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Sample records for complex experimental infection

  1. Studies on the pathogenesis of Aleutian disease of mink. X. demonstration of immune complexes by the /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding test after experimental infection

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    Mueller-Peddinghaus, R [Kali-Chemie Pharma G.m.b.H., Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Pathologie; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Klinische Immunologie und Bluttransfusionswesen; Kalden, J R [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Klinische Immunologie; Trautwein, G; Ueberschaer, S [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    1980-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) of mink most closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in man; both are immune complex disease. In experimental AD serum immune complexes are determined by the /sup 125/J-C 1 q-binding test using human C 1 q. Mink (n = 12) infected intraperitoneally with Aleutian disease virus (ADV), grown in fetal mink kidney cells, developed during the course of infection a mean of /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding equivalent to 3.62 +- 1.68 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. (aggregated human immunoglobulin). Sera of mink (n = 8) which were infected with ADV grown in L-cells showed a less marked /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding with a mean equivalent to 2.52 +- 1.43 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In contrast control animals (n = 8) treated with non-ADV-infected mink epidermal fibroblasts or Eagle's minimal essential medium substituted with fetal calf serum only bound /sup 125/I-C 1 q equivalent to 1.02 +- 0.99 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In mink infected with ADV propagated in fetal mink kidney cells a constant increase in the /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding occurred from the 4th to the 7th and 13th week after ADV infection. Mink which were infected with ADV propagated in mouse L-cells exhibited a different pattern of the /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding capacity with a sharp increase from the 4th to the 7th week, followed by a decline towards the 13th week post infection. The serum /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding capacity of all experimental animal groups exhibited at different times of the experiment a significant correlation with the presence of hypergammaglobulinaemia and raised ADV-antibody titers. From the data obtained it appears that the /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding test, utilizing human C 1 q, is a suitable method for the detection of circulating serum immune complexes in mink during the course of ADV-infection.

  2. Revisiting host preference in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: experimental infection shows M. tuberculosis H37Rv to be avirulent in cattle.

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    Adam O Whelan

    Full Text Available Experiments in the late 19th century sought to define the host specificity of the causative agents of tuberculosis in mammals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the human tubercle bacillus, was independently shown by Smith, Koch, and von Behring to be avirulent in cattle. This finding was erroneously used by Koch to argue the converse, namely that Mycobacterium bovis, the agent of bovine tuberculosis, was avirulent for man, a view that was subsequently discredited. However, reports in the literature of M. tuberculosis isolation from cattle with tuberculoid lesions suggests that the virulence of M. tuberculosis for cattle needs to be readdressed. We used an experimental bovine infection model to test the virulence of well-characterized strains of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis in cattle, choosing the genome-sequenced strains M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. bovis 2122/97. Cattle were infected with approximately 10(6 CFU of M. tuberculosis H37Rv or M. bovis 2122/97, and sacrificed 17 weeks post-infection. IFN-gamma and tuberculin skin tests indicated that both M. bovis 2122 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were equally infective and triggered strong cell-mediated immune responses, albeit with some indication of differential antigen-specific responses. Postmortem examination revealed that while M. bovis 2122/97-infected animals all showed clear pathology indicative of bovine tuberculosis, the M. tuberculosis-infected animals showed no pathology. Culturing of infected tissues revealed that M. tuberculosis was able to persist in the majority of animals, albeit at relatively low bacillary loads. In revisiting the early work on host preference across the M. tuberculosis complex, we have shown M. tuberculosis H37Rv is avirulent for cattle, and propose that the immune status of the animal, or genotype of the infecting bacillus, may have significant bearing on the virulence of a strain for cattle. This work will serve as a baseline for future studies into the genetic basis

  3. Experimental rhinovirus infection in volunteers.

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    Bardin, P G; Sanderson, G; Robinson, B S; Holgate, S T; Tyrrell, D A

    1996-11-01

    Experimental viral disease studies in volunteers have clarified many aspects of the pathogenesis of human viral disease. Recently, interest has focused on rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations, and new volunteer studies have suggested that airway responsiveness (AR) is enhanced during a cold. For scientific, ethical and safety reasons, it is important to use validated methods for the preparation of a virus inoculum and that the particular virological characteristics and host responses should not be altered. We have prepared a new human rhinovirus (HRV) inoculum using recent guidelines and assessed whether disease characteristics (for example, severity of colds or changes in AR) were retained. Studies were conducted in 25 clinically healthy volunteers using a validated HRV inoculum in the first 17 and a new inoculum in the subsequent eight subjects. Severity of cold symptoms, nasal wash albumin levels and airway responsiveness were measured, and the new inoculum was prepared from nasal washes obtained during the cold. The new inoculum was tested using standard virological and serological techniques, as well as a polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. No contaminating viruses or organisms were detected and the methods suggested were workable. Good clinical colds developed in 20 of the 25 subjects and median symptom scores were similar in the validated and new inoculum groups (18 and 17.5, respectively; p=0.19). All subjects shed virus, and there were no differences noted in viral culture scores, nasal wash albumin and rates of seroconversion in the two groups. Although airway responsiveness increased in both groups (p=0.02 and p=0.05), the degree of change was similar. We have performed experimental rhinovirus infection studies and demonstrated similar clinical disease in two inoculum groups. Amplified airway responsiveness was induced; continuing studies will define the mechanisms and suggest modes of treatment.

  4. Blood biochemistry responses of chickens experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of cockerels experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, KUDU 113. One hundred Isa white cockerels were used for the study. The cockerels were obtained at day-old and randomly divided into groups A- vaccinated and infected, ...

  5. Infected Complex Odontoma: A Case Report

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    Shanthala Damodar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Odontoma represent a hamartomatous malformation. They are usually asymptomatic and are diagnosed on routine radiological examination. Infection of an odontome is very uncommon. Few cases of infected odontoma are reported in the literature. We report a special case of infected complex odontoma and perforation of the cheeks with a tooth impacted upon along with computed tomographic (CT image. Thus, making the present case unusual. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 379-383

  6. Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infections in Humans.

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    Lee, Meng-Rui; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hung, Chien-Ching; Yu, Chong-Jen; Lee, Li-Na; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex comprises a group of rapidly growing, multidrug-resistant, nontuberculous mycobacteria that are responsible for a wide spectrum of skin and soft tissue diseases, central nervous system infections, bacteremia, and ocular and other infections. M. abscessus complex is differentiated into 3 subspecies: M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. The 2 major subspecies, M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, have different erm(41) gene patterns. This gene provides intrinsic resistance to macrolides, so the different patterns lead to different treatment outcomes. M. abscessus complex outbreaks associated with cosmetic procedures and nosocomial transmissions are not uncommon. Clarithromycin, amikacin, and cefoxitin are the current antimicrobial drugs of choice for treatment. However, new treatment regimens are urgently needed, as are rapid and inexpensive identification methods and measures to contain nosocomial transmission and outbreaks.

  7. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  8. Studies on pathogenesis and treatment of experimental immune complex glomerulonephrtis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, Gerard Johannes Maria

    1976-01-01

    Chapter 1. In this thesis an investigation into pathogenetic mechanisms of epimembranous immune complex depostion in the glomeruli was described. For this study we used two related models of experimental immune complex glemerulonephritis: the heterologous and the autologous immune complex

  9. Comparative haematological changes in experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... However, disease such as animal trypanosomiasis possess a great risk to their ... The severity of the infection is influenced by a number of factors .... agrees with a similar work in which a significant fall in packed cell volume ... Heat production, body temperature and body posture in West. African dwarf goats ...

  10. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable

  11. Wrist stability after experimental traumatic triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Bo; Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in stability of the wrist after experimental traumatic triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions.......The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in stability of the wrist after experimental traumatic triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions....

  12. Experimental generation of complex noisy photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobek, K; Banaszek, K; Karpiński, M; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R; Horodecki, P

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental scheme based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce multiple-photon pairs in maximally entangled polarization states using an arrangement of two type-I nonlinear crystals. By introducing correlated polarization noise in the paths of the generated photons we prepare mixed-entangled states whose properties illustrate fundamental results obtained recently in quantum information theory, in particular those concerning bound entanglement and privacy. (paper)

  13. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  14. Pathogenesis of natural and experimental Pseudorabies virus infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Letian; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Jushi; Lu, Zijie; Liu, Lei; Yang, Wanlian; Lyu, Yanli

    2015-03-18

    Since late 2011, cases of suspected canine pseudorabies have increased in north China with the outbreak of swine pseudorabies in the same area, but the pathogenesis of canine Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infections in China is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of canine pseudorabies. The pathological changes in 13 dogs that died of natural PRV infections (confirmed by pathogen detection) during 2011-2013 in Beijing were evaluated. An experimental study was also conducted in which healthy adult beagle dogs were administered PRV isolate BJ-YT by subcutaneous injection. The dog tissues were subjected to gross and microscopic examinations and immunohistochemical analysis and the dogs' serum cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) was measured. Systemic hemorrhage and/or congestion were the most marked pathological changes in both the naturally and experimentally PRV-infected dogs. Macroscopically, the major lesions consisted of petechiae and ecchymoses in both the endocardium and epicardium, thrombi in the mitral valves, hemorrhage in the lungs and thymus, and incomplete contraction of the spleen. Microscopically, the major histopathological findings were systemic hemorrhage and congestion, nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis (in the experimentally infected dogs, unexamined in the naturally PRV-infected dogs), brainstem encephalitis (in the naturally infected dogs), necrosis or exudation in the myocardium, and lymphoid depletion in many lymphoid organs and tissues. Viral antigens were only detected in the brainstems and peripheral ganglia of the infected dogs. Serum cTn-I was significantly higher in the experimentally PRV-infected dogs with myocardial lesions than in the dogs without myocardial lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that virally induced systemic hemorrhage, peripheral nervous system pathology, and/or cardiac injury can individually or collectively cause death in PRV-infected dogs. The respiratory signs of the disease are attributed to

  15. Mycobacterium avium complex disseminated infection in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, J; Rammaert, B; Laurent, S; Lanternier, F; Pol, S; Franck, N; Mamzer, M F; Dupin, N; Lortholary, O

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infections are well known in immunocompromised patients, notably in human immunodeficiency virus infection, but remain scarcely described in kidney transplantation. Moreover, cutaneous involvement in this infection is very unusual. We describe here a disseminated infection caused by MAC in a kidney transplant recipient revealed by cutaneous lesions. This case highlights the need for an exhaustive, iterative microbiologic workup in the context of an atypical disease presentation in a renal transplant patient, regardless of the degree of immunosuppression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary infection protects pigs against re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis in experimental challenge studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2011-01-01

    In two separate trials previous termpigsnext term were experimentally infected with previous termLawsonia intracellularisnext term at 5–6 weeks of age followed by antibiotic treatment and resolution of the previous termprimary infection and then renext term-inoculated at 12–13 weeks of age. A tre...

  18. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  19. Aspects of resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti

    2010-01-01

    Chagas disease, a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in Latin America and extends from the southern part of the United States to Argentina. A number of 10 million of infected people is estimated and another 25 million exposed to the risk. Although discovered over a century, Chagas disease is still a serious infection that causes great socioeconomic impact, with no effective treatment at the chronic phase and in which, a lack of scientific knowledge can be observed. The main goal of this work was that obtaining and using consomic strain of mice, the resistance could be investigated. Consomic strains were produced by programmed mating, in which the animals were monitored with DNA polymorphic markers, and one of his chromosomes was replaced by his homologue from another strain. As parental, were used, the inbred strains C57BL/6/J Unib with resistant phenotype (donor) and as receiver, the A/JUnib strain, that has a susceptible phenotype. These models were used to produce five consomic strains: for the chromosomes 7 (CSs7), 11 (CSs11), 14 (CSs14), 17 (CSs17) and 19 (CSs19), described by Passos et al. (2003) as important in controlling infection caused by the Y strain of T. cruzi. In experimental testing, the consomics were inoculated intraperitoneally at doses of 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 3 and 10 4 using as control, animals from both parental lines. In all consomics, resistance was higher than that observed in the susceptible parental. In a second protocol, the consomics were mated with scheduled associations and the progenies were challenged with inocula employing increasing doses of trypomastigotes. The resistance observed in this group was also higher than that observed in the parental with susceptible phenotype. The observed results demonstrate that the use of the consomic strains that were produced order to assess the contribution of each chromosome in the resistance, as well as the effects of association between chromosomes are an

  20. Primary peak and chronic malaria infection levels are correlated in experimentally infected great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad; Westerdahl, Helena; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-09-01

    Malaria parasites often manage to maintain an infection for several months or years in their vertebrate hosts. In humans, rodents and birds, most of the fitness costs associated with malaria infections are in the short initial primary (high parasitaemia) phase of the infection, whereas the chronic phase (low parasitaemia) is more benign to the host. In wild birds, malaria parasites have mainly been studied during the chronic phase of the infection. This is because the initial primary phase of infection is short in duration and infected birds with severe disease symptoms tend to hide in sheltered places and are thus rarely caught and sampled. We therefore wanted to investigate the relationship between the parasitaemia during the primary and chronic phases of the infection using an experimental infection approach. We found a significant positive correlation between parasitaemia in the primary peak and the subsequent chronic phase of infection when we experimentally infected great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) with Plasmodium ashfordi. The reason for this association remains to be understood, but might arise from individual variation in exoerythrocytic parasite reservoirs in hosts, parasite antigenic diversity and/or host genetics. Our results suggest that the chronic phase parasitaemia can be used to qualitatively infer the parasitaemia of the preceding and more severe primary phase, which is a very important finding for studies of avian malaria in wild populations.

  1. Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Arne; Metzner, Martin; Köhler-Repp, Dagmar; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) was thus far only known as a pathogen for broilers and broiler breeders. Recently there was evidence of EC field outbreaks in Pekin duck flocks in Germany. In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds displayed pneumonia, airsacculitis, pericarditis and splenitis and EC was re-isolated from these organs. Surviving birds of all groups apart from the orally infected ducks demonstrated clinical signs such as huddling, reduced mobility and diarrhoea. Furthermore, they showed gross pathological lesions including airsacculitis and splenitis and lower bodyweights than the control group at necropsy on days 7, 14 and 21 post infection. The present study clearly confirms that EC is pathogenic for Pekin ducks after experimental infection via the intravenous route or the respiratory tract. EC therefore has to be considered as an emerging avian pathogen not only in broilers but also in Pekin ducks.

  2. Cardiac complication after experimental human malaria infection: a case report

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    Druilhe Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature. The rare occurrence of cardiac events with any of the preceding study procedures may even support a coincidental finding. Apart from acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis can be considered as a final diagnosis, but the true nature and patho-physiological explanation of the event remain unclear.

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae impairs cerebral bioenergetics in experimentally infected silver catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Parmeggiani, Belisa S; Santos, Roberto C V; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-10-01

    It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain in brain increased, while the CK activity decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Brain histopathology revealed inflammatory demyelination, gliosis of the brain and intercellular edema in infected animals. Based on this evidence, S. agalactiae infection causes an impairment in cerebral bioenergetics through the augmentation of complex IV activity, which may be considered an adaptive response to maintain proper functioning of the electron respiratory chain, as well as to ensure ongoing electron flow through the electron transport chain. Moreover, inhibition of cerebral CK activity contributes to lower availability of ATP, contributing to impairment of cerebral energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Verônica S P; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Thomé, Gustavo R; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Castro, Jorge L C; Costa, Márcio M; Graça, Dominguita L; Oliveira, Daniele C; Alves, Sydney H; Schetinger, Maria R C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Stefani, Lenita M; Azevedo, Maria I; Baldissera, Matheus D; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress occurs in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii, and its possible effect on disease pathogenesis. Thirty rats were divided into two groups: the group A (uninfected, n = 18) and the group B (infected by S. schenckii, n=21). Blood samples were collected on days 15, 30 and 40 post-infection (PI). At each sampling time, six rats of the group A, and seven of the group B were bled. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels in serum samples were measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, known as biomarkers of antioxidants levels, were verified in whole blood. Seric pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6), which showed that these inflammatory mediators were at higher levels in the infected rats (P sporotrichosis showed significantly higher (p sporotrichosis is a likely mechanism for redox imbalance, and consequently cause the oxidative stress in experimentally infected rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Complexity in behavioural organization and strongylid infection among wild chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgunder, J.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, David; Hashimoto, C.; MacIntosh, A. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, July (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : behavioural complexity * chimpanzees * fractal analysis * health monitoring * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * strongylid infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  6. Complexity in behavioural organization and strongylid infection among wild chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgunder, J.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.; Hashimoto, C.; MacIntosh, A. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, July (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : behavioural complexity * chimpanzees * fractal analysis * health monitoring * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * strongylid infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  7. An experimental-differential investigation of cognitive complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive complexity as defined by differential and experimental traditions was explored to investigate the theoretical advantage and utility of relational complexity (RC theory as a common framework for studying fluid cognitive functions. RC theory provides a domain general account of processing demand as a function of task complexity. In total, 142 participants completed two tasks in which RC was manipulated, and two tasks entailing manipulations of complexity derived from the differential psychology literature. A series of analyses indicated that, as expected, task manipulations influenced item difficulty. However, comparable changes in a psychometric index of complexity were not consistently observed. Active maintenance of information across multiple steps of the problem solving process, which entails strategic coordination of storage and processing that cannot be modelled under the RC framework was found to be an important component of cognitive complexity.

  8. Lassa virus infection in experimentally infected marmosets: liver pathology and immunophenotypic alterations in target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Brasky, Kathleen; Mansfield, Keith; Johnson, Curtis; Gonzales, Monica; Ticer, Anysha; Lukashevich, Igor; Tardif, Suzette; Patterson, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Lassa virus causes thousands of deaths annually in western Africa and is considered a potential biological weapon. In an attempt to develop a small nonhuman primate model of Lassa fever, common marmosets were subcutaneously inoculated with Lassa virus strain Josiah. This inoculation resulted in a systemic disease with clinical and morphological features mirroring those in fatal human Lassa infection: fever, weight loss, high viremia and viral RNA load in tissues, elevated liver enzymes, and severe morbidity between days 15 and 20. The most prominent histopathology findings included multifocal hepatic necrosis with mild inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation, lymphoid depletion, and interstitial nephritis. Cellular aggregates in regions of hepatocellular necrosis were largely composed of HAM56-positive macrophages, devoid of CD3-positive and CD20-positive cells, and characterized by marked reductions in the intensity of HLA-DP, DQ, DR staining. A marked reduction in the major histocompatibility complex class II expression was also observed in the lymph nodes. Immunophenotypic alterations in spleen included reductions in overall numbers of CD20-positive and CD3-positive cells and the disruption of lymphoid follicular architecture. These findings identify the common marmoset as an appropriate model of human Lassa fever and present the first experimental evidence that replication of Lassa virus in tissues is associated with alterations that would be expected to impair adaptive immunity.

  9. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Humoral immune response and spreading of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in experimentally infected ponies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Maršálek, M.; Langerová, I.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-6 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ponies * Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II * PCR * Antibodies * Experimental infection Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  11. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2009-01-01

    understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...... for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug......There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation...

  12. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  13. SCRAED - Simple and Complex Random Assignment in Experimental Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Alferes, Valentim R.

    2009-01-01

    SCRAED is a package of 37 self-contained SPSS syntax files that performs simple and complex random assignment in experimental designs. For between-subjects designs, SCRAED includes simple random assignment (no restrictions, forced equal sizes, forced unequal sizes, and unequal probabilities), block random assignment (simple and generalized blocks), and stratified random assignment (no restrictions, forced equal sizes, forced unequal sizes, and unequal probabilities). For within-subject...

  14. Functional complexity and ecosystem stability: an experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voris, P.; O' Neill, R.V.; Shugart, H.H.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    The complexity-stability hypothesis was experimentally tested using intact terrestrial microcosms. Functional complexity was defined as the number and significance of component interactions (i.e., population interactions, physical-chemical reactions, biological turnover rates) influenced by nonlinearities, feedbacks, and time delays. It was postulated that functional complexity could be nondestructively measured through analysis of a signal generated from the system. Power spectral analysis of hourly CO/sub 2/ efflux, from eleven old-field microcosms, was analyzed for the number of low frequency peaks and used to rank the functional complexity of each system. Ranking of ecosystem stability was based on the capacity of the system to retain essential nutrients and was measured by net loss of Ca after the system was stressed. Rank correlation supported the hypothesis that increasing ecosystem functional complexity leads to increasing ecosystem stability. The results indicated that complex functional dynamics can serve to stabilize the system. The results also demonstrated that microcosms are useful tools for system-level investigations.

  15. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are

  16. Experimental infection of Rickettsia parkeri in the Rhipicephalus microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; Cepeda, Patricia Barizon; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; de Almeida Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Pinter, Adriano; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate, by means of artificial feeding, the interaction between a pathogenic rickettsia and the hard tick R. microplus. We used partially engorged females fed on calves free of Rickettsia spp. Group 1 (G1), containing 20 ticks, was fed bovine blood only. Group 2 (G2), containing 20 ticks, was fed blood containing uninfected VERO cells, and group 3 (G3), containing 40 ticks, was fed blood containing VERO cells infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase and a possible bacterial transmission to the tick eggs and to guinea pigs were evaluated. At the end of oviposition, all G3 females were PCR-positive for genes specific for the genus Rickettsia. Although no guinea pigs were infected, the experimental infection of R. microplus by R. parkeri caused a deleterious effect on the oviposition and provided the first report of transovarian transmission of rickettsia in this tick. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate imaging of experimental infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Downs, J.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) cardiac scintigraphy was performed in 15 rabbits with experimental Streptococcus sanguis aortic-valve infective endocarditis. The animals were imaged five to seven days after the administration of bacteria, and in each case abnormal accumulation of the tracer was visualized in the region of the aortic valve. Three types of cardiac scintigraphic patterns were demonstrated: focal, multifocal, and extensive, each correlating well with the anatomical extent of the lesion as defined by gross pathology. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated a 30 +- 5.3 (mean +- SEM) fold excess of radionuclide uptake in the infective endocarditis lesion compared with that of normal myocardium. Imaging of excised hearts from four animals showed an excellent correlation with in vivo imaging as well as gross pathology. Five animals with nonbacterial thrombotic aortic valve endocarditis demonstrated similar scintigraphic and tissue distribution results. In contrast, four normal animals failed to demonstrate abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigrams or tissue uptake. This study demonstrates that /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigraphy is a sensitive technique to detect experimental aortic valve endocarditis

  18. An experimental model of mycobacterial infection under corneal flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B.D. Adan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a new experimental animal model of infection with Mycobacterium chelonae in keratomileusis, we conducted a double-blind prospective study on 24 adult male New Zealand rabbits. One eye of each rabbit was submitted to automatic lamellar keratotomy with the automatic corneal shaper under general anesthesia. Eyes were immunosuppressed by a single local injection of methyl prednisolone. Twelve animals were inoculated into the keratomileusis interface with 1 µl of 10(6 heat-inactivated bacteria (heat-inactivated inoculum controls and 12 with 1 µl of 10(6 live bacteria. Trimethoprim drops (0.1%, w/v were used as prophylaxis for the surgical procedure every 4 h (50 µl, qid. Animals were examined by 2 observers under a slit lamp on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 16th, and 23rd postoperative days. Slit lamp photographs were taken to document clinical signs. Animals were sacrificed when corneal disease was detected and corneal samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Eleven of 12 experimental rabbits developed corneal disease, and M. chelonae could be isolated from nine rabbits. Eleven of the 12 controls receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum did not develop corneal disease. M. chelonae was not isolated from any of the control rabbits receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum, or from the healthy cornea of control rabbits. Corneal infection by M. chelonae was successfully induced in rabbits submitted to keratomileusis. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of M. chelonae infection following corneal flaps for refractive surgery to be described in the literature and can be used for the analysis of therapeutic responses.

  19. Carbohydrate-rich high-molecular-mass antigens are strongly recognized during experimental Histoplasma capsulatum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During histoplasmosis, Histoplasma capsulatum soluble antigens (CFAg can be naturally released by yeast cells. Because CFAg can be specifically targeted during infection, in the present study we investigated CFAg release in experimental murine histoplasmosis, and evaluated the host humoral immune response against high-molecular-mass antigens (hMMAg. >150 kDa, the more immunogenic CFAg fraction. METHODS: Mice were infected with 2.2x10(4 H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 yeast cells. The soluble CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg circulating immune complexes (CIC levels were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, at days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-infection. RESULTS: We observed a progressive increase in circulating levels of CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg CIC after H. capsulatum infection. The hMMAg showed a high percentage of carbohydrates and at least two main immunogenic components. CONCLUSIONS: We verified for the first time that hMMAg from H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 strain induce humoral immune response and lead to CIC formation during experimental histoplasmosis.

  20. Complex experimental analysis of rifle-shooter interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Taraszewski, M.ScEng, PhD. candidate

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a complex analysis of a man-weapon interaction based on experimental effort is presented. The attention is focused on how a shooter can influence on a rifle, opposite to generally considered in literature rifle's impact on a shooter. It is shown, based on the kbk AKM weapon, that each support point of the rifle has an substantial impact on the system. It is said that identifying human reactions on weapon may let to describe gun movement and thus may be applied to weapon accuracy determination.

  1. Experimental complex for high flux-materials interaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagen-Torn, V.K.; Kirillov, I.R.; Komarov, V.L.; Litunovsky, V.N.; Mazul, I.V.; Ovchinnikov, I.B.; Prokofjev, Yu.G.; Saksagansky, G.L.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The experimental complex for high heat flux testing of divertor materials and bumper mock-ups under conditions close to both ITER stationary and plasma disruption PFC heat loads is described. High power plasma and electron beams are using as high heat flux sources. The former are applied to disruption simulation experiments. The values of pulsed plasma heat flux load up to 110 MJ/m 2 and stationary e-beam load up to 15 MW/m 2 can obtained on these facilities. (orig.)

  2. Tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development.

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteavaro Cristina Esther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to intensify knowledge of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT led to the use of alternative animal models such as the mouse. Nevertheless, it is necessary to elucidate the dynamics of the infection in this animal species, evaluating different stages of the colonization and evolution of the pathological alterations. The immunohistochemistry (IHC offers advantages over the routine histopathological staining techniques for the detection of the protozoan in tissues, cellular detritus and inside the macrophages. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in the reproductive tract of infected mice using an IHC technique. Female BALB/c mice were infected with a suspension of T. foetus by intravaginal route, in the estrum phase, detected by exfoliative vaginal cytology. After 10 weeks, the animals were sacrificed; uterus and vagina were fixed and histologically processed. Some slides were stained with HE. The rest of the slides were processed for IHC. An immunoadsorbed polyclonal serum against T. foetus was used. The avidine-biotine technique (HistoMouse, Zymed[tm] was employed. The histopathological studies showed a dilation of the uterine glands, presence of macrophages in the lumen of the organ and inner part of the endometrial glands. No T. foetus was identified using this method. The IHQ allowed additionally the identification of the protozoan in the endometrium, endometrial glands, uterine lumen and inside neutrophils and macrophages. The cytological studies stained with IHC showed either isolated T. foetus adhered to epithelial cells or inside macrophages. This technique proves to be a useful tool for the study of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT in an experimental model.

  4. Serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium abscessus complex infection in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tania; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2015-01-01

    Early signs of pulmonary disease with Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) can be missed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A serological method could help stratify patients according to risk. The objective of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a novel method for investigating...... and after culture conversion.307 patients had 3480 respiratory samples cultured and were then tested with the anti-MABSC IgG ELISA. Patients with MABSC pulmonary disease had median anti-MABSC IgG levels six-fold higher than patients with no history of infection (434 versus 64 ELISA units; p... sensitivity was 95% (95% CI 74-99%) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 67-78%). A diagnostic algorithm was constructed to stratify patients according to risk.The test accurately identified patients with pulmonary disease caused by MABSC and was suited to be used as a complement to mycobacterial culture....

  5. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  6. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  7. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  8. Radiation planning in small complex lesions and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jess-Hempen, A.; Wowra, B.; Mack, A.; Kreiner, H.J.; Heck, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Gamma Knife is used as a sterotactic tool for the conformal treatment of very small, complex-shape cranial lesions. The combination of planning software and treatment equipment enables a highly-precise conformal dose distribution and positioning. The purpose of the present study was to experimentally verify the precision actually achievable in case of extremely irregular, small target volumes. For this purpose, a complete treatment procedure was performed using a standard head phantom complemented with a specially developed insert that simulates an L-shaped lesion. The spatial precision of the irradiation was recorded by means of high-resolution film dosimetry using GafChromic TM films. The analysis of the films showed for the film in the center plane an excellent conformity of the 75% isodose line used to circumscribe the lesion. A very good agreement between planning and measurement resulted also for isodose lines residing outside of the target volume. (orig.) [de

  9. Histological assessment of granulomas in natural and experimental Schistosoma mansoni infections using whole slide imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia B Amaral

    Full Text Available The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni, a neglected tropical disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance, results from the parasite eggs that become trapped in host tissues, particularly in the liver and intestines. Continuous antigenic stimulation from these eggs leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the sites of infection with formation of periovular granulomas. These complex structures have variable size and composition and are the most striking histopathological feature of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, evaluation of granulomas by conventional microscopy methods is time-consuming and limited, especially in large-scale studies. Here, we used high resolution Whole Slide Imaging (WSI, which allows fast scanning of entire histological slides, and multiple morphometric evaluations, to assess the granulomatous response elicited in target organs (liver, small and large intestines of two models of schistosomiasis mansoni. One of the advantages of WSI, also termed virtual microscopy, is that it generates images that simultaneously offer high resolution and a wide field of observation. By using a model of natural (Nectomys squamipes, a wild reservoir captured from endemic areas in Brazil and experimental (Swiss mouse infection with Schistosoma mansoni, we provided the first detailed WSI characterization of granulomas and other pathological aspects. WSI and quantitative analyses enabled a fast and reliable assessment of the number, evolutional types, frequency and areas of granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates and revealed that target organs are differentially impacted by inflammatory responses in the natural and experimental infections. Remarkably, high-resolution analysis of individual eosinophils, key cells elicited by this helminthic infection, showed a great difference in eosinophil numbers between the two infections. Moreover, features such as the intestinal egg path and confluent granulomas were uncovered. Thus, WSI may

  10. Experimental observations of a complex, supersonic nozzle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magstadt, Andrew; Berry, Matthew; Glauser, Mark; Ruscher, Christopher; Gogineni, Sivaram; Kiel, Barry; Skytop Turbulence Labs, Syracuse University Team; Spectral Energies, LLC. Team; Air Force Research Laboratory Team

    2015-11-01

    A complex nozzle concept, which fuses multiple canonical flows together, has been experimentally investigated via pressure, schlieren and PIV in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University. Motivated by future engine designs of high-performance aircraft, the rectangular, supersonic jet under investigation has a single plane of symmetry, an additional shear layer (referred to as a wall jet) and an aft deck representative of airframe integration. Operating near a Reynolds number of 3 ×106 , the nozzle architecture creates an intricate flow field comprised of high turbulence levels, shocks, shear & boundary layers, and powerful corner vortices. Current data suggest that the wall jet, which is an order of magnitude less energetic than the core, has significant control authority over the acoustic power through some non-linear process. As sound is a direct product of turbulence, experimental and analytical efforts further explore this interesting phenomenon associated with the turbulent flow. The authors acknowledge the funding source, a SBIR Phase II project with Spectral Energies, LLC. and AFRL turbine engine branch under the direction of Dr. Barry Kiel.

  11. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  12. Effect of Experimental Coccidiosis Infections on Body Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with E. tenella in broiler breeder males showed that body weight gains of the uninfected males were significantly greater (p< 0.05) at 5, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) than those of the infected groups. Sperm productions at 0, 5 and 7 dpi (0=day of inoculation with infected oocysts) for the uninfected controls ...

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis: absence of neonatal transmission and protection by maternal antibodies in experimental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Jansen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of natural Trypanosoma cruzi infection found in opossums does not always correlate with appreciable densities of local triatomid populations. One alternative method which might bypass the invertebrate vector is direct transmission from mother to offspring. This possibility was investigated in five T. cruzi infected females and their litters (24 young. The influence of maternal antibodies transferred via lactation, on the course of experimental infection, was also examined. Our results show that neonatal transmission is probably not responsible for the high rate of natural T. cruzi infection among opossums. In addition antibodies of maternal origin confer a partial protection to the young. This was demonstrated by the finding of a double prepatency period and 4,5 fold lower levels of circulating parasites, in experimentally infected pouch young from infected as compared to control uninfected mothes. On the other hand, the duration of patent parasitemia was twice as long as that observed in the control group.

  14. [Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione recover rats with experimental endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamian, L V; Burgova, E N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Stepanian, A A; Sonova, M M; Vanin, A F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with glutathione on endometrioid tumors in rats with experimental endometriosis has been studied. The latter was induced by an autotransplantation model, where two fragments of endometrium with myometrium (2 x 2 mm) from the left uterine horn was grafted to the inner surface of the anterior abdominal wall. The test animals received intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 ml DNIC-glutathione at the dose of 12.5 micromole per kg daily for 12 days 28 days after operation. The injections resulted in more than a 2-fold decrease in the total volume of both large tumors formed from grafts and small additive tumors formed nearby grafts. The disappearance of the additive tumors was also observed in test animals. The EPR signal with g(av) = 2.03 characteristic of protein bound DNIC with thiol-containing ligands was recorded in livers, graft and additive tumors of test and control animals pointing out intensive generation of nitric oxide in rats with experimental endometriosis. Ribonucleotide reductase activation discovered by doublet the EPR signal at g = 2.0 with 2.3 mT hyperfine structure splitting was found in small tumors. The cytotoxic effect of DNIC-glutathione on endometrioid tumors was suggested to be due to DNIC degradation nearby the tumors induced by iron chelating compounds released from the tumors. The degradation resulted in release of a high amount of nitric oxide molecules and nitrosonium ions from DNICs affecting the tumors by way of the cytotoxic effect.

  15. Experimental infection in Cavia porcellus by infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustolin, Joice Magali; da Silva Krawczak, Felipe; Alves, Marta Elena Machado; Weiller, Maria Amélia; de Souza, Camila Lopes; Rosa, Fábio Brum; Cadore, Gustavo Cauduro; Dos Anjos Lopes, Sônia Terezinha; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2018-03-01

    This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests. For histopathological analysis and rickettsial DNA detection, fragments of the spleen, lung, brain, and liver were harvested after euthanasia. The average feeding period for nymphs was 6.6 days for G1 and 6 days for G2. Hemolymph and PCR assays, performed to detect the causative agent in ticks, indicated that in G1, all ticks were negative, and in G2, all nymphs were positive by PCR and 80% (8/10) was positive by hemolymph tests. The only clinical change was skin scarring at the tick attachment site. Hematological parameters indicated leukopenia and total plasma protein (TPP) increased with decreased platelets in G1. In G2, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, an increase in platelets, and reduced TPP were observed. Only G2 guinea pigs were seroconverted (80%; 8/10). Histopathology tests indicated mild, diffuse hemosiderosis and mild, multifocal, follicular hyperplasia in the spleen. Molecular analysis did not detect Rickettsia sp. DNA in C. porcellus tissues. We demonstrated the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain) to guinea pigs.

  16. Studies on the Leucocytic Response to Experimental Infection with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, neutrophil numbers declined significantly (P < 0.05) in red fronted gazelles infected either singly with Trypanosoma brucei or concurrently with both parasites while those infected singly with Haemonchus contortus experienced a significant (P <0.05) rise in neutrophil counts which became evident from day 30 post ...

  17. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  18. DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I; Lew, D

    1996-04-01

    A nucleic acid vaccine, expressing the gene encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 glycoprotein D (gD2) under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, was used to immunize guinea pigs against genital HSV-2 infection. The vaccine elicited humoral immune responses comparable to those seen after HSV-2 infection. Immunized animals exhibited protection from primary genital HSV-2 disease with little or no development of vesicular skin lesions and significantly reduced HSV-2 replication in the genital tract. After recovery from primary infection, immunized guinea pigs experienced significantly fewer recurrences and had significantly less HSV-2 genomic DNA detected in the sacral dorsal root ganglia compared with control animals. Thus, immunization reduced the burden of latent infection resulting from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and a nucleic acid vaccine expressing the HSV-2 gD2 antigen protected guinea pigs against genital herpes, limiting primary infection and reducing the magnitude of latent infection and the frequency of recurrent disease.

  19. An ultrasonic study of experimental infected hydronephrosis in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Yu, Yun Jeong; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonography of rabbit kidney was performed after induction of infected hydronephrosis to evaluate the sequential sonographic changes in 15 rabbits. Infected hydronephrosis was induced by ligation of the distal ureter and ureteral inoculation of Escherichia coli. Ultrasonography was performed daily during the first two weeks and weekly during the following 4 weeks after induction of infected hydronephrosis. The results are as follows: 1. The earliest abnormal ultrasonographic findings was appearance of internal echoes in dependent portion of the pelvis, which appeared within 4 days after inoculation in all cases. 2. Degree of internal echoes within the pelvis increased progressively with lapse of time and the entire pelvis was filled with internal echoes within 2 weeks after inoculation in all cases. 3. Echogenecity of internal echoes within the pelvis was similar to that of renal parenchyma in the first week after inoculation, however was weaker than that of renal parenchyma 2 weeks after inoculation in all cases

  20. Effect of Exposure Dose on Ichthyophonus Prevalence and Infection Intensity in Experimentally Infected Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the effect of increasing exposure dose on Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection intensity in experimentally infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Specific-pathogen free trout were exposed per os to increasing numbers of Ichthyophonus schizonts obtained from naturally infected donor fish, then sampled after 30 and 60 days post-exposure. Both in vitro explant culture and histology revealed that as the number of schizonts per dose increased there was a proportionate increase in the number of infected fish, as well as an increase in the number of infected organs; parasite density in individual infected organs also increased with dose. Explant culture revealed that all fish exposed to the highest dose (≥2,080 schizonts) became infected, while only 67% of those exposed to the intermediate dose (1,040-1,153 schizonts) were Ichthyophonus-positive after 60 days; Ichthyophonus was not detected in fish exposed to the 2 lowest doses (≤280 schizonts). Histologic examination of individual infected organs also revealed increasing infection prevalence and parasite density in response to exposure to increasing numbers of Ichthyophonus schizonts.

  1. Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves the control of secondary experimental meningococcal infection in flu-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Bourdet-Sicard, Raphaëlle; Taha, Muhamed-Kkeir

    2018-04-10

    The use of probiotics to improve anti-microbial defence, such as for influenza infections, is increasingly recommended. However, no data are available on the effect of probiotics on flu-associated secondary bacterial infections. There is strong evidence of a spatiotemporal association between influenza virus infection and invasive Neisseria meningitidis. We thus investigated the effect of feeding mice Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1518 in a mouse model of sequential influenza-meningococcal infection. We intranasally infected BALB/c mice with a strain of influenza A virus (IAV) H3N2 that was first adapted to mice. Seven days later, a secondary bacterial infection was induced by intranasal administration of bioluminescent N. meningitidis. During the experiment, mice orally received either L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 or PBS as a control. The effect of L. paracasei administration on secondary bacterial infection by N. meningitidis was evaluated. Oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 reduced the weight loss of infected mice and lowered the bioluminescent signal of infecting meningococci. This improvement was associated with higher recruitment of inflammatory myeloid cells, such as interstitial monocytes and dendritic cells, to the lungs. Our data highlight the role of the gut-lung axis. L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 may boost the defence against IAV infection and secondary bacterial infection, which should be further studied and validated in clinical trials.

  2. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis in mice: a model of intranasal infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P. J.; van der Poll, T.; Florquin, S.; van Deventer, S. J.; Roord, J. J.; van Furth, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Effective laboratory animal models of bacterial meningitis are needed to unravel the pathophysiology of this disease. Previous models have failed to simulate human meningitis by using a directly intracerebral route of infection. Hyaluronidase is a virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In

  3. Experimental infection of Ethiopian highland sheep by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult worm population and the egg excretion positively and significantly correlated together, whereas they were .... Figure 1: Nematode egg excretion from sheep infected with different doses of H. contortus L3. Total worm burden .... further drop in haematological parameters until the end of the experiment. Eosinophils are ...

  4. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  5. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... challenge dose of Salmonella Enteritidis on detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... Two groups of specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected ... Since chickens may be exposed to variable quantities ... A second group of 8 hens was orally .... where presence of serum antibodies by most birds that.

  6. Homologous genetic recombination in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses infecting Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijegoonawardane, Priyanjalie K M; Sittidilokratna, Nusra; Petchampai, Natthida; Cowley, Jeff A; Gudkovs, Nicholas; Walker, Peter J

    2009-07-20

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp. It is one of six known genotypes in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses which also includes mildly pathogenic gill-associated virus (GAV, genotype 2) and four other genotypes (genotypes 3-6) that have been detected only in healthy shrimp. In this study, comparative phylogenetic analyses conducted on replicase- (ORF1b) and glycoprotein- (ORF3) gene amplicons identified 10 putative natural recombinants amongst 28 viruses representing all six genotypes from across the Indo-Pacific region. The approximately 4.6 kb genomic region spanning the two amplicons was sequenced for three putative recombinant viruses from Vietnam (genotype 3/5), the Philippines (genotype 5/2) and Indonesia (genotype 3/2). SimPlot analysis using these and representative parental virus sequences confirmed that each was a recombinant genotype and identified a recombination hotspot in a region just upstream of the ORF1b C-terminus. Maximum-likelihood breakpoint analysis predicted identical crossover positions in the Vietnamese and Indonesian recombinants, and a crossover position 12 nt upstream in the Philippine recombinant. Homologous genetic recombination in the same genome region was also demonstrated in recombinants generated experimentally in shrimp co-infected with YHV and GAV. The high frequency with which natural recombinants were identified indicates that genetic exchange amongst genotypes is occurring commonly in Asia and playing a significant role in expanding the genetic diversity in the yellow head complex. This is the first evidence of genetic recombination in viruses infecting crustaceans and has significant implications for the pathogenesis of infection and diagnosis of these newly emerging invertebrate pathogens.

  7. Aspects of resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi; Aspectos da resistencia a infecao experimental com Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti

    2010-07-01

    Chagas disease, a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in Latin America and extends from the southern part of the United States to Argentina. A number of 10 million of infected people is estimated and another 25 million exposed to the risk. Although discovered over a century, Chagas disease is still a serious infection that causes great socioeconomic impact, with no effective treatment at the chronic phase and in which, a lack of scientific knowledge can be observed. The main goal of this work was that obtaining and using consomic strain of mice, the resistance could be investigated. Consomic strains were produced by programmed mating, in which the animals were monitored with DNA polymorphic markers, and one of his chromosomes was replaced by his homologue from another strain. As parental, were used, the inbred strains C57BL/6/J Unib with resistant phenotype (donor) and as receiver, the A/JUnib strain, that has a susceptible phenotype. These models were used to produce five consomic strains: for the chromosomes 7 (CSs7), 11 (CSs11), 14 (CSs14), 17 (CSs17) and 19 (CSs19), described by Passos et al. (2003) as important in controlling infection caused by the Y strain of T. cruzi. In experimental testing, the consomics were inoculated intraperitoneally at doses of 10{sup 1}, 10{sup 2}, 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} using as control, animals from both parental lines. In all consomics, resistance was higher than that observed in the susceptible parental. In a second protocol, the consomics were mated with scheduled associations and the progenies were challenged with inocula employing increasing doses of trypomastigotes. The resistance observed in this group was also higher than that observed in the parental with susceptible phenotype. The observed results demonstrate that the use of the consomic strains that were produced order to assess the contribution of each chromosome in the resistance, as well as the effects of association between

  8. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Thomas J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  9. Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtypes ID, IIIC, IIID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Diana I; Kang, Wenli; Weaver, Scoti C

    2008-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that enzootic and epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses can infect and be transmitted by Ae. aegypti, we conducted a series of experimental infection studies. One set of experiments tested the susceptibility of geographic strains of Ae. aegypti from Peru and Texas (U.S.A.) for epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) strains from Colombia/Venezuela, whereas the second set of experiments tested the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti from Iquitos, Peru, to enzootic VEE complex strains (subtypes ID, IIIC, and IIID) isolated in the same region, at different infectious doses. Experimental infections using artificial bloodmeals suggested that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, particularly the strain from Iquitos, Peru, is moderately to highly susceptible to all of these VEE complex alphaviruses. The occurrence of enzootic VEE complex viruses circulating endemically in Iquitos suggests the possibility of a dengue-like transmission cycle among humans in tropical cities.

  10. Metabolomic profiling in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen De Buck

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics

  11. Immunoglobulin subclass in experimental murine Toxocara cati infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig that could be used to determine monoclonal antibody in conjugate-making an effort for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA diagnostic kit of toxocariasis in human. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to assess the Ig profile, based on ELISA-isotyping, in mice infected with second stage larvae eggs of Toxocara cati. The optical density values of anti-T. cati mice serum IgG subclasses were analyzed by applying ANOVA factorial. Results: The specific IgG subclass in mice infected with T. cati mice was found to be IgG2β. Conclusion: Subclass of IgG, especially IgG2β, can provide leads about the use of the monoclonal antibody in conjugate making an effort for the indirect ELISA diagnostic kit.

  12. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... of spontaneous porcine pyemia including endocarditis and associated brain lesions. We present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus induced brain infection. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs received an intravenous injection of S. aureus of 108 CFU/kg body weight once at 0h or twice at 0h and 12h. Four...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  13. Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.

  14. Growth performance of broilers in experimental Reovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar P. Awandkar

    Full Text Available Background: The avian reoviruses have emerged to induce various manifestations in chickens. They are associated with disease conditions including malabsorption syndrome, tenosynovitis etc. Reoviruses are an important cause of suboptimum performance in broilers, resulting in poor growth performance. Poultry industry in India is facing a catastrophe due to such infections which go unnoticed in field due to masking of the symptoms by secondary infections and commonly observed nutritional disorders. Aim: To investigate the effect of reovirus infection on overall performance of broiler birds. Material and Methods: The broiler birds were challenged with homologous strains of malabsorption syndrome and tenosynovitis syndrome of reovirus. The growth performance was recorded. Results and conclusion: The growth performance and immune response to NDV did not differ in the birds challenged with tenosynovitis syndrome strain of reo virus as compared to un challenged birds. However, poor live body weight, feed intake, FCR, PE and BPEI and better serum NDV titres were found in chicks challenged with malabsorption syndrome strain of reovirus as compared to the chicks from control group. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 685-689

  15. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  16. [Experimental infection of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) by Colombian isolates of Giardia duodenalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Adriana; Duque, Sofía; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2005-09-01

    Natural and experimental Giardia infections have been reported from bovines, equines, goats, canines, felines and rodents such as mice, rats and gerbils. The latter have provided successful animal models for Giardia duodenalis and Giardia muris experimental infections. The gerbil model was used to establish the pattern of infection of Colombian Giardia human isolates. Giardia cysts were obtained from stool specimens of symptomatic giardiasis patients by means of sucrose-percoll gradients. Animal inoculation was performed by gastric intubation and injection with 5 x 10(3) Giardia cysts. The course of infection was established by counting cysts every day and trophozoites weekly throughout a period of 30 days. The pattern of cyst excretion was found to be intermittent. Cysts were released during the second and third weeks of infection but not during the first or fourth weeks. The mean minimal number of cysts released per 2-hr collection period was 79 and the mean maximum number was 17,943. Colonization of the small intestine by trophozoites was observed with a mean number ranging from 15,000 to 6,577,778 trophozoites/ml. Gerbils inoculated with G. duodenalis isolates obtained from geographical areas outside Colombia resolved the infection between 86 and 114 days after infection, whereas gerbils infected with Colombian G. duodenalis isolates resolved the infection at 30 days. The gerbil proved to be a good animal model for experimental infection with Colombian isolates of G. duodenalis. Experimental Giardia infection of gerbils permit a sufficient yield of cysts and trophozoites to be used as antigens for the immunization of other animals and to obtain Giardia antibodies that could be used for Giardia antigen detection assays in stool specimens.

  17. The Immunoproteasome and Viral Infection: A Complex Regulator of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Katherine McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During viral infection, proper regulation of immune responses is necessary to ensure successful viral clearance with minimal host tissue damage. Proteasomes play a crucial role in the generation of antigenic peptides for presentation on MHC class I molecules, and thus activation of CD8 T cells, as well as activation of the NF-kB pathway. A specialized type of proteasome called the immunoproteasome is constitutively expressed in hematopoietic cells and induced in nonimmune cells during viral infection by interferon (IFN signaling. The immunoproteasome regulates CD8 T cell responses to many viral epitopes during infection. Accumulating evidence suggests that the immunoproteasome may also contribute to regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, activation of the NF-kB pathway, and management of oxidative stress. Many viruses have mechanisms of interfering with immunoproteasome function, including prevention of transcriptional upregulation of immunoproteasome components as well as direct interaction of viral proteins with immunoproteasome subunits. A better understanding of the role of the immunoproteasome in different cell types, tissues, and hosts has the potential to improve vaccine design and facilitate the development of effective treatment strategies for viral infections.

  18. Towards Coordination Patterns for Complex Experimentations in Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad); C. Diamantini (Claudia); D. Potena (Domenico); E. Storti (Emanuele)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn order to support the management of experimental activities in a networked scientic community, the exploitation of serviceoriented paradigm and technologies is a hot research topic in E-science. In particular, scientic workows can be modeled by resorting to the notion of process.

  19. Access systems strategy in the accelerator complex and experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.; Ninin, P.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Ladzinski, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the main features of the new PS Personnel Protection System (PSPSS) as well as the main milestones for its deployment during the Long Shutdown of 2013-2014. Access conditions in the PS, SPS and LHC complexes during this period shall be described as well as the upgrades and improvements that are under preparation. (authors)

  20. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection...... was more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...

  1. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  2. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Eguiluz, María; Roncal, Elisa; Quiñones-García, Stefany; Clipman, Steven J; Calcina, Juan; Gavidia, Cesar M; Sheen, Patricia; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-12-01

    The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3%) out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100%) out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared parental genotype.

  3. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3% out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100% out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared

  4. Detection of toxoplasma gondii antigens in sera from experimentally infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, S.; Keshavarz, H.; Rezaian, M.; Mohebali, M.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma antigen in serum of mice by Immunoblotting. strain. IgG isolated from rabbits that were immunized with T. gondii Immunoblotting was performed to detect T. gondii antigens in sera of mice. Serum samples from mice experimentally infected with T. gondii RH strain. The value of Immunoblotting in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in acute stage of infection. The antigen bands detected in serum sample of mice were experimentally infected with T. gondii tachyzoite in immunoblotting. Six bands demonstrated on seventh post infection day six bands were identified. Similarly on sixth day four bands, on day five three bands and on fourth post infection day two bands were identified. No band was detected in control group sera. Immunoblotting is a sensitive method for diagnosis of acute stage of toxoplasmosis. (author)

  5. Antitussive pharmaceutical drugs administration in complex therapy of acute respiratory infections in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lokshina, E.; Zajtseva, O.

    2009-01-01

    There is considered the problem of treatment of cough in children with acute respiratory infections in article. In particular, the data on an effective administration of the domestic combined medication framed on basis of medicinal grasses with codeine in complex therapy of acute respiratory infections is presented.

  6. Invasive Aspergillus niger complex infections in a Belgian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, E; Maertens, J; Meersseman, P; Saegeman, V; Dupont, L; Lagrou, K

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of invasive infections caused by the Aspergillus niger species complex was 0.043 cases/10 000 patient-days in a Belgian university hospital (2005-2011). Molecular typing was performed on six available A. niger complex isolates involved in invasive disease from 2010 to 2011, revealing A. tubingensis, which has higher triazole minimal inhibitory concentrations, in five out of six cases. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. RIAR experimental base development concept 1. Multi-purpose pyrochemical complex for experimental justification of innovative closed fuel cycle technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    The principles of closed FC arrangement on the basis of non-aqueous methods allow the development of production addressing two tasks simultaneously: production of fresh fuel and reprocessing of irradiated fuel, that makes it possible to achieve the industrial level of implementation of closed FC of fast reactors of new generation in a series variant of standardized process modules on the basis of innovative pyrochemical high-effective compact technologies. For the purpose of experimental justification of innovative closed FC technologies at the RIAR site, the existing experimental base is being updated and a multi-purpose pyrochemical complex is developed: - Experimental complex of pyrochemical molten salt facilities to reprocess all types of spent fuel (MOX, nitride, metallic, IMF) of fast reactors of new generation (BN-800, MBIR, BREST). - Experimental complex of facilities to master a gas-fluoride technology of reprocessing intractable fuel, research reactors fuel and thermal SNF. - Transition of the existing facility of pyro-electrochemical production of MOX fuel into the mode of reprocessing of the BN-800 MOX SNF. - Renovation of the facilities for production of fuel elements from experimental, re-fabricated, innovative and high-active fuel - a complex of heavy and glove boxes - to produce experimental fuel elements and targets with MAs on the basis of oxides (vibro and pellets), mixed nitrides, metal alloys and inert matrices in heavy boxes. - Upgrading of the complex for mastering and demonstration of the processes for radioactive waste management and spent fuel pyrochemical reprocessing. The report covers main concept and design solutions, plans and schedule of the program for development of pyrochemical complex for experimental justification of innovative closed FC technologies. (authors)

  8. Serum levels of cytokines in water buffaloes experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Kai; Guo, Ai-Jiang; Hou, Jun-Ling; Sun, Miao-Miao; Sheng, Zhao-An; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Wei-Yi; Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-09-15

    Fasciola gigantica infection in water buffaloes causes significant economic losses especially in developing countries. Although modulation of the host immune response by cytokine neutralization or vaccination is a promising approach to control infection with this parasite, our understanding of cytokine's dynamic during F. gigantica infection is limited. To address this, we quantified the levels of serum cytokines produced in water buffaloes following experimental infection with F. gigantica. Five buffaloes were infected via oral gavage with 500 viable F. gigantica metacercariae and blood samples were collected from buffaloes one week before infection and for 13 consecutive weeks thereafter. The levels of 10 cytokines in serum samples were simultaneously determined using ELISA. F. gigantica failed to elicit the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ. On the other hand, evidence of a Th2 type response was detected, but only early in the course of parasite colonization and included modest increase in the levels of IL-10 and IL-13. The results also revealed suppression of the immune responses as a feature of chronic F. gigantica infection in buffaloes. Taken together, F. gigantica seems to elicit a modest Th2 response at early stage of infection in order to downregulate harmful Th1- and Th17-type inflammatory responses in experimentally infected buffaloes. The full extent of anti-F. gigantica immune response and its relation to pathogenesis requires further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...... changes were observed in all inoculated seals but not in control animals. A modified agglutination test revealed the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in sera collected from inoculated seals and mice inoculated as controls. No evidence of the parasite was found on an extensive histological examination...... of seal tissues, and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from inoculated seals revealed a single tissue cyst in only 1 seal. Control mice inoculated with 10 oocysts from the same inoculum given to seals became serologically and histologically positive for T. gondii. Cats that were fed brain...

  10. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  11. HoBi-like pestivirus experimental infection in pregnant ewes: Reproductive disorders and generation of persistently infected lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Varello, Katia; Patruno, Giovanni; Camero, Michele; Sciarra, Marina; Occhiogrosso, Leonardo; Tempesta, Maria; Iulini, Barbara; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-08-05

    In order to evaluate sheep as experimental model to test the efficacy of HoBi-like pestivirus vaccines for cattle, 10 sheep at different stages of pregnancy (30 or 50 days) were experimentally infected with the Italian prototype isolate Italy-1/10-1. Irrespective of the stage of pregnancy, virus inoculation resulted in reproductive failures, consisting of abortion, stillbirths or birth of weak or persistently infected (PI) lambs. Aborted fetuses, stillborn and dead lambs displayed extensive histopathological changes, consisting of hemorrhages, congestion and mononuclear infiltration in major organs. Pestiviral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry in most tissues with remarkable signals in lungs and kidneys. PI lambs were constantly viremic, shed the virus through the nasal secretions and feces and, in all cases but one, did not have detectable HoBi-like pestivirus antibodies before the assumption of colostrum. The single seropositive infected lamb showed low-titer viremia and viral shedding that ceased only several weeks after the 3-month observation period. The study proves that sheep are susceptible to the reproduction failures caused by HoBi-like pestivirus infection and can serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of the fetal protection induced by homologous experimental vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental investigation of complex circular Airy beam characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirev, A. P.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Khonina, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a new type of circular Airy beams, the so-called azimuthally modulated circular Airy beams, generated by utilizing a diffraction element, whose transmission function is the sum of the transmission function of the element generating a "petal" pattern and the transmission function of the element generating a circular Airy beam. We experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of such beams and demonstrate that their autofocusing and selfhealing properties are strongly dependent on the number of generated petals. These beams are a combination of a conventional circular Airy beam and vortex laser beams (or their superpositions). Using a spatial light modulator, we demonstrate that these beams have unique properties such as autofocusing, "nondiffractive" propagation and self-healing after passing through an obstacle. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation. We believe that these results can be very useful for lensless laser fabrication and laser manipulation techniques, as well as for development of new filament plasma multi-channel formation methods.

  13. Histopathological study of experimental and natural infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Araujo Carreira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Didelphis marsupialis, the most important sylvatic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, can also maintain in their anal scent glands the multiplicative forms only described in the intestinal tract of triatomine bugs. A study of 21 experimentally and 10 naturally infected opossums with T. cruzi was undertaken in order to establish the histopathological pattern under different conditions. Our results showed that the inflammation was predominantly lymphomacrophagic and more severe in the naturally infected animals but never as intense as those described in Chagas' disease or in other animal models. The parasitism in both groups was always mild with very scarce amastigote nests in the tissues. In the experimentally infected animals, the inflammation was directly related to the presence of amastigotes nests. Four 24 days-old animals, still in embryonic stage, showed multiple amastigotes nests and moderate inflammatory reactions, but even so they survived longer and presented less severe lesions than experimentally infected adult mice. Parasites were found in smooth, cardiac and/or predominantly striated muscles, as well as in nerve cells. Differing from the experimentally infected opossums parasitism in the naturally infected animals predominated in the heart, esophagus and stomach. Parasitism of the scent glands did not affect the histopathological pattern observed in extraglandular tissues.

  14. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  15. Therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizawa, Y; Okonogi, K; Hayashi, R; Iwahi, T; Yamazaki, T; Imada, A

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new semisynthetic parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice was examined. Cefozopran was more effective than cefpiramide and was as effective as ceftazidime and cefpirome against acute respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae DT-S. In the model of chronic respiratory tract infection caused by K. pneumoniae 27, cefozopran was as effective as ceftazidime. The therapeutic effect of cefozopran against urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa P9 was superior to that of cefpirome and was equal to those of ceftazidime and cefclidin. In addition, cefozopran was more effective than ceftazidime and was as effective as flomoxef in a thigh muscle infection caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 308A-1. Against thigh muscle infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus N133, cefozopran was the most effective agent. The potent therapeutic effect of cefozopran in those experimental infections in mice suggests that it would be effective against respiratory tract, urinary tract, and soft tissue infections caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in humans. PMID:8431004

  16. Experimental Andes virus infection in deer mice: characteristics of infection and clearance in a heterologous rodent host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    Full Text Available New World hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. Distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. Although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. We show that Andes virus (ANDV of South America, carried by the long tailed pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, infects and replicates in vitro and in vivo in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, found in North America. In experimentally infected deer mice, viral RNA was detected in the blood, lung, heart and spleen, but virus was cleared by 56 days post inoculation (dpi. All of the inoculated deer mice mounted a humoral immune response by 14 dpi, and produced measurable amounts of neutralizing antibodies by 21 dpi. An up-regulation of Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Tgfb, a strong CD4⁺ T-cell response, and down-regulation of Il17, Il21 and Il23 occurred during infection. Infection was transient with an absence of clinical signs or histopathological changes. This is the first evidence that ANDV asymptomatically infects, and is immunogenic in deer mice, a non-natural host species of ANDV. Comparing the immune response in this model to that of the immune response in the natural hosts upon infection with their co-adapted hantaviruses may help clarify the mechanisms governing persistent infection in the natural hosts of hantaviruses.

  17. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  18. Comparative study of tricarbonilic complexes of 99mTC in the diagnosis of fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Leticia Gabriela; Teran, Mariella Adriana; Reyes, Ana Laura

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clinical-epidemiological studies show that the incidence of fungal infections has experienced a substantial increase in the last years. Our working group focused on the radioactive labelling of commercially available antifungal agents and their evaluation as potential specific tracer agents for fungal infections (Curr Radiopharm, 2014, 7( 2), 144-150). Objective: Optimization of various antifungal agents labelling using 99m Tc tricarbonyl complexes and their subsequent evaluation in vitro and in vivo as radiotracers in the detection, through scintigraphic images, of fungal infections. Methodology: Complexes were obtained by substitution of the precursor triaquotricarboniltechnetium (I) with the antifungals: Caspofungin, amphotericin b, Voriconazole and Fluconazole[2]. The physicochemical evaluation of the complexes was performed by the analysis of the stability in milieu, stability in plasma, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and binding to yeasts. The biological evaluation of the complexes was carried out according to the protocol 070510 approved by the Commission of Animal Experimentation (University of the Republic, Uruguay). The model used consisted of CD1 mice (n=4 per group), females of 8-10 weeks with a weight of 22 ± 2 g. The groups studied were: G0=healthy animals, G1=sterile inflammation, G2=infection by C.albicans and G3=infection by A.niger. The lesions were induced by inoculation of 100μL of the agents in the left hind thigh. Once the lesions were developed, the complexes were administered iv (37MBq,1mCi in 0.1mL) and biodistribution studies were performed at various post-injection times. In addition, images were acquired in a preclinical image system for animals for 60 min, 40 mm ROR, 5-pinhole collimator, 80 x 80 pixel array. Results: All the complexes were obtained with a radiochemical purity higher to 90,0% and were stable more than 4 hours post substitution. Plasma stability, Log P, Protein binding and C

  19. Praziquantel treatment decreases Schistosoma mansoni genetic diversity in experimental infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ. Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers. METHODOLOGY: Infected mice were treated with increasing PZQ doses until the highest dose of 3 × 300 mg/Kg was reached. The effect of PZQ treatment on the parasite population was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parasitological and genetic data were compared with those of the untreated control. After six parasite generations submitted to treatment, it was possible to obtain a S. mansoni population with decreased susceptibility to PZQ. In our experiments we also observed that female worms were more susceptible to PZQ than male worms. CONCLUSIONS: The selective pressure exerted by PZQ led to decreased genetic variability in S. mansoni and increased endogamy. The understanding of how S. mansoni populations respond to successive drug pressure has important implications on the appearance and maintenance of a PZQ resistance phenotype in endemic regions.

  20. Efficacy of different instrumentation techniques on reducing Enterococcus faecalis infection in experimentally infected root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Özsezer Demiryürek

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that instruments with a greater taper play an important role in maximizing the effectiveness of mechanical preparation. However, since using mechanical instrumentation alone is insufficient to completely eliminate root canal infection, the use of complementary antibacterial compounds is necessary.

  1. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.

  2. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  3. Hematologic profile of hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. This study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus. Methods Cells counts were performed in a Neubauer chamber. Results The average values of erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in blood before experimental infections were 9.97 × 106mm3 and 4.80 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 69.9% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 26.9%. Following the experimental infections, the average numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes was 9.43 × 106mm3 and 3.98 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 40% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 59%. Conclusions The hematological profile given in this study can serve as reference values for D. rotundus bats.

  4. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  5. E-ADA activity in serum of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Fausto, Guilherme C; Grando, Thirssa H; Cadore, Carlos A; Pimentel, Victor C; Jaques, Jeandre A; Schetinger, Maria R C; Monteiro, Silvia G; Leal, Marta L R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activity in sera of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. We used 12 lambs divided into 2 groups; Group A had 5 healthy, non-infected animals (control) and Group B had 7 healthy animals infected with H. contortus . Lambs were infected orally with 500 larvae (L3) per animal every 2 days, for a period of 20 days, and later the infection was confirmed by examination of feces (eggs per gram [EPG] via fecal egg count). Blood collection was performed at days 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 post-infection (PI) for analysis of E-ADA activity. Animals in Group A showed negative EPG throughout the experiment unlike those from Group B that had elevated EPG counts. E-ADA activity was reduced in the serum of animals infected with H. contortus when compared to non-infected controls at days 20, 40, 60, and 80 PI. Therefore, it is concluded that infection with H. contortus influences the E-ADA activity in lambs.

  6. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  7. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S Rochelle; Ellison, Siobhan P; Dascanio, John J; Lindsay, David S; Gogal, Robert M; Werre, Stephen R; Surendran, Naveen; Breen, Meghan E; Heid, Bettina M; Andrews, Frank M; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  8. Antifungal activity of caspofungin in experimental infective endocarditis caused by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Gerardo Becerra; Bourdon, Lorena Michele Brennan; Benavides, Leonel García; Huerta-Olvera, Selene G; Plascencia, Arturo; Villanueva, José; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Hernández-Cañaveral, Iván Isidro

    2017-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is a disease characterised by heart valve lesions, which exhibit extracellular matrix proteins that act as a physical barrier to prevent the passage of antimicrobial agents. The genus Candida has acquired clinical importance given that it is increasingly being isolated from cases of nosocomial infections. To evaluate the activity of caspofungin compared to that of liposomal amphotericin B against Candida albicans in experimental infective endocarditis. Wistar rats underwent surgical intervention and infection with strains of C. albicans to develop infective endocarditis. Three groups were formed: the first group was treated with caspofungin, the second with liposomal amphotericin B, and the third received a placebo. In vitro sensitivity was first determined to further evaluate the effect of these treatments on a rat experimental model of endocarditis by semiquantitative culture of fibrinous vegetations and histological analysis. Our semiquantitative culture of growing vegetation showed massive C. albicans colonisation in rats without treatment, whereas rats treated with caspofungin showed significantly reduced colonisation, which was similar to the results obtained with liposomal amphotericin B. The antifungal activity of caspofungin is similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B in an experimental model of infective endocarditis caused by C. albicans.

  9. Complex networks from experimental horizontal oil–water flows: Community structure detection versus flow pattern discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Fang, Peng-Cheng; Ding, Mei-Shuang; Yang, Dan; Jin, Ning-De

    2015-01-01

    We propose a complex network-based method to distinguish complex patterns arising from experimental horizontal oil–water two-phase flow. We first use the adaptive optimal kernel time–frequency representation (AOK TFR) to characterize flow pattern behaviors from the energy and frequency point of view. Then, we infer two-phase flow complex networks from experimental measurements and detect the community structures associated with flow patterns. The results suggest that the community detection in two-phase flow complex network allows objectively discriminating complex horizontal oil–water flow patterns, especially for the segregated and dispersed flow patterns, a task that existing method based on AOK TFR fails to work. - Highlights: • We combine time–frequency analysis and complex network to identify flow patterns. • We explore the transitional flow behaviors in terms of betweenness centrality. • Our analysis provides a novel way for recognizing complex flow patterns. • Broader applicability of our method is demonstrated and articulated

  10. Effect of some parasitic infection on neurotransmitters in the brain of experimentally infected mice before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghafar, A E; Elkowrany, S E; Salem, S A; Menaisy, A A; Fadel, W A; Awara, W M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of some parasitic infection (bilharziasis, toxocariasis and trichinosis) on the brain of experimentally infected mice were investigated. Eighty animals were classified into four groups, group I contained five non infected animals as a control group. The other groups each contained twenty-five mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (group II), Toxocara canis (group III) and Trichinella spiralis (group IV). Each infected group was divided into two subgroups (a,b). Subgroup (a) left untreated and subgroups (b) treated by praziquantel (in group II) and mebendazole (in group III and IV). Histopathological and immunological examination using peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP) technique and neurotransmitters estimation (nor-epinephrine, dopamine and serotonine) were carried. In the untreated animals, there were mild histopathological changes and mild antigenic deposition in subgroups (IIa and IIIa) and marked changes in subgroup (IVa). There were significant decrease in dopamine in subgroup (IIIa), not improved after treatment (subgroup IIIb) and significant decrease in nor-epinephrine and serotonine in subgroup (IVa) improved after treatment in subgroup (IVb). The neurotransmitters changes may explain the motor, behavioural and emotional changes that occurred with these parasites.

  11. Experimental infection of ponies with Sarcocystis fayeri and differentiation from Sarcocystis neurona infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, W J A; Dubey, J P; Oglesbee, M J; Sofaly, C D; Marsh, A E; Elitsur, E; Vianna, M C; Lindsay, D S; Reed, S M

    2004-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis fayeri infections are common in horses in the Americas. Their antemortem diagnosis is important because the former causes a neurological disorder in horses, whereas the latter is considered nonpathogenic. There is a concern that equine antibodies to S. fayeri might react with S. neurona antigens in diagnostic tests. In this study, 4 ponies without demonstrable serum antibodies to S. neurona by Western immunoblot were used. Three ponies were fed 1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(7) sporocysts of S. fayeri obtained from dogs that were fed naturally infected horse muscles. All ponies remained asymptomatic until the termination of the experiment, day 79 postinoculation (PI). All serum samples collected were negative for antibodies to S. neurona using the Western blot at the initial screening, just before inoculation with S. fayeri (day 2) and weekly until day 79 PI. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from each pony were negative for S. neurona antibodies. Using the S. neurona agglutination test, antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in 1:25 dilution of sera from any samples, except that from pony no. 4 on day 28; this pony had received 1 X 10(7) sporocysts. Using indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFATs), 7 serum samples were found to be positive for S. neurona antibodies from 1:25 to 1:400 dilutions. Sarcocystis fayeri sarcocysts were found in striated muscles of all inoculated ponies, with heaviest infections in the tongue. All sarcocysts examined histologically appeared to contain only microcytes. Ultrastructurally, S. fayeri sarcocysts could be differentiated from S. neurona sarcocysts by the microtubules (mt) in villar protrusions on sarcocyst walls; in S. fayeri the mt extended from the villar tips to the pellicle of zoites, whereas in S. neurona the mt were restricted to the middle of the cyst wall. Results indicate that horses with S. fayeri infections may be misdiagnosed as being S. neurona infected using IFAT, and further research

  12. PCR diagnostics underestimate the prevalence of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in experimentally-infected passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Schultz, Jeffrey J.; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2002-01-01

    Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have recently been developed for diagnosing malarial infections in both birds and reptiles, but a critical evaluation of their sensitivity in experimentally-infected hosts has not been done. This study compares the sensitivity of several PCR-based methods for diagnosing avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in captive Hawaiian honeycreepers using microscopy and a recently developed immunoblotting technique. Sequential blood samples were collected over periods of up to 4.4 yr after experimental infection and rechallenge to determine both the duration and detectability of chronic infections. Two new nested PCR approaches for detecting circulating parasites based on P. relictum 18S rRNA genes and the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) gene are described. The blood smear and the PCR tests were less sensitive than serological methods for detecting chronic malarial infections. Individually, none of the diagnostic methods was 100% accurate in detecting subpatent infections, although serological methods were significantly more sensitive (97%) than either nested PCR (61–84%) or microscopy (27%). Circulating parasites in chronically infected birds either disappear completely from circulation or to drop to intensities below detectability by nested PCR. Thus, the use of PCR as a sole means of detection of circulating parasites may significantly underestimate true prevalence.

  13. Assessment of PCR in the detection of Leishmania spp in experimentally infected individual phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae

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    MICHALSKY Érika M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was applied in the investigation of the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasites in single phlebotomine sandflies. Three phlebotomine/parasite pairs were used: Lutzomyia longipalpis/Leishmania chagasi, Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania amazonensis and Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania braziliensis, all of them incriminated in the transmission of visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA extraction was performed with whole insects, with no need of previous digestive tract dissection or pooling specimens. The presence of either mouse blood in the digestive tract of the sandflies or the digestive tract itself did not interfere in the PCR. Infection by as few as 10 Leishmania sp. per individual were sufficient for DNA amplification with genus-specific primers. Using primers for L. braziliensis and L. mexicana complexes, respectively, it was possible to discriminate between L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis in experimentally infected vectors (L. migonei.

  14. Interactive social contagions and co-infections on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Hui; Zhong, Lin-Feng; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Tao; Eugene Stanley, H.

    2018-01-01

    What we are learning about the ubiquitous interactions among multiple social contagion processes on complex networks challenges existing theoretical methods. We propose an interactive social behavior spreading model, in which two behaviors sequentially spread on a complex network, one following the other. Adopting the first behavior has either a synergistic or an inhibiting effect on the spread of the second behavior. We find that the inhibiting effect of the first behavior can cause the continuous phase transition of the second behavior spreading to become discontinuous. This discontinuous phase transition of the second behavior can also become a continuous one when the effect of adopting the first behavior becomes synergistic. This synergy allows the second behavior to be more easily adopted and enlarges the co-existence region of both behaviors. We establish an edge-based compartmental method, and our theoretical predictions match well with the simulation results. Our findings provide helpful insights into better understanding the spread of interactive social behavior in human society.

  15. Virological and clinico-pathological features of orf virus infection in experimentally infected rabbits and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, J F; Masuda, E K; Martins, M; Diel, D G; Rock, D L; Weiblen, R; Flores, E F

    2011-01-01

    Many aspects of the biology of orf virus (ORFV) infection remain poorly understood and attempts to establish animal models have yielded conflicting and non-reproducible results. We herein describe the characterization of ORFV infection and disease in rabbits and mice. A protocol of intradermal inoculation was employed to inoculate 10(8.5)TCID₅₀/mL of ORFV strain IA-82 in the skin of ears, of the back and labial commissures. All inoculated rabbits presented a clinical course characterized by erythema, macules, papules/vesicles or pustules that eventually dried originating scabs. Local signs started around days 3 and 4 post-inoculation (pi) and lasted 3-10 days. Virus was recovered from lesions between days 2 and 14pi. Histological examination of lesions revealed focal proliferative dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in keratinocytes, histological hallmarks of contagious ecthyma in sheep. A similar, albeit milder clinical course occurred in 5/10 inoculated mice; virus was recovered from lesions from three animals. Inoculated lambs - used as controls - developed severe lesions of contagious ecthyma. VN tests performed at day 28pi failed to detect neutralizing antibodies in all inoculated animals. In contrast, convalescent rabbit sera were positive by ELISA at dilutions from 100 to 400. These results show that rabbits are susceptible to ORFV infection and thus may be used to study selected aspects of ORFV biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aspects of Toxoplasma Infection on the Reproductive System of Experimentally Infected Rams (Ovis Aries

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    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight reproductive rams with no prior reproductive disease were distributed into three groups of infection with T. gondii: GI, 3 rams, 2.0×105 P strain oocysts; GII, 3 rams, 1.0×106 RH strain tachyzoites; GIII, 2 control rams. Clinical parameters were measured and serological evaluations (IIF were performed. Presence of the parasite in the semen was investigated by PCR and bioassay techniques. The rams presented clinical alterations (hyperthermia and apathy related to toxoplasmosis in both groups infected with Toxoplasma gondii. All the inoculated rams responded to antigenic stimulus, producing antibodies against T. gondii from postinoculation day 5 onwards. In ovine groups I and II, the greatest titers observed were 1 : 4096 and 1 : 8192, respectively. In semen samples collected from these two groups, the presence of T. gondii was detected by bioassay and PCR. This coccidian was isolated (bioassay and PCR in tissue pools (testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and prostrate from two rams infected presenting oocysts and in one presenting tachyzoites.

  17. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

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    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  18. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  19. Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats

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    Battilani Mara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV. These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts.

  20. Potential Role of Carvedilol in the Cardiac Immune Response Induced by Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Aline Luciano Horta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi causes a cardiac infection characterized by an inflammatory imbalance that could become the inciting factor of the illness. To this end, we evaluated the role of carvedilol, a beta-blocker with potential immunomodulatory properties, on the immune response in C57BL/6 mice infected with VL-10 strain of T. cruzi in the acute phase. Animals (n=40 were grouped: (i not infected, (ii infected, (iii infected + carvedilol, and (iv not infected + carvedilol. We analyzed parameters related to parasitemia, plasma levels of TNF, IL-10, and CCL2, and cardiac histopathology after the administration of carvedilol for 30 days. We did not observe differences in the maximum peaks of parasitemia in the day of their detection among the groups. The plasma TNF was elevated at 60 days of infection in mice treated or not with carvedilol. However, we observed a decreased CCL2 level and increased IL-10 levels in those infected animals treated with carvedilol, which impacted the reduction of the inflammatory infiltration in cardiac tissue. For this experimental model, carvedilol therapy was not able to alter the levels of circulating parasites but modulates the pattern of CCL2 and IL-10 mediators when the VL10 strain of T. cruzi was used in C57BL6 mice.

  1. Experimental infection of plants with an herbivore-associated bacterial endosymbiont influences herbivore host selection behavior.

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    Thomas Seth Davis

    Full Text Available Although bacterial endosymbioses are common among phloeophagous herbivores, little is known regarding the effects of symbionts on herbivore host selection and population dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that plant selection and reproductive performance by a phloem-feeding herbivore (potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli is mediated by infection of plants with a bacterial endosymbiont. We controlled for the effects of herbivory and endosymbiont infection by exposing potato plants (Solanum tuberosum to psyllids infected with "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" or to uninfected psyllids. We used these treatments as a basis to experimentally test plant volatile emissions, herbivore settling and oviposition preferences, and herbivore population growth. Three important findings emerged: (1 plant volatile profiles differed with respect to both herbivory and herbivory plus endosymbiont infection when compared to undamaged control plants; (2 herbivores initially settled on plants exposed to endosymbiont-infected psyllids but later defected and oviposited primarily on plants exposed only to uninfected psyllids; and (3 plant infection status had little effect on herbivore reproduction, though plant flowering was associated with a 39% reduction in herbivore density on average. Our experiments support the hypothesis that plant infection with endosymbionts alters plant volatile profiles, and infected plants initially recruited herbivores but later repelled them. Also, our findings suggest that the endosymbiont may not place negative selection pressure on its host herbivore in this system, but plant flowering phenology appears correlated with psyllid population performance.

  2. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection.

  3. Experimentation on accuracy of non functional requirement prioritization approaches for different complexity projects

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumar Chopra; Varun Gupta; Durg Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Non functional requirements must be selected for implementation together with functional requirements to enhance the success of software projects. Three approaches exist for performing the prioritization of non functional requirements using the suitable prioritization technique. This paper performs experimentation on three different complexity versions of the industrial software project using cost-value prioritization technique employing three approaches. Experimentation is conducted to analy...

  4. The pathogenesis of single experimental infections with Strongylus vulgaris in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J L; Pirie, H M

    1975-01-01

    The clinical signs, pathology and clinical pathology associated with single experimental infections of Strongylus vulgaris in worm-free pony foals are described. The major clinical signs which became apparent in the infected foals during the first three weeks were pyrexia, anorexia, dullness and abdominal pain. Within the first two weeks of infection lesions were confined to the intestine and terminal branches of the intestinal arteries and consisted of mucosal, submucosal and serosal haemorrhage together with arteritis of submucosal and serosal arteries and also a marked inflammatory reaction. The main lesion seen three weeks after infection was gross thrombosis of the anterior mesenteric artery or one of its major branches. On section these affected arteries showed marked intimal thickening with infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Between one and four months after infection the gross lesions were predominantly in the arteries and consisted of fibrous thickening of the arterial wall and thrombosis associated with the presence of developing fourth stage larvae. Four months after infection the arterial lesions were still prominent and microscopically there was fibrosis of the wall of the affected artery with wide-spread disruption of the intima. In the adventitia organised thrombi were apparent in the vasa vasorum and resulted in the obliteration of their lumina. The typical lesion associated with the return of fifth stage larvae to the intestine was nodule formation in close proximity to thrombosed terminal intestinal arteries and sections of parasites were seen in the intestinal wall surrounded by neutrophils and necrotic debris. By nine months after infection the arterial lesion had healed, but histologically there was fibrosis of the intima and macrophages containing haemosiderin were seen in the arterial wall. The most significant haematological findings during the experimental period were a marked polymorphonuclear

  5. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  6. Experimental and natural infections in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bernuth, Horst; Picard, Capucine; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Most Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) signal via myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4). The combined roles of these two receptor families in the course of experimental infections have been assessed in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice for almost fifteen years. These animals have been shown to be susceptible to 46 pathogens: 27 bacteria, 8 viruses, 7 parasites, and 4 fungi. Humans with inborn MyD88 or IRAK-4 deficiency were first identified in 2003. They suffer from naturally occurring life-threatening infections caused by a small number of bacterial species, although the incidence and severity of these infections decrease with age. Mouse TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be vital to combat a wide array of experimentally administered pathogens at most ages. By contrast, human TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be effective in the natural setting against only a few bacteria and is most important in infancy and early childhood. The roles of TLRs and IL-1Rs in protective immunity deduced from studies in mutant mice subjected to experimental infections should therefore be reconsidered in the light of findings for natural infections in humans carrying mutations as discussed in this review. PMID:23255009

  7. First report of Fusarium oxysporum species complex infection in zebrafish culturing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulatunga, D C M; Dananjaya, S H S; Park, B K; Kim, C-H; Lee, J; De Zoysa, M

    2017-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a highly diverse fungus. Recently, F. oxysporum infection was identified from zebrafish (Danio rerio) culturing system in Korea. Initially, a rapid whitish smudge was appeared in the water with the fungal blooming on walls of fish tanks. Microscopic studies were conducted on fungal hyphae, colony pigmentation and chlamydospore formation and the presence of macro- and microspores confirmed that the isolated fungus as F. oxysporum. Furthermore, isolated F. oxysporum was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer sequencing which matched (100%) to nine F. oxysporum sequences available in GenBank. Experimental hypodermic injection of F. oxysporum into adult zebrafish showed the development of fungal mycelium and pathogenicity similar to signs observed. Histopathologic results revealed a presence of F. oxysporum hyphae in zebrafish muscle. Fusarium oxysporum growth was increased with sea salt in a concentration-dependent manner. Antifungal susceptibility results revealed that F. oxysporum is resistant to copper sulphate (up to 200 μg mL -1 ) and sensitive to nystatin (up to 40 μg mL -1 ). This is the first report of FOSC from zebrafish culture system, suggesting it appears as an emerging pathogen, thus posing a significant risk on zebrafish facilities in the world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Particular Distribution of Enterobacter cloacae Strains Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection within Clonal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Majid; Bakhshi, Bita; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Based on biochemical properties, Enterobacter cloacae represents a large complex of at least 13 variant species, subspecies, and genotypes that progressively identified as the most species causing hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance between phylogenetically related strains within the E. cloacae complex and the frequency of urinary tract infection caused by them. A 268-bp fragment was obtained from hsp60 gene for 50 clinical E. cloacae isolates from urine cultures of inpatients that admitted to six hospitals in Tehran, Iran during December 2012 to November 2013. The 107 nucleotide sequences were analyzed and the evolutionary distances of sequences were computed and neighbor-joining tree was calculated. It showed that all of the genetic clusters have not an equal involvement in pathogenesis of urinary tract infections. Three superior clusters were found, together representing more than two third (80%) of the isolates (cluster VI with 25 members; clusters III and VIII with 9 and 6 members, respectively) and some genetic clusters were absent (IV, X, XII, and xiii), some of which are supposed to be associated with plants and no human infection has been reported. This study, for the first time, reports the unequal contribution of E. cloacae complex subspecies and clusters in urinary tract infections in Iran and together with studies from other countries suggest that the subspecies of E.hormaechei subsp. Oharae is the most prevalent E. cloacae complex subspecies regardless of country under study.

  9. Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection.

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    Henry J McSorley

    Full Text Available We present immunological data from two clinical trials where the effect of experimental human hookworm (Necator americanus infection on the pathology of celiac disease was evaluated. We found that basal production of Interferon- (IFN-γ and Interleukin- (IL-17A from duodenal biopsy culture was suppressed in hookworm-infected participants compared to uninfected controls. Increased levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the circulation and mucosa are associated with active celiac disease. We show that this accumulation also occurs during a short-term (1 week oral gluten challenge, and that hookworm infection suppressed the increase of circulating CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells during this challenge period. When duodenal biopsies from hookworm-infected participants were restimulated with the immunodominant gliadin peptide QE65, robust production of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A was detected, even prior to gluten challenge while participants were strictly adhering to a gluten-free diet. Intriguingly, IL-5 was produced only after hookworm infection in response to QE65. Thus we hypothesise that hookworm-induced TH2 and IL-10 cross-regulation of the TH1/TH17 inflammatory response may be responsible for the suppression of these responses during experimental hookworm infection.

  10. Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius with a vampire bat rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Perea Martínez, Leonardo; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Flor Olivia; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia

    2017-06-01

    Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius, the great fruit-eating bat, was performed with vampire bat rabies isolates. Bats (n=35) were captured in the wild and quarantined prior to experimental infection. No rabies antibodies were detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) prior to infection. Three doses of rabies virus (RV) and three different routes of infection were used. One out of 35 bats died without showing any clinical signs at day 14 and was positive for rabies. None of the 34 other bats showed clinical signs for rabies, but high antibody titers were detected post-inoculation, suggesting either innate immune response to the vampire bat rabies virus or possible pre-exposure to RV and inoculation leading to a booster effect. Rabies virus was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) in the brain (n=3), stomach (n=1) of bats that were negative by immunofluorescence and that survived rabies infection. The bat that died on day 14 was positive by hnRT-PCR on the brain, heart and liver. These results suggest that either previous non-lethal exposure to RV or natural low susceptibility to vampire bat viruses somehow protected Artibeus intermedius from clinical rabies infection leading to a marginal lethality effect on this bats species population in the wild. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Infection of Taenia saginata eggs in Bali Cattle: Distribution and Density of Cysticercus bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the development, distribution, and infection density ofTaenia saginata metacestodes in Bali cattle. Three Bali cattle were experimentally infected with T. saginataeggs which were collected from taeniasis patients. The experimental animal was inoculated with : i1000,00 T. saginata; ii 500,000 eggs; and iii 1,000,000 eggs, respectivelly 100,000 (cattle 1, 500,000(cattle 2, and 1,000,000 (cattle 3 T. saginata eggs, respectively. To observe the development of cysticerci,all cattle were slaughtered at 24 weeks post infection. To observe their distribution and density, slicingwas done to the cattle?s tissues. The study results showed that cysts were found distributed to all muscletissues and some visceral organs such as heart, diaphragm, lungs, and kidney of the cattle infected with100,000 and 500,000 T. saginata eggs. Density of the cyst was in the range of 11 to 95 cysts per 100 gramsof tissue. The highest density was noted in the heart (58/100 grams and in diaphragm (55/100 grams.This study has confirmed that T. saginata eggs derived from taeniasis patient in Bali, if infected to Balicattle can develop and spread to all muscle tissues and some visceral organs. From this study it wasconcluded that it is necessary to include the heart in the meat inspection at slaughter house for possibilityof T. saginata cyst infection.$?

  12. Fibrinogen and fibronectin binding cooperate for valve infection and invasion in Staphylococcus aureus experimental endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Que, Yok-Ai; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Piroth, Lionel; François, Patrice; Widmer, Eleonora; Entenza, José M; Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias; Francioli, Patrick; Vaudaux, Pierre; Moreillon, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The expression of Staphylococcus aureus adhesins in Lactococcus lactis identified clumping factor A (ClfA) and fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) as critical for valve colonization in rats with experimental endocarditis. This study further analyzed their role in disease evolution. Infected

  13. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...

  14. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  15. Experimental Maedi Visna Virus Infection in sheep: a morphological, immunohistochemical and PCR study after three years of infection

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    S Preziuso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological, immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR study was performed on eight ewes experimentally infected with an Italian strain of Maedi-Visna Virus (MVV in order to evaluate the lesions and the viral distribution after three years of infection. At the moment of euthanasia, seven sheep were seropositive for MVV, while one sheep in poor body conditions was seronegative since one year. Lungs, pulmonary lymph nodes, udder, supramammary lymph nodes, carpal joints, the CNS, spleen and bone marrow of the eight infected sheep were collected for histology, for immunohistochemical detection of the MVV core protein p28 and for PCR amplification of a 218 bp viral DNA sequence of the pol region. The most common histological findings consisted of interstitial lymphoproliferative pneumonia and lymphoproliferative mastitis of different severity, while no lesions were observed in the CNS. MVV p28 antigen was immunohistochemically labelled in lungs, udder, pulmonary lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow but not in the CNS of all the eight infected sheep. A 218 bp sequence of MVV pol region was detected in lung of a seropositive and of the seroconverted negative sheep. The results suggest that (i MVV causes heterogeneous lesions in homogeneously reared ewes, (ii MVV p28 antigen is detectable not only in inflammed target organs, but also in pulmonary lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow, and (iii immunohistochemistry and PCR are useful methods for Maedi-Visna diagnosis in suspected cases, also when serological tests are negative.

  16. Wolbachia infection complexity among insects in the tropical rice-field community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittayapong, P; Jamnongluk, W; Thipaksorn, A; Milne, J R; Sindhusake, C

    2003-04-01

    Wolbachia are a group of intracellular bacteria that cause reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts. Widely discordant host and Wolbachia phylogenies indicate that horizontal transmission of these bacteria among species sometimes occurs. A likely means of horizontal transfer is through the feeding relations of organisms within communities. Feeding interactions among insects within the rice-field insect community have been well documented in the past. Here, we present the results of a polymerase chain reaction-based survey and phylogenetic analysis of Wolbachia strains in the rice-field insect community of Thailand. Our field survey indicated that 49 of 209 (23.4%) rice-field insect species were infected with Wolbachia. Of the 49 infected species, 27 were members of two feeding complexes: (i) a group of 13 hoppers preyed on by 2 mirid species and parasitized by a fly species, and (ii) 2 lepidopteran pests parasitized by 9 wasp species. Wolbachia strains found in three hoppers, Recilia dorsalis, Nephotettix malayanus and Nisia nervosa, the two mirid predators, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Tytthus chinensis, and the fly parasitoid, Tomosvaryella subvirescens, were all in the same Wolbachia clade. In the second complex, the two lepidopteran pests, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Scirpophaga incertulas, were both infected with Wolbachia from the same clade, as was the parasitoid Tropobracon schoenobii. However, none of the other infected parasitoid species in this feeding complex was infected by Wolbachia from this clade. Mean (+/- SD) genetic distance of Wolbachia wsp sequences among interacting species pairs of the hopper feeding complex (0.118 +/- 0.091 nucleotide sequence differences), but not for the other two complexes, was significantly smaller than that between noninteracting species pairs (0.162 +/- 0.079 nucleotide sequence differences). Our results suggest that some feeding complexes, such as the hopper complex described here, could be an important

  17. Experimental infection with the small intestinal trematode, Haplorchis pumilio, in young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we...... conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were...

  18. Early weight development of goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Malone

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.

  19. Infectivity of DWV associated to flower pollen: experimental evidence of a horizontal transmission route.

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    Maurizio Mazzei

    Full Text Available Deformed wing virus (DWV is a honeybee pathogen whose presence is generally associated with infestation of the colony by the mite Varroa destructor, leading to the onset of infections responsible for the collapse of the bee colony. DWV contaminates bee products such as royal jelly, bee-bread and honey stored within the infected hive. Outside the hive, DWV has been found in pollen loads collected directly from infected as well as uninfected forager bees. It has been shown that the introduction of virus-contaminated pollen into a DWV-free hive results in the production of virus-contaminated food, whose role in the development of infected bees from virus-free eggs has been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to ascertain the presence of DWV on pollen collected directly from flowers visited by honeybees and then quantify the viral load and (ii determine whether the virus associated with pollen is infective. The results of our investigation provide evidence that DWV is present on pollen sampled directly from visited flowers and that, following injection in individuals belonging to the pollinator species Apis mellifera, it is able to establish an active infection, as indicated by the presence of replicating virus in the head of the injected bees. We also provide the first indication that the pollinator species Osmia cornuta is susceptible to DWV infection.

  20. Transcriptomic study of 39 ostreid herpesvirus 1 genes during an experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Amélie; Faury, Nicole; Pépin, Jean-François; Renault, Tristan

    2014-06-01

    Massive mortality outbreaks have been reported in France since 2008 among Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, with the detection of a particular OsHV-1 variant called μVar. Virus infection can be induced in healthy spat in experimental conditions allowing to better understand the disease process, including viral gene expression. Although gene expression of other herpesviruses has been widely studied, we provide the first study following viral gene expression of OsHV-1 over time. In this context, an in vivo transcriptomic study targeting 39 OsHV-1 genes was carried out during an experimental infection of Pacific oyster spat. For the first time, several OsHV-1 mRNAs were detected by real-time PCR at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 18 h, 26 h and 42 h post-injection. Several transcripts were detected at 2h post-infection and at 18 h post-infection for all selected ORFs. Quantification of virus gene expression at different times of infection was also carried out using an oyster housekeeping gene, Elongation factor. Developing an OsHV-1-specific reverse transcriptase real time PCR targeting 39 viral gene appears a new tool in terms of diagnosis and can be used to complement viral DNA detection in order to monitor viral replication. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in eliminating Theileria equi from experimentally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grause, Juanita F; Ueti, Massaro W; Nelson, Jeffrey T; Knowles, Donald P; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Bunn, Thomas O

    2013-06-01

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a 'foreign' animal disease in the USA. In an effort to prevent the importation of T. equi, stringent serological screening of horses is practiced prior to entry to the USA. Current regulatory options available where horses are found to be infected include permanent quarantine with or without chemotherapy, repatriation, or euthanasia. Chemotherapeutics that eliminate infection and subsequently transmission risk are critical in the management of infected horses. In this study, the efficacy of the drug imidocarb dipropionate against experimental T. equi infection was assessed. Of nine horses experimentally inoculated with T. equi isolated from an animal previously imported from Peru, six were treated with imidocarb dipropionate after the resolution of the acute phase of the disease. Elimination of the parasite was demonstrated in 5/6 by nested PCR, blood transfusions to naïve horses, and reversion to seronegative status. The findings support the use of this drug as a potential treatment option in controlling outbreaks of T. equi, and also suggest that 'combination testing' using both serological and PCR detection methods are necessary to demonstrate clearance of infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Imaging experimental infective endocarditis with indium-111-labeled blood cellular components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The capability of radionuclide imaging to detect experimental aortic valve infective endocarditis was assessed with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled blood cells. Sequential cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were obtained in 17 rabbits with infective endocarditis after administration of 111 In-platelets and in five after 111 In-polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Forty-eight to 72 hours after platelet administration, in vivo imaging demonstrated abnormal 111 In uptake in all animals in the region of the aortic valve in an anatomically distinct pattern. Images of the excised heart showed discrete cardiac uptake conforming to the in vivo image and gross pathological examination. 111 In-platelet uptake in vegetations from the 17 animals averaged 240 +- 41 times greater than that in normal myocardium and 99 +- 15 times greater uptake in blood. In contrast, 111 In-leukocyte cardiac imaging showed no abnormal aortic valve uptake 24 hours after tracer administration and the lesion myocardium activity ratio was only 5 +- 2 (3 +- 1 for lesion/blood activity). Four normal rabbits demonstrated neither positive 111 In-platelet scintigraphs nor abnormal cardiac tissue uptake. Likewise, noncellular 111 In was not concentrated to any significant extent in three animals with infective endocarditis. This study demonstrates that 111 In-platelet, but not leukocyte cardiac imaging, is a sensitive technique for detecting experimental infective endocarditis. The imaging data conform to the cellular pathology of the infective endocarditis vegetation

  3. Metabolomic profiling of faecal extracts from Cryptosporidium parvum infection in experimental mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine S Y Ng Hublin

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In healthy individuals, the disease manifests mainly as acute self-limiting diarrhoea, but may be chronic and life threatening for those with compromised immune systems. Control and treatment of the disease is challenged by the lack of sensitive diagnostic tools and broad-spectrum chemotherapy. Metabolomics, or metabolite profiling, is an emerging field of study, which enables characterisation of the end products of regulatory processes in a biological system. Analysis of changes in metabolite patterns reflects changes in biochemical regulation, production and control, and may contribute to understanding the effects of Cryptosporidium infection in the host environment. In the present study, metabolomic analysis of faecal samples from experimentally infected mice was carried out to assess metabolite profiles pertaining to the infection. Gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS carried out on faecal samples from a group of C. parvum infected mice and a group of uninfected control mice detected a mean total of 220 compounds. Multivariate analyses showed distinct differences between the profiles of C. parvum infected mice and uninfected control mice,identifying a total of 40 compounds, or metabolites that contributed most to the variance between the two groups. These metabolites consisted of amino acids (n = 17, carbohydrates (n = 8, lipids (n = 7, organic acids (n = 3 and other various metabolites (n = 5, which showed significant differences in levels of metabolite abundance between the infected and uninfected mice groups (p < 0.05. The metabolites detected in this study as well as the differences in abundance between the C. parvum infected and the uninfected control mice, highlights the effects of the infection on intestinal permeability and the fate of the metabolites as a result of nutrient scavenging by the

  4. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  5. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo; Montoya, María

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Surprisingly, we

  6. Systemic activation of the immune system in HIV infection: The role of the immune complexes (hypothesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolevskaya, Larisa B; Shmagel, Konstantin V; Shmagel, Nadezhda G; Saidakova, Evgeniya V

    2016-03-01

    Currently, immune activation is proven to be the basis for the HIV infection pathogenesis and a strong predictor of the disease progression. Among the causes of systemic immune activation the virus and its products, related infectious agents, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory CD4+ T cells' decrease are considered. Recently microbial translocation (bacterial products yield into the bloodstream as a result of the gastrointestinal tract mucosal barrier integrity damage) became the most popular hypothesis. Previously, we have found an association between immune complexes present in the bloodstream of HIV infected patients and the T cell activation. On this basis, we propose a significantly modified hypothesis of immune activation in HIV infection. It is based on the immune complexes' participation in the immunocompetent cells' activation. Immune complexes are continuously formed in the chronic phase of the infection. Together with TLR-ligands (viral antigens, bacterial products coming from the damaged gut) present in the bloodstream they interact with macrophages. As a result macrophages are transformed into the type II activated forms. These macrophages block IL-12 production and start synthesizing IL-10. High level of this cytokine slows down the development of the full-scale Th1-response. The anti-viral reactions are shifted towards the serogenesis. Newly synthesized antibodies' binding to viral antigens leads to continuous formation of the immune complexes capable of interacting with antigen-presenting cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of immune-complex-dissociated nonstructural-1 antigen in patients with acute dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Koraka (Penelope); C.P. Burghoorn-Maas; A. Falconar; T.E. Setiati (Tatty); K. Djamiatun; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAccurate and timely diagnosis of dengue virus (DEN) infections is essential for the differential diagnosis of patients with febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever. In the present study, the diagnostic value of a newly developed immune-complex dissociated nonstructural-1 (NS-1) antigen dot

  8. Detection of immune-complex-dissociated nonstructural-1 antigen in patients with acute dengue virus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koraka, P.; Burghoorn-Maas, C.P.; Falconar, A.; Setiati, T.E.; Djamiatun, K.; Groen, J.; Osterhaus, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of dengue virus (DEN) infections is essential for the differential diagnosis of patients with febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever. In the present study, the diagnostic value of a newly developed immune-complex dissociated nonstructural-1 (NS-1) antigen dot blot

  9. Phenotypic characterisation of cell populations in the brains of horses experimentally infected with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcambre, G H; Liu, J; Streit, W J; Shaw, G P J; Vallario, K; Herrington, J; Wenzlow, N; Barr, K L; Long, M T

    2017-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito borne member of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most commonly diagnosed agents of viral encephalitis in horses and people worldwide. A cassette of markers for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and an archive of tissues from experimental infections in the horse were used to investigate the equine neuroimmune response to WNV meningoencephalomyelitis to phenotype the early response to WNV infection in the horse. Quantitative analysis using archived tissue from experimentally infected horses. The thalamus and hindbrain from 2 groups of 6 horses were compared and consisted of a culture positive tissues from WNV experimentally horses, in the other, normal horses. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from the thalamus and hindbrain were immunolabeled for microglia, astrocytes, B cells, macrophages/neutrophils, CD3 + T cells. Fresh frozen tissues were immunolabeled for CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocyte cell markers. Cell counts were obtained using a computer software program. Differences, after meeting assumptions of abnormality, were computed using a general linear model with a Tukey test (Phorses, Iba-1 + microglia, CD3 + T lymphocyte and MAC387 + macrophage staining were significantly increased. The T cell response for the WNV-challenged horses was mixed, composed of CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes. A limited astrocyte response was also observed in WNV-challenged horses, and MAC387 + and B cells were the least abundant cell populations. The results of this study were limited by a single collection time post-infection. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of cellular phenotypes is needed for naturally infected horses. Unfortunately, in clinical horses, there is high variability of sampling in terms of days post-infection and tissue handling. The data show that WNV-challenged horses recruit a mixed T cell population at the onset of neurologic disease. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S

    2015-11-17

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the

  11. Experimental infection of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with European bat lyssavirus type 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, C; Vos, A; Johnson, N; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Neubert, L; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nuñez, A; Tordo, N; Rupprecht, C E; Fooks, A R; Müller, T

    2009-10-01

    The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) accounts for the vast majority of bat rabies cases in Europe and is considered the main reservoir for European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1, genotype 5). However, so far the disease has not been investigated in its native host under experimental conditions. To assess viral virulence, dissemination and probable means of transmission, captive bats were infected experimentally with an EBLV-1a virus isolated from a naturally infected conspecific from Germany. Twenty-nine wild caught bats were divided into five groups and inoculated by intracranial (i.c.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection or by intranasal (i.n.) inoculation to mimic the various potential routes of infection. One group of bats was maintained as uninfected controls. Mortality was highest in the i.c.-infected animals, followed by the s.c. and i.m. groups. Incubation periods varied from 7 to 26 days depending on the route of infection. Rabies did not develop in the i.n. group or in the negative-control group. None of the infected bats seroconverted. Viral antigen was detected in more than 50% of the taste buds of an i.c.-infected animal. Shedding of viable virus was measured by virus isolation in cell culture for one bat from the s.c. group at 13 and 14 days post-inoculation, i.e. 7 days before death. In conclusion, it is postulated that s.c. inoculation, in nature caused by bites, may be an efficient way of transmitting EBLV-1 among free-living serotine bats.

  12. Ultrastructural identification of Ehrlich ia sp in an experimentally infected dog in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, N.; Martinez, M.; Arraga Alvarado, C.; Bretana, A.; Pacheco, I.; Comach, G.

    1999-01-01

    This study is the first report made in Venezuela concerning the ultrastructural characteristics of Ehrlich ia sp in mononuclear blood cells from an experimentally infected dog. The animal developed clinical manifestations characteristic of the infection, and typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were clearly seen in blood smears stained with modified Giemsa examined by light microscopy. Microorganisms were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic inclusions, consisted of membrane-lined vacuole-containing elementary bodies. The organisms were extremely pleomorphic. Elementary bodies were surrounded by two distinct membranes and each was constituted by electro-dense granules. These findings corresponded to the described electron microscopy morphology which characterizes the Ehrlich ia genus

  13. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is considered as one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, and there is clearly a need for new surveillance and control measures based on quantitative data on Campylobacter spp. colonization dynamics in broiler chickens. We conducted four experimental...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  14. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P ... administered singly, did not have any effect in the UTI model. Apparently, the antibacterial effect of the organic acids from cranberry juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E...

  15. Small sarcocysts can be a feature of experimental infections with Sarcocystis neurona merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Antoinette E; Chaney, Sarah B; Howe, Daniel K; Saville, William J; Reed, Stephen M

    2017-10-15

    Several reports indicate the presence of small tissue cysts associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections. Several failed attempts to develop tissue cysts in potential intermediate host using in vitro derived parasites originally isolated from horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis suggest that the experimental methods to achieve bradyzoites with those isolates was not possible. Those prior studies reported the lack of detectable sarcocysts based on histology and in vivo feeding trials. A recent report of successful production and detection of small sarcocysts triggered us to review archived tissues from earlier experimental infection studies. The retrospective review sought to determine if small sized sarcocysts were not detected due to their relatively smaller size and infrequency as compared to larger sized sarcocysts produced with other isolates in these experimental inoculation trials. Tissues from two prior in vivo inoculation studies, involving in vitro-produced parasites inoculated into laboratory-reared cats and raccoons, were re-examined by immunohistochemistry staining to more easily detect the tissue cysts. In the experimental cat study no small tissue cysts were seen, consistent with the original publication results. However, in the experimental raccoon study, one raccoon inoculated with an EPM-derived isolate, SN-UCD1, had small sarcocysts not reported in the original publication. This retrospective study suggests that much closer scrutiny of tissues, including the use of immunohistochemistry on tissue sections is required to detect the smaller S. neurona sarcocysts associated with the experimental inoculations of the isolates originally derived from horses with EPM. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. How the position of mussels at the intertidal lagoon affects their infection with the larvae of parasitic flatworms (Trematoda: Digenea): A combined laboratory and field experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Kirill E.; Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Levakin, Ivan A.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.

    2017-10-01

    In the complex trematode life cycle, cercariae transmit infection from the first to the second intermediate host. These short-lived lecithotrophic larvae possess a complex of behavioural responses for finding and infecting the host. We studied strategies used by cercariae of Himasthla elongata and Cercaria parvicaudata (Renicola sp.) infecting mussels Mytilus edulis at the White Sea intertidal. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in parallel. Geotactic response of cercariae was tested in an experimental chamber. Their distribution in nature was studied by counting larvae infecting mussels in cages installed in pairs (a ground and a suspended cage) in an intertidal lagoon. In the chamber H. elongata cercariae concentrated at the bottom, C. parvicaudata cercariae aged 1 h mostly concentrated near the surface and those aged 6 h sank to the bottom. A few larvae of both species ("evaders") showed behavioural patterns antithetic to the prevalent ones. Infection was the highest in mussels in ground cages. In suspended cages mussel infection with H. elongata cercariae was much lower than with C. parvicaudata cercariae. Our study confirmed that results of experiments on cercarial behaviour could be extrapolated to natural conditions. Cercariae of two species using the same intermediate hosts and co-occurring in a biotope implemented dramatically different strategies. This might be associated with differences in cercarial output by parthenitae groups. The presence of "evaders" might be useful for successful transmission. Our results indicate that mussels cultivated in suspended cultures are at the least risk of infection with trematode larvae.

  17. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  18. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  19. Experimental Infection and Clearance of Coccidian Parasites in Mercury-Exposed Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebers Smith, Jessica H; Cristol, Daniel A; Swaddle, John P

    2018-01-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that affects the health of many taxa. It can suppress the immune system, which often plays a role in defense against parasites. However, there have been few investigations of whether mercury affects the abilities of animals to resist parasitic infection. Here, we exposed zebra finches to a lifetime dietary exposure of methylmercury (1.2 μg/g wet weight) and experimentally infected them with coccidian parasites to examine the effect of methylmercury exposure on parasitic infection. The mercury-exposed birds did not have an altered immune response (heterophil:lymphocyte ratio) nor a reduced ability to clear the infection. However, mercury-exposed birds tended to have higher parasite loads at the time when we expected the greatest immune response (2-3 weeks post-infection). Although mercury did not greatly influence the infection-course of this parasite in captivity, responses may be more accentuated in the wild where birds face additional immune challenges.

  20. Testing the sensitivity of Nested PCR method to detect Aspergillus fumigates in experimentally infected Sputum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Soukkaria, S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by Aspergillus species generally are occupying a second place among invasive fungal infections in the world, especially A. fumigatus, which is considered the main cause of invasive Aspergillosis (IA). Although IA rarely infects immunocompetent individuals, however, it can lead to death in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose the infection early in order to treat the disease efficiently. However, the conventional diagnostic tools, currently used to detect infections, has low sensitivity and reliability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology distribution as a molecular and high sensitive technology has allowed us to make comparative study between sensitivity of traditional currently used diagnostic method and Nested-PCR, the result of the study of sputum samples that experimentally infected with different concentrations of A.fumigatus spores ramping from 10 to10 6 spore/ml, have high sensitivity and specificity of Nested-PCR in detecting the lower concentrations, comparing with traditional diagnostic method (culture on Sabouraud media) that were negative in all concetrations. (author)

  1. RIBOSOMAL COMPLEX IN PROPHYLAXIS AND TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are widespread in children regardless of age and region of living; they are characterized with big amount of infectious agents and absence of a trend to morbidity decrease. Drugs for nonspecific prophylaxis (immunostimulators and immunomodulatory agents are frequently used for prevention of ARI. There are plenty of immunomodulating agents; the wellstudied medication with systemic action with good efficacy and safety in pediatric practice is ribosomal-proteoglycan complex. The article presents the description of clinical experience of treatment with this complex in pediatric practice.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, prophylaxis, treatment, ribosomal complex.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:127-130

  2. Experimental and theoretical evidence for the chaotic dynamics of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agop, M; Dimitriu, D G; Poll, E; Niculescu, O; Radu, V

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results on the formation, dynamics and evolution towards chaos of complex space charge structures that emerge in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in a quiescent plasma. In certain experimental conditions, we managed to obtain the so-called multiple double layers (MDLs) with non-concentric configuration. Our experiments show that the interactions between each MDL's constituent entities are held responsible for the complex dynamics and eventually for its transition to chaos through cascades of spatio-temporal sub-harmonic bifurcations. Further, we build a theoretical model based on the fractal approximation (scale relativity theory) in order to reproduce the experimental results (plasma self-structuring and scenario of evolution to chaos). Comparing the experimental results with the theoretical ones, we observe a good correlation between them. (paper)

  3. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  4. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  5. Electronic properties of Fe charge transfer complexes – A combined experimental and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Hendrik; Eschwege, Karel G. von; Conradie, Jeanet

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and computational study of Fe II -phen, -bpy & -tpy compleesx. • Close correlations between experimental redox and spectral, and computational data. • Computational methods fast-track DSSC research. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cell technology holds huge potential in renewable electricity generation of the future. Due to demand urgency, ways need to be explored to reduce research time and cost. Against this background, quantum computational chemistry is illustrated to be a reliable tool at the onset of studies in this field, simulating charge transfer, spectral (solar energy absorbed) and electrochemical (ease by which electrons may be liberated) tuning of related photo-responsive dyes. Comparative experimental and theoretical DFT studies were done under similar conditions, involving an extended series of electrochemically altered phenanthrolines, bipyridyl and terpyridyl complexes of Fe II . Fe II/III oxidation waves vary from 0.363 V for tris(3,6-dimethoxybipyridyl)Fe II to 0.894 V (versus Fc/Fc + ) for the 5-nitrophenanthroline complex. Theoretical DFT computed ionization potentials in the bipyridyl sub-series achieved an almost 100% linear correlation with experimental electrochemical oxidation potentials, while the phenanthroline sub-series gave R 2 = 0.95. Apart from the terpyridyl complex which accorded an almost perfect match, in general, TDDFT oscillators were computed at slightly lower energies than what was observed experimentally, while molecular HOMO and LUMO renderings reveal desired complexes with directional charge transfer propensities.

  6. Comparison of infectious hematopoietic necrosis in natural and experimental infections of spawning salmonids by infectivity and immunohistochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Arakawa, C.K.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) continues to be a serious virus disease of salmonids with epizootics recorded in both wild and hatchery populations (Williams and Amend 1976; Carlisle et al 1979; Groberg and Fryer 1983; Saft and Pratt 1986; Traxler 1987; Follett et al 1987; Meyers et al 1988). While originally enzootic in western North America, the virus appears to be spreading further (Sano et al 1977; de Kinkelin et al 1987; Bovo et al 1987). In hatchery outbreaks occurring in regions where the virus is not enzootic, it is often possible to trace the virus to the importation of infected fingerlings or contaminated eggs. In regions where the virus is widespread among stocks of fish, the source of virus infection is more difficult to establish particularly in watersheds where there are anadromous salmonids. Although salmonid fish surviving infection as fry and returning from the ocean to spawn are considered to be parental carriers of IHNV, there is very little data to support this hypothesis. Amend (1975) in the study of rainbow trout reported that in a population surviving infection and assayed a few years later found that a few trout were carrying virus. This is the study often cited as evidence for the carrier status of returning salmonids. LaPatra et al (1987) presented data that indicated IHNV has been transmitted horizontally through water from adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to adult coho salmon (O. kisutch) at a hatchery in northern California. They suggested that horizontal transmission may be an important means for perpetuating IHN. However, the actual mechanisms for persistence and transmission of IHN among fish in a watershed is likely to be complex and involve multiple species and age groups as well as intermediate vectors and/or reservoirs.

  7. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramis , Antonio; van Amerongen , Geert; van de Bildt , Marco; Leijten , Loneke; Vanderstichel , Raphael; Osterhaus , Albert; Kuiken , Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Historically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental HPAIV H5N1 infection of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) to determine their susceptibility to infection and disease from this virus, pattern of viral shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes a...

  8. Therapy of the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats with injectable ivermectin or levamizole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Campos

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available For the therapy of human strongyloidiasis, are necessary effective drugs to eliminate both larvae and adult worm parasitism, which may also be used by parenteral route, to obviate the particular conditions presented by many patients. A study based on the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats was done, administering injectable ivermectin or levamizole. Both drugs were shown to be active, when used in single doses of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg of ivermectin, or 26 mg/kg for levamizole. Ivermectin was slightly more effective as far as larval stage of the infection is concerned, and the same happened for levamisole for the adult worm stage. Promising perspectives are visualized to improve the therapy of patients with serious disseminated infection by Strongyloides stercoralis.

  9. Coronative antibody tires in sera of healthy adults and experimentally infected volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradburne, A F; Somerset, B A

    1972-06-01

    Six coronaviruses isolated in the U.S.A. have been inoculated into volunteers and all produced colds. Between 10 and 20% of infected volunteers developed heterologous antibody responses after these and other experimental infections with coronaviruses. The haemagglutination-inhibition test with the OC43 virus strain was found to detect antibody rises after infection with a variety of strains.Studies on normal adult sera taken between 1965 and 1970 revealed a high frequency of neutralizing antibody to one strain (229 E) and a frequency of HI antibody to strain OC43 which fluctuated from year to year. Complement-fixing antibodies to these two viruses were also found, revealing an apparent increase in the activity of coronaviruses in the general population of the U.K., during the winter of 1968-9.

  10. Nutritional Status Driving Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi: Lessons from Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the scientific knowledge about protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition in the context of Chagas disease, especially in experimental models. The search of articles was conducted using the electronic databases of SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online, PubMed and MEDLINE published between 1960 and March 2010. It was possible to verify that nutritional deficiencies (protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient malnutrition exert a direct effect on the infection by T. cruzi. However, little is known about the immunological mechanisms involved in the relationship “nutritional deficiencies and infection by T. cruzi”. A hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease many aspects of this illness still require clarification, including the effects of nutritional deficiencies on immune and pathological mechanisms of T. cruzi infection.

  11. Excretion of [3H]prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    The excretion rate of [3H]prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of [3H]prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and [3H]prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of [3H]prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of [3H]prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows

  12. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  13. Anatomopathological study in BALB/c mice brains experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important diseases of the nervous central system, leading to severe symptoms and, many times, irreversible sequelae. This work demonstrated the main anatomopathological lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii in brains from experimentally infected BALB/c mice. We analyzed 51 cases of mice that developed toxoplasmosis after experimental infection by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood, amniotic liquid and cerebrospinal fluid from fetuses, newly born children and pregnant women with clinical and laboratory signals of toxoplasmosis. In all experiments where we detected the parasite in mice we also detected pathological lesions in the animal brains with great polymorphism between experiments. Edema was the most found lesion in all cases. Besides, it was possible to demonstrate the inflammatory process in 82.4% of cases and necrosis in 64.7% of cases, in agreement with the literature that describes severe neurological damage in its hosts.

  14. Pathogenesis of reproductive failure induced by Trypanosoma vivax in experimentally infected pregnant ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in different stages of pregnancy, determining the pathogenesis of reproductive failure, and confirming transplacental transmission. We used 12 pregnant ewes distributed into four experimental groups: G1, was formed by three ewes infected with T. vivax in the first third of pregnancy (30 days); G2 comprised three infected ewes in the final third of pregnancy (100 days); G3 and G4 were composed of three non-infected ewes with the same gestational period, respectively. Each ewe of G1 and G2 was inoculated with 1.25 × 105 tripomastigotes. Clinical examination, determination of parasitemia, serum biochemistry (albumin, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and urea), packed cell volume (PCV), serum progesterone, and pathological examination were performed. Placenta, amniotic fluid, blood and tissues from the fetuses and stillbirths were submitted to PCR. Two ewes of G1 (Ewe 1 and 3) presented severe infection and died in the 34th and 35th days post-infection (dpi), respectively; but both fetuses were recovered during necropsy. In G2, Ewe 5 aborted two fetuses on the 130th day (30 dpi) of pregnancy; and Ewe 6 aborted one fetus in the 140th day (40 dpi) of gestation. Ewes 2 and 4 delivered two weak lambs that died five days after birth. Factors possibly involved with the reproductive failure included high parasitemia, fever, low PCV, body score, serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and progesterone. Hepatitis, pericarditis, and encephalitis were observed in the aborted fetuses. The presence of T. vivax DNA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, blood, and tissues from the fetuses confirms the transplacental transmission of the parasite. Histological lesion in the fetuses and placenta also suggest the involvement of the parasite in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive failure in ewes. PMID:23289625

  15. Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Gaze

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal cytokine response of healthy humans to parasitic helminths has never been reported. We investigated the systemic and mucosal cytokine responses to hookworm infection in experimentally infected, previously hookworm naive individuals from non-endemic areas. We collected both peripheral blood and duodenal biopsies to assess the systemic immune response, as well as the response at the site of adult worm establishment. Our results show that experimental hookworm infection leads to a strong systemic and mucosal Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β response, with some evidence of a Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2 response. Despite upregulation after patency of both IL-15 and ALDH1A2, a known Th17-inducing combination in inflammatory diseases, we saw no evidence of a Th17 (IL-17 response. Moreover, we observed strong suppression of mucosal IL-23 and upregulation of IL-22 during established hookworm infection, suggesting a potential mechanism by which Th17 responses are suppressed, and highlighting the potential that hookworms and their secreted proteins offer as therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases.

  16. Efficacy of albendazole against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimentally infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Sónia M S; Neves, Luis; Pondja, Alberto; Macuamule, Cristiano; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Arboix, Margarita; Cristòfol, Carles; Capece, Bettencourt P S

    2014-12-15

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three therapeutics regimes of albendazole (ABZ) against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimental infected goats. Forty-nine goats experimentally infected with 3000 T. multiceps eggs were selected and randomly divided into treatment or control groups. Treatment with 10mg/kg for 3 days for group 1 (G1), 10mg/kg for group 2 (G2) and 20mg/kg/day for group 3 (G3) was applied 2 months after infection; group 4 (G4) served as a control group. A treatment with doses of 10mg/kg/day for 3 days on group 5 (G5) and group 6 (G6) was used as control, 5 months after the infection. The efficacy of ABZ was assessed as percentage of non-viable cysts which were determined by morphologic characteristics, movement and methyl blue staining technique. The efficacy of ABZ against 2 months old cysts was significantly different from the control and were 90.3% (28/31), 72.7% (8/11) and 73.9% (14/19) for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. No differences were observed in cyst viability between treated and control groups for 5-month old cysts. The results in this study indicate that ABZ is effective in goats against 2-month-old cysts of T. multiceps larva located in tissues outside the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  18. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass

    OpenAIRE

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Mª Ángeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed ...

  19. Global stability of an SIR model with differential infectivity on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xinpeng; Wang, Fang; Xue, Yakui; Liu, Maoxing

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, an SIR model with birth and death on complex networks is analyzed, where infected individuals are divided into m groups according to their infection and contact between human is treated as a scale-free social network. We obtain the basic reproduction number R0 as well as the effects of various immunization schemes. The results indicate that the disease-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable in some conditions, otherwise disease-free equilibrium is unstable and exists an unique endemic equilibrium that is globally asymptotically stable. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations and a promising way for infectious diseases control is suggested.

  20. The promise of bacteriophage therapy for Burkholderia cepacia complex respiratory infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dawn Semler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, increased attention has been given to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, especially in scenarios where the bacterial infectious agent of interest is highly antibiotic resistant. In this regard, phage therapy is especially applicable to infections caused by the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC since members of the BCC are antibiotic pan-resistant. Current studies in BCC phage therapy are unique from many other avenues of phage therapy research in that the research is not only comprised of phage isolation, in vitro phage characterization and in vivo infection model efficacy, but also adapting aerosol drug delivery techniques to aerosol phage formulation delivery and storage.

  1. Clinical study of pulmonary infection caused by mycobacterium avium complex. Evaluation of radiographic features on the primary pulmonary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yasuko; Harada, Susumu; Kitahara, Yoshinari; Kajiki, Akira; Maruyama, Masao; Takamoto, Masahiro; Ishibashi, Tsuneo

    1996-01-01

    During the 13 year period of 1982 to 1994 we had 103 patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections. All met the criteria of atypical mycobacteriosis (Japanese Mycobacteriosis Research Group of the National Chest Hospitals). Of 103 patients 70 had no underlying pulmonary diseases and classified as primary type. Radiographic features of chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) of primary infection were evaluated. Results obtained were as follows: Primary infection of MAC was classified into two types. One was localized type. This type was further classified into three patterns; tuberculosis-like pattern, pneumonia pattern in the lingual and/or middle lobe and pneumonia pattern in other lobes. Another one was diffuse type. Tuberculosis-like pattern was most common in males. On the other hand, the pneumonia pattern and the diffuse type were most common in females. Four characteristic features were seen as follows (Type 1-4) in the chest CT examination of diffuse pattern. Type 1: Nodules near the pleura. Type 2: Nodules with subpleural thickening. Type 3: Bronchial wall thickening and ectatic change of the draining bronchi. Type 4: Cystic bronchiectatic change associated with atelectasis of the segment or the lobe. Bronchiectatic changes became severe and widespreaded in all lung fields as the disease progressed slowly. These findings were more prevalent in the lingual and/or middle lobe than the other lobes. (author)

  2. Dental Infection and Pregnancy: the Lack of Treatment by the Dental Professional Evolving to a Complex Maxillofacial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rodrigo Dos Santos; Gomes-Ferreira, Pedro Henrique Silva; Bonardi, João Paulo; Silva, Jonathan Ribeiro da; Latini, Gustavo Lima; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Infections of the maxillofacial complex caused by caries disease are common in dental practice. The professionals have to have technical knowledge to treat it at the onset of the condition and avoid the spread to deep anatomical spaces of face and neck, which can implicate in a risk of patients' life.In Brazil, current dental professionals usually denied oral surgical treatments in patients with some clinical conditions, not because of fear to resolve it but for lack of knowledge to treat it. An example of these conditionals is pregnancy. It is well known that during the pregnancy period, the patient can be treated in the correct period of gestation. Early diagnosis is crucial for effective therapy in serious infections. The treatment has to be crucial during pregnancy because of the potentially fatal situation that the disease can create to the pregnant woman and the fetus.The aim of this article is to demonstrate a case of dental caries in a pregnant patient, which was evaluated by other professionals and had the treatment denied, evolving to a serious maxillofacial infection.

  3. Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor): evidence for natural infection with sarcocysts, transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and experimental induction of neurologic disease in raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Stanek, J F; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Oglesbee, M J; Rosypal, A C; Njoku, C J; Stich, R W; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Hamir, A N; Reed, S M

    2001-10-24

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses in the Americas and Sarcocystis neurona is the most common etiologic agent. The distribution of S. neurona infections follows the geographical distributions of its definitive hosts, opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Didelphis albiventris). Recently, cats and skunks were reported as experimental and armadillos as natural intermediate hosts of S. neurona. In the present report, raccoons (Procyon lotor) were identified as a natural intermediate host of S. neurona. Two laboratory-raised opossums were found to shed S. neurona-like sporocysts after ingesting tongues of naturally-infected raccoons. Interferon-gamma gene knockout (KO) mice fed raccoon-opossum-derived sporocysts developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was identified immunohistochemically in tissues of KO mice fed sporocysts and the parasite was isolated in cell cultures inoculated with infected KO mouse tissues. The DNA obtained from the tongue of a naturally-infected raccoon, brains of KO mice that had neurological signs, and from the organisms recovered in cell cultures inoculated with brains of neurologic KO mice, corresponded to that of S. neurona. Two raccoons fed mature S. neurona sarcocysts did not shed sporocysts in their feces, indicating raccoons are not likely to be its definitive host. Two raccoons fed sporocysts from opossum feces developed clinical illness and S. neurona-associated encephalomyelitis was found in raccoons killed 14 and 22 days after feeding sporocysts; schizonts and merozoites were seen in encephalitic lesions.

  4. Different Types of nsP3-Containing Protein Complexes in Sindbis Virus-Infected Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions. PMID:18684830

  5. Different types of nsP3-containing protein complexes in Sindbis virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-10-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions.

  6. Adenovirus type 5 DNA-protein complexes from formaldehyde cross-linked cells early after infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, David J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Baird, Nicholas L.; Engel, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    We report here the properties of viral DNA-protein complexes that purify with cellular chromatin following formaldehyde cross-linking of intact cells early after infection. The cross-linked viral DNA fractionated into shear-sensitive (S) and shear- resistant (R) components that were separable by sedimentation, which allowed independent characterization. The R component had the density and sedimentation properties expected for DNA-protein complexes and contained intact viral DNA. It accounted for about 50% of the viral DNA recovered at 1.5 h after infection but less than 20% by 4.5 h. The proportion of R component was independent of multiplicity of infection, even at less than one particle per cell. Viral hexon and protein VII, but not protein VI, were detected in the fractions containing the R component. These properties are consistent with those of partially uncoated virions associated with the nuclear envelope. A substantial proportion of the S component viral DNA had the same density as cellular chromatin. Protein VII was the most abundant viral protein present in gradient fractions that contained the S component. Complexes containing USF transcription factor cross-linked to the adenovirus major late promoter were detected by viral chromatin immunoprecipitation of the fractions containing S component. The S component probably contained uncoated nuclear viral DNA that assembles into early viral transcription complexes

  7. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections

  8. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with 'Hobi'-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Moreno, Ana; Armenise, Carlo; Losurdo, Michele; Camero, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-03-23

    To date, limited information is available on the ability of 'Hobi'-like pestiviruses (putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3) to infect and cause disease in animal species traditionally affected by pestiviruses. In order to obtain new insights into host range and pathogenic potential of this atypical pestivirus, BVDV-seronegative calves (n=5), lambs (n=5) and piglets (n=5) were experimentally infected with the European 'Hobi'-like strain Italy-1/10-1, whereas two animals per species served as uninfected controls. Appearance of clinical signs, leukopenia, viremia, viral shedding and seroconversion were monitored for 28 days post-infection. Calves and lambs were successfully infected, displaying respiratory signs (nasal discharge), moderate hyperthermia and leukopenia, viremia and viral shedding through the nasal and faecal routes. Antibody responses were observed in both animal species by ELISA and virus neutralisation assays. In contrast, inoculated piglets did not display any clinical signs nor leukopenia and viral RNA was not detected in any biological samples. Nevertheless, the presence of detectable antibodies by virus neutralisation accounted for a successful, albeit limited infection of these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M.; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E.; Vandeberg, John L.; Champagne, Donald E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa–e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n = 3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7–14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21–84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  10. Plasma thromboxane B2 levels in horses experimentally infected with Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, H; Reynoldson, J A; Dunsmore, J D

    1989-06-01

    Plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2) the stable inactive metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), was measured daily by specific radioimmunoassay in three groups of animals before and after experimental infection with Strongylus vulgaris. Infection of four 'parasite naive' foals produced a typical acute syndrome with intermittent but statistically insignificant rises in TXB2 levels. Interpretation of results was complicated by the presence of a non-septic peritonitis associated with implantation of the foals with electrodes for recording myoelectrical activity. In two foals of similar age, with some natural exposure to S. vulgaris, there was little or no clinical response to infection and increases in TXB2 were absent. Baseline levels were also much lower, indicating that the peritonitis may have affected the results obtained in the first group of foals. Severe mesenteric arteritis was confirmed at necropsy in all six foals. A third group of yearling horses, all with natural exposure to the parasite, were generally resistant to infection. One animal developed arteritis with clinical signs of diarrhoea and mild colic, and also showed intermittent increases in TXB2. The mean plasma TXB2 level after infection was significantly higher than in the control period, although absolute levels were lower than those recorded in the 'parasite naive' foals. Other animals in this group had low TXB2 levels and minimal arteritis was found at necropsy. These results indicate that although infection appears to have an effect on plasma TXB2, the changes are inconsistent and not reliable indicators of the presence of verminous arteritis. The results also confirm the difficulty in establishing infection and the variability of the response in animals with previous exposure.

  11. Understanding Experimental LCMV Infection of Mice: The Role of Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Bocharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections represent complex biological systems governed by multiple-level regulatory processes of virus replication and host immune responses. Understanding of the infection means an ability to predict the systems behaviour under various conditions. Such predictions can only rely upon quantitative mathematical models. The model formulations should be tightly linked to a fundamental step called “coordinatization” (Hermann Weyl, that is, the definition of observables, parameters, and structures that enable the link with a biological phenotype. In this review, we analyse the mathematical modelling approaches to LCMV infection in mice that resulted in quantification of some fundamental parameters of the CTL-mediated virus control including the rates of T cell turnover, infected target cell elimination, and precursor frequencies. We show how the modelling approaches can be implemented to address diverse aspects of immune system functioning under normal conditions and in response to LCMV and, importantly, make quantitative predictions of the outcomes of immune system perturbations. This may highlight the notion that data-driven applications of meaningful mathematical models in infection biology remain a challenge.

  12. Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We design silicon membranes with nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells that maximize broadband absorption. We fabricate the optimized design and measure the optical absorption. We demonstrate an experimental broadband absorption about 3.5 times higher than an equally-thick thin film.

  13. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yabin; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Mei; Shen, Xinyue; Li, Jianmei; Yu, Shengqing; Zou, Jianmin; Ding, Chan

    2014-07-17

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND. The

  14. Testing the effect of habitat structure and complexity on nekton assemblages using experimental oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Austin T.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Kimball, Matthew E.; Rozas, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Structurally complex habitats are often associated with more diverse and abundant species assemblages in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogenic reefs formed by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are complex in nature and are recognized for their potential habitat value in estuarine systems along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Few studies, however, have examined the response of nekton to structural complexity within oyster reefs. We used a quantitative sampling technique to examine how the presence and complexity of experimental oyster reefs influence the abundance, biomass, and distribution of nekton by sampling reefs 4 months and 16 months post-construction. Experimental oyster reefs were colonized immediately by resident fishes and decapod crustaceans, and reefs supported a distinct nekton assemblage compared to mud-bottom habitat. Neither increased reef complexity, nor age of the experimental reef resulted in further changes in nekton assemblages or increases in nekton abundance or diversity. The presence of oyster reefs per se was the most important factor determining nekton usage.

  15. Experimental identification of nitrogen-vacancy complexes in nitrogen implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Lahir Shaik; Law, Mark E.; Szpala, Stanislaw; Simpson, P. J.; Lawther, Derek; Dokumaci, Omer; Hegde, Suri

    2001-07-01

    Nitrogen implantation is commonly used in multigate oxide thickness processing for mixed signal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor and System on a Chip technologies. Current experiments and diffusion models indicate that upon annealing, implanted nitrogen diffuses towards the surface. The mechanism proposed for nitrogen diffusion is the formation of nitrogen-vacancy complexes in silicon, as indicated by ab initio studies by J. S. Nelson, P. A. Schultz, and A. F. Wright [Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 247 (1998)]. However, to date, there does not exist any experimental evidence of nitrogen-vacancy formation in silicon. This letter provides experimental evidence through positron annihilation spectroscopy that nitrogen-vacancy complexes indeed form in nitrogen implanted silicon, and compares the experimental results to the ab initio studies, providing qualitative support for the same.

  16. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium wa...... are typically found during the chronic stage of the disease....... and experimentally infected fry showed that there was a localization of bacteria in the monocyte-macrophage system, in skin lesions, and in the retina and the choroid gland of the eye. The dermal changes included superficial or deep ulcers extending to the subcutaneous tissue or the musculature accompanied...... by inflammatory cell infiltrates in which polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells were shown to contain the bacterium in the cytoplasm by immunostaining. The eye changes were likewise a common finding in chronic cases with severe inflammatory changes in the retina and with numerous bacteria in inflammatory (mainly...

  17. Experimentation on accuracy of non functional requirement prioritization approaches for different complexity projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Chopra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non functional requirements must be selected for implementation together with functional requirements to enhance the success of software projects. Three approaches exist for performing the prioritization of non functional requirements using the suitable prioritization technique. This paper performs experimentation on three different complexity versions of the industrial software project using cost-value prioritization technique employing three approaches. Experimentation is conducted to analyze the accuracy of individual approaches and the variation of accuracy with the complexity of the software project. The results indicate that selecting non functional requirements separately, but in accordance with functionality has higher accuracy amongst the other two approaches. Further, likewise other approaches, it witnesses the decrease in accuracy with increase in software complexity but the decrease is minimal.

  18. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104  E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  19. First study about the development of adult Echinococcus canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Debiaggi, María Florencia; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Pianciola, Luis Alfredo; Bergagna, Héctor Fabián Jesús; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Mazzeo, Melina Leonor; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2016-09-15

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus sl) must be considered as a species complex, comprising Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus ss, genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus canadensis (G6-G10) although the species status of E. canadensis is still controversial. These genotypes closely match the intermediate hosts associated strains described in earlier times among which E. canadensis G6 corresponds to the camel strain. As there are no studies concerning the development of adult stages of the G6 genotype from non-camel origin, the aims of the present study were: to characterize for the first time the development of E. canadensis G6 in dogs experimentally infected with protoscoleces derived from goats, to describe the resultant adult morphology, to evaluate the growth of their rostellar hooks from larval to adult stages and to determine the prepatent period of the strobilar stage of E. canadensis G6 derived from goats. The development of the strobilar stage of E. canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin was examined by studying the growth (variation of the total worm length) and segmentation in experimentally infected dogs at 14, 25, 35 and 56days post infection. A morphological characterization of 35-day-old worms as well as of larval and adult rostellar hooks was also carried out by conventional optical microscopic observations and/or by scanning electron microscopy. The prepatent period of the strobilar stage was assessed by microscopic examination of faeces from 2 infected dogs. Our results were compared with published data from the camel and other strains. The roles of the host, genotype and species in morphological and developmental features as well as the taxonomic position of E. canadensis G6 were discussed. The prepatent period of E. canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin was determined as at least, 41days. The obtained results contribute to increase the knowledge about the biology

  20. Molecular diagnosis of Eimeria stiedae in hepatic tissue of experimentally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Khaled M; Arafa, Waleed M; Mousa, Waheed M; Shokier, Khaled A M; Shany, Salama A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2016-10-01

    The early detection of Eimeria stiedae in the hepatic tissue of experimentally infected rabbits was investigated using molecular assay. Forty 6-week-old male New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups. Group A (30 animals) was infected with 2.5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. stiedae per animal on Day 0 and Group B (10 animals) was used as the uninfected controls. Three animals from Group A and one from Group B were sacrificed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 and 27 days post infection (PI). Gross and microscopic post-mortem findings were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the E. stiedae internal transcribed spacer 1 genomic region was conducted on blood, liver tissue, and feces from the Group A experimentally infected animals. Macroscopically, the liver showed irregular yellowish white nodules pathognomonic to E. stiedae infection beginning on Day 15 PI. Hepatomegaly and ascites were obvious from Day 21-24 PI. The presence of different E. stiedae schizonts and gametocytes in the histopathological sections of the biliary epithelium were evident on Day 15 PI. The E. stiedae PCR was first positive in liver tissues on Day 12 and in fecal samples on Day 18 PI, but the blood samples were negative. In conclusion, the PCR can be used for early diagnosis and control of E. stiedae schizonts before shedding of the oocysts in feces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental cross-species infection of common marmosets by titi monkey adenovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Yu

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV, as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii: infection natural congenital in cattle and an experimental inoculation of gestating cows with oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo Henrique Nogueira; da Costa, Alvimar José; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Esper, César Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista

    2011-01-01

    Two studies, of a natural infection and an experimental infection, were performed in order to study congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in cattle. In the first study, 50 fetuses were harvested from gestating cows that were eutanasied at a municipal slaughterhouse in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the second study, 11 gestating cows were divided into four groups for inoculation with T. gondii: GI consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their first trimester of gestation; GII consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their second trimester of gestation; GIII consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their last trimester of gestation; and GIV consisted of two control cows, one during its first and the other during its second trimester of gestation. In both studies, the presence of T. gondii was confirmed both indirectly by immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). In the natural infection experiment, 18% (9/50) of the gestating cows were confirmed to have specific antibodies (IFAT--1:64) against T. gondii. The bioassay was able to diagnose the presence of T. gondii in the tissue samples from three calves. In the second experiment, the nine cows from groups I, II and III presented with specific antibodies (IFAT) against T. gondii. In contrast, T. gondii could not be detected by IFAT, histopathological examination or the bioassay in any of the nine calves born to cows experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts. Based on the results from both studies, we conclude that congenital infection of T. gondii in cattle, while infrequent, does occur naturally. The pathogenicity of the strain of T. gondii may influence the likelihood of this route of transmission. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maggot therapy in treatment of a complex hand injury complicated by mycotic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohac, M; Cambal, M; Zamborsky, R; Takac, P; Fedeles, J

    2015-01-01

    Complex injuries of the hand remain a therapeutic challenge for surgeons. We present the case of a male who suffered a devastating injury of the hand caused by a conveyor belt. The patient developed a progressive Absidia corymbifera infection of the affected soft tissues. Initial treatments with serial surgical debridement and topical and intravenous itraconazole were unsuccessful in eliminating the infection. We decided to use maggot debridement therapy in a new special design to debride all necrotic, devitalized tissue and preserve only healthy tissue and functioning structures. This maneuverer followed by negative pressure therapy allowed progressive healing. In such complex hand injuries, maggot debridement combined with negative pressure therapy could be considered to achieve effective and considerable results, although future functional morbidity may occur (Fig. 4, Ref. 18).

  4. THE ROLE OF PHYTOMEDICATIONS IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF URINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mamaeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of urinal infections (UI in children, high rate of relapse and increase of antibiotic resistance force specialists to search a new complex methods of anti relapse therapy. Analysis of 380 medical cards of children showed that phytotherapy is not always used correctly; in spite of it can be important part of anti relapse therapy. The activity of different schemes of treatment of UI with phytomedicament «canephron n» included in it was studied in 110 children (aged from 5 month to 15 years. Children treated with complex therapy with antibiotics and phytomedication had no relapse in 99% of cases in 6 months and in 91% in 1 year follow up.Key words: children, urinal infections, phytotherapy.

  5. Treatment with Makmiror-Complex for post-radiation infections volvo-vaginitis in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovtsova, T. M.; Krylov, S.V.; Udovichenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of applying the Makmiror-Complex preparation for treating post-radiation and post-chemiotherapeutical infections volvo-vaginitis in cancer patients is considered. The multicenter clinical studies of the preparation were conducted by treatment of cervicovaginitis and volvo-vaginitis of mixed etiology, caused by the simplest fungus and various types of bacterial flora. The efficiency of the preparation is as follow: 88% of complete recovery; 9% of improvements and only in 3% of cases with no change

  6. Experimental control versus realism: methodological solutions for simulator studies in complex operating environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.

    2004-03-15

    This report is a reprint of a dr.philos. thesis written by Gyrd Skraaning Jr. The text was submitted and accepted by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in 2003 (ISBN 82-471-5237-1). The thesis suggests a nonlinear model of the theoretical relationship between experimental control and realism, claiming that high degrees of realism and experimental control can be obtained simultaneously if the experimental methods are utilized strategically and developed further. This is in opposition to the conventional opinion that realism and experimental control are mutually excluding objectives. The thesis debates the impact of the operating task on human performance during simulator studies in HAMMLAB, and suggests how task variation can be experimentally controlled. In a within subject design, every subject is tested under all experimental conditions, and the presentation order of the conditions is counterbalanced to compensate for order effects. In realistic settings, it is essential that the experimental design imposes few artificial constrains on the research environment. At the same time, the design should be able to uncover experimental effects in situations where the number of participants is low. Within-subject design represents a reasonable compromise between these aspirations. In this respect, an alternative counterbalancing method is proposed (dis-ORDER). A theoretical analysis of the human performance concept and a discussion about performance measurement in complex operating environments, are followed by a debate on the shortcomings of traditional performance indicators. Two specialized operator performance assessment techniques are then presented and evaluated (OPAS and ORT). (Author)

  7. Experimental control versus realism: methodological solutions for simulator studies in complex operating environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.

    2004-03-01

    This report is a reprint of a dr.philos. thesis written by Gyrd Skraaning Jr. The text was submitted and accepted by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in 2003 (ISBN 82-471-5237-1). The thesis suggests a nonlinear model of the theoretical relationship between experimental control and realism, claiming that high degrees of realism and experimental control can be obtained simultaneously if the experimental methods are utilized strategically and developed further. This is in opposition to the conventional opinion that realism and experimental control are mutually excluding objectives. The thesis debates the impact of the operating task on human performance during simulator studies in HAMMLAB, and suggests how task variation can be experimentally controlled. In a within subject design, every subject is tested under all experimental conditions, and the presentation order of the conditions is counterbalanced to compensate for order effects. In realistic settings, it is essential that the experimental design imposes few artificial constrains on the research environment. At the same time, the design should be able to uncover experimental effects in situations where the number of participants is low. Within-subject design represents a reasonable compromise between these aspirations. In this respect, an alternative counterbalancing method is proposed (dis-ORDER). A theoretical analysis of the human performance concept and a discussion about performance measurement in complex operating environments, are followed by a debate on the shortcomings of traditional performance indicators. Two specialized operator performance assessment techniques are then presented and evaluated (OPAS and ORT). (Author)

  8. Detection and quantification of pestivirus in experimentally infected pregnant ewes and their progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juste Ramón A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Border disease virus (BDV causes important reproductive losses, and eradication strategies focus on the identification and removal of persistently infected animals arising after in uterine infection. BDV infection dynamics were studied in 13 ewes experimentally infected with BDV-4 genotype at 3 phases of pregnancy [days 108 (group A, 76 (group B and 55 (group C] by quantification of viral RNA in blood collected on days -1 to parturition using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Viral RNA loads were also measured in blood/foetal fluid and tissue samples from their offspring at lambing (3 foetuses, 7 stillborns, 15 lambs. qRT-PCR results were compared with those obtained by conventional RT-PCR and used to predict persistent infections. Results Viral RNA was detected in the ewes between days 2-15 p.i. The viraemia reached its highest peak between days 6-7 p.i. with a second peak at days 11-12 p.i. qRT-PCR was significantly faster to perform (less than 1 h than conventional RT-PCR and detected BDV RNA in more ewes, being detection more continuous and prolonged in time. The virus was detected in peripheral blood in a higher percentage of lambs than in tissues, where differences in viral genome copies were more marked. Skin and cerebral cortex showed the highest viral RNA loads, and spleen and spinal cord the lowest. High viral RNA loads were observed in several animals in group B and all in group C, infected during middle and early foetal development, respectively, but also in one lamb from group A, infected during late foetal development. Serology and viral genome copy number estimates in blood and tissues were used to establish a quantitative cut-off threshold for transient viraemia. Conclusion Viral RNA quantification showed potential for the discrimination between persistent infections and transient viraemia using single-time point blood sampling and raised questions regarding foetal immune system development and the

  9. Protective immune responses during prepatency in goat kids experimentally infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Rodríguez, F; Perez, D; Lopez, A; Ferrer, O; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A; Ruiz, A

    2017-08-15

    group compared to the challenged control animals. Furthermore, in the challenged E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected animals a significantly higher number of mucosal CD4 + and CD8 + lymphocytes were observed, indicating that these T cell subpopulations might be involved in protective host immune response elicited against early stages of parasite development. The immune response was however very complex, as antigen presenting cells and other effector cell populations of the innate immune system, as well as certain cytokines, were involved. In summary, the results of this study contribute to the better understanding of local cellular and humoral immune responses against caprine E. ninakohlyakimovae, particularly during the prepatency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Humoral immunity through immunoglobulin M protects mice from an experimental actinomycetoma infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-10-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium.

  11. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  12. Experimental models of acute infection and Toll-like receptor driven septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Ruth; Spiller, Stephan; Fichte, Sylvia; Dreher, Stefan; Kirschning, Carsten J

    2009-01-01

    Mainly Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections, but also other infections such as with fungal or viral pathogens, can cause the life-threatening clinical condition of septic shock. Transgression of the host immune response from a local level limited to the pathogen's place of entry to the systemic level is recognised as a major mode of action leading to sepsis. This view has been established upon demonstration of the capacity of specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to elicit symptoms of septic shock upon systemic administration. Immune stimulatory PAMPs are agonists of soluble, cytoplasmic, as well as/or cell membrane-anchored and/or -spanning pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, reflection of pathogen-host crosstalk triggering sepsis pathogenesis upon an infection by a host response to challenge with an isolated PAMP is incomplete. Therefore, an experimental model more reflective of pathogen-host interaction requires experimental host confrontation with a specific pathogen in its viable form resulting in a collective stimulation of a variety of specific PRRs. This chapter describes methods to analyse innate pathogen sensing by the host on both a cellular and systemic level.

  13. Fasciola hepatica: comparative metacercarial productions in experimentally-infected Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignoles Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As large numbers of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica are necessary for research, experimental infections of Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella with this digenean were carried out to determine the better intermediate host for metacercarial production and, consequently, the most profitable snail for decreasing the cost price of these larvae. Pre-adult snails (4 mm in shell height originating from two populations per lymnaeid species were individually exposed to two or five miracidia, raised at 23 °C and followed for cercarial shedding up to their death. Compared to values noted in G. truncatula, the survival of P. columella on day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater, while the prevalence of F. hepatica infection was significantly lower. In the four P. columella groups, metacercarial production was significantly greater than that noted in the four groups of G. truncatula (347–453 per cercariae-shedding snail versus 163–275, respectively. Apart from one population of G. truncatula, the use of five miracidia per snail at exposure significantly increased the prevalence of F. hepatica in P. columella and the other population of G. truncatula, whereas it did not have any clear effect on the mean number of metacercariae. The use of P. columella for experimental infections with F. hepatica resulted in significantly higher metacercarial production than that noted with G. truncatula, in spite of a lower prevalence for the former lymnaeid. This finding allows for a significant decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production.

  14. Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Bouchard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200 for antibodies to T. gondii. At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of T. gondii was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for T. gondii, and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of T. gondii in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to T

  15. Mitochondrial complex III defects contribute to inefficient respiration and ATP synthesis in the myocardium of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a thorough analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function as well as the biochemical and molecular factors that are deregulated and contribute to compromised adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in the myocardium during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We show that ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration and ATP synthesis supported by pyruvate/malate (provides electrons to complex I) and succinate (provides electrons to complex II) substrates were significantly decreased in left ventricular tissue and isolated cardiac mitochondria of infected mice. The decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected murine hearts was not a result of uncoupling between the electron-transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation and decreased availability of the intermediary metabolites (e.g., NADH). The observed decline in the activities of complex-I, -IV, and -V was not physiologically relevant and did not contribute to compromised respiration and ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. Instead, complex III activity was decreased above the threshold level and contributed to respiratory-chain inefficiency and the resulting decline in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. The loss in complex III activity occurred as a consequence of cytochrome b depletion. Treatment of infected mice with phenyl-alpha-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN, antioxidant) was beneficial in preserving the mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b expression, and subsequently resulted in improved complex III activity, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production in infected myocardium. Overall, we provide novel data on the mechanism(s) involved in cardiac bioenergetic inefficiency during T. cruzi infection.

  16. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A. Avila-Villa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo.

  17. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Villa, Luz A.; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo. PMID:22645497

  18. Respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius) experimentally infected with ball python nidovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Layton, Marylee L; Ossiboff, Robert J; Parker, John S L; Dubovi, Edward J; Stenglein, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation. Clinical signs included oral mucosal reddening, abundant mucus secretions, open-mouthed breathing, and anorexia. Histologic lesions included chronic-active mucinous rhinitis, stomatitis, tracheitis, esophagitis and proliferative interstitial pneumonia. Control snakes remained negative and free of clinical signs throughout the experiment. Our findings establish a causal relationship between nidovirus infection and respiratory disease in ball pythons and shed light on disease progression and transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of wide spectrum anti-helminthic drugs upon Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANCERA Christiane Finardi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and thiabendazole are well known as active drugs against several nematode species, and against cestodes as well, when the first two drugs are considered. None of the drugs have proven activity, however, against trematodes. We tested the effect of these drugs on the fecal shedding of schistosome eggs and the recovering of adult schistosomes, after portal perfusion in Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice. Balb/c mice infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae were divided into three groups, each in turn subdivided into four other groups, for each tested drug. The first group was treated with each one of the studied drugs 25 days after S. mansoni infection; the second group was submitted to treatment with each one of the drugs 60 days after infection. Finally, the third group, considered as control, received no treatment. No effect upon fecal shedding of S. mansoni eggs and recovering of schistosomes after portal perfusion was observed when mice were treated with either mebendazole or albendazole. Mice treated with either levamisole or thiabendazole, on the other hand, showed a significant reduction in the recovering of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion, mainly when both drugs were given during the schistosomula evolution period, i.e., 25 days after cercariae penetration, probably due to unspecific immunomodulation

  20. Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Larissa; Freuling, Conrad; Mansfield, Karen L; Kaipf, Ingrid; Denzinger, Annette; Hicks, Dan; Núñez, Alex; Franka, Richard; Rupprecht, Charles E; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2008-11-01

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can be transmitted from Daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. EBLV-2 has been repeatedly isolated from Daubenton's bats in the UK but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. This has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its virulence, dissemination and likely means of transmission between insectivorous bats. With the exception of direct intracranial inoculation, only one of seven Daubenton's bats inoculated by subdermal inoculation became infected with EBLV-2. Both intramuscular and intranasal inoculation failed to infect the bats. No animal inoculated with EBLV-2 seroconverted during the study period. During infection, virus excretion in saliva (both viral RNA and live virus) was confirmed up to 3 days before the development of rabies. Disease was manifested as a gradual loss of weight prior to the development of paralysis and then death. The highest levels of virus were measured in the brain, with much lower levels of viral genomic RNA detected in the tongue, salivary glands, kidney, lung and heart. These observations are similar to those made in naturally infected Daubenton's bats and this is the first documented report of isolation of EBLV-2 in bat saliva. We conclude that EBLV-2 is most likely transmitted in saliva by a shallow bite.

  1. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in rats experimental infected by Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Tonin, Alexandre A; Ruchel, Jader B; Rezer, João F P; França, Raqueli T; Zimmermann, Carine E P; Leal, Daniela B R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Lopes, Sonia T A; Flores, Mariana M; Fighera, Rafael; Santurio, Janio M

    2014-11-07

    Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in rats experimentally infected by C. neoformans var. grubii. Adult rats (35) were divided in two groups: 18 for the control group (uninfected) (A), and 17 for the infected group (B). Each group was separated into three sub-groups (A1, A2, A3-B1, B2, B3), and samples were collected on 10, 20, and 30 days post-infection (PI). Leukocyte counts, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IgM, IgG levels, and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were analyzed. It was possible to observe that IgG and IgM seric levels of infected rats were significantly elevated (PADA activity had a significant reduction (PADA activity in lymphocytes increased significantly (PADA), concomitantly with an inflammatory response (increased levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins) associated with inflammatory infiltrates and histological lesions in the lung. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of actinide complexes with monoamides and organophosphorus ligands in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribokaite, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Monoamides and organophosphate are of great interest for the nuclear fuel cycle. Such ligands can selectively extract actinides in liquid-liquid extraction processes. The structure of the extractant (its functional group and its alkyl substituents) has a predominant role in the selective separation of actinides. This thesis concerns the theoretical and experimental studies of model systems in the aim of better understanding of the effect on molecular structures of the complexes. Structures of actinides complexes formed with model ligands in simple media (water or methanol in the presence of nitrate ions) have been characterized. At first, the complexation of uranyl by monoamide and phosphine oxide was studied in water and methanol. Molecular Dynamics simulations and DFT calculations were used to quantify the stability of uranyl complexes with those ligands, and to determine their structural properties. The theoretical results were then compared with experimental results obtained by UV-visible, infrared, Raman and EXAFS on the same chemical systems. The results were used to highlight the greater stability of uranyl complexes with phosphine oxide and monoamides. Further spectroscopic measurements combined with molecular modeling were used to gain a better understanding of the coordination mode of nitrate ion around the uranyl in both water and methanol. Finally, DFT calculations were used to study the influence of the structure of the monoamide or organophosphorus ligand and their interaction with the actinides (IV, VI) including steric effects in the first coordination sphere. (author) [fr

  3. Validation of Experimental whole-body SAR Assessment Method in a Complex Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamba, Aliou; Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Assessing experimentally the whole-body specific absorption rate (SARwb) in a complex indoor environment is very challenging. An experimental method based on room electromagnetics theory (accounting only the Line-Of-Sight as specular path) to assess the whole-body SAR is validated by numerical...... of the proposed method is that it allows discarding the computation burden because it does not use any discretizations. Results show good agreement between measurement and computation at 2.8 GHz, as long as the plane wave assumption is valid, i.e., for high distances from the transmitter. Relative deviations 0...

  4. Experimental realization of synchronization in complex networks with Chua's circuits like nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posadas-Castillo, C.; Cruz-Hernandez, C.; Lopez-Gutierrez, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on practical realization of synchronization in globally coupled networks with Chua's circuits like nodes is presented. Synchronization of coupled multiple Chua's circuits is achieved by appealing to results from complex systems theory. In particular, we design and implement electronically complex dynamical networks composed by three coupled Chua's circuits, considering two scenarios: (i) without master node, and (ii) with (periodic and chaotic) master node. The interactions in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each Chua's circuit.

  5. Experimental realization of synchronization in complex networks with Chua's circuits like nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadas-Castillo, C. [Engineering Faculty, Baja California Autonomous University (UABC), Km. 103, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Engineering Mechanic and Electric Faculty of Nuevo Leon Autonomous University (UANL), Pedro de Alba, S.N., Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL (Mexico); Cruz-Hernandez, C. [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Scientific Research and Advanced Studies of Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, BC (Mexico)], E-mail: ccruz@cicese.mx; Lopez-Gutierrez, R.M. [Engineering Faculty, Baja California Autonomous University (UABC), Km. 103, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, BC (Mexico)

    2009-05-30

    In this paper, an experimental study on practical realization of synchronization in globally coupled networks with Chua's circuits like nodes is presented. Synchronization of coupled multiple Chua's circuits is achieved by appealing to results from complex systems theory. In particular, we design and implement electronically complex dynamical networks composed by three coupled Chua's circuits, considering two scenarios: (i) without master node, and (ii) with (periodic and chaotic) master node. The interactions in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each Chua's circuit.

  6. Experimental infection of South American camelids with bluetongue virus serotype 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; Eschbaumer, Michael; Rudolf, Miriam; König, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Bauer, Christian; Gauly, Matthias; Grevelding, Christoph G; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2012-01-27

    Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non-contagious disease of wild and domestic ruminants. It is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Since 1998, BT has been emerging throughout Europe, threatening not only the naïve ruminant population. Historically, South American camelids (SAC) were considered to be resistant to BT disease. However, recent fatalities related to BTV in captive SAC have raised questions about their role in BTV epidemiology. Data on the susceptibility of SAC to experimental infection with BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) were collected in an animal experiment. Three alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and three llamas (Lama glama) were experimentally infected with BTV-8. They displayed very mild clinical signs. Seroconversion was first measured 6-8 days after infection (dpi) by ELISA, and neutralising antibodies appeared 10-13 dpi. BTV-8 RNA levels in blood were very low, and quickly cleared after seroconversion. However, spleens collected post-mortem were still positive for BTV RNA, over 71 days after the last detection in blood samples. Virus isolation was only possible from blood samples of two alpacas by inoculation of highly sensitive interferon alpha/beta receptor-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice. An in vitro experiment demonstrated that significantly lower amounts of BTV-8 adsorb to SAC blood cells than to bovine blood cells. Although this experiment showed that SAC are generally susceptible to a BTV-8 infection, it indicates that these species play a negligible role in BTV epidemiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The degree of microbiome complexity influences the epithelial response to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Henry V

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human microflora is known to be extremely complex, yet most pathogenesis research is conducted in mono-species models of infection. Consequently, it remains unclear whether the level of complexity of a host's indigenous flora can affect the virulence potential of pathogenic species. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the colonization by commensal species affects a host cell's response to pathogenic species beyond the direct physical saturation of surface receptors, the sequestration of nutrients, the modulation of the physico-chemical environment in the oral cavity, or the production of bacteriocins. Using oral epithelial cells as a model, we hypothesized that the virulence of pathogenic species may vary depending on the complexity of the flora that interacts with host cells. Results This is the first report that determines the global epithelial transcriptional response to co-culture with defined complex microbiota. In our model, human immortalized gingival keratinocytes (HIGK were infected with mono- and mixed cultures of commensal and pathogenic species. The global transcriptional response of infected cells was validated and confirmed phenotypically. In our model, commensal species were able to modulate the expression of host genes with a broad diversity of physiological functions and antagonize the effect of pathogenic species at the cellular level. Unexpectedly, the inhibitory effect of commensal species was not correlated with its ability to inhibit adhesion or invasion by pathogenic species. Conclusion Studying the global transcriptome of epithelial cells to single and complex microbial challenges offers clues towards a better understanding of how bacteria-bacteria interactions and bacteria-host interactions impact the overall host response. This work provides evidence that the degree of complexity of a mixed microbiota does influence the transcriptional response to infection of host epithelial cells, and

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambou, J C; Archimède, H; Arquet, R; Mahieu, M; Alexandre, G; González-Garcia, E; Mandonnet, N

    2011-06-10

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids. One trial with three replicates involved a total of 154 female kids that were chosen from three successive cohorts of the Creole flock of INRA-Gardel in 2007. The kids were placed into four treatments according to the amount of concentrate they received: G0 (no concentrate and a quality Dichantium spp. hay ad libitum, HAY), G1 (HAY+100g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G2 (HAY+200 g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G3 (HAY+300 g commercial concentrate d(-1)). The G0-G3 groups were infected with a single dose of 10,000 H. contortus third stage larvae (L(3)) at Day 0 (D0). Each infected group was comprised of one half resistant and one half susceptible genetically indexed kids. The average breeding values on egg excretion at 11 months of age were distant of 0.70, 0.65, 0.61 and 0.61 genetic standard deviations in G0, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophilia (EOSI) and dry matter intake (DMI) indices were monitored weekly until 42 days post-infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out on serum samples to determine the level of IgA anti-H. contortus L(3) crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESP). The 10,000 L(3) dose received by the kids induced a severe infection: 8000 eggs per gram at the FEC peak, a PCV less than 15% and mortality. Interestingly, the supplemented animals in G3 showed a higher level of EOSI but a lower level of IgA anti-L3 and IgA anti-ESP than non-supplemented animals (G0). Resistant and susceptible kids had significantly different FEC variations within the groups. Susceptible kids had a 1.6 times higher egg output than resistant kids in G0. This difference was not found in the supplemented groups. The results of this study showed that supplementary feeding improved resistance of Creole kids to H. contortus

  9. Evaluation of soil flushing of complex contaminated soil: An experimental and modeling simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sung Mi; Kang, Christina S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jonghwa [Department of Industrial Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han S., E-mail: hankim@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Remediation of complex contaminated soil achieved by sequential soil flushing. • Removal of Zn, Pb, and heavy petroleum oils using 0.05 M citric acid and 2% SDS. • Unified desorption distribution coefficients modeled and experimentally determined. • Nonequilibrium models for the transport behavior of complex contaminants in soils. - Abstract: The removal of heavy metals (Zn and Pb) and heavy petroleum oils (HPOs) from a soil with complex contamination was examined by soil flushing. Desorption and transport behaviors of the complex contaminants were assessed by batch and continuous flow reactor experiments and through modeling simulations. Flushing a one-dimensional flow column packed with complex contaminated soil sequentially with citric acid then a surfactant resulted in the removal of 85.6% of Zn, 62% of Pb, and 31.6% of HPO. The desorption distribution coefficients, K{sub Ubatch} and K{sub Lbatch}, converged to constant values as C{sub e} increased. An equilibrium model (ADR) and nonequilibrium models (TSNE and TRNE) were used to predict the desorption and transport of complex contaminants. The nonequilibrium models demonstrated better fits with the experimental values obtained from the column test than the equilibrium model. The ranges of K{sub Ubatch} and K{sub Lbatch} were very close to those of K{sub Ufit} and K{sub Lfit} determined from model simulations. The parameters (R, β, ω, α, and f) determined from model simulations were useful for characterizing the transport of contaminants within the soil matrix. The results of this study provide useful information for the operational parameters of the flushing process for soils with complex contamination.

  10. Experimental canine distemper infection as a means of demonstrating latent effects of subacute lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; McLeod, S.

    1976-01-01

    Observations on the response of the body to experimental infection with distemper virus in dogs previously dosed subacutely with lead have demonstrated a latent effect of lead on several body systems. Effects which indicated a relationship to earlier treatment with lead included evidence for stimulation of haemoglobin synthesis, changes to red blood cells resulting in increased destruction, increased vulnerability of the parenchymatous cells of the liver to damage, reduction in the weight of the skeleton and thyroid, an increase in weight of the thymus and brain and histopathological changes in the thymus. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia B. dos Santos; Matheus C. Martini; Helena L. Ferreira; Luciana H.A. da Silva; Paulo A. Fellipe; Fernando R. Spilki; Clarice W. Arns

    2012-01-01

    Santos M.B., Martini M.C., Ferreira H.L., Silva L.H.A., Fellipe P.A., Spilki F.R. & Arns C.W. 2012. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 32(12):1257-1262. Laboratorio de Virologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato s/n, Cx. Postal 6109, Campinas, SP 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail: Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respirator...

  12. Experimental Model of Tuberculosis in the Domestic Goat after Endobronchial Infection with Mycobacterium caprae ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Martín, Maite; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 103 CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

  13. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hall-Mendelin

    Full Text Available Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  14. Efficacy of a 60Co irradiated vaccine for experimentally infected calves with dictyocaulus viviparus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, Edgar; Paredes, Julio; Fernandez, Ardey

    1991-01-01

    Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in non-infected stage (L.1) were cultured in vitro to their infective stage (L.3) and were irradiated with 40 Krad from 6 0 C o and used as a vaccine. The oral experimental vaccine dose was 1000 L.3/animal. Three groups were formed with 8 calves in each one: group No. 1 and group No. 2 were vaccinated at 10 weeks of age. Four weeks later group No. 1 was infected with non-irradiated 60 L.3/Kg. of animal weight 'challenge dose'. After four weeks of post-vaccination group No. 2 was revaccinated and 4 weeks later it was infected with the 'challenge dose' as the previous group. Eight calves constituted group No. 3, four in each group; they were infected with only the challenge dose respectively. Information data on respiratory and cardiac frequency, temperature, weight, and L.1 count/g. of feces were obtained from each animal three times a week. After five weeks of post-challenge all animals were slaughtered to observe anatomopathologic lessions in the heart and lungs; the number of adult Dictyocaulus viviparus present in the respiratory tract were search 't'. Student test was used for the statistical analysis. The weight increment difference between animals of group No. 1 related control group was 7Kg.; and 11.25 Kg/animal in group No. 2 respectively. The percentage of protection confered by the vaccine to the subjects in group No. 1 relative to the respectivecontrol group, was 83.2; that for the group No. 2 was 88.5 per cent. Post-morten examination revealed severe anatomopathologic lessions in the control groups; only few lessions were observed in group No. 1 and practically none in group No. 2

  15. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Esther Maria; Castro, Rosane Nora; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism. As the main results, activation of oxidative pathways, such as the glycolytic pathway, was demonstrated in response to the increase in the activity of hexokinase. This tendency was confirmed by the decrease in the contents of glucose in the hemolymph of parasitized snails, indicating that the infection by A. cantonensis alters the host's metabolism, and that these changes are strongly influenced by the parasite load. This metabolic scenario was accompanied by activation of the anaerobic fermentative metabolism, indicated not only by an increase in the activity of (LDH), but also by a reduction of the content of pyruvic acid and accumulation of lactic acid in the hemolymph of parasitized snails. In this circumstance, maintenance of the host's redox balance occurs through activation of the fermentative pathways, and LDH plays a central role in this process. Together, the results indicate that A. cantonensis infection induces activation of the anaerobic metabolism of A. fulica, characterized not only by the accumulation of lactic acid, but also by a reduction in the pyruvic acid and oxalic acid contents in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  16. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur da Silva Neumann

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  17. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  18. Efficacy of one dose vaccination against experimental infection with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Annelies; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Boyen, Filip; Krejci, Roman; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2017-08-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Pigs are often infected with different M. hyopneumoniae strains. This study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against experimental infection with two genetically different M. hyopneumoniae strains in weaned piglets. At 33 days of age (D0), 45 M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1) negative control group (NCG; n = 5): not vaccinated, not infected, 2) positive control group (PCG; n = 20): not vaccinated, infected, and 3) vaccination group (VG; n = 20): single vaccination with an inactivated whole-cell M. hyopneumoniae vaccine (Hyogen®, Ceva) (D1), infected. The PCG and VG were endotracheally inoculated with 7 × 10 7 CCU in 7 ml of the highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C (D24) and 7 × 10 7 CCU in 7 ml low virulent strain F1.12A (D25). A respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed from D24 until D53. At D53 (euthanasia), macroscopic lung lesions (MLL) were scored, log copies of M. hyopneumoniae DNA (qPCR) and IL-1 and IL-6-concentrations (ELISA) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. The RDS and MLL at euthanasia were respectively 0, 1.20 and 0.55 (P hyopneumoniae strain as the vaccinated pigs coughed significantly less, and showed significantly less lung lesions compared to the non-vaccinated challenged pigs: the vaccinated animals showed a 52.9% lower RDS and 91.0% lower MLL compared to the PCG. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected at the necropsy of the vaccinated pigs, a significantly lower amount of M. hyopneumoniae-DNA and a significantly lower IL-1 and IL-6 concentration was found compared to the pigs of the PCG.

  19. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  20. Age-dependent differences in cytokine and antibody responses after experimental RSV infection in a bovine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in both infants and calves. As in humans, bovine RSV (BRSV) infections are most severe in the first 6 months of life. In this study, experimental infection with BRSV was performed in calves aged 1-5, 9-16 or 32-37 weeks. Compared...

  1. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ramis (Antonio); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); R. Vanderstichel (R.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHistorically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental

  2. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  3. Transplacental and oral transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, A.; Heutink, C.G.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential vertical transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in cattle was explored in this experiment. We demonstrated transplacental transmission of wild-type BTV-8 in one calf and oral infection with BTV-8 in another calf. Following the experimental BTV-8 infection of seven

  4. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Falcão de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis-infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis-infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial

  5. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae): Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão de Oliveira, Everton; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Fernandes, Wagner de Souza; Murat, Paula Guerra; Medeiros, Márcio José de; Souza, Alda Izabel; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-02-01

    Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis-infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis-infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial capacity for L. infantum

  6. Cis and trans acting factors involved in human cytomegalovirus experimental and natural latent infection of CD14 (+ monocytes and CD34 (+ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprian C Rossetto

    Full Text Available The parameters involved in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV latent infection in CD14 (+ and CD34 (+ cells remain poorly identified. Using next generation sequencing we deduced the transcriptome of HCMV latently infected CD14 (+ and CD34 (+ cells in experimental as well as natural latency settings. The gene expression profile from natural infection in HCMV seropositive donors closely matched experimental latency models, and included two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, RNA4.9 and RNA2.7 as well as the mRNAs encoding replication factors UL84 and UL44. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on experimentally infected CD14 (+ monocytes followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq were employed to demonstrate both UL84 and UL44 proteins interacted with the latent viral genome and overlapped at 5 of the 8 loci identified. RNA4.9 interacts with components of the polycomb repression complex (PRC as well as with the MIE promoter region where the enrichment of the repressive H3K27me3 mark suggests that this lncRNA represses transcription. Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE, which identifies nucleosome-depleted viral DNA, was used to confirm that latent mRNAs were associated with actively transcribed, FAIRE analysis also showed that the terminal repeat (TR region of the latent viral genome is depleted of nucleosomes suggesting that this region may contain an element mediating viral genome maintenance. ChIP assays show that the viral TR region interacts with factors associated with the pre replication complex and a plasmid subclone containing the HCMV TR element persisted in latently infected CD14 (+ monocytes, strongly suggesting that the TR region mediates viral chromosome maintenance.

  7. Complex modulation of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome in response to dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Dunn, W Augustine; Campbell, Corey L; Olson, Ken E; Marinotti, Osvaldo; James, Anthony A

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease world-wide, with Aedes aegypti being the major vector. Interactions between the mosquito host and dengue viruses (DENV) are complex and vector competence varies among geographically-distinct Ae. aegypti populations. Additionally, dengue is caused by four antigenically-distinct viral serotypes (DENV1-4), each with multiple genotypes. Each virus genotype interacts differently with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Analyses of alterations in mosquito transcriptional profiles during DENV infection are expected to provide the basis for identifying networks of genes involved in responses to viruses and contribute to the molecular-genetic understanding of vector competence. In addition, this knowledge is anticipated to support the development of novel disease-control strategies. RNA-seq technology was used to assess genome-wide changes in transcript abundance at 1, 4 and 14 days following DENV2 infection in carcasses, midguts and salivary glands of the Ae. aegypti Chetumal strain. DENV2 affected the expression of 397 Ae. aegypti genes, most of which were down-regulated by viral infection. Differential accumulation of transcripts was mainly tissue- and time-specific. Comparisons of our data with other published reports reveal conservation of functional classes, but limited concordance of specific mosquito genes responsive to DENV2 infection. These results indicate the necessity of additional studies of mosquito-DENV interactions, specifically those focused on recently-derived mosquito strains with multiple dengue virus serotypes and genotypes.

  8. Complex modulation of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome in response to dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bonizzoni

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease world-wide, with Aedes aegypti being the major vector. Interactions between the mosquito host and dengue viruses (DENV are complex and vector competence varies among geographically-distinct Ae. aegypti populations. Additionally, dengue is caused by four antigenically-distinct viral serotypes (DENV1-4, each with multiple genotypes. Each virus genotype interacts differently with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Analyses of alterations in mosquito transcriptional profiles during DENV infection are expected to provide the basis for identifying networks of genes involved in responses to viruses and contribute to the molecular-genetic understanding of vector competence. In addition, this knowledge is anticipated to support the development of novel disease-control strategies. RNA-seq technology was used to assess genome-wide changes in transcript abundance at 1, 4 and 14 days following DENV2 infection in carcasses, midguts and salivary glands of the Ae. aegypti Chetumal strain. DENV2 affected the expression of 397 Ae. aegypti genes, most of which were down-regulated by viral infection. Differential accumulation of transcripts was mainly tissue- and time-specific. Comparisons of our data with other published reports reveal conservation of functional classes, but limited concordance of specific mosquito genes responsive to DENV2 infection. These results indicate the necessity of additional studies of mosquito-DENV interactions, specifically those focused on recently-derived mosquito strains with multiple dengue virus serotypes and genotypes.

  9. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF79 is a per os infectivity factor associated with the PIF complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Xue-Mei; He, Qian; Cao, Ming-Ya; Wang, La; Li, Hai-Qing; Xiao, Wen-Fu; Pan, Cai-Xia; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2014-05-12

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ORF79 (Bm79) encodes an occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-specific envelope protein, which is a homologue of the per os infectivity factor 4 (PIF4) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). To investigate the role of ORF79 in the BmNPV life cycle, a Bm79 knockout virus (vBm(Bm79KO)) was constructed through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Viral DNA replication, budded virus (BV) production and polyhedra formation were unaffected by the absence of BM79. However, results of the larval bioassay demonstrated that the Bm79 deletion resulted in a complete loss of per os infection. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that BM79 localized at the innernuclear membrane of infected cells through its N-terminal sorting motif (SM). Further bimolecular fluorescence protein complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the interaction of BM79 with PIF1, PIF2, PIF3 and ODV-E66. Thus, BM79 plays an important role in per os infection and is associated with the viral PIF complex of BmNPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The nutritional status affects the complete blood count of goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2017-11-09

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION BY Trypanosoma vivax IN GOATS INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL EM CAPRINOS COM Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco David Nascimento Sousa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Four goats were infected intravenously with 1.0 mL of cattle blood containing about 1.25 x 105 Trypanosoma vivax derived from spontaneous outbreak in cattle at Catolé do Rocha city, Paraíba, Brazil. Other four goats were used as controls. Parasitemia and body temperature were determined daily for 40 days. Animals were weighted each 7 days, and blood samples for blood cells counts were collected each 5 days. It was obtained a sample of liquor from each animal before death; cerebrospinal fluid samples were submitted to biochemical and cytological evaluations, density determination and parasite detection. A positive correlation was found between body temperature and parasitemia in infected animals. These animals presented anemia, leukopenia, hypoglycemia, decreased serum levels of total proteins and cholesterol, and nervous symptoms. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid resulted in decrease of glucose levels and increase in lactate dehydrogenase, cell counts and presence of the parasite. At necropsy it was found pale carcass, generalized infartation of lymphonodes, pulmonary edema, and liquid accumulation of pericardium. Histological changes were characterized by interstitial pneumonia, miocarditis, cardiac fibrosis, meningitis, and encephalitis. All observed changes confirm patogenicity of T. vivax.

    KEY WORDS: Experimental infection, trypanosomiasis, patogenicity.

    Quatro caprinos foram infectados experimentalmente por via intravenosa com 1,0 ml de sangue contendo aproximadamente 1,25 x 105 tripanossomas/ml, utilizando-se um isolado de Trypanosoma vivax de bovinos infectados naturalmente no município de Catolé do Rocha, Paraíba. A parasitemia e a temperatura foram determinadas diariamente durante quarenta dias. A cada cinco dias realizaram-se coletas de sangue para hemograma e análise bioquímica sérica. Antes do

  12. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  13. Experimental investigation of some coordination complexes using the sup(151)Eu Moessbauer resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Asharfi; Rama Reddy, A.; Arvind; Ahmad, Naseer

    1979-01-01

    Several Schiff base complexes containing Eu 151 metal ions have been synthesized and their Moessbauer spectra are recorded using the constant acceleration velocity spectrometer. The least-square analysis method for the evaluation of the hyperfine field coupling constants is adopted using the computer dec system-10. From the systematic analysis of the quadrupole coupling constants (q.c.c.) and isomer shifts it has been established that the coordination number of the metal ion of Bis(acetylacetone) benzidine and thiourea complexes is five, that of bis-vanillin benzidine and bis-salicylaldehyde-o-dianisidine is six, and that of bis-vanillin-o-phenylene diamine is seven. It is also found that the q.c.c. being negative in all these complexes decreases monotonically as the coordination number increases. One unusual aspect of this experimental data is that most of the coordination complexes have very low f-factors whereas the Schiff base complexes studied here have a fairly high recoilless fractions. Attempts are in progress to synthesize and study the Fe Schiff base complexes in place of Eu. (auth.)

  14. Dynamics of Pathological and Virological Findings During Experimental Calpox Virus Infection of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus

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    Anne Schmitt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intranasal infection of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus with calpox virus results in fatal disease. Route and dose used for viral inoculation of the test animals mimics the natural transmission of smallpox, thus representing a suitable model to study pathogenesis and to evaluate new vaccines against orthopoxvirus infection. However, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to death are still unclear. Therefore, our study aimed at investigating the kinetics of pathological alterations to clarify the pathogenesis in calpox virus infection. Following intranasal inoculation with two different viral doses, common marmosets were sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 post inoculation. Collected tissue was screened using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and virological assays. Our data suggest that primary replication took place in nasal and bronchial epithelia followed by secondary replication in submandibular lymph nodes and spleen. Parallel to viremia at day 7, virus was detectable in many organs, mainly located in epithelial cells and macrophages, as well as in endothelial cells. Based on the onset of clinical signs, the histological and ultrastructural lesions and the immunohistochemical distribution pattern of the virus, the incubation period was defined to last 11 days, which resembles human smallpox. In conclusion, the data indicate that the calpox model is highly suitable for studying orthopoxvirus-induced disease.

  15. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) have been divided into Type 1 (European) and Type 2 (North American) viruses. PRRSV are very diverse and Type 1 viruses have even been further divided into subtypes. While Type 1 viruses from Western Europe belong to subtype 1, viruses...... the subtype 1 strains. The aim of this project was to study the infection dynamics and clinical and pathological impact of two east European Type 1 strains. In an experimental trial, infection of pigs with the Russian subtype 2 strain “Ili6” and the Belarusian atypical isolate “Bor59” were compared...... to an early “Lelystad-like” Danish subtype 1 isolate “18794”. Groups of seven pigs of unique high sanitary status were infected with one of the three PRRSV isolates, and a fourth group served as sham-inoculated controls. The pigs were monitored for 24 days, and nasal swabs and blood samples were taken at 0, 3...

  16. Ivermectin: activity against larval Strongylus vulgaris and adult Trichostrongylus axei in experimental infections in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1982-08-01

    Activity of ivermectin, administered IM at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, was evaluated in controlled tests against migrating larvae of Strongylus vulgaris and adult Trichostrongylus axei in experimental infections in 6 ponies raised worm-free. Ponies were given 2,190 or 2,400 infective 3rd-stage larvae of S vulgaris at 7 days before treatment and 22,000 or 22,750 infective 3rd-stage larvae of T axei at 42 or 45 days before treatment. Three ponies were given ivermectin plus vehicle, and 3 ponies were given the vehicle only; the ponies were euthanatized 7 or 9 days after treatment. At necropsy, 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae were not recovered from visceral arteries of the 3 ivermectin plus vehicle-treated ponies, but 21 to 40 larvae were recovered from each of the 3 vehicle-treated ponies. Also at necropsy, adult T axei (140 specimens) were recovered from only 1 ot the 3 ivermectin plus vehicle-treated ponies, but 4,610 to 6,410 specimens were found in each of the 3 vehicle-treated ponies. Toxicosis was not observed after treatment.

  17. Vaccine-mediated immune responses to experimental pulmonary Cryptococcus gattii infection in mice.

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    Ashok K Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening respiratory and disseminated infections in immune-competent and immune-suppressed individuals. Currently, there are no standardized vaccines against cryptococcosis in humans, underlying an urgent need for effective therapies and/or vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of intranasal immunization with C. gattii cell wall associated (CW and/or cytoplasmic (CP protein preparations to induce protection against experimental pulmonary C. gattii infection in mice. BALB/c mice immunized with C. gattii CW and/or CP protein preparations exhibited a significant reduction in pulmonary fungal burden and prolonged survival following pulmonary challenge with C. gattii. Protection was associated with significantly increased pro-inflammatory and Th1-type cytokine recall responses, in vitro and increased C. gattii-specific antibody production in immunized mice challenged with C. gattii. A number of immunodominant proteins were identified following immunoblot analysis of C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations using sera from immunized mice. Immunization with a combined CW and CP protein preparation resulted in an early increase in pulmonary T cell infiltrates following challenge with C. gattii. Overall, our studies show that C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations contain antigens that may be included in a subunit vaccine to induce prolonged protection against pulmonary C. gattii infection.

  18. Experimental Cowpox Virus (CPXV) Infections of Bank Voles: Exceptional Clinical Resistance and Variable Reservoir Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Annika; Ulrich, Rainer G; Weber, Saskia; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Keller, Markus; Hoffmann, Donata; Beer, Martin

    2017-12-19

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) is a zoonotic virus and endemic in wild rodent populations in Eurasia. Serological surveys in Europe have reported high prevalence in different vole and mouse species. Here, we report on experimental CPXV infections of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) from different evolutionary lineages with a spectrum of CPXV strains. All bank voles, independently of lineage, sex and age, were resistant to clinical signs following CPXV inoculation, and no virus shedding was detected in nasal or buccal swabs. In-contact control animals became only rarely infected. However, depending on the CPXV strain used, inoculated animals seroconverted and viral DNA could be detected preferentially in the upper respiratory tract. The highest antibody titers and virus DNA loads in the lungs were detected after inoculation with two strains from Britain and Finland. We conclude from our experiments that the role of bank voles as an efficient and exclusive CPXV reservoir seems questionable, and that CPXV may be maintained in most regions by other hosts, including other vole species. Further investigations are needed to identify factors that allow and modulate CPXV maintenance in bank voles and other potential reservoirs, which may also influence spill-over infections to accidental hosts.

  19. Experimental infection of Marmota monax with a novel hepatitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Mei; Li, Li-Li; Xie, Guang-Cheng; Zhang, Cui-Yuan; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2018-05-01

    To establish an animal model for the newly identified Marmota Himalayana hepatovirus, MHHAV, so as to develop a better understanding of the infection of hepatitis A viruses. Five experimental woodchucks (Marmota monax) were inoculated intravenously with the purified MHHAV from wild woodchuck feces. One animal injected with PBS was defined as a control. Feces and blood were routinely collected. After the animals were subjected to necropsy, different tissues were collected. The presence of viral RNA and negative sense viral RNA was analyzed in all the samples and histopathological and in situ hybridization analysis was performed for the tissues. MHHAV infection caused fever but no severe symptoms or death. Virus was shed in feces beginning at 2 dpi, and MHHAV RNA persisted in feces for ~2 months, with a biphasic increase, and in blood for ~30 days. Viral RNA was detected in all the tissues, with high levels in the liver and spleen. Negative-strand viral RNA was detected only in the liver. Furthermore, the animals showed histological signs of hepatitis at 45 dpi. MHHAV can infect M. monax and is associated with hepatic disease. Therefore, this animal can be used as a model of HAV pathogenesis and to evaluate antiviral and anticancer therapeutics.

  20. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  1. [Experimental model of activated Lamblia (Giardia) muris infection in albino mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irikov, O A; Kovalenko, F P

    2007-01-01

    Experimental L. muris infection was reproduced in 100% of the intact albino mice intragastrically given levomycin in an average total dose of 15.88-34.84 or 0.88-1.02 g/kg for 18-34 days. With levomycin administration, the intensity of giardiasis was 1121.6-8540.1 (mean 4830.9) thousand L. muris trophozoites per animal. The total number of trophozoites per animal decreased to 302.2-3481.4 (mean 1546.4) thousand and 28.1-324.0 (mean 109.4) thousand specimens 5-8 and 11-13 days after discontinuation of the antibiotic, respectively. The maximum number of L. muris trophozoites was observed in the proximal and middle portions of the murine small intestine during and after the administration oflevomycin. The highest isolation of cysts was seen 12-14 days after the initiation of administration of the antibiotic. Following 8-10 days of terminations of a course of levomycin therapy the native smear of animal feces showed no Lamblia cysts. In mice with activated infection, the isolation rate of Lamblia cysts was directly related to the intensity of intestinal infection with trophozoites of the parasite.

  2. Experimental Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in turbot Psetta maxima (L.: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Romalde

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection with Pseudomonas anguilliseptica was performed both by intraperitoneal (i.p. and bath route on juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima in order to evaluate the pathology induced. Turbot was found to be sensitive to i.p. challenge (1.7x106 CFU/fish but no to bath exposure. The i.p. challenge induced septicaemic infection and mortality. Externally, moribund fish showed distended abdomen and pale areas at day 9. The gross pathological internal signs present were abundant ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity, pale and enlarged spleen, pale and friable liver, and congestive and dilated gut with yellowish exudates. On histopathological examination, bacterial invasion was common in all the tissues studied but the most prominent pathological changes were observed in gut, spleen and kidney after 7 day with features of necrosis. The immunohistochemical findings support the widespread localization of the bacteria after the i.p. injection since the P. anguilliseptica was detected in spleen from day 1 post injection, in liver, kidney and gut from day 4, in muscle from day 7 and in brain from day 9. The difficulties in infecting healthy fish by bath challenge can be explained by the opportunistic nature of this pathogen.

  3. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  4. Is Salvage of Recently Infected Breast Implant After Breast Augmentation or Reconstruction Possible? An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castus, P; Heymans, O; Melin, P; Renwart, L; Henrist, C; Hayton, E; Mordon, S; Leclère, F M

    2018-04-01

    The reinsertion of an infected implant when peri-prosthetic infection occurs early after breast augmentation or breast reconstruction remains controversial. In this experimental study, the authors tried to remove bacteria, and their biofilm, from the colonized surface of breast prostheses, without damaging their integrity. A total of 112 shell samples of silicone breast prostheses, smooth (SPSS) and textured (TPSS), were colonized by S. epidermidis (SE) or S. aureus (SA) strains, all able to produce biofilms. After 15 days, all the samples were removed from the contaminated culture broth and constituted 4 groups of 20 contaminated samples: SPSS/SE (group I), SPSS/SA (group II), TPSS/SE (group III), TPSS/SE (group IV). In another group-group SEM-, 16 colonized samples were used for documentation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining 16 samples were used to test the limits of detection of the sterility test. All samples of groups I-IV and 8 samples of group SEM were « washed » with a smooth brush in a povidone-iodine bath and rinsed with saline solution. A subset of the washed samples was sent for SEM and the others were immersed in sterile broth and were incubated at 35 °C for 3 weeks (groups I-IV). Fifteen days after contamination, all the samples in groups I-IV were colonized. In the SEM group, SEM images attested to the presence of bacteria in biofilm attached to the shells. After cleaning, SEM did not reveal any bacteria and there was no visible alteration in the outer structure of the shell. Sterility tests performed after decontamination in groups I-IV remained negative for all the samples. Breast prostheses recently contaminated with Staphylococci, frequently involved in peri-prosthetic breast implant infection and capable of producing biofilms, can be efficiently decontaminated by the procedure used in this study. Our decontamination procedure did not alter the surface structure of the prostheses. This decontamination procedure

  5. Detection and distribution of ostreid herpesvirus 1 in experimentally infected Pacific oyster spat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Amélie; Baillon, Laury; Faury, Nicole; Tourbiez, Delphine; Renault, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    High mortality rates are reported in spat and larvae of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and associated with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) detection in France. Although the viral infection has been experimentally reproduced in oyster larvae and spat, little knowledge is currently available concerning the viral entry and its distribution in organs and tissues. This study compares OsHV-1 DNA and RNA detection and localization in experimentally infected oysters using two virus doses: a low dose that did not induce any mortality and a high dose inducing high mortality. Real time PCR demonstrated significant differences in terms of viral DNA amounts between the two virus doses. RNA transcripts were detected in oysters receiving the highest dose of viral suspension whereas no transcript was observed in oysters injected with the low dose. This study also allowed observing kinetics of viral DNA and RNA detection in different tissues of oyster spat. Finally, viral detection was significantly different in function of tissues (p<0.005), time (p<0.005) with an interaction between tissues and time (p<0.005) for each probe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Tissue Tropism and Pathogenesis in Sheep and Goats following Experimental Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

  7. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  9. [INTESTINAL FAILURE AND YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS TRANSLOCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENTOF EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, I Yu; Pogorelky, I P; Lundovskikh, I A; Darmov, I V; Gorshkov, A S; Shabalina, M R

    2016-01-01

    To determine the value of intestinal failure and translocation of bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis, and normal intestinal microbiota in the initiation and generalization of infection in experimental pseudotuberculosis in conventional white mice, as well as pathological manifestation of it as a response to the adhesion and colonization of the mucosus membrane by pathogenic bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis. Experimental models of pseudotuberculosis in conventional white mice used the pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis 147 serotype I strain, containing a calcium-dependence plasmid with a molecular weight of 47 MDa. Cultivation of the pseudotuberculosis pathogen given its psychrophilic was performed on Hottinger agar at a temperature of (4-5) °C. The lactobacilli strain L plantarum 8P-A3 was isolated from a lyophilized commercial probiotic Lactobacterin (manufactured by "NPO Microgen", Russia) and used to obtain native culture supernatant fluid of lactobacilli, the composition of which was detected by gas-liquid chromatography with mass-selective detection. Gentamicin for parenteral administration was manufactured by JSC "Biochemist", Russia. Pathomorphological examination was performed on the 4-6th day of the experiment. Fragments of the small intestine, liver, kidneys, and lungs from dead animals were chosen for examination. Tissues were fixed in 10% neutral formalin, dehydrated in isopropanol and embedded in paraffin. Preparations were stained with Ehrlich hematoxylin and eosin, examined on the microscope "Mikmed-2" (JSC "LOMO", Russia) under magnification x 200-x1000. Statistical processing of the experimental results was carried out according to the method of Kerber in modification of I.P. Ashmarin and A.A. Vorobyov. The role of intestinal failure and translocation of bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis, and normal intestinal microbiota in the initiation and generalization of infection in animals has been found. It has been proved that the oral administration of supernatant

  10. The nonstructural proteins of Nipah virus play a key role in pathogenicity in experimentally infected animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV P gene encodes P protein and three accessory proteins (V, C and W. It has been reported that all four P gene products have IFN antagonist activity when the proteins were transiently expressed. However, the role of those accessory proteins in natural infection with NiV remains unknown. We generated recombinant NiVs lacking V, C or W protein, rNiV(V-, rNiV(C-, and rNiV(W-, respectively, to analyze the functions of these proteins in infected cells and the implications in in vivo pathogenicity. All the recombinants grew well in cell culture, although the maximum titers of rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- were lower than the other recombinants. The rNiV(V-, rNiV(C- and rNiV(W- suppressed the IFN response as well as the parental rNiV, thereby indicating that the lack of each accessory protein does not significantly affect the inhibition of IFN signaling in infected cells. In experimentally infected golden hamsters, rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- but not the rNiV(W- virus showed a significant reduction in virulence. These results suggest that V and C proteins play key roles in NiV pathogenicity, and the roles are independent of their IFN-antagonist activity. This is the first report that identifies the molecular determinants of NiV in pathogenicity in vivo.

  11. [Five steps to decreasing nosocomial infections in large immature premature infants: A quasi-experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Ana; Leante Castellanos, José Luis; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Carmen; Lloreda García, José María; Fernández Fructuoso, José Ramón; Gómez Santos, Elisabet; García González, Verónica

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation is made of the impact of a series of five interventions on the incidence of hospital-related infections in a level iii neonatal unit. Quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study, which included preterm infants weighing 1,500g at birth or delivered at <32 weeks gestation, admitted in the 12 months before and after the measures were implemented (January 2014). The measures consisted of: optimising hand washing, following a protocol for insertion and handling of central intravenous catheters, encouraging breastfeeding; applying a protocol for rational antibiotic use, and establishing a surveillance system for multi-resistant bacteria. The primary endpoint was to assess the incidence of hospital-acquired infections before and after implementing the interventions. Thirty-three matched patients were included in each period. There was an incidence of 8.7 and 2.7 hospital-related infections/1,000 hospital stay days in the pre- and post-intervention periods, respectively (P<.05). Additionally, patients in the treatment group showed a statistically-significant decrease in days on mechanical ventilation, use of blood products, and vasoactive drugs. The strategy, based on implementing five specific measures in a unit with a high rate of hospital-related infections, proved effective in reducing their incidence. This reduction could contribute to lowering the use of mechanical ventilation, blood products, and vasoactive drugs. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune responsiveness associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omalu ICJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microsporidial infections have been recognized as an increasingly important infection in immuncompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV/AIDS. This study was designed to study immune responses associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four Rats in 3 groups, A (Control, B (Intraperitoneal and C (Oral were given injections of 0.5 ml of 2 x 10 6 of purified spores of Encephalitotozoon intestinalis spores and were observed for serum specific IgG for 21 days using both direct and indirect ELISA. Results: In indirect ELISA, specific lgG were detected on days 7, 14 and 21 for the group B rats and on day 21 for group C and in direct ELISA method, specific lgG were detected in-group B rats on days 7 and 21, for group C rats on day 21 only, while in the control rats, specific lgG were not detected. There was no significant difference between the direct and indirect methods (df=1, X 2 , P>0.05. E. intestinalis was observed in stool samples of rats in 1/12 (08.33% on days 14 and 21 in group B, and in 4/10 (33.33%, 3/10 (25.00% and 2/10 (16.67% on days 7, 14 and 21 respectively in group C. In group A, which is the control rats, no microsporidia were observed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Conclusions: There were no changes in the T-lymphocyte counts of rats prior to and after inoculation with spores. Extensive lesions were observed along the intestinal walls especially on the middle and lower sections of group C rats only.

  13. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Ma Angeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar

    2013-09-03

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed in cultured sea bass juveniles. We also studied the effect of liposome-vehiculated KZ included in medicated food on ichthyophoniasis. KZ causes clear toxic effects in D. labrax juveniles at doses >80 mg kg-1, apparent in the reduced survival of fish and histological alterations to livers, kidneys and spleens. Fish injected with Ichthyophonus and treated with KZ dosages of ≤80 mg kg-1 d-1 presented lower ichthyophoniasis prevalence, fewer organs infected per fish, and fewer spores in the affected organs than the untreated fish. KZ seems to delay the onset of infection, but cannot stop further progression once established. However, this behaviour is not clearly reflected in the biometric and haematological data collected from these fish. We hypothesise that KZ's delaying effect would increase, if lower infective doses (more similar to natural situations) were used. The drug administration vehicle (liposomes vs. emulsions) did not affect the results. Our data confirm the potential utility of KZ in treating ichthyophoniasis and reveal its low toxicity for sea bass. Nevertheless, the optimal dose and appropriate application protocol remain to be determined.

  14. Experimental gonococcal infection in male volunteers: Cumulative experience with Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains FA1090 and MS11mkC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Metzgar Hobbs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of male volunteers with Neisseria gonorrhoeae is safe and reproduces the clinical features of naturally acquired gonococcal urethritis. Human inoculation studies have helped define the natural history of experimental infection with two well-characterized strains of N. gonorrhoeae, FA1090 and MS11mkC. The human model has proved useful for testing the importance of putative gonococcal virulence factors for urethral infection in men. Studies with isogenic mutants have improved our understanding of the requirements for gonococcal LOS structures, pili, opacity proteins, IgA1 protease and the ability of infecting organisms to obtain iron from human transferrin and lactoferrin during uncomplicated urethritis. The model also presents opportunities to examine innate host immune responses that may be exploited or improved in development and testing of gonococcal vaccines. Here we review results to date with human experimental gonorrhea.

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigation of topological and energetic characteristics of Sb complexes reversibly binding molecular oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukin, Georgy K; Baranov, Evgenii V; Jelsch, Christian; Guillot, Benoît; Poddel'sky, Andrey I; Cherkasov, Vladimir K; Abakumov, Gleb A

    2011-07-28

    The experimental distribution of electron density in Ph(3)(4,5-OMe-3,6-Bu(t)-Cat)Sb·MeCN (1*) and Ph(3)(4,5-N(2)C(4)H(6)-3,6-Bu(t)-Cat)Sb·MeOH (2*) complexes was studied. According to atoms in molecules theory, the Sb-C(Ph), Sb-O(catecholate), and Sb···N(O) bonds are intermediate, whereas the O-C and C-C bonds are covalent, respectively. The energy of the Sb···N(MeCN) and Sb···O(MeOH) bonds are 7.0 and 11.3 kcal/mol according to the Espinosa equation. Density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations were carried out for a series of catecholate and amidophenolate complexes of antimony(V). It was shown that such calculations reliably reproduce geometrical and topological parameters and therefore can be used for a criterion search of dioxygen reversible binding by the catecholate and amidophenolate complexes of antimony(V). It was found that the "critical" value of the HOMO energy vary in the range from -5.197 to -5.061 eV for reversible binding of dioxygen complexes. This can serve as a thermodynamic criterion to predict the possibility of the dioxygen reversible binding by the catecholate and amidophenolate complexes of Sb(V). The HOMO energies correlate with the conversion of the catecholate and amidophenolate complexes in corresponding spiroendoperoxide derivatives as well. The contribution of the atom orbitals of the carbon atoms in the five-membered metallocycle to HOMO in complexes with different substitutes in the 4- and 5-positions of the catecholate ligand allows predicting the place of dioxygen addition. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Does structural complexity determine the morphology of assemblages? An experimental test on three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Parr, Catherine L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure.

  17. Does structural complexity determine the morphology of assemblages? An experimental test on three continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure.

  18. Experimental design for optimizing MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of palladium complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić-Kostić Tijana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI time-of-flight (TOF mass spectrometer (MS instrumental parameters for the analysis of chloro(2,2'',2"-terpyridinepalladium(II chloride dihydrate complex applying design of experiments methodology (DoE. This complex is of interest for potential use in the cancer therapy. DoE methodology was proved to succeed in optimization of many complex analytical problems. However, it has been poorly used for MALDI-TOF-MS optimization up to now. The theoretical mathematical relationships which explain the influence of important experimental factors (laser energy, grid voltage and number of laser shots on the selected responses (signal to noise – S/N ratio and the resolution – R of the leading peak is established. The optimal instrumental settings providing maximal S/N and R are identified and experimentally verified. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172052 and Grant no. 172011

  19. Emerging complexities of APOBEC3G action on immunity and viral fitness during HIV infection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monajemi Mahdis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The enzyme APOBEC3G (A3G mutates the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV genome by converting deoxycytidine (dC to deoxyuridine (dU on minus strand viral DNA during reverse transcription. A3G restricts viral propagation by degrading or incapacitating the coding ability of the HIV genome. Thus, this enzyme has been perceived as an innate immune barrier to viral replication whilst adaptive immunity responses escalate to effective levels. The discovery of A3G less than a decade ago led to the promise of new anti-viral therapies based on manipulation of its cellular expression and/or activity. The rationale for therapeutic approaches has been solidified by demonstration of the effectiveness of A3G in diminishing viral replication in cell culture systems of HIV infection, reports of its mutational footprint in virions from patients, and recognition of its unusually robust enzymatic potential in biochemical studies in vitro. Despite its effectiveness in various experimental systems, numerous recent studies have shown that the ability of A3G to combat HIV in the physiological setting is severely limited. In fact, it has become apparent that its mutational activity may actually enhance viral fitness by accelerating HIV evolution towards the evasion of both anti-viral drugs and the immune system. This body of work suggests that the role of A3G in HIV infection is more complex than heretofore appreciated and supports the hypothesis that HIV has evolved to exploit the action of this host factor. Here we present an overview of recent data that bring to light historical overestimation of A3G’s standing as a strictly anti-viral agent. We discuss the limitations of experimental systems used to assess its activities as well as caveats in data interpretation.

  20. Effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in experimental primary and secondary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennert, Christian; Feldmann, Katharina; Haamann, Edwina; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Follo, Marie; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar; Altenburger, Markus J

    2014-11-04

    To determine the antibacterial effect of photodynamic Therapy on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms in experimentally infected human root canals in primary infections and endodontic retreatments. One hundred and sixty single-rooted extracted teeth with one root canal were prepared using ProTaper instruments. Seventy specimens were left without root canal filling and autoclaved. The root canals of another 70 specimens were filled with Thermafil and AH Plus and the root canal fillings were removed after 24 hours using ProTaper D files and plasma sterilized. The specimens were infected with a clinical isolate of E. faecalis for 72 hours. Samples were taken using sterile paper points to determine the presence of E. faecalis in the root canals. The specimens were randomly divided into groups according to their treatment with 20 teeth each and a control. In the PDT group the teeth were treated using PDT, consisting of the photosensitizer toluidine blue and the PDT light source at 635 nm. In the NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% NaOCl. In the NaOCl-PDT group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% of sodium hypochlorite and then treated with PDT. Samples were taken after treatments using sterile paper points. Additionally, remaining root canal filling material was recovered from the root canal walls. Survival fractions of the samples were calculated by counting colony-forming units. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the data to assess the effect of different treatment techniques. Antimicrobial treatment of root canals caused a significant reduction of bacterial load in all groups. NaOCl irrigation eliminated E. faecalis most effectively. PDT alone was less effective compared to NaOCl irrigation and the combination of NaOCl irrigation and PDT. CFU levels recovered from the filling material after NaOCl irrigation of the root canals were 10fold higher compared to PDT and the combination of Na

  1. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli 0149 : F4ac in weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gerda M.; Frydendahl, Kai; Svendsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    adhesion test made after slaughter of piglets. However, in an experimental infection study with the purpose to obtain diarrhoeic piglets, it would be an advantage to test for susceptibility prior to experimentation. The Mucin 4 gene on porcine chromosome 13 has been proposed as a candidate gene...... for the production of the specific ETEC F4ab/ac receptor, and a DNA marker-based test has been developed to allow genotyping for ETEC F4ab/ac resistance/susceptibility [Jorgensen, C.B., Cirera, S., Archibald, A.L., Anderson, L., Fredholm, M., Edfors-Lilja, I., 2004. Porcine polymorphisms and methods for detecting...... them. International application published under the patent cooperation treaty (PCT). PCT/DK2003/000807 or WO2004/048606-A2]. The aim of this study was to test an experimental model for ETEC O149:F4ac-induced diarrhoea in piglets, selected for susceptibility towards ETEC O149:F4ac adhesion prior...

  2. INFECTIOUS VIRUS-ANTIBODY COMPLEX IN THE BLOOD OF CHRONICALLY INFECTED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notkins, Abner Louis; Mahar, Suellen; Scheele, Christina; Goffman, Joel

    1966-01-01

    If viremic sera from mice chronically infected with lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) were first treated with ether or ultraviolet light to inactivate the infectious virus, neutralizing antibody could be demonstrated. Significant amounts of antibody, however, were not detected until the mice had been infected for about 2½ months and its presence did not result in the elimination of the chronic viremia. Virus isolated from sera containing neutralizing antibody was found to be relatively resistant to neutralization by anti-LDV. Further studies revealed that the resistant virus existed in the form of an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus). The presence of such a complex was demonstrated by the fact that the virus fraction which persisted after in vivo or in vitro exposure to mouse anti-LDV was readily neutralized by goat anti-mouse sera or goat anti-mouse γ-globulin, whereas virus that had not been previously exposed to mouse anti-LDV was completely resistant to neutralization by goat anti-mouse sera. These findings suggest that (a) sensitization may play an important role in the resistance and susceptibility of a virus to neutralization by antiviral antibody, and (b) an anti-γ-globulin may prove useful in neutralizing the resistant fraction and in demonstrating otherwise undetectable antiviral antibody. PMID:5944351

  3. Experimental Oral Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1 Co-infection in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meropi Aravantinou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2 similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs. Thus, we performed a pilot study for an oral HSV-1 infection model in SIV-infected rhesus macaques to describe the feasibility of the modeling and resultant immunological changes. Three SIV-infected, clinically healthy macaques became HSV-1-infected by inoculation with 4 × 108 pfu HSV-1 McKrae on buccal, tongue, gingiva, and tonsils after gentle abrasion. HSV-1 DNA was shed in oral swabs for up to 21 days, and shedding recurred in association with intra-oral lesions after periods of no shedding during 56 days of follow up. HSV-1 DNA was detected in explant cultures of trigeminal ganglia collected at euthanasia on day 56. In the macaque with lowest baseline SIV viremia, SIV plasma RNA increased following HSV-1 infection. One macaque exhibited an acute pro-inflammatory response, and all three animals experienced T cell activation and mobilization in blood. However, T cell and antibody responses to HSV-1 were low and atypical. Through rigorous assessesments, this study finds that the virulent HSV-1 strain McKrae resulted in a low level HSV-1 infection that elicited modest immune responses and transiently modulated SIV infection.

  4. Experimental and computational fluid dynamics studies of mixing of complex oral health products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortada-Garcia, Marti; Migliozzi, Simona; Weheliye, Weheliye Hashi; Dore, Valentina; Mazzei, Luca; Angeli, Panagiota; ThAMes Multiphase Team

    2017-11-01

    Highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids are largely used in the manufacturing of specialized oral care products. Mixing often takes place in mechanically stirred vessels where the flow fields and mixing times depend on the geometric configuration and the fluid physical properties. In this research, we study the mixing performance of complex non-Newtonian fluids using Computational Fluid Dynamics models and validate them against experimental laser-based optical techniques. To this aim, we developed a scaled-down version of an industrial mixer. As test fluids, we used mixtures of glycerol and a Carbomer gel. The viscosities of the mixtures against shear rate at different temperatures and phase ratios were measured and found to be well described by the Carreau model. The numerical results were compared against experimental measurements of velocity fields from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and concentration profiles from Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF).

  5. Multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex infection outbreak in dogs and cats in a veterinary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzi, S; Blum, S E; Kahane, N; Adler, A; Hussein, O; Segev, G; Aroch, I

    2016-11-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex cause severe outbreaks in humans, and are increasingly reported in animals. A retrospective study, describing a severe outbreak in dogs and cats caused by a multidrug resistant member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in a veterinary hospital, between July 2010 and November 2012. The study included 19 dogs and 4 cats. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteria were isolated from urine (9 animals), respiratory tract (11), tissues (3) and blood (1). The most common infection-associated findings included fever, purulent discharge from endotracheal tubes, hypotension, and neutropaenia. Infections led to pneumonia, urinary tract infection, cellulitis and sepsis. Infection was transmitted in the intensive care unit, where 22 of 23 animals were initially hospitalised. The mortality rate was 70% (16 of 23 animals), and was higher in cases of respiratory infection compared to other infections. Aggressive environmental cleaning and disinfection, with staff education for personal hygiene and antisepsis, sharply decreased the infection incidence. Health care-associated outbreaks with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in dogs and cats are potentially highly fatal and difficult to eradicate, warranting monitoring, antiseptic techniques and judicious antibiotic use. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. Cholinesterase as inflammatory markers in a experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio M. Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cholinesterases as an inflammatory marker in acute and chronic infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits experimentally infected. Twelve adult female New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into two groups with 6 animals each: control group (rabbits 1-6 and infected group (rabbits 7-12. Infected group received intraperitoneally 0.5 mL of blood from a rat containing 108 parasites per animal. Blood samples used for cholinesterases evaluation were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 and 118 days post-inoculation (PI. Increased activity (P0.05 was observed in the encephalic structures. The increased activities of AChE and BChE probably have a pro-inflammatory purpose, attempting to reduce the concentration of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which has an anti-inflammatory property. Therefore, cholinesterase may be inflammatory markers in infection with T. evansi in rabbits.O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar o papel das colinesterases como marcadores inflamatórios nas fases aguda e crônica da infecção por T. evansi em coelhos infectados experimentalmente. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos adultos, fêmeas, da raça Nova Zelândia, divididos em dois grupos: um grupo controle, com seis animais (coelhos 1-6, e um grupo infectado, com seis animais (coelhos 7-12. Os animais pertencentes ao grupo infectados receberam, pela via intraperitoneal, 0,5 mL de sangue de rato contendo 108 tripanossomas por animal. Amostras do sangue utilizado para avaliação das colinesterases foram coletadas nos dias 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 e 118 pós-inoculação (PI. Aumento (P0,05 foi observada nas estruturas encefálicas. O aumento de atividade da AChE e BChE provavelmente tenha finalidade pró-inflamatória, a fim de reduzir as concentrações de acetilcolina, neurotransmissor que apresenta propriedade anti-inflamatória. Portanto, as colinesterases podem ser marcadores inflamatórios na infec

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of copper-resveratrol complexes: A joint experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavarino, B.; Crestoni, M. E.; Fornarini, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza - Universita di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Taioli, S. [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-CMM and University of Trento, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Mancini, I.; Tosi, P. [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-07-14

    Infrared multiple-photon dissociation spectroscopy has been used to record vibrational spectra of charged copper-resveratrol complexes in the 3500-3700 cm{sup -1} and 1100-1900 cm{sup -1} regions. Minimum energy structures have been determined by density functional theory calculations using plane waves and pseudopotentials. In particular, the copper(I)-resveratrol complex presents a tetra-coordinated metal bound with two carbon atoms of the alkenyl moiety and two closest carbons of the adjoining resorcinol ring. For these geometries vibrational spectra have been calculated by using linear response theory. The good agreement between experimental and calculated IR spectra for the selected species confirms the overall reliability of the proposed geometries.

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of copper-resveratrol complexes: A joint experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavarino, B.; Crestoni, M. E.; Fornarini, S.; Taioli, S.; Mancini, I.; Tosi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared multiple-photon dissociation spectroscopy has been used to record vibrational spectra of charged copper-resveratrol complexes in the 3500–3700 cm −1 and 1100–1900 cm −1 regions. Minimum energy structures have been determined by density functional theory calculations using plane waves and pseudopotentials. In particular, the copper(I)-resveratrol complex presents a tetra-coordinated metal bound with two carbon atoms of the alkenyl moiety and two closest carbons of the adjoining resorcinol ring. For these geometries vibrational spectra have been calculated by using linear response theory. The good agreement between experimental and calculated IR spectra for the selected species confirms the overall reliability of the proposed geometries.

  9. Experimental evidence for the involvement of dinuclear alkynylcopper(I) complexes in alkyne-azide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Benjamin R; Dann, Sandra E; Heaney, Harry

    2010-06-01

    Dinuclear alkynylcopper(I) ladderane complexes are prepared by a robust and simple protocol involving the reduction of Cu(2)(OH)(3)OAc or Cu(OAc)(2) by easily oxidised alcohols in the presence of terminal alkynes; they function as efficient catalysts in copper-catalysed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reactions as predicted by the Ahlquist-Fokin calculations. The same copper(I) catalysts are formed during reactions by using the Sharpless-Fokin protocol. The experimental results also provide evidence that sodium ascorbate functions as a base to deprotonate terminal alkynes and additionally give a convincing alternative explanation for the fact that the Cu(I)-catalysed reactions of certain 1,3-diazides with phenylacetylene give bis(triazoles) as the major products. The same dinuclear alkynylcopper(I) complexes also function as catalysts in cycloaddition reactions of azides with 1-iodoalkynes.

  10. Quantification of complex DNA damage by ionising radiation. An experimental and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulford, J.

    2000-05-01

    Ionising radiation potentially produces a broad spectrum of damage in DNA including single and double strand breaks (ssb and dsb) and base damages. It has been hypothesised that sites of complex damage within cellular DNA have particular biological significance due to an associated decreased efficiency in repair. The aim of this study is to gain further understanding of the formation of complex DNA damage. Irradiations of plasmid DNA illustrate that an increase in ionising density of the radiation results in a decrease in ssb yields/Gy but an increase in dsb per ssb, indicative of an increase in the number of complex damage sites per simple isolated damage site. As the mechanism for damage formation shifts from purely indirect at low scavenging capacities to a significant proportion of direct at higher scavenging capacities the proportion of complex damage increases. Comparisons with the yields of ssb and dsb simulated by Monte-Carlo calculations for Al K USX and α-particles also indicate this correspondence. The ionisation density of low energy, secondary electrons produced by photons was assessed experimentally from the dependence of the yield of OH radicals escaping intra-track recombination on photon energy. As energy decreases the OH radical yield initially decreases reflecting an increased ionisation density. However, with further decrease in photon energy the yield of OH radicals increases in line with theoretical calculations. Base damage yields were determined for low and high ionising density radiation over a range of scavenging capacities. As scavenging capacity increases the base damage: ssb ratios increases implying a contribution from electrons to base damage. It is proposed that base damage contributes to DNA damage complexity. Complex damage analysis reveals that at cell mimetic scavenging capacities, 23% and 72% of ssb have an additional spatially close damage site following γ-ray and α-particle irradiation respectively. (author)

  11. [The dinitrosyl-iron complexes with cysteine block the development of experimental endometriosis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgova, E N; Tkachev, N A; Vanin, A F

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the administration of 0,5 ml of 5 mM aqueous solution of dinitrosyl-iron complexes (DNIC) with cysteine alleviated the development of experimental endometriosis in rats induced by surgical way: the size of endometriomes decreased 1.85 times when the DNIC was added every day during 10 days. The effect was suggested to be due to cytotoxic action of NO molecules and nitrosonium ions (NO+) released from rapidly decomposed DNIC in animal organism on endometriome tissues.

  12. Experimental determination and modeling of arsenic complexation with humic and fulvic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2014-08-30

    The complexation of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) with arsenic (As) in water was studied. Experimental results indicate that arsenic may form complexes with HA and FA with a higher affinity for arsenate than for arsenite. With the presence of iron oxide based adsorbents, binding of arsenic to HA/FA in water was significantly suppressed, probably due to adsorption of As and HA/FA. A two-site ligand binding model, considering only strong and weak site types of binding affinity, was successfully developed to describe the complexation of arsenic on the two natural organic fractions. The model showed that the numbers of weak sites were more than 10 times those of strong sites on both HA and FA for both arsenic species studied. The numbers of both types of binding sites were found to be proportional to the HA concentrations, while the apparent stability constants, defined for describing binding affinity between arsenic and the sites, are independent of the HA concentrations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the impact of HA concentrations on the applicability of the ligand binding model, and to extrapolate the model to FA. The obtained results may give insights on the complexation of arsenic in HA/FA laden groundwater and on the selection of more effective adsorption-based treatment methods for natural waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of Psychosocial Interventions in Complex Palliative Care Patients: A Quasi-Experimental, Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Ortega, Dolors; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Maté, Jorge; Beas, Elba; Ela, Sara; Lasmarias, Cristina; Limonero, Joaquín T

    2018-03-13

    To determine whether specific psychosocial interventions can ease discomfort in palliative care (PC) patients, particularly in those with high levels of pain or emotional distress. Changes in the psychological parameters of 8333 patients were assessed in a quasi-experimental, prospective, multicenter, single group pretest/post-test study. Psychosocial care was delivered by 29 psychosocial care teams (PSTs; 137 professionals). Pre- and post-intervention changes in these variables were assessed: mood, anxiety, and emotional distress. Patients were classified as complex, when presented with high levels of anxiety, mood, suffering (or perception of time as slow), and distress (or unease, or discomfort), or noncomplex. These groups were compared to assess changes in suffering-related parameters from baseline. Psychosocial interventions reduced patients' suffering. These interventions were more effective in complex patients. After successive psychosocial interventions, the level of suffering in complex patients decreased until close to parity with noncomplex patients, suggesting that patients with major complexity could benefit most from specific psychosocial treatment. These findings support the importance of assessing and treating patients' psychosocial needs.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum: genetic diversity and complexity of infections in an isolated village in western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Zollner, Gabriela; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Khuntirat, Benjawan; Honma, Hajime; Mita, Toshihiro; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Coleman, Russell

    2015-06-01

    Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum is intimately associated with morbidity, mortality and malaria control strategies. It is therefore imperative to study genetic makeup and population structure of this parasite in endemic areas. In Kong Mong Tha, an isolated village in western Thailand, the majority of P. falciparum infections are asymptomatic. In this study we investigated complexity of infections and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum population of Kong Mong Tha, and compared results with those previously obtained from Mae Sod, in northwestern Thailand, where the majority of infections were symptomatic. Using PCR-based determination of the 5' merozoite surface protein 1 gene (msp1) recombinant types, we found that 39% of 59 P. falciparum isolates from Kong Mong Tha had multiple 5' recombinant types with a mean number of 1.54. These values were much lower than those obtained from Mae Sod: 96% for multiple infections and with a mean number of 3.61. Analysis of full-length sequences of two housekeeping genes, the P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase gene (n=33) plus adenylosuccinate lyase gene (n=33), and three vaccine candidate antigen genes, msp1 (n=26), the circumsporozoite protein gene, csp (n=30) and the apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama 1 (n=32), revealed that in all of these genes within-population SNP diversity was at similar levels between Kong Mong Tha and Mae Sod, suggesting that the extent of MOI and clinical manifestations of malaria are not strongly associated with genetic diversity. Additionally, we did not detect significant genetic differentiation between the two parasite populations, as estimated by the Wright's fixation index of inter-population variance in allele frequencies, suggesting that gene flow prevented the formation of population structuring. Thus, this study highlights unique features of P. falciparum populations in Thailand. The implications of these finding are discussed. © 2013.

  15. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown....... Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet I showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were...

  16. Evaluation of tulathromycin for the treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection of swine with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jo; Morgan, Jeremy H; Nanjiani, Ian A; Sherington, John; Rowan, Tim G; Sunderland, Simon J

    2005-01-01

    Tulathromycin was evaluated in the treatment of pneumonia in weaned pigs inoculated intranasally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Five days postchallenge, the pigs were randomized to treatment with a single IM administration of saline, a single IM administration of tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg; day 0), or three IM administrations of enrofloxacin (5.0 mg/kg; days 0, 1, 2). Pigs were necropsied on day 12 or 13. Unchallenged controls remained healthy with no lung pathology. Compared with saline, coughing, mean lung lesion score, and proportional lung weight were significantly reduced and weight gain was significantly greater for tulathromycin-treated pigs (P pigs (P treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection with M. hyopneumoniae.

  17. Experimental infection of the bat tick Carios fonsecai (Acari: Ixodidae with the rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Regina Favoretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.

  18. Laboratory experimental infection of sheep to Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum and its confirmation using post-mortem examination and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza karimi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum from genus Ornithobilharzia genus and family Schistosomatidae is an important agent of parasitological infection in sheep. This parasite has been reported from Russia, China, Turkestan (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey and Iran. Parasitological infection due to this agent could be one of the important factors of decreasing the production rate of livestock in Iran. The purpose of this study, was to experimentally infect sheep with this parasite and confirm the infection by post-mortem examination and Histopathology which was done successfully. Twenty five sheep were used in the study of which 10 sheep were experimentally infected by Ornithobilharzia turkestanikum using subcutaneous injection and 10 sheep by skin contact method and the other 5 sheep were kept as control. Result of post-mortem and Histopathology during a one year period confirmed that all of sheep were infected and adult worm, were seen in their mesentery. Mean number of cercaria used for inducing the infection was 6425 and 462 adult worms were collected post-mortem. There was no significant relationship between the number of cercaria and adult worms collected. Male sheep were more infected than female.

  19. Comparative study of tricarbonilic complexes of {sup 99m}TC in the diagnosis of fungal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Leticia Gabriela; Teran, Mariella Adriana [Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Reyes, Ana Laura [Cudim, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clinical-epidemiological studies show that the incidence of fungal infections has experienced a substantial increase in the last years. Our working group focused on the radioactive labelling of commercially available antifungal agents and their evaluation as potential specific tracer agents for fungal infections (Curr Radiopharm, 2014, 7( 2), 144-150). Objective: Optimization of various antifungal agents labelling using {sup 99m}Tc tricarbonyl complexes and their subsequent evaluation in vitro and in vivo as radiotracers in the detection, through scintigraphic images, of fungal infections. Methodology: Complexes were obtained by substitution of the precursor triaquotricarboniltechnetium (I) with the antifungals: Caspofungin, amphotericin b, Voriconazole and Fluconazole[2]. The physicochemical evaluation of the complexes was performed by the analysis of the stability in milieu, stability in plasma, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and binding to yeasts. The biological evaluation of the complexes was carried out according to the protocol 070510 approved by the Commission of Animal Experimentation (University of the Republic, Uruguay). The model used consisted of CD1 mice (n=4 per group), females of 8-10 weeks with a weight of 22 ± 2 g. The groups studied were: G0=healthy animals, G1=sterile inflammation, G2=infection by C.albicans and G3=infection by A.niger. The lesions were induced by inoculation of 100μL of the agents in the left hind thigh. Once the lesions were developed, the complexes were administered iv (37MBq,1mCi in 0.1mL) and biodistribution studies were performed at various post-injection times. In addition, images were acquired in a preclinical image system for animals for 60 min, 40 mm ROR, 5-pinhole collimator, 80 x 80 pixel array. Results: All the complexes were obtained with a radiochemical purity higher to 90,0% and were stable more than 4 hours post substitution. Plasma stability, Log P, Protein binding and C

  20. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Sun, Jian; Yang, Tao; Fang, Xi; Cheng, Jie; Xiong, Yan Q; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin using a well-established experimental intratracheal infection model of M. gallisepticum. The efficacy of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum was studied in 8-day-old chickens after intramuscular (i.m.) administration at 10 doses between 0-80 mg/kg. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to evaluate the PK parameters of tiamulin following i.m. administration at doses of 5, 40, and 80 mg/kg in Mycoplasma gallisepticum-infected neutropenic chickens. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used for quantitative detection of M. gallisepticum. The MIC of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum strain S6 was 0.03 μg/mL. The PK/PD index, AUC24h/MIC, correlated well with the in vivo antibacterial efficacy. The in vivo data suggest that animal dosage regimens should supply AUC24h/MIC of tiamulin of 382.68 h for 2 log10 ccu equivalents M. gallisepticum reduction. To attain that goal, the administered dose is expected to be 45 mg/kg b.w. for treatment of M. gallisepticum infection with an MIC90 of 0.03 μg/mL.

  1. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin using a well-established experimental intratracheal infection model of M. gallisepticum. The efficacy of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum was studied in 8-day-old chickens after intramuscular (i.m. administration at 10 doses between 0-80 mg/kg. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to evaluate the PK parameters of tiamulin following i.m. administration at doses of 5, 40 and 80 mg/kg in Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected neutropenic chickens. Real time PCR (RT-PCR was used for quantitative detection of M. gallisepticum. The MIC of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum strain S6 was 0.03 μg/mL. The PK/PD index, AUC24h/MIC, correlated well with the in vivo antibacterial efficacy. The in vivo data suggest that animal dosage regimens should supply AUC24h/MIC of tiamulin of 382.68 h for 2 log10 ccu equivalents M. gallisepticum reduction. To attain that goal, the administered dose is expected to be 45 mg/kg b.w. for treatment of M. gallisepticum infection with an MIC90 of 0.03 μg/mL.

  2. Experimental infection of Balb/c nude mice with Hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jianguo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several animal species can reportedly act as reservoirs for Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a zoonotic pathogen. HEV and antibody to the virus have been detected in a variety of animals including rodents. Pig and rat models for HEV have been established for HEV, but a nude mouse has not yet been developed. Methods Balb/c nude mice were inoculated with swine HEV, both orally and via intravenous injection to insure infection. Negative control and experimental contact-exposed groups of mice were also included in the study. The liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon of each mouse from all three groups were collected for reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR detection, indirect immunofluorescence observation and histopathologic examination. The sera from nude mice were tested for anti-HEV IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Activities of liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as total bilirubin (TBIL were also measured in the sera of the nude mice. Results HEV antigens and HEV RNA were detected in liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum and colon both by indirect immunofluorescence and by RT-nPCR in all of the inoculated and in one of the contact-exposed nude mice. Histopathological changes were observed in the liver and spleen of these mice. Infected mice showed increased levels of AST, ALP, and anti-HEV IgG in sera. The livers of contact-exposed mice showed obvious histopathological damage. Conclusion Nude mice could be readily infected by HEV isolated from pigs. The nude mouse may therefore be a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of HEV.

  3. Human rhinovirus in experimental infection after peroral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG consumption, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiovaara, Laura; Kumpu, Minna; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Waris, Matti; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne; Winther, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    Data has emerged on possible beneficial effects of probiotics in respiratory tract viral infections, but it is unclear if the promising positive effects evidenced are due to a reduced viral load during infections. The aims of this work were to investigate the effect of peroral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC], Accession No. 53103) consumption on human rhinovirus (HRV) load in nasopharyngeal lavage samples in experimental HRV infection, and to correlate viral load to clinical symptoms. Intranasal HRV A39 inoculation was performed on 59 adults, who had consumed juice enriched with live or heat-inactivated L. rhamnosus GG or control juice for 3 weeks prior to inoculation in a randomized, controlled, pilot trial setting. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples and symptom data were analyzed on day 0 before inoculation, and on days 2 and 5. Samples were subjected to quantitative HRV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Before inoculation 9 of 59 (15%) samples presented with another HRV strain than the studied A39. There was a tendency toward the lowest HRV loads in the L. rhamnosus GG groups and the highest in placebo group (log10 copies/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20 [5.18 to 7.40] in live, 6.30 [4.91 to 7.08] in inactivated L. rhamnosus GG, and 7.25 [5.81 to 7.52] in placebo group, p = 0.57 in day 2) in the wild-type excluded population. The HRV load positively correlated with the symptom scores on days 2 and 5 (correlation coefficient 0.61 [p rhamnosus GG when compared to placebo. HRV load positively correlated with the total symptom scores. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  4. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  5. Immunologic and hematologic responses in ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S

    1989-08-01

    Immunologic and hematologic responses were examined in 4 ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection and in 5 helminth-free ponies. Two ponies were inoculated with 200 larvae and 2 were inoculated with 700 larvae of S vulgaris and then were reinoculated with the same numbers of larvae 34 weeks later. Initial response of the ponies inoculated with S vulgaris was S vulgaris antigen-induced lymphocyte response that developed 1.5 to 3 weeks after inoculation and did not persist. Development of antigen-reactive lymphocytes was followed sequentially by a biphasic complement-fixing antibody response, then biphasic eosinophilia. Antibody titer to S vulgaris antigen was higher in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with that in ponies given 200 larvae of S vulgaris. Also, the second peak in antibody titer and in absolute number of eosinophils was observed earlier in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with ponies inoculated with 200 S vulgaris larvae, and subsided before or from about 24 weeks after inoculation. The prepatent period for S vulgaris infection was 24 to 25 weeks. After reinoculation with S vulgaris, a degree of increased lymphocyte responsiveness was apparent but, by 17 weeks after reinoculation, only the primary peak in the absolute number of eosinophils indicated an anamnestic response. Essentially, antibody was not detectable after reinoculation.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  7. Clinical and Histopathological Evaluation of Terbinafine Treatment in Cats Experimentally Infected with Microsporum canis

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    T. Kotnik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil©, Novartis in the treatment of 27 M. canis infected cats was followed. Treatment was started on the 17th day post inoculation (p.i., when successful experimental infection was proved. Nine cats were treated with low-dose terbinafine 10-20 mg/kg QD (LD group, nine cats were treated with high-dose terbinafine 30-40 mg/kg QD (HD group and nine were left untreated as a control group (C group. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated using Wood's lamp examination, fungal culture and histopathology. All cats were positive 14 days p.i. Sixty days p.i. 8 cats from the LD group, 9 from the C group and 2 cats from the HD group had fungi in the tissue. Ninety days p.i. the HD group was free of fungi in the skin and other tests became negative on the 120th day p.i. Statistically significant differences were found between the HD group and both of the other groups (p M. canis yielded an inflammatory reaction of a mononuclear and neutrophil type in the cat skin. Hyperplastic interstitial dermatitis was a predominant tissue reaction although other types were also present during the study.

  8. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin...... and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...

  9. Pathogenic outcome following experimental infection of sheep with Chlamydia abortus variant strains LLG and POS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Morag; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Ensor, Hannah; Rocchi, Mara; Maley, Stephen; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Wilson, Kim; Sait, Michelle; Siarkou, Victoria; Vretou, Evangelia; Entrican, Gary; Dagleish, Mark; Longbottom, David

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the pathogenesis of two variant strains (LLG and POS) of Chlamydia abortus, in comparison to a typical wild-type strain (S26/3) which is known to be responsible for late term abortion in small ruminants. Challenge with the three strains at mid-gestation resulted in similar pregnancy outcomes, with abortion occurring in approximately 50-60% of ewes with the mean gestational lengths also being similar. However, differences were observed in the severity of placental pathology, with infection appearing milder for strain LLG, which was reflected in the lower number of organisms shed in vaginal swabs post-partum and less gross pathology and organisms present in placental smears. Results for strain POS were somewhat different than LLG with a more focal restriction of infection observed. Post-abortion antibody responses revealed prominent differences in seropositivity to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) present in elementary body (EB) preparations under denaturing conditions, most notably with anti-LLG and anti-POS convalescent sera where there was no or reduced detection of MOMP present in EBs derived from the three strains. These results and additional analysis of whole EB and chlamydial outer membrane complex preparations suggest that there are conformational differences in MOMP for the three strains. Overall, the results suggest that gross placental pathology and clinical outcome is not indicative of bacterial colonization and the severity of infection. The results also highlight potential conformational differences in MOMP epitopes that perhaps impact on disease diagnosis and the development of new vaccines.

  10. Pathogenic outcome following experimental infection of sheep with Chlamydia abortus variant strains LLG and POS.

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    Morag Livingstone

    Full Text Available This study investigated the pathogenesis of two variant strains (LLG and POS of Chlamydia abortus, in comparison to a typical wild-type strain (S26/3 which is known to be responsible for late term abortion in small ruminants. Challenge with the three strains at mid-gestation resulted in similar pregnancy outcomes, with abortion occurring in approximately 50-60% of ewes with the mean gestational lengths also being similar. However, differences were observed in the severity of placental pathology, with infection appearing milder for strain LLG, which was reflected in the lower number of organisms shed in vaginal swabs post-partum and less gross pathology and organisms present in placental smears. Results for strain POS were somewhat different than LLG with a more focal restriction of infection observed. Post-abortion antibody responses revealed prominent differences in seropositivity to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP present in elementary body (EB preparations under denaturing conditions, most notably with anti-LLG and anti-POS convalescent sera where there was no or reduced detection of MOMP present in EBs derived from the three strains. These results and additional analysis of whole EB and chlamydial outer membrane complex preparations suggest that there are conformational differences in MOMP for the three strains. Overall, the results suggest that gross placental pathology and clinical outcome is not indicative of bacterial colonization and the severity of infection. The results also highlight potential conformational differences in MOMP epitopes that perhaps impact on disease diagnosis and the development of new vaccines.

  11. Cellular composition of granulomatous lesions in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of goats during the first year after experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, C; Köhler, H; Liebler-Tenorio, E M

    2015-01-15

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes lesions in naturally and experimentally infected ruminants which greatly differ in severity, cellular composition and number of mycobacteria. Morphologically distinct lesions are already found during the clinically inapparent phase of infection. The complex local host response and number of MAP were characterized at the initial sites of lesions, organized gut-associated lymphoid tissue, in experimentally infected goats. Tissues were collected at 3, 6, 9 and 12 month post-inoculation (mpi) from goat kids that had orally received 10 times 10mg of bacterial wet mass of MAP (JII-1961). The cellular composition of lesions in Peyer's patches in the jejunum and next to the ileocecal valve was evaluated in 21 MAP-inoculated goats, where lesions were compared with unaltered tissue of six control goats. CD68+, CD4+, CD8+, γδ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and plasma cells, MHC class II+ and CD25+ cells were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in serial cryostat sections. At 3 mpi, extensive granulomatous infiltrates predominated, consisting of numerous epitheloid cells admixed with many CD4 and γδ T lymphocytes. Only single MAP were detected. This indicates a strong cellular immune reaction able to control MAP infection. γδ T lymphocytes were markedly increased in this type of lesion which may reflect their important role early in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis. At 9 and 12 mpi, divergent lesions were observed which may reflect different outcomes of host-pathogen interactions. In five goats, minimal granulomatous lesions were surrounded by extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and no MAP were detected by immunohistochemistry. This was interpreted as effective host response that was able to eliminate MAP locally. In three goats, decreased numbers of lymphocytes, but extensive granulomatous infiltrates with numerous epitheloid cells containing increased numbers of mycobacteria were seen. This shift of the

  12. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

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    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  13. Gas and aerosol radionuclide transfers in complex environments: experimental studies of atmospheric dispersion and interfaces exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maro, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In situations of chronic or accidental releases, the atmosphere is the main pathway of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities to the environment and, consequently, to humans. It is therefore necessary to have sufficient information on this pathway to accurately assess the radiological impact on man and his environment. Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety develops its own tools of dispersion and atmospheric transfer for its expertise, under normal operation conditions of a facility, but especially in crisis or post-accident. These tools must have a national and international recognition in particular through scientific validation against benchmark experiments performed internationally, nationally or within the IRSN. The Radioecology Laboratory of Cherbourg-Octeville provides, and will increasingly make, a significant contribution to the scientific influence of the Institute in this field. The work presented in this report has contributed to the development or improvement of experimental techniques in the fields of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and transfer at interfaces, in complex environments (complex topography, urban area). These experimental techniques, applied during field campaigns, have allowed to acquire new data in order to get a better understanding of radionuclide transfers in the form of gases and aerosols. (author)

  14. Time course of gene expression profiling in the liver of experimental mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis.

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    Renyong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe chronic parasitic disease which behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer. Clinical observations suggest that the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis influences liver homeostasis and hepatic cell metabolism. However, this has never been analyzed during the time course of infection in the common model of secondary echinococcosis in experimental mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles were assessed using DNA microarray analysis, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after injection of E. multilocularis metacestode in the liver of susceptible mice. Data were collected at different time points to monitor the dynamic behavior of gene expression. 557 differentially expressed genes were identified at one or more time points, including 351 up-regulated and 228 down-regulated genes. Time-course analysis indicated, at the initial stage of E. multilocularis infection (month 1-2, that most of up-regulated pathways were related to immune processes and cell trafficking such as chemokine-, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, and down-regulated pathways were related to xenobiotic metabolism; at the middle stage (month 3, MAPK signaling pathway was maintained and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway emerged; at the late stage (month 6, most of up-regulated pathways were related to PPAR signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascades, while down-regulated pathways were related to metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a random selection of 19 genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was increased in the liver of E. multilocularis infected mice from 2 months to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: E. multilocularis metacestode definitely exerts a deep influence on liver homeostasis, by modifying a number of gene

  15. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

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    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  16. Infecções experimentaes na Leishmaniose visceral americana Experimental infections in american visceral leishmaniasis

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    Aristides Marques da Cunha

    1938-01-01

    sôro-agglutinação, conforme mostramos em trabalho anterior, não permite a separação das especies do genero Leishmania, pois todas ellas, quando recentemente isoladas, possuem identica constituição antigenica, que se modifica depois, pela conservação longo tempo em cultura. É esse facto, que deu logar ás conclusões contradictorias a que chegaram os autores que se ocuparam do assumpto bem como os primeiros resultados que obtivemos. Deante de todos esses factos, nos julgamos autorizados a concluir como já fizemos anteriormente, que o agente da Leishmaniose visceral americana é identico á Leishmania infantum. Ao terminar, queremos deixar consignados nossos agradecimentos ao Dr. E. chagas, por ter posto a nossa disposição as culturas de Leishmania por elle isoladas, tornando possivel deste modo, a execução do presente trabalho.With cultures isolated from cases of american visceral leishmaniasis we succeeded in obtaining experimental infections in hamsters (Cricetus cricetus, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mullata and dogs. Hamsters were infected with strains obtained from man and dogs, the intraperitoneal way having been always employed. When cultures recently isolated are used, infection is obtained practically in 100% of the animals inoculated. The first negative results obtained by us may be explained by the use of cultures isolated some time before (about 7 months 0 and which had lost already their virulence. In some cases external lesions are observed represented by alterations of the skin and swelling of the paws. The skin lesions are observed on the ventral surface and consist in depilation, erythema and exudation. The skin thus affected shows to be extremely friable, rupturing at the movements of the animal when hold. On post-mortem examination, besides the lesions pointed out, the animals present enlargement of the spleen. The parasites are very numerous in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, etc. The changed skin shows considerable hypertrophy of the

  17. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

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    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  18. Experimental study of action of autostrains Aerococcus viridans on the model Pseudomonas infection

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    D. O. Stepanskyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the action of Aerococcus autostrains on the model of a chronic blue pus infection. For the study of the action of Aerococcus autosymbiont strains on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, three of the most biochemically and antagonistically active isolates were selected: 1 5m2015 (isolated from mice; 2 3k2015 (isolated from rats; 3 3ch2015 (isolated from humans. Experiments were conducted on 84 white outbred mice weighing 16–17 g, 60 were used as the experimental, and 24 as the control group. In the experimental group of animals, infected wounds were treated by Aerococcus autosymbiont strains once daily (0.2 billion ml–1 till recovery. The drug was administered under the scab with a syringe. In the control animals the wound was treated by isotonic sodium chloride solution (concentration 0.9% with the same route of administration and for the same period of time. It was found that from the very first days of application of Aerococci autosymbiont strains, perifocal inflammation was less severe in most animals in the research group compared with the control group. Starting from the fourth day of usage of Aerococcus autosymbiont strains the number of pseudomonades, contained in secretions from wounds in the experimental group of mice was significantly lower than in the control animals. It was revealed that in case of application of Aerococcus strain (5m2015 isolated from mice, the animals had better indicators of recovery, dynamics of local clinical signs of inflammation and the number of pseudomonades contained in the wound in comparison with other Aerococcus autostrains isolated from rats and humans. The wounds purified from pus and covered with dry scab faster. For example, wounds completely healed with dry scab rejection by the 11th day of observation in 44 of 58 surviving mice (75.9%. In the control group a similar pattern was observed in only 3 of 17 mice (17.6% by that period. The number of Pseudomonas

  19. Pathogenesis and Immunohistochemical Studies of Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Experimentally Infected Goats

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    Umer Sadique*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Younus Rana2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum3, Zahoor-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Sajid and Muhammad Mushtaq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of caprine pleuropneumonia (CPP in the experimentally inoculated goats with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc. For this purpose, 12 goats (Group B were inoculated with bacterial isolates of Mmc while four goats were kept as untreated control (Group A. Clinical signs of the disease were recorded twice daily. Two goats from group B were sacrificed on weekly basis to demonstrate gross pathological lesions in different organs. Tissue samples from lungs, trachea, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and small intestines were preserved for histopathological studies. The lungs and lymph nodes were preserved to demonstrate the antigen in tissue by using immuno- histochemical technique. The disease was successfully reproduced in all infected goats with severe manifestation. The clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease were mild at the beginning and became severe at the third and fourth weeks and then progressed to moderate and chronic forms. The histopathological lesions characteristic of CPP were found in all the organs. Antigen of Mmc was detected in tissue sections of lungs and lymph nodes. In conclusion, the disease was efficiently reproduced in experimental animals that showed acute septicemic form with lethal outcome.

  20. Close contacts at the interface: Experimental-computational synergies for solving complexity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras, Juan; Zanuy, David; Bertran, Oscar; Alemán, Carlos; Puiggalí, Jordi; Turón, Pau; Revilla-López, Guillem

    2018-02-01

    The study of material science has been long devoted to the disentanglement of bulk structures which mainly entails finding the inner structure of materials. That structure is accountable for a major portion of materials' properties. Yet, as our knowledge of these "backbones" enlarged so did the interest for the materials' boundaries properties which means the properties at the frontier with the surrounding environment that is called interface. The interface is thus to be understood as the sum of the material's surface plus the surrounding environment be it in solid, liquid or gas phase. The study of phenomena at this interface requires both the use of experimental and theoretical techniques and, above all, a wise combination of them in order to shed light over the most intimate details at atomic, molecular and mesostructure levels. Here, we report several cases to be used as proof of concept of the results achieved when studying interface phenomena by combining a myriad of experimental and theoretical tools to overcome the usual limitation regardind atomic detail, size and time scales and systems of complex composition. Real world examples of the combined experimental-theoretical work and new tools, software, is offered to the readers.

  1. The potential of methylethylpiridinol in treatment of bacterial infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (experimental study

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    V. M. Brykhanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigated the activity of methylethylpiridinol (6-methyl-2-ethyl-pyridin-3-ol hydrochloride in the comprehensive treatment of the experimental bacterial infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.Materials and methods. The study was conducted on clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. At the first stage of the study (in vitro studied the effect of methylethylpiridinol in concentrations 0,25–4 mM on the growth of the strain and the activity of the sublethal concentrations of antibiotics – gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, ceftazidime. In the second stage of the study (in vivo in rats Wistar simulated bacterial peritonitis by intraperitoneal injection of a suspension of Klebsiella pneumoniae and investigated the effect of methylethylpiridinol (80 mg/kg on the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy with gentamicin (30 mg/kg, ciprofloxacin (50 mg/kg, ceftazidime (120 mg/kg or tetracycline (80 mg/kg. The animal blood plasma was determined ceruloplasmin concentration (marker of the intensity of infectious-inflammatory process and thiobarbiturate-jet products, erythrocytes – the concentration of reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione peroxidase.Results. It is found that a methylethylpiridinol inhibits the development of periodic bacterial cultures, but exhibits a pronounced antagonism with respect to gentamicin. Antioxidant slightly increases the activity of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. The bacteriostatic effect of antioxidant reduces the action of ceftazidime in vitro. In conditions of chemotherapy by using of gentamicin and ciprofloxacin additional injection of methylethylpiridinol leads to the preservation of ceruloplasmin level to the level of non-treated animals without showing the antioxidant effect. Ceftazidime exhibits antioxidant effect, reduces the introduction of methylethylpiridinol. The antioxidant properties of methylethylpiridinol did not appear in the application of

  2. Efficiency of oxytetracycline treatment in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains having different in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2003-01-01

    The medication effect of oxytetracycline on groups of rainbow trout fry experimentally infected with three strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum was investigated. The infection model was based on intraperitoneal injection of the pathogen and treatment was done using medicated feed resulting...... in 100 mg oxytetracycline/kg fish for 10 days. The three F. psychrophilum strains had different antimicrobial susceptibilities and successful treatment was only obtained in the trial using a strain with a MICOTC of 0.25 mug/ml. No effect of treatment was seen in the group infected with a strain having...

  3. Effects of Ichthyophonus hoferi on condition indices and blood chemistry of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, T G; Cone, D K

    1990-07-01

    Body condition, hepatosomatic index and blood chemistry of Oncorhynchus mykiss experimentally infected with a tissue dwelling fish pathogenic fungus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, were monitored over a 6 wk period. This was to determine whether the infection constituted a stress manifest by changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary interrenal axis, and especially plasma cortisol levels. Infection caused anaemia and leucopenia but did not change the condition, hepatosomatic indices, or plasma chloride, cholesterol, cortisol, creatinine, glucose, osmolarity, potassium, total protein, sodium and T4. It is suggested that increased cortisol levels may not be a normal component of the stress response of fish to disease caused by invasive infectious agents.

  4. Experimental infection of Leishmania (L. chagasi in a cell line derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera:Psychodidae

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    Felio J Bello

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the in vitro infection of a cell line Lulo, derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis embryonic tissue, by Leishmania chagasi promastigotes. This infection process is compared with a parallel one developed using the J774 cell line. The L. chagasi MH/CO/84/CI-044B strain was used for experimental infection in two cell lines. The cells were seeded on glass coverslips in 24-well plates to reach a final number of 2 x 10(5 cells/well. Parasites were added to the adhered Lulo and J774 cells in a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 28 and 37ºC respectively. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-infection, the cells were extensively washed with PBS, fixed with methanol, and stained with Giemsa. The number of internalized parasites was determined by counting at least 400 cultured cells on each coverslip. The results showed continuous interaction between L. chagasi promastigotes with the cell lines. Some ultrastructural characteristics of the amastigote forms were observed using transmission electron microscopy. The highest percentage of infection in Lulo cells was registered on day 6 post-infection (29.6% and on day 4 in the J774 cells (51%. This work shows similarities and differences in the L. chagasi experimental infection process in the two cell lines. However, Lulo cells emerge as a new model to study the life-cycle of this parasite.

  5. Behavioral and hormonal changes associated with the infective dose in experimental taeniasis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Roldan, Rosa; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Sciutto, Edda; Hernández, Marisela; Aguirre-Flores, Virginio; García-Jiménez, Sara; Báez-Saldaña, Armida; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported that behavioral changes relate to infection in different parasitoses. However, the relation between the extent of the behavioral changes and the magnitude of the infection has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different doses of infection and the behavioral changes induced in the experimental Taenia pisiformis taeniasis in golden hamsters. Groups of nine hamsters were infected with three or six T. pisiformis metacestodes. The locomotor activity was quantified daily in an open field test during the 21 days after infection; anxiety test was performed in an elevated plus-maze with a dark/light area at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection, and serum cortisol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay before infection and at day 22 after infection. The challenge itself induced modifications on behavior and cortisol levels in hamsters, with or without successful infection (taenia development). Animals challenged with three metacestodes induced a decrease in locomotor activity and an increase in anxiety in infected animals. A higher and earlier decrease in locomotor activity and increased anxiety levels were observed in hamsters challenged with six cysticerci, which were accompanied by higher levels of sera cortisol at the end of the experiment. At necropsy, 44-55% of hamster became infected with an efficiency of implantation of 22-26%, challenged with three or six cysticerci respectively. The challenge of hamsters with metacestodes, promote behavioral changes in an extent dependent on the magnitude of the challenge, disregarding the effectiveness of the infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex causing olecranon bursitis and prosthetic joint infection in an immunocompromised host

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    Eugene M. Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case: A 73-year-old immunocompromised male presented with recurrent left elbow swelling due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC olecranon bursitis. 3 years after completing MAC treatment, he underwent right total knee arthroplasty (TKA. 1 year later, he developed TKA pain and swelling and was diagnosed with MAC prosthetic joint infection (PJI. He underwent TKA resection, reimplantation, and 12 months of anti-MAC therapy. This patient is the seventh case report of MAC olecranon bursitis and the third case report of MAC PJI. He is the only report of both MAC olecranon bursitis and PJI occurring in the same patient. Informed consent: This patient was informed and agreed to the publication of this material.

  7. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn; Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L.; Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar

    2013-01-01

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30–32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from −39 to −13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log 10 ), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log 10 ). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B.melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers

  8. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L. [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Sriranganathan, Nammalwar, E-mail: nathans@vt.edu [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30–32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from −39 to −13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log{sub 10}), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log{sub 10}). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B.melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers.

  9. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn; Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L.; Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar

    2013-11-01

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30-32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from -39 to -13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log10), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log10). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B. melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers.

  10. Pathogenesis of Riemerella anatipestifer in turkeys after experimental mono-infection via respiratory routes or dual infection together with the avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Ryll, Martin; Behr, Klaus-Peter; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2009-12-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is the causative agent of septicaemic and exudative diseases in a variety of bird species. Despite numerous outbreaks, little is known about the pathogenicity of RA for turkeys. We investigated the development of RA-induced disease in commercial turkey poults following RA inoculation via different respiratory routes. Inoculation by aerosol or injection into the abdominal air sac led to systemic infection and mild gross lesions, including pericarditis, epicarditis and airsacculitis, which were less pronounced compared with field outbreaks. It was speculated, that viral pathogens, such as the avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), may exacerbate RA pathogenesis under field conditions. We inoculated turkey poults with virulent aMPV. Subsequently, aMPV-infected and virus-free birds were exposed 3 to 5 days later to a high dose of RA by aerosol (>10(10) colony-forming units/ml in 8 ml aerosol per 11 or 12 birds) or were inoculated 4 days later with a low RA dose (10(4.9) colony-forming units per bird) via the intranasal route. Intranasal RA inoculation with the low bacterial dose led to a respiratory and systemic RA infection in aMPV-infected birds, while virus-free birds remained RA-negative. Following exposure to a high RA dose by aerosol, aMPV-infected groups showed slightly enhanced incidences of gross lesions and RA re-isolation. The present study clearly confirms that RA is pathogenic for turkeys after experimental inoculation via respiratory routes, which are speculated to be the natural route of infection. However, experimental models in this study did not reproduce the severity of RA-related disease as observed under field conditions, which emphasizes the importance of other contributing factors. aMPV-induced respiratory lesions may serve as a predisposing factor for the establishment of RA infection, since they favour colonization of the bacterium.

  11. Gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis can predispose ewes to clinical mastitis after experimental mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Gougoulis, D A; Gallidis, E; Ptochos, S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Fthenakis, G C

    2017-10-15

    Objective was to study, in an experimental model, the possible role of gastrointestinal nematode infection in predisposing ewes to mastitis during the lactation period. Twenty-four ewes (A or B [n=12]), free from nematode and trematode helminths, were used. Group A animals received 5000 third-stage larvae of a trichostrongylid helminth cocktail and group B ewes were unparasitised controls. Animals in group A developed gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis confirmed by >500epg in faecal samples; mean epg of group B ewes were Ewes were challenged by deposition of Mannheimia haemolytica into the teat duct. In group A, 7 ewes developed clinical and 5 subclinical mastitis; no ewe in group B developed clinical mastitis, but only subclinical (12 ewes) (P=0.002). M. haemolytica was isolated from 132/132 and 121/132 udder samples from group A or B, respectively (Pewes that developed clinical mastitis than in others which did not (0.709 and 0.162 versus 0.662 and 0.136, respectively; Pewes with subclinical mastitis (in group A or B), inducible-lymphoid-follicles were observed in the teat, which were not observed in ewes with clinical disease. Total pathology scores summed over all days were 127 and 73 for group A or B ewes, respectively (maximum possible 192; Pewes that developed clinical mastitis. It is concluded that, in view of bacterial challenge, gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis and particularly Teladorsagia infection, might lead to clinical mastitis, through various pathogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibody responses of cervids (Cervus elaphus) following experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection and the implications for immunodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Noel P; Surujballi, Om P; Prescott, John F; Duncan, J Robert; Waters, W Ray; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena

    2008-11-01

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife animals are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current antemortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, is impractical for routine use with many wild animals. Antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because the animals are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. This report characterizes the antibody responses of red deer-elk hybrids (Cervus elaphus) against Mycobacterium bovis and subsequently evaluates the diagnostic performance of select antigens in a rapid-test format. Sequential serum samples were collected from 10 animals experimentally infected with M. bovis and 5 noninfected animals over a 7-month period postinfection (p.i.). Samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblot analyses, and multiantigen print immunoassays for seroreactivity to mycobacterial antigens. Although all infected animals produced antibodies to M. bovis protein antigens, there was significant animal-to-animal variation in the kinetics and magnitudes of responses and the antigens recognized. The most frequently recognized antigens included MPB83, ESAT-6, CFP10, and MPB70. Responses to some antigens, such as MPB83, were consistently detected as early as 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas other antigens were detected only much later (>140 days p.i.). Antibody responses were boosted by injection of tuberculin for intradermal tuberculin skin testing. Comparison of single-antigen (fluorescence polarization assay) with multiantigen (CervidTB STAT-PAK) rapid tests demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis in cervids will require multiple and carefully selected seroreactive antigens covering a broad spectrum of antibody specificities.

  13. Synergistic effects of resveratrol (free and inclusion complex) and sulfamethoxazole-trimetropim treatment on pathology, oxidant/antioxidant status and behavior of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Tonin, Alexandre A; Rech, Virginia C; Alves, Catiane B; D'Avila, Fernanda; Thomé, Gustavo R; Guarda, Naiara S; Moresco, Rafael N; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda F; Luchese, Cristiane; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Morsch, Vera M; Tochetto, Camila; Fighera, Rafael; Nishihira, Vivian S K; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of resveratrol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) on the treatment of mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii during the chronic phase of the disease considering infection, behavior, and oxidative/antioxidants profile aspects. For the study, 60 mice were initially divided into two groups: uninfected (n = 24) and infected by T. gondii (n = 36). These two groups were later subdivided into other groups and treated with resveratrol (free and inclusion complex containing resveratrol) alone and co-administered with ST: groups A to D were composed by healthy mice and groups E to J were consisted of animals infected by T. gondii (VEG strain). Treatments began 20 days post-infection for 10 consecutive days with oral doses of 0.5 mg kg(-1) of ST (groups B and F), 100 mg kg(-1) of free resveratrol (groups C and G) and inclusion complex of resveratrol (nanoparticles containing resveratrol) (groups D and H), and lastly an co-administration of both drugs (groups I and J). Behavioral tests (memory, anxiety and locomotion) were performed after treatment. Liver and brain fragments were collected to evaluate pathological changes, brain cysts counts, as well as oxidant and antioxidant levels. A reduction on the number of cysts in the brain of animals treated with both drugs combined was observed; there was also reduced number of lesions on both organs. This drug combined effect was also able to reduce oxidative and increase antioxidant levels in infected mice, which might be interpreted as a resveratrol protective effect. In addition, the combination of ST and resveratrol was able to prevent behavioral changes in infected mice. Therefore, the use of co-administration drugs enhances the therapeutic effect acting on a synergic way, reducing the oxidizing effects of the chemical treatment for toxoplasmosis. In addition, resveratrol in inclusion complex when co-administered with ST showed an improved

  14. Effects of Non-Susceptible Hosts on the Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the Vector Triatoma infestans: an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Diego P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested experimentally the effects of the presence of non-susceptible hosts on the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans. The experiment consisted in two treatments: with chickens, including two chickens (non-susceptible hosts and two infected guinea pigs (susceptible hosts, and without chickens, including only two infected guinea pigs. The hosts were held unrestrained in individual metal cages inside a closed tulle chamber. A total of 200 uninfected T. infestans third instar nymphs were liberated in each replica, collected on day 14, and examined for infection and blood meal sources on day 32-36. The additional presence of chickens relative to infected guinea pigs: (a significantly modified the spatial distribution of bugs; (b increased significantly the likelihoods of having a detectable blood meal on any host and molting to the next instar; (c did not affect the bugs' probability of death by predation; and (d decreased significantly the overall percentage of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi. The bugs collected from inside or close to the guinea pigs' cages showed a higher infection rate (71-88% than those collected from the chickens' cages (22-32%. Mixed blood meals on chickens and guinea pigs were detected in 12-21% of bugs. Although the presence of chickens would decrease the overall percentage of infected bugs in short term experiments, the high rate of host change of T. infestans would make this difference fade out if longer exposure times had been provided.

  15. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  16. EEG Analysis during complex diagnostic tasks in Nuclear Power Plants - Simulator-based Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    In literature, there are a lot of studies based on EEG signals during cognitive activities of human-beings but most of them dealt with simple cognitive activities such as transforming letters into Morse code, subtraction, reading, semantic memory search, visual search, memorizing a set of words and so on. In this work, EEG signals were analyzed during complex diagnostic tasks in NPP simulator-based environment. Investigated are the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band EEG powers during the diagnostic tasks. The experimental design and procedure are represented in section 2 and the results are shown in section 3. Finally some considerations are discussed and the direction for the further work is proposed in section 4

  17. EEG Analysis during complex diagnostic tasks in Nuclear Power Plants - Simulator-based Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In literature, there are a lot of studies based on EEG signals during cognitive activities of human-beings but most of them dealt with simple cognitive activities such as transforming letters into Morse code, subtraction, reading, semantic memory search, visual search, memorizing a set of words and so on. In this work, EEG signals were analyzed during complex diagnostic tasks in NPP simulator-based environment. Investigated are the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band EEG powers during the diagnostic tasks. The experimental design and procedure are represented in section 2 and the results are shown in section 3. Finally some considerations are discussed and the direction for the further work is proposed in section 4.

  18. A note on the analysis of germination data from complex experimental designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Andreasen, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2017-01-01

    from event-time models fitted separately to data from each germination test by means of meta-analytic random effects models. We show that this approach provides a more appropriate appreciation of the sources of variation in hierarchically structured germination experiments as both between- and within......In recent years germination experiments have become more and more complex. Typically, they are replicated in time as independent runs and at each time point they involve hierarchical, often factorial experimental designs, which are now commonly analysed by means of linear mixed models. However......, in order to characterize germination in response to time elapsed, specific event-time models are needed and mixed model extensions of these models are not readily available, neither in theory nor in practice. As a practical workaround we propose a two-step approach that combines and weighs together results...

  19. A novel therapeutic strategy for experimental stroke using docosahexaenoic acid complexed to human albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayev Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tremendous efforts in ischemic stroke research and significant improvements in patient care within the last decade, therapy is still insufficient. There is a compelling, urgent need for safe and effective neuroprotective strategies to limit brain injury, facilitate brain repair, and improve functional outcome. Recently, we reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3 complexed to human albumin (DHA-Alb is highly neuroprotective after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo in young rats. This review highlights the potency of DHA-Alb therapy in permanent MCAo and aged rats and whether protection persists with chronic survival. We discovered that a novel therapy with DHA-Alb improved behavioral outcomes accompanied by attenuation of lesion volumes even when animals were allowed to survive three weeks after experimental stroke. This treatment might provide the basis for future therapeutics for patients suffering from ischemic stroke.

  20. Functional inference of complex anatomical tendinous networks at a macroscopic scale via sparse experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anupam; Lipson, Hod; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    In systems and computational biology, much effort is devoted to functional identification of systems and networks at the molecular-or cellular scale. However, similarly important networks exist at anatomical scales such as the tendon network of human fingers: the complex array of collagen fibers that transmits and distributes muscle forces to finger joints. This network is critical to the versatility of the human hand, and its function has been debated since at least the 16(th) century. Here, we experimentally infer the structure (both topology and parameter values) of this network through sparse interrogation with force inputs. A population of models representing this structure co-evolves in simulation with a population of informative future force inputs via the predator-prey estimation-exploration algorithm. Model fitness depends on their ability to explain experimental data, while the fitness of future force inputs depends on causing maximal functional discrepancy among current models. We validate our approach by inferring two known synthetic Latex networks, and one anatomical tendon network harvested from a cadaver's middle finger. We find that functionally similar but structurally diverse models can exist within a narrow range of the training set and cross-validation errors. For the Latex networks, models with low training set error [functional structure of complex anatomical networks. This work expands current bioinformatics inference approaches by demonstrating that sparse, yet informative interrogation of biological specimens holds significant computational advantages in accurate and efficient inference over random testing, or assuming model topology and only inferring parameters values. These findings also hold clues to both our evolutionary history and the development of versatile machines.

  1. Radiosynthesis and biodistribution of 99mTcN-Garenoxacin dithiocarbamate complex a potential infection imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Aakif Ullah Khan; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    Garenoxacin (GXN) was modified to its dithiocarbamate followed by radiolabeling with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) through [ 99m Tc-N] 2+ core. The suitability of the 99m TcN-Garenoxacin dithiocarbamate (GXND) complex as a potential multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococci (PRSC) infection radiotracer was assessed in artificially infected rats (AFRT). The radiolabeled complex was investigated for its radiochemical purity (RCP), permanence in serum using HPLC and TLC methods. In vitro binding with MDRSA and PRSC was performed at 37 deg C. The 99m TcN-GXND showed maximum RCP of 98.00 ± 0.22% and remained more than 90% stable up to 4 h. The 99m TcN-GXND showed saturated in vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC, respectively. The complex showed normal biodistribution in healthy rats (HRT), however in AFRT, seven fold uptakes was observed in infected muscle as compared to inflamed and normal muscles. Based on the high RCP, stability in serum, better in vitro binding with bacteria, biodistribution behavior and the target to non-target (infected to inflamed muscle) ratio, we recommend the 99m TcN-GXND complex for in vivo investigation of MDRSA and PRSC infection in human. (author)

  2. Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, S., E-mail: surabhijaiswal73@gmail.com; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-08-15

    We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a Π shaped direct current glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change in the gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a modified Korteweg-de-Vries-Burgers type equation.

  3. An investigation on vertical transmission of Leishmania infantum in experimentally infected dogs and assessment of offspring's infectiousness potential by xenodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, T; Chouihi, E; Ben Hadj Ahmed, S; Chelbi, I; Barhoumi, W; Cherni, S; Zoghlami, Z; Gharbi, M; Zhioua, E

    2014-12-15

    Dogs are the main reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, etiologic agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Transmission of L. infantum to humans and dogs is mainly through the bite of infected sand flies. In the Western Mediterranean basin, Phlebotomus perniciosus is the main vector of L. infantum. However, occasional vertical transmission of L. infantum has been reported. This study investigated L. infantum vertical transmission in offspring of experimentally infected dogs. Among 14 surviving puppies from three female beagle dogs that developed CVL following an experimental infection with L. infantum, one was tested positive by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, by PCR and by xenodiagnosis with a high parasite burden in the spleen at 14 months old. None of the remaining puppies were tested positive for L. infantum. These findings strongly suggest that infected puppies following vertical transmission can sustain infection and contribute in infecting sand flies with L. infantum. Any strategy for controlling CVL should take into consideration the vertical transmission of L. infantum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical presentation, convalescence, and relapse of rocky mountain spotted fever in dogs experimentally infected via tick bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Levin

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF is a tick-borne disease caused by R. rickettsii in North and South America. Domestic dogs are susceptible to infection and canine RMSF can be fatal without appropriate treatment. Although clinical signs of R. rickettsii infection in dogs have been described, published reports usually include descriptions of either advanced clinical cases or experimental infections caused by needle-inoculation of cultured pathogen rather than by tick bite. The natural progression of a tick-borne R. rickettsii infection has not been studied in sufficient detail. Here, we provide a detailed description of clinical, hematological, molecular, and serological dynamics of RMSF in domestic dogs from the day of experimental exposure to infected ticks through recovery. Presented data indicate that neither the height/duration of fever nor detection of rickettsial DNA in dogs' blood by PCR are good indicators for clinical prognosis. Only the apex and subsequent subsidence of neutrophilia seem to mark the beginning of recovery and allow predicting a favorable outcome in Rickettsia-infected dogs, even despite the continuing persistence of mucosal petechiae and skin rash. On the other hand the appropriate (doxycycline antibiotic therapy of sufficient duration is crucial in prevention of RMSF relapses in dogs.

  5. Clinical presentation, convalescence, and relapse of rocky mountain spotted fever in dogs experimentally infected via tick bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Killmaster, Lindsay F; Zemtsova, Galina E; Ritter, Jana M; Langham, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by R. rickettsii in North and South America. Domestic dogs are susceptible to infection and canine RMSF can be fatal without appropriate treatment. Although clinical signs of R. rickettsii infection in dogs have been described, published reports usually include descriptions of either advanced clinical cases or experimental infections caused by needle-inoculation of cultured pathogen rather than by tick bite. The natural progression of a tick-borne R. rickettsii infection has not been studied in sufficient detail. Here, we provide a detailed description of clinical, hematological, molecular, and serological dynamics of RMSF in domestic dogs from the day of experimental exposure to infected ticks through recovery. Presented data indicate that neither the height/duration of fever nor detection of rickettsial DNA in dogs' blood by PCR are good indicators for clinical prognosis. Only the apex and subsequent subsidence of neutrophilia seem to mark the beginning of recovery and allow predicting a favorable outcome in Rickettsia-infected dogs, even despite the continuing persistence of mucosal petechiae and skin rash. On the other hand the appropriate (doxycycline) antibiotic therapy of sufficient duration is crucial in prevention of RMSF relapses in dogs.

  6. Experimental infection of Carrion crows (Corvus corone) with two European West Nile virus (WNV) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Maha; Vangeluwe, Didier; Lecollinet, Sylvie; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2013-07-26

    West Nile virus (WNV) has become a wide-spread arbovirus in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin countries. This emerging zoonotic disease disseminated 13 years ago in North America where its impact on animal and public health has been considerable. Although American corvids have been the most reliable avian sentinels for WN surveillance in the United States, there is so far no data available about the susceptibility of their Western European counterparts to WNV. Clinical follow-up and serum, oral swabs and feathers viral RNA load monitoring was herein performed on wild-caught Carrion crows (Corvus corone) experimentally inoculated with two WNV strains, Is98 that was isolated from a stork in Israel where it elicited high rates of avian deaths in 1998, and Fr2000 which was only associated to sporadic equine cases in Camargue, France in 2000. Inoculated crows were sensitive to both WNV infections and, as expected from the available epidemiological data, Is98 induced a higher mortality rate (100% vs. 33%) and a quicker fatal outcome, with higher viral RNA loads detected in the serum, oral swabs and feathers than in the Fr2000 group. Therefore, Carrion crows should also be a target species for WNV surveillance in Western Europe, where reporting for abnormal mortalities could be completed by viral detection in the herein described avian matrices. These experimental findings also emphasize the peculiarity of the European situation where a large spectrum of WNV genetic and pathotypic variants have been so far isolated despite limited WN disease reports in wild birds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiocharacterization of the 99mTc-rufloxacin complex and biological evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus infected rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc-rufloxacin ( 99m Tc-RUN) complex was prepared by reaction of different amounts of reduced sodium pertechnetate with different amount of Rufloxacin (RUN) antibiotic for the in vivo scintigraphic localization of the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infectious foci in Male Wister Rats (MWR) model. The 99m Tc-RUN complex was radiochemically and biologically characterized in terms of radiochemical stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in artificially infected with S. aureus MWR. The 99m Tc-RUN complex showed stability more than 90% up to 240 min in normal saline with a maximum stability value of 98.10 ± 0.18% at 30 min after reconstitution. At 37 deg C the complex showed in vitro permanence in serum up to 16 h with 13.90% side products during incubation. The 99m Tc-RUN complex showed saturated in vitro binding with S. aureus at different intervals with a maximum uptake value of 71.50%. Infected to normal muscle, infected to inflamed and inflamed to normal muscles ratios were approximately 6.04, 4.31 and 1.40. Based on the stability of the complex in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution results, the 99m Tc-RUN complex is recommended for in vivo scintigraphic localization of the S. aureus in vivo infectious foci in human. (author)

  8. Gag- and env-specific serum antibodies in cats after natural and experimental infection with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); H. Broos; G.A. Drost; K. Weijer (Kees); R. van Herwijnen (Rob); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn order to monitor the antibody response to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in cats, following experimental and natural infection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed using recombinant env and gag proteins and p24-specific monoclonal antibodies. It was shown

  9. Lack of prion transmission by sexual or parental routes in experimentally infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Pritzkow, Sandra; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Soto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans as well as captive and wild animals. The mechanisms and routes governing the natural spread of prions are not completely understood and several hypotheses have been proposed. In this study, we analyzed the effect of gender in prion incubation period, as well as the possibility of prion transmission by sexual and parental contact using 263K infected hamsters as a model. Our results show that males have significantly longer incubation periods compared with females when exposed to the same quantity of infectious material. Importantly, no evidence of sexual or parental prion transmission was found, even 500 d after sexual contact or birth, respectively. Western blotting and PMCA were unable to detect sub-clinical levels of PrP(Sc) in experimental subjects, suggesting a complete absence of prion transmission by these routes. Our results show that sexual and parental transmission of prions does not occur in this model. It remains to be studied whether this conclusion is valid also for other prion strains and species.

  10. Preclinical deposition of pathological prion protein in muscle of experimentally infected primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Krasemann

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals. A central step in disease progression is the accumulation of a misfolded form (PrP(Sc of the host encoded prion protein (PrP(C in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. The involvement of peripheral tissues in preclinical states increases the risk of accidental transmission. On the other hand, detection of PrP(Sc in non-neuronal easy-accessible compartments such as muscle may offer a novel diagnostic tool. Primate models have proven invaluable to investigate prion diseases. We have studied the deposition of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys challenged with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, variant CJD (vCJD and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in preclinical and clinical stage using biochemical and morphological methods. Here, we show the preclinical presence of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with vCJD.

  11. Experimental single and trickle infections of cattle with Taenia saginata: Studies of immunodiagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, H.O.; Grønvold, J.; Maeda, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two groups of 12 calves were given either a single infection dose of 30,000 Taenia saginata eggs (group A) or trickle infected with 12 x 2500 T saginata eggs (group B). The calves were killed 16, 22 or 54 weeks after infection and the numbers of viable and dead parasites were counted by slicing...

  12. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R.

    2015-01-01

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. gall infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases incr...

  13. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  14. Impact of the post-weaning parasitism history on an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceï, W; Mahieu, M; Philibert, L; Arquet, R; Alexandre, G; Mandonnet, N; Bambou, J C

    2015-01-15

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections have an important negative impact on small ruminant production. The selection of genotypes resistant to these parasitic infections is a promising alternative control strategy. Thus, resistance against GIN is an important component of small ruminant breeding schemes, based on phenotypic measurements of resistance in immune mature infected animals. In this study we evaluated both the impact of the post-weaning parasitism history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection of resistant and susceptible Creole kids chosen on the basis of their estimated breeding value, and the interaction with the kid's genetic status. During the post-weaning period (from 3 months until 7 months of age) Creole kids were reared at pasture according to four different levels of a mixed rotational stocking system with Creole cattle: 100% (control), 75% (GG75), 50% (GG50), and 25% (GG25) of the total stocking rate of the pasture. The level of infection of the kids decreased significantly at 50% and 25% of the total stocking rate. After the post-weaning period at pasture, at 11 months of age kids were experimentally infected with H. contortus. The faecal egg counts (FEC) were significantly lower in the groups showing the highest FEC at pasture. This result suggests that a degree of protection against an experimental H. contortus infection occurred during the post-weaning period and was dependant on the level of parasitism. Interestingly, no interaction was observed between this level of protection and the genetic status. In conclusion, the level of post-weaning natural parasitism history at pasture would not influence the genetic status evaluation. More generally our results suggest that it would be better to expose kids to a high level of gastrointestinal parasitism during the post-weaning period in order to increase the basal level of resistance thereafter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vaccination with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus vaccines, based on autologous infected cells, elicits enhancement of homologous challenge infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Karlas (Jos); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); M.A. Peer; W. Huisman (Willem); A.M. Cuisinier; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCats were vaccinated with fixed autologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cells in order to present viral proteins to the immune system of individual cats in an MHC-matched fashion. Upon vaccination, a humoral response against Gag was induced. Furthermore,

  16. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; van Gennip, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Moser C, van Gennip M, Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PO, Lee B, Hougen HP, Calum H, Ciofu O, Givskov M, Molin S, Hoiby N. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis. APMIS 2009; 117: 95-107. The dominant cause of premature...... death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes...... and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production...

  17. Experimental infection of macaques with a wild water bird-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Fujiyuki

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV continues to threaten human health. Non-human primate infection models of human influenza are desired. To establish an animal infection model with more natural transmission and to determine the pathogenicity of HPAIV isolated from a wild water bird in primates, we administered a Japanese isolate of HPAIV (A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008, H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, in droplet form, via the intratracheal route. Infection of the lower and upper respiratory tracts and viral shedding were observed in both macaques. Inoculation of rhesus monkeys with higher doses of the isolate resulted in stronger clinical symptoms of influenza. Our results demonstrate that HPAIV isolated from a water bird in Japan is pathogenic in monkeys by experimental inoculation, and provide a new method for HPAIV infection of non-human primate hosts, a good animal model for investigation of HPAIV pathogenicity.

  18. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  19. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  20. Highly (H5N1 and low (H7N2 pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateri Bertran

    Full Text Available An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006 or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009, both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR, which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds

  1. Highly (H5N1) and low (H7N2) pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Busquets, Núria; Abad, Francesc Xavier; García de la Fuente, Jorge; Solanes, David; Cordón, Iván; Costa, Taiana; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2012-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006) or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009), both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi) after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR), which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds of prey and

  2. Radiosynthesis and biodistribution of 99mTc-tricarbonyl complex of temafloxacin dithiocarbamate. A potential Streptococci pneumoniae infection radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the current investigation the complexation of derivatized temafloxacin with 99m Tc using [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] + precursor was assessed. The tricarbonyl complex of the temafloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TAND) was characterized in terms of radiochemical purity (RCP) yield in saline, in vitro radiochemical stability in serum, in vitro binding with Streptococci pneumoniae and biodistribution in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with living and heat killed Streptococci pneumoniae. The 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TAND complex showed 98.10 ± 15% RCP value at 30 min of the reconstitution and remained more than 90% stable up to 120 min in normal saline at room temperature. In serum a stable behavior with the appearance of 15.30% unwanted side product up to 16 h of incubation was observed. A saturated in vitro binding with Streptococci pneumoniae was observed. The complex showed almost six times higher uptake in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscles of the MWR infected with living Streptococci pneumoniae. Insignificant difference in the uptake of the tracer in the infected, inflamed and normal muscles of the MWR infected with heat killed Streptococci pneumoniae was noted. Based on the elevated RCP in saline, in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, saturated in vitro binding with pathogens and better biodistribution behavior with higher accumulation of the tracer in target organs confirmed the suitability of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TAND complex as promising infection radiotracer. (author)

  3. Case-crossover study of Burkholderia cepacia complex bloodstream infection associated with contaminated intravenous bromopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ianick Souto; Pellegrino, Flávia Lúcia Piffano Costa; Freitas, Andrea d'Avila; Santos, Marisa da Silva; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini d'Alemeida; Vasques, Márcia Regina Guimarães; Amorim, Efigenia Lourdes Teixeira; Oliveira, Sandra; Nouér, Simone Aranha; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz Lopes; Mascarenhas, Luiz Affonso; Magalhães, Ana Cristina Gouveia; Cleinman, Isabella Barbosa; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2010-05-01

    To investigate an outbreak of healthcare-associated Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) primary bloodstream infections (BCC-BSI). Case-crossover study in a public hospital, a university hospital and a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from March 2006 to May 2006. Twenty-five patients with BCC-BSI. After determining the date BCC-BSI symptoms started for each patient, 3 time intervals of data collection were defined, each one with a duration of 3 days: the case period, starting just before BCC-BSI symptoms onset; the control period, starting 6 days before BCC-BSI symptoms onset; and the washout period, comprising the 3 days between the case period and the control period. Exposures evaluated were intravascular solutions and invasive devices and procedures. Potential risk factors were identified by using the McNemar chi(2) adjusted test. Cultures of samples of potentially contaminated solutions were performed. BCC strain typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using SpeI. The statistical analysis revealed that the use of bromopride and dipyrone was associated with BCC-BSI. A total of 21 clinical isolates from 17 (68%) of the 25 patients and an isolate obtained from the bromopride vial were available for strain typing. Six pulsotypes were detected. A predominant pulsotype (A) accounted for 11 isolates obtained from 11 patients (65%) in the 3 study hospitals. Our investigation, using a case-crossover design, of an outbreak of BCC-BSI infections concluded it was polyclonal but likely caused by infusion of contaminated bromopride. The epidemiological finding was validated by microbiological analysis. After recall of contaminated bromopride vials by the manufacturer, the outbreak was controlled.

  4. Infirmity and injury complexity are risk factors for surgical-site infection after operative fracture care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachoura, Abdo; Guitton, Thierry G; Smith, R Malcolm; Vrahas, Mark S; Zurakowski, David; Ring, David

    2011-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgical-site infections prolong hospital stays, double rehospitalization rates, and increase healthcare costs. Additionally, patients with orthopaedic surgical-site infections (SSI) have substantially greater physical limitations and reductions in their health-related quality of life. However, the risk factors for SSI after operative fracture care are unclear. We determined the incidence and quantified modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for SSIs in patients with orthopaedic trauma undergoing surgery. We retrospectively indentified, from our prospective trauma database and billing records, 1611 patients who underwent 1783 trauma-related procedures between 2006 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed and demographics, surgery-specific data, and whether the patients had an SSI were recorded. We determined which if any variables predicted SSI. Six factors independently predicted SSI: (1) the use of a drain, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-3.8); (2) number of operations OR 3.4, 95% CI (2.0-6.0); (3) diabetes, OR 2.1, 95% CI (1.2-3.8); (4) congestive heart failure (CHF), OR 2.8, 95% CI (1.3-6.5); (5) site of injury tibial shaft/plateau, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-4.2); and (6) site of injury, elbow, OR 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.7). The risk factors for SSIs after skeletal trauma are most strongly determined by nonmodifiable factors: patient infirmity (diabetes and heart failure) and injury complexity (site of injury, number of operations, use of a drain). Level II, prognostic study. See the Guideline for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Novel vaccination approach for dengue infection based on recombinant immune complex universal platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Young; Reljic, Rajko; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; Yang, Moon-Sik; Reyes-del Valle, Jorge; Mason, Hugh S

    2015-04-08

    Dengue infection is on the rise in many endemic areas of the tropics. Vaccination remains the most realistic strategy for prevention of this potentially fatal viral disease but there is currently no effective vaccine that could protect against all four known serotypes of the dengue virus. This study describes the generation and testing of a novel vaccination approach against dengue based on recombinant immune complexes (RIC). We modelled the dengue RIC on the existing Ebola RIC (Phoolcharoen, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108(Dec (51)):20695) but with a key modification that allowed formation of a universal RIC platform that can be easily adapted for use for other pathogens. This was achieved by retaining only the binding epitope of the 6D8 ant-Ebola mAb, which was then fused to the consensus dengue E3 domain (cEDIII), resulting in a hybrid dengue-Ebola RIC (DERIC). We expressed human and mouse versions of these molecules in tobacco plants using a geminivirus-based expression system. Following purification from the plant extracts by protein G affinity chromatography, DERIC bound to C1q component of complement, thus confirming functionality. Importantly, following immunization of mice, DERIC induced a potent, virus-neutralizing anti-cEDIII humoral immune response without exogenous adjuvants. We conclude that these self-adjuvanting immunogens have the potential to be developed as a novel vaccine candidate for dengue infection, and provide the basis for a universal RIC platform for use with other antigens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental infection of octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Immunohistochemical tracking of antigen and tissue responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, Vasileios; White, Daniella; Valsamidis, Michail-Aggelos; Vasilaki, Feli

    2017-03-01

    Adult common octopus individuals were intramuscularly infected with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida in order to investigate if this species is sensitive to this common and important fish pathogen. The fate of the bacterial antigens and the tissue responses of Octopus vulgaris were studied employing immunohistochemical techniques. Strong reaction at the site of injection was evident from day 2 post-infection that continued until day 14. Great numbers of hemocytes that were attracted at the site of infection were involved in phagocytosis of bacteria. Very early in the infection, a transition of cells to fibroblasts and an effort to isolate the infection was observed. During the course of the study, very large necrotic cells were seen at the site of infection, whereas during the later stages hemocytes with phagocytosed bacteria were observed in well-defined pockets inside the muscle tissue. None of the internal organs tested for the presence of the bacterium were positive with the exception of the digestive gland where antigen staining was observed which was not associated with hemocyte infiltration. The high doses of bacterial cells used in this experimental infection and the lack of disease signs from Octopus vulgaris suggest that, under normal conditions, octopus is resistant to Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intra-uterine experimental infection by Ureaplasma diversum induces TNF-α mediated womb inflammation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma diversum is an opportunistic pathogen associated with uterine inflammation, impaired embryo implantation, infertility, abortions, premature birth of calves and neonatal pneumonia in cattle. It has been suggested that the intra-uterine infection by Ureaplasma diversum can cause vascular changes that hinder the success of pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of intrauterine site of A/J mice in estrus or proestrus phase inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum. The infection was monitored at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the PCR methodology to detect the Ureaplasma in the inoculation site and the profile of circulating blood cells. Morphological changes, intensity of inflammation and the production of cytokines were compared. The infected mice showed local inflammation through the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Ureaplasma diversum infections in the reproductive tract of studied mice seemed to be associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in uterine parenchyma. The levels of TNF-α of infected mice were dependent on the bacterial load of inoculated Ureaplasma. Uterine experimental infections by Ureaplasma diversum have not been mentioned yet and herein we presented the first report of an intrauterine infection model in mice.

  8. Intra-uterine experimental infection by Ureaplasma diversum induces TNF-α mediated womb inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jamile R; Ferreira, Lício F A A; Oliveira, Percíllia V S; Nunes, Ivanéia V; Pereira, Ítalo S; Timenetsky, Jorge; Marques, Lucas M; Figueiredo, Tiana B; Silva, Robson A A

    2016-01-01

    Ureaplasma diversum is an opportunistic pathogen associated with uterine inflammation, impaired embryo implantation, infertility, abortions, premature birth of calves and neonatal pneumonia in cattle. It has been suggested that the intra-uterine infection by Ureaplasma diversum can cause vascular changes that hinder the success of pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of intrauterine site of A/J mice in estrus or proestrus phase inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum. The infection was monitored at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the PCR methodology to detect the Ureaplasma in the inoculation site and the profile of circulating blood cells. Morphological changes, intensity of inflammation and the production of cytokines were compared. The infected mice showed local inflammation through the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Ureaplasma diversum infections in the reproductive tract of studied mice seemed to be associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in uterine parenchyma. The levels of TNF-α of infected mice were dependent on the bacterial load of inoculated Ureaplasma. Uterine experimental infections by Ureaplasma diversum have not been mentioned yet and herein we presented the first report of an intrauterine infection model in mice.

  9. The effect of a fenbendazole treatment on cyst excretion and weight gain in calves experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vandenhoute, Els; Pohle, Herbert; Casaert, Stijn; De Wilde, Nathalie; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2010-04-19

    A total of 28 Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with 10(5)Giardia duodenalis cysts. Eleven days later, all animals were allocated into two groups of 14 animals each, based on the average pre-treatment cyst counts. Treatment was randomly assigned to one of the two groups, and all animals in the treatment group received a daily oral dosage of 15mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight during 3 consecutive days. The calves in the control group received a placebo (water). From 3 days after treatment onwards, cyst excretion was determined three times a week during 4 consecutive weeks. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded on a daily basis, and all animals were weighed prior to treatment and weekly thereafter. At the end of the experimental period, there was a significant (Pfenbendazole treated and untreated calves experimentally infected with G. duodenalis, although additional data need to confirm the need for treatment in natural conditions.

  10. Adaptation of Lymnaea fuscus and Radix balthica to Fasciola hepatica through the experimental infection of several successive snail generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (<20%) and limited cercarial production (<50 cercariae per infected snail) noted with these juveniles could not explain the high values noted in these cattle herds. As paramphistomosis due to Calicophoron daubneyi was not still noted in these farms, the existence of another mode of infection was hypothesized. Experimental infection of several successive generations of L. glabra, originating from eggs laid by their parents already infected with this parasite resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence of snail infection and the number of shed cercariae. The aim of this paper was to determine if this mode of snail infection was specific to L. glabra, or it might occur in other lymnaeid species such as L. fuscus and R. balthica. Methods Five successive generations of L. fuscus and R. balthica were subjected to individual bimiracidial infections in the laboratory. Resulting rediae and cercariae in the first four generations were counted after snail dissection at day 50 p.e. (20°C), while the dynamics of cercarial shedding was followed in the F5 generation. Results In the first experiment, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. Conclusion The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations

  11. Putative biomarkers for evaluating antibiotic treatment: an experimental model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Skaanild, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Biomarkers of infection were screened for their possible role as evaluators of antibiotic treatment in an aerosol infection model of porcine pneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap). Following infection of 12 pigs, clinical signs of pneumonia developed within 20 h, whereafter...... antibiotic treatment of acute Ap-infection ill pigs. The present model provides a valuable tool in the evaluation of antibiotic treatments, offering the advantage of clinical and pathological examinations combined with the use of biochemical infection markers....... recovered clinically within 24h after treatment, whereas tiamulin-treated animals remained clinically ill until the end of the study, 48 h after treatment. A similar Picture was seen for the biomarkers of infection. During the infection period, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and haptoglobin...

  12. Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenakis, Ioannis; Panzavolta, Luca; Michiels, Annelies; Del Pozo Sacristán, Rubén; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-03-29

    Commercial bacterins are widely used at weaning to control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. However, it is not known whether the efficacy of vaccinating against M. hyopneumoniae can be influenced by the weaning process when vaccination is applied at the day of weaning. The present study assessed the efficacy of a single M. hyopneumoniae vaccination (Ingelvac MycoFLEX®) three days before weaning (V1) or at weaning (V2) against experimental challenge infection. Four weeks after vaccination, groups V1 and V2 (n = 20 pigs each) and a non-vaccinated, positive control group (PCG) (n = 20) were endotracheally inoculated with a virulent M. hyopneumoniae field strain. Five pigs were used as a negative control group. All pigs were euthanized 5 weeks after challenge. The main parameters investigated included macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions at necropsy, immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for quantifying M. hyopneumoniae. The average macroscopic lung lesion scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 0.54, 0.88 and 1.04, respectively (P > 0.05). The average lymphohistiocytic infiltration scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 2.95, 3.16 and 3.61, respectively (P 0.05), the qPCR values were: V1 = 10(2.94), V2 = 10(2.76) and PCG = 10(3.23) (P > 0.05). All pigs of the negative control group remained negative throughout the study. Both vaccinated groups had lower numbers of macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions, and lower numbers of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid compared to the PCG. However, no firm conclusions could be made on whether weaning negatively influences the efficacy of M. hyopneumoniae vaccination, since significant differences between the treatment groups were only obtained for the histopathological lung lesions. This could be attributed to the fact that milder macroscopic lung lesions were produced in the inoculated pigs, when compared to previous

  13. TLR2-Modulating Lipoproteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Enhance the HIV Infectivity of CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerry, Ciaran; Klinkenberg, Lee G; Page, Kathleen R; Karakousis, Petros C

    2016-01-01

    Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis accelerates progression from HIV to AIDS. Our previous studies showed that M. tuberculosis complex, unlike M. smegmatis, enhances TLR2-dependent susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV. The M. tuberculosis complex produces multiple TLR2-stimulating lipoproteins, which are absent in M. smegmatis. M. tuberculosis production of mature lipoproteins and TLR2 stimulation is dependent on cleavage by lipoprotein signal peptidase A (LspA). In order to determine the role of potential TLR2-stimulating lipoproteins on mycobacterial-mediated HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells, we generated M. smegmatis recombinant strains overexpressing genes encoding various M. bovis BCG lipoproteins, as well as a Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain deficient in LspA (ΔlspA). Exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to M. smegmatis strains overexpressing the BCG lipoproteins, LprF (p<0.01), LprH (p<0.05), LprI (p<0.05), LprP (p<0.001), LprQ (p<0.005), MPT83 (p<0.005), or PhoS1 (p<0.05), resulted in increased HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells isolated from these PBMC. Conversely, infection of PBMC with ΔlspA reduced HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells by 40% relative to BCG-infected cells (p<0.05). These results may have important implications for TB vaccination programs in areas with high mother-to-child HIV transmission.

  14. Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms), but not measles virus iscoms, protect dogs against CDV infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Vries (Petra); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe potential of immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms), a novel form of antigenic presentation, for the induction of protective immunity against morbillivirus infection was shown by immunizing dogs with canine distemper virus (CDV) iscoms, which contained the fusion (F) protein and a

  15. Detection of Immune-Complex Dissociated Nonstructural-1 (NS-1) Antigen in Patients with Acute Dengue Virus Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Koraka (Penelope); C.P. Burghoorn-Maas; A. Falconar; T.E. Setiati (Tatty); K. Djamiatun; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAccurate and timely diagnosis of dengue virus (DEN) infections is essential for the differential diagnosis of patients with febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever. In the present study, the diagnostic value of a newly developed immune-complex dissociated nonstructural-1 (NS-1) antigen dot

  16. Experimental mixed infection of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (L.) infantum in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lima Celeste, Jordanna Luíza; Venuto Moura, Ana Paula; França-Silva, João Carlos; Matos DE Sousa, Gabriela; Oliveira Silva, Soraia; Norma Melo, Maria; Luiz Tafuri, Wagner; Carvalho Souza, Carolina; Monteiro DE Andrade, Hélida

    2017-08-01

    In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is frequently caused by Leishmania infantum and, at an unknown frequency, by Leishmania amazonensis. Therefore, mixed infections with these organisms are possible. Mixed infections might affect the clinical course, immune response, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of the disease. Here we describe the clinical course of mixed infections with L. amazonensis and L. infantum in a hamster model. We show that mixed infections are associated with more severe clinical disease than infection with L. amazonensis or L. infantum alone. In spleens with mixed infections, L. infantum outcompeted L. amazonensis in the tissue, but not in culture from tissue. We found increased levels of IgG in animals infected with L. infantum. Although more than 30 bands were revealed in a Western blot, the highest immunogenicity was observed with proteins having molecular masses of 95 and 90 kDa, whereas proteins with molecular masses of lower than 50 kDa were reactive frequently with serum from hamsters infected with L. amazonensis, and proteins with molecular masses of 80 and 70 kDa were reactive only with serum from hamsters infected with L. infantum. This finding has important implications regarding the biology of Leishmania and humoral immune responses to infections with these organisms.

  17. Evaluation of metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gillian A; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Pusterla, Nicola; Erb, Hollis N; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have differences in viremia. 13 seronegative horses. EHV-1 strain Ab4 was administered intranasally on day 0, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs [EHV-1 specific siRNAs {n = 7} or an irrelevant siRNA {6}]) were administered intranasally 24 hours before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after infection. Physical and neurologic examinations, nasal swab specimens, and blood samples were collected for virus isolation and quantitative PCR assay. Data from the study were combined with data from a previous study of 14 horses. No significant difference was detected in clinical variables, viremia, or detection of EHV-1 in nasal swab specimens of horses treated with the EHV-1 targeted siRNAs (sigB3-siOri2) versus controls. No significant differences in viremia were detected between horses that developed EHM and those that did not. Administration of siRNAs targeted against EHV-1 around the time of EHV-1 infection was not protective with this experimental design. Horses infected with the neuropathogenic EHV-1 strain Ab4 that developed EHM did not have a more pronounced viremia.

  18. Histopathological and parasitological investigations of ear healthy skin of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-07-01

    Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs.

  19. Complex spatial dynamics of oncolytic viruses in vitro: mathematical and experimental approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Wodarz

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses replicate selectively in tumor cells and can serve as targeted treatment agents. While promising results have been observed in clinical trials, consistent success of therapy remains elusive. The dynamics of virus spread through tumor cell populations has been studied both experimentally and computationally. However, a basic understanding of the principles underlying virus spread in spatially structured target cell populations has yet to be obtained. This paper studies such dynamics, using a newly constructed recombinant adenovirus type-5 (Ad5 that expresses enhanced jellyfish green fluorescent protein (EGFP, AdEGFPuci, and grows on human 293 embryonic kidney epithelial cells, allowing us to track cell numbers and spatial patterns over time. The cells are arranged in a two-dimensional setting and allow virus spread to occur only to target cells within the local neighborhood. Despite the simplicity of the setup, complex dynamics are observed. Experiments gave rise to three spatial patterns that we call "hollow ring structure", "filled ring structure", and "disperse pattern". An agent-based, stochastic computational model is used to simulate and interpret the experiments. The model can reproduce the experimentally observed patterns, and identifies key parameters that determine which pattern of virus growth arises. The model is further used to study the long-term outcome of the dynamics for the different growth patterns, and to investigate conditions under which the virus population eliminates the target cells. We find that both the filled ring structure and disperse pattern of initial expansion are indicative of treatment failure, where target cells persist in the long run. The hollow ring structure is associated with either target cell extinction or low-level persistence, both of which can be viewed as treatment success. Interestingly, it is found that equilibrium properties of ordinary differential equations describing the

  20. A macro- and light microscopical study of the pathology of Calicophoron microbothrium infection in experimentally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mavenyengwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Tuli weaner steers aged 1 year were randomly subdivided into three groups of four animals and infected with different doses of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Each animal in Group I received a low dose (LD of 5 000 metacercariae, Group II a medium dose (MD of 15 000 metacercariae, Group III a high dose (HD of 25 000 metacercariae and one additional animal was kept as an uninfected control (C. After infection, one animal from each group was slaughtered on Day 28, 42, 56 and 84 post infection (pi and samples from the ileum, jejunum, duodenum, abomasum and the rumen were collected for histopathological and cytological examination. On Day 28 pi, the gross pathological lesions observed in the duodenum of the LD and the MD animals were similar and comprised duodenal thickening, corrugation, hyperaemia, petechiation and ulceration. In the HD animal the duodenal lesions were similar but more severe. The abomasal folds were severely oedematous in the MD group and nearly occluded the abomasal lumen. Moderate oedema of the abomasal folds was also present in the LD and HD animals. The gross pathological lesions regressed in all the infected groups with increasing age of infection and had disappeared completely by Day 56 pi. On Day 28 pi the histopathological lesions in the duodenum and jejunum of the LD and MD groups were similar, comprising subtotal villous atrophy, hyperplasia of Brunner's glands and Peyer's patches and moderate infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells and a few globule leukocytes, basophils and lymphocytes in the lamina propria. The HD group had total villous atrophy, severe hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of Brunner's glands, which had expanded to cover the entire submucosa. On Day 42 pi the histopathological lesions were still present in the MD and the HD groups comprising subtotal villous atrophy and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands. Heavy infiltrations of eosinophils, moderate amounts of mast cells and a few

  1. A novel approach to probe host-pathogen interactions of bovine digital dermatitis, a model of a complex polymicrobial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Polymicrobial infections represent a great challenge for the clarification of disease etiology and the development of comprehensive diagnostic or therapeutic tools, particularly for fastidious and difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. Using bovine digital dermatitis (DD) as a disease model, we introduce...... a novel strategy to study the pathogenesis of complex infections. The strategy combines meta-transcriptomics with high-density peptide-microarray technology to screen for in vivo-expressed microbial genes and the host antibody response at the site of infection. Bacterial expression patterns supported....... The extraordinary diversity observed in bacterial expression, antigens and host antibody responses between individual cows pointed toward microbial variability as a hallmark of DD. Persistence of infection and DD reinfection in the same individual is common; thus, high microbial diversity may undermine the host...

  2. Experimentally induced intravaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in a mouse model Infecção experimental intravaginal com Tritricho-monas foetus em modelo camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Soto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest to develop research on the host-parasite relationship in bovine tritrichomonosis has accomplished the use of experimental models alternative to cattle. The BALB/c mouse became the most appropriate species susceptible to vaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection requiring previous estrogenization. For the need of an experimental model without persistent estrogenization and with normal estrous cycles, the establishment and persistence of vaginal infection on BALB/c mouse with different concentrations of T. foetus in two experimental groups was evaluated. Group A was treated with 5mg of b-estradiol 3-benzoate to synchronize the estrous, 48 hours before the T. foetus vaginal inoculation, and Group B was inoculated in natural estrus. At 5-7 days after treatment, estrogenic effect decreased allowing all animals to cycle regularly during the experiment. From the first week post-infection, samples of vaginal mucus were taken from all animals during 34 weeks, in order to evaluate the course of infection and the stage of the estrus cycle. Group A showed 93.6% of infected animals, and Group B showed 38%. Different doses of T. foetus were assayed to establish the vaginal infection, with a persistence of 34 weeks. Although different behavior was observed in each subgroup belonging to either Group A or Group B, there were no significant differences among the infecting doses used. The b-estradiol 3-benzoate treatment had a favorable effect on the establishment of the infection (PA necessidade de esclarecer a relação agente-hospedeiro na tricomoníase bovina deu motivo para o uso de modelos experimentais alternativos ao bovino. O camundongo BALB/c resultou como espécie mais adequada para a infeção vaginal com Tritrichomonas foetus, requerendo uma estrogenização prévia. Visando a necessidade de um modelo experimental sem estrogenização persistente e com ciclos estrais normais, foi avaliada a instalação e persistência da infeção vaginal

  3. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria urinary tract infections and complex pediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Ruth; Harris, Anna; Patel, Mitul; Robb, Andrew; Chandran, Harish; McCarthy, Liam

    2017-02-01

    Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics including third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones and aminoglycosides. This resistance is plasmid-borne and can spread between species. Management of ESBL is challenging in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complex urological abnormalities. We aim to quantify the risk in children and specifically in urological patients. Retrospective review of a microbiology database (April 2014 to November 2015). This identified urine isolates, pyuria, ESBL growth and patient demographics. Data analysis was by Chi square, Mann-Whitney U-test and ANOVA. A P value of 10×10 6 WC/L). 136 urine cultures (n=79 patients) grew purely ESBL. Overall, 5.2% of urine isolates were ESBL and 9.5% isolates with pyuria (>100×10 6 WC/L) had ESBL, whereas only 22/1032 (2.1%) with no pyuria, (Pantibiotics). Over the study period, there was no significant rise of the monthly incidence between 2014 and 2015 (ANOVA P=0.1). This study is the first to document the incidence of ESBL in children (5%), and estimate the frequency of possible plasmid transmission between bacterial species in children. This quantifies the risk of ESBL, especially to urology patients, and mandates better antibiotic stewardship. Level IIc. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis using experimentally and naturally cattle infected with metacestode of Taenia saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Paola Meneguete dos Guimarães-Peixoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The bovine taeniasis-cysticercosis complex can be defined as a set of pathological changes caused by the adult form of Taenia saginata in humans and their larval form in animals (Cysticercus bovis. Data on the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis comes from the records of veterinary inspection of meat in slaughterhouses under fiscalization, where some positive cases may go unnoticed, especially in moderate infections. So, it is relevant the use of serological tests that have greater sensitivity than the post-mortem routine exams. Studies have shown the possible application of the ELISA test as a tool for epidemiological studies of the parasitosis and in the identification of animals with cysts. The aim of this study is to determine the detection threshold of the indirect ELISA test, using experimentally and naturally infected animals in detecting cases of cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the test to naturally infected animals using a cut-off 1 and 2 added with 2 standart-deviation (SD was of 12% and 24.4%, respectively. However, when using the cut-off of 1 and 2 added with 3 SD, the test sensitivity dropped, represented by 14.4% and 1.99% of the test sensitivity. As for the samples from experimentally infected animals, using the cut-off 1 and 2 added with 2 SD the sensitivity was 55.9% and 92.5%; and adding 3 SD the values found were 31.2% and 86%, respectively. The specificity of the test in all situations tested was 100%. It is important to take into account the right choice of control sera used in the ELISA test, whereas, according to its application, it is necessary to increase the sensitivity or specificity.

  5. Studies on experimental infection of rabbits with irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola giganticas Cobbold, 1885

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; Srivastava, V.K.; Verma, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Worm burden, gross pathology and serological response of rabbits infected with gamma irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica has been studied with a view to prepare a vaccine against the pathogen. Infection with metacercariae irradiated at 2 or 3 kr caused reduced worm burden and gross pathology and produced antibody titres comparable to the titres in rabbits infected with normal cysts. Infection with metacercariae irradiated at 4 kr resulted in total absence of worm burden and caused no rise of antibody titre in the sera of rabbits. In every case after infection, worm burden was progressively eliminated over long duration. The pathogenicity was comparatively severe in rabbits infected with normal cysts. (M.G.B.)

  6. Marked induction of IL-6, haptoglobin and IFN gamma following experimental BRSV infection in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Susanne Nedergaard; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been identified worldwide as an important pathogen associated with acute respiratory disease in calves. An infection model has been developed reflecting accurately the clinical course and die, development of pathological signs during a natural BRSV-infection....... In the experiments described in the present study, calves were infected at 13-21 weeks of age and reinfected 14 weeks later. Blood samples front the entire infection period were analysed for acute phase protein (haptoglobin) by ELISA and for expression (mRNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...... to the first infection with BRSV The IFNgamma response was biphasic. with an early peak at day 1-3 post infection (p.i.) and a later increase between day 5 and 8 p.i. Reinfection also resulted in an induction of IFNgamma. but without induction of clinical signs, IL-6 and haptoglobin. These results indicate...

  7. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  8. A Neospora caninum vaccine using recombinant proteins fails to prevent foetal infection in pregnant cattle after experimental intravenous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Yanina P; Cóceres, Verónica; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Jaramillo Ortiz, José M; Morrell, Eleonora L; Verna, Andrea E; Ganuza, Agustina; Cano, Dora B; Lischinsky, Lilian; Angel, Sergio O; Zamorano, Patricia; Odeón, Anselmo C; Leunda, María R; Campero, Carlos M; Morein, Bror; Moore, Dadín P

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 recombinant proteins formulated with immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) in pregnant heifers against vertical transmission of Neospora caninum. Twelve pregnant heifers were divided into 3 groups of 4 heifers each, receiving different formulations before mating. Immunogens were administered twice subcutaneously: group A animals were inoculated with three recombinant proteins (rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20, rNcGRA7) formulated with ISCOMs; group B animals received ISCOM-MATRIX (without antigen) and group C received sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) only. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified nickel resin. All groups were intravenously challenged with the NC-1 strain of N. caninum at Day 70 of gestation and dams slaughtered at week 17 of the experiment. Heifers from group A developed specific antibodies against rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 prior to the challenge. Following immunization, an statistically significant increase of antibodies against rNcSAG1 and rNcHSP20 in all animals of group A was detected compared to animals in groups B and C at weeks 5, 13 and 16 (P0.001). There were no differences in IFN-γ production among the experimental groups at any time point (P>0.05). Transplacental transmission was determined in all foetuses of groups A, B and C by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and nested PCR. This work showed that rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 proteins while immunogenic in cattle failed to prevent the foetal infection in pregnant cattle challenged at Day 70 of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quasi-experimental Studies in the Fields of Infection Control and Antibiotic Resistance, Ten Years Later: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Rotana; O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Stafford, Kristen A; Leekha, Surbhi; Harris, Anthony D

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE A systematic review of quasi-experimental studies in the field of infectious diseases was published in 2005. The aim of this study was to assess improvements in the design and reporting of quasi-experiments 10 years after the initial review. We also aimed to report the statistical methods used to analyze quasi-experimental data. DESIGN Systematic review of articles published from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, in 4 major infectious disease journals. METHODS Quasi-experimental studies focused on infection control and antibiotic resistance were identified and classified based on 4 criteria: (1) type of quasi-experimental design used, (2) justification of the use of the design, (3) use of correct nomenclature to describe the design, and (4) statistical methods used. RESULTS Of 2,600 articles, 173 (7%) featured a quasi-experimental design, compared to 73 of 2,320 articles (3%) in the previous review (Pquasi-experimental design; and 68 (39%) identified their design using the correct nomenclature. In addition, 2-group statistical tests were used in 75 studies (43%); 58 studies (34%) used standard regression analysis; 18 (10%) used segmented regression analysis; 7 (4%) used standard time-series analysis; 5 (3%) used segmented time-series analysis; and 10 (6%) did not utilize statistical methods for comparisons. CONCLUSIONS While some progress occurred over the decade, it is crucial to continue improving the design and reporting of quasi-experimental studies in the fields of infection control and antibiotic resistance to better evaluate the effectiveness of important interventions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:170-176.

  10. Studies on Ancylostomiasis: 1.An Experimental Study on Hookworm Infection and Anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Dong Jip; Lee, Jang Kyu; Seo, Byong Sul; Lee, Soon Hyung

    1967-01-01

    In view of its prevalence in the Far East area, a more detailed knowledge on the hookworm infection is one of the very important medical problem. The present study was aimed to determine the infectivity of the artificially hatched ancylosotma duodenale larvae in man after its oral administration, evaluate the clinical symptomatology of such infection, determine the date of first appearance of ova in the stool, calculate the blood loss per worm per day, assess the relation-ships between the ova count, infectivity (worm load), blood loss and severity of anemia. An erythrokinetic study was also done to analyse the characteristics of hookworm anemia by means of 59 Fe and 51 Cr.

  11. Serological responses and immunity to superinfection with avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Lease, Julie K.

    2001-01-01

    Six of seven Hawaii Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with chronic malarial infections had no increases in peripheral parasitemia, declines in food consumption, or loss of body weight when rechallenged with the homologous isolate of Plasmodium relictum 61 to 62 days after initial infection. Five uninfected control amakihi exposed at the same time to infective mosquito bites developed acute infections with high parasitemias. Reductions in food consumption and loss of body weight occurred in all control birds and three of these individuals eventually died. When surviving birds were rechallenged >2 yr later with either the same parasite isolate or an isolate of P. relictum collected on the island of Kauai, all individuals were immune to superinfection. Chronically infected birds developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens ranging in size from 22 to 170 kDa that were detectable as early as 8 days post infection on immunoblots of SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Antibodies to this suite of malarial antigens persisted as long as 1,248 days after initial infection and were consistently detectable at times when parasites were not easily found by microscopy on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The immunoblotting method that is described here appears to be an effective technique for identifying birds with chronic, low-intensity malarial infections when circulating parasites are not easily detectable by microscopy. Hawaiian honeycreepers that are capable of recovering from acute infections develop concomitant immunity to superinfection, making them functionally immune in areas where malaria transmission has become endemic.

  12. An evaluation of the impact of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 infection in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, D; Stenzel, T; Smialek, M; Tykalowski, B; Koncicki, A

    2018-02-01

    The progressive decrease in the efficiency of synthetic drugs has prompted research into phytogenic feed additives with potentially immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. Complex diseases with a mixed etiology, including viral, pose a growing problem in domestic pigeons. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various doses of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. The experiment was performed on pigeons divided into 5 groups, including one control group and 4 experimental groups, which were orally administered aloe vera or licorice extracts at 300 or 500 mg/kg BW for 7 d after experimental inoculation with PPMV-1. On d 4, 7, and 14 after inoculation, cloacal swabs and samples of organs were collected from 4 birds in each group. The samples were analyzed to determine the copy number of PPMV-1 RNA by TaqMan qPCR. The results indicate that licorice and aloe vera extracts inhibited PPMV-1 replication by decreasing viral RNA copy numbers in the examined organs. The most inhibitory effect was observed in pigeons receiving aloe vera extract at 300 mg/kg BW, for which PPMV-1 RNA copy numbers were approximately 7-fold lower (brain), 9-fold lower (kidneys), and 14-fold lower (liver) than in the control group. The results of this study point to the potentially antiviral effects of aloe vera and licorice extracts in pigeons infected with PPMV-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the antiviral properties of aloe vera and licorice extracts in domestic pigeons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  13. Experimental and computational fluid dynamic studies of mixing for complex oral health products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marti Cortada; Mazzei, Luca; Angeli, Panagiota

    2015-11-01

    Mixing high viscous non-Newtonian fluids is common in the consumer health industry. Sometimes this process is empirical and involves many pilot plants trials which are product specific. The first step to study the mixing process is to build on knowledge on the rheology of the fluids involved. In this research a systematic approach is used to validate the rheology of two liquids: glycerol and a gel formed by polyethylene glycol and carbopol. Initially, the constitutive equation is determined which relates the viscosity of the fluids with temperature, shear rate, and concentration. The key variable for the validation is the power required for mixing, which can be obtained both from CFD and experimentally using a stirred tank and impeller of well-defined geometries at different impeller speeds. A good agreement between the two values indicates a successful validation of the rheology and allows the CFD model to be used for the study of mixing in the complex vessel geometries and increased sizes encountered during scale up.

  14. Experimental qualification of mechanical and electrical sub-systems of a complex mechanism against fatigue failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patri, Sudheer; Vijayashree, R.; Rajan Babu, V.; Suresh Kumar, S.; Chandramouli, S.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Prakash, V.; Rajan, K.K.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Absorber rod drive mechanisms (ARDM) play an important role in ensuring safety of a reactor by rapid insertion of an Absorber rod (AR) during abnormal conditions. Various components/sub-systems of ARDMs, both mechanical and electrical, are subjected to different cyclic loadings during service life. Thus, qualifying these systems against fatigue is an important step for gaining confidence in their safe operation for the design life. ASME in Sec. III, Div. 1, Appendices (Para II - 1500) provides guidelines for the experimental evaluation of the capability of components to withstand cyclic loading. These rules are developed for static components like pressure vessels. Since no such rules are available for moving components like mechanisms, the same were adopted for the ARDMs, with an understanding that the effect of inertia loads of a moving component are to be accounted in the experiments. In application of these rules to a complex mechanisms such as ARDM, various special cases arise which are not addressed explicitly in the code. The paper describes the intelligent adoption of the fatigue life rules given in ASME to various special cases and their extension to electrical systems. The paper also outlines the experiments carried out for qualifying the ARDM against fatigue. (author)

  15. Modernization at the Y-12 National Security Complex: A Case for Additional Experimental Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornbury, M. L. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Juarez, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Krass, A. W. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Efforts are underway at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) to modernize the recovery, purification, and consolidation of un-irradiated, highly enriched uranium metal. Successful integration of advanced technology such as Electrorefining (ER) eliminates many of the intermediate chemistry systems and processes that are the current and historical basis of the nuclear fuel cycle at Y-12. The cost of operations, the inventory of hazardous chemicals, and the volume of waste are significantly reduced by ER. It also introduces unique material forms and compositions related to the chemistry of chloride salts for further consideration in safety analysis and engineering. The work herein briefly describes recent investigations of nuclear criticality for 235UO2Cl2 (uranyl chloride) and 6LiCl (lithium chloride) in aqueous solution. Of particular interest is the minimum critical mass of highly enriched uranium as a function of the molar ratio of 6Li to 235U. The work herein also briefly describes recent investigations of nuclear criticality for 235U metal reflected by salt mixtures of 6LiCl or 7LiCl (lithium chloride), KCl (potassium chloride), and 235UCl3 or 238UCl3 (uranium tri-chloride). Computational methods for analysis of nuclear criticality safety and published nuclear data are employed in the absence of directly relevant experimental criticality benchmarks.

  16. Aeromonas caviae alters the cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on renal bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; Verdi, Camila Marina; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Santos, Roberto C V; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-09-01

    Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinases (CK), through the creatine kinase-phosphocreatine (CK/PCr) system, provide a temporal and spatial energy buffer to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. However, the effects of bacterial infections on the kidney remain poorly understood and are limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities in renal energetic homeostasis in silver catfish experimentally infected with Aeromonas caviae. Cytosolic CK activity decreased in infected animals, while mitochondrial CK activity increased compared to uninfected animals. Moreover, the activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, it can be concluded that the inhibition of cytosolic CK activity by A. caviae causes an impairment on renal energy homeostasis through the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. This contributes to the inhibition of Na + , K + -ATPase activity, although the mitochondrial CK activity acted in an attempt to restore the cytosolic ATP levels through a feedback mechanism. In summary, A. caviae infection causes a severe energetic imbalance in infected silver catfish, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of tiamulin and lincomycin for the treatment of broiler breeders experimentally infected with the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C P; Hampson, D J

    2002-06-01

    Brachyspira pilosicoli strain CPSp1 isolated from a chicken in a broiler breeder flock in Queensland was used to experimentally infect 30 individually caged 22-week-old Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens. Another 10 birds were sham-inoculated with sterile broth. All birds failed to become colonized. At 29 weeks of age, all birds were transferred to a diet containing 50 parts/10(6) zinc bacitracin (ZnB) and were re-challenged with the same B. pilosicoli strain at 32 weeks of age, weekly for 5 weeks. The majority of the inoculated birds then became colonized, confirming previous findings that ZnB can increase susceptibility to colonization with B. pilosicoli. The control group remained uninfected. Infected groups tended to have an increased faecal water content and faecal staining of eggshells. Ten birds were then treated by crop tube with 25 mg/kg body weight tiamulin for 5 days, and 10 birds with 20 mg/kg body weight lincomycin for 5 days. Both treatments removed the infection, while untreated birds remained infected. The results support previous observations that ZnB at 50 parts/10(6) in the diet increases the susceptibility of birds to B. pilosicoli infection, and demonstrated the usefulness of both tiamulin and lincomycin for treatment of infection with B. pilosicoli in adult birds.

  18. Assessment of experimental infection for dogs usingGallus gallus chorioallantoic membranes inoculated withNeospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dias Munhoz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate parasitism kinetics and tissue lesions in the first week of infection by Neospora caninum in dogs fed Gallus gallus chorioallantoic membranes (CMs previously infected in ovo. Five two-month-old pups were used. Each dog was given five CMs that were previously infected with N. caninum via the oral route. Four animals were euthanized in the first week of infection. All four dogs had their stools examined one week prior to and up to the day they were euthanized. The stools of the uneuthanized dog were collected for 30 days. After euthanasia, organ sections were utilized for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, indirect immunofluorescent tissue reactions, PCR and real-time PCR to detect parasites. Necropsy revealed that the small and large intestines, spleen, and lungs were affected. No oocysts orN. caninum DNA were identified in the stool samples. Real-time PCR was the most sensitive technique used to detect the protozoa in tissues, which were identified in 41% of the analyzed samples. Our results indicate that an experimental model using previously infected CMs appears to be a useful model for the study of the host-parasite relationship during the infection's acute phase.

  19. Neural Damage in Experimental Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infection: The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Tesoriero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. gambiense is the parasite subspecies responsible for most reported cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness. This severe infection leads to characteristic disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, recalling attention on the circadian timing system. Most animal models of the disease have been hitherto based on infection of laboratory rodents with the T. b. brucei subspecies, which is not infectious to humans. In these animal models, functional, rather than structural, alterations of the master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, have been reported. Information on the SCN after infection with the human pathogenic T. b. gambiense is instead lacking. The present study was aimed at the examination of the SCN after T. b. gambiense infection of a susceptible rodent, the multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, compared with T. b. brucei infection of the same host species. The animals were examined at 4 and 8 weeks post-infection, when parasites (T. b. gambiense or T. b. brucei were detected in the brain parenchyma, indicating that the disease was in the encephalitic stage. Neuron and astrocyte changes were examined with Nissl staining, immunophenotyping and quantitative analyses. Interestingly, significant neuronal loss (about 30% reduction was documented in the SCN during the progression of T. b. gambiense infection. No significant neuronal density changes were found in the SCN of T. b. brucei-infected animals. Neuronal cell counts in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of T. b. gambiense-infected M. natalensis did not point out significant changes, indicating that no widespread neuron loss had occurred in the brain. Marked activation of astrocytes was detected in the SCN after both T. b. gambiense and T. b. brucei infections. Altogether the findings reveal that neurons of the biological clock are highly susceptible to the infection caused by human pathogenic African trypanosomes

  20. The challenge of using experimental infectivity data in risk assessment for Ebola virus: why ecology may be important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Simons, R R L; Horigan, V; Snary, E L; Fooks, A R; Drew, T W

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of published data shows that experimental passaging of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) in guinea pigs changes the risk of infection per plaque-forming unit (PFU), increasing infectivity to some species while decreasing infectivity to others. Thus, a PFU of monkey-adapted EBOV is 10(7) -fold more lethal to mice than a PFU adapted to guinea pigs. The first conclusion is that the infectivity of EBOV to humans may depend on the identity of the donor species itself and, on the basis of limited epidemiological data, the question is raised as to whether bat-adapted EBOV is less infectious to humans than nonhuman primate (NHP)-adapted EBOV. Wildlife species such as bats, duikers and NHPs are naturally infected by EBOV through different species giving rise to EBOV with different wildlife species-passage histories (heritages). Based on the ecology of these wildlife species, three broad 'types' of EBOV-infected bushmeat are postulated reflecting differences in the number of passages within a given species, and hence the degree of adaptation of the EBOV present. The second conclusion is that the prior species-transmission chain may affect the infectivity to humans per PFU for EBOV from individuals of the same species. This is supported by the finding that the related Marburg marburgvirus requires ten passages in mice to fully adapt. It is even possible that the evolutionary trajectory of EBOV could vary in individuals of the same species giving rise to variants which are more or less virulent to humans and that the probability of a given trajectory is related to the heritage. Overall the ecology of the donor species (e.g. dog or bushmeat species) at the level of the individual animal itself may determine the risk of infection per PFU to humans reflecting the heritage of the virus and may contribute to the sporadic nature of EBOV outbreaks. © 2015 Crown copyright. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. The Leishmania HSP20 Is Antigenic during Natural Infections, but, as DNA Vaccine, It does not Protect BALB/c Mice against Experimental L. amazonensis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Montalvo-Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniasis, an important health problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we describe a new heat shock protein (HSP in Leishmania, belonging to the small HSP (sHSP family in kinetoplastids. The protein is highly conserved in different Leishmania species, showing instead significant divergence with sHSP's from other organisms. The humoral response elicited against this protein during Leishmania infection has been investigated in natural infected humans and dogs, and in experimentally infected hamsters. Leishmania HSP20 is a prominent antigen for canine hosts; on the contrary, the protein seems to be a poor antigen for human immune system. Time-course analysis of appearance of anti-HSP20 antibodies in golden hamsters indicated that these antibodies are produced at late stages of the infection, when clinical symptoms of disease are patent. Finally, the protective efficacy of HSP20 was assessed in mice using a DNA vaccine approach prior to challenge with Leishmania amazonensis.

  2. No evidence of horizontal infection in horses kept in close contact with dogs experimentally infected with canine influenza A virus (H3N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8 was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV, has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission. Methods Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (108.3 egg infectious dose50/dog and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia. Results All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses. Conclusions These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.

  3. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica.

  4. Experimental Infection of the Mayan Cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus with the Oomycete Aphanomyces invadans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Ayala, Daniel; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus to infection with the fungus Aphanomyces invadans (also known as epizootic ulcerative syndrome [EUS]). A total of 27 C. urophthalmus were exposed to the original A. Invadans 2006/86/EC strain by intramuscularly injecting the fish with 25,000 zoospores/ml or exposing the fish to a suspension of 25,000 zoospores/ml in 6-L aquaria for 30 days. To assess the infectious capacity of A. invadans, 3 golden barbs (Puntius semifasciolatus) were infected intramuscularly with 200,000 zoospores/ml. A second experiment using 100 C. urophthalmus was performed for 60 days with 50 fish in each treatment group. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic method was used; muscle and gills were the target tissues. In the first experiment, none of the exposed C. urophthalmus developed skin lesions related to A. invadans infection. However, PCR analysis revealed that infection had occurred. For the intramuscular treatment, there were significant differences between the controls and the muscle samples (Fisher's exact test; P 0.05). All golden barbs became infected, as indicated by PCR, and developed skin lesions typical of A. invadans infection. We concluded that C. urophthalmus was infected with A. invadans but was an asymptomatic carrier because skin lesions did not develop. In the second experiment, all fish were negative, suggesting that the fish had cleared the infection by the end of the experiment.

  5. Anorexia in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: experimental manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J G; Mitchell, P I; Moar, K M; Bissett, A; Geissler, S; Bruce, K; Chappell, L H

    2000-06-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a biphasic anorexia in laboratory rats, the first phase coincident with lung invasion (ca day 2) and the second when the worms mature in the intestine (ca day 8). Using the anthelminthic, mebendazole (MBZ), N. brasiliensis infections of the rat were eliminated between the first and second anorexic episodes. This intervention prevented the expression of the second phase of anorexia. Rats exposed to a second infection with N. brasiliensis, 3 weeks after the primary infection, exhibited only a first phase anorexic response which was not influenced by MBZ termination of the primary infection. The lower cumulative food intake and weight gain of all infected rats after 8 days of infection were accompanied by elevated plasma insulin and, in some individuals, by elevated plasma leptin, compared with uninfected controls and previously-infected MBZ-treated rats. Messenger RNA levels for neuropeptide Y were higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of 8-day infected rats than in recovering MBZ-treated animals. Inoculation of rats with heat-killed N. brasiliensis larvae failed to induce anorexia and did not alter the severity of biphasic anorexia on subsequent injection of viable larvae. The first anorexic episode is therefore dependent upon viable migrating larvae. The second phase of anorexia clearly requires the continuing presence of the parasite beyond the lung phase. Viable migrating larvae are also required to confer 'resistance' to reinfection.

  6. Inferring biomarkers for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and disease progression using experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of the infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN- gamma, ELI...

  7. Assessment of the Duration of Protection in Campylobacter jejuni Experimental Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of inoculum delivery was based on evidence obtained with a human Shigella infection model, which showed that 11/12 (92%) nai’ve subjects developed...M. Reyes, M. Salazar, R. Mezn, C. K. l’orter, and S. E. Walz. 2006. Ncw World monkey Aotus nmrc:ymat: as a model for Campyloba,·ter jejuni infection

  8. Population dynamics of the minute intestinal trematode Haplorchis pumilio following experimental infection of young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    technique, temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, eosinophils and microhaemotocrit values. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on domestic animal’s role in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that the most prevalent FZT was Haplorchis pumilio. The importance of dogs, cats and pigs was assessed, and dogs were found...... to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents...

  9. Angiostrongylus costaricensis and experimental infection of Sarasinula marginata II: elimination routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Cristiane Lafeta Gomes Furtado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis intermediate hosts are terrestrial mollusks mostly belonging to the Veronicellidae family. In the present investigation we focused on the mechanisms of larval expulsion from Sarasinula marginata infected with A. costaricensis. Twenty-five mollusks were individually infected with 5000 L1 and sacrificed at 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-infection and at days 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28, and 30 post-infection; the mollusks were then fixed and stained. Diverse organs involved throughout the course of the migratory routes of larvae from oral penetration on were specified and the mechanisms of larval access to the fibromuscular layer through the kidney, rectum, and vascular system were defined. The elimination of L3, derived from oral and/or cutaneous infections, appears to depend on granulomas located close to the excretory ducts of mucous cells.

  10. Synthesis of 99mTcN-clinafloxacin Dithiocarbamate Complex and Comparative Radiobiological Evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus Infected Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Mohammad Rafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Clinafloxacin dithiocarbamate (CNND) preparation and radiolabeling through [ 99m Tc ≡ N] 2+ core with the gamma (γ) emitter ( 99m Tc) was assessed. The potentiality of the 99m Tc V ≡ N-CNND complex was investigated as perspective a Staphylococcus aureus (S.a.) in vivo infection radiotracer in terms of radiochemical stability in normal saline (n.s.), human serum (h.s.), binding efficacy with live and heat killed S.a. and biodistribution in female nude mice model (FNMD). More than 90% stability was observed in n.s. for 4 h with the highest yield of 98.70 ± 0.26% at 30 min after reconstitution. In h.s., the 99m Tc V ≡ N-CNND complex was found stable up to 16 h with 15.35% side products. Maximum in vitro binding (68.75 ± 0.80%, 90 min) with S.a. was observed after 90 min of incubation. In FNMD, (infected with live strain) approximately six-fold higher uptakes was noted in the infected to inflamed and normal muscles. The higher stability in n.s., h.s., higher S.a. (live) up take with specific and targeted in vivo distribution confirmed potentiality of the 99m Tc V ≡ N-CNND complex as perspective S.a.in vivo infection radiotracer

  11. Influence of experimental distemper infection on the distribution of lead in dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; Marshall, A.J.; McLeod, S.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of experimental canine distemper infection to mobilize body lead deposits has been studied in Beagle dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate. For comparative purposes dogs were included which had either received lead only or distemper only or remained undosed. It was found that in dogs predosed with lead, distemper infection resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in blood and urine; this coincided with the peak body temperatures reached on the third day post infection. It was also found that the lead content of the liver and bone of these dogs was considerably higher than that of dogs receiving lead alone; at the same time bone phosphorus showed a marked decrease while bone calcium values remained similar to undosed controls.

  12. In situ hybridization for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in sections of trachea from experimentally infected chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An in situ hybridization procedure for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in experimentally infected chickens is described. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of trachea, taken from chickens on days 3-10 post-inoculation (p.i.) with ILTV were hybridized with a mixt......An in situ hybridization procedure for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in experimentally infected chickens is described. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of trachea, taken from chickens on days 3-10 post-inoculation (p.i.) with ILTV were hybridized...... on day 5 p.i. No hybridization was observed in 3 out of 3 chickens examined on day 10 p.i. ILTV nucleic acid was detected in nuclei of degenerated tracheal epithelial cells and in intranuclear inclusion bodies of syncytia....

  13. Synthesis, biological evaluation and biodistribution of the 99mTc-Garenoxacin complex in artificially infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Aakif Ullah Khan; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    The labeling of garenoxacin (GXN) with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) using different concentrations of GXN, sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ), stannous chloride dihydrate (SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O) at different pH was investigated and evaluated in terms of in-vitro stability in saline, serum, binding with multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococci (PRSC) and its biodistribution in artificially MDRSA and PRSC infected rats. 99m Tc-GXN complex with 97.45 ± 0.18% radiochemical stability was prepared by mixing 3 mg of GXN with 3 mCi of Na 99m TcO 4 in the presence of 150 μL of SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O (1 μg/μL in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.6. The radiochemical stability of the complex was evaluated in normal saline up to 240 min of reconstitution. It was observed that the complex showed maximum RCP values after 30 min of the reconstitution and remained more than 90% up to 240 min. The complex showed radiochemical stability in normal saline at 37 deg C up to 16 h with a 17.80% de-tagging. The complex showed saturated in-vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC as compared to the insignificant binding with heat killed MDRSA and PRSC. Biodistribution behavior of the complex was assessed in artificially infected with living and heat killed MDRSA and PRSC rats. It was observed that the accumulation of the complex in the infected (live MDRSA and PRSC) tissue of the rats was almost five fold than in the inflamed and normal tissue. The high radiochemical stability in normal saline at room temperature, promising in-vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, saturated in-vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC, specific biodistribution behavior and high infected (target) to normal (non-target) tissue and low inflamed (non-target) to normal (non-target) tissue ratios we recommend 99m Tc-GXN complex for in-vivo localization of infection caused by MDRSA and PRSC effective stains. (author)

  14. Aeromonas caviae inhibits hepatic enzymes of the phosphotransfer network in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Verdi, C M; Dos Santos, K L M; Da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Vizzotto, B S; Baldisserotto, B

    2018-03-01

    Several studies have been demonstrated that phosphotransfer network, through the adenylate kinase (AK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities, allows for new perspectives leading to understanding of disease conditions associated with disturbances in energy metabolism, metabolic monitoring and signalling. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by Aeromonas caviae alters hepatic AK and PK activities of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. Hepatic AK and PK activities decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals, as well as the hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Also, a severe hepatic damage was observed in the infected animals due to the presence of dilation and congestion of vessels, degeneration of hepatocytes and loss of liver parenchyma architecture and sinusoidal structure. Therefore, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that experimental infection by A. caviae inhibits key enzymes linked to the communication between sites of ATP generation and ATP utilization. Moreover, the absence of a reciprocal compensatory mechanism between these enzymes contributes directly to hepatic damage and for a severe energetic imbalance, which may contribute to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experimental infection of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat by ostreid herpesvirus 1: demonstration of oyster spat susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schikorski David

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008 and 2009, acute mortalities occurred in France among Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat. Different hypothesis including the implication of environmental factors, toxic algae and/or pathogens have been explored. Diagnostic tests indicated that OsHV-1 including a particular genotype, termed OsHV-1 μVar, was detected in most of samples and especially in moribund oysters with the highlighting of virus particles looking like herpes viruses by TEM examination. In this study, an experimental protocol to reproduce OsHV-1 infection in laboratory conditions was developed. This protocol was based on the intramuscular injection of filtered (0.22 μm tissue homogenates prepared from naturally OsHV-1 infected spat collected on French coasts during mortality outbreaks in 2008. Results of the experimental trials showed that mortalities were induced after injection. Moreover, filtered tissue homogenates induced mortalities whereas the same tissue homogenates exposed to an ultraviolet (UV treatment did not induce any mortality suggesting that oyster spat mortalities require the presence of a UV sensitive agent. Furthermore, analysis of injected oyster spat revealed the detection of high amounts of OsHV-1 DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, TEM analysis demonstrated the presence of herpes virus particles. The developed protocol allowed to maintain sources of infective virus which can be useful for the development of further studies concerning the transmission and the development of OsHV-1 infection.

  16. [Experimental study of the effects of impulse-electric discharge on chemotaxis and cytoadhesion of urinary infection pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuderinov, S K; Azizov, I S; Turgunov, E M; Shambilova, N A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the experimental study was to evaluate effects of impulse-electric discharge in liquid on chemotaxis and cytoadhesion of urinary infection pathogens. Chemotaxis was determined in respect to the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra of white mice by S. Likholetov's modified method. Cytoadhesion was assessed by V. Brilis. The experiments show that the impulse-electric discharge holds promise for urological practice.

  17. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  18. Ultrastructural study on experimental infection of rotavirus in a murine heterologous model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Majerowicz

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication, histopathological and ultrastructural changes were observed for a period of nine days in the small intestine of suckling mice infected with a simian rotavirus (SA11. Samples taken from duodenum, jejunun and ileum were prepared for light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Histopathologic effect could be detected within 8 hr post-infection, when only a few altered cells were observed. Damage was extensive after 16 hr post-infection, showing swollen enterocytes and reduced and irregularly oriented microvilli at intestinal villi tips. Virus particles were detected at 16 and 48 hr post-infection, budding from the viroplasm into the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae in ileum enterocytes. Clear evidence of viral replication, observed by electron microscopy was not described before in heterologous murine models. Regeneration of the intestinal villi began at the third day post-infection. Despite some differences observed in clinical symptoms and microscopic analysis of homologous and heterologous rotavirus infections, we concluded that mechanisms of heterologous rotavirus infection in mice follow similar patterns to those observed in the homologous models.

  19. Mislocalization of the MRN complex prevents ATR signaling during adenovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carson, Christian T; Orazio, Nicole I; Lee, Darwin V

    2009-01-01

    The protein kinases ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3 related (ATR) are activated in response to DNA damage, genotoxic stress and virus infections. Here we show that during infection with wild-type adenovirus, ATR and its cofactors RPA32, ATRIP and TopBP1 accumulate at viral...... during virus infection, which is independent of Mre11 nuclease activity and recruitment of RPA/ATR/ATRIP/TopBP1. Unlike other damage scenarios, we found that ATM and ATR signaling are not dependent on each other during infection. We identify a region of the viral E4orf3 protein responsible...

  20. Sorption of uranium (VI) on homoionic sodium smectite experimental study and surface complexation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korichi, Smain; Bensmaili, Aicha

    2009-09-30

    This paper is an extension of a previous paper where the natural and purified clay in the homoionic Na form were physico-chemically characterized (doi:10.1016/j.clay.2008.04.014). In this study, the adsorption behavior of U (VI) on a purified Na-smectite suspension is studied using batch adsorption experiments and surface complexation modeling (double layer model). The sorption of uranium was investigated as a function of pH, uranium concentration, solid to liquid ratio, effect of natural organic matter (NOM) and NaNO(3) background electrolyte concentration. Using the MINTEQA2 program, the speciation of uranium was calculated as a function of pH and uranium concentration. Model predicted U (VI) aqueous speciation suggests that important aqueous species in the [U (VI)]=1mg/L and pH range 3-7 including UO(2)(2+), UO(2)OH(+), and (UO(2))(3)(OH)(5)(+). The concentration of UO(2)(2+) decreased and that of (UO(2))(3)(OH)(5)(+) increased with increasing pH. The potentiometric titration values and uptake of uranium in the sodium smectite suspension were simulated by FITEQL 4.0 program using a two sites model, which is composed of silicate and aluminum reaction sites. We compare the acidity constants values obtained by potentiometric titration from the purified sodium smectite with those obtained from single oxides (quartz and alpha-alumina), taking into account the surface heterogeneity and the complex nature of natural colloids. We investigate the uranium sorption onto purified Na-smectite assuming low, intermediate and high edge site surfaces which are estimated from specific surface area percentage. The sorption data is interpreted and modeled as a function of edge site surfaces. A relationship between uranium sorption and total site concentration was confirmed and explained through variation in estimated edge site surface value. The modeling study shows that, the convergence during DLM modeling is related to the best estimation of the edge site surface from the N(2

  1. Neural Damage in Experimental Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infection: Hypothalamic Peptidergic Sleep and Wake-Regulatory Neurons

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    Claudia Laperchia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T. b. brucei subspecies. No information is available, however, on these peptidergic neurons after systemic infection with T. b. gambiense, the etiological agent of 97% of HAT cases. The present study was aimed at the investigation of immunohistochemically characterized OX and MCH neurons after T. b. gambiense or T. b. brucei infection of a susceptible rodent, the multimammate mouse, Mastomysnatalensis. Cell counts and evaluation of OX fiber density were performed at 4 and 8 weeks post-infection, when parasites had entered the brain parenchyma from the periphery. A significant decrease of OX neurons (about 44% reduction and MCH neurons (about 54% reduction was found in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area at 8 weeks in T. b. gambiense-infected M. natalensis. A moderate decrease (21% and 24% reduction, respectively, which did not reach statistical significance, was found after T. b. brucei infection. In two key targets of diencephalic orexinergic innervation, the peri-suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN region and the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT, densitometric analyses showed a significant progressive decrease in the density of orexinergic fibers in both infection paradigms, and especially during T. b. gambiense infection. Altogether the findings provide novel information showing that OX and MCH neurons are highly vulnerable to chronic

  2. Membrane attack complex of complement is not essential for immune mediated demyelination in experimental autoimmune neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Giang T; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J; Carter, Nicole M; Killingsworth, Murray; Nomura, Masaru; Verma, Nirupama D; Plain, Karren M; Boyd, Rochelle; Hall, Bruce M

    2010-12-15

    Antibody deposition and complement activation, especially membrane attack complex (MAC) formation are considered central for immune mediated demyelination. To examine the role of MAC in immune mediated demyelination, we studied experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rats deficient in complement component 6 (C6) that cannot form MAC. A C6 deficient Lewis (Lewis/C6-) strain of rats was bred by backcrossing the defective C6 gene, from PVG/C6- rats, onto the Lewis background. Lewis/C6- rats had the same C6 gene deletion as PVG/C6- rats and their sera did not support immune mediated haemolysis unless C6 was added. Active EAN was induced in Lewis and Lewis/C6- rats by immunization with bovine peripheral nerve myelin in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and Lewis/C6- rats had delayed clinical EAN compared to the Lewis rats. Peripheral nerve demyelination in Lewis/C6- was also delayed but was similar in extent at the peak of disease. Compared to Lewis, Lewis/C6- nerves had no MAC deposition, reduced macrophage infiltrate and IL-17A, but similar T cell infiltrate and Th1 cytokine mRNA expression. ICAM-1 and P-selectin mRNA expression and immunostaining on vascular endothelium were delayed in Lewis C6- compared to Lewis rats' nerves. This study found that MAC was not required for immune mediated demyelination; but that MAC enhanced early symptoms and early demyelination in EAN, either by direct lysis or by sub-lytic induction of vascular endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and P-selectin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Complexity of MRI induced heating on metallic leads: Experimental measurements of 374 configurations

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    Mendoza Gonzalo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MRI induced heating on PM leads is a very complex issue. The widely varying results described in literature suggest that there are many factors that influence the degree of heating and that not always are adequately addressed by existing testing methods. Methods We present a wide database of experimental measurements of the heating of metallic wires and PM leads in a 1.5 T RF coil. The aim of these measurements is to systematically quantify the contribution of some potential factors involved in the MRI induced heating: the length and the geometric structure of the lead; the implant location within the body and the lead path; the shape of the phantom used to simulate the human trunk and its relative position inside the RF coil. Results We found that the several factors are the primary influence on heating at the tip. Closer locations of the leads to the edge of the phantom and to the edge of the coil produce maximum heating. The lead length is the other crucial factor, whereas the implant area does not seem to have a major role in the induced temperature increase. Also the lead structure and the geometry of the phantom revealed to be elements that can significantly modify the amount of heating. Conclusion Our findings highlight the factors that have significant effects on MRI induced heating of implanted wires and leads. These factors must be taken into account by those who plan to study or model MRI heating of implants. Also our data should help those who wish to develop guidelines for defining safe medical implants for MRI patients. In addition, our database of the entire set of measurements can help those who wish to validate their numerical models of implants that may be exposed to MRI systems.

  4. Role of IL-1β in experimental cystic fibrosis upon P. aeruginosa infection.

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    Jennifer Palomo

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is associated with increased inflammatory responses to pathogen challenge. Here we revisited the role of IL-1β in lung pathology using the experimental F508del-CFTR murine model on C57BL/6 genetic background (Cftr(tm1eur or d/d, on double deficient for d/d and type 1 interleukin-1 receptor (d/d X IL-1R1-/-, and antibody neutralization. At steady state, young adult d/d mice did not show any signs of spontaneous lung inflammation. However, IL-1R1 deficiency conferred partial protection to repeated P. aeruginosa endotoxins/LPS lung instillation in d/d mice, as 50% of d/d mice succumbed to inflammation, whereas all d/d x IL-1R1-/- double mutants survived with lower initial weight loss and less pulmonary collagen and mucus production, suggesting that the absence of IL-1R1 signaling is protective in d/d mice in LPS-induced lung damage. Using P. aeruginosa acute lung infection we found heightened neutrophil recruitment in d/d mice with higher epithelial damage, increased bacterial load in BALF, and augmented IL-1β and TNF-α in parenchyma as compared to WT mice. Thus, F508del-CFTR mice show enhanced IL-1β signaling in response to P. aeruginosa. IL-1β antibody neutralization had no effect on lung homeostasis in either d/d or WT mice, however P. aeruginosa induced lung inflammation and bacterial load were diminished by IL-1β antibody neutralization. In conclusion, enhanced susceptibility to P. aeruginosa in d/d mice correlates with an excessive inflammation and with increased IL-1β production and reduced bacterial clearance. Further, we show that neutralization of IL-1β in d/d mice through the double mutation d/d x IL-1R1-/- and in WT via antibody neutralization attenuates inflammation. This supports the notion that intervention in the IL-1R1/IL-1β pathway may be detrimental in CF patients.

  5. The Limitations of In Vitro Experimentation in Understanding Biofilms and Chronic Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Aled E. L.; Kragh, Kasper N.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    a systematic review of the most widely used in vitro biofilm systems, and we discuss why they are not always representative of the in vivo biofilms found in chronic infections. We present examples of methods that will help us to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo biofilm work so that we can ultimately......We have become increasingly aware that, during infection, pathogenic bacteria often grow in multicellular biofilms that are often highly resistant to antibacterial strategies. In order to understand how biofilms form and contribute to infection, many research groups around the world have heavily...

  6. Reproducible methods for experimental infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    , and this method was tested using isolates with different elastin- degrading profiles and representing different serotypes. Injecting trout, average weight 1 g, with 10(4) CFU (colony- forming units) per fish caused cumulative mortalities around 60 to 70%. The virulent strains belonged to certain serotypes...... and degraded elastin. The intraperitoneal injection challenge method could be used on larger fish, but the infection dose was 10(7) CFU per fish before mortalities occurred. Bath infection and bath infection in combination with formalin treatment (stress) seemed to be reproducible methods that could be used...

  7. Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolini, Daniela; Toma, Luciano; Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Romi, R; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel with Aedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body of Cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  8. Influence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii on purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Casali, Emerson A; Silveira, Stephanie S; Moritz, Cesar E J; Camillo, Giovana; Flores, Mariana M; Fighera, Rafael; Thomé, Gustavo R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Rue, Mario De La; Vogel, Fernanda S F; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice (BALB/c) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. In experiment I (n=24) the mice were infected with RH strain of T. gondii, while in experiment II (n=36) they were infected with strain ME-49 of T. gondii. Our results showed that, for RH strain (acute phase), an increase in both periods in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine (only on day 6 PI) and uric acid (only on day 6 PI). By the other hand, the RH strain led, on days 4 and 6 PI, to a reduction in the concentration of inosine. ME-49, a cystogenic strain, showed some differences in acute and chronic phase, since on day 6 PI the levels of ATP and ADP were increased, while on day 30 these same nucleotides were reduced. On day 60 PI, ME-49 induced a reduction in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and xanthine, while uric acid was increased. A decrease of E-ADA activity was observed in brain on days 4 and 6 PI (RH), and 30 PI (ME-49); however on day 60 PI E-ADA activity was increased for infection by ME-49 strain. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that infection with T. gondii changes the purine levels and the activity of E-ADA in brain, which may be associated with neurological signs commonly observed in this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

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    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group, Group B was infected with T. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected with T. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serial No. GN: 10023338. Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05 was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions: T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  10. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections.

  11. Temporal dynamics of 'HoBi'-like pestivirus quasispecies in persistently infected calves generated under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Canal, Cláudio W; Bayles, Darrell O; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-01-02

    'HoBi'-like virus is an atypical group within the Pestivirus genus that is implicated in economic losses for cattle producers due to both acute and persistent infections. Pestivirus strains exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses) in infected animals and the viral populations making up the quasispecies differ widely in size and diversity in each animal. In the present study the viral quasispecies circulating in persistently infected (PI) calves, generated and maintained under experimental conditions using two different 'HoBi'-like strains, was observed over time. An increase in genetic variability and the development of certain mutations was observed over time. Mutations observed included the loss of a putative N-linked glycosylation site in the E2 region and the change of specific residues in E1/E2. It is hypothesized that these changes may be the results on continued adaption of the pestivirus to individual hosts. This is the first study characterizing variation in the viral swarms of animals persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses over time. Studies of the shifts in PI viral swarms will contribute to our understanding of the host and viral mechanisms that function in the maintenance of pestivirus persistent infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Dexamethasone treatment induces susceptibility of outbred Webster mice to experimental infection with Besnoitia darlingi isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-04-01

    The Sarcocystidae comprise a diverse, monophyletic apicomplexan parasite family, most of whose members form intracellular cysts in their intermediate hosts. The extent of pathology associated with such cyst formation can range widely. We currently lack experimental animal models for many of these infections. Here we explored dexamethasone treatment as a means to render outbred mice susceptible to Besnoitia darlingi infection and demonstrated that this approach allows viable parasites to be subsequently isolated from these mice and maintained in tissue culture. Besnoitia bradyzoites recovered from crushed cysts derived from naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana) replicated and reproduced the development of besnoitiosis in mice treated with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 days post infection (DPI). Isolates recovered from the peritoneal exudates of these mice were viable and were maintained in long-term tissue cultures. In contrast, control mice given saline without dexamethasone and challenged with similar bradyzoites remained clinically normal for up to 70 DPI. An additional group of mice challenged with the same inoculum of bradyzoites and given dexamethasone at the same concentration and treated with sulfadiazine (1 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 DPI also remained normal for up to 70 DPI. Severe disease developed more rapidly in dexamethasone-treated mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites than in those inoculated with cyst-derived bradyzoites. B. darlingi tachyzoite-infected, untreated control mice developed signs of illness at 18 DPI. In contrast, mice treated with sulfadiazine showed no clinical signs up to 50 DPI. Although dexamethasone treatment was required to establish B. darlingi infection in outbred mice inoculated with opossum-derived B. darlingi bradyzoites, no such treatment was required for mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites. Finally, sulfadiazine was highly

  13. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were......Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella...

  14. Cell-mediated immune response to Leishmania chagasi experimental infection of BALB/c immunosuppressed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, presents a significant impact on immunosupressed patients. This study aimed to evaluate Leishmania chagasi infection in BALB/c mice immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spleen cells stimulated or not with L. chagasi were cultured for cytokine quantification (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 by sandwich ELISA. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were determined by means of culture microtitration. Immunosuppressed groups showed statistically lower spleen weight and CD4-cell percentage in blood on the day of infection and produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines on other days of the study. The other infected groups, weather immunosupressed or not, also produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were not statistically different among the groups. It was concluded that L. chagasi infection was not affected by dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression, probably due the reversible effect of the treatment.

  15. The Induction of Protective Immunity against Experimental Eimeria tenella Infection using Serum Exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria, a unicellular, apicomplexan protist which primarily infects intestinal epithelia resulting in nutrition malabsorption and reduced growth of commercial poultry. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from antigen presenting cells and containing parasit...

  16. Altered vector competence in an experimental mosquito-mouse transmission model of Zika infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Uraki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV infection have incorporated arthropod-borne transmission. Here, we establish an Aedes aegypti mosquito model of ZIKV infection of mice, and demonstrate altered vector competency among three strains, (Orlando, ORL, Ho Chi Minh, HCM, and Patilas, PAT. All strains acquired ZIKV in their midguts after a blood meal from infected mice, but ZIKV transmission only occurred in mice fed upon by HCM, and to a lesser extent PAT, but not ORL, mosquitoes. This defect in transmission from ORL or PAT mosquitoes was overcome by intrathoracic injection of ZIKV into mosquito. Genetic analysis revealed significant diversity among these strains, suggesting a genetic basis for differences in ability for mosquito strains to transmit ZIKV. The intrathoracic injection mosquito-mouse transmission model is critical to understanding the influence of mosquitoes on ZIKV transmission, infectivity and pathogenesis in the vertebrate host, and represents a natural transmission route for testing vaccines and therapeutics.

  17. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  18. Comparative experimental infection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii in bovine trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cláudia E; Mol, Juliana P S; Garcia, Luize N N; Costa, Luciana F; Santos, Renato L; Paixão, Tatiane A

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular and invasive bacterium that has tropism to the placenta, and causes fetal morbidity and mortality in several mammalian species. While infection with L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are known as important causes of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle, the pathogenesis of maternal-fetal listeriosis in this species is poorly known. This study used the bovine chorioallantoic membrane explant model to investigate the kinetics of L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, and L. innocua infections in bovine trophoblastic cells for up to 8 h post infection. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were able to invade and multiply in trophoblastic cells without causing cell death or inducing expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Although L. innocua was unable to multiply in bovine trophoblastic cells, it induced transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediator CXCL6. This study demonstrated for the first time the susceptibility of bovine trophoblastic cells to L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii infection.

  19. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  20. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S.; Eiselt, N.; Griesser, H.; Olmos, J. J.V.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Okonkwo, C.

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual

  1. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Heide, Sjoerd; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual chr...

  2. Mechanistic Aspects of the Reversible Binding of SO2 on Arylplatinum Complexes: Experimental and ab Initio Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Albrecht, M.A.; Gossage, R.A.; Frey, H.; Ehlers, A.W.; Baerends, E.J.; Merbach, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The detailed mechanism of the reversible binding and fast exchange of SO2 on the organoplatinum(II) complex [PtI(NCN)], 1, has been studied experimentally in solution (C2F4Br2) using low-temperature NMR spectroscopy and theoretically by ab initio calculations. Direct bonding of SO2 and formation of

  3. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy in Yankasa ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, A A; Ate, I U; Lawal, A I; Adamu, S

    2016-03-15

    Twenty pregnant Yankasa ewes were assigned to three groups to determine the effect of Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy. Groups A and B comprising seven ewes each were infected with approximately 1.0 × 10(6) cells of T evansi per ewe through venepuncture at the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Group C comprising six ewes served as uninfected control. There was slight pyrexia in the infected groups (groups A and B) but was absent in group C. The mean body weight, glucose concentration, and packed cell volume of ewes in group A were not significantly different from those in group C throughout the study. There was also no significant difference in mean glucose concentration between groups B and C. However, in group B, mean body weight was significantly (P ewes in group A was significantly (P ewes in group B decreased significantly (P ewes in the infected groups (groups A and B) compared with those in group C. However, there were significant (P ewes in group B compared with ewes in groups A and C. Mice inoculation with blood from infected ewes postpartum was parasitemic 18 to 25 days pi, for ewes in group B, whereas none of the mice in groups A and C were parasitemic. Lambs born from the infected groups (groups A and B) were also aparasitemic for 40 days postpartum. It was therefore concluded that the T evansi isolate used caused mild trypanosomosis when infected at third trimester, whereas ewes infected at second trimester were resistant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Different infective forms trigger distinct immune response in experimental Chagas disease.

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    Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira

    Full Text Available Although metacyclic and blood trypomastigotes are completely functional in relation to parasite-host interaction and/or target cell invasion, they differ in the molecules present on the surface. Thus, aspects related to the variability that the forms of T. cruzi interacts with host cells may lead to fundamental implications on the immune response against this parasite and, consequently, the clinical evolution of Chagas disease. We have shown that BT infected mice presented higher levels of parasitemia during all the acute phase of infection. Moreover, the infection with either MT or BT forms resulted in increased levels of total leukocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes, specifically later for MT and earlier for BT. The infection with BT forms presented earlier production of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and later of IFN-γ by both T cells subpopulations. This event was accompanied by an early cardiac inflammation with an exacerbation of this process at the end of the acute phase. On the other hand, infection with MT forms result in an early production of IFN-γ, with subsequent control in the production of this cytokine by IL-10, which provided to these animals an immunomodulatory profile in the end of the acute phase. These results are in agreement with what was found for cardiac inflammation where animals infected with MT forms showed intense cardiac inflammation later at infection, with a decrease in the same at the end of this phase. In summary, our findings emphasize the importance of taking into account the inoculums source of T. cruzi, since vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase that may influence relevant biological aspects of chronic Chagas disease.

  5. Humoral immune responses of experimentally Eimeria ninakholyakimovae-infected goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Lorena; Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Molina, José Manuel; Ferrer, Otilia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Pérez, Davinia; López, Adassa María; Martín, Sergio; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja; Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Although cellular immune reactions seem to be crucial for protective immune responses in Eimeria spp. infections, there are also evidences on an active involvement of the humoral counterpart. In the present study, we have analyzed the humoral response of goat kids subjected to primary and challenge infections with Eimeria ninakholyakimovae. Specific levels of IgG and IgM in serum samples and IgA in the ileal mucus were estimated. In infected kids, significantly increased levels of IgG were observed from 3 weeks post infection onwards in addition to an enhancement of specific IgM and secretory IgA levels. A wide range of peptides of sporulated oocyst antigen (SOA) was recognized by specific IgG as determined by immunoblotting. However, no correlations were found between immunoglobulin levels and OPG counts after challenge infection. Overall, these data indicate a significant specific humoral response of E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected goat kids that does not seem to convey immunoprotection. Further studies should be addressed to clarify if the lack of correlation might be associated to the type of antigen used for the immunoenzimatic assays, the age of the animals or other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TNF-α is involved in the abnormal thymocyte migration during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection and favors the export of immature cells.

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    Ana Rosa Pérez

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed a significant production of inflammatory cytokines together with severe thymic atrophy and thymocyte migratory disturbances during experimental Chagas disease. Migratory activity of thymocytes and mature T cells seem to be finely tuned by cytokines, chemokines and extracellular matrix (ECM components. Systemic TNF-α is enhanced during infection and appears to be crucial in the response against the parasite. However, it also seems to be involved in disease pathology, since it is implicated in the arrival of T cells to effector sites, including the myocardium. Herein, we analyzed the role of TNF-α in the migratory activity of thymocytes in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi acutely-infected mice. We found increased expression and deposition of TNF-α in the thymus of infected animals compared to controls, accompanied by increased co-localization of fibronectin, a cell migration-related ECM molecule, whose contents in the thymus of infected mice is also augmented. In-vivo studies showed an enhanced export of thymocytes in T. cruzi-infected mice, as ascertained by intrathymic injection of FITC alone or in combination with TNF-α. The increase of immature CD4(+CD8(+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs was even more clear-cut when TNF-α was co-injected with FITC. Ex-vivo transmigration assays also revealed higher number of migrating cells when TNF-α was added onto fibronectin lattices, with higher input of all thymocyte subsets, including immature CD4(+CD8(+. Infected animals also exhibit enhanced levels of expression of both mRNA TNF-α receptors in the CD4(+CD8(+ subpopulation. Our findings suggest that in T. cruzi acute infection, when TNF-α is complexed with fibronectin, it favours the altered migration of thymocytes, promoting the release of mature and immature T cells to different compartments of the immune system. Conceptually, this work reinforces the notion that thymocyte migration is a multivectorial biological event

  7. Anti-infective properties of the melanin-glucan complex obtained from medicinal tinder bracket mushroom, Fomes fomentarius (L.: Fr.) Fr. (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniuk, Olga F; Gorovoj, Leontiy F; Beketova, Galina V; Savichuk, Hatalia O; Rytik, Petr G; Kucherov, Igor I; Prilutskay, Alla B; Prilutsky, Alexandr I

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to comparatively study the efficiency of traditionally used anti-infective drugs and biopolymer complexes originated from the medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius (L.:Fr.) Fr.: 1) water-soluble melanin-glucan complex (MGC; -80% melanins and -20% beta-glucans) and 2) insoluble chitin-glucan-melanin complex (ChGMC; -70% chitin, -20% beta-glucans, and -10% melanins). Infectious materials (Helicobacter pylori, Candida albicans, and Herpes vulgaris I and HIV-1(zmb) were used in pure cultures of in vitro and in vivo models on experimental animals. Comparison studies of fungal biopolymers and effective modern antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral drugs were used in in vitro models. The comparative clinical efficiency of ChGMC and of etiotropic pharmaceuticals in models of H. pylori, C. albicans, and H. vulgaris I infection contamination were studied. Using in vitro models, it was established that MGC completely depresses growth of C. albicans. MGC had an antimicrobial effect on H. pylori identical to erythromycin in all concentrations, and had a stronger action on this bacterium than other tested antibiotics. Tested MGC possesses simultaneously weak toxicity and high anti-HIV-1 activity in comparison with zidovudine (Retrovir). The obtained results show that CLUDDT therapy in Wistar rats with the application of ChGMC is, on average, 1.35-1.43 times as effective as a traditional one. Considering the absence of MGC and ChGMC toxic properties on blood cells even in very high concentrations, these complexes may be used as a source of biopolymers for the creation of essentially new agents for wide application in infectious pathology.

  8. TLR2-Modulating Lipoproteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Enhance the HIV Infectivity of CD4+ T Cells.

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    Ciaran Skerry

    Full Text Available Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis accelerates progression from HIV to AIDS. Our previous studies showed that M. tuberculosis complex, unlike M. smegmatis, enhances TLR2-dependent susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV. The M. tuberculosis complex produces multiple TLR2-stimulating lipoproteins, which are absent in M. smegmatis. M. tuberculosis production of mature lipoproteins and TLR2 stimulation is dependent on cleavage by lipoprotein signal peptidase A (LspA. In order to determine the role of potential TLR2-stimulating lipoproteins on mycobacterial-mediated HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells, we generated M. smegmatis recombinant strains overexpressing genes encoding various M. bovis BCG lipoproteins, as well as a Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain deficient in LspA (ΔlspA. Exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC to M. smegmatis strains overexpressing the BCG lipoproteins, LprF (p<0.01, LprH (p<0.05, LprI (p<0.05, LprP (p<0.001, LprQ (p<0.005, MPT83 (p<0.005, or PhoS1 (p<0.05, resulted in increased HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells isolated from these PBMC. Conversely, infection of PBMC with ΔlspA reduced HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells by 40% relative to BCG-infected cells (p<0.05. These results may have important implications for TB vaccination programs in areas with high mother-to-child HIV transmission.

  9. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovsky-Akhsanov, Nicole; Keating, M Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  10. Molecular identification of Heterakis spumosa obtained from brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Japan and its infectivity in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnábel, Viliam; Utsuki, Daisuke; Kato, Takehiro; Sunaga, Fujiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Gambetta, Barbara; Taira, Kensuke

    2014-09-01

    Heterakis spumosa is a nematode of invasive rodents, mainly affiliated with Rattus spp. of Asian origin. Despite the ecological importance and cosmopolitan distribution, little information is available on the genetic characteristics and infectivity to experimental animals of this roundworm. Heterakis isolates obtained from naturally infected brown rats caught in 2007 in the city of Sagamihara, east central Honshu, Japan, and maintained by laboratory passages were subjected to mitochondrial sequence analysis and experimental infection in mice. Sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed that nucleotides of H. spumosa and previously examined Heterakis isolonche isolates from gallinaceous birds in Japan differed by 11.2-12.2% that conforms to the range expected for interspecific differences. The two H. spumosa isolates differed by a single 138T/C non-synonymous substitution in the 393-bp mt sequence. In a dendrogram, the H. spumosa samples formed a subcluster with members of the nematode superfamily Heterakoidea, H. isolonche and Ascaridia galli. In an experimental infection study, ICR, AKR, B10.BR and C57BL/6 mice strains were inoculated with 200 H. spumosa eggs/head and necropsied at 14 and 90 days post-inoculation (DPI) when the number of worms was recorded. Eggs were initially detected in faeces from 32-35 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice and the highest mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 4,800 at 38 DPI, 2,200 at 58 DPI and 800 at 44 and 72 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice, respectively. No eggs were observed in faeces of the C57BL/6 mouse strain during the experiment. A similar number of juvenile worms were isolated from all mouse strains at 14 DPI, whereas no adult worms were detected in C57BL/6 mice at 90 DPI.

  11. [Usefulness of the variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis for complex infections of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, Noriko; Goto, Mieko; Saiki, Yumiko; Baba, Michiko; Udagawa, Tadashi; Kazumi, Yuko

    2008-09-01

    The bacilli which were isolated from a patient suspected of the mixed infections with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, were analyzed. The genotypes of M. avium in the sedimented fractions of treated sputum and in some colonies isolated from Ogawa medium were compared by the Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats (VNTR). A woman, aged 57. Mycobacterial species isolated from some colonies by culture in 2004 and 2006 and from the treated sputum in 2006, were determined by DNA sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Also, by using VNTR, the genotype of mycobacteria was analyzed. [Results] (1) The colony isolated from Ogawa medium in 2004 was monoclonal M. avium. (2) By VNTR analyses of specimens in 2006, multiple acid-fast bacteria were found in the sputum sediment and in isolated bacteria from Ogawa medium. (3) By analyses of 16S rRNA DNA sequence, M. avium and M. intracellulare were found in the colonies isolated from the sputum sediment and the Ogawa medium in 2006. (4) The same VNTR patterns were obtained in M. avium in 2004 and 2006 when single colony was analyzed. (5) From the showerhead and culvert of the bathroom in the patient's house, M. avium was not detected. By VNTR analyses, it was considered that the mixed infections of M. avium and M. intracellulare had been generated during treatment in this case. Therefore, in the case of suspected complex infection, VNTR analysis would be a useful genotyping method in M. avium complex infection.

  12. An experimental in-vivo canine model for adult shunt infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procop Gary

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed human studies of the mechanisms and development of shunt infection in real time are not possible, and we have developed a canine hydrocephalus model to overcome this. The intention of this pilot study was to show that the canine hydrocephalus model could be shunted using conventional "human" shunts, and that a shunt infection could be established so that further studies could then be planned. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced in seven dogs (Canis familiaris by fourth ventricle obstruction. Four weeks later they were shunted using a Hakim Precision valve. Four of the dogs received shunts whose ventricular catheter had been inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, and three were uninoculated controls. Four weeks after shunting the dogs were sacrificed and necropsy was performed. Removed shunts and tissue samples were examined microbiologically and isolates were subjected to detailed identification and genomic comparison. Results All the dogs remained well after shunting. Examination of removed shunt components revealed S. epidermidis in the brain and throughout the shunt system in the four inoculated animals, but in two of these Staphylococcus intermedius was also found. S. intermedius was also isolated from all three "negative" controls. There were slight differences between S. intermedius strains suggesting endogenous infection rather than cross- infection from a point source. Conclusion Shunt infection was established in the canine model, and had the experiment been extended beyond four weeks the typical microbiological, pathological and clinical features might have appeared. The occurrence of unplanned shunt infections in control animals due to canine normal skin flora reflects human clinical experience and underlines the usual source of bacteria causing shunt infection.

  13. Differential Disease Susceptibilities in Experimentally Reptarenavirus-Infected Boa Constrictors and Ball Pythons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Garcia, Valentina E.; Layton, Marylee L.; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L.; Boback, Scott M.; Keel, M. Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery. We therefore conducted a long-term challenge experiment to test the hypothesis that reptarenaviruses cause IBD. We infected boa constrictors and ball pythons by cardiac injection of purified virus. We monitored the progression of viral growth in tissues, blood, and environmental samples. Infection produced dramatically different disease outcomes in snakes of the two species. Ball pythons infected with Golden Gate virus (GoGV) and with another reptarenavirus displayed severe neurological signs within 2 months, and viral replication was detected only in central nervous system tissues. In contrast, GoGV-infected boa constrictors remained free of clinical signs for 2 years, despite high viral loads and the accumulation of large intracellular inclusions in multiple tissues, including the brain. Inflammation was associated with infection in ball pythons but not in boa constrictors. Thus, reptarenavirus infection produces inclusions and inclusion body disease, although inclusions per se are neither necessarily associated with nor required for disease. Although the natural distribution of reptarenaviruses has yet to be described, the different outcomes of infection may reflect differences in geographical origin. IMPORTANCE New DNA sequencing technologies have made it easier than ever to identify the sequences of microorganisms in diseased tissues, i

  14. Highly diluted medication reduces parasitemia and improves experimental infection evolution by Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Aleixo Denise

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no published information about the use of different protocols to administer a highly diluted medication. Evaluate the effect of different protocols for treatment with biotherapic T. cruzi 17 dH (BIOTTc17dH on clinical/parasitological evolution of mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain. Methods A blind, randomized controlled trial was performed twice, using 60 28-day-old male Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain, in five treatment groups: CI - treated with a 7% ethanol-water solution, diluted in water (10 μL/mL ad libitum; BIOTPI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 μL/mL ad libitum during a period that started on the day of infection; BIOT4DI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 μL/mL ad libitum beginning on the 4th day of infection; BIOT4-5–6 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2 mL/ animal/day on the 4th, 5th and 6th days after infection; BIOT7-8–9 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2 mL/ animal/day on the 7th, 8th and 9th days after infection. We evaluated: parasitemia; total parasitemia (Ptotal; maximum peak of parasites; prepatent period (PPP - time from infection to detection of the parasite in blood; patent period (PP - period when the parasitemia can be detected in blood; clinical aspects; and mortality. Results Parasitological parameters in the BIOTPI and mainly in the BIOT4PI group showed better evolution of the infection compared to the control group (CI, with lower Ptotal, lower maximum peak of parasites, higher PPP, lower PP and longer survival times. These animals showed stable body temperature and higher weight gain and water consumption, with more animals having normal-appearing fur for longer periods. In contrast, groups BIOT4-5–6 and BIOT7-8–9 showed worse evolution of the infection compared to the control group, considering both parasitological and clinical parameters. The correlation analysis combined with the other data from this study indicated that the prepatent

  15. Implementation in the midst of complexity: Using ethnography to study health care-associated infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Mary Jo; Thomas, Kevin V; Patterson, Erin; Zimbric, Michele L; Musuuza, Jackson; Safdar, Nasia

    2017-10-01

    Contextual factors associated with health care settings make reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) a complex task. The aim of this article is to highlight how ethnography can assist in understanding contextual factors that support or hinder the implementation of evidence-based practices for reducing HAIs. We conducted a review of ethnographic studies specifically related to HAI prevention and control in the last 5 years (2012-2017). Twelve studies specific to HAIs and ethnographic methods were found. Researchers used various methods with video-reflexive sessions used in 6 of the 12 studies. Ethnography was used to understand variation in data reporting, identify barriers to adherence, explore patient perceptions of isolation practices and highlight the influence of physical design on infection prevention practices. The term ethnography was used to describe varied research methods. Most studies were conducted outside the United States, and authors indicate insights gained using ethnographic methods (whether observations, interviews, or reflexive video recording) as beneficial to unraveling the complexities of HAI prevention. Ethnography is well-suited for HAI prevention, especially video-reflexive ethnography, for activating patients and clinicians in infection control work. In this era of increasing pressure to reduce HAIs within complex work systems, ethnographic methods can promote understanding of contextual factors and may expedite translation evidence to practice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Susceptibility and pathological consequences of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton experimentally infected with Edwardsiella tarda

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    Devi Thongam Bidya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the susceptibility and pathological changes of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton infected with Edwardsiella tarda (ET-PG-29. The bacterium was isolated from the kidney of a diseased pangas catfish. To determine the median lethal dose (LD50, C. catla were challenged with this bacterium (108-103 CFU ml-1, and the LD50 was calculated as 105.5 CFU ml-1. Another set of healthy C. catla were injected intraperitoneally with the LD50 dose to induce edwardsiellosis. The clinical signs of the infected C. catla were observed and recorded. Tissues such as kidney, liver, intestine, heart, and gill from the infected fish with clinical signs of edwardsiellosis were used for histopathology. The clinical and gross signs were first visible at 1 d post-injection, and the infected fish showed typical signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. The most striking histopathological features were found in the kidney which showed multi-focal necrosis with the formation of granuloma indicating an inflammatory response against the pathogen. The intestine displayed goblet cell hyperplasia, the liver showed hydropic degeneration with hyperemic central veins, and there was inflammation of gill lamellae and cardiac myositis associated with leucocyte infiltration. Collectively, the results confirmed the susceptibility of C. catla to E. tarda infection and that this bacterium is a threat to C. catla in aquaculture practices.

  17. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection on sperm morphology in Yankasa rams

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    Oluyinka O. Okubanjo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of T. congolense on the sperm morphology of Yankasa rams (YKR. Nine YKR aged 24-30 months-old were assigned into two groups of 6 infected and 3 uninfected control and were monitored for 7 weeks. The infected group of YKR was each inoculated with 1 x 106 T. congolense through the jugular vein, while the control group remained uninfected. The entire infected group developed trypanosomosis post infection (pi characterized by sperm morphological abnormalities in the semen. There were significant (P<0.001 increases in the mean percentage of acrosomal, head, middle piece and tail abnormalities. Proximal and distal droplets as well detached heads were also significantly (P<0.001 increased post infection (pi. Acrosomal abnormalities, distal droplet and tail abnormalities increased from week 1 pi till the end of the study, while head abnormalities and detached heads increased from week 2 pi. Middle piece abnormalities and proximal droplets increased from week 3 and 4 pi till the end of the study respectively. The high incidence of morphological defects caused by T. congolense is capable of causing infertility from the first week pi thereby making the rams unfit for breeding at the end of the study.

  18. FSL-1, a bacterial-derived toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist, enhances resistance to experimental HSV-2 infection

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    Pyles Richard B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is a leading cause of genital ulceration that can predispose individuals to an increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections. There are no approved HSV-2 vaccines and current suppressive therapies require daily compound administration that does not prevent all recurrences. A promising experimental strategy is the use of toll-like receptor (TLR agonists to induce an innate immune response that provides resistance to HSV-2 infection. Previous studies showed that anti-herpetic activity varied based on origin of the agonists and activation of different TLR indicating that activity likely occurs through elaboration of a specific innate immune response. To test the hypothesis, we evaluated the ability of a bacterial-derived TLR2/6 agonist (FSL-1 to increase resistance to experimental genital HSV-2 infection. Methods Vaginal application of FSL-1 at selected doses and times was evaluated to identify potential increased resistance to genital HSV-2 infection in the mouse model. The FSL-1 induced cytokine profile was quantified using kinetically collected vaginal lavages. Additionally, cytokine elaboration and organ weights were evaluated after single or multiple FSL-1 doses to establish a preliminary safety profile. Human vaginal EC cultures were used to confirm the mouse model outcomes. Results The results showed that vaginally-applied FSL-1 created an environment resistant to a 25-fold higher HSV-2 challenge dose. Mechanistically, vaginal FSL-1 application led to transient elaboration of cytokines linked to anti-herpetic innate immune responses. No gross local or peripheral immunotoxicity was observed even after multiple dosing. FSL-1 also created an anti-herpetic environment in cultures of human vaginal epithelial cells (EC. Conclusion The results showed, for the first time, that the bacterial-derived TLR2/6 agonist FSL-1 induced significant resistance to HSV-2 infection when

  19. Development and evaluation of an interferon gamma assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in red deer experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risalde, María Ángeles; Thomas, Jobin; Sevilla, Iker; Serrano, Miriam; Ortíz, Jose Antonio; Garrido, Joseba; Domínguez, Mercedes; Domínguez, Lucas; Gortázar, Christian; Ruíz-Fons, Jose Francisco

    2017-11-16

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is regarded as an epidemiologically relevant host for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that cause animal tuberculosis (TB). The standard antemortem screening test for the detection of TB in deer is the intradermal tuberculin skin test, but the detection of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) produced by white blood cells exposed to M. bovis antigens can be used as an alternative or supplemental assay in most TB eradication/control programs. This study aims to develop an in-house sandwich ELISA for deer IFNγ, based on the cross-reactivity of the antibodies to both cervid and bovine IFNγ, and to evaluate the potential of this assay to detect M. bovis-infected red deer in response to the in vitro stimulation of whole-blood cells with bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD), p22 protein complex derived from bPPD or using the specific tuberculous mycobacterial proteins ESAT-6/CFP-10, Rv3615c and Rv3020c. The positive control stimulant used in this study was pokeweed mitogen, which resulted in a consistent induction of IFNγ in samples from red deer, thus allowing the interpretation of the assay. The percentage of animals correctly classified by this technique as M. bovis non-infected was 100%. The detection of infected animals as positive was high and ranged widely depending upon the antigen and the cut-off value applied, as well as the time after infection. Our findings indicate that this protocol may serve as a reliable assay for the antemortem diagnosis of TB from the initial stage of M. bovis-infection, and may also be adequately sensitive. The suggested optimal antigens and cut-off are bPPD, p22 and the combination of ESAT-6/CFP-10 and Rv3020c with a 0.05 Δ optical density, which yielded a up to 100% correct classification of TB positive and negatve red deer under our experimental conditions. This technique will aid in TB testing of farmed and translocated deer. Future studies

  20. [Genotyping and evaluation of infection dynamics in a Colombian isolate of Leptospira santarosai in hamster as an experimental model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Durango, Harold; Aranzazu, Diego; Rodas, Juan David; Travi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Is necessary to develop models for the study of leptospirosis. To genotype a Colombian strain of Leptospira isolated from a human with Weil´s syndrome and to evaluate its infection dynamics in the hamster experimental model. Genotyping was performed by amplification and sequence analysis of the rrs 16S and lipL32 genes. The median lethal dose was determined in intraperitoneally inoculated hamsters. The patterns of clinical chemistry, the duration of leptospiremia, leptospiruria and pathological findings were studied and compared in the same animal model infected with L. interrogans (Fiocruz L1-130). Molecular typing revealed that the isolate corresponded to the pathogenic species L. santarosai, which was recovered from hamsters´ kidneys and lungs and detected by lipL32 PCR from day 3 post-infection in these organs. There was a marked increase of C-reactive protein in animals at day 5 post-infection (3.25 mg/dl; normal value: 0.3 mg/dl) with decreases by day 18 (2.60 mg/dl: normal value: 0.8 mg/dl). Biomarkers of urea showed changes consistent with possible renal acute failure (day 5 post-infection: 49.01 mg/dl and day 18 post-infection: 53.71 mg/dl). Histopathological changes included interstitial pneumonia with varying degrees of hemorrhage and interstitial nephritis. The pathogenic species L. santarosai was identified in Colombia. Its pathogenicity as determined by tropism to lung and kidney was comparable to that of L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130, well known for its virulence and pulmonar tropism. The biological aspects studied here had never before been evaluated in an autochthonous isolate.

  1. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite