with the V{double_bond}O. Protonation of a catalytically active tripodal amine oxovanadium(5+) complex has no affect on the pre-edge intensity and, therefore, rules out the possibility of a hydroxo intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

  2. Pigment binding sites occupancy and functional architecture of the Photosystem II antenna complex Lhcb5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballottari, M.; Mozzo, M.; Croce, R.; Morosinotto, T.; Bassi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lhcb5 is an antenna protein that is highly conserved in plants and green algae. It is part of the inner layer of photosystem II antenna system retained in high light acclimated plants. To study the structure-function relation and the role of individual pigments in this complex, we (i) "knocked out"

  3. Value Network of Amazon Non Timber Forest Products: A Mapping Tool to Support a Complex Network Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Straatmann , Jeferson; Gerolamo , Mateus ,; Carpinetti , Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Part 3: Value Chain for Enhancing Collaborative Networks; International audience; The Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP) value chains are viewed as an alternative for the forest conservation and for the improvement of life conditions of Traditional Communities. These products are part of different chemical, cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries, which are trying to improve the sustainability of their supply chains. For the improvement of inter-organizational NTFP network in the Amazon r...

  4. Meso- to micro-scale coupled simulations of flow over complex terrain at the Perdigao site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, J.; van Veen, L.; Chow, F. K.; Mirocha, J. D.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the site of the 2017 Perdigao field campaign is analyzed with high resolution large-eddy simulations generated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as a coupled mesoscale to microscale model. The fine topographic features of the site, with its ridgelines a mere 1.2 km apart, the occurrence of intermittent turbulence at night, and the presence of a wind turbine on one of the ridgelines pose a challenge for many current numerical models. Key test cases in the observational data that demonstrate these modelling difficulties are identified, and advanced modeling techniques for overcoming these issues in the WRF model are presented. These techniques include vertical grid nesting for control of the grid aspect ratio, the cell perturbation method for accelerating the generation of turbulence at the boundary, the dynamic reconstruction model as a closure model that allows for backscatter of turbulence, and the actuator disk model for representing the turbine wake. Multiple nesting configurations are considered, with special consideration given to spanning the `grey zone' where neither PBL nor LES closures are effective. Comparisons between model results and measured sounding, meteorological tower, and Lidar data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques, and the model results are evaluated to provide a broader view of the flow field and the turbine wake interactions at the site.

  5. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  6. Complex Comparison of Bavarian and Bohemian Forest National Parks from Geographical Perspective: Is there More Similarity or Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on comparison of the landscape of two National Parks (Bavarian and Bohemian Forest, which together create the largest area of wilderness in Central Europe. The article shows how different they are in social-economic and physical-geographical perspective. Social and economic conditions were introduced from perspective of path dependency and recent situation and its perception. Furthermore, we integrated social-economic and environmental perspective in the ecosystem services concept. Despite the lesser number tourists arriving to the Bavarian part of the area, perception is better than among mayors of municipalities on the Czech side. Different history, management and top-down and bottom-up approaches usage can explain these differences. The typologies of environmental conditions help us to distinguish differences between both National Parks. In the Bavarian Forest we can find more equal share of forests (coniferous, broad-leaved, mixed and surprisingly, thanks to large unmanaged part bigger relative share of regenerating forest landscapes than in the Bohemian Forest. Physical-geographical typology distinguishes five classes. Relative distribution of the classes is similar, but we can determine area of high plateau mainly on Czech side and on the other hand class of steeper terrain is located mainly in Bavarian Forest. Ecosystem services was presented by integrating landscape capacity analysis showing small differences between both National Parks in this case and no relation between land cover and attractiveness for tourism.

  7. Coordination of manganous ion at the active site of pyruvate, phosphate dikinase: the complex of oxalate with the phosphorylated enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofron, J.L.; Ash, D.E.; Reed, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure of the complex of manganous ion with the phosphorylated form of pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (E/sub p/) and the inhibitor oxalate. Oxalate, an analogue of the enolate of pyruvate, is competitive with respect to pyruvate in binding to the phosphorylated form of the enzyme. Superhyperfine coupling between the unpaired electrons of Mn(I) and ligands specifically labeled with 17 O has been used to identify oxygen ligands to Mn(II) in the complex with oxalate and the phosphorylated form of the enzyme. Oxalate binds at the active site as a bidentate chelate with Mn(II). An oxygen from the 3'-N-phosphohistidyl residue of the protein is in the coordination sphere of Mn(II), and at least two water molecules are also bound to Mn(II) in the complex. Oxalate also binds directly to Mn(II) in a complex with nonphosphorylated enzyme. The structure for the E/sub p/-Mn(II)-oxalate complex implies that simultaneous coordination of a phospho group and of the attacking nucleophile to the divalent cation is likely an important factor in catalysis of this phospho-transfer reaction

  8. Complexes of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase and nucleotides: 1H NMR studies of the nucleotide sites in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, I.R.; Reinstein, J.; Roesch, P.

    1990-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, in particular substrate-protein nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) measurements, as well as nucleotide and P 1 ,P 5 -bis-(5'-adenosyl) pentaphosphate (AP 5 A) titrations and studies of the temperature-dependent unfolding of the tertiary structure of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase (AK EC ) were performed. These experiments and comparison with the same type of experiments performed with the porcine enzyme led them to the following conclusions: (1) at pH 8 and concentrations of approximately 2.5-3 mM, AK EC is partially unfolded at 318 K; (2) ATP·Mg 2+ binds to the ATP site with a dissociation constant of approximately 40 μM under the assumption that ATP binds to one nucleotide site only; (3) AP 5 A·Mg 2+ binds to both nucleotide sites and thus simulates the active complex; (4) the ATP·Mg 2+ adenine in the AK EC ·AP 5 A·Mg 2+ complex is located close to His 134 and Phe 19 ; (5) the AK EC G-loop with bound ATP·Mg 2+ is structurally highly homologous to the loop region in the oncogene product p21 with bound GTP·Mg 2+

  9. A real-time view of the TAR:Tat:P-TEFb complex at HIV-1 transcription sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knezevich Anna

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 transcription is tightly regulated: silent in long-term latency and highly active in acutely-infected cells. Transcription is activated by the viral protein Tat, which recruits the elongation factor P-TEFb by binding the TAR sequence present in nascent HIV-1 RNAs. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic of the TAR:Tat:P-TEFb complex in living cells, by performing FRAP experiments at HIV-1 transcription sites. Our results indicate that a large fraction of Tat present at these sites is recruited by Cyclin T1. We found that in the presence of Tat, Cdk9 remained bound to nascent HIV-1 RNAs for 71s. In contrast, when transcription was activated by PMA/ionomycin, in the absence of Tat, Cdk9 turned-over rapidly and resided on the HIV-1 promoter for only 11s. Thus, the mechanism of trans-activation determines the residency time of P-TEFb at the HIV-1 gene, possibly explaining why Tat is such a potent transcriptional activator. In addition, we observed that Tat occupied HIV-1 transcription sites for 55s, suggesting that the TAR:Tat:P-TEFb complex dissociates from the polymerase following transcription initiation, and undergoes subsequent cycles of association/dissociation.

  10. Cosmic-ray neutron transport at a forest field site: the sensitivity to various environmental conditions with focus on biomass and canopy interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Mie; Jensen, Karsten H.; Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek; Bogena, Heye R.; Looms, Majken C.

    2017-04-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron intensity is inversely correlated to all hydrogen present in the upper decimeters of the subsurface and the first few hectometers of the atmosphere above the ground surface. This correlation forms the base of the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimation method. The method is, however, complicated by the fact that several hydrogen pools other than soil moisture affect the neutron intensity. In order to improve the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimation method and explore the potential for additional applications, knowledge about the environmental effect on cosmic-ray neutron intensity is essential (e.g., the effect of vegetation, litter layer and soil type). In this study the environmental effect is examined by performing a sensitivity analysis using neutron transport modeling. We use a neutron transport model with various representations of the forest and different parameters describing the subsurface to match measured height profiles and time series of thermal and epithermal neutron intensities at a field site in Denmark. Overall, modeled thermal and epithermal neutron intensities are in satisfactory agreement with measurements; however, the choice of forest canopy conceptualization is found to be significant. Modeling results show that the effect of canopy interception, soil chemistry and dry bulk density of litter and mineral soil on neutron intensity is small. On the other hand, the neutron intensity decreases significantly with added litter-layer thickness, especially for epithermal neutron energies. Forest biomass also has a significant influence on the neutron intensity height profiles at the examined field site, altering both the shape of the profiles and the ground-level thermal-to-epithermal neutron ratio. This ratio increases with increasing amounts of biomass, and was confirmed by measurements from three sites representing agricultural, heathland and forest land cover. A much smaller effect of canopy interception on the ground

  11. Update of a footprint-based approach for the characterisation of complex measurement sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goeckede, M.; Markkanen, T.; Hasager, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    , and the determination of effective roughness lengths with a flux aggregation model in a pre-processing step. Detailed terrain data gathered by remote sensing methods are included. This approach determines spatial structures in the quality of flux data for varying meteorological conditions. The results help to identify...... terrain influences affecting the quality of flux data, such as dominating obstacles upwind of the site, or slopes biasing the wind field, so that the most suitable footprint regions for the collection of high-quality datasets can be identified. Additionally, the approach can be used to evaluate...

  12. Conifer seedling recruitment across a gradient from forest to alpine tundra: effects of species, provenance, and site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, C.; Torn, M.S.; Germino, M.J.; Weibel, Bettina; Kueppers, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Seedling germination and survival is a critical control on forest ecosystem boundaries, such as at the alpine–treeline ecotone. In addition, while it is known that species respond individualistically to the same suite of environmental drivers, the potential additional effect of local adaptation on seedling success has not been evaluated. Aims: To determine whether local adaptation may influence the position and movement of forest ecosystem boundaries, we quantified conifer seedling recruitment in common gardens across a subalpine forest to alpine tundra gradient at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, USA. Methods: We studied Pinus flexilis and Picea engelmannii grown from seed collected locally at High (3400 m a.s.l.) and Low (3060 m a.s.l.) elevations. We monitored emergence and survival of seeds sown directly into plots and survival of seedlings germinated indoors and transplanted after snowmelt. Results: Emergence and survival through the first growing season was greater for P. flexilis than P. engelmannii and for Low compared with High provenances. Yet survival through the second growing season was similar for both species and provenances. Seedling emergence and survival tended to be greatest in the subalpine forest and lowest in the alpine tundra. Survival was greater for transplants than for field-germinated seedlings. Conclusions: These results suggest that survival through the first few weeks is critical to the establishment of natural germinants. In addition, even small distances between seed sources can have a significant effect on early demographic performance – a factor that has rarely been considered in previous studies of tree recruitment and species range shifts.

  13. Edge disturbance drives liana abundance increase and alteration of liana-host tree interactions in tropical forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mason J; Edwards, Will; Magrach, Ainhoa; Alamgir, Mohammed; Porolak, Gabriel; Mohandass, D; Laurance, William F

    2018-04-01

    Closed-canopy forests are being rapidly fragmented across much of the tropical world. Determining the impacts of fragmentation on ecological processes enables better forest management and improves species-conservation outcomes. Lianas are an integral part of tropical forests but can have detrimental and potentially complex interactions with their host trees. These effects can include reduced tree growth and fecundity, elevated tree mortality, alterations in tree-species composition, degradation of forest succession, and a substantial decline in forest carbon storage. We examined the individual impacts of fragmentation and edge effects (0-100-m transect from edge to forest interior) on the liana community and liana-host tree interactions in rainforests of the Atherton Tableland in north Queensland, Australia. We compared the liana and tree community, the traits of liana-infested trees, and determinants of the rates of tree infestation within five forest fragments (23-58 ha in area) and five nearby intact-forest sites. Fragmented forests experienced considerable disturbance-induced degradation at their edges, resulting in a significant increase in liana abundance. This effect penetrated to significantly greater depths in forest fragments than in intact forests. The composition of the liana community in terms of climbing guilds was significantly different between fragmented and intact forests, likely because forest edges had more small-sized trees favoring particular liana guilds which preferentially use these for climbing trellises. Sites that had higher liana abundances also exhibited higher infestation rates of trees, as did sites with the largest lianas. However, large lianas were associated with low-disturbance forest sites. Our study shows that edge disturbance of forest fragments significantly altered the abundance and community composition of lianas and their ecological relationships with trees, with liana impacts on trees being elevated in fragments relative

  14. Identification and removal of low-complexity sites in allele-specific analysis of ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Sebastian M; Kilpinen, Helena; Gschwind, Andreas R; Orioli, Andrea; Raghav, Sunil K; Witwicki, Robert M; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Yurovsky, Alisa; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Hernandez, Nouria; Reymond, Alexandre; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Deplancke, Bart

    2014-01-15

    High-throughput sequencing technologies enable the genome-wide analysis of the impact of genetic variation on molecular phenotypes at unprecedented resolution. However, although powerful, these technologies can also introduce unexpected artifacts. We investigated the impact of library amplification bias on the identification of allele-specific (AS) molecular events from high-throughput sequencing data derived from chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP-seq). Putative AS DNA binding activity for RNA polymerase II was determined using ChIP-seq data derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines of two parent-daughter trios. We found that, at high-sequencing depth, many significant AS binding sites suffered from an amplification bias, as evidenced by a larger number of clonal reads representing one of the two alleles. To alleviate this bias, we devised an amplification bias detection strategy, which filters out sites with low read complexity and sites featuring a significant excess of clonal reads. This method will be useful for AS analyses involving ChIP-seq and other functional sequencing assays. The R package abs filter for library clonality simulations and detection of amplification-biased sites is available from http://updepla1srv1.epfl.ch/waszaks/absfilter

  15. Abstraction of methyl from neutral Fischer-type carbene complexes: A new site for nucleophilic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, L.M.; Atwood, J.D. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1997-02-04

    Reactions of Fischer-type carbene complexes, M(CO){sub 5}(C(OMe)pH) (M = Cr, W), with metal carbonyl anions (M`{sup -} = CpFe(CO){sub 2}{sup -@}, Re(CO){sub 5}{sup -}, Mn(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}{sup -}, Co(CO){sub 3}PPh{sub 3}{sup -}, Cp{sup *}Cr(CO){sub 3}{sup -}, CpMo(CO){sub 3}{sup -}) result in demethylation of the carbene complexes. The products are M(CO){sub 5}C(O)Ph{sup -} and M`-Me, characterized by infrared and NMR spectroscopy. A slower rate for reaction with W(CO){sub 5}(C(OEt)Ph) in comparison to the methyl analogue is consistent with nucleophilic attack of the metal carbonyl anion on the methyl of the methoxy group of the carbene. This is a new type of nucleophilic attack of a Fischer-type carbene. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Site layout and balance of plant design for an accelerator-driven materials processing complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunliffe, J.; Taussig, R.; Ghose, S. [Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    High energy proton beam accelerators are under consideration for use in radioisotope production, surplus weapons material destruction, radioactive waste transmutation, and thorium-based energy conversion cycles. While there are unique aspects to each of these applications that must be accommodated in the design of the associated facility, all share a set of fundamental characteristics that in large measure dictate the site layout features and many balance-of-plant (BOP) design requirements found to be common to all. This paper defines these key design determinants and goes on to discuss the manner in which they have been accommodated in the pre-conceptual design for a particular materials production application. An estimate of the costs associated with this BOP design is also presented with the aim of guiding future evaluations where the basic plant designs are similar to that of this specific case.

  17. Physical approach to air pollution climatological modelling in a complex site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G [Torino, Universita; CNR, Istituto di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy); Longhetto, A [Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Centro di Ricerca Termica e Nucleare, Milan; CNR, Istituto di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy); Runca, E [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria

    1980-09-01

    A Gaussian climatological model which takes into account physical factors affecting air pollutant dispersion, such as nocturnal radiative inversion and mixing height evolution, associated with land breeze and sea breeze regimes, has been applied to the topographically complex area of La Spezia. The measurements of the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the lower atmosphere obtained by field experiments are utilized in the model to calculate the SO/sub 2/ seasonal average concentrations. The model has been tested on eight three-monthly periods by comparing the simulated values with the ones measured at the SO/sub 2/ stations of the local air pollution monitoring network. Comparison of simulated and measured values was satisfactory and proved the applicability of the model for urban planning and establishment of air quality strategies.

  18. Modeling dynamics of "1"3"7Cs in forest surface environments: Application to a contaminated forest site near Fukushima and assessment of potential impacts of soil organic matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Koarashi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A process-based model for "1"3"7Cs transfer in forest surface environments was developed to assess the dynamic behavior of Fukushima-derived "1"3"7Cs in a Japanese forest. The model simulation successfully reproduced the observed data from 3 year migration of "1"3"7Cs in the organic and mineral soil layers at a contaminated forest near Fukushima. The migration of "1"3"7Cs from the organic layer to the mineral soil was explained by the direct deposition pattern on the forest floor and the turnover of litter materials in the organic layer under certain ecological conditions. Long-term predictions indicated that more than 90% of the deposited "1"3"7Cs would remain within the top 5 cm of the soil for up to 30 years after the accident, suggesting that the forest acts as an effective long-term reservoir of "1"3"7Cs with limited transfer via the groundwater pathway. The model was also used to explore the potential impacts of soil organic matter (SOM) interactions on the mobility and bioavailability of "1"3"7Cs in the soil–plant system. The simulation results for hypothetical organic soils with modified parameters of "1"3"7Cs turnover revealed that the SOM-induced reduction of "1"3"7Cs adsorption elevates the fraction of dissolved "1"3"7Cs in the soil solution, thereby increasing the soil-to-plant transfer of "1"3"7Cs without substantially altering the fractional distribution of "1"3"7Cs in the soil. Slower fixation of "1"3"7Cs on the flayed edge site of clay minerals and enhanced mobilization of the clay-fixed "1"3"7Cs in organic-rich soils also appeared to elevate the soil-to-plant transfer of "1"3"7Cs by increasing the fraction of the soil-adsorbed (exchangeable) "1"3"7Cs. A substantial proportion (approximate 30%–60%) of "1"3"7Cs in these organic-rich soils was transferred to layers deeper than 5 cm decades later. These results suggested that SOM influences the behavior of "1"3"7Cs in forests over a prolonged period through alterations of adsorption and fixation in

  19. Earth modeling and estimation of the local seismic ground motion due to site geology in complex volcanoclastic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Fiore

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic areas often show complex behaviour as far as seismic waves propagation and seismic motion at surface are concerned. In fact, the finite lateral extent of surface layers such as lava flows, blocks, differential welding and/or zeolitization within pyroclastic deposits, introduces in the propagation of seismic waves effects such as the generation of surface waves at the edge, resonance in lateral direction, diffractions and scattering of energy, which tend to modify the amplitude as well as the duration of the ground motion. The irregular topographic surface, typical of volcanic areas, also strongly influences the seismic site response. Despite this heterogeneity, it is unfortunately a common geophysical and engineering practice to evaluate even in volcanic environments the subsurface velocity field with monodimensional investigation method (i.e. geognostic soundings, refraction survey, down-hole, etc. prior to the seismic site response computation which in a such cases is obviously also made with 1D algorithms. This approach often leads to highly inaccurate results. In this paper we use a different approach, i.e. a fully 2D P-wave Çturning rayÈ tomographic survey followed by 2D seismic site response modeling. We report here the results of this approach in three sites located at short distance from Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei and characterized by overburdens constituted by volcanoclastic deposits with large lateral and vertical variations of their elastic properties. Comparison between 1D and 2D Dynamic Amplification Factor shows in all reported cases entirely different results, both in terms of peak period and spectral contents, as expected from the clear bidimensionality of the geological section. Therefore, these studies suggest evaluating carefully the subsoil geological structures in areas characterized by possible large lateral and vertical variations of the elastic properties in order to reach correct seismic site response

  20. Sustainability of High Intensity Forest Management with Respect to Water QuaIity and Site Nutrient Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia R. Tolbert; Carl C. Trettin; Dale W. Johnson; John W. Parsons; Allan E. Houston; David A. Mays

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring sustainability of intensively managed woody crops requires determining soil and water quality effects using a combination of field data and modeling projections. Plot- and catchrnent-scale research, models, and meta-analyses are addressing nutrient availability, site quality, and measures to increase short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) productivity and site...

  1. Estimation of land-surface evaporation at four forest sites across Japan with the new nonlinear complementary method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Zhipin; Wang, Qinxue; Yang, Yonghui

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation from land surfaces is a critical component of the Earth water cycle and of water management strategies. The complementary method originally proposed by Bouchet, which describes a linear relation between actual evaporation (E), potential evaporation (Epo) and apparent potential...... evaporation (Epa) based on routinely measured weather data, is one of the various methods for evaporation calculation. This study evaluated the reformulated version of the original method, as proposed by Brutsaert, for forest land cover in Japan. The new complementary method is nonlinear and based on boundary...

  2. Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve: Protecting the World's Oldest Complex Macrofossils at a Newly Inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jack

    2017-04-01

    The late Ediacaran rocks of the Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve, Newfoundland, record the oldest known assemblage of large, complex fossils anywhere. These fossils represent the transition in the history of life on earth to large, architecturally complex organisms, following nearly three billion years of a microbially-dominated world. In July 2016, the Reserve was inscribed on World Heritage List. Inscription has led to increased geotourism demands on the locality, a consequence welcomed by the local community who wish to develop the economy. This is potentially at odds with the interests of Government and Researchers whose inclination is often to prohibit all activity that may adversely impact a site. This presentation will outline several approaches being used to quantitatively measure potential historic and current damage to the Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve from geotourism activity, as well as natural events. Technologies such as LiDAR scanning, photogrammetry, and time lapse cameras are compared and contrasted for their suitability to monitor the integrity of fossil sites. Footwear erosion of fossil surfaces remains a concern of policy makers at the Reserve; experimental work to test the benefits of various footwear erosion reduction protocols is discussed. The legislative and management framework for the Reserve is reviewed, and the importance of building academic-community-government relationships examined. The benefits of geoconservation are shared by all in society - as such the importance of presenting geoconservation research outcomes in ways specifically tailored to local communities and policy makes is highlighted.

  3. A stable isotope approach for source apportionment of chlorinated ethene plumes at a complex multi-contamination events urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Pellegatti, Eleonora; Paramatti, Enrico; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Gargini, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of chlorinated aliphatic compounds such as chlorinated methanes, ethanes and ethenes was examined as an intrinsic fingerprint for apportionment of sources. A complex field site located in Ferrara (Italy), with more than 50 years history of use of chlorinated aliphatic compounds, was investigated in order to assess contamination sources. Several contamination plumes were found in a complex alluvial sandy multi-aquifer system close to the river Po; sources are represented by uncontained former industrial and municipal dump sites as well as by spills at industrial areas. The carbon stable isotope signature allowed distinguishing 2 major sources of contaminants. One source of chlorinated aliphatic contaminants was strongly depleted in 13C (-40‰ which is commonly observed in recent production of chlorinated solvents. The degradation processes in the plumes could be traced interpreting the isotope enrichment and depletion of parent and daughter compounds, respectively. We demonstrate that, under specific production conditions, namely when highly chlorinated ethenes are produced as by-product during chloromethanes production, 13C depleted fingerprinting of contaminants can be obtained and this can be used to track sources and address the responsible party of the pollution in urban areas.

  4. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Henrique F.; Raczka, Brett M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Lin, John C.; Koven, Charles D.; Thornton, Peter E.; Bowling, David R.; Lai, Chun-Ta; Bible, Kenneth J.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Wind River AmeriFlux site), characterized by a Mediterranean climate that subjects trees to water stress each summer. CLM was driven by site-observed meteorology and calibrated primarily using parameter values observed at the site or at similar stands in the region. Key model adjustments included parameters controlling specific leaf area and stomatal conductance. Default values of these parameters led to significant underestimation of gross primary production, overestimation of evapotranspiration, and consequently overestimation of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, reflected in reduced 13C : 12C ratios of carbon fluxes and pools. Adjustments in soil hydraulic parameters within CLM were also critical, preventing significant underestimation of soil water content and unrealistic soil moisture stress during summer. After calibration, CLM was able to simulate energy and carbon fluxes, leaf area index, biomass stocks, and carbon isotope ratios of carbon fluxes and pools in reasonable agreement with site observations. Overall, the calibrated CLM was able to simulate the observed response of canopy conductance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil water content, reasonably capturing the impact of water stress on ecosystem functioning. Both simulations and observations indicate that stomatal response from water stress at Wind River was primarily driven by VPD and not soil moisture. The calibration of the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance slope (mbb) at Wind River aligned with findings from recent CLM experiments at sites characterized by

  5. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5 at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Duarte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Wind River AmeriFlux site, characterized by a Mediterranean climate that subjects trees to water stress each summer. CLM was driven by site-observed meteorology and calibrated primarily using parameter values observed at the site or at similar stands in the region. Key model adjustments included parameters controlling specific leaf area and stomatal conductance. Default values of these parameters led to significant underestimation of gross primary production, overestimation of evapotranspiration, and consequently overestimation of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, reflected in reduced 13C : 12C ratios of carbon fluxes and pools. Adjustments in soil hydraulic parameters within CLM were also critical, preventing significant underestimation of soil water content and unrealistic soil moisture stress during summer. After calibration, CLM was able to simulate energy and carbon fluxes, leaf area index, biomass stocks, and carbon isotope ratios of carbon fluxes and pools in reasonable agreement with site observations. Overall, the calibrated CLM was able to simulate the observed response of canopy conductance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD and soil water content, reasonably capturing the impact of water stress on ecosystem functioning. Both simulations and observations indicate that stomatal response from water stress at Wind River was primarily driven by VPD and not soil moisture. The calibration of the Ball–Berry stomatal conductance slope (mbb at Wind River aligned with findings from recent CLM experiments at

  6. Complex Spatial Structure in a Population of Didymopanax pittieri, A Tree of Wind-Exposed Lower Montane Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Robert M.; Lawton, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Didymopanax pittieri is a common shade-intolerant tree colonizing treefall gaps in the elfin forests on windswept ridgecrests in the lower montane rain forests of the Cordillera de Tilarain, Costa Rica. All D. pittieri taller than > 0.5 m in a 5.2-ha elfin forested portion of a gridded study watershed in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve were located, mapped, and measured. This local population of D. pittieri is spatially inhomogeneous, in that density increases with increasing wind exposure; D. pittieri are more abundant near ridge crests than lower on windward slopes. The important and ubiquitous phenomenon of spatial inhomogeneity in population density is addressed and corrected for in spatial analyses by the application of the inhomogeneous version of Ripley's K. The spatial patterns of four size classes of D. pittieri ( 20 cm dbh) were investigated. Within the large-scale trend in density driven by wind exposure, D. pittieri saplings are clumped at the scale of treefall gaps and at the scale of patches of aggregated gaps. D. pittieri 5-10 cm dbh are randomly distributed, apparently due to competitive thinning of sapling clumps during the early stages of gap-phase regeneration. D. pittieri larger than 10 cm dbh are overdispersed at a scale larger than that of patches of gaps. Natural disturbance can influence the distribution of shade intolerant tree populations at several different spatial scales, and can have discordant effects at different life history stages.

  7. Vancomycin Powder Regimen for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Complex Spine Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hal, Michael; Lee, Joon; Laudermilch, Dann; Nwasike, Chinedu; Kang, James

    2017-10-01

    In total, 496 patients of a single surgeon cohort examining the surgical-site infection (SSI) rates with the addition of vancomycin powder in both diabetic and revision spine surgery cases. A historical control group of 652 patients were compared from the same surgeon over an earlier time period before the inception of using vancomycin powder prophylaxis. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the rates of infection in high-risk patient populations while using vancomycin powder. Vancomycin powder may not decrease an already low rate of infection. Therefore, use of vancomycin powder in high-risk patients with a higher rate of infection would potentially show benefit of vancomycin powder. In total, 496 patient charts were collected from a database of cases. Patients were included in the cohort if they had revision spinal operation or if they were diabetic. Patients in the time period July 2010 to August 2013 were included in the vancomycin protocol where 1 g of vancomycin powder was added to the wound before wound closure. Cases were considered positive if there was a positive culture or if there was sufficient clinical suspicion to treat. As a control to this cohort, 692 charts were reviewed from a earlier time period of the same surgeon and institution. In total, 28 patients of 496 (5.6%) patients in the cohort returned to the operating room for seroma, hematoma, draining wound, or infection. Sixteen of these patients (16/496, 3.2%) had a culture positive infection or were treated as an infection. This rate was significantly lower than the historical rate before the protocol. Although vancomycin does seem to be useful in decreasing SSIs, it is not a panacea. SSIs in high-risk patients were not completely eliminated by the vancomycin protocol.

  8. Environmental analysis of a formerly utilized MED/AEC site: Site A and plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This environmental analysis report describes the existing site environment and evaluates the environmental impacts of 8 options for remedial action, including allowing buried waste to remain undisturbed. Conformity or conflict with governmental statutes, regulations and standards was determined, especially with regard to compliance with contamination criteria and guidelines. The program of measurements, documentation, and control to demonstrate compliance with these criteria and guidelines was identified.

  9. Environmental analysis of a formerly utilized MED/AEC site: Site A and plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This environmental analysis report describes the existing site environment and evaluates the environmental impacts of 8 options for remedial action, including allowing buried waste to remain undisturbed. Conformity or conflict with governmental statutes, regulations and standards was determined, especially with regard to compliance with contamination criteria and guidelines. The program of measurements, documentation, and control to demonstrate compliance with these criteria and guidelines was identified

  10. Hybrid Nanomaterials with Single-Site Catalysts by Spatially Controllable Immobilization of Nickel Complexes via Photoclick Chemistry for Alkene Epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dwaipayan; Febriansyah, Benny; Gupta, Disha; Ng, Leonard Kia-Sheun; Xi, Shibo; Du, Yonghua; Baikie, Tom; Dong, ZhiLi; Soo, Han Sen

    2018-05-22

    Catalyst deactivation is a persistent problem not only for the scientific community but also in industry. Isolated single-site heterogeneous catalysts have shown great promise to overcome these problems. Here, a versatile anchoring strategy for molecular complex immobilization on a broad range of semiconducting or insulating metal oxide ( e. g., titanium dioxide, mesoporous silica, cerium oxide, and tungsten oxide) nanoparticles to synthesize isolated single-site catalysts has been studied systematically. An oxidatively stable anchoring group, maleimide, is shown to form covalent linkages with surface hydroxyl functionalities of metal oxide nanoparticles by photoclick chemistry. The nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by techniques including UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The IR spectroscopic studies confirm the covalent linkages between the maleimide group and surface hydroxyl functionalities of the oxide nanoparticles. The hybrid nanomaterials function as highly efficient catalysts for essentially quantitative oxidations of terminal and internal alkenes and show molecular catalyst product selectivities even in more eco-friendly solvents. XAS studies verify the robustness of the catalysts after several catalytic cycles. We have applied the photoclick anchoring methodology to precisely control the deposition of a luminescent variant of our catalyst on the metal oxide nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate a general approach to use irradiation to anchor molecular complexes on oxide nanoparticles to create recyclable, hybrid, single-site catalysts that function with high selectivity in a broad range of solvents. We have achieved a facile, spatially and temporally controllable photoclick method that can potentially be extended to other ligands, catalysts, functional molecules, and surfaces.

  11. Directional R-Loop Formation by the CRISPR-Cas Surveillance Complex Cascade Provides Efficient Off-Target Site Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Rutkauskas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against foreign nucleic acids. In type I CRISPR-Cas systems, invading DNA is detected by a large ribonucleoprotein surveillance complex called Cascade. The crRNA component of Cascade is used to recognize target sites in foreign DNA (protospacers by formation of an R-loop driven by base-pairing complementarity. Using single-molecule supercoiling experiments with near base-pair resolution, we probe here the mechanism of R-loop formation and detect short-lived R-loop intermediates on off-target sites bearing single mismatches. We show that R-loops propagate directionally starting from the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM. Upon reaching a mismatch, R-loop propagation stalls and collapses in a length-dependent manner. This unambiguously demonstrates that directional zipping of the R-loop accomplishes efficient target recognition by rapidly rejecting binding to off-target sites with PAM-proximal mutations. R-loops that reach the protospacer end become locked to license DNA degradation by the auxiliary Cas3 nuclease/helicase without further target verification.

  12. Genome-wide identification and characterization of Notch transcription complex-binding sequence paired sites in leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Eric; Arnett, Kelly L.; Wang, Hongfang; Zang, Chongzhi; Taing, Len; Liu, Hudan; Pear, Warren S.; Liu, X. Shirley; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Aster, Jon C.

    2018-01-01

    Notch transcription complexes (NTCs) drive target gene expression by binding to two distinct types of genomic response elements, NTC monomer-binding sites and sequence-paired sites (SPSs) that bind NTC dimers. SPSs are conserved and are linked to the Notch-responsiveness of a few genes, but their overall contribution to Notch-dependent gene regulation is unknown. To address this issue, we determined the DNA sequence requirements for NTC dimerization using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, and applied insights from these in vitro studies to Notch-“addicted” leukemia cells. We find that SPSs contribute to the regulation of approximately a third of direct Notch target genes. While originally described in promoters, SPSs are present mainly in long-range enhancers, including an enhancer containing a newly described SPS that regulates HES5. Our work provides a general method for identifying sequence-paired sites in genome-wide data sets and highlights the widespread role of NTC dimerization in Notch-transformed leukemia cells. PMID:28465412

  13. Estimation of land-surface evaporation at four forest sites across Japan with the new nonlinear complementary method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhipin; Wang, Qinxue; Yang, Yonghui; Manevski, Kiril; Zhao, Xin; Eer, Deni

    2017-12-19

    Evaporation from land surfaces is a critical component of the Earth water cycle and of water management strategies. The complementary method originally proposed by Bouchet, which describes a linear relation between actual evaporation (E), potential evaporation (E po ) and apparent potential evaporation (E pa ) based on routinely measured weather data, is one of the various methods for evaporation calculation. This study evaluated the reformulated version of the original method, as proposed by Brutsaert, for forest land cover in Japan. The new complementary method is nonlinear and based on boundary conditions with strictly physical considerations. The only unknown parameter (α e ) was for the first time determined for various forest covers located from north to south across Japan. The values of α e ranged from 0.94 to 1.10, with a mean value of 1.01. Furthermore, the calculated evaporation with the new method showed a good fit with the eddy-covariance measured values, with a determination coefficient of 0.78 and a mean bias of 4%. Evaluation results revealed that the new nonlinear complementary relation performs better than the original linear relation in describing the relationship between E/E pa and E po /E pa , and also in depicting the asymmetry variation between E pa /E po and E/E po .

  14. Complex terrain and wind lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingoel, F.

    2009-08-15

    This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar can be of the order of 3-4% in moderately-complex terrain and up to 10% in complex terrain. The findings were based on experiments involving collocated lidars and meteorological masts, together with flow calculations over the same terrains. The lidar performance was also simulated with the commercial software WAsP Engineering 2.0 and was well predicted except for some sectors where the terrain is particularly steep. Subsequently, two experiments were performed in forested areas; where the measurements are recorded at a location deep-in forest and at the forest edge. Both sites were modelled with flow models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to approx6h. At the forest edge, LINCOM model was used by allocating a slope half-in half out of the forest based on the suggestions of previous studies. The optimum slope angle was reported as 17 deg.. Thus, a suggestion was made to use WAsP Engineering 2.0 for forest edge modelling with known limitations and the applied method. The SCADIS model worked better than the LINCOM model at the forest edge but the model reported closer results to the measurements at upwind than the downwind and this should be

  15. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  16. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; Stuart J. Davies; Amy C. Bennett; Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre; Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Kamariah Abu Salim; Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano; Alfonso Alonso; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Yves Basset; Norman A. Bourg; Eben N. Broadbent; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; David F. R. P. Burslem; Nathalie Butt; Min Cao; Dairon Cardenas; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Susan Cordell; Handanakere S. Dattaraja; Xiaobao Deng; Matteo Detto; Xiaojun Du; Alvaro Duque; David L. Erikson; Corneille E.N. Ewango; Gunter A. Fischer; Christine Fletcher; Robin B. Foster; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory S. Gilbert; Nimal Gunatilleke; Savitri Gunatilleke; Zhanqing Hao; William W. Hargrove; Terese B. Hart; Billy C.H. Hau; Fangliang He; Forrest M. Hoffman; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; Patrick A. Jansen; Mingxi Jiang; Daniel J. Johnson; Mamoru Kanzaki; Abdul Rahman Kassim; David Kenfack; Staline Kibet; Margaret F. Kinnaird; Lisa Korte; Kamil Kral; Jitendra Kumar; Andrew J. Larson; Yide Li; Xiankun Li; Shirong Liu; Shawn K.Y. Lum; James A. Lutz; Keping Ma; Damian M. Maddalena; Jean-Remy Makana; Yadvinder Malhi; Toby Marthews; Rafizah Mat Serudin; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Xiangcheng Mi; Takashi Mizuno; Michael Morecroft; Jonathan A. Myers; Vojtech Novotny; Alexandre A. de Oliveira; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Jan den Ouden; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; Moses N. Sainge; Weiguo Sang; Kriangsak Sri-ngernyuang; Raman Sukumar; I-Fang Sun; Witchaphart Sungpalee; Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana Suresh; Sylvester Tan; Sean C. Thomas; Duncan W. Thomas; Jill Thompson; Benjamin L. Turner; Maria Uriarte; Renato Valencia; Marta I. Vallejo; Alberto Vicentini; Tomáš Vrška; Xihua Wang; Xugao Wang; George Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Han Xu; Sandra Yap; Jess Zimmerman

    2014-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses...

  17. Complex Approach to Thyroid Screening In Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Zh.Sh.; Musinov, D.R.; Vasikovsky, G.G.; Bobokhidze, D.A.; Zhigitaev, T.K.; Abisheva, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive of organs, especially when exposure occurs during childhood. It is known as well that childhood exposure to radioactive iodine increases thyroid cancer risk. Conducting thyroid screening in regions adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) area is very important for medical examination, data management and thyroid dose reconstruction. Our experience of thyroid screening based on our screening projects in Kurchatov and several regions adjacent to STS (more than 4,000 screened patients) allowed to work out the most appropriate screening protocol. A retrospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment of the 7,271 patients with thyroid abnormalities in the Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan and study the histological staging of 7,271 surgically removed thyroid glands was preceded by our thyroid screening projects. Ours is the first study in the Semipalatinsk region that covers the period 1966-1998.Taking into account the onset of population effective doses during 1962, it was decided to distinguish 6 periods of observation. It is known that basic effective equivalent doses for the majority of the region's population were established by radioactive events in the period 1949-1962. This explains our focus on the year 1962, but thyroid dose reconstruction matter as well as other radiation related problems are still in the progress. We need to get the accurate dosimetry data. Selection of study subjects based on the appropriate criteria needed to be adjusted and clarified in accordance with the main goal of the project and radiation related information. All specialists involved in the thyroid screening project, data management, data analyses and interpretation of the results must be trained and must be highly qualified specialists in this field of science and practice. The experiences in Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Chernobyl, and discussions with

  18. Scanning mutagenesis of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib eAhsan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated Ser-residue and the sequences of the flanking amino acids are highly conserved. We have used the synthetic peptide-based kinase client assay plus recombinant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α and E1α-kinase to perform scanning mutagenesis of the residues flanking the site of phosphorylation. Consistent with the results from phylogenetic analysis of the flanking sequences, the direct peptide-based kinase assays tolerated very few changes. Even conservative changes such as Leu, Ile, or Val for Met, or Glu for Asp, gave very marked reductions in phosphorylation. Overall the results indicate that regulation of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation is an extreme example of multiple, interdependent instances of co-evolution.

  19. Computational study of hydration at the TD damaged site of DNA in complex with repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    2000-02-01

    An analysis of the distribution of water around DNA surface focusing on the role of the distribution of water molecules in the proper recognition of damaged site by repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was performed. The native DNA dodecamer, dodecamer with the thymine dimer (TD) and complex of DNA and part of repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V were examined throughout the 500 ps of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulation the number of water molecules close to the DNA atoms and the residence time were calculated. There is an increase in number of water molecules lying in the close vicinity to TD if compared with those lying close to two native thymines (TT). Densely populated area with water molecules around TD is one of the factors detected by enzyme during scanning process. The residence time was found higher for molecule of the complex and the six water molecules were found occupying the stabile positions between the TD and catalytic center close to atoms P, C3' and N3. These molecules originate water mediated hydrogen bond network that contribute to the stability of complex required for the onset of repair process. (author)

  20. Computational study of hydration at the TD damaged site of DNA in complex with repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-02-01

    An analysis of the distribution of water around DNA surface focusing on the role of the distribution of water molecules in the proper recognition of damaged site by repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was performed. The native DNA dodecamer, dodecamer with the thymine dimer (TD) and complex of DNA and part of repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V were examined throughout the 500 ps of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulation the number of water molecules close to the DNA atoms and the residence time were calculated. There is an increase in number of water molecules lying in the close vicinity to TD if compared with those lying close to two native thymines (TT). Densely populated area with water molecules around TD is one of the factors detected by enzyme during scanning process. The residence time was found higher for molecule of the complex and the six water molecules were found occupying the stabile positions between the TD and catalytic center close to atoms P, C3' and N3. These molecules originate water mediated hydrogen bond network that contribute to the stability of complex required for the onset of repair process. (author)

  1. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples

  2. An unexpected phosphate binding site in Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Crystal structures of apo, holo and ternary complex of Cryptosporidium parvum enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Debasish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure, function and reaction mechanism of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH have been extensively studied. Based on these studies, three anion binding sites have been identified, one 'Ps' site (for binding the C-3 phosphate of the substrate and two sites, 'Pi' and 'new Pi', for inorganic phosphate. According to the original flip-flop model, the substrate phosphate group switches from the 'Pi' to the 'Ps' site during the multistep reaction. In light of the discovery of the 'new Pi' site, a modified flip-flop mechanism, in which the C-3 phosphate of the substrate binds to the 'new Pi' site and flips to the 'Ps' site before the hydride transfer, was proposed. An alternative model based on a number of structures of B. stearothermophilus GAPDH ternary complexes (non-covalent and thioacyl intermediate proposes that in the ternary Michaelis complex the C-3 phosphate binds to the 'Ps' site and flips from the 'Ps' to the 'new Pi' site during or after the redox step. Results We determined the crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum GAPDH in the apo and holo (enzyme + NAD state and the structure of the ternary enzyme-cofactor-substrate complex using an active site mutant enzyme. The C. parvum GAPDH complex was prepared by pre-incubating the enzyme with substrate and cofactor, thereby allowing free movement of the protein structure and substrate molecules during their initial encounter. Sulfate and phosphate ions were excluded from purification and crystallization steps. The quality of the electron density map at 2Å resolution allowed unambiguous positioning of the substrate. In three subunits of the homotetramer the C-3 phosphate group of the non-covalently bound substrate is in the 'new Pi' site. A concomitant movement of the phosphate binding loop is observed in these three subunits. In the fourth subunit the C-3 phosphate occupies an unexpected site not seen before and the phosphate binding loop remains in

  3. Tree species diversity in a seasonally-dry forest: the case of the Pinkaití site, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area, Southeastern limits of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Salm,Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of forest structure and tree species diversity in an anthropogenic palm grove and undisturbed areas at the seasonally-dry Pinkaití research station, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area. This site, managed by the Conservation International do Brasil, is the most southeastern site floristically surveyed in the Amazon until now. The secondary and a nearby undisturbed forest were sampled in a group of 52 floristic plots of 0.0625-ha (25x25-m) where all trees with DBH > ...

  4. Soil type affects migration pattern of airborne Pb and Cd under a spruce-beech forest of the UN-ECE integrated monitoring site Zoebelboden, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobler, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.kobler@umweltbundesamt.a [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Fitz, Walter J.; Dirnboeck, Thomas; Mirtl, Michael [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Anthropogenic trace element emissions have declined. However, top soils all over the world remain enriched in trace elements. We investigated Pb and Cd migration in forest soils of a remote monitoring site in the Austrian limestone Alps between 1992 and 2004. Large spatial variability masked temporal changes in the mineral soil of Lithic Leptosols (Skeltic), whereas a significant reduction of Pb concentrations in their forest floors occurred. Reductions of concentrations in the less heterogeneous Cambisols (Chromic) were significant. In contrast, virtually no migration of Pb and Cd were found in Stagnosols due to their impeded drainage. Very low element concentrations (<1 mug l{sup -1}) in field-collected soil solutions using tension lysimeters (0.2 mum nylon filters) imply that migration largely occurred by preferential flow as particulate-bound species during intensive rainfall events. Our results indicate that the extent of Pb and Cd migration in soils is largely influenced by soil type. - Comparison between soil solid phase and soil solution concentrations imply that trace element migration largely occurred by preferential flow as particulate-bound species.

  5. Occurrence of Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species in oak forests of southern Poland and their association with site conditions and the health status of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, R; Stępniewska, H; Bilański, P; Kolařík, M

    2014-11-01

    Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species are known to be serious pathogens of forest trees. Little is known, however, about the presence of P. plurivora in Polish oak forests and their role in oak decline. The aims of this study were to identify P. plurivora in healthy and declining Quercus robur stands in southern Poland and to demonstrate the relationship between different site factors and the occurrence of P. plurivora. In addition, the virulence of P. plurivora and other Phytophthora species was evaluated through inoculations using 2-year-old oak seedlings. Rhizosphere soil was investigated from 39 oak stands representing different healthy tree statuses. The morphology and DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene were used for identifications. P. plurivora, an oak fine root pathogen, was isolated from rhizosphere soil samples in 6 out of 39 stands. Additionally, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora polonica and Phytophthora rosacearum-like were also obtained from several stands. The results showed a significant association between the presence of P. plurivora and the health status of oak trees. Similar relationships were also observed for all identified Phytophthora species. In addition, there was evidence for a connection between the presence of all identified Phytophthora species and some site conditions. Phytophthora spp. occurred more frequently in declining stands and in silt loam and sandy loam soils with pH ≥ 3.66. P. plurivora and P. cambivora were the only species capable of killing whole plants, producing extensive necrosis on seedling stems.

  6. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace

    2017-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  7. Estimation of soil respiration using automated chamber systems in an oak (Quercus mongolica) forest at the Nam-San site in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seung Jin; Park, Soon-Ung; Park, Moon-Soo; Lee, Chang Seok

    2012-02-01

    Soil respiration (R(soil)) is the largest component of ecosystem respiration produced by the autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations. Its variability on multiple time scales strongly depends on environmental variables such as temperature and moisture. To investigate the temporal variations of R(soil) in a cool-temperate oak (Quercus mongolica) forest at the Nam-San site in Seoul, Korea, continuous measurements of R(soil) using the automated chamber systems, air and soil temperatures and soil moisture are made for the period from April 2010 to March 2011. The observed data indicate that the R(soil) shows a remarkable seasonal variation in accordance with temperatures with high in summer and low in winter. The R(soil) is found to be strongly correlated with soil temperature (T(s)) at the 5cm depth throughout the year. However, the high fluctuation of R(soil) is found to be related with soil moisture content (M(s)) during the forest growing season. The estimated annual Q(10) value using the 1.5m-high air temperature is found to be 2.4 that is comparable with other studies in temperate forest ecosystems. The optimal regression equation of R(soil) with the T(s) at 5cm depth and the M(s) at 15cm depth is found to be R(soil)=124.3 exp (0.097T(s))-55.3 (M(s))(2)+2931.9 (M(s))-38516 for T(s)≥0°C and R(soil)=0 for T(s)soil). The annual total soil respiration estimated by the optimal regression equation is found to be 1264gCm(-2) with a maximum of 685gCm(-2) in the summer season and a minimum of 33gCm(-2) in the winter season. The present study can be implemented for the determination of the carbon balance of a cool-temperate Q. mongolica forest with the provision of photosynthesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Home-range size and habitat use of European Nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus nesting in a complex plantation-forest landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sharps, Katrina; Henderson, Ian; Conway, Greg; Armour-Chelu, Neal; Dolman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the consequences of commercial plantation management for birds of conservation concern are poorly understood. The European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus is a species of conservation concern across Europe due to population depletion through habitat loss. Pine plantation-forest is now a key Nightjar nesting habitat, particularly in northwestern Europe, and increased understanding of foraging habitat selection is required. We radiotracked 31 Nightjars in an extensive (185-km2) comple...

  9. The surface chemistry of divalent metal carbonate minerals; a critical assessment of surface charge and potential data using the charge distribution multi-site ion complexation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Charlet, L.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Charge Distribution MUltiSite Ion Complexation or CD–MUSIC modeling approach is used to describe the chemical structure of carbonate mineralaqueous solution interfaces. The new model extends existing surface complexation models of carbonate minerals, by including atomic scale information on

  10. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-03-15

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  11. Environmental Impacts of Forest Road Construction on Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Caliskan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2 and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient. Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  12. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  13. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  14. Tritium in a deciduous forest adjacent to a commercial shallow land burial site: implications for monitoring to detect radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Kirby, L.J.

    1983-09-01

    Tritium as tritiated water was measured in the sap taken from the trunks of 26 maple trees growing in the vicinity of the shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Maxey Flats, Kentucky. Tritium values ranged between 10,000 and 290,000 pCi/l with the highest levels measured in sap from trees growing downslope from the burial site's western boundary. Levels of tritium of less than 1000 pCi/l were measured at a distance of 20 kilometers from the site: The source of elevated tritium levels in the vicinity of the disposal site is the evaporator facility which has released tritiated water vapor into the air more or less continuously for 10 years. Another possible source of at least some of the tritium is subterranean leakage from the trenches located near the western boundary. The evaporator facility has been shut down since December 1982. With the shutdown of the evaporator the levels of tritium in tree sap in future years is expected to show a marked decline as the tritiated soil water in the root zone becomes increasingly diluted with fresh rainwater and the residual tritium is dissipated to the air by evaporation and plant transpiration processes. 11 references

  15. Regulatory controls on the hydrogeological characterization of a mixed waste disposal site, Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebelmann, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Following the detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in the groundwater beneath the SDA in the summer of 1987, hydrogeological characterization of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste site, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), is the subject of a RCRA Corrective Action Program. Regulatory requirements for the Corrective Action Program dictate a phased approach to evaluation of the SDA. In the first phase of the program, the SDA is the subject of a RCRA Facility Investigation (RIF), which will obtain information to fully characterize the physical properties of the site, determine the nature and extent of contamination, and identify pathways for migration of contaminants. If the need for corrective measures is identified during the RIF, a Corrective Measures Study (CMS) will be performed as second phase. Information generated during the RIF will be used to aid in the selection and implementation of appropriate corrective measures to correct the release. Following the CMS, the final phase is the implementation of the selected corrective measures. 4 refs., 1 fig

  16. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of compliance activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  17. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  18. The Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation: Evidence from Multi-Site Research in the Forest Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura German

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Preoccupation with global energy supplies and climate change in the global North, and a desire to improve the balance of trade and capture value in the emerging carbon market by developing countries, together place biofuels firmly on the map of global land use change. Much of this recent land use change is occurring in developing countries where large agro-ecologically suitable tracts of land may be accessed at lower economic and opportunity cost. This is leading to the gradual penetration of commercial crops that provide suitable biofuel feedstocks (e.g., sugarcane, soybean, oil palm, jatropha into rural communities and forested landscapes throughout many areas of the global South. Expansion of biofuel feedstock cultivation in developing countries is widely embraced by producer country governments as a means to achieve energy security and stimulate rural economic development through employment and smallholder market integration. It is also expected that foreign and domestic investments in biofuel feedstock cultivation will lead to positive economic spillovers from knowledge transfer and investor contributions to social and physical infrastructure. While biofuel feedstocks are expanding through large industrial-scale plantations and smallholder production alike, the expansion of industrial-scale production systems has been countered by a critical response by civil society actors concerned about the implications for rural livelihoods, customary land rights, and the environmental effects of biofuel feedstock cultivation. To date, however, limited data exist to demonstrate the conditions under which widely anticipated economic and climate change mitigation benefits accrue in practice, and the implications of these developments for forests, local livelihoods, and the climate change mitigation potential of biofuels. In such a situation, debates are easily polarized into those for and against biofuels. This special issue seeks to nuance this debate by

  19. Interaction between the C-terminal domains of measles virus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein: a tight complex implying one binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Doizy, Anthony; Oglesbee, Michael; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    The intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (N(TAIL) ) of the measles virus (MeV) nucleoprotein undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the phosphoprotein. The N(TAIL) region involved in binding coupled to folding has been mapped to a conserved region (Box2) encompassing residues 489-506. In the previous studies published in this journal, we obtained experimental evidence supporting a K(D) for the N(TAIL) -XD binding reaction in the nM range and also showed that an additional N(TAIL) region (Box3, aa 517-525) plays a role in binding to XD. In striking contrast with these data, studies published in this journal by Kingston and coworkers pointed out a much less stable complex (K(D) in the μM range) and supported lack of involvement of Box3 in complex formation. The objective of this study was to critically re-evaluate the role of Box3 in N(TAIL) -XD binding. Since our previous studies relied on N(TAIL) -truncated forms possessing an irrelevant Flag sequence appended at their C-terminus, we, herein, generated an N(TAIL) devoid of Box3 and any additional C-terminal residues, as well as a form encompassing only residues 482-525. We then used isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize the binding reactions between XD and these N(TAIL) forms. Results effectively argue for the presence of a single XD-binding site located within Box2, in agreement with the results by Kingston et al., while providing clear experimental support for a high-affinity complex. Altogether, the present data provide mechanistic insights into the replicative machinery of MeV and clarify a hitherto highly debated point. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  20. pSuc-Lys: Predict lysine succinylation sites in proteins with PseAAC and ensemble random forest approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianhua; Liu, Zi; Xiao, Xuan; Liu, Bingxiang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-04-07

    Being one type of post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein lysine succinylation is important in regulating varieties of biological processes. It is also involved with some diseases, however. Consequently, from the angles of both basic research and drug development, we are facing a challenging problem: for an uncharacterized protein sequence having many Lys residues therein, which ones can be succinylated, and which ones cannot? To address this problem, we have developed a predictor called pSuc-Lys through (1) incorporating the sequence-coupled information into the general pseudo amino acid composition, (2) balancing out skewed training dataset by random sampling, and (3) constructing an ensemble predictor by fusing a series of individual random forest classifiers. Rigorous cross-validations indicated that it remarkably outperformed the existing methods. A user-friendly web-server for pSuc-Lys has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/pSuc-Lys, by which users can easily obtain their desired results without the need to go through the complicated mathematical equations involved. It has not escaped our notice that the formulation and approach presented here can also be used to analyze many other problems in computational proteomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Proceedings, 15th central hardwood forest conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Buckley; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; [Editors

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings of the 15th central hardwood forest conference held February 27–March 1, 2006, in Knoxville, TN. Includes 86 papers and 30 posters pertaining to forest health and protection, ecology and forest dynamics, natural and artificial regeneration, forest products, wildlife, site classification, management and forest resources, mensuration and models, soil and...

  2. Effectiveness of Africa's tropical protected areas for maintaining forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, J N; De Vos, A; Ament, J M; Cumming, G S

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forests. Tropical forests house a substantial portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are heavily affected by anthropogenic activity. We analyzed park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control sites. Although significant geographical variation existed among parks, the majority of African parks had significantly less forest loss within their boundaries (e.g., Mahale Park had 34 times less forest loss within its boundary) than control sites. Accessibility was a significant driver of forest loss. Relatively inaccessible areas had a higher probability (odds ratio >1, p < 0.001) of forest loss but only in ineffective parks, and relatively accessible areas had a higher probability of forest loss but only in effective parks. Smaller parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks (T = -2.32, p < 0.05), and older parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than younger parks (F 2,154 = -4.11, p < 0.001). Our analyses, the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrated the complexity of factors (such as geographical variation, accessibility, and park size and age) influencing the ability of a park to curb forest loss within its boundaries. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto montmorillonite: Macroscopic, thermodynamic and structural evidence for ternary hydroxo and carbonato surface complexes on multiple sorption sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M Marques; Scheinost, A C; Baeyens, B

    2016-08-01

    The credibility of long-term safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories may be greatly enhanced by a molecular level understanding of the sorption processes onto individual minerals present in the near- and far-fields. In this study we couple macroscopic sorption experiments to surface complexation modelling and spectroscopic investigations, including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS), to elucidate the uptake mechanism of trivalent lanthanides and actinides (Ln/An(III)) by montmorillonite in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Based on the experimental sorption isotherms for the carbonate-free system, the previously developed 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model needed to be complemented with an additional surface complexation reaction onto weak sites. The fitting of sorption isotherms in the presence of carbonate required refinement of the previously published model by reducing the strong site capacity and by adding the formation of Ln/An(III)-carbonato complexes both on strong and weak sites. EXAFS spectra of selected Am samples and TRLFS spectra of selected Cm samples corroborate the model assumptions by showing the existence of different surface complexation sites and evidencing the formation of Ln/An(III) carbonate surface complexes. In the absence of carbonate and at low loadings, Ln/An(III) form strong inner-sphere complexes through binding to three Al(O,OH)6 octahedra, most likely by occupying vacant sites in the octahedral layers of montmorillonite, which are exposed on {010} and {110} edge faces. At higher loadings, Ln/An(III) binds to only one Al octahedron, forming a weaker, edge-sharing surface complex. In the presence of carbonate, we identified a ternary mono- or dicarbonato Ln/An(III) complex binding directly to one Al(O,OH)6 octahedron, revealing that type-A ternary complexes form with the one

  4. The importance of odor in nest site selection by a lodger bee, Centris Bicornuta Mocsáry (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the dry forest of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, S B; Frankie, G W; Rao, A

    2011-01-01

    The more common lodger bee occurring in the dry forest of Costa Rica, Centris bicornuta Muscáry), has been observed nesting in new nest cavities drilled into wooden blocks placed next to cavities used by another female within 2-3 days. In contrast, new nest cavities placed in similar areas with no nesting Centris nearby were not used for weeks. These observations suggest that the presence of nesting bees may play a role in nest site selection. To confirm our observations, new nest cavities were placed in areas with or without nesting. We found nest initiation in newly placed nest cavities only in areas where bees were actively nesting. To examine the possibility that nesting locations are not unique, we placed new nest cavities in new locations either with (a) a number of completed nest cavities or (b) placed alone. Within three days we only found bees nesting in the newly placed nest cavities in situation "a". The results suggested that odor might be involved. We next compared nesting in new cavities placed alone with cavities contaminated with either (a) nest entrance plug material, (b) nest nectar, (c) nest pollen or (d) a combination of pollen and nectar. Nesting was significantly low in cavities placed next to cavities with nest entrance plug material (a), and high in cavities placed next to cavities "b, c, or d". The results suggest that pollen and /or nectar odor play a role in the location of potential nest sites.

  5. An integrative computational framework based on a two-step random forest algorithm improves prediction of zinc-binding sites in proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zheng

    Full Text Available Zinc-binding proteins are the most abundant metalloproteins in the Protein Data Bank where the zinc ions usually have catalytic, regulatory or structural roles critical for the function of the protein. Accurate prediction of zinc-binding sites is not only useful for the inference of protein function but also important for the prediction of 3D structure. Here, we present a new integrative framework that combines multiple sequence and structural properties and graph-theoretic network features, followed by an efficient feature selection to improve prediction of zinc-binding sites. We investigate what information can be retrieved from the sequence, structure and network levels that is relevant to zinc-binding site prediction. We perform a two-step feature selection using random forest to remove redundant features and quantify the relative importance of the retrieved features. Benchmarking on a high-quality structural dataset containing 1,103 protein chains and 484 zinc-binding residues, our method achieved >80% recall at a precision of 75% for the zinc-binding residues Cys, His, Glu and Asp on 5-fold cross-validation tests, which is a 10%-28% higher recall at the 75% equal precision compared to SitePredict and zincfinder at residue level using the same dataset. The independent test also indicates that our method has achieved recall of 0.790 and 0.759 at residue and protein levels, respectively, which is a performance better than the other two methods. Moreover, AUC (the Area Under the Curve and AURPC (the Area Under the Recall-Precision Curve by our method are also respectively better than those of the other two methods. Our method can not only be applied to large-scale identification of zinc-binding sites when structural information of the target is available, but also give valuable insights into important features arising from different levels that collectively characterize the zinc-binding sites. The scripts and datasets are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/zincidentifier/.

  6. Applications of site-specific labeling to study HAMLET, a tumoricidal complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Natalia; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Boeggeman, Elizabeth; Qasba, Pradman K

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA) is a calcium-bound mammary gland-specific protein that is found in milk. This protein is a modulator of β1,4-galactosyltransferase enzyme, changing its acceptor specificity from N-acetyl-glucosamine to glucose, to produce lactose, milk's main carbohydrate. When calcium is removed from α-LA, it adopts a molten globule form, and this form, interestingly, when complexed with oleic acid (OA) acquires tumoricidal activity. Such a complex made from human α-LA (hLA) is known as HAMLET (Human A-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells), and its tumoricidal activity has been well established. In the present work, we have used site-specific labeling, a technique previously developed in our laboratory, to label HAMLET with biotin, or a fluoroprobe for confocal microscopy studies. In addition to full length hLA, the α-domain of hLA (αD-hLA) alone is also included in the present study. We have engineered these proteins with a 17-amino acid C-terminal extension (hLA-ext and αD-hLA-ext). A single Thr residue in this extension is glycosylated with 2-acetonyl-galactose (C2-keto-galactose) using polypeptide-α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II (ppGalNAc-T2) and further conjugated with aminooxy-derivatives of fluoroprobe or biotin molecules. We found that the molten globule form of hLA and αD-hLA proteins, with or without C-terminal extension, and with and without the conjugated fluoroprobe or biotin molecule, readily form a complex with OA and exhibits tumoricidal activity similar to HAMLET made with full-length hLA protein. The confocal microscopy studies with fluoroprobe-labeled samples show that these proteins are internalized into the cells and found even in the nucleus only when they are complexed with OA. The HAMLET conjugated with a single biotin molecule will be a useful tool to identify the cellular components that are involved with it in the tumoricidal activity.

  7. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  8. Estimation of Snow Particle Model Suitable for a Complex and Forested Terrain: Lessons from SnowEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Li, W.; Stamnes, K. H.; Poudyal, R.; Fan, Y.; Chen, N.

    2017-12-01

    SnowEx 2017 obtained consistent and coordinated ground and airborne remote sensing measurements over Grand Mesa in Colorado, which feature sufficient forested stands to have a range of density and height (and other forest conditions); a range of snow depth/snow water equivalent (SWE) conditions; sufficiently flat snow-covered terrain of a size comparable to airborne instrument swath widths. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) data from SnowEx are unique and can be used to assess the accuracy of Bidirectional Reflectance-Distribution Functions (BRDFs) calculated by different snow models. These measurements provide multiple angle and multiple wavelength data needed for accurate surface BRDF characterization. Such data cannot easily be obtained by current satellite remote sensors. Compared to ground-based snow field measurements, CAR measurements minimize the effect of self-shading, and are adaptable to a wide variety of field conditions. We plan to use the CAR measurements as the validation data source for our snow modeling effort. By comparing calculated BRDF results from different snow models to CAR measurements, we can determine which model best explains the snow BRDFs, and is therefore most suitable for application to satellite remote sensing of snow parameters and surface energy budget calculations.

  9. Forest harvesting reduces the soil metagenomic potential for biomass decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Kranabetter, J M; Hope, Graeme; Maas, Kendra R; Hallam, Steven; Mohn, William W

    2015-11-01

    Soil is the key resource that must be managed to ensure sustainable forest productivity. Soil microbial communities mediate numerous essential ecosystem functions, and recent studies show that forest harvesting alters soil community composition. From a long-term soil productivity study site in a temperate coniferous forest in British Columbia, 21 forest soil shotgun metagenomes were generated, totaling 187 Gb. A method to analyze unassembled metagenome reads from the complex community was optimized and validated. The subsequent metagenome analysis revealed that, 12 years after forest harvesting, there were 16% and 8% reductions in relative abundances of biomass decomposition genes in the organic and mineral soil layers, respectively. Organic and mineral soil layers differed markedly in genetic potential for biomass degradation, with the organic layer having greater potential and being more strongly affected by harvesting. Gene families were disproportionately affected, and we identified 41 gene families consistently affected by harvesting, including families involved in lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin degradation. The results strongly suggest that harvesting profoundly altered below-ground cycling of carbon and other nutrients at this site, with potentially important consequences for forest regeneration. Thus, it is important to determine whether these changes foreshadow long-term changes in forest productivity or resilience and whether these changes are broadly characteristic of harvested forests.

  10. Disparate effects of global-change drivers on mountain conifer forests: warming-induced growth enhancement in young trees vs. CO2 fertilization in old trees from wet sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, J Julio; Gazol, Antonio; Galván, Juan Diego; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Gutiérrez, Emilia

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that the postindustrial rise in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (c(a)) should enhance tree growth either through a direct fertilization effect or indirectly by improving water use efficiency in dry areas. However, this hypothesis has received little support in cold-limited and subalpine forests where positive growth responses to either rising ca or warmer temperatures are still under debate. In this study, we address this issue by analyzing an extensive dendrochronological network of high-elevation Pinus uncinata forests in Spain (28 sites, 544 trees) encompassing the whole biogeographical extent of the species. We determine if the basal area increment (BAI) trends are linked to climate warming and increased c(a) by focusing on region- and age-dependent responses. The largest improvement in BAI over the past six centuries occurred during the last 150 years affecting young trees and being driven by recent warming. Indeed, most studied regions and age classes presented BAI patterns mainly controlled by temperature trends, while growing-season precipitation was only relevant in the driest sites. Growth enhancement was linked to rising ca in mature (151-300 year-old trees) and old-mature trees (301-450 year-old trees) from the wettest sites only. This finding implies that any potential fertilization effect of elevated c(a) on forest growth is contingent on tree features that vary with ontogeny and it depends on site conditions (for instance water availability). Furthermore, we found widespread growth decline in drought-prone sites probably indicating that the rise in ca did not compensate for the reduction in water availability. Thus, warming-triggered drought stress may become a more important direct driver of growth than rising ca in similar subalpine forests. We argue that broad approaches in biogeographical and temporal terms are required to adequately evaluate any effect of rising c(a) on forest growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Assessing Ecosystem Drought Response in CLM 4.5 Using Site-Level Flux and Carbon-Isotope Measurements: Results From a Pacific Northwest Coniferous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, H.; Raczka, B. M.; Koven, C. D.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The frequency, extent, and severity of droughts are expected to increase in the western United States as climate changes occur. The combination of warmer temperature, larger vapor pressure deficit, reduced snowfall and snow pack, earlier snow melt, and extended growing seasons is expected to lead to an intensification of summer droughts, with a direct impact on ecosystem productivity and therefore on the carbon budget of the region. In this scenario, an accurate representation of ecosystem drought response in land models becomes fundamental, but the task is challenging, especially in regards to stomatal response to drought. In this study we used the most recent release of the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5), which now includes photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and revised photosynthesis and hydrology schemes, among an extensive list of updates. We evaluated the model's performance at a coniferous forest site in the Pacific northwest (Wind River AmeriFlux Site), characterized by a climate that has a strong winter precipitation component followed by a summer drought. We ran the model in offline mode (i.e., decoupled from an atmospheric model), forced by observed meteorological data, and used site observations (e.g., surface fluxes, biomass values, and carbon isotope data) to assess the model. Previous field observations indicated a significant negative correlation between soil water content and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respiration (δ13CR), suggesting that δ13CR was closely related to the photosynthetic discrimination against 13CO2 as controlled by stomatal conductance. We used these observations and latent-heat flux measurements to assess the modeled stomatal conductance values and their responses to extended summer drought. We first present the model results, followed by a discussion of potential CLM model improvements in stomatal conductance responses and in the representation of soil water stress (parameter βt) that would more precisely

  12. Uranium(VI) sorption on iron oxides in Hanford Site sediment: Application of a surface complexation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Brown, Christopher F.; Rod, Kenton A.

    2008-01-01

    Sorption of U(VI) on Hanford fine sand (HFS) with varying Fe-oxide (especially ferrihydrite) contents showed that U(VI) sorption increased with the incremental addition of synthetic ferrihydrite into HFS, consistent with ferrihydrite being one of the most reactive U(VI) sorbents present in natural sediments. Surface complexation model (SCM) calculations for U(VI) sorption, using only U(VI) surface-reaction constants obtained from U(VI) sorption data on freshly synthesized ferrihydrite at different pHs, were similar to the measured U(VI) sorption results on pure synthetic ferrihydrite and on HFS with high contents of ferrihydrite (5 wt%) added. However, the SCM prediction using only U(VI) sorption reactions and constants for synthetic ferrihydrite overestimated U(VI) sorption on the natural HFS or HFS with addition of low amounts of added ferrihydrite (1 wt% added). Over-predicted U(VI) sorption was attributed to reduced reactivity of natural ferrihydrite present in Hanford Site sediments, compared to freshly prepared synthetic ferrihydrite. Even though the SCM general composite (GC) approach is considered to be a semi-quantitative estimation technique for contaminant sorption, which requires systematic experimental data on the sorbent-sorbate system being studied to obtain credible SCM parameters, the general composite SCM model was still found to be a useful technique for describing U(VI) sorption on natural sediments. Based on U(VI) batch sorption results, two simple U(VI) monodentate surface species, SO U O 2 HCO 3 and SO U O 2 OH on ferrihydrite and phyllosillicate in HFS, respectively, can be successfully used to describe U(VI) sorption onto Hanford Site sediment contacting varying geochemical solutions

  13. Petrogenesis and depositional history of felsic pyroclastic rocks from the Melka Wakena archaeological site-complex in South central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resom, Angesom; Asrat, Asfawossen; Gossa, Tegenu; Hovers, Erella

    2018-06-01

    The Melka Wakena archaeological site-complex is located at the eastern rift margin of the central sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), in south central Ethiopia. This wide, gently sloping rift shoulder, locally called the "Gadeb plain" is underlain by a succession of primary pyroclastic deposits and intercalated fluvial sediments as well as reworked volcaniclastic rocks, the top part of which is exposed by the Wabe River in the Melka Wakena area. Recent archaeological survey and excavations at this site revealed important paleoanthropological records. An integrated stratigraphic, petrological, and major and trace element geochemical study has been conducted to constrain the petrogenesis of the primary pyroclastic deposits and the depositional history of the sequence. The results revealed that the Melka Wakena pyroclastic deposits are a suite of mildly alkaline, rhyolitic pantellerites (ash falls, pumiceous ash falls and ignimbrites) and slightly dacitic ash flows. These rocks were deposited by episodic volcanic eruptions during early to middle Pleistocene from large calderas along the Wonji Fault Belt (WFB) in the central sector of the MER and from large silicic volcanic centers at the eastern rift shoulder. The rhyolitic ash falls, pumiceous ash falls and ignimbrites have been generated by fractional crystallization of a differentiating basaltic magma while the petrogenesis of the slightly dacitic ash flows involved some crustal contamination and assimilation during fractionation. Contemporaneous fluvial activities in the geomorphologically active Gadeb plain deposited overbank sedimentary sequences (archaeology bearing conglomerates and sands) along meandering river courses while a dense network of channels and streams have subsequently down-cut through the older volcanic and sedimentary sequences, redepositing the reworked volcaniclastic sediments further downstream.

  14. Storage for the Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to relocate and store unirradiated Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The US Department of Energy has decided to cease fuel fabrication activities in the 308 Building in the 300 Area. This decision was based on a safety concern over the ability of the fuel fabrication portion of the 308 Building to withstand a seismic event. The proposed action to relocate and store the fuel is based on the savings that could be realized by consolidating security costs associated with storage of the fuel. While the 308 Building belowgrade fuel storage areas are not at jeopardy by a seismic event, the US Department of Energy is proposing to cease storage operations along with the related fabrication operations. The US Department of Energy proposes to remove the unirradiated fuel pins and fuel assemblies from the 308 Building and store them in Room 192A, within the 234-5Z Building, a part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, located in the 200 West Area. Minor modifications to Room 192A would be required to accommodate placement of the fuel. The US Department of Energy estimates that removing all of the fuel from the 308 Building would save $6.5 million annually in security expenditures for the Fast Flux Test Facility. Environmental impacts of construction, relocation, and operation of the proposed action and alternatives were evaluated. This evaluation concluded that the proposed action would have no significant impacts on the human environment

  15. A multivariate decision tree analysis of biophysical factors in tropical forest fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey S. Ofren; Edward Harvey

    2000-01-01

    A multivariate decision tree model was used to quantify the relative importance of complex hierarchical relationships between biophysical variables and the occurrence of tropical forest fires. The study site is the Huai Kha Kbaeng wildlife sanctuary, a World Heritage Site in northwestern Thailand where annual fires are common and particularly destructive. Thematic...

  16. A Complex Network Theory Approach for the Spatial Distribution of Fire Breaks in Heterogeneous Forest Landscapes for the Control of Wildland Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Lucia; Russo, Paola; Siettos, Constantinos I

    2016-01-01

    Based on complex network theory, we propose a computational methodology which addresses the spatial distribution of fuel breaks for the inhibition of the spread of wildland fires on heterogeneous landscapes. This is a two-level approach where the dynamics of fire spread are modeled as a random Markov field process on a directed network whose edge weights are determined by a Cellular Automata model that integrates detailed GIS, landscape and meteorological data. Within this framework, the spatial distribution of fuel breaks is reduced to the problem of finding network nodes (small land patches) which favour fire propagation. Here, this is accomplished by exploiting network centrality statistics. We illustrate the proposed approach through (a) an artificial forest of randomly distributed density of vegetation, and (b) a real-world case concerning the island of Rhodes in Greece whose major part of its forest was burned in 2008. Simulation results show that the proposed methodology outperforms the benchmark/conventional policy of fuel reduction as this can be realized by selective harvesting and/or prescribed burning based on the density and flammability of vegetation. Interestingly, our approach reveals that patches with sparse density of vegetation may act as hubs for the spread of the fire.

  17. A Complex Network Theory Approach for the Spatial Distribution of Fire Breaks in Heterogeneous Forest Landscapes for the Control of Wildland Fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Russo

    Full Text Available Based on complex network theory, we propose a computational methodology which addresses the spatial distribution of fuel breaks for the inhibition of the spread of wildland fires on heterogeneous landscapes. This is a two-level approach where the dynamics of fire spread are modeled as a random Markov field process on a directed network whose edge weights are determined by a Cellular Automata model that integrates detailed GIS, landscape and meteorological data. Within this framework, the spatial distribution of fuel breaks is reduced to the problem of finding network nodes (small land patches which favour fire propagation. Here, this is accomplished by exploiting network centrality statistics. We illustrate the proposed approach through (a an artificial forest of randomly distributed density of vegetation, and (b a real-world case concerning the island of Rhodes in Greece whose major part of its forest was burned in 2008. Simulation results show that the proposed methodology outperforms the benchmark/conventional policy of fuel reduction as this can be realized by selective harvesting and/or prescribed burning based on the density and flammability of vegetation. Interestingly, our approach reveals that patches with sparse density of vegetation may act as hubs for the spread of the fire.

  18. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites on U.S.D.A. Forest Service lands, Mineral Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the USDA Forest Service in the Mineral Creek watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and of surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and what metals are mobilized below mines or dumps. Information on 25 sites is reviewed and reclamation priorities are ranked into four classes (high, medium, low priority, or no work required). The western side of the upper Animas watershed (the Mineral Creek watershed) has a history of mining and prospecting for about 130 years. The intensity of miningrelated disturbance is higher than in most parts of the San Juan Mountains region, but actually is much less than the eastern half of the watershed (US BLM lands) and none of the mines moved millions of tons of rock and ore as in some of the eastern mines. The majority of the roughly one thousand mining sites on the USFS lands are very small (less than 100 tons or 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or are so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. Twenty five sites have been considered by others to have significant size and potential for significant environmental degradation. These most significant mining areas were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid or liberate toxic metals, observed acidic pH or dead vegetation (?kill zones?) below dumps or adits, potential mobility of metals, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. In the author?s opinion, no single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, is reliable for ranking significance or feasibility of reclamation. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations of, or interactions among, several parameters. The most subjective

  19. Forest Canopy Cover and Height from MISR in Topographically Complex Southwestern US Landscape Assessed with High Quality Reference Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, Mark; North, Malcolm; Chen, Jiquan; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Blair, J. Bryan; Martonchik, John V.; Bull, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the retrieval of spatially contiguous canopy cover and height estimates in southwestern USforests via inversion of a geometric-optical (GO) model against surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) estimates from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Model inversion can provide such maps if good estimates of the background bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) are available. The study area is in the Sierra National Forest in the Sierra Nevada of California. Tree number density, mean crown radius, and fractional cover reference estimates were obtained via analysis of QuickBird 0.6 m spatial resolution panchromatic imagery usingthe CANopy Analysis with Panchromatic Imagery (CANAPI) algorithm, while RH50, RH75 and RH100 (50, 75, and 100 energy return) height data were obtained from the NASA Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), a full waveform light detection and ranging (lidar) instrument. These canopy parameters were used to drive a modified version of the simple GO model (SGM), accurately reproducing patterns ofMISR 672 nm band surface reflectance (mean RMSE 0.011, mean R2 0.82, N 1048). Cover and height maps were obtained through model inversion against MISR 672 nm reflectance estimates on a 250 m grid.The free parameters were tree number density and mean crown radius. RMSE values with respect to reference data for the cover and height retrievals were 0.05 and 6.65 m, respectively, with of 0.54 and 0.49. MISR can thus provide maps of forest cover and height in areas of topographic variation although refinements are required to improve retrieval precision.

  20. Aggressive mosquito fauna and malaria transmission in a forest area targeted for the creation of an agro-industrial complex in the south of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ntonga Akono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Baseline entomological information should be collected before the implementation of industrial projects in malaria endemic areas. This allows for subsequent monitoring and evaluation of the project impact on malaria vectors. This study aimed at assessing the vectorial system and malaria transmission in two ecologically different villages of the South-Cameroon forest bloc targeted for the creation of an agro-industrial complex. For four consecutive seasons in 2013, adult mosquitoes were captured using Human Landing Catch in NDELLE village (located along a main road in a degraded forest with many fish ponds and KOMBO village (located 5km far from the main road in a darker forest and crossed by the Mvobo River. Morpho-taxonomic techniques were used alongside molecular techniques for the identification of mosquito species. ELISA test was used for the detection of circumsporozoite protein antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. Mosquito biting rate was higher in NDELLE than in KOMBO (28.18 versus 17.34 bites per person per night. Mosquitoes had a strong tendency to endophagy both in NDELLE (73.57% and KOMBO (70.21%. Three anophelines species were identified; An. gambiae, An. funestus s.s and An. moucheti s.s.. An. gambiae and An. funestus s.s. represented the bulk of aggressive mosquitoes in NDELLE (n=10,891; 96.62%. An. gambiae was responsible for 62.6% and 77.72% of malaria transmission in KOMBO and NDELLE respectively. Mean entomological inoculation rate recorded in KOMBO and NDELLE were 4.82 and 2.02 infective bites per person per night respectively. Vector control was mainly based on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. The degraded forest environment added to the presence of fishponds resulted in the increase of aggressive mosquito density but not of malaria transmission. The managers should use these data for monitoring and evaluation of the impact of their project; malaria control strategies should be included in

  1. Nanobodies: site-specific labeling for super-resolution imaging, rapid epitope-mapping and native protein complex isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Tino; Bates, Mark; Trakhanov, Sergei; Lee, Chung-Tien; Schliep, Jan Erik; Chug, Hema; Böhning, Marc; Stark, Holger; Urlaub, Henning; Görlich, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Nanobodies are single-domain antibodies of camelid origin. We generated nanobodies against the vertebrate nuclear pore complex (NPC) and used them in STORM imaging to locate individual NPC proteins with nanobody sequence and labeled the resulting proteins with fluorophore-maleimides. As nanobodies are normally stabilized by disulfide-bonded cysteines, this appears counterintuitive. Yet, our analysis showed that this caused no folding problems. Compared to traditional NHS ester-labeling of lysines, the cysteine-maleimide strategy resulted in far less background in fluorescence imaging, it better preserved epitope recognition and it is site-specific. We also devised a rapid epitope-mapping strategy, which relies on crosslinking mass spectrometry and the introduced ectopic cysteines. Finally, we used different anti-nucleoporin nanobodies to purify the major NPC building blocks – each in a single step, with native elution and, as demonstrated, in excellent quality for structural analysis by electron microscopy. The presented strategies are applicable to any nanobody and nanobody-target. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11349.001 PMID:26633879

  2. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Cappa

    Full Text Available The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303 with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio, a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  3. Impacts of Population Structure and Analytical Models in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Complex Traits in Forest Trees: A Case Study in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Martín N.; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model (UMM) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S∶G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S∶G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  4. Crystal structure of an affinity-matured prolactin complexed to its dimerized receptor reveals the topology of hormone binding site 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broutin, Isabelle; Jomain, Jean-Baptiste; Tallet, Estelle

    2010-01-01

    We report the first crystal structure of a 1:2 hormone.receptor complex that involves prolactin (PRL) as the ligand, at 3.8-A resolution. Stable ternary complexes were obtained by generating affinity-matured PRL variants harboring an N-terminal tail from ovine placental lactogen, a closely relate...... and prostate cancer.......We report the first crystal structure of a 1:2 hormone.receptor complex that involves prolactin (PRL) as the ligand, at 3.8-A resolution. Stable ternary complexes were obtained by generating affinity-matured PRL variants harboring an N-terminal tail from ovine placental lactogen, a closely related...... PRL receptor (PRLR) ligand. This structure allows one to draw up an exhaustive inventory of the residues involved at the PRL.PRLR site 2 interface, consistent with all previously reported site-directed mutagenesis data. We propose, with this description, an interaction model involving three structural...

  5. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  6. Evaluating the potential for site-specific modification of LiDAR DEM derivatives to improve environmental planning-scale wetland identification using Random Forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gina L.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Watson, Layne T.

    2018-04-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems that provide many ecological benefits, and their quality and presence are protected by federal regulations. These regulations require wetland delineations, which can be costly and time-consuming to perform. Computer models can assist in this process, but lack the accuracy necessary for environmental planning-scale wetland identification. In this study, the potential for improvement of wetland identification models through modification of digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, derived from high-resolution and increasingly available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, at a scale necessary for small-scale wetland delineations is evaluated. A novel approach of flow convergence modelling is presented where Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), curvature, and Cartographic Depth-to-Water index (DTW), are modified to better distinguish wetland from upland areas, combined with ancillary soil data, and used in a Random Forest classification. This approach is applied to four study sites in Virginia, implemented as an ArcGIS model. The model resulted in significant improvement in average wetland accuracy compared to the commonly used National Wetland Inventory (84.9% vs. 32.1%), at the expense of a moderately lower average non-wetland accuracy (85.6% vs. 98.0%) and average overall accuracy (85.6% vs. 92.0%). From this, we concluded that modifying TWI, curvature, and DTW provides more robust wetland and non-wetland signatures to the models by improving accuracy rates compared to classifications using the original indices. The resulting ArcGIS model is a general tool able to modify these local LiDAR DEM derivatives based on site characteristics to identify wetlands at a high resolution.

  7. Site-specific forest-assembly of single-wall carbon nanotubes on electron-beam patterned SiOx/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Haoyan; Kim, Sang Nyon; Kim, Sejong; Huey, Bryan D.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Marcus, Harris L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on electron-beam direct writing on the SiO x /Si substrates, favorable absorption sites for ferric cations (Fe 3+ ions) were created on the surface oxide layer. This allowed Fe 3+ -assisted self-assembled arrays of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) probes to be produced. Auger investigation indicated that the incident energetic electrons depleted oxygen, creating more dangling bonds around Si atoms at the surface of the SiO x layer. This resulted in a distinct difference in the friction forces from unexposed regions as measured by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) affirmed that the irradiated domains absorbed considerably more Fe 3+ ions upon immersion into pH 2.2 aqueous FeCl 3 solution. This rendered a greater yield of FeO(OH)/FeOCl precipitates, primarily FeO(OH), upon subsequent washing with lightly basic dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. Such selective metal-functionalization established the basis for the subsequent patterned forest-assembly of SWNTs as demonstrated by resonance Raman spectroscopy

  8. Ecological modeling for forest management in the Shawnee National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard G. Thurau; J.F. Fralish; S. Hupe; B. Fitch; A.D. Carver

    2008-01-01

    Land managers of the Shawnee National Forest in southern Illinois are challenged to meet the needs of a diverse populace of stakeholders. By classifying National Forest holdings into management units, U.S. Forest Service personnel can spatially allocate resources and services to meet local management objectives. Ecological Classification Systems predict ecological site...

  9. An unexpected phosphate binding site in Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Crystal structures of apo, holo and ternary complex of Cryptosporidium parvum enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Chattopadhyay, Debasish; (UAB)

    2009-06-08

    The structure, function and reaction mechanism of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) have been extensively studied. Based on these studies, three anion binding sites have been identified, one 'Ps' site (for binding the C-3 phosphate of the substrate) and two sites, 'Pi' and 'new Pi', for inorganic phosphate. According to the original flip-flop model, the substrate phosphate group switches from the 'Pi' to the 'Ps' site during the multistep reaction. In light of the discovery of the 'new Pi' site, a modified flip-flop mechanism, in which the C-3 phosphate of the substrate binds to the 'new Pi' site and flips to the 'Ps' site before the hydride transfer, was proposed. An alternative model based on a number of structures of B. stearothermophilus GAPDH ternary complexes (non-covalent and thioacyl intermediate) proposes that in the ternary Michaelis complex the C-3 phosphate binds to the 'Ps' site and flips from the 'Ps' to the 'new Pi' site during or after the redox step. We determined the crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum GAPDH in the apo and holo (enzyme + NAD) state and the structure of the ternary enzyme-cofactor-substrate complex using an active site mutant enzyme. The C. parvum GAPDH complex was prepared by pre-incubating the enzyme with substrate and cofactor, thereby allowing free movement of the protein structure and substrate molecules during their initial encounter. Sulfate and phosphate ions were excluded from purification and crystallization steps. The quality of the electron density map at 2{angstrom} resolution allowed unambiguous positioning of the substrate. In three subunits of the homotetramer the C-3 phosphate group of the non-covalently bound substrate is in the 'new Pi' site. A concomitant movement of the phosphate binding loop is observed in these three subunits. In the fourth subunit the C-3 phosphate

  10. THE ROLE OF TREEFALL COMPLEXES IN REGENERATION OF TREE SPECIES AND IN MAINTAINING OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF NATURAL BEECH AND DARK CONIFEROUS-BEECH FORESTS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Ripa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of maintaining biological diversity mechanisms is important for elaborating methods for the restoration of natural forests that most fully implement ecosystem functions. The objectives of work are: to identify intact beech and dark coniferous-beech forests of the Carpathians on the basis of analyzing history of nature management and field studies; to characterize the population structure of the main tree species in the intact forests of the Carpathians; to determine the renewal of various species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes to treefall microsites in the forest types studied. The objects of the research are monodominant beech forests and mixed (dark coniferous-beech forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians, in which beech (Fagus sylvatica, white fir (Abies alba and European spruce (Picea abies are the main dominant of tree sinusia. Monodominant beech forests (the age of stands 250–350 years were studied on 9 sample plots (from 1 to 1.05 ha laid in the Ugolsky forest range of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve at an altitude of 600 to 1000 m above sea level, and also on the 2 sample plots (from 1 to 1.09 hectares laid in the Lower Volovets forestry at an altitude of 600–800 meters above sea level. Uneven-aged dark coniferous-beech forest (the age of forest stands is 250–300 years old was explored on one sample plot (1.2 ha laid in the Podlisnivsky forestry of the Carpathian National Park at an altitude of 750 m above sea level. Population analysis of the main tree and shrub species as well as geobotanical releves was made on the sample plots. Treefall microsite complexes were investigated to identify the peculiarities in the location of tree undergrowth, herb and moss species in beech and mixed forests. The following elements of treefall microsite complex were singled out: treefall pit, treefall mound and tree trunk. At each treefall microsite complex the research was carried out according to the following scheme: an

  11. Two new Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex from Peninsular Malaysia and multiple instances of convergent adaptation to limestone forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Anuar, Shahrul; Grismer, Marta S; Quah, Evan S H; Murdoch, Matthew L; Muin, Mohd Abdul; Davis, Hayden R; Aguilar, César; Klabacka, Randy; Cobos, Anthony J; Aowphol, Anchalee; Sites, Jack W

    2016-04-25

    A new species of limestone cave-adapted gecko of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex, C. hidupselamanya sp. nov., is described from an isolated karst formation at Felda Chiku 7, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. This formation is scheduled to be completely quarried for its mineral content. From what we know about the life history of C. hidupselamanya sp. nov., this will result in its extinction. A new limestone forest-adapted species, C. lenggongensis sp. nov., from the Lenggong Valley, Perak was previously considered to be conspecific with C. bintangrendah but a re-evaluation of morphological, color pattern, molecular, and habitat preference indicates that it too is a unique lineage worthy of specific recognition. Fortunately C. lenggongensis sp. nov. is not facing extinction because its habitat is protected by the UNESCO Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley due to the archaeological significance of that region. Both new species can be distinguished from all other species of Cyrtodactylus based on molecular evidence from the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs as well as having unique combinations of morphological and color pattern characteristics. Using a time-calibrated BEAST analysis we inferred that the evolution of a limestone habitat preference and its apparently attendant morphological and color pattern adaptations evolved independently at least four times in the C. pulchellus complex between 26.1 and 0.78 mya.

  12. The Transcription Bubble of the RNA Polymerase-Promoter Open Complex Exhibits Conformational Heterogeneity and Millisecond-Scale Dynamics : Implications for Transcription Start-Site Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robb, Nicole C.; Cordes, Thorben; Hwang, Ling Chin; Gryte, Kristofer; Duchi, Diego; Craggs, Timothy D.; Santoso, Yusdi; Weiss, Shimon; Ebright, Richard H.; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial transcription is initiated after RNA polymerase (RNAP) binds to promoter DNA, melts similar to 14 bp around the transcription start site and forms a single-stranded "transcription bubble" within a catalytically active RNAP-DNA open complex (RPo). There is significant flexibility in the

  13. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2015-04-10

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymers are given.

  14. A coiled coil trigger site is essential for rapid binding of synaptobrevin to the SNARE acceptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiederhold, Katrin; Kloepper, Tobias H; Walter, Alexander M

    2010-01-01

    Exocytosis from synaptic vesicles is driven by stepwise formation of a tight alpha-helical complex between the fusing membranes. The complex is composed of the three SNAREs: synaptobrevin 2, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 1a. An important step in complex formation is fast binding of vesicular synaptobrevi...

  15. Spaceborne Applications of P Band Imaging Radars for Measuring Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; vanZyl, Jakob J.

    1995-01-01

    In three sites of boreal and temperate forests, P band HH, HV, and VV polarization data combined estimate total aboveground dry woody biomass within 12 to 27% of the values derived from allometric equations, depending on forest complexity. Biomass estimates derived from HV-polarization data only are 2 to 14% less accurate. When the radar operates at circular polarization, the errors exceed 100% over flooded forests, wet or damaged trees and sparse open tall forests because double-bounce reflections of the radar signals yield radar signatures similar to that of tall and massive forests. Circular polarizations, which minimize the effect of Faraday rotation in spaceborne applications, are therefore of limited use for measuring forest biomass. In the tropical rain forest of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 50 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P band horizontal and vertical polarization data combined separate biomass classes in good agreement with forest inventory estimates. The worldwide need for large scale, updated, biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, justifies a more in-depth exploration of multi-polarization long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  16. The Cu2+-nitrilotriacetic acid complex improves loading of α-helical double histidine site for precise distance measurements by pulsed ESR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shreya; Lawless, Matthew J.; Rule, Gordon S.; Saxena, Sunil

    2018-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling using two strategically placed natural histidine residues allows for the rigid attachment of paramagnetic Cu2+. This double histidine (dHis) motif enables extremely precise, narrow distance distributions resolved by Cu2+-based pulsed ESR. Furthermore, the distance measurements are easily relatable to the protein backbone-structure. The Cu2+ ion has, till now, been introduced as a complex with the chelating agent iminodiacetic acid (IDA) to prevent unspecific binding. Recently, this method was found to have two limiting concerns that include poor selectivity towards α-helices and incomplete Cu2+-IDA complexation. Herein, we introduce an alternative method of dHis-Cu2+ loading using the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-Cu2+ complex. We find that the Cu2+-NTA complex shows a four-fold increase in selectivity toward α-helical dHis sites. Furthermore, we show that 100% Cu2+-NTA complexation is achievable, enabling precise dHis loading and resulting in no free Cu2+ in solution. We analyze the optimum dHis loading conditions using both continuous wave and pulsed ESR. We implement these findings to show increased sensitivity of the Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) experiment in two different protein systems. The DEER signal is increased within the immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (called GB1). We measure distances between a dHis site on an α-helix and dHis site either on a mid-strand or a non-hydrogen bonded edge-strand β-sheet. Finally, the DEER signal is increased twofold within two α-helix dHis sites in the enzymatic dimer glutathione S-transferase exemplifying the enhanced α-helical selectivity of Cu2+-NTA.

  17. Complex Adaptive Systems, soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification: A multivariate assessment of Italian agro-forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca; Mavrakis, Anastasios; Colantoni, Andrea; Mancino, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Agostino

    2015-07-15

    Degradation of soils and sensitivity of land to desertification are intensified in last decades in the Mediterranean region producing heterogeneous spatial patterns determined by the interplay of factors such as climate, land-use changes, and human pressure. The present study hypothesizes that rising levels of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification are reflected into increasingly complex (and non-linear) relationships between environmental and socioeconomic variables. To verify this hypothesis, the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework was used to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of eleven indicators derived from a standard assessment of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification in Italy. Indicators were made available on a detailed spatial scale (773 agricultural districts) for various years (1960, 1990, 2000 and 2010) and analyzed through a multi-dimensional exploratory data analysis. Our results indicate that the number of significant pair-wise correlations observed between indicators increased with the level of soil and land degradation, although with marked differences between northern and southern Italy. 'Fast' and 'slow' factors underlying soil and land degradation, and 'rapidly-evolving' or 'locked' agricultural districts were identified according to the rapidity of change estimated for each of the indicators studied. In southern Italy, 'rapidly-evolving' districts show a high level of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification during the whole period of investigation. On the contrary, those districts in northern Italy are those experiencing a moderate soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification with the highest increase in the level of sensitivity over time. The study framework contributes to the assessment of complex local systems' dynamics in affluent but divided countries. Results may inform thematic strategies for the mitigation of land and soil degradation in the framework of action

  18. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  19. Forest report 2017; Waldzustandsbericht 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, insects and fungi, forestry environment monitoring, site information for the Federal Forest Inventory in Hesse, infiltrated substances, development of soil acidification on intensive monitoring areas in northwestern Germany, and the substrate group basalt/diabase.

  20. Nocturnal Boundary-Layer Phenomena Observed at a Complex Site During the Perdigão Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Klein, P. M.; Smith, E.; Gebauer, J.; Turner, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Perdigão Field Experiment set out to study atmospheric flows in complex terrain and to collect a high-quality dataset for the validation of meso- and micro-scale models. An Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted from May 1, 2017 through June 15, 2017 where a multitude of instruments were deployed in and around two nearly parallel ridges. The Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS) was deployed and operated in the valley between the ridges. The CLAMPS facility, which was developed as a joint effort between the School of Meteorology at OU and NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), takes advantage of a microwave radiometer (MWR), an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), and a scanning doppler Lidar to profile the boundary layer with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Optimized Lidar scanning strategies and joint retrievals for the MWR and ARI data provide detailed information about the wind, turbulence and thermodynamic structure from the surface up to 1000 m AGL on most nights; sometimes the max height is even higher. Over the course of the IOP, CLAMPS observed many different phenomena. During some nights, when stronger background prevailed and was directed perpendicular to the valley, waves were observed at the ridges and in the valley. At the same time, radiational cooling led to drainage flows in the valley, particularly during nights when the mesoscale forcing was weak. At first, CLAMPS profile observations and data collected with radiosondes released at a near-by site are compared to assess the data quality. The radiosonde observations are also being used to document and classify the upper-level flow during the IOP. Additionally, CLAMPS data from a few selected nights will be presented and analyzed in terms of turbulence and its impact on mixing inside and above the valley. June 1-2 represents a good base-state case. Winds at ridge height were generally less than 5ms-1 after 0Z and valley flows

  1. Stream channel responses and soil loss at off-highway vehicle stream crossings in the Ouachita National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Marion; Jonathan D. Phillips; Chad Yocum; Stephanie H. Mehlhope

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the geomorphic effects of ford-type stream crossings in an off-highway vehicle (OHV) trail complex in the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas. At a total of 15 crossing sites, we used a disturbed vs. undisturbed study design to assess soil truncation and an upstream vs. downstream design to assess in-channel effects. The 15 sites ranged from OHV...

  2. 3d/4f Metal Complexes of Phenolic Oximes New Binding Sites on Anderson Polyoxometalates Metal Complexes of the New THAME Ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Waqas

    to be coordinatedto SMMs as well as onto other transition metal complexes, via different synthetic strategies. These synthetic routes did not result in the crystallisation of any new compounds. A new hexadentate ligand tris(((2-hydroxyethyl)-amino)methyl)ethane (THAME) was synthesised and characterised. THAME...

  3. Absence of Non-histone Protein Complexes at Natural Chromosomal Pause Sites Results in Reduced Replication Pausing in Aging Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny Cabral

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that genomic instability increases during aging. Replication pausing (and stalling at difficult-to-replicate chromosomal sites may induce genomic instability. Interestingly, in aging yeast cells, we observed reduced replication pausing at various natural replication pause sites (RPSs in ribosomal DNA (rDNA and non-rDNA locations (e.g., silent replication origins and tRNA genes. The reduced pausing occurs independent of the DNA helicase Rrm3p, which facilitates replication past these non-histone protein-complex-bound RPSs, and is independent of the deacetylase Sir2p. Conditions of caloric restriction (CR, which extend life span, also cause reduced replication pausing at the 5S rDNA and at tRNA genes. In aged and CR cells, the RPSs are less occupied by their specific non-histone protein complexes (e.g., the preinitiation complex TFIIIC, likely because members of these complexes have primarily cytosolic localization. These conditions may lead to reduced replication pausing and may lower replication stress at these sites during aging.

  4. “Scanning mutagenesis” of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1alpha subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated...

  5. Crystal structure of CotA laccase complexed with 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) at a novel binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhongchuan; Xie, Tian; Zhong, Qiuping; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of CotA complexed with 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) in a hole motif has been solved; this novel binding site could be a potential structure-based target for protein engineering of CotA laccase. The CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis is an abundant component of the spore outer coat and has been characterized as a typical laccase. The crystal structure of CotA complexed with 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) in a hole motif has been solved. The novel binding site was about 26 Å away from the T1 binding pocket. Comparison with known structures of other laccases revealed that the hole is a specific feature of CotA. The key residues Arg476 and Ser360 were directly bound to ABTS. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that the residues Arg146, Arg429 and Arg476, which are located at the bottom of the novel binding site, are essential for the oxidation of ABTS and syringaldazine. Specially, a Thr480Phe variant was identified to be almost 3.5 times more specific for ABTS than for syringaldazine compared with the wild type. These results suggest this novel binding site for ABTS could be a potential target for protein engineering of CotA laccases

  6. Crystal structure of CotA laccase complexed with 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) at a novel binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhongchuan; Xie, Tian [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of (China); Zhong, Qiuping [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People’s Republic of (China); Wang, Ganggang, E-mail: wanggg@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of (China)

    2016-03-24

    The crystal structure of CotA complexed with 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) in a hole motif has been solved; this novel binding site could be a potential structure-based target for protein engineering of CotA laccase. The CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis is an abundant component of the spore outer coat and has been characterized as a typical laccase. The crystal structure of CotA complexed with 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) in a hole motif has been solved. The novel binding site was about 26 Å away from the T1 binding pocket. Comparison with known structures of other laccases revealed that the hole is a specific feature of CotA. The key residues Arg476 and Ser360 were directly bound to ABTS. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that the residues Arg146, Arg429 and Arg476, which are located at the bottom of the novel binding site, are essential for the oxidation of ABTS and syringaldazine. Specially, a Thr480Phe variant was identified to be almost 3.5 times more specific for ABTS than for syringaldazine compared with the wild type. These results suggest this novel binding site for ABTS could be a potential target for protein engineering of CotA laccases.

  7. Methodological problems of monetary evaluations of complex environmental damages - the example of the forest damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur monetaeren Bewertung von Umw