Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 2004
Five days in East Timor visiting orphanages changed the lives of five young men from Youth Off The Streets. The children in these orphanages run by the Salesian order of the Catholic church are products of the Indonesian invasion, which began in 1975 and continued until 1999. Massive destruction occurred throughout the country. Buildings at the…
Margesson, Rhoda; Vaughn, Bruce
With the help of a transitional United Nations administration, East Timor emerged in 2002 as an independent state after a long history of Portugese colonialism and more recently, Indonesian rule. This followed a U.N...
Carvalho, A C
The population characterization of Timor-East, Province of Portugal, is described from the demographic and socioeconomic point of views. Although several population censuses had been carried out in the Portuguese province, only the results from the 1970 census provide an analysis of the population characteristics. According to the results of the 1970 census, the population had grown 1.6%/year between 1950-70. 50% of the population was less than 20 years old in 1970, and only 4% were elderly. Marriage was very common. 93.1% of the women and 92.8% of the men were married. 3 out of 4 people followed the Animist or Buddhism religions and only 25% were Catholics. 90.4% of the surveyed population were illiterate. The poverty is reflected by the low mean of life expectancy: 45 years. Fecundity rate was 5.1 children/woman. With the hypothesis of a natural and constant population growth, the Timor-East should have had around 840 thousand people in 1980, and doubling beginning of next century. Nevertheless, history shows a different reality. Because of the civil war and invasion and later occupation of the Province by the Indonesian forces, the population reached only 550 thousand in 1980.
Maricela Reyes López
Full Text Available East Timor, the newly independent and small country of the Southeast Asia applies to join ASEAN. ASEAN members debate pro and con arguments on that admission. Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia are pro because they are beneficiary countries in economic terms trough ASEAN. Also, they ....the integration of all countries of the region, including East Timor, will be improve in a meaningful way the political and economic stability in the region. Today government officials, analysts and academics are debating on the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN enlargement to admit East Timor as the eleventh member. East Timor recently declared independence and could benefit regionally just now as favorable factors are improving its economy and political position. Pro and con arguments of such membership represent more than an individual vote from the region’s friendly governments. A positive consensus will mean certain effects in the region and beyond it. This paper discusses arguments of several actors concerning the acceptance of East Timor into the ASEAN and its regional implications.
This work is the first comprehensive description of Makalero, a language spoken by approximately 6,500 speakers in the Iliomar subdistrict, in the south-east of the Republic of East Timor. Makalero has been classified as belonging to the Trans-New Guinea family, making it one of the westernmost
revoked the AMS. The East Timor crisis caused a near meltdown of relations between Australia and Indonesia. R E L A T I O N S P O S T – E A S T T I M O...between Australia and Indonesia had grown by leaps and bounds until it leveled off in the financial crisis . From 1988 to 1998 trade rose from A$1.2 billion...reports for his less-than-exemplary role in the East Timor crisis —raises the possibility of a leader who has criticized Australia in the past. The
Aben, F. M.; Bakker, R. R.; Dekkers, M. J.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Harris, R. A.; Zachariasse, J.; Duffy, B. G.
Inconsistent polarity patterns in greigite-bearing (marine) sediments are a common problem in magnetostratigraphic and paleomagnetic research. Prolonged diagenesis can result in multiple generations of greigite being present in a sedimentary record. The associated remanence ';haystack' can be filtered to some extent by paleomagnetic field tests but not all rock records are suitable for such an approach. Here, we test whether end-member modeling of IRM-acquisition curves as a basis for an integrated rock magnetic and (electron) microscopic research approach can be used to identify all magnetic mineral suites, to evaluate the nature of the magnetic remanences, and to use the acquired knowledge to isolate the ChRM from such complex magnetic records. To this end, a case study was performed on uppermost Miocene to Pliocene deep-marine clastic and chalk bearing Viqueque Type section in East Timor. This section was originally sampled to establish a bio- and magnetostratigraphic age model dating the uplift history of the young Timor-orogen. An in principle straightforward polarity record was obtained, which, however, was impossible to reconcile with the biostratigraphy of the section. Among the dominant magnetic carriers was greigite. Two magnetic end-members were distinguished in the Viqueque Type section, which were analyzed further for rock magnetic properties. With microscopy, three magnetic mineral suites are shown to result in the two end-members. The first suite occurs in all lithologies and consists of detrital magnetite with a viscous NRM, caused by partial reductive dissolution of detrital magnetite grains after deposition. This mineral suite therefore is unreliable for magnetostratigraphic use. The second and third suite both consist of interacting single domain greigite grains with a chemical remanent magnetization. The second suite is present in almost all clay levels of the Viqueque Type section and is characterized by early diagenetic framboidal greigite
Sugnanam, Kirthi Kumar Naidu; Ma, Shirley; Kreis, Andreas; Correia, Marcelino; Verma, Nitin; Dirani, Mohamed
This study aimed to present the methodology of the East Timor Eye Program and report the prevalence of eye disease seen at the National Eye Centre during a 3-month sample period between June and August 2012. Two hundred ninety-three new patients aged 17 years or older were assessed at the National Eye Centre in Dili, Timor-Leste. All participants received a comprehensive dilated eye examination that included distance visual acuity measurements, indirect fundoscopy, and a complete slit lamp assessment including gonioscopy and intraocular pressure measurement. Each patient completed an interview-administered general questionnaire, and information on general health, ocular history, and medication was obtained. Anthropometric measurements were also taken and recorded. A total of 293 patients, 183 males (62.5%) and 110 females (37.5%), aged between 17 and 88 years (mean, 47.66 years) were recruited and examined. The 3 most common clinical eye presentations were conjunctival disorders (60.41%), followed by lens disorders (48.12%) and scleral, corneal, iris, and ciliary body disorders (46.42%). The 3 most common conditions causing blindness (visual acuity less than 3/60 as defined by the World Health Organization) were lens disorders (45.9%), choroidal and retinal disorders (18.9%), and other disorders of the eye and adnexa (13.5%). The East Timor Eye Program is an effective program that has enabled the management and treatment of various eye conditions in residents of Timor-Leste. The program set high standards for stringent and accurate data collection and ophthalmic diagnoses in a low-resource setting. Lens disorders and choroidal and retinal disorders were the most common conditions causing blindness.
Full Text Available In 2006, a mere seven years after the overwhelming vote in opposition to Indonesia's final offer of 'broad autonomy' and only four years after the restoration of independence, communal violence erupted in Dili, the capital of East Timor. This violence was framed in terms of tensions between westerners, known as kaladi, and easterners, known as firaku. This essay seeks to answer two basic puzzles. First, what are the origins of these communal labels? Second, why did these terms resonate so profoundly within East Timorese society so soon after independence? Tracing the history of these terms, this essay argues that across more than three centuries these communal labels have emerged during crucial struggles to exert central authority. In doing so, this essay highlights the relationship between regional identities and the social ecology of food.
When the East Timorese voted for Independence in 1999 they at least expected to have infrastructure, such as school buildings, available as they started the task of building a new nation. The post-Independence destruction also meant that unexpected priority decisions about what should be built, or rebuilt, first had to be made. In a country…
O'Connor, S; Robertson, G; Aplin, K P
We report the discovery of an unusually complex and regionally unique bone artefact in a Late Pleistocene archaeological assemblage (c. 35 ka [thousands of years ago]) from the site of Matja Kuru 2 on the island of Timor, in Wallacea. The artefact is interpreted as the broken butt of a formerly hafted projectile point, and it preserves evidence of a complex hafting mechanism including insertion into a shaped or split shaft, a complex pattern of binding including lateral stabilization of the cordage within a bilateral series of notches, and the application of mastic at several stages in the hafting process. The artefact provides the earliest direct evidence for the use of this combination of hafting technologies in the wider region of Southeast Asia, Wallacea, Melanesia and Australasia, and is morphologically unparallelled in deposits of any age. By contrast, it bears a close morphological resemblance to certain bone artefacts from the Middle Stone Age of Africa and South Asia. Examination of ethnographic projectile technology from the region of Melanesia and Australasia shows that all of the technological elements observed in the Matja Kuru 2 artefact were in use historically in the region, including the unusual feature of bilateral notching to stabilize a hafted point. This artefact challenges the notion that complex bone-working and hafting technologies were a relatively late innovation in this part of the world. Moreover, its regional uniqueness encourages us to abandon the perception of bone artefacts as a discrete class of material culture, and to adopt a new interpretative framework in which they are treated as manifestations of a more general class of artefacts that more typically were produced on perishable raw materials including wood. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Е V Esakova
Full Text Available In the article the author considers the reasons of East Timor problem, the factors which conditioned the Australian government attitude to the issue as well as the attitude of Indonesian government to this conflict resolution.
Moreira, Helena; Costa, Helena; Tavares, Filipa; Souto, Luís
East Timor (República Democrática de Timor Leste) is a country with a population around 1 million inhabitants located in Southeast Asia and composed of 13 districts, including the eastern half of the Timor Island, Ataúro and Jaco islands, and the coastal enclave of Oecusse-Ambeno located in West Timor. Examples of the importance of X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis include parentage identification, namely in cases involving father/daughter relationships, paternity in close relative deficiency cases without access to the putative father, maternity testing, and in rape or incest cases. In this study, 149 saliva samples were collected from unrelated individuals from East Timor and 12 X-chromosomal STRs genotyped using Investigator® Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen). A total of 13 alleles not included in Investigator Argus X-12 allelic ladder (off-ladder alleles) were found, four of which never reported (alleles 34.1 and 38.1 at DXS10134, allele 17.2 at DXS10074, and allele 28.1 at DXS10146). Allele 27.3 at DXS10101 and alleles 26, 28, and 29 at DXS10148 have already been observed in other populations but their frequencies are considerably higher in East Timor population. Allele frequencies and population statistic parameters were calculated for East Timor population and data contextualized in Southeast Asia/Pacific Region.
Paratz, Elizabeth D; Bayley, Noel
East Timor is a developing country and is a close neighbour of Australia. The prevalence of cardiac disease is unknown. To describe the prevalence and patterns of cardiac disease in patients attending the first cardiology service of Timor-Leste. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was performed of demographic and clinical data of 474 unique patients referred to outpatient cardiology clinics conducted in East Timor from 2003 to 2016. Mean age was 29.9 ± 18.5 years, with females significantly younger than males (28.8 ± 16.9 vs 32.3 ± 20.6 years). Congenital cardiac disease patients were the youngest (15.5 ± 13.9 years) and cardiomyopathy patients the oldest (46.7 ± 17.8 years). Of patients with rheumatic heart disease, the majority had mitral stenosis (59.4%) and multi-valvular involvement (61.6%). Of note, 28.3% of patients with rheumatic heart disease presented with severe mitral stenosis. Amongst congenital heart disease patients, the most common diagnosis was atrial or ventricular septal defects (61% combined). A total of 19.2% of patients either required immediate referral for intervention or palliation for their cardiac disease. Patients referred to Australia for treatment were significantly younger (19.7 ± 11.7 years) than all other outcome groups. Amongst young East Timorese, rheumatic heart disease and unrepaired congenital cardiac defects impose a significant burden. One-fifth of patients present to clinics with severe disease requiring urgent referral for surgery or palliation. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Bond, M.; Fuller, R.J.; Aye, Lu
The Government of East Timor aims to increase the rate of household electricity service from 20% to 80% over the next 20 years. With a largely rural population living in sparsely populated, remote locations, solar home systems (SHS) will play an important role in meeting the off-grid component of rural electrification in East Timor. This paper describes current experience and trials in East Timor with solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. It examines the East Timorese context against six 'key features' identified by the World Bank as typically included in solar PV projects: delivery infrastructure; access to finance; rural electrification policy; guarantees for minimum quality; understanding of customer needs; and scaling up capacity building. Of these issues, the authors contend that selection of the delivery infrastructure model is the most critical decision, and that for East Timor, in its present stage of development, a market-driven approach for SHS is unlikely to be successful. A model which subsidises capital costs but seeks full recovery of operating costs is recommended. Irrespective of the delivery infrastructure model, for sustainability, capacity must be developed in a range of other areas, particularly the commercial availability of high-quality components and spare parts; creation of a pool of skilled technicians for installation and maintenance; and development of a robust fee collection and maintenance infrastructure
Bond, M.; Fuller, R.J.; Aye, Lu [The University of Melbourne, Victoria (AU). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, International Technologies Centre (IDTC)
The Government of East Timor aims to increase the rate of household electricity service from 20% to 80% over the next 20 years. With a largely rural population living in sparsely populated, remote locations, solar home systems (SHS) will play an important role in meeting the off-grid component of rural electrification in East Timor. This paper describes current experience and trials in East Timor with solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. It examines the East Timorese context against six 'key features' identified by the World Bank as typically included in solar PV projects: delivery infrastructure; access to finance; rural electrification policy; guarantees for minimum quality; understanding of customer needs; and scaling up capacity building. Of these issues, the authors contend that selection of the delivery infrastructure model is the most critical decision, and that for East Timor, in its present stage of development, a market-driven approach for SHS is unlikely to be successful. A model which subsidises capital costs but seeks full recovery of operating costs is recommended. Irrespective of the delivery infrastructure model, for sustainability, capacity must be developed in a range of other areas, particularly the commercial availability of high-quality components and spare parts; creation of a pool of skilled technicians for installation and maintenance; and development of a robust fee collection and maintenance infrastructure. (author)
Howell, Gillian; Dunphy, Kim
This article discusses a community music project in rural East Timor. Australian musician Gillian Howell lived for three months in the isolated town of Lospalos as an Asialink artist-in-residence, where she worked with local community members and visiting Australian musicians to share music and ideas, and to communicate across cultures. Three…
Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria; Martinho, Mariana; Lopes, Betina
East Timor has reached independence in 2002, after two periods of colonialism and after severe violence, especially following 1999. As a result, the country was almost destroyed, and lost its qualified workforce in all sectors, including education. To ensure national independence it is necessary to reconstruct and build the basic infrastructures…
Naidu, Girish; Correia, Marcelino; Nirmalan, Praveen; Verma, Nitin; Thomas, Ravi
To report functional outcomes following cataract surgery in Timor-Leste. Pre- and post-intervention study measuring visual function improvement following cataract surgery. Presenting visual acuity (VA) was measured and visual function documented using the Indian vision function questionnaire (IND-VFQ). All 174 persons undergoing cataract surgery from November 2009 to January 2011 in Timor-Leste were included. Mean age was 65.4 years; 113 (64.9%) were male, 143 (82.1%) were from a rural background and 151 (86.8%) were illiterate. Pre-operatively, 77 of 174 patients (44.3%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 37.0-51.7%) were blind (VA ≤3/60), 77 (44.3%, 95% CI 37.0-51.7%) were visually impaired (VA 3/60), while 20 (11.5%, 95% CI 7.4-16.9%) had presenting acuity ≥6/18 in the better eye. Following surgery, significant improvement in visual function was demonstrated by an effect size of 2.8, 3.7 and 3.9 in the domains of general functioning, psychosocial impact and visual symptoms, respectively. Four weeks following surgery, 85 patients (48.9%, 95% CI 41.5-66.3%) had a presenting VA ≥6/18, 74 (42.5%, 95% CI 35.3-45.9%) were visually impaired and 15 (8.6%, 95% CI 5.0-13.6%) were blind. IND-VFQ improvement occurred even in patients remaining visually impaired or blind following surgery. In this setting, cataract surgery led to a significant improvement in visual function but the VA results did not meet World Health Organization quality criteria. IND-VFQ results, although complementary to clinical VA outcomes did not, in isolation, reflect the need to improve program quality.
... -- since assuming the position from the British after WWII. In 1999, Australia led a peacekeeping force into East Timor, ostensibly fulfilling a long held desire by the United States to reduce its worldwide commitments...
International assistance efforts have represented a conundrum for East Timorese seeking to assert their new independence and autonomy. While urgent needs have been met, local participation, involvement and capacity building have not been given adequate attention. This outcome is aptly demonstrated in the case of local non-government organisations (LNGOs). This paper specifically examines the role of LNGOs in the recovery of East Timor within the international assistance programme. It examines the challenges of rehabilitation efforts in East Timor with a particular focus on capacity building of East Timorese NGOs as part of a broader effort to strengthen civil society. The initial crisis response in East Timor highlighted tension between meeting immediate needs while simultaneously incorporating civil society actors such as NGOs and communities. It has been argued that local NGOs and the community at large were not sufficiently incorporated into the process. While it is acknowledged that many local NGOs had limited capacity to respond, a greater emphasis on collaboration, inclusion and capacity building was desirable, with a view to supporting medium and longer term objectives that promote a vibrant civil society, sustainability and self-management.
Full Text Available Relationship terminologies of an asymmetric prescriptive character are widespread throughout mainland and insular Southeast Asia. Their western limit is marked by the Kachin of northern Burma (Leach 1961:28-53 while their eastern limit is marked by the Mambai people of central East Timor (Figures 1 and 2. Between these limits are such other instances as occur, for example, among the Lamet of Cambodia (Needham 1960, the various Batak groups of Sumatra (Rodgers 1984, and the Rindi of eastern Sumba (Forth 1981. The principal intention of the present paper is to establish the existence of a new asymmetric prescriptive terminology in East Timor, and by doing so provide empirical justification for adjusting the easternmost limits of nomenclatures of this kind. A subsidiary intent is to offer a contribution to current speculations regarding the transformation of relationship terminologies in eastern Indonesia (Guermonprez 1998; Smedal 2002.
This article analyses the Indonesian efforts to resolve past human rights abuses under the mechanism of transitional justice following the downfall of President Soeharto on May 21, 1998. The focus of analysis is the implementation of transitional justice in the cases of Aceh, Papua, and East Timor during the transitional period. This article shows that the efforts to enforce transitional justice in these cases have been faced with obstacles. Although there have been notable efforts in terms o...
Bond, M.; Aye, Lu; Fuller, R.J. [Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
Access to electrification in rural areas of East Timor is extremely limited with as few as 5% of rural households connected to electricity. The government of East Timor intends to increase rural access to electricity significantly in the coming decade. The introduction of small PV systems is envisaged for many households in the most remote areas. Several agencies have piloted the introduction of small solar home systems (SHS) and solar lanterns. In the Railaco sub-district of East Timor, some 1000 households have experience of using either SHS and/or solar lanterns and are in a unique position to indicate a preference regarding these forms of PV lighting technology. This paper reports on a survey of 76 households in Railaco investigating experience with PV lighting systems. Results of the survey indicate a strong preference by users for SHS rather than lanterns. The preference for SHS arose from a range of factors including: a perception of better light quality; ability to illuminate the whole house; reduced risk of damage to the PV equipment; and longer duration of nightly operation. The research indicates that where a single PV lighting system is provided, users are likely to prefer SHS to solar lanterns. (author)
Bucens, Ingrid Kirsten; Reid, Alison; Barreto, Aniceto Cardoso; Dwivedi, Vikas; Counahan, Megan
The aim of this study was to undertake a retrospective review of admissions and discharges to the paediatric wards at the National Hospital Guido Valadares, Dili, as the epidemiology of hospitalised children in East Timor cannot be easily understood from the hospital health management information system. Data were sourced from unit registers for 3 years, 2008-2010 inclusive. Demographic characteristics and principal diagnoses were related to the risk of dying using stepwise multivariate logistic regression. There were 5909 children admitted to the wards over the study period and 60% were Timor. It emphasises important health system issues which impact on both data quality and hospital outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in developing countries. Following the disruption to health services in East Timor due to violent political conflict in 1999, the National Tuberculosis Control Program was established, with a local non-government organisation as the lead agency. Within a few months, the TB program was operational in all districts. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the East Timor TB program as a case study, we have examined the enabling factors for the implementation of this type of communicable disease control program in a post-conflict setting. Stakeholder analysis was undertaken, and semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2003 with 24 key local and international stakeholders. Coordination, cooperation, and collaboration were identified as major contributors to the success of the TB program. The existing local structure and experience of the local non-government organisation, the commitment among local personnel and international advisors to establishing an effective program, and the willingness of international advisers and local counterparts to be flexible in their approach were also important factors. This success was achieved despite major impediments, including mass population displacement, lack of infrastructure, and the competing interests of organisations working in the health sector. CONCLUSIONS: Five years after the conflict, the TB program continues to operate in all districts with high notification rates, although the lack of a feeling of ownership by government health workers remains a challenge. Lessons learned in East Timor may be applicable to other post-conflict settings where TB is highly prevalent, and may have relevance to other disease control programs.
Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.
Gomes, Sibylle M; van Oven, Mannis; Souto, Luis; Morreira, Helena; Brauer, Silke; Bodner, Martin; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Strobl, Christina; Röck, Alexander W; Côrte-Real, Francisco; Parson, Walther; Kayser, Manfred
Nusa Tenggara, including East Timor, located at the crossroad between Island Southeast Asia, Near Oceania, and Australia, are characterized by a complex cultural structure harbouring speakers from two different major linguistic groups of different geographic origins (Austronesian (AN) and non-Austronesian (NAN)). This provides suitable possibilities to study gene–language relationship; however, previous studies from other parts of Nusa Tenggara reported conflicting evidence about gene–language correlation in this region. Aiming to investigate gene–language relationships including sex-mediated aspects in East Timor, we analysed the paternally inherited non-recombining part of the Y chromosome (NRY) and the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA in a representative collection of AN- and NAN-speaking groups. Y-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) data were newly generated for 273 samples and combined with previously established Y-STR (short tandem repeat) data of the same samples, and with previously established mtDNA data of 290 different samples with, however, very similar representation of geographic and linguistic coverage of the country. We found NRY and mtDNA haplogroups of previously described putative East/Southeast Asian (E/SEA) and Near Oceanian (NO) origins in both AN and NAN speakers of East Timor, albeit in different proportions, suggesting reciprocal genetic admixture between both linguistic groups for females, but directional admixture for males. Our data underline the dual genetic origin of East Timorese in E/SEA and NO, and highlight that substantial genetic admixture between the two major linguistic groups had occurred, more so via women than men. Our study therefore provides another example where languages and genes do not conform due to sex-biased genetic admixture across major linguistic groups. PMID:27485412
Gomes, Sibylle M; van Oven, Mannis; Souto, Luis; Morreira, Helena; Brauer, Silke; Bodner, Martin; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Strobl, Christina; Röck, Alexander W; Côrte-Real, Francisco; Parson, Walther; Kayser, Manfred
Nusa Tenggara, including East Timor, located at the crossroad between Island Southeast Asia, Near Oceania, and Australia, are characterized by a complex cultural structure harbouring speakers from two different major linguistic groups of different geographic origins (Austronesian (AN) and non-Austronesian (NAN)). This provides suitable possibilities to study gene-language relationship; however, previous studies from other parts of Nusa Tenggara reported conflicting evidence about gene-language correlation in this region. Aiming to investigate gene-language relationships including sex-mediated aspects in East Timor, we analysed the paternally inherited non-recombining part of the Y chromosome (NRY) and the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA in a representative collection of AN- and NAN-speaking groups. Y-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) data were newly generated for 273 samples and combined with previously established Y-STR (short tandem repeat) data of the same samples, and with previously established mtDNA data of 290 different samples with, however, very similar representation of geographic and linguistic coverage of the country. We found NRY and mtDNA haplogroups of previously described putative East/Southeast Asian (E/SEA) and Near Oceanian (NO) origins in both AN and NAN speakers of East Timor, albeit in different proportions, suggesting reciprocal genetic admixture between both linguistic groups for females, but directional admixture for males. Our data underline the dual genetic origin of East Timorese in E/SEA and NO, and highlight that substantial genetic admixture between the two major linguistic groups had occurred, more so via women than men. Our study therefore provides another example where languages and genes do not conform due to sex-biased genetic admixture across major linguistic groups.
Aben, F. M.; Dekkers, M. J.; Bakker, R. R.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Zachariasse, W. J.; Tate, G. W.; McQuarrie, N.; Harris, R.; Duffy, B.
Inconsistent polarity patterns in sediments are a common problem in magnetostratigraphic and paleomagnetic research. Multiple magnetic mineral generations result in such remanence "haystacks." Here we test whether end-member modeling of isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves as a basis for an integrated rock magnetic and microscopic analysis is capable of isolating original magnetic polarity patterns. Uppermost Miocene-Pliocene deep-marine siliciclastics and limestones in East Timor, originally sampled to constrain the uplift history of the young Timor orogeny, serve as case study. An apparently straightforward polarity record was obtained that, however, proved impossible to reconcile with the associated biostratigraphy. Our analysis distinguished two magnetic end-members for each section, which result from various greigite suites and a detrital magnetite suite. The latter yields largely viscous remanence signals and is deemed unsuited. The greigite suites are late diagenetic in the Cailaco River section and early diagenetic, thus reliable, in the Viqueque Type section. By selecting reliable sample levels based on a quality index, a revised polarity pattern of the latter section is obtained: consistent with the biostratigraphy and unequivocally correlatable to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. Although the Cailaco River section lacks a reliable magnetostratigraphy, it does record a significant postremagnetization tectonic rotation. Our results shows that the application of well-designed rock magnetic research, based on the end-member model and integrated with microscopy and paleomagnetic data, can unravel complex and seemingly inconsistent polarity patterns. We recommend this approach to assess the veracity of the polarity of strata with complex magnetic mineralogy.
Southeast of the island of Timor (center), a phytoplankton bloom is coloring the waters of the Timor Sea, which separates Timor from northwestern Australia. To the north of Timor is Flores, which is home to numerous active volcanoes, and although the red dots in this image are due to thermal anomalies, in this case it is fire, and not volcanic activity.
Neto, Félix; Furnham, Adrian; Pinto, Maria da Conceição
This study examined estimates of their own, and their parents' general and multiple intelligences. Three hundred and twenty three students from East Timor, and one hundred eighty three students from Portugal estimated their own, and their parents' IQ scores on each of Gardner's ten multiple intelligences. Men believed they were more intelligent than were women on mathematical (logical), spatial, and naturalistic intelligence. There were consistent and clear culture differences. Portuguese gave higher self, and family ratings than Timorese, as expected. Participants of both cultures rated overall intelligence of their father higher than that of their mother. Implications of these results for education and self-presentations are considered.
Yustina Anie Indriastuti Kurniawan
Full Text Available Anemia is the main micronutrient deficiency problem among adolescent girls in Indonesia. Anemia due to iron deficiency often coexists with zinc deficiency. Both iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency can increase the risk of obstetric complications among pregnant women i.e. bleeding during labor and post-partum hemorrhage. Iron-folate supplementation among pregnant women had been conducting since long time ago throughout this country; however, effort to improve the nutritional status particularly among adolescent girls prior to pregnancy is still lack behind. Iron and zinc have antagonistic interaction. Therefore it was challenging to alleviate anemia problem among adolescent girls with appropriate ratio of iron-zinc supplementation, and will give a benefit to improve their nutritional status. This study was aimed to investigate the different ratios of ironzinc supplementation on reducing the prevalence of anemia as improving the nutritional status of adolescent school girls.A female elementary school students age 10-12 years old (n= 137 were screened in rural area of Kupang City, East Timor Province. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups for daily iron-zinc supplementation for 12 weeks; Group 1 (iron; 60 mg/day, Group 2 (iron and zinc; 30 mg and 15 mg/day, Group 3 (iron and zinc; 60 mg and 15 mg/day. Hemoglobin concentration was measured by cyanmethemoglobin method (Hemocue to determine the prevalence of anemia (Hb level < 120 g/L, while anthropometric assessment was conducted for measuring weight and height to determine the nutritional status. General characteristics was assessed through interview. At base line, 29.1% of subjects suffered from anemia and in general, the prevalence was reduced to around 13.1% after they took iron supplements with or without zinc. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased among all subjects euther suffered from anemia or not. The result of this study showed that subject who
Fonseca, Luiz Eduardo; Almeida, Celia
This study centers on relationships among national and international actors in preparation of the first health policy document for East Timor, under the United Nations transitional administration, between 1999 and 2002. International cooperation support for the health system rehabilitation process during the post-conflict period is analyzed as part of reconstruction of the State in parallel with construction of the country's political and institutional framework. Knowledge, ideas, "ways of doing," and induced and accepted practices permeate an interplay of power relationships that condition both national political alliance-building and the architecture of international aid, pointing to input to a discussion of how these mechanisms interact at different conjunctures and times in different negotiating frameworks.
Park, Seung-Ik; Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won
We report the first sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon ages with geochemical data from metavolcanic rocks in the Lolotoi complex, Timor. The zircon U-Pb ages of two andesitic metavolcanic rocks yield a permissible range of the Middle Jurassic extrusion from 177 Ma to 174 Ma. The geochemical data indicate that the origins of the basaltic and andesitic metavolcanic rocks are products of prolonged oceanic crust and arc magmatism, respectively. They are originated from partial melting of lherzolites, providing an insight into the tectonic evolution of the forearc basements of the Banda volcanic arc. Thus, parts of the Banda forearc basement are pieces of allochthonous oceanic basalts and Jurassic arc-related andesites accreted to the Sundaland during the closure of Mesotethys, and are incorporated later into the Great Indonesian Volcanic Arc system along the southeastern margin of the Sundaland.
Early this year new Timor Gap Treaty arrangements were concluded between Australia and East Timor -with the blessing of Indonesia -and it was once again 'business as usual' in the Timor Sea. This was quickly confirmed in February when the US$1.4 billion (A$2.4 billion at current exchange rates) Stage 1 of the Bayu Undan Project was approved by the Timor Gap Zone of Co-operation Joint Authority. This meant the green light for the project, which involves the extraction and export of condensate (a light oil) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) from the Bayu Undan fields, 500 km north west of Darwin. The proposed development would involve a total investment of $5 billion in offshore and onshore gas production and processing facilities, pipelines, petrochemical facilities and other customer developments. Royalties from Bayu Undan will be shared equally between Australia and east Timor, thus providing significant revenue to underpin the economic development of East Timor
Full Text Available Stegodons are a commonly recovered extinct proboscidean (elephants and allies from the Pleistocene record of Southeast Asian oceanic islands. Estimates on when stegodons arrived on individual islands and the timings of their extinctions are poorly constrained due to few reported direct geochronological analyses of their remains. Here we report on uranium-series dating of a stegodon tusk recovered from the Ainaro Gravels of Timor. The six dates obtained indicate the local presence of stegodons in Timor at or before 130 ka, significantly pre-dating the earliest evidence of humans on the island. On the basis of current data, we find no evidence for significant environmental changes or the presence of modern humans in the region during that time. Thus, we do not consider either of these factors to have contributed significantly to their extinction. In the absence of these, we propose that their extinction was possibly the result of long-term demographic and genetic declines associated with an isolated island population.
Aicha Binte Umar Bassarewan
Full Text Available Timor-Leste é um novo país do terceiro milênio. Enquanto nação com uma sociedade de tradição oral, e, em sua maioria, ágrafa, enfrenta muitos desafios nesta era de globalização. Tendo em consideração a importância da leitura para a vida do ser humano, o ensino e a aprendizagem da leitura das crianças timorenses devem ser trabalhados desde os primeiros anos de escolaridade, levando em conta a realidade linguística e sociocultural do país. Com um estudo de caso na Escola Pública n° 1 Nularan, em Díli, Timor-Leste, sobre o ensino e a aprendizagem da leitura, nos primeiros três anos de escolaridade, pôde-se verificar que tanto as orientações do programa curricular como os livros de referência aplicados pela escola no trabalho com os alunos não promovem o desenvolvimento da leitura reflexiva nem estimulam situações em que a criança possa expor suas ideias ou comunicar-se tendo o texto para uma discussão coletiva. Dessa forma, sugere-se o acompanhamento e a avaliação constantes do processo de ensino e aprendizagem da leitura nas escolas primárias e do investimento tanto na formação dos recursos humanos quanto na melhoria de materiais didáticos e na infraestrutura das escolas. É de notar que não basta constar na Constituição e nas leis; o importante é a ação das entidades competentes na concretização do ensino de qualidade ao timorense como sujeito ativo nas invenções e nos saberes para que tenha acesso a uma vida melhor para si e para a comunidade da qual faz parte.East Timor is a new country of the Third Millennium. As a nation with a largely illiterate society of strong oral traditions, it faces many challenges in an era of globalization. Considering the importance of reading to human life, its teaching and learning must be developed from the first years of schooling of East Timorean children, taking into account the socio-cultural and linguistic reality of the country. A case study at Nularan Public
Cooper, Robert D; Edstein, Michael D; Frances, Stephen P; Beebe, Nigel W
The island of Timor lies at the south-eastern edge of Indonesia on the boundary of the Oriental and Australian faunal regions. The country of Timor-Leste, which occupies the eastern part of the island, is malarious, but anopheline faunal surveys and malaria vector incrimination date back to the 1960 s. Over the last decade the malaria vectors of south-east Asia and the south-west Pacific have been intensely studied using molecular techniques that can confirm identification within complexes of isomorphic species. The aim of this study is to accurately identify the Anopheles fauna of Timor-Leste using these techniques. The survey was carried out over the period February to June 2001. Standard entomological techniques--human landing collections, larval collections and CO2 baited light traps--were used to collect anophelines from the main geographical regions: coastal plains, inland plains, and highlands. Specimens were processed for identification by morphology and genotyped for the ribosomal DNA ITS2 by restriction analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic relationship of Anopheles sundaicus and Anopheles subpictus individuals was also assessed using DNA sequences from the ITS2 and mitochondrial cytochrome-b. All specimens, other than those from larval surveys, were processed to detect the presence of the Plasmodium parasite circumsporozoite protein by ELISA for vector incrimination. Of 2,030 specimens collected, seven species were identified by morphology: Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, An. sundaicus and Anopheles vagus. These were confirmed by molecular analysis with the addition of Anopheles flavirostris and an unidentified species designated here as An. vagus genotype B. This latter species was morphologically similar to An. vagus and An. subpictus and is likely to be the An. subpictus described by other workers for Timor. However, genetically this species showed strong affinities
Tate, G. W.; Willett, S.; McQuarrie, N.; Goren, L.; Fox, M.
While river profile analyses have long been used to evaluate the development of landforms, recent advances in analyzing drainage networks have significantly improved the ability to positively link stream profiles with surface uplift. In one such method, Perron and Royden (2012) define the value chi, an integral quantity based on the steady-state stream power equation which aids in determining the conformity of rivers and drainage basins to steady-state behavior. East Timor is an ideal location to test new methods using chi, as it is an active and unglaciated orogen with independent constraints of the deformational history through thermochronology and structural geology. We utilize the calculation of chi in our analyses of the drainage network to provide new constraints on the most recent uplift history of the island of Timor. Discontinuities in chi across drainage divides imply different steady state baselevel for hillslopes and therefore active migration of the divide. We confirm this by noting visible landslides in satellite images and asymmetries in hillslope steepness. Analyses of chi and elevation reveal in some locations that tributaries within a single basin have experienced distinctly different histories, documenting instances where previous river capture has occurred. In other locations the relationships between chi and elevation along single rivers denote spatial changes in surface uplift rate. Many of these observations from the drainage network correspond well to patterns of recent exhumation identified from thermochronologic analyses as well as structural constraints from field mapping and balanced cross-sections. Much of the fastest exhumation on the island (as indicated by zircon (U-Th)/He ages of 1.5-3.8 Ma and modeled exhumation rates of 1-3 mm/yr) is in the hinterland slate belt, which also contains the most stream profile remnants of paleo-capture events. Many locations of active river capture correspond well to independently constrained
Motivations to reform curriculum in post-conflict, or post-colonial states are often driven by the need to (re) construct a cohesive and publicly legitimated national identity that is starkly different to that which existed prior. This paper explores the context behind such action in the Timor-Leste (East Timor) and some challenges which policy…
Manuel, Freire; P., Pinto; M., Soares
Timor-Leste (formerly East-Timor) is one of the youngest nations in the world. Partly because of its troubled recent history, this small Southeast Asian country nowadays remains one of the least explored as far as speleology is concerned. With a total area of 15,000 km2, a high percentage of the ...
This article highlights the impact of the independence of East Timor on the Indonesia's energy sector, and the ensuing rejection of the principle of liberalisation and restructuring of the state owned Pertamina monopoly. The adverse impact on exploration, agreements with Singapore to supply gas and the building of the pipeline from the Natuna gasfields to Singapore, problems posed by corruption, the development of the Natuna gas field, and the effects of the recent financial collapse are examined. (UK)
Kathriner, Andrew; O'shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich
Recent herpetofaunal investigations in Timor-Leste revealed populations similar to Hemidactylus brookii Gray, 1845 in four of 13 districts. In order to properly identify these populations, we examined their relationships to other H. brookii-complex populations, notably those from nearby Roti Island, Indonesia (to which the name H. tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895 has been applied) and topotypic Bornean samples. We evaluated both meristic and mensural data from a set of specimens that included the type material of H. brookii and H. tenkatei, and we generated nuclear (RAG1) and mitochondrial (ND2) DNA sequence data for Timor-Leste specimens and a topotypical Bornean specimen presumed to represent H. brookii sensu stricto. Morphologically, Timorese geckos are clearly distinct from H. brookii and identical to H. tenkatei. Our molecular data show that the Bornean specimen thought to be H. brookii is genetically congruent with Timor-Leste specimens, and this specimen is therefore identified as H. tenkatei. Our data also reveal that the Burmese species H. subtriedroides Annandale, 1905 is distinct from both H. tenkatei and H. brookii. While the current data do not allow us to determine with certainty whether H. tenkatei is the oldest available name for these widespread forms, it is the only name that can be reliably applied at this time.
Ana Margarida Capelo
Full Text Available Given that reforms involving how to deal with the past are extremely difficult, especially when the past involves memories of victimization, death, and destruction so widespread that a high percentage of the population is affected, the main purpose of this article is to describe how the general secondary education (GSE curriculum in East Timor –an ancient Portuguese colony– is organized in terms of principles and objectives, themes, and methodological guidelines that give priority to assisting students to minimize or manage problems associated with conflict. Subsequently, the current state of GSE is characterized, in terms of school organization and logistics, and mobilization of teachers and students in using the new curriculum. The empirical results show that curricular materials incorporate aspects that can contribute to understanding and minimizing or managing problems created by the conflict, as well as contributing to avoid new conflicts. Nevertheless, although textbooks incorporate these aspects and teachers and students express interest in use them, problems remain regarding their appropriate usage due to numerous factors such as: logistics; school organization and poor teacher skills, despite training given and continued focused investment.
Full Text Available El Capítulo VII solo ha sido invocado en dos ocasiones para el establecimiento de administraciones territoriales internacionales, en el caso de Timor Leste y Kosovo. A pesar del legado institucional y político de estas operaciones similares bajo el mandato de la Liga de Naciones y el marco de las Naciones Unidas, parecen establecerse no sólo en un vacío institucional debido a la ausencia de una definición en la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, sino también de una forma no sistemática, siguiendo un enfoque casuístico en relación con la selección de los territorios a ser administrados, los medios para la ejecución de la “gobernanza internacional” y los fines últimos de estas operaciones. Estas deficiencias estructurales influencian los procesos de construcción de identidad cívica, lo cual es esencial para la ejecución de las reformas institucionales y la resolución consensual de conflictos, elementos que constituyen los principales pilares de las operaciones de construcción de paz. En este artículo el marco institucional y conceptual de esta nueva generación de operaciones es presentado con un examen a continuación, de la evolución del concepto de gobernanza internacional y su contribución al proceso de transición y las culturas políticas domésticas en los territorios concernidos.
Ardli Johan Kusuma
Full Text Available This paper discusses about the reasons of Indonesia which provides a referendum to East Timor which resulted in East Timor being independent from Indonesia. This paper is analytical descriptive, using qualitative methods, with the data collection techniques, using "librarian research" where data to support arguments are obtained by collecting such data from various sources such as books or literature, journals, newspapers, Magazines, as well as data sourced from the internet. The results of the discussion in this paper indicate the fact that the process of independence of Timor Leste from Indonesia because of the influence of human rights norms that at that time developed and became the international world agenda. So that, with using the human rights norms, Timor Leste and the international community succeeded in intervening in Indonesia to provide a referendum to Timor Lesete as the embodiment of human rights enforcement in Indonesia. Tulisan ini membahas tentang alasan Indonesia yang memberikan referendum kepada Timor Leste yang mengakibatkan Timor Leste merdeka dari Indonesia. Tulisan ini bersifat diskriptif analitis, dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif, dengan teknik pengumpulan data, menggunakan teknik librarian researchdimana data-data untuk mendukung argumen diperoleh dengan cara mengumpulkan data tersebut dari berbagai sumber seperti buku-buku atau literatur, jurnal, surat kabar, majalah, maupun data-data yang bersumber dari internet. Adapun hasil dari pembahasan dalam tulisan ini menunjukkan adanya fakta bahwa proses kemerdekaan Timor Leste dari Indonesia karena adanya pengaruh dari norma HAM yang saat itu berkembang dan menjadi agenda dunia internasinal. Sehingga dengan menggunakan norma HAM tersebut, Timor Leste bersama masyarakat internasional berhasil mengintervensi Indonesia untuk memberikan referendum kepada Timor Lesete sebagai perwujudan penegakan HAM di Indonesia.
de Almeida, Afonso; Arez, Ana Paula; Cravo, Pedro VL; do Rosário, Virgílio E
Background In response to chloroquine (CQ) resistance, the policy for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the Democratic Republic of East Timor (DRET) was changed in early 2000. The combination of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was then introduced for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods Blood samples were collected in two different periods (2003–2004 and 2004–2005) from individuals attending hospitals or clinics in six districts of the DRET and checked for Plasmodium falciparum infection. 112 PCR-positive samples were inspected for genetic polymorphisms in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr and pfdhps genes. Different alleles were interrogated for potential associations that could be indicative of non-random linkage. Results Overall prevalence of mutations associated with resistance to CQ and SP was extremely high. The mutant form of Pfcrt (76T) was found to be fixed even after five years of alleged CQ removal. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of the pfdhps 437G mutation (X2 = 31.1; p = 0.001) from the first to second survey periods. A non-random association was observed between pfdhfr51/pfdhps437 (p = 0.001) and pfdhfr 59/pfdhps 437 (p = 0.013) alleles. Conclusion Persistence of CQ-resistant mutants even after supposed drug withdrawal suggests one or all of the following: local P. falciparum may still be inadvertently exposed to the drug, that mutant parasites are being "imported" into the country, and/or reduced genetic diversity and low parasite transmission help maintain mutant haplotypes. The association between pfdhfr51/pfdhps437 and pfdhfr 59/pfdhps 437 alleles indicates that these are undergoing concomitant positive selection in the DRET. PMID:19358729
Pakasi, T A; Karyadi, E; Wibowo, Y; Simanjuntak, Y; Suratih, N M D; Salean, M; Darmawidjaja, N; van der Meer, J W M; van der Velden, K; Dolmans, W M V
Plasma zinc and vitamin A concentrations have been reported to be low in tuberculosis (TB) patients in some studies, although it is not clear whether this constitutes a risk for a more severe clinical presentation among TB patients. The acute phase reaction may also deplete zinc and vitamin A in the plasma. Therefore, we further studied these associations. We carried out a cross-sectional study among newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive TB patients in East Nusa Tenggara. The patients were categorized as either mild TB when Karnofsky Score (KS) > or =80 or severe TB (KS <80). Body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest radiograph, and the results of hemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc and vitamin A in plasma were correlated with TB category. A total of 300 TB patients participated in the study (63% male and 37% female), and were categorized as mild TB (53%) or severe TB (47%). Vitamin A, hemoglobin and plasma albumin were significantly lower, and CRP was significantly higher, in severe TB than in mild TB, and the active lesion area on the chest radiograph was greater among severe TB patients. In a multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for CRP, low vitamin A (beta=3.2, 95%CI (confidence interval) 1.6-4.9, P=0.000) but not zinc, correlated with the severity of TB. MUAC was better than BMI as a predictor of TB severity (beta=1.3, 95%CI 0.6-6.2, P=0.000). Severe TB was associated with vitamin A deficiency. MUAC can be applied as a measure of TB severity.
Murni Muin, E 131 05 010, dengan skripsi berjudul, ???Pengaruh Geostrategi Celah Timor Terhadap Hubungan Kerjasama Timor Leste- Australia???, di bawah bimbingan J. Salusu, selaku pembimbing I dan S.M. Noor selaku pembimbing II. Penulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi minyak dan gas alam di Celah Timor dalam mempengaruhi hubungan kerjasama Timor Leste-Australia Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penulisan skripsi ini adalah tipe penelitian deskriptif-eksplanatif yang membe...
Full Text Available In the West Timorese village of Sukabitetek, a wedding ceremony with a difference has taken place. Local residents and refugees from East Timor have pledged their troth as one community in a ceremony sealed with gifts – and land rights.
Tate, Garrett W.; McQuarrie, Nadine; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Bakker, Richard R.; Harris, Ron; Willett, Sean; Reiners, Peter W.; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Ganerød, Morgan; Zachariasse, Willem Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413577368
Although exhumation and surface uplift are important parameters in understanding orogenesis, the opportunity to measure both in close proximity is rare. In Timor-Leste (East Timor), deeply exhumed metamorphic rocks and piggyback deepwater synorogenic basins are only tens of kilometers apart,
Cavazos, Roger; Diamond, Joan; Hayes, Peter; Hippel, David von; Lee, Sanghun; Minato, Takayuki; Tanter, Richard; Yi, Kiho
Complexity, Security and Civil Society in East Asia off ers the latest understanding of complex global problems in the region, including nuclear weapons, urban insecurity, energy, and climate change. Detailed case studies of China, North and South Korea, and Japan demonstrate the importance of civil society and ‘civic diplomacy' in reaching shared solutions to these problems in East Asia and beyond. Each chapter describes regional civil society initiatives that tackle complex challenges to E...
da Costa Tavares, Ofelia Cizela; Suyoto; Pranowo
In the modern world today the decision support system is very useful to help in solving a problem, so this study discusses the learning process of savings and loan cooperatives in Timor Leste. The purpose of the observation is that the people of Timor Leste are still in the process of learning the use DSS for good saving and loan cooperative process. Based on existing research on the Timor Leste community on credit cooperatives, a mobile application will be built that will help the cooperative learning process in East Timorese society. The methods used for decision making are AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and SAW (simple additive Weighting) method to see the result of each criterion and the weight of the value. The result of this research is mobile leaning cooperative in decision support system by using SAW and AHP method. Originality Value: Changed the two methods of mobile application development using AHP and SAW methods to help the decision support system process of a savings and credit cooperative in Timor Leste.
da Costa Tavares Ofelia Cizela
Full Text Available In the modern world today the decision support system is very useful to help in solving a problem, so this study discusses the learning process of savings and loan cooperatives in Timor Leste. The purpose of the observation is that the people of Timor Leste are still in the process of learning the use DSS for good saving and loan cooperative process. Based on existing research on the Timor Leste community on credit cooperatives, a mobile application will be built that will help the cooperative learning process in East Timorese society. The methods used for decision making are AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process and SAW (simple additive Weighting method to see the result of each criterion and the weight of the value. The result of this research is mobile leaning cooperative in decision support system by using SAW and AHP method. Originality Value: Changed the two methods of mobile application development using AHP and SAW methods to help the decision support system process of a savings and credit cooperative in Timor Leste.
Full Text Available Livestock grazing had been believed to affect on the existence of wildlife, including the timor deer (Rusa timorensis Blainville 1822 through competition. This study aimed to determine whether the free-roaming horse grazing owned by local communities in Torong Padang Cape, East Nusa Tenggara become a competitor for timor deer. Field observations and interviews with horse owners were carried out to determine the distribution of horse in timor deer habitat. Food preference of both horse and timor deer were collected using species identification from feces and compared with 1 x 1 m2 plots at feeding areas of both animals during the dry and rainy seasons in 2014 and 2015. There is no clear indication of competition between timor deer and free-roaming horses in the Torong Padang Cape area.The deer and horse avoided overlapping spatially in their distribution in the Cape. The free-roaming horse mainly occupied hilly savanna, whereas timor deer preferred to occupy savanna with lebbek tree (Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth and valleys with tropical dry forest vegetation. In addition, the timor deer prefer to feed shrubs and foliage (browser, while horses prefer grass (grazer. The presence of free-roaming horse in the Torong Padang Capearea does not affect negatively for the timor deer and its habitat.
Bradt, David A; Drummond, Christina M
In September 1999, militia-initiated violence in East Timor forced the displacement of approximately 290,000 persons to West Timor in Indonesia. Whereas the security and health status of the East Timorese in East Timor had been well-monitored, by contrast, the health status of 150,000 refugees in approximately 200 camps in West Timor was essentially unknown. The death of a child during transfer from a refugee camp there to a United Nations transit camp prompted further investigation. The present study population was the largest West Timorese camp of 14,088 refugees. Despite security constraints, a rapid epidemiological assessment was undertaken. Retrospective analysis of camp mortality data, key informant interviews and environmental assessment were included. A crude mortality rate of 2.3/10,000/day and an under 5 year mortality rate of 10.3/10,000/day were found. Environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, water quality and vector control were inadequate. International aid agencies provided medical care with variable case definitions, no treatment protocols, non-standard treatment practices, inappropriate antibiotic use, variable referral practices and no secondary prevention. Syndromic diagnoses of causes of dealth guided recommendations for interventions. Follow-up reports indicated that excess camp mortality was eliminated within a month. All conflict-affected populations must have an ongoing examination of essential health data to identify urgent unmet needs, guide appropriate health interventions and monitor progress. Sentinel health events must be promptly reported and investigated. Syndromic diagnoses are useful in targeting life-saving public health interventions. All humanitarian health assistance must have transparency, technical supervision and peer review to ensure compliance with minimum standards.
Valenza, J. M.; Harris, R. A.; Spencer, C. J.; Hoiland, C. W.; Flores, J. A.
New age and geochemical data confirm that most ultramafic bodies on the north coast of Timor are derived from the distal reaches of the Australian continental margin lower plate that was exhumed by extension during Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic rifting. The ultramafic bodies were accreted to Timor during Late Miocene to present arc-continent collision. One of the lherzolitic ultramafic bodies near Caicua was previously unknown, but yields clear isotopic indicators that it is kin to the Hili Manu mafic and ultramafic complex further to the west. Zircon grains from metagabbro of the Hili Manu complex have cores with mostly Early Permian ages and rims of Latest Miocene ages. Isotopic analysis indicates abyssal plain, or passive margin affinity of the Caicua ultramafic body. One important exception to this pattern are mafic and ultramafic bodies associated with the Ocussi volcanics, which yield Miocene and Pliocene ages and supra-subduction zone chemical signatures. The Ocussi body is clearly part of the upper plate of the collision and formed after collision initiated further to the east. It is also structurally higher than the Hili Manu complex and has no affinities with the Australian plate. This study documents that both the upper and lower plates of the active arc-continent collision contribute mafic and ultramafic rocks to the evolving suture zone between the Indo-Australian and Asian plates in the Banda Arc region.
Patricio, Sancho Da Costa
English plays an important role for the life of the people of East Timor. So it is studied from secondary to tertiary schools. However, the resources of English are not sufficiently available. Under the development concerns the conditions that are faced by both the educator and learners in English as a foreign language course at the university.…
Samuel Penteado Urban
Full Text Available Timor-Leste é considerada a primeira democracia a se estabelecer como tal no século XXI, sendo que seu passado foi marcado por invasões: Portugal (1515-1975, num primeiro momento e Indonésia (1975-1999 num segundo. Num primeiro momento, com o processo de colonização português, muito pouco se fez para Timor, principalmente ao que se refere a educação, sendo esta uma ação política. Com a invasão indonésia em 1975, após o curto período de independência, foi-se muito investido na construção de escolas, desde a educação infantil até o ensino superior, baseando-se no ensino ideologicamente integracionista. Internamente a luta pela restauração da independência, a Educação foi uma das armas para que assim Timor conquistasse a restauração da independência em 2002. Através da Frente de Timor-Leste Independente (FRETILIN, iniciouse um processo de Educação Popular que teve grande infl uência de Paulo Freire. Esse processo educativo, ligado à conscientização política, baseou-se no conhecimento cotidiano dos próprios educandos e num ensino contextualizado as necessidades da luta. Desta forma, pretendeuse realizar apontamentos acerca da Educação Popular em Timor-Leste, levando em conta a infl uência de Paulo Freire, utilizando-se de material relacionado à história da educação em Timor-Leste e Educação Popular em Timor-Leste, além de entrevistas realizadas com o Professor Dr. Antero Benedito da Silva e com o sr. Alberto, vice residente do movimento social do campo de Timor denominada União dos Agricultores de Ermera (UNAER. Palavras-chave: Educação Popular. Paulo Freire. Timor-Leste. Paulo Freire and popular education in East Timor: a history of liberation ABSTRACT East Timor is considered the fi rst democracy to be established as such in the twenty-fi rst century and its past is marked for invasions: Portugal (1515-1975 at fi rst and Indonesia (1975-1999 in a second. At fi rst, the process of Portuguese
Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.
Impacts of Pig Management and Husbandry Farmers Towards Classical Swine Fever Transmission in West Timor Indonesia (DAMPAK MANAJEMEN DAN CARA BETERNAK BABI TERHADAP PENULARAN PENYAKIT CHOLERA BABI DI TIMOR BARAT
Petrus Malo Bulu
Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a serious and highly infectious viral disease of domestic pigs and wildboar, which is caused by a single stranded RNA pestivirus. A cross sectional study was carried out onsmall-holder pig farmers in West Timor, in the province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The objectiveof this study was to describe the management, husbandry and trading practices adopted by pig farmers inWest Timor. A questionnaire survey was administered to the owners of these pigs (n = 240 to gatherinformation from farmers in order to understand management and husbandry practices in the region. Theresults of the questionnaire highlighted the lack of implementation of biosecurity measures by smallholderfarms in West Timor, which has the potential to increase the risk of their pigs to CSF, as well as toother diseases.
Full Text Available This article shows how space and time indexed social identity in the market place of one of the larger ‘towns’ of Timor-Leste (or ‘East Timor’, Viqueque during the years 1966-1967 and examine their relevance for today’s Viqueque town. The space occupied by the weekly emporium offered a forum in which ethnicity, social hierarchy, gender, a pastime (cockfighting, and religious affiliation visually played themselves out and presented a physical replication of social distinctions that defined the character of the town and the sub-district it served.Focusing on gender, ethnicity, social class, and social identity, and their economic implications, also enables us to gain insight into the process whereby post-colonial nations transform themselves after gaining independence. By comparing the use made of social space at two periods of time separated by four decades during which momentous developments took place in Timor-Leste we can see in sharper relief the kind of changes urban spaces experience when they are subject to colonial authority, pressures resulting from independence, and – ultimately – the tortuous process of nation-building.
Tate, Garrett W.; McQuarrie, Nadine; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Bakker, Richard R.; Harris, Ron; Willett, Sean; Reiners, Peter W.; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Ganerød, Morgan; Zachariasse, Willem Jan
Although exhumation and surface uplift are important parameters in understanding orogenesis, the opportunity to measure both in close proximity is rare. In Timor-Leste (East Timor), deeply exhumed metamorphic rocks and piggyback deepwater synorogenic basins are only tens of kilometers apart, permitting direct relation of uplift and exhumation by comparing micropaleontology to thermochronology interpreted through one-dimensional thermal modeling. Foraminifera in two deepwater synorogenic basins suggest basin uplift from depths of 1-2 km to depths of 350-1000 m between 3.35 and 1.88 Ma. Thermochronologic sampling was conducted in the central mountain belt between these basins. Of four muscovite 40Ar/39Ar samples, one provides a reset age of 7.13 ± 0.25 Ma in the Aileu high-grade belt that suggests 9-16 km of exhumation since that time. Eighteen zircon (U-Th)/He samples contain a group of reset ages in the Aileu Complex ranging from 4.4 to 1.5 Ma, which suggest exhumation rates of 1.0-3.1 mm/yr with 2.7-7.8 km of exhumation since these ages. Thirteen apatite (U-Th)/He ages in the Gondwana Sequence range from 5.5 to 1.4 Ma, suggesting 1-2 km of exhumation and defining a pattern of exhumation rates (ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 mm/yr) that positively correlates with average annual rainfall. Seven apatite fission track samples display varying degrees of partial resetting, with greatest resetting where apatite (U-Th)/He ages are youngest. Together, these data demonstrate extreme variability in surface uplift and exhumation over small spatial scales. We propose ongoing subsurface duplexing driven by subduction and underplating of Australian continental crust as the predominant driver for surface uplift and uplift-induced exhumation.
Molyneux, Nicholas; da Cruz, Gil Rangel; Williams, Robert L; Andersen, Rebecca; Turner, Neil C
The climate in Timor Leste (East Timor) is predicted to become about 1.5 °C warmer and about 10 % wetter on average by 2050. By the same year, the population is expected to triple from 1 to 2.5-3 million. This article maps the predicted changes in temperature and rainfall and reviews the implications of climate change and population growth on agricultural systems. Improved cultivars of maize, rice, cassava, sweet potato and peanuts with high yield performance have been introduced, but these will need to be augmented in the future with better adapted cultivars and new crops, such as food and fodder legumes and new management practices. The requirements for fertilizers to boost yields and terracing and/or contour hedgerows to prevent soil erosion of steeply sloping terrain are discussed. Contour hedges can also be used for fodder for improved animal production to provide protein to reduce malnutrition.
The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) for Timor-Leste identifies environmental priorities through a systematic review of environmental issues in natural resources management and environmental health in the context of the country's economic development and environmental institutions. Lack of data has been the main limitation in presenting a more rigorous analysis. Nevertheless, the repor...
Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.
The study of the fauna of the Timor group is one of the most interesting subjects of zoogeography, the islands of this group having their own peculiar inhabitants besides a great many species which they have in common with Java and still other species that are strictly Australian forms. Wallace
Timor-Leste celebrated its formal political independence on 20th May 2002. The National Constitution of the new nation declared the endogenous lingua franca (Tetum) and the former colonial language (Portuguese) to be co-official. The remaining local languages were given the status of national languages. Indonesian and English were designated as…
27 Customary Groupings and Authority .....................31 Weddings in Timor-Leste .......................................32 Gender Issues...mourners attended his funeral ceremony , and were joined by over a 1000 demonstrators calling for independence as they proceeded to the Santa Cruz...in a procession during a ceremony marking the 10th anniversary of the Suai Church massacre. Source: Defence Collective Memory retains the meaning of
Mercer, Mary Anne; Thompson, Susan M; de Araujo, Rui Maria
Achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals for health will require that programs supporting health in developing countries focus on strengthening national health care systems. However, the dominant neoliberal model of development mandates reduced public spending on health and other social services, often resulting in increased funding for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the expense of support for government systems. East Timor, later Timor-Leste, is an example of a post-crisis country where international NGO efforts were initially critical to providing relief efforts to a traumatized population. Those groups were not prepared to help develop and support a standardized Timorese national health plan, however, and the cost of their support was unsustainable in the long term. In response, local authorities designed and implemented a post-crisis NGO phase-over plan that addressed risks to service disruption and monitored the process. Since then, some NGOs have worked collaboratively with the Ministry of Health to support specific efforts and initiatives under a framework provided by the ministry. Timor-Leste has shown that ministries of health can facilitate an effective transition of NGO support from crisis to development if they are allowed to plan and manage the process.
Silove, Derrick; Bateman, Catherine Robina; Brooks, Robert T; Fonseca, C Amaral Zulmira; Steel, Zachary; Rodger, James; Soosay, Ian; Fox, Greg; Patel, Vikram; Bauman, Adrian
Epidemiologic studies undertaken in postconflict countries have focused primarily on trauma-related disorders. There is a need to include disabling psychotic disorders in order to plan clinical services in these settings. To estimate the prevalence of key clinical disorders in Timor Leste (East Timor), and to assess cultural factors that may influence help-seeking patterns. A 2-phase total population survey of 1544 adults in an urban and a rural area of Timor Leste. Phase 1 involved a household informant survey using indigenous terms to detect psychosis and a screen of all adults for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of psychologic distress, including depression and anxiety. In phase 2, clinicians interviewed all those identified by household informants and half of those who screened positive in order to assign DSM-IV diagnoses. Disability, explanatory models, and perceived needs were also assessed. Phase 1: Demographic characteristics; trauma events and PTSD (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire); psychologic distress (Kessler-10 scale). Phase 2: Structured Clinical Interview for relevant DSM-IV diagnoses; the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scales; and the modified Short Explanatory Model Interview. The household informant method in phase 1 detected mainly psychotic disorders, and the screen method detected PTSD and depression. Phase 2 yielded a DSM-IV point prevalence estimate of 5.1% (including psychosis, 1.35%; and PTSD, 1.47%). Psychotic disorders were most disabling, primarily attributed to supernatural causes and treated mainly by traditional healers. Those with depression and PTSD experienced substantial disability but had received little treatment. They attributed their mental problems to social and traumatic causes. Our 2-phase method proved effective for identifying the range of disorders relevant to planning clinical services in postconflict developing countries. The unmet needs of
This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste.
Boon, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne
This article reports on multilingualism in adult literacy education in Timor-Leste and explores how choices made at the formal level of national language policy are dealt with at the operational level of adult literacy education. The 2002 constitution of Timor-Leste declares Portuguese and Tetum as the official languages. It recognises the need…
JPRS-SEA-90-023 3 AUGUST 1990 !■■■■■ !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 91$ East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 139...DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 4 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-023 CONTENTS 3 A UGUST1990 INDONESIA East Timor Governor Describes Province’s...percent thought the cadres were taking bribes from the men; and 19.5 percent thought the cadres were decadent in quality and life style. Clearly, the
Velickovic, M; Velickovic, Z; Panigoro, R; Dunckley, H
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activity of natural killer and T cells through interactions with specific human leucocyte antigen class I molecules on target cells. Population studies performed over the last several years have established that KIR gene frequencies (GFs) and genotype content vary considerably among different ethnic groups, indicating the extent of KIR diversity, some of which have also shown the effect of the presence or absence of specific KIR genes in human disease. We have determined the frequencies of 16 KIR genes and pseudogenes and genotypes in 193 Indonesian individuals from Java, East Timor, Irian Jaya (western half of the island of New Guinea) and Kalimantan provinces of Indonesian Borneo. All 16 KIR genes were observed in all four populations. Variation in GFs between populations was observed, except for KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3, KIR2DP1 and KIR3DP1 genes, which were present in every individual tested. When comparing KIR GFs between populations, both principal component analysis and a phylogenetic tree showed close clustering of the Kalimantan and Javanese populations, while Irianese populations were clearly separated from the other three populations. Our results indicate a high level of KIR polymorphism in Indonesian populations that probably reflects the large geographical spread of the Indonesian archipelago and the complex evolutionary history and population migration in this region.
Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Karafet, Tatiana M; Downey, Sean; Lansing, J Stephen; Norquest, Peter; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F; Cox, Murray P
Timor, an eastern Indonesian island linking mainland Asia with Australia and the Pacific world, had a complex history, including its role as a contact zone between two language families (Austronesian and Trans-New Guinean), as well as preserving elements of a rich Austronesian cultural heritage, such as matrilocal marriage practices. Using an array of biparental (autosomal and X-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and uniparental markers (Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA), we reconstruct a broad genetic profile of Timorese in the Belu regency of West Timor, including the traditional princedom of Wehali, focusing on the effects of cultural practices, such as language and social change, on patterns of genetic diversity. Sex-linked data highlight the different histories and social pressures experienced by women and men. Measures of diversity and population structure show that Timorese men had greater local mobility than women, as expected in matrilocal communities, where women remain in their natal village, whereas men move to the home village of their wife. Reaching further back in time, maternal loci (mitochondrial DNA and the X chromosome) are dominated by lineages with immigrant Asian origins, whereas paternal loci (Y chromosome) tend to exhibit lineages of the earliest settlers in the eastern Indonesian region. The dominance of Asian female lineages is especially apparent in the X chromosome compared with the autosomes, suggesting that women played a paramount role during and after the period of Asian immigration into Timor, perhaps driven by the matrilocal marriage practices of expanding Austronesian communities.
Full Text Available The goal of humanitarian assistance in Timor-Leste during a seriesof crises from 2006 to 2008 became increasingly focused on IDPcamp closure, with the assisted return of IDPs to their communitiesor to alternative living situations.
perceived Australia in this light and were openly opposed to Australian leadership of the multi- national mission. Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad of...such as Malaysia’s Prime Minister Mahathir , expressed concern over Australia’s forceful responses, regional leaders were broadly supportive and
Arnold E. Manu
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the West Timor savanna productive at different season. The location of this study is in the station of Lili field, Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Naibonat Kupang, with 40 hectare of savannah for pasture, held in one year. The data collected are botanical composition, production, feed intake in savannah and forage quality also the carrying capacity. The data analyzed descriptively. The amount of goat used for measurement of feed intake in savannah is 10 does. The result showed that the averages of forage fluctuation available is between 0.61-4,33 ton/hectare. The lowest point of production is happened in the edge of dry season (October that is 0.61 ton/hectare. Then it increases in early of rainy (December and reaches the highest point in the early of dry season (April. From this point, then it decreases and reach the lowest point in October, so, the forage production in nature was increases in December. The composition rate of CP is very varied, that is 2.71-9.48%. The composition of CP in nature grass has no significant difference with the composition in other locations of Timor, that is 2.26 % in the ends of dry season and become 8-10% in the rainy. Most of forage on the pasture is nature grass that is upper 90% and relative less of leguminous plants. The lack proportion of leguminous plants in nature savannah result in the less of forage quality, especially during the dry season there is no legume proportion and the quality of nature grass become very low.
Chen, Y. R.; Lim, Y. L.; Wang, M. H.; Chen, C. Y.
Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the "Pair- House Type" widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house), accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep), containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut". Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built "conical huts" for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. "Conical Hut" may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The "conical huts" contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has
Y. R. Chen
Full Text Available Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the “Pair- House Type” widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house, accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder’s bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep, containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the “conical hut”. Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built “conical huts” for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. “Conical Hut” may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of “conical hut”, which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The “conical huts” contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present
Full Text Available Cattle and maize play important roles in the dryland faming systems in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province, contributing to the farmers’ income, social status, and the regional food security and sources of income. However, the productivity of both commodities is low because of several problems. Lack of feed supply and management knowledge has contributed to the low cattle productivity, while lack of cultivation knowledge and the use of low productivity local maize have caused low productivity in maize. Farmers in Timor in general do not apply fertilizer to their maize plants, although lack of nitrogen (N is evident in many of their maize fields. There is potential to improve the available N in the soils through the incorporation of herbaceous legumes, which can supply the nutrient to the soil as well as providing good quality fodders for the cattle. Among the introduced herbaceous legumes tested, Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea has shown good performances to be used as an alternative herbaceous legume in the farming system for improving soil fertility and maize production as well as to provide good quality fordder for the cattle.
Full Text Available The cosmological and socio-ecological roles of water, in particular spring water, have not been the subject of sustained analysis in the anthropological literatures of the eastern archipelago. Taking as our starting point the central role of water in the origin narratives and ritual practices of Koba Lima, a coalition of five ancient kingdoms located across the division of East Timor and Indonesian West Timor, we explore the profound cosmological meanings and many layered understandings of life and death associated with water. We argue that in this nuanced socio-ecological world, water is the blood and milk of the mother transformed into life itself through father fire. It is through these transformative capacities connected to water that the boundaries separating the visible and invisible worlds can be permeated, enabling the living access to matak malirin or good health and productive life force. The paper is both a contribution to the literature on archipelagic socio-cosmic dualisms and a unique ethnography which presents new material on the significance of water in this region.
Khanal, Vishnu; Lee, Andy H; Nunes Brites da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca; Karkee, Rajendra
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of prelacteal feeding and its associated factors in Timor-Leste using updated data from the national survey. Complex sample analysis was undertaken to account for the 2-stage cluster design of the Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010. Backward stepwise logistic regression was conducted to ascertain factors associated with the prevalence of prelacteal feeding. A total of 4821 mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis. The prevalence of prelacteal feeding was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.1-13.5). The most popular prelacteal food was plain water (50.7%), followed by glucose/sugar water (32.5%) and milk other than breast milk (22.7%). Older mothers (35-49 years), mothers with upper socioeconomic status, those who perceived their newborns as small size, and those residing in urban areas were approximately 1.5 times more likely to give prelacteal feeds, whereas women who followed religions other than Roman Catholic had twice the risk (adjusted odds ratio 1.98; 95% CI 1.16-3.41). Antenatal and postnatal counselling sessions that promote exclusive breast-feeding and discourage prelacteal feeding are needed that specifically target these vulnerable subgroups of Timorese mothers.
Bacherikova M. L.
Full Text Available the article describes those areas of marketing tools which used in the complex of measures on Far East development. The role of territory marketing in formation of conditions for social and economic development of Far East macroregion is determinated; proposals on marketing approach to territory management in order to increase its competitiveness and attractiveness are formulated.
Full Text Available Oirata (Or as a NAN language was indicated to have a genetic relationshipwith languages in East Timor, i.e. Bunak (Bn and Makasai (Mk (Greenberg, 1971 andwith Mk, Fataluku (Ft and Lovaea (Lov (Capell, 1975. The two opinions are confusingand different from one another. Hence, an effort to trace the genetic relationship of thelanguages was made to clarify the matter. Or in Kisar Island was also assumed tooriginate from East Timor (de Jong, 1937. The native speakers should have brought withthem their language and it is believed that the acculturation and language contact with thelanguages in the surrounding areas must have occurred. This condition opened up roomfor internal and external evolution in Or.This study observed nine languages: two languages in Kisar Island and sevenin East Timor. The data were collected through interviews and face-to face conversationswith the informants who were selected by purposive sampling until a point of saturationwas reached. The data analysis was done by using vertical-horizontal syncomparative anddiacomparative method which led to the following conclusions.Or, Ft and Mk were diachronically and convincingly proved to have a closegenetic relationship with a split patterned family tree. The Oirata-Fataluku-Makasai(OFM group that was once the ancestor of the three languages underwent a split intoOirata-Fataluku (OF and Mk. It means that Or is closer o Ft than Mk and at the sametime it refuted the opinions of Greenberg (1971 and Capell (1975 that Or is closer toMk.Or turned out to have undergone an internal phonological evolution as theresult of a diachronic interaction with languages that were genetically related to it in theform of: (1 vocal split */i//_#, */a//#_ and /_#; (2 vocal merger */e//_#, (3 vocalcentralization, (4 consonant split and (5 voiced stop consonant formation. The externalphonological evolution was caused by the contact with the languages in the region andOr has undergone: (1 enrichment of
W. Patrick Carney
Full Text Available Survey tinja dan darah dipulau Timor guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit parasit diantara penduduk telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli dan Agustus tahun 1972 sebagai kelanjutan dari deretan survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan Pemberantasan Penyakit menular Departemen Kesehatan, Bagian Parasitologi dan Pathologi Umum Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia dan US Namru-2 di Indonesia. Sejumlah 445 sediaan tinja untuk pemeriksaan parasit usus, 581 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit malaria dan 663 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit filaria telah diambil dari penduduk cara merata di 7 desa pada 3 kabupaten di Timor, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Enam puluh delapan per cent diantara penduduk melihatkan satu atau lebih parasit usus didalam tinjanya dimana cacing tambang merupakan parasit usus yang terbanyak. Ascaris lumbricoides ketemukan jauh lebih kurang daripada di Jawa, Sumatra dan Sulawesi, juga diketemukan perbedaan itara "intestinal parasite rate" di Timor Indonesia dan Timor Portugis. Dua belas percent penduduk yang diperiksa melihatkan parasit malaria didalam darahnya sedangkan parasit filaria ditemukan sebanyak 8 percent. Plasmodium falciparum merupakan parasit malaria yang terbanyak ditemukan, ia jenis parasit fdaria yang ditemukan adalah "Timor microfilaria" dan Wuchereria bancrofti dimana yang pertama merupakan parasit yang terbanyak diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.
Keep, Myra; Haig, David; Benincasa, Aaron
Timor Island, in the Outer Banda Arc, preserves the orogenic product of an arc-continent collision between the Australian Plate and the Banda Arc that commenced after 9.8 Ma GTS2004 but emerged above sea level only 3.1 Ma ago. The orogenic pile includes large tracts of material from the Australian margin, including the Permian to Middle Jurassic Gondwana Megasequence and the Late Jurassic to early Late Miocene Australian-Margin Megasequence, as well as stratigraphic sequences indicating a Gondwanan terrane with an oceanic affinity. In addition, material from the Banda Arc side of the plate margin, referred to as the Banda Terrane, occurs throughout the island and includes both seaf!oor metamorphosed igneous material and cover sediments. We document four distinct stages to this young orogeny, based largely on detailed and robust stratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses. An early shortening, between 9.8 Ma and 5.5 Ma reflects the early collision. However, somewhat unexpectedly we found that this early collision was followed by a period of tectonic quiescence, 5.5 Ma to 4.5 Ma, during which time pelagic sedimentation occurred across much of Timor, reflecting locking of the subduction zone. Since 4.5 Ma deformation has been manifest as late, high-angle strike slip faults that dominate the topography and dismember the early-formed thrust sheets, and a more recent phase of broad doming causing uplift relate to the rapid rise of the island. Early deformation, manifest as south- to southeasterly directed thrust nappes, is now preserved in only a handful of locations. Oil and gas seeps and hot springs that occur across East Timor reflect control by underlying structural zones parallel to the strike of the island. These linear zones parallel plate-boundary scale strike-slip faults that exhume the Australian-derived (oldest) rocks on Timor. Recent strike-slip deformation, manifest as linear tectonic melange zones parallel to major, late, high-angle faults controls the
Full Text Available Newly democratising states experience challenges in reconciling â€œtraditionalâ€ or â€œcustomaryâ€ dispute resolution practices with newly established state-based legal systems based on the rule of law. For Timor-Leste, these tensions are pronounced in continuing debates concerning the killing or injuring of women accused of witchcraft. Defences of extrajudicial punishments tend to conflate democracy with local support and fail to deal with the key institutions of democratic systems, including the rule of law, political equality, and civil rights. In Timor-Lesteâ€™s case, where equality and social rights were incorporated into the Constitution as fundamental governmental obligations, localised extrajudicial punishments threaten internal and external state legitimacy and highlight the difficulties of ensuring the primacy of state-based institutions. Extrajudicial punishments challenge Timor-Lesteâ€™s capacity to consolidate new liberal democratic political institutions.
Valente Da Silva
Full Text Available Background: TB treatment dropout is one causes of treatment failure, which could increase drug resistant cases. Drug resistant cases of TB were reported by the Ministry of Health of East Timor in 2008 (3 cases, 2009 (3 cases, and in 2010 (6 cases. With drug resistant emerging, TB will require longer treatment time. According to the WHO report (2013 the results of pulmonary tuberculosis BTA (+ treatment were reported: Year 2010 the number of failure of treatment was (0.53%; Died of TB (3.53%; Drop out of treatment (4.05%; Outmigration (3.98%; In 2011 cases of treatment failure (0.50% Died of TB (3.36%; Drop out of treatment (3.36%; Outmigration (1.92%; In 2012 cases of treatment failure (1.03%; Died of TB (3.49% Drop out of treatment (4.59% and migration, (2.26%. According to the National Statistics Directorate (NSD in 2011, that the East Timorese people still live mostly 70.4% in the rural areas. While access to health services remains a challenge, since the people of Timor Leste proclaimed the restoration of its independence. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables of education, family income, and job with cases of TB medication discontinuation. Methods: This study was conducted using descriptive correlation method. The sample was determined by Ridwan & Akdon (2010 formula. The total of samples was 100 people who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and selected randomly. This research was conducted in District Manatuto and Liquica Timor-Leste on March 28, 2015. Results: The correlation test showed a strong positive relationship level if r = 0.51 until +1. Analysis of significance value of r xy = 0.671 and p = 0.000 indicates that there is a significant relationship between the variables of education, job and income with variable discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion: Based on the results of research and data analysis, it can be concluded that the results of this study are as
Purpose: This article analyses the role, approach, issues and opportunities faced by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the promotion of agriculture in Timor Leste from independence through to the countrywide roll out of a public extension service in 2009. Design/methodology/approach: The research draws on semi-structured interviews with NGO…
In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…
This paper examines the transformation of transborder fishing in Timor and Arafura Sea to demonstrated the contested space of which interplayed by local, state and international actor. State regulations had transformed transborder fishing into political space of authority competition relied on territorial sovereignty, while socio-cultural heritage reminds exploited within fluid space of livelihood survival when state function is just absent.
... relations, International postal services. Accordingly, 39 CFR part 20 is amended as follows: PART 20... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Service Change--Timor-Leste AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... is adding this country to Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail...
Iskandar, I.; Mardiansyah, W.; Setiabudidaya, D.; Poerwono, P.; Syamsuddin, F.
Temporal variability of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the Timor Passage was evaluated with special focus on its interannual variation. The ITF transport was estimated as a latitudinal averaged of an along strait currents in the Timor Passage based on the output of Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) experiment from 1958 - 2008. A Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function (CEOF), then, was applied to the interannual estimated ITF transport to extract the dominant mode of variability. The result has shown that the leading CEOF mode was explaining 67.2% of the total interannual variation. The reconstructed first CEOF time series shows strong positive anomalies (towards the Pacific Ocean) during 1962 - 1969, 1972 - 1978, 1997 - 1999, 2002 - 2005 and 2007. The transport was reversed (towards the Indian Ocean) during other periods. The upper layer transport above ˜200m depth is significantly correlated with the zonal wind stress in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, with the transport lagging the winds by about 10 months. The middle layer transport between about 200 - 600m depth is significantly influenced by the zonal wind from the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in which the zonal winds lag the ITF by about 5 months. In addition, the deeper layer transport below about 600m depth shows significant zero lag correlation with the zonal wind stress in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, though the impact of the equatorial Indian Ocean zonal wind stress is not negligible.
Full Text Available Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles, comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus, rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya, and rhacophorid treefrogs (Polypedates cf. leucomystax. All three variants of rice paddy frogs encountered represent undescribed species similar to F. verruculosa from neighboring Wetar Island. Records of F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis for Timor Island are apparently errors based on misidentification. We obtained voucher specimens for a total of 147 lizards and voucher photographs only for four specimens of Varanus timorensis. Aside from geckos frequently associated with human habitations (e.g., Gehyra mutilata, Gekko gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, H. platyurus, we discovered an as yet undescribed species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus, in the Same valley. Our specimens of H. platyurus are the first record of this species from Timor-Leste. Commonly encountered skinks included four-fingered skinks (genus Carlia, wedge skinks (genus Sphenomorphus, and night skinks (genus Eremiascincus. Notable among the 15 snakes collected was the frequency of pitvipers (Cryptelytrops insularis, which amounted to over 25% of all snakes. Our specimen of the wolfsnake Lycodon subcinctus is the first record of this species for Timor-Leste. Based on these findings, it appears that the biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles in this remote corner of Wallacea is much greater than previously thought, particularly with respect to scincid lizards. The detail we provide in the species accounts is designed to allow the use of this report as a preliminary field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of
Kaiser, Hinrich; Carvalho, Venancio Lopes; Ceballos, Jester; Freed, Paul; Heacox, Scott; Lester, Barbara; Richards, Stephen J.; Trainor, Colin R.; Sanchez, Caitlin; O’Shea, Mark
Abstract Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles), comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya), and rhacophorid treefrogs (Polypedates cf. leucomystax). All three variants of rice paddy frogs encountered represent undescribed species similar to Fejervarya verruculosa from neighboring Wetar Island. Records of Fejervarya cancrivora and Fejervarya limnocharis for Timor Island are apparently errors based on misidentification. We obtained voucher specimens for a total of 147 lizards and voucher photographs only for four specimens of Varanus timorensis. Aside from geckos frequently associated with human habitations (e.g., Gehyra mutilata, Gekko gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus platyurus), we discovered an as yet undescribed species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus, in the Same valley. Our specimens of Hemidactylus platyurus are the first record of this species from Timor-Leste. Commonly encountered skinks included four-fingered skinks (genus Carlia), wedge skinks (genus Sphenomorphus), and night skinks (genus Eremiascincus). Notable among the 15 snakes collected was the frequency of pitvipers (Cryptelytrops insularis), which amounted to over 25% of all snakes. Our specimen of the wolfsnake Lycodon subcinctus is the first record of this species for Timor-Leste. Based on these findings, it appears that the biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles in this remote corner of Wallacea is much greater than previously thought, particularly with respect to scincid lizards. The detail we provide in the species accounts is designed to allow the use of this report as a preliminary field
Horie, Kenji; Hokada, Tomokazu; Motoyoshi, Yoichi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki; Takehara, Mami; Hiroi, Yoshikuni
U-Pb zircon geochronology was applied to nine metasedimentary samples collected from Mt. Yuzhnaya, Condon Hills, and Mt. Lira in the inland region of the Rayner Complex of western Enderby Land, East Antarctica, in order to define the eastern limits of the western Rayner Complex that underwent the Pan-African metamorphism and to evaluate potential source areas of metasedimentary rocks. Condon Hills and Mt. Lira revealed metamorphic ages of ∼ 894 and ∼ 934 Ma, respectively, which are consistent with previously reported metamorphism in association with Rayner Structural Episode (RSE). Mt. Yuzhnaya samples affected by the RSE contain zircon grains rejuvenated during 590-570 Ma, which indicates that the Pan-African reworking can be extended up to Mt. Yuzhnaya. On the other hand, the Condon Hills samples include Archean detritus, and the age peaks from 3850 to 2491 Ma are the oldest components in the Rayner Complex of western Enderby Land. There is no evidence of reworked Napier Complex rocks in the studied Rayner samples. (author)
Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Muir, D C G; Letcher, R J; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Jenssen, B M; Villanger, G D
The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p'-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cahyarini, Sri Yudawati; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Nurhati, Intan Suci; Aldrian, Edvin; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Hetzinger, Steffen
The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), which represents the global ocean circulation connecting the Pacific Warm Pool to the Indian Ocean, strongly influences the Indo-Pacific climate. ITF monitoring since the late 1990s using mooring buoys have provided insights on seasonal and interannual time scales. However, the absence of longer records limits our perspective on its evolution over the past century. Here, we present sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) proxy records from Timor Island located at the ITF exit passage via paired coral δ18O and Sr/Ca measurements spanning the period 1914-2004. These high-resolution proxy based climate data of the last century highlights improvements and cautions when interpreting paleoclimate records of the Indonesian region. If the seasonality of SST and SSS is not perfectly in phase, the application of coral Sr/Ca thermometry improves SST reconstructions compared to estimates based on coral δ18O only. Our records also underline the importance of ocean advection besides rainfall on local SSS in the region. Although the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes larger anomalies relative to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Timor coral-based SST and SSS records robustly correlate with IOD on interannual time scales, whereas ENSO only modifies Timor SST. Similarly, Timor SST and SSS are strongly linked to Indian Ocean decadal-scale variations that appear to lead Timor oceanographic conditions by about 1.6-2 years. Our study sheds new light on the complex signatures of Indo-Pacific climate modes on SST and SSS dynamics of the ITF. This article was corrected on 8 AUG 2014. See the end of the full text for details.
Marden, Michael; Fuller, Ian C.; Herzig, Alexander; Betts, Harley D.
This paper reviews gully erosion in the East Coast region of New Zealand's North Island and conceptualises fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes as badass gully systems. Tectonic setting and lithological control, with steep slopes and a climate influenced by tropical cyclones, predispose hill country in the East Coast region to gully erosion. The clearance of indigenous forest since the late 1800s has dramatically increased catchment erosion and paved the way for development of large-scale fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes. These features are a composite of fluvial and mass movement processes. They are conceptualised as 'badass' by not conforming to any existing gully model and by generating disproportionate results in East Coast catchment sediment cascades. Their remediation is discussed, but their nature means that prevention is better than a cure.
Full Text Available Previously, the identification of fossil Pseudolarix at the species level has been based on the morphology of the bract-scale complex of the seed cone. The morphological consistence of fossils through most of the Cenozoic with extant P. amabilis has led them to be considered conspecific, suggesting that P. amabilis is an extraordinary example of morphological stasis. However, the lack of cuticular evidence, especially for the leaf-homologous bract, reduces the accuracy of fossil identification based on morphology, thus weakening the evidence for morphological stasis in P. amabilis. For the first time, we provide cuticular evidence of the bract-scale of fossil P. amabilis based on the bract-scale complex from the late Miocene Shengxian Formation, Zhejiang, East China, which improves the identification accuracy and reinforces the concept of morphological stasis in this species. Second, we preliminarily reveal the niche stability of P. amabilis, which corresponds to its morphological stasis. Finally, we infer that the late Miocene forest containing P. amabilis in Zhejiang was an evergreen sclerophyllous broad-leaved or mixed mesophytic forest, which combined with the evergreen broad-leaved forest suggested by previous megafossil studies, indicates the occurrence of vertical vegetation zonation.
Palma, Elisabete Cortes
A Resolução 1246 (11 de Junho de 1999) do Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas autorizou o estabelecimento da Missão de Assistência das Nações Unidas em Timor-Leste (UNAMET), com o objectivo de levar a cabo a consulta popular sobre o futuro do território. À UNAMET caberia ainda supervisionar o período de transição conducente à implementação da decisão do povo de Timor Leste. A onda de violência que se seguiu ao referendo de 30 de Agosto de 1999, levou, contudo, a que o Conselho de Seguranç...
Amaral, Acáçio Cardoso; Ward, Michael P; da Costa Freitas, Joana
The continued spread of rabies through the eastern islands of Indonesia poses a risk of rabies introduction to Timor Leste. To prepare for such an incursion and to undertake surveillance activities, the size and distribution of the roaming dog population needs to be estimated. We present the results of the first such surveys ever undertaken in Timor Leste. Roaming dog surveys were undertaken in each capital of the 13 districts of Timor Leste, including the national capital, Dili. Within these locations, local urban areas (aldeias) were targeted and sight-re-sight counts were undertaken on consecutive days. Estimated dog populations were adjusted for the sampling fraction. Overall, counts were performed in a total of 53 of 131 (40.5%) sucos and in 192 of 797 (24.1%) aldeias in these selected sucos. Within the surveyed urban areas, there were an estimated 21.2 people per roaming dog, a ratio substantially higher than the World Health Organization's average global estimate of 10 people per dog. The highest populations of dogs were estimated in the cities of Dili (4919), Baucau vila (3449) and Lospalos (2536). The latter two are important because of their location in the northeast of Timor Leste, where the risk of rabies incursion from recently infected islands in eastern Indonesia, is likely greatest. The sight-resight method of estimating roaming dog populations is practical in developing countries; more use of photography to aid resighting of dogs could increase the accuracy of this method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rebecca Strating; Department of Politics and Philosophy, La Trobe University, Melbourne; Beth Edmondson; School of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences at Federation University Australia, Gippsland
Newly democratising states experience challenges in reconciling 'traditional' or 'customary' dispute resolution practices with newly established state-based legal systems based on the rule of law. For Timor-Leste, these tensions are pronounced in continuing debates concerning the killing or injuring of women accused of witchcraft. Defences of extrajudicial punishments tend to conflate democracy with local support and fail to deal with the key institutions of democratic systems, including the ...
Schneider, A. A.; Malyshev, Yu. F.; Goroshko, M. V.; Romanovsky, N. P.
Genetic and mineralogical features of large deposits with complex Sn, W, and Mo mineralization in the Sikhote-Alin and Amur-Khingan metallogenic provinces are considered, as well as those of raremetal, rare earth, and uranium deposits in the Aldan-Stanovoi province. The spatiotemporal, geological, and mineralogical attributes of large deposits are set forth, and their geodynamic settings are determined. These attributes are exemplified in the large Tigriny Sn-W greisen-type deposit. The variation of regional tectonic settings and their spatial superposition are the main factor controlling formation of large deposits. Such a variation gives rise to multiple reactivation of the ore-magmatic system and long-term, multistage formation of deposits. Pulsatory mineralogical zoning with telescoped mineral assemblages related to different stages results in the formation of complex ores. The highest-grade zones of mass discharge of hydrothermal solutions are formed at the deposits. The promising greisen-type mineralization with complex Sn-W-Mo ore is suggested to be an additional source of tungsten and molybdenum. The Tigriny, Pravourminsky, and Arsen'evsky deposits, as well as deposits of the Komsomol'sk and Khingan-Olonoi ore districts are examples. Large and superlarge U, Ta, Nb, Be, and REE deposits are localized in the southeastern Aldan-Stanovoi Shield. The Ulkan and Arbarastakh ore districts attract special attention. The confirmed prospects of new large deposits with Sn, W, Mo, Ta, Nb, Be, REE, and U mineralization in the south of the Russian Far East assure expediency of further geological exploration in this territory.
Dewi, G. D. P.; Yustikaningrum, R. V.
Post Referendum 1999, Indonesia and Timor Leste have a strategic challenge to provide food consistently around the border. This research intended to discover an appropriate strategy to tackle fragility of food security in the land border of Indonesia-Timor Leste, to improve collaborative actions between parties, as well as, opportunity to actualize food cross-border trading between local farmers and factories. For the result, there are two approaches will be applied. First, the empowerment term refers to the strategy of empowerment in strengthening the capability and capacity of human capital as one of the determinant factors of the resilience and self-sufficiency achievement. Second, the gender approach looks at the women and men build confidence, resilience, and independence which one of them through an educational intervention that enable the local people to manage food chain. Atambua is a region count as relatively as high poverty, poor human capital, weak quality and competitiveness of agriculture products, livestock and fishery, SMEs, and infrastructure. Thus, field study research is applied to find the actual and strategic effort aim to lead the achievement of food security and to engage Atambua over food trade to Timor Leste.
Mateen, Farrah J; Martins, Nelson
Neurologic care exists within health systems and complex social, political, and economic environments. Identification of obstacles within health systems, defined as "constraints," is crucial to improving the delivery of neurologic care within its macroclimate. Here we use the World Health Organization's 6 building blocks of a health system to examine core services for priority interventions related to neurologic disease: (1) service delivery; (2) health workforce; (3) information; (4) medical products, vaccines, and technologies; (5) financing; and (6) leadership and governance. We demonstrate the use of a constraints analysis for neurologic disorders using the example of Timor-Leste, a newly sovereign and low-income country, which aims to improve neurologic care in the coming years.
Full Text Available This paper outlines the context in which many thousands of people went missing in Timor-Leste between 1975 and 1999. The issues related to estimating the exact number of missing are discussed, followed by a review of the mechanisms implemented by the government and civil society since independence to attempt to examine and investigate the fate of missing persons. The paper then examines the technical details involved with searching for the missing which impact on the effectiveness of the different mechanisms. Further complexities related to scientific and religious/cultural beliefs when dealing with the missing are discussed. The paper concludes with providing suggestions for ways that the future search for the missing can realistically continue in light of other competing development priorities.
The Cabinet of Health Research and Development (CHRD) has recently been established as the first health research institute in one of the world's newest nations, Timor-Leste. We discuss the development of this initiative to build health research capacity within the context of Timor-Leste's health system, history and future goals. PMID:22490170
This is an institutional cooperation programme between the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and The Ministry of Natural Resources, Minerals and Energy Policy in Timor-Leste, funded by the Oil for Development programme from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). This final report is required according to the Country Agreement (Appendix 1), Article VII, Section 5: - East Timor shall submit to Norway a final report within 6 months after the completion of the Project. The report shall give a summary of outputs and activities undertaken, achievements compared to Goal and Objective and an assessment of the efficiency of the Project.- This report summarizes the planning of the Project, the activities and outputs, shows how project funds have been spent and discusses the results of the project. It is hoped that it also functions as a history book for an important factor in the early development of Timor-Leste's petroleum sector and for this long and high profiled Norwegian Development project. For the period 2003-2006, the Implementing institution in Timor-Leste was The Ministry of Natural Resources, Minerals and Energy Policy. From 2007 and for the rest of the project-period, the implementing institution was changed to the Secretariat of State for Natural Resources. The main tasks for the cooperation project were: Training on petroleum tax, accounting and basic finance topics for staff in the Petroleum Tax Division, MOPF; Analyze and give advice on possible tax effects and revenue effects regarding PSA agreements, gas pipeline and the implementation of new consolidated tax law; Help establish regular meetings with DNPG/TSDA and MOF to discuss current issues and improve flow of information between the different Timor-Leste petroleum authorities; Conduct and give advice on tax audits and desk audits Identify and give advice on current petroleum tax issues; Designed spreadsheets to facilitate overall monitoring of petroleum tax payments; New tax return
Wild, Kayli; Barclay, Lesley; Kelly, Paul; Martins, Nelson
The high rate of maternal mortality in Timor-Leste is a persistent problem which has been exacerbated by the long history of military occupation and ongoing political crises since independence in 1999. It is similar to other developing countries where there have been slow declines in maternal mortality despite 20 years of Safe Motherhood interventions. The national Ministry of Health, United Nations (UN) agencies and non-government organisations (NGOs) have attempted to reduce maternal mortality by enacting policies and interventions to increase the number of births in health centres and hospitals. Despite considerable effort in promoting facility-based delivery, most Timorese women birth at home and the lack of midwives means few women have access to a skilled birth attendant. This paper investigates factors influencing access to and use of maternal health services in rural areas of Timor-Leste. It draws on 21 interviews and 11 group discussions with Timorese women and their families collected over two periods of fieldwork, one month in September 2006 and five months from July to December 2007. Theoretical concepts from anthropology and health social science are used to explore individual, social, political and health system issues which affect the way in which maternal health services are utilised. In drawing together a range of theories this paper aims to extend explanations around access to maternal health services in developing countries. An empirically informed framework is proposed which illustrates the complex factors that influence women's birth choices. This framework can be used by policy-makers, practitioners, donors and researchers to think critically about policy decisions and where investments can have the most impact for improving maternal health in Timor-Leste and elsewhere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Com este catálogo procura-se apresentar as características de algumas das rochas existentes em Timor-Leste e que se apresentam com potencial para exploração, quer como rochas ornamentais, quer como materiais de construção. Não se trata aqui de realizar um repertório exaustivo ou um levantamento detalhado das diversas ocorrências ou do seu potencial, mas tão-somente de ilustrar as possibilidades existentes em recursos minerais não-metálicos quer para eventuais investidores quer para o públi...
Miguel Da Costa Costa Gomes
Full Text Available The island of Atauro is a tourist destination located in Dili District of East Timor.The island has big potential for tourist attractions that deserves to be further developed to be tourist destinations. This study aims to investigate the potential tourist attractions, the internal and external environmental conditions as well as to formulate strategies and programs for sustainable tourism development. This study used IFAS (Internal Factor Analysis System and EFAS (External Factor Analysis System are used. This study applies planning theory, tourism area life cycle by Butler, planning and Participation Theory. Data are collected through observation, interviews, and questionnaires.The results showed that there is potential to further develop some tourist attractions in Atauro to be sustainable tourism. Unspoiled natural view, underwater panoramic, extended coral-reef with varieties of fishes, forest with various birds, unique social and cultural life are some of the potential areas for development. The analysis on internal and external environment showed that Atauro is categorized into cell I Grow and Development (the concentration is via vertical integration. The potential for tourism in Atauro Island mainly lays in marine, culture, beaches, history, biking, spring water, seaweed cultivation, cave, spirituality, and sightseeing adventure. The strongest factor of internal environmental condition is the panoramic view, while the weakest factor is the inadequate facilities and infrastructure.
McQuarrie, N.; Tate, G. W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Harris, R. A.
On the island of Timor, arc-continent collision between the Banda volcanic arc and the Australian continent since the late Miocene has uplifted a mountain range containing both deeply exhumed metamorphic rocks and deepwater synorogenic basins. These varied lithologies are separated by a few tens of kilometers, and provide us with an opportunity to examine the spatial patterns of differential uplift and exhumation and its links to the geometry and magnitude of deformation in an orogen that is still in its infancy. New mapping in Timor has provided a detailed view of how the Australian continental slope and shelf rocks are being structurally repeated below overriding Banda Arc material. In East Timor, a window though the Banda terrane shows Permian and Triassic rocks that are repeated by four NNE-striking thrust faults with ~3 km spacing and 50-75 km along-strike extent. The strike of these faults is rotated 50-60 degrees compared to structures to the east and west of this main window. In addition, mapped fold axes are shown to cut across and warp fault traces. These map patterns indicate that the duplex has been both refolded and tilted since its initial formation. In West Timor, Permian through Triassic stratigraphy is faulted and folded into an antiformal stack with 5 exposed thrusts repeating an ~ 3 km thick section. Both south of and adjacent to these structural highs are 10-20 km wide piggyback basins of deepwater, synorogenic marine limestones and clays that coarsen upward into turbidites. Deposition of these units initiated at 5.5 Ma at lower bathyal depths. Synorogenic deposition directly over the Bobonaro mélange, which acts as the décollement between the overthrust Banda Arc rocks and the structurally repeated Australian margin rocks, requires the removal of both Banda arc material and the Cretaceous and younger Kolbano sequence before deposition. These basins record rapid surface uplift to upper bathyal depths from 3.5-3 Ma with continual uplift to
Full Text Available En avril-mai 2007 des élections présidentielles se sont tenues à Timor-Est. Ce pays, indépendant depuis mai 2002, a connu une série de crises au cours des dernières années, qui a abouti à une remise en question du rôle dominant du Fretilin, le parti historique de la lutte contre l'invasion indonésienne et pour l'indépendance, au pouvoir depuis 2002. Le premier tour a été serré avec trois candidats entre 19 et 28%. Au deuxième tour, qui opposait Lu-Olo, candidat du Fretilin à José Ramos Horta, ancien Premier ministre, co-lauréat du Prix Nobel de la Paix, c'est ce dernier qui a finalement été élu avec 69 % des suffrages. Les élections législatives qui se sont tenues le mois suivant, en juin, ont confirmé l'affaiblissement du Fretilin et le rééquilibrage politique.In April-May 2007 presidential elections were held in East-Timor. Since independence (2002, the country crossed several crisis, calling into question the leading role of the Fretilin, the historical party which fought against Indonesia invasion and for independance. The first round of the ballot was tight with three candidates between 19 and 28%. At the end of the second round, opposing Lu-Olo, Fretilin's candidate to José Ramos Horta, former Prime minister, co-Nobel Peace Laureate in 1996, this last has been elected with 69% of the votes. The legislative elections which were held the following month, in June, confirmed the Fretilin weakening and the political rebalancing.Em abril-maio de 2007 havia eleições presidenciais em Timor Leste. Independente desde maio de 2002, o país conheceu uma série de crises no decorrer destes últimos anos, que acabaram por abalar o papel dominante da Fretilin, partido histórico da luta contra a invasão indonésia e pela independência. A primeira volta foi apertada, com três candidatos obtendo entre 19 e 28% dos votos. Na segunda volta, que opunha Lu-Olo, candidato do Fretilin, a José Ramos Horta, ex-Primeiro ministro
East Asia shows newly emerging experiments in lifelong learning that contrast with European experiences. The concepts and ideas share a similar platform, while the trajectories of institutionalization reveal great differences. It is because the idea of lifelong learning was coined by international agencies, like UNESCO, to share, it rather shows…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat classes were derived for nearshore waters (< 20 m depths) around Timor-Leste from DigitalGlobe WorldView-2 satellite imagery, acquired from Jan 26...
Smith, B.L. (Peko Oil Ltd., Pymble, New South Wales (GB)); Lawrence, R.B. (Santos Ltd., Adelaide, South Australia (AU))
This article presents a geological summary of the Vulcan sub-basin. Three exploratory phases in the Timor Sea are detailed and the economics of exploration in this area is discussed. The Timor Sea is emerging as a major Australian oil-producing area. From the Jabiru field alone Timor Sea oil production contributes 9% of Australia's oil production. The Timor Sea will soon rank second in terms of daily production. Early phases of exploration in the area focused on the detection and drilling of large structures. Success rates were low. Since the Jabiru discovery in 1983, better exploration methods have resulted in the delineation of many prospects which could contain significant oil reserves. New play concepts being developed will result in additional prospects.
Indolestes lafaeci sp. nov. is described and illustrated (holotype male: vi.1929, Soe, South Central Timor Regency, West Timor, Indonesia, ex.-Coll. Le Moult; deposited at the Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium). Indolestes insularis comb. nov. is proposed. For comparison, illustrations of the head, synthorax, male anal appendages and genital ligula as well as of the ovipositor of I. bellax, I. gracilis and I. insularis are given.
Seehausen, Malte; Theischinger, Günther
Nososticta impercepta sp. nov. is described and illustrated (holotype ♂: 28.vi.1911, Niki-Niki [South Central Timor Regency], Timor, Indonesia, C.B. Haniel leg., Coll. Ris, No. 2477; deposited at the Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). An illustrated key for the species of Nososticta known from the Lesser Sunda Islands is given. The occurrence of N. selysi in Timor is considered to be doubtful. Nososticta emphyla is newly recorded from Sumbawa Island.
Full Text Available Timor-Leste is a small state that finally achieved independence in 2002. It has had to re-build an entire education system from a small base largely destroyed in the independence struggle. This paper presents the issues identified in pre-independence meetings, and considers these within the framework of transition and transformation problems for a small island with a diverse population and a long history of colonisation, using Namibia as an apt example. Fifteen years later, teacher preparation both pre- and in-service is identified as a major issue in achieving educational and social goals, with language training a key factor. Enrolments have improved and gender equity is close to parity, but urban-rural differences remain. Late enrolments, drop-outs especially in the early years, and repetition are major hurdles in achieving an educated, knowledgeable and qualified population.
Komar, Debra A; Lathrop, Sarah
Understanding population-level trauma patterns has implications for the recognition of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Trauma data were abstracted from autopsy and anthropology reports for 105 victims from the 1999 conflict in Timor Leste. A significant number of individuals displayed no evidence of injury. No trauma was found in 25% of the sample, while a further 5% had only minor, nonlethal wounds. Where trauma was evident, sharp force injuries were most common (35%), followed by gunshot (20%) and blunt force (13.33%). Timorese frequencies of trauma differ significantly from percentages found in prior reports of mass killings from Cambodia, Bosnia, Croatia, and Afghanistan but closely resemble reported trauma patterns in Rwanda. Decomposition and percentage of body recovered were shown to have a significant impact on the presence/absence of trauma. Complete, fleshed remains were 10.4 times more likely than skeletal remains to have evidence of major or lethal trauma. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Vilar, Miguel G; Kaneko, Akira; Hombhanje, Francis W; Tsukahara, Takahiro; Hwaihwanje, Ilomo; Lum, J Koji
The colonization of Oceania occurred in two waves. By 32,000 BP, humans had reached New Guinea and settled all intervisible islands east to the Solomon Islands. Around 3,500 BP, a distinct intrusive group from Southeast Asia reached coastal New Guinea, integrated their components with indigenous resources, and gave rise to the Lapita Cultural Complex. Within 2,500 years, Lapita and its descendant cultures colonized the Pacific. To uncover the origin of the Lapita Cultural Complex, we analyzed the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) in 219 individuals from eight East Sepik Province villages: two villages in each of four environmental zones. Same-zone villages spoke different languages: one Austronesian and three Papuan (Arapesh, Abelam, and Boiken). Our analysis examined whether language or geography better predicted gene flow. In general, language better predicted genetic affinities. Boiken villages across all four zones showed no significant genetic difference (F(ST) P value > 0.05). In contrast, the Austronesian village was significantly different to most other villages (P 0.05). We interpret the data to reflect limited gene flow inland by Austronesians overshadowed by a regional displacement by inland Boiken speakers migrating seaward. These results are consistent with oral histories and ethnographic accounts.
Stevens, Calvin H.; Magginetti, Robert T.; Stone, Paul
The newly named Upland Valley Limestone represents a carbonate complex that developed on and adjacent to a tectonically active island in east-central California during a brief interval of Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. This lithologically unique, relatively thin limestone unit lies within a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic rocks and is characterized by its high concentration of crinoidal debris, pronounced lateral changes in thickness and lithofacies, and a largely endemic fusulinid fauna. Most outcrops represent a carbonate platform and debris derived from it and shed downslope, but another group of outcrops represents one or possibly more isolated carbonate buildups that developed offshore from the platform. Tectonic activity in the area occurred before, probably during, and after deposition of this short-lived carbonate complex.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and
Basiita, Rose Komugisha; Zenger, Kyall Richard; Jerry, Dean Robert
Abstract The complex geological history of East Africa has been a driving factor in the rapid evolution of teleost biodiversity. While there is some understanding of how macroevolutionary drivers have shaped teleost speciation in East Africa, there is a paucity of research into how the same biogeographical factors have affected microevolutionary processes within lakes and rivers. To address this deficiency, population genetic diversity, demography, and structure were investigated in a widely ...
Full Text Available The Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC of East Antarctica has been regarded as a collage of Neoarchean (ca. 2.5 Ga, Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga, and Neoproterozoic (ca. 1.0 Ga magmatic arcs which were amalgamated through the latest Neoproterozoic collisional events during the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent. Here, we report new geochronological data on detrital zircons in metasediments associated with the magmatic rocks from the LHC, and compare the age spectra with those in the adjacent terranes for evaluating the tectonic correlation of East Antarctica and Sri Lanka. Cores of detrital zircon grains with high Th/U ratio in eight metasediment samples can be subdivided into two dominant groups: (1 late Meso- to Neoproterozoic (1.1–0.63 Ga zircons from the northeastern part of the LHC in Prince Olav Coast and northern Sôya Coast areas, and (2 dominantly Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic (2.8–2.4 Ga zircons from the southwestern part of the LHC in southern Lützow-Holm Bay area. The ca. 1.0 Ga and ca. 2.5 Ga magmatic suites in the LHC could be proximal provenances of the detrital zircons in the northeastern and southwestern LHC, respectively. Subordinate middle to late Mesoproterozoic (1.3–1.2 Ga detrital zircons obtained from Akarui Point and Langhovde could have been derived from adjacent Gondwana fragments (e.g., Rayner Complex, Eastern Ghats Belt. Meso- to Neoproterozoic domains such as Vijayan and Wanni Complexes of Sri Lanka, the southern Madurai Block of southern India, and the central-western Madagascar could be alternative distal sources of the late Meso- to Neoproterozoic zircons. Paleo- to Mesoarchean domains in India, Africa, and Antarctica might also be distal sources for the minor ∼2.8 Ga detrital zircons from Skallevikshalsen. The detrital zircons from the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka show similar Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.5 Ga and Neoproterozoic (ca. 1.0 Ga ages, which are comparable with those of the LHC
Cipriana Dos Santos Guterres
Full Text Available Vatuvou beach, located in the Village Vatuvou, Liquica District of East Timor, has the potential to be developed into a tourist attraction, but until now its potential has not fully developed yet. The aim of this study is to determine the potential of Vatuvou Beach, to know how the local community have been involved to develop Vatuvou beach, to formulate the most effective strategies to develop it has a community based tourist attraction. The results of this study indicated that Vatuvou coastal region could be used as a tourist attraction in the District of Liquisa, because it has the existing potential such as beach panorama with sunset, black sandy beaches and under–sea wealth, availability of facilities and infrastructure to support tourism, such as water, electricity, road, telecommunication, public toilets, parking, and accommodation (but still limited. Socio-cultural potential as hospitality of the people in the village of Vatuvou, traditional activities, such as handcrafted, and rituals performed by people in the village of Vatuvou. In addition, the strategic location of the Vatuvou beach easily leads to some nearby tourist attraction, such as lake Maubara, Maubara Fort, historical buildings of Portuguese’s heritage, and souvenir center. The involvement of community participation in the coastal development of Vatuvou has been through the initial proceses, namely planning stage, development and evaluation of activities that have been implemented. Through the description, it can be concluded that the strategy of tourism development of Vatuvou beach can be made by the following procedures (1 Increasing the quality and quantity of human resources in tourism, (2 Inviting foreign or local investors to the potential of the existing tourism sectors, (3 Developing the potential of cultural as tourist attractions, and (4 Improving tourism facilities and infrastructure to support tourism activities in Vatuvou coastal areas.
A structural model is developed for part of the Timor Sea region, northwest Australia, involving multiple strike-slip episodes, and significant changes in the regional or local stress regimes. It is interpreted that both normal and reverse faults have existed since at least the Permian, and have changed their sense of movement in response to changing stress fields, with latest changes occurring as a result of Tertiary collision of the Australian and Eurasian Plates. Both 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets are used to demonstrate development of conventional simple strike-slip models into complex multi-episode models incorporating through-going and abandoned faults. After only three episodes of fault movement, one of which involves inversion, the fault linkages and structural history can become very difficult to unravel. The Jabiru Oil Field is shown to have developed at the intersection of orthogonal faults, with resultant restraining fault bend geometry. Failure to identify a large part of the field for several years after discovery may be attributed to misinterpretation of reversal of fault throw with depth (resulting from inversion), and to lack of appreciation of the significance of abandoned faults. Factors including fault abandonment, fault dips steepening with depth (including sideways concave faults), fault inversion, and trap seal development on inverted and abandoned faults may have a significant influence on the way petroleum traps are mapped and the trapping capacity of seals.
A structural model is developed for part of the Timor Sea region, northwest Australia, involving multiple strike-slip episodes, and significant changes in the regional or local stress regimes. It is interpreted that both normal and reverse faults have existed since at least the Permian, and have changed their sense of movement in response to changing stress fields, with latest changes occurring as a result of Tertiary collision of the Australian and Eurasian Plates. Both 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets are used to demonstrate development of conventional simple strike-slip models into complex multi-episode models incorporating through-going and abandoned faults. After only three episodes of fault movement, one of which involves inversion, the fault linkages and structural history can become very difficult to unravel. The Jabiru Oil Field is shown to have developed at the intersection of orthogonal faults, with resultant restraining fault bend geometry. Failure to identify a large part of the field for several years after discovery may be attributed to misinterpretation of reversal of fault throw with depth (resulting from inversion), and to lack of appreciation of the significance of abandoned faults. Factors including fault abandonment, fault dips steepening with depth (including sideways concave faults), fault inversion, and trap seal development on inverted and abandoned faults may have a significant influence on the way petroleum traps are mapped and the trapping capacity of seals.
Lover, Andrew A; Sutton, Brett A; Asy, Angelina J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies
space for all family members if distributed nets do not remain within the household. Emphasizing that net usage is acceptable and important for all family members regardless of age or gender, and addressing the complex behavioural economics of alternative net usages could have significant impacts on malaria control efforts in Timor-Leste, as the country's programmes make progress towards universal net coverage.
significantly decrease availability of nighttime sleeping space for all family members if distributed nets do not remain within the household. Conclusions Emphasizing that net usage is acceptable and important for all family members regardless of age or gender, and addressing the complex behavioural economics of alternative net usages could have significant impacts on malaria control efforts in Timor-Leste, as the country's programmes make progress towards universal net coverage.
Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, Francisco; de Deus de Jesus Lima, Abilio; da Silva, Augusto; Beloff, Anna-Maija; McClean, Alex
Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its nation-building efforts as well as an overview of the state of knowledge of disaster risk reduction including climate change adaptation. It also offers an analysis of significant gaps and challenges in terms of vertical and horizontal governance, large donor presence, data availability and the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation for nation-building in Timor-Leste. Relevant and applicable lessons are provided from other small island developing states to assist Timor-Leste in identifying its own trajectory out of underdevelopment while it builds on existing strengths. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Marr, Ian; Sarmento, Nevio; O'Brien, Matt; Lee, Karl; Gusmao, Celia; de Castro, Gloria; Janson, Sonja; Tong, Steven Y C; Baird, Rob W; Francis, Joshua R
High rates of antimicrobial resistance are seen throughout Southeast Asia. Limited antimicrobial resistance data exists for Timor-Leste, which is situated on the south-eastern portion of the Malay Archipelago. The purpose of this study was to identify antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from urine and skin swabs from patients in Dili, Timor-Leste. Urine and skin swabs were collected from symptomatic patients and processed for bacterial culture in Timor-Leste. Isolates were processed in Australia using VITEK ® 2 (bioMerieux, France) for bacterial identification and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility according to CLSI standards. A total of 154 urine isolates and 57 skin isolates were analysed. Of the Enterobacteriaceae, 35% were resistant to ceftriaxone with an extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing phenotype. Carbapenem resistance was not found in any of the Gram-negative isolates. Of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 11% were of the community-acquired methicillin resistant S. aureus phenotype. A moderately high proportion of Gram negative urine isolates in Timor-Leste demonstrate phenotypic extended spectrum beta-lactamase production; and a relatively low proportion of S. aureus isolates are methicillin-resistant. Improved understanding of antimicrobial resistance rates in Timor-Leste can help guide antimicrobial prescribing and inform antimicrobial stewardship strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schmied, Josef; Nkemleke, Daniel
This contribution discusses problems of students' academic writing in Africa. It sketches the wide field of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and argues that reference, coherence and complexity are key concepts for evaluating student writing at university level. It uses material from African corpora to substantiate this claim and to illustrate…
Ketut Ginantra, I.; Bagus Made Suaskara, Ida; Ketut Muksin, I.
This study was conducted to determine the selection of forages plants by Timor deer (Cervus timorensis) on Menjangan Island and its relation to the availability, chemical and physical properties of feed plants. The study was conducted in July-September 2016 in savanna and monsoon forest habitats. The availability of habitat feed plants in the habitat was determined by the quadrat method, and the species of plant eaten by Timor deer was determined through the microhistological analysis of the fecal sample. The food selection index is determine by the Ivlev index. Energy contents of forages plants by bomb calorimeter apparatus, crude protein analyzed by Semi-Micro Kjeldahl technique, NDF, ADF and lignin levels refer to the method of Goering and Van Soest. Mineral content of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Determination of tannin content with Folin Denish reaction. Physical properties determine are water regain capacity and water solubility. The relationship between availability with the utilization of plants by Timor deer was analyzed with the similarity index. Multiple regression statistic to test the relationship between index selection with nutritional value factor and physical characteristic of plant species. The result showed that Timor deer selected 32 plants species of graminoids, forbs and woody plants. Feeding selection of Timor deer is strongly influenced by the availability of forage plants in habitat. The feeding selection was significantly influenced by three predictor variables i.e. positive nutritional value is crude protein and negative nutritional value were lignin and tannins. Selection of forage plant Timor deer is positively correlated with the physical properties of feed plants.
Parker, F.; Mahura, A.; Compton, K.; Brown, K.; Takano, M.; Novikov, V.; Soerensen, J. H.; Baklanov, A.
An ''Assessment of the Impact of Russian Nuclear Fleet Operations on Far Eastern Coastal Regions'' is being performed as part of the Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Project (RAD) of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) of Laxenburg, Austria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive unclassified analysis of the potential impact of accidents at the Russian Far East nuclear submarine sites near Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk. We have defined the situation there based upon available information and studies commissioned by RAD in collaboration with Russian research institutes including Russian Research Center-''Kurchatov Institute'', Institute of Northern Environmental Problems and Lazurit Central Design Bureau. Further, in our original work, some in collaboration with the staff of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and members of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, we have calculated the nuclide trajectories from these sites in the atmospheric boundary layer, less than 1.5 kilometers high, and determined their probability of crossing any of the nearby countries as well as Asiatic Russia. We have further determined the concentrations in each of these crossings as well as the total, dry and wet depositions of nuclides on these areas. Finally, we have calculated the doses to the Japanese Island population from typical winter airflow patterns (those most likely to cross the Islands in the minimum times), strong north winds, weak north winds and cyclonic winds for conditions similar to the Chazhma Bay criticality accident (fresh fuel) and for a criticality accident for the same type of reactor with fuel being withdrawn (spent fuel). The maximum individual committed dosages were less than 2 x 10-7 and 2 x 10-3 mSv, respectively. The long-term external doses by radionuclides deposited on the ground and the internal doses by consumption of foods were not evaluated as it is
Full Text Available This paper brings a comprehensive analysis of the peacebuilding process conducted by the UN in Timor-Leste. Drawing on fieldwork, interviews, and secondary sources, the paper brings light to the main fragilities of this process. Firstly, the paper briefly outlines the scholarly debate around UN peacebuilding process. Then, the paper brings an overview of the UN missions deployed to Timor-Leste. Finally, the paper identifies the major limitations of such engagement. By highlighting the main flaws of this peacebuilding process, the paper opens the space for (rethinking alternative ways of building peace in post-conflict scenarios.
Wilmientje Marlene Mesang Nalley
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine the fertility of timor deer (Rusa timorensis frozensemen by artificial insemination (AI with intracervical technique after estrus synchronization withControlled Internal Drug Release, for Goat (CIDR-G®. Six adult, healthy, and cycling hinds aged 3 to 4years were used in this experiment. The percentage of estrus hind, onset and duration of estrus wereobserved. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted using ultrasound scanner (USG at day 120 afterinsemination. The response of estrus was 82.22 %, the onset of estrus was 25.33 hours after CIDR®withdrawal with the length of estrus was 28 hours. The pregnancy rate at first AI trial under sedation was16.7% (1/6, at second and third without sedation was 60% (3/5 and 100% (2/2 respectively. The durationof pregnancy was 248 to 285 days; with the average calving rate was 50%. The result concludes thatinsemination in hind without sedation was better than with sedation.
Full Text Available The continuity of Indonesian transborder fishing activities into Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ highlights the rooted dispute of maritime border when contested space of boundary shared by local, state and international actor is confronted. Therefore, the prevailing of multilayer perspective of maritime boundary should not be easily neglected. The colonial project in early 19th century in Southeast Asia that initiated the foundation of modern state-formation had challenged the prior-political and economic construction of the region, specifically on the issue of territoriality. The modernization of shipping and fishing activities of which relied on technology and capitals had generated political and economic competitions and later persuaded state’s actors of applying the strategy of the territorialisation of the sea in order to ensure control. Unavoidably, securitization of transborder fishing became preferable solution. Transborder fishings are further subjected into state control relied on territorial sovereignty. This paper examines the transformation of transborder fishing in Timor and Arafura Sea to demonstrated the contested space of which interplayed by local, state and international actor. State regulations had transformed transborder fishing into political space of authority competition relied on territorial sovereignty, while socio-cultural heritage reminds exploited within fluid space of livelihood survival when state function is just absent.
Yong, Rita Y Y; Mustaffa, Su'Aidah B; Wasan, Pavandip S; Sheng, Liang; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Teo, Yik-Ying; Yap, Eric P H
The human amylase gene locus at chromosome 1p21.1 is structurally complex. This region contains two pancreatic amylase genes, AMY2B, AMY2A, and a salivary gene AMY1. The AMY1 gene harbors extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent studies have implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets and in association to obesity for European and Asian populations. In this study, we showed that by combining quantitative PCR and digital PCR, coupled with careful experimental design and calibration, we can improve the resolution of genotyping CNV with high copy numbers (CNs). In two East Asian populations of Chinese and Malay ethnicity studied, we observed a unique non-normal distribution of AMY1 diploid CN genotypes with even:odd CNs ratio of 4.5 (3.3-4.7), and an association between the common AMY2A CN = 2 genotype and odd CNs of AMY1, that could be explained by the underlying haplotypic structure. In two further case-control cohorts (n = 932 and 145, for Chinese and Malays, respectively), we did not observe the previously reported association between AMY1 and obesity or body mass index. Improved methods for accurately genotyping multiallelic CNV loci and understanding the haplotype complexity at the AMY1 locus are necessary for population genetics and association studies. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
Sudad H. Al-Obaidi
Full Text Available Practical value of this work consists in increasing the efficiency of exploration for oil and gas fields in Eastern Baghdad by optimizing and reducing the complex of well logging coring sampling and well testing of the formation beds and computerizing the data of interpretation to ensure the required accuracy and reliability of the determination of petrophysical parameters that will clarify and increase proven reserves of hydrocarbon fields in Eastern Baghdad. In order to calculate the most accurate water saturation values for each interval of Zubair formation a specific modified form of Archie equation corresponding to this formation was developed.
Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Holm, Paul Martin; Tappe, Sebatstian
Syenite and includes early tholeiitic gabbros and a series of cross-cutting alkaline intrusions ranging from monzonite to alkali granite. The alkaline intrusions cut the gabbros, and are cut by the outer nordmarkite zone of the Kangerlussuaq Syenite. This study presents the first U–Pb zircon ages from...... the alkaline units of the Kærven Complex. Fourteen multi-grain zircon fractions have been analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Absolute age differences could not be resolved between the different units, suggesting a relatively rapid succession of intrusions between c. 53.5 and 53.3 Ma. Our...
Full Text Available The arums comprise the family of Araceae, including the numerous aroids subfamily, monocotyledonous flowering plants, in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix. The diversity of terrestrial Araceae in Sulawesi is very poorly documented and understood and remains critically threatened. The aims of this study were to understand the diversity of terrestrial Araceae on Mount Watuwila Complex and to add the number specimen collection in Herbarium Bogoriense. The exploration was conducted by used exploring method, including collection, identification and description. The exploration on Mount Watuwila Complex (170–800 m alt., May 7–29, 2008 was got 22 number collections of Araceae, consist of 12 numbers of terrestrial Araceae, 10 species, those are Aglaonema simplex Bl., Alocasia macrorrhizos (L. G. Don, Alocasia suhirmaniana Yuzammi & A. Hay, Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott, Homalomena spp. (3 species, Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb. Zoll. & Moritzi, S. plurivenia Alderw and Spathiphyllum commutatum Schott. Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb. Zoll. & Moritzi is dominant species and Alocasia suhirmaniana Yuzammi & A. Hay is endemic species. The descriptions of each species were made.
Zegers, T.E.; Nelson, D.R.; Wijbrans, J.R.; White, S.H.
Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb dating of zircons from granitic rocks in the East Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrain has provided time constraints for main tectonic events in the Shaw Granitoid Complex and has shown that deformation was intricately related to granitoid
Haig, David W.; Bandini, Alexandre Nicolas
Thin-bedded siliceous argillite forming a large block within a structural melange zone at Viqueque, Timor Leste, has yielded a Middle Jurassic (late Bathonian-early Callovian) radiolarian assemblage belonging to Unitary Association Zone 7. Fifty-five species are recognized and illustrated, forming the most diverse radiolarian fauna yet documented from the Jurassic of Timor. The fauna shows little similarity in species content to the few other assemblages previously listed from the Middle or Late Jurassic of Timor, and also has few species in common with faunas known elsewhere in the region from Rotti, Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Sula. Based on lithofacies similarities and age, the siliceous argillite succession in the melange block at Viqueque is included in the Noni Group originally described as the lower part of the Palelo Series in West Timor. In terms of lithofacies, the Noni Group is distinct from other stratigraphic units known in Timor. It may be associated with volcanic rocks but age relationships are uncertain, although some of the radiolarian cherts in the Noni Group in West Timor have been reported to include tuffaceous sediment. The deep-water character of the siliceous hemipelagite-pelagite facies, the probable volcanic association, and an age close to that of continental breakup in the region suggest deposition in a newly rifted Indian Ocean. In Timor's tectonostratigraphic classification scheme, the Noni Group is here placed in the "Indian Ocean Megasequence".
baumannii -A. calcoaceticus Complex Isolates from Combat-Related Infections Sustained in the Middle East Acinetobacter baumannii is among the most...responses make treatment difficult. Here, we report the genome sequences of four clinical Acinetobacter baumannii - A. calcoaceticus complex isolates... Acinetobacter baumannii , A. calcoaceticus, combat-related infections REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S
Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike
Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral reef fish and benthos were surveyed at 150 shallow-water coral reef sites across the north coast of Timor-Leste and around Atauro Island in June 2013 during a...
Caffery, Jo; Coronado, Gabriela; Hodge, Bob
This article looks at multilingual, mother-tongue-based language policies influenced by colonial and postcolonial histories and globalization processes. We use multiscalar analysis to show these policies as creative responses to problems affected by national and international forces. Our study focuses on Timor-Leste, specifically a pilot…
Gabrielson, Curtis A.; Hsi, Sherry
This paper articulates and illustrates design principles that guided the development of a set of hands-on teaching activities for the national science and mathematics curricula at junior-high and high-school level education in Timor-Leste, a small, low-income nation in Southeast Asia. A partnership between a university, an international science…
Shah, Ritesh; Quinn, Marie
Increasingly, the imperative for improving educational quality in schooling systems throughout the developing world is harnessed to a particular set of teaching and learning practices, such as child-centred, child-friendly or learner-centred pedagogy (LCP). Such was the case in Timor-Leste where, after independence, LCP was heavily promoted as a…
This article presents an overview of language-in-education policy development between 1999 and 2010 in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. In the decade since independence language-in-education policy in this newly independent country has been dominated by debates about the medium of instruction. Over time, policy has shifted from an…
Colin R. Trainor
Full Text Available The Wallacean island of Timor is of particular biological interest due to its relatively large size and transitional location between the Indo-Malayan and Australasian biogeographic realms. However, the origins and levels of endemism of its invertebrate fauna are poorly known. A recent study of Timorese ants revealed a diverse fauna with predominantly Indo-Malayan affinities, but species-level taxonomy was considered to be too poorly understood for an analysis of levels of endemism. The highly diverse Old World tropical genus Polyrhachis represents a notable exception, and here we analyse levels of endemism in the Polyrhachis fauna of Timor and surrounding islands. We supplement the species listed in the previous study with additional collections to record a total of 35 species of Polyrhachis from Timor and surrounding islands. Only 14 (40% of the 35 species could be named (P. constricta, P. costulata, P. gab, P. sokolova, P. hera, P. illaudata, P. rixosa, P. acantha chrysophanes, P. saevissima, P. bicolor, P. cryptoceroides, P. dives, P. longipes and P. olybria, and the large majority of the remaining species have not previously been collected. These are very likely to be endemic to Timor and surrounding islands, and point to remarkably high levels (>50% of endemism in the regional ant fauna.
Bulu, Petrus Malo; Robertson, Ian D; Geong, Maria
In early 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus caused major outbreaks of disease in poultry in Indonesia. The disease was first reported in West Timor in eastern Indonesia in the same year, resulting in the death of approximately one hundred chickens from both commercial and backyard farms; however no evidence of disease has subsequently been reported in West Timor since 2007. A targeted survey was undertaken in 2013 in 2 districts of West Timor. Three hundred village and commercial poultry (292 chickens and 8 Muscovy ducks) from 10 villages and 5 live bird markets (LBMs) were sampled between August and October 2013. Swabs of the cloaca and trachea of the sampled birds were tested using the Anigen ® Rapid Test (Bionote). All samples were negative on testing (0%; 95%CI: 0.0-1.2%). From these results it was concluded with a high level of confidence (100%, 95%CI: 99.988, 100) that this population is not infected, and these results, along with a lack of clinical evidence of disease, support the conclusion that West Timor was free from HPAI infection at the time of the survey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Asante, Augustine D; Martins, Nelson; Otim, Michael E; Dewdney, John
Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country's health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doctors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste's medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government's goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.
Taylor-Leech, Kerry Jane
This article aims to show how language choice indexes social and national identity in the linguistic landscape of Dili, the capital city of Timor-Leste. The linguistic landscape is examined in the light of the country's current language situation, its colonial legacies and its ongoing development challenges. In this study, the iconicity,…
Tate, Garrett W.; McQuarrie, Nadine; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Bakker, Richard R.; Harris, Ron; Jiang, Haishui
Models of arc-continent accretion often assume that the period of subduction of continental lithosphere before plate boundary reorganization is fairly short lived, yet the timescale of this period is poorly constrained by observations in the geologic record. The island of Timor is the uplifted
Shah, R.; Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.
Applying the Strategic Relational Approach, this paper analyses the circumstances behind and educators’ strategies in response to education reforms in two nation-states undergoing socio-political transformation – Bolivia and Timor-Leste. Despite the starkly different histories and contemporary
Shah, Ritesh; Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.
Applying the Strategic Relational Approach, this paper analyses the circumstances behind and educators' strategies in response to education reforms in two nation-states undergoing socio-political transformation--Bolivia and Timor-Leste. Despite the starkly different histories and contemporary context of each nation, we suggest that transformation…
Çiftçi, N. Bozkurt; Langhi, Laurent
In cross-section, an hourglass structure can be visualized as an older horst block and superimposed, younger graben. Bounding faults of the horst and graben blocks represent separate conjugate fault systems formed by two distinct episodes of extension in the Timor Sea during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (1st-phase) and Middle Miocene - Pliocene (2nd-phase); with an ∼120 My hiatus of limited or no fault activity in-between. Horst blocks were formed by the 1st-phase of extension and buried post-deformation. With the onset of the 2nd-phase of extension, the hourglass geometry began to form by nucleation of the graben-bounding faults in the shallow sedimentary section, in isolation from the horst-bounding faults. Location of the graben is biased by the buried horst block and graben-bounding faults grew down-dip from the shallow locus of nucleation toward the underlying horst block on which only minor reactivation occurred. Detachment of the two systems in this way was predominantly controlled by the first-order mechanical layering. A thick, shale-rich, ductile layer separates the horst- and graben-bounding fault systems and acts as a barrier to vertical fault propagation. Confinement of the graben-bounding faults into the shallow section was also facilitated by outer-arc style extension due to lithospheric flexure controlling the 2nd-phase strain in the region. The complex evolution history and the composite nature of the hourglass structures resulted in systematic along-dip variation of displacement. This variation predominantly relates to syn-kinematic deposition and location of fault tips that are controlled by the ductile layer. The presented evolution model of the hourglass structures concentrates fault tips and related stress perturbation onto the top seal and is likely to be detrimental to top-seal integrity.
Dinku, T.; Ceccato, P.; Grover-Kopec, E.; Connor, S. J.; Ropelewski, C. F.
A relatively dense station network of about 140 stations over the highlands of Ethiopia is used to perform an extensive validation and inter-comparison of different semi-operational satellite rainfall products. The validation region is located over 5oN to 13oN, and 35oE to 40oE. It has a very complex topography with alternating valleys and mountain ranges that varies between a point at below sea level and a highest peak of about 4620 meters. The gauge data are obtained from the National Meteorological Services Agency of Ethiopia. The data used in the current research covers the period 1990 to 2004. Though the gage data has already gone through routine quality control by NMSA, it has been subjected to further quality control. The validation and inter-comparison exercise is performed for three groups of products. The first group has low spatial (2.5o) and temporal (monthly) resolutions. These include Global Precipitation Climatology (GPCP) estimates, NOAA-CPC (Climate Prediction Center) Merged Analysis (CMAP), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) combined "TRMM and Other Sources" product (3B43). The later product has higher spatial resolution (0.25o), but has been remapped to 2.5o in order to compare it with the other products. The second group consists of products with high spatial (0.1o to 1o) and temporal (three-hourly to daily) resolutions. These products include NOAA-CPC African Rainfall Estimation Algorithm (CPC-RFE), GPCP One- Degree-Daily, and TRMM combined "TRMM and Other Satellites" product (3B42). These products are aggregated to a common one-degree and 10-daily total for comparison. The 10-day aggregation period is selected because it is the aggregation used in many operational early warning activities. The third category consists of a relatively new product (available starting from December 2002) from NOAA-CPC named CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH). CMORPH is available at three-hourly temporal resolution and 0.25o spatial resolution, and it
Technical Report Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Methods on Munitions Response Sites - East Fork Valley...AECOM Distribution Statement A FINAL REPORT Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Methods on Munitions Response Sites East...NUMBER (Include area code) 12-06-2013 Final Report May - November 2014 Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Methods on Munitions
Alice Ximenis Naben
Full Text Available Background : Pulmonary Tuberculosis disease is a disease that can infect directly that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can be transmitted from patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis through spray of sputum mediated by the air. In the year 2010, the District of Northern Central Timor was ranked as the five for East Nusa Tenggara Province and had ethnic houses that if were viewed from healthy house requirements were very far from fulfilling the requirements. The purpose of this study is to view the habit of living in Timorese ethnic houses as a risk factor for tuberculosis. Methods : The type of study is observational with case control approach. There were 100 samples that consisted of 50 cases and 50 controls that were collected at random. Data from study results were then analysed in univariate and bivariate analyses using chi square statistic with conditional method. Results : of analyses on 8 variables, there were 6 variables that had significant associations i.e. the habit of living in Timorese ethnic house (OR= 3,8; 95%CI= 1,6 - 8,7, area of ventilation (OR= 6,2; 95%CI = 2,5 - 15,7, cross ventilation (OR= 4,2; 95%CI =1,8 - 9,7, the type of wall of the house (OR= 4,7; 95%CI =1,9 - 11,4, the type of floor of the house (OR= 3,7; 95%CI The results of multivariate analyses showed that there were 1 variables that were dominant in causing pulmonary tuberculosis i.e. crowdedness of home (OR= 9,2; 95%CI= 3,5 - 24,5. Conclusion : that there is a relationship between the habit of living in Timorese ethnic houses, area of ventilation, the presence of cross ventilation, the type of wall of the house, the type of floor of the house and the crowdedness of home with the occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis. Keywords : Habit of living, pulmonary tuberculosis, physical environment of home, preventive practice.
widely in Australia and internationally in fields as diverse as homelessness , aged care, disability, corrections, mental health , family support... Australia during the deployment. Participants reported that the deployment impacted on childrens’ and adolescents’ wellbeing and mental health and these... health issues, wellbeing declined in the majority of situations for the partner in Australia . Wellbeing issues ranged from overwhelming sadness
Citizens of a democracy have the responsibility to free themselves from the prevailing system of propaganda and ideology that the United States uses when intervening in developing nations. The U.S. government's propaganda system determines the "legitimate" questions to be discussed and the national press often fails to consider more than…
Full Text Available Thirty nine isolates of microorganisms were isolated from the nira (palm sap from inflorescence stalk of Corypha utan Lamk. or Borassus flabellifer L., laru (fermented palm sap and their ability to produce amylase has been done. The result of screening showed that eight isolates were positive in the starch iodine test, but their amylolitic activities relatively lower. The amylolitic activities show that laru is not potential source of microbial amylases. In liquid media containing 2% soluble starch, three isolates of fungi (LG4, LMS1, and MI-1 produce amylase and reached a maximum activity at 3 days fermentation, with levels 56.31x102 , 46.78x102 and 41.49x102 U/mL (one unit activity is define as micromoles of glucose produce per mL per minute. Two yeast isolates which isolated from laru or kayu laru were showed their ability to ferment the gula aer and produce ethanol, CO2 and some organic acids, it were identified as Pichia anomala. The other bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus licheniformis BL43, Chromobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp., Micrococcus roseus (Staphylococcus roseus, and Bacillus coagulans, its show the lower amylase activities.
powers control international decision-making. This realist view, outlined by Robert Gilpin in War and Change in World Politics, states that, “In every...force. 2 Robert Gilpin , War and Change in World Politics (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge...and prosperity. Power represents the potential of a state; the capabilities it has or is likely to acquire in the future. Gilpin believes that
Makoni, Sinfree Bullock; Severo, Cristine
A vast amount of literature addresses issues surrounding English and French in colonial and post-colonial communities. However, relative to the spread of English and French language ideology, a limited amount of literature exists on Lusitanization (i.e. the spread of Portuguese colonial ideology by Portugal during colonialism and the role of…
helicop- ters quickly moved personnel and supplies, bypass- ing potential threats on the ground and saving valu- able time—particularly when compared to...matters, tourism , trans- portation, telecommunications, education, health and the environment. Article 51 In the performance of its duties, the Police...agreements and engage in cultural, economic, trade, environmen- tal, transportation, scientific, technical, tourism , and sports activities with
Full Text Available Introduction The Jebale-Barez Plutonic Complex (JBPC is composed of many intrusive bodies and is located in the southeastern province of Kerman on the longitude of the 57◦ 45 ' east to 58◦ 00' and Northern latitudes 28◦ 30' to 29◦ 00'. The petrologic composition is composed of granodiorite, quartzdiorite, granite, alkali-granite, and trace amounts of tonalite with dominant granodiorite composition. Previously, the JBPC was separated into three plutonic phases by Ghorbani (2014. The first plutonic phase is the main body of the complex with composition of quartz-diorite to granodiorite. After differentiation of magma in the magmatic chamber, the porphyritic and not fully consolidated magmas have intruded into the main body. Their compositions were dominantly granodiorite and granite that are defined as the second plutonic phase. Finally, the last phase was started by an intrusion of the holo- leucogranite into the previous bodies. This plutonic activity was pursued by the minor Quaternary basaltic volcanism that shows metamorphic haloes in the contacts. They are dominantly porphyric leucogranites. However, some bodies show dendritic texture that may imply the existence of silicic fluids in the latest crystallization stages. Materials and methods In this article different analysis methods were used. For example, we used a total of two hundred samples of the various granitoids that were selected for common thin section study. Forty four representative samples from the different granitic rocks were selected for whole rock chemical analyses. The analyses of both major and trace elements were performed at the Department of Earth Sciences, the University of Perugia, Italy. The analysis for all major elements was carried out by an X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF using a tube completed with a Rn and W anode under conditions with acceleration voltage of 40-45 kV and electric current ranging from I=30-35 mA. After calcination of powdered
Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)
We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.
Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.
Spies, R B; Mukhtasor, M; Burns, K A
A well on the Montara platform on the Australian continental shelf blew out in August 2009 and spilled oil into the Timor Sea for 74 days. The oil, estimated at as much as 23.5 million L in total volume, spread over a large area of the shelf and eventually into Indonesian waters. This paper documents, through published literature, reports of both Australian and Indonesian governments and observations of coastal residents and fishermen the spread of the oil and attempts to estimate its impact. The lack of observers on the ocean and baseline, pre-spill data on populations of marine organisms, and delays in deploying scientific surveys after the spill severely limited efforts by the Australian government to determine damage in its territorial waters. Biological survey work was not done in Indonesian waters, but coastal residents attested to relatively severe impacts to algal farms. In addition fish landings declined in one port in southwest Timor Island.
Galdino, Carolina Ferreira [UNESP
A República Democrática do Timor Leste é um pequeno país de colonização portuguesa localizado na Ilha Timor, no Sudeste Asiático. Conquistou sua independência em 1975, mas foi invadido em seguida pela Indonésia e permaneceu sob ocupação durante 24 anos, o que jamais foi aprovado pela ONU. Atribui-se ao apoio ilimitado dos EUA, cujo objetivo alegado era conter o avanço do comunismo na região, a longevidade do domínio indonésio. Respondendo ao novo cenário internacional representado pela dissol...
Clement Nyamunura Mweya
Full Text Available Background: The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. Methods: Diverse ecological niche modelling techniques have been developed for this purpose: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Results: Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Conclusion: Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.
Mweya, Clement Nyamunura; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Kija, John Bukombe; Mboera, Leonard E G
The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. DIVERSE ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELLING TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THIS PURPOSE: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent) approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex) responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.
Peixoto Alexandre A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae has long been known as a vector of human and simian malaria parasites in southern and south-eastern Brazil. Previous studies have provided evidence that An. cruzii is a species complex, but the status of the different populations and the number of sibling species remains unclear. A recent analysis of the genetic differentiation of the timeless gene among An. cruzii populations from south and south-east Brazil has suggested that the population from Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro State (south-east Brazil, is in a process of incipient speciation. Methods A ~180 bp fragment of cpr, a gene encoding the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, an enzyme involved in metabolic insecticide resistance and odorant clearance in insects, was used in this study as a molecular marker to analyse the divergence between five An. cruzii populations from south and south-east Brazil. Results Analysis of the genetic differentiation in the cpr gene revealed very high FST values and fixed differences between Itatiaia and the other four populations studied (Florianópolis, Cananéia, Juquitiba and Santa Teresa. In addition, the data also provided preliminary evidence that seems to indicate the occurrence of two sympatric sibling species in Itatiaia. Conclusions Population genetics analysis of An. cruzii samples from different localities using a fragment of the cpr gene suggests that the Itatiaia sample represents at least one new sibling species in this complex.
Rona, Luísa D P; Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos J; Peixoto, Alexandre A
Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae) has long been known as a vector of human and simian malaria parasites in southern and south-eastern Brazil. Previous studies have provided evidence that An. cruzii is a species complex, but the status of the different populations and the number of sibling species remains unclear. A recent analysis of the genetic differentiation of the timeless gene among An. cruzii populations from south and south-east Brazil has suggested that the population from Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro State (south-east Brazil), is in a process of incipient speciation. A ~180 bp fragment of cpr, a gene encoding the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, an enzyme involved in metabolic insecticide resistance and odorant clearance in insects, was used in this study as a molecular marker to analyse the divergence between five An. cruzii populations from south and south-east Brazil. Analysis of the genetic differentiation in the cpr gene revealed very high FST values and fixed differences between Itatiaia and the other four populations studied (Florianópolis, Cananéia, Juquitiba and Santa Teresa). In addition, the data also provided preliminary evidence that seems to indicate the occurrence of two sympatric sibling species in Itatiaia. Population genetics analysis of An. cruzii samples from different localities using a fragment of the cpr gene suggests that the Itatiaia sample represents at least one new sibling species in this complex.
Prosedur perekrutan yang dilaksanakan di Departemen Kehakiman Timor-Leste saat ini masih menggunakan proses manual, sehingga sering terjadi ketidaknyamanan karyawan baru terhadap beban kerja dan job diskripsi yang diterima karena tidak sesuai dengan keahlian mereka. Hal ini mengakibatkan kinerja karyawan tersebut menjadi tidak efisien dan efektif. Sehingga dibutuhkan sistem yang baik dan memperhitungkan keahlian dari calon karyawan. Penggunaan metode Simple Adittive Weighting (SAW) dapat memb...
Duffy, Brendan; Quigley, Mark; Harris, Ron; Ring, Uwe
studies of synorogenic basins in Timor using field and remote sensing techniques provide new structural and geomorphic evidence for syn-collisional extension in the converging plate boundary zone between the Australian Plate and Banda Arc. Fault mapping and kinematic analysis at scales ranging from outcrop (Timor ( 100 km2) identify a predominance of NW-SE oriented dextral-normal faults and NE-SW oriented sinistral-normal faults that collectively bound large (5-20 km2) bedrock massifs throughout the island. These fault systems intersect at non-Andersonian conjugate angles of approximately 120° and accommodate an estimated 20 km of NE-directed extension across the Timor orogen based on reconstructions of fault-dismembered massifs. Major orogen-parallel ENE-oriented faults on the northern and southern sides of Timor exhibit normal-sinistral and normal-dextral kinematics, respectively. The overall pattern of deformation is one of lateral crustal extrusion sub-parallel to the Banda Arc. Stratigraphic relationships suggest that extrusion began prior to 5.5 Ma, before pronounced rapid uplift of the orogen. We link this to progressive coupling of the fore-arc to an underthrust plateau on the Australian Plate and subduction of its ocean crust. Our results enable us to track the structural evolution of the upper crust during dramatic plate-boundary reorganizations accompanying the transition from subduction to collision. The deformation structures that we document suggest that both upper and lower plate deformation during incipient island arc-continent collision was largely controlled by the geometry and topography of the lower plate.
Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike
Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field) and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only) with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only) with coastal areas. Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe body (neck, chest and scrotum circumferences and testosterone level of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer reared under captivity after establisment of the dominance hierarchy. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41 kg body weight and in same antler stages were used in this research. The bucks was grouped into three stall each containing four bucks. ELISA kit and tape measurements were used for plasma Testosterone assay and body measurement, respectively. Data was collected before and 43 days after establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was used. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed no significantly different for body circumferences (neck, chest, scrotum and testosterone level of male Timor deer before establishment of dominance hierarchy. Chest and scrotum circumferences of male Timor deer after establihment of dominance hierarchy showed no significantly different. Significantly difference shown on parameter neck circumference (P<0.05; χ2 = 8.74 and testosteron level (P<0.05; χ2 = 7.87 after establishment of dominance hierarchy. In conclusion, dominance hierarchy affected the testosterone level and body measurement.
Full Text Available In December 2005, eleven Cuban educational advisers arrived in Timor-Leste to begin work on a national literacy campaign. Adapting the program known in Latin America as Yo, Sí Puedo (Yes I Can, the Cubans trained over 400 local tutors to run classes in every part of the country, using a method they call ‘alphanumeric’, delivered via audiovisual technology. The campaign was launched in March 2007, and the first classes began in June of that year. By September 2010, three years later, over 70,000 adults, over one fifth of the total illiterate population, had successfully completed a thirteen week basic literacy course. Drawing on original research undertaken in Timor-Leste between 2004 and 2009, followed by further investigations in May 2010 in Havana, Cuba, this paper describes the Timor-Leste campaign, locating it within the historical commitment of the country’s independence movement to adult literacy, and the broader context of Cuba’s international literacy work.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Methods Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Results Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only with coastal areas. Conclusion Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management.
Cuypers, Yannis; Pous, Stephane; Sprintall, Janet; Atmadipoera, Agus; Madec, Gurvan; Molcard, Robert
The importance of deep mixing in driving the deep part of the overturning circulation has been a long debated question at the global scale. Our observations provide an illustration of this process at the Timor Basin scale of ˜1000 km. Long-term averaged moored velocity data at the Timor western sill suggest that a deep circulation is present in the Timor Basin. An inflow transport of ˜0.15 Sv is observed between 1600 m and the bottom at 1890 m. Since the basin is closed on its eastern side below 1250 m depth, a return flow must be generated above 1600 m with a ˜0.15 Sv outflow. The vertical turbulent diffusivity is inferred from a heat and transport balance at the basin scale and from Thorpe scale analysis. Basin averaged vertical diffusivity is as large as 1 × 10-3 m2 s-1. Observations are compared with regional low-resolution numerical simulations, and the deep observed circulation is only recovered when a strong vertical diffusivity resulting from the parameterization of internal tidal mixing is considered. Furthermore, the deep vertical mixing appears to be strongly dependent on the choice of the internal tide mixing parameterization and also on the prescribed value of the mixing efficiency.
Simon P.J. Batterbury
Full Text Available In Timor-Leste, customary institutions contribute to sustainable and equitable rural development and the establishment of improved access to and management of land, water and other natural resources. Drawing on multi-sited empirical research, we argue that the recognition and valorization of custom and common property management is a prerequisite for sustainable and equitable land tenure reform in Timor-Leste. In a four-community study of the relationship between land access and the practice of rural livelihoods in eastern and western districts of Timor-Leste, where customary management systems are dominant, we found different types of traditional dispute resolution, with deep roots in traditional forms of land management and with varying levels of conflict. The article shows how customary land tenure systems have already managed to create viable moral economies. Interviewees expressed a desire for the government to formalize its recognition and support for customary systems and to provide them with basic livelihood support and services. This was more important than instituting private landholding or state appropriation of community lands, which is perceived to be the focus of national draft land laws and an internationally supported project. We suggest ways in which diverse customary institutions can co-exist and work with state institutions to build collective political legitimacy in the rural hinterlands, within the context of upgrading the quality of rural life, promoting social and ecological harmony, and conflict management.
Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S
Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper applies an Islamic legal sociology approach to criticize the typology of East Java society and their views on gender equality, women's empowerment, and women's roles in mosques based on the subcultures of East Java community: Mataraman, Tapal kuda, and Arek'an. The concept of male-female equality has not been fully accepted by religious leaders. There is a power relation in the Muslim society’s high-power structure because religious leaders are still dominated by men while women are considered as subordinate and marginal groups. On the one hand, there is still a patriarchal cultural-based political configuration that affects gender discrimination. On the other hand, the Muslim community has not been completely established to protect women. Finally, the finding of this paper is that the role of mosque-based women in three sub-cultures of East Java shows different results. The subculture of Mataraman tends to be culture-based, whereas religion is considered as a supporting factor. The subculture of Tapal Kuda prefers to collaborate religious views with patriarchal cultures. Finally, the subculture of Arek'an is likely to dialogue religion with culture more inclusively. A progressive mosque that provides women's empowerment may break the chain of the gender-biased understanding and change the mindsets of patriarchal Muslim societies through dialogue, social interaction, and productive activities.
Hall, Charlotte; Sukijthamapan, P; dos Santos, R; Nourse, C; Murphy, D; Gibbons, M; Francis, J R
To evaluate the number and geographic location of children aged Timor-Leste, to determine the proportion evaluated for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and to review the programmatic challenges present in delivering IPT to this cohort. A total of 256 consecutive sputum smear-positive TB index cases diagnosed at Bairo Pite Clinic between August 2013 and July 2014 were interviewed about places of residence and household contacts Timor-Leste, and provision of IPT is suboptimal. Contacts are located in diverse and distant locations. Further studies to delineate access barriers to IPT and review programmatic models that will facilitate IPT scale up in Timor-Leste are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
du Toit, Rènée; Palagyi, Anna; Ramke, Jacqueline; Brian, Garry; Lamoureux, Ecosse L
To determine the independent, relative, and combined impact of reduced distance and near vision on the vision-specific quality of life (VS QOL) of adults in Timor-Leste. A population-based cross-sectional eye health survey was conducted in urban and rural areas in Timor-Leste. Participants were 40 years or older. Those with better eye presenting distance vision worse than 6/18, and every third participant with 6/18 or better vision, completed the VS QOL questionnaire: in total 704 of the 1414 participants. Distance and near visual acuities were measured and eye health was assessed. The VS QOL questionnaire administered by interview was analyzed using Rasch analysis, univariate analysis, and linear regression to determine associations between VS QOL, demographic factors, and levels of visual impairment. The Timor-Leste VS QOL questionnaire results. Rasch analysis confirmed that for participants both with and without visual impairment, the Timor-Leste VS QOL questionnaire provided a valid and reliable measure, was unidimensional, and had appropriate response categories. There was a consistent pattern of deterioration in VS QOL as vision worsened: for each category of distance- and near-vision impairment, there was an independent and significant change in Timor-Leste VS QOL scores between no visual impairment and either mild, moderate, or severe impairment (P Timor-Leste VS QOL scores (P < 0.05). This study provides evidence of independent dose-response relationships between distance- and near-vision impairment and poorer VS QOL. Distance-vision impairment had a relatively larger impact on VS QOL than near-vision impairment. Combined distance- and near-vision impairment was associated with a greater impact on VS QOL compared with the independent impact of distance- or near-vision impairment at similar levels. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dafiqiy Ya'lu Ulin Nuha
Full Text Available Research with self potential method has been done in Cangar area of Arjuno-Welirang volcano complex, East Java. The purpose of this study was determined the direction of hot fluid flow. This hot fluid forms a geothermal manifestation of hot springs. Data acquisition has been done using fixed electrode configuration with interval 5 meters in 5 lines. In this configuration there are two porous pot electrodes, one of them set in fixed station and the other as mobile station. Based on the potential distribution value of the isopotential map, the lowest potential value about -54,5 mV and the highest value about 89,4 mV, so that in Cangar area can predicted the direction of hot fluid flow from southeast to northwest. Based on the results of this research in the direction of hot fluid flow can provide information about hydrothermal system in Cangar area for study of geothermal potential of Arjuno-Welirang Volcano complex, East Java
Meiksin, Rebecca; Meekers, Dominique; Thompson, Susan; Hagopian, Amy; Mercer, Mary Anne
Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marital control may also limit women's reproductive control and healthcare access. Our study investigated relationships between DV and marital control and subsequent family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using logistic regression, we examined 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,951 women in Timor-Leste. We controlled for age, education, and wealth. We limited our analyses of pregnancy- and birth-related outcomes to those from the 6 months preceding the survey. Rural women with controlling husbands were less likely than other rural women to have an unmet need for family planning (Adj. OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9). Rural women who experienced DV were more likely than other rural women to have an unplanned pregnancy (Adj. OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-4.8), fewer than four antenatal visits (Adj. OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.1-4.9), or a baby born smaller than average (Adj. OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.4-6.7). DV and marital control were not associated with the tested outcomes among urban women. Given high rates of DV internationally, our findings have important implications. Preventing DV may benefit both women and future generations. Furthermore, rural women who experience DV may benefit from targeted interventions that mediate associated risks of negative family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes.
Pakasi, Trevino A; Karyadi, E; Dolmans, W M V; van der Meer, J W M; van der Velden, K
To identify nutritional and socio-demographic factors for the development of tuberculosis (TB) in Timor and Rote Island, Indonesia, so that intervention programmes can be developed to address these factors. In a case-control study, we enrolled new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients as cases, and neighbours matched for sex and age as controls. Data obtained included history of TB, socio-demographic factors and nutritional status. In the study, 121 TB patients and 371 controls participated. The mean age was 30 years: 56.3% were male and 43.7% female. Of the TB patients, 87% had malnutrition compared to 33% among controls. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (16.1 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2) vs. 19.4 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2)). Factors associated with the development of TB were BMI (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.6), family history of TB (OR 3.2, 95%CI 1.6-6.4), living in an extended family (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.5-4.8), being non-indigenous to Timor and Rote Islands (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.2-6.8) and being unemployed (OR 3.8, 95%CI 1.7-8.6). Among patients with active pulmonary TB, the prevalence of malnutrition was very high. Malnutrition, which is a general problem for the whole community and particularly among people not indigenous to Timor and Rote, should be addressed in the fight against TB.
Taft, Angela J; Powell, Rhonda L; Watson, Lyndsey F
To determine differences in reproductive health and infant and child mortality and health between abused and non-abused ever-married women in Timor-Leste. Secondary data analysis of Timor-Leste Demographic Health Survey (1,959 ever-married women aged 15-49 years). Associations with violence estimated using multinomial logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables and age of first intercourse. Overall, 45% of ever-married women experienced violence: 34% reported physical only and 11% reported combined physical, sexual and/or emotional violence. Compared to non-abused women, women reporting physical violence only were more likely to use traditional contraception (AdjOR 2.35, 95%CI 1.05-5.26) or report: a sexually transmitted infection (AdjOR 4.46, 95%CI 3.27-6.08); a pregnancy termination (AdjOR 1.42, 95%CI 1.03-1.96); a child who had died (AdjOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.05-1.60), a low birth weight infant (AdjOR 2.08, 95%CI 1.64-2.64); and partially vaccinated children (AdjOR 1.35, 95%CI 1.05-1.74). Women who reported combined abuse were more likely to report: a sexually transmitted infection (AdjOR 3.51, 95%CI 2.26-5.44); a pregnancy termination (AdjOR 1.95, 95%CI 1.27-3.01); few antenatal visits (AdjOR 1.76 95%CI 1.21-2.55); and a child who had died (AdjOR 1.45, 95%CI 1.06-2.00). Violence exposes women to poor reproductive health, infant and child mortality and poor infant and child health. Preventing and reducing violence against women should improve women and children's health outcomes in Timor-Leste. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Lee, Lucy; Ramke, Jacqueline; Blignault, Ilse; Casson, Robert J
To determine barriers to seeking eye care services in Timor-Leste in 2010, and compare this to similar analyses undertaken 5 years previously. An interview-based questionnaire used in a 2005 survey was re-administered as part of a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults selected by multistage random sampling from those aged ≥40 years in Timor-Leste in 2010. The participation rate for the 2010 survey was 89.5% (n = 2014). The sex-age-domicile-adjusted prevalence of a history of at least one previous or current ophthalmic problem in the population aged ≥40 years was 92.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.4-93.7%). Of these, 75.4% (95% CI 73.4-77.3%) had not consulted a care provider. In multivariate analysis, rural domicile, illiteracy and subsistence farming were associated with having not sought care for an eye problem. The most frequently cited reasons were "service too far away" (36.3%), "no time/other priorities" (21.7%) and "unaware of eye care service" (20.7%). More people reported a history of an eye problem in 2010 than in 2005, but the proportion seeking care was no different. Social barriers became more prevalent for urban dwellers in 2010, while attitudinal barriers decreased. For rural residents, social and service-related barriers increased and awareness and attitudinal barriers decreased. Barriers to eye health service use in Timor-Leste are not universal or static. Monitoring the extent and nature of barriers, as well as the prevalence and causes of vision impairment, will help plan appropriate interventions for vulnerable groups.
Wilkins, Alexa; Earnest, Jaya; Mccarthy, Elizabeth Anne; Shub, Alexis
Timor-Leste has high maternal and infant mortality rates. Estimates of stillbirths are unreliable and limited by poor collection of vital health statistics. Lack of accurate data impedes the development of interventions to address local determinants of stillbirth. This study aimed to identify the rate, timing and causes of stillbirths at National Hospital Guido Valadares in Dili, Timor-Leste, between November 2009 and December 2010, during which data were available. Hospital birth registry and maternal records were retrospectively reviewed to identify stillbirths during the study period. The simplified Cause of Death and Associated Conditions system was utilised to classify stillbirths. One hundred and fifty-three stillbirths were identified, producing a stillbirth rate of 29 per 1000 births. Of stillbirths with known timing, 70 (66.7%) occurred antepartum and 35 (33.3%) intrapartum. Cause of death could not be ascertained in 62.7% of cases due to poor or missing records. Where identified, the three most commonly classified causes of death were intrapartum fetal asphyxia, maternal infection and maternal hypertensive disorder. This study highlights the need for standardised recording and coding of perinatal deaths at HNGV. The high proportion of antenatal death transfers from community health centres demonstrates the need for community and hospital staff training to improve the quality of antenatal and intrapartum obstetric care. A prospective study of stillbirths is recommended to obtain reliable data on the determinants of stillbirths in Timor-Leste. These data would inform evidence-based interventions for the improvement of maternity and obstetric care in community and hospital settings. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Background Revitalising primary health care (PHC) and the need to reach MDG targets requires developing countries to adapt current evidence about effective health systems to their local context. Timor-Leste in one of the world’s newest developing nations, with high maternal and child mortality rates, malaria, TB and malnutrition. Mountainous terrain and lack of transport pose serious challenges for accessing health services and implementing preventive health strategies. Methods We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature and identified six components of an effective PHC system. These were mapped onto three countries’ PHC systems and present a case study from Timor-Leste’s Servisu Integrado du Saude Comunidade (SISCa) focussing on MDGs. Some of the challenges of implementing these into practice are shown through locally collected health system data. Results An effective PHC system comprises 1) Strong leadership and government in human rights for health; 2) Prioritisation of cost-effective interventions; 3) Establishing an interactive and integrated culture of community engagement; 4) Providing an integrated continuum of care at the community level; 5) Supporting skilled and equipped health workers at all levels of the health system; 6) Creating a systems cycle of feedback using data to inform health care. The implementation case study from Timor-Leste (population 1 million) shows that in its third year, limited country-wide data had been collected and the SISCa program provided over half a million health interactions at the village level. However, only half of SISCa clinics were functional across the country. Attendances included not only pregnant women and children, but also adults and older community members. Development partners have played a key role in supporting this implementation process. Conclusion The SISCa program is a PHC model implementing current best practice to reach remote communities in a new developing country. Despite limited
V. E. Se’u
Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the botanical composition, grass production, carrying capacity, and potential production of nutrients in pasture located in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency. The experiment was conducted from February to July 2013, using field survey method. The botanical composition, grass production and carrying capacity on real condition were analyzed descriptively, while the grass production and carrying capacity based of cutting arrangement were analyzed by using randomized block factorial design with 3 altitude locations (Sub District of Mollo Utara with altitude of 1007 m above sea level; Sub District of Noebeba, 500 m ASL, and Sub District of Amanuban Selatan, 65 m ASL x 2 cutting intervals (1 and 2 month and 5 replications. The results showed that the grass type dominated the pasture in the Sub District of Mollo Utara, while legum type was more dominant in the pasture in the Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. The potential production of dry matter grass in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency based on real condition was 150 to 390 kg/ha/yr, this could accommodate 0.24 to 0.63 AU/ha/yr. The arrangement of cutting interval by 1 month in Mollo Utara and 2 months in Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan could increase (P<0.05 grass production and carrying capacity. The potential productions of grass nutrients were higher in Sub District of Mollo Utara, while potential production of grass dry matter was higher in Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. It was concluded that grass dry matter potential production and carrying capacity in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency were low. The arrangement of cutting interval could increase grass dry matter potential production, carrying capacity, nutrition production, and quality of nutrition.
Full Text Available This paper examines the aftermath in West Timor and elsewhere in the province of Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT, of the 30 September 1965 ‘coup’ in Jakarta that resulted in the banning of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI and the large-scale killing of its members and associates. An assessment is given of PKI strength in NTT in 1965, along with an analysis of the killings, including the numbers killed, who carried out the killings, who was targeted, and the fate of those captured, but not killed. Consideration is also given to the ongoing effects in NTT of accusations of PKI membership.
Greenfield, David W; Erdmann, Mark V
Eviota santanai is described based on four specimens from Timor-Leste, taken in 5-8 m depth. In general coloration pattern, the species is most similar to E. latifasciata, but differs in the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern, the absence of an occipital spot, and live color including pinkish-mauve bars. Eviota santanai has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 5th pelvic-fin ray absent, some lower pectoral-fin rays branched, and IT and PITO pores absent.
Oenbit village is an area that is located in the district of Timor Tengah Utara (TTU), Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. In Oenbit ongoing a conflict between the economic interests of some parties namely the government, corporation and the local indigenous community. Government of Timor Tengah Utara give legal permission to the Elgari Resources Indonesia (ERI) Company to exploit the mining of Manganese in Oenbit Village which informally is the ancestral land of indigenous peoples Oenbit hereditary called pusuf kelef and Kot-tau niap-tau (king land). Oenbit society has an ethical belief that the ancestral land Oenbit should not be produced by outside parties besides the local community on the orders of the king. Manganese exploitation in Oenbit Village cause problems contradictorily interesting to reflect on the ethical-philosophical. This paper aims to reflect the ethical position against cases of exploitation of manganese in the Oenbit Village with focuses on the local government’s decision to issue a permit exploitation and ERI Company exploit Mangan assumed unethical traditional indigenous tribe Oenbit. The study found that the district government and ERI Company has violated the public ethics and society traditional law, especially the rights of local indigenous communities by exploiting manganese material. The method used is the reflection of philosophy with ethical approaches and relevant ethical theories.
Curnoe, Darren; Xueping, Ji; Herries, Andy I. R.; Kanning, Bai; Taçon, Paul S. C.; Zhende, Bao; Fink, David; Yunsheng, Zhu; Hellstrom, John; Yun, Luo; Cassis, Gerasimos; Bing, Su; Wroe, Stephen; Shi, Hong; Parr, William C. H.; Shengmin, Huang; Rogers, Natalie
Background Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province). We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province) to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia. PMID:22431968
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province. We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia.
Curnoe, Darren; Xueping, Ji; Herries, Andy I R; Kanning, Bai; Taçon, Paul S C; Zhende, Bao; Fink, David; Yunsheng, Zhu; Hellstrom, John; Yun, Luo; Cassis, Gerasimos; Bing, Su; Wroe, Stephen; Shi, Hong; Parr, William C H; Shengmin, Huang; Rogers, Natalie
Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province). We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province) to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia.
Ardan, Andam S.; Ardi, M.; Hala, Yusminah; Supu, Amiruddin; Dirawan, Gufran D.
This research aims to analyze the needs of the development of the X grade Biology textbook of Senior High School based on the local wisdom of Timor. The subject is a Senior High School Biology curriculum. Classes are taught at Senior High School X SMA in Kupang Regency in the academic years 2012/2013. Object of research includes: (1) core…
Lover, Andrew A; Hartman, Mikael; Chia, Kee Seng; Heymann, David L
Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey) in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035), with hemoglobin Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently limited health budgets in reaching these populations.
Purpose: Timor Leste was established as a country in 1999 when the Indonesians relinquished sovereignty and their departing military units and associated militias left most of the educational infrastructure in ruins. Civil disorder flared again in 2006 and the Government invited international military and reconstruction aid agencies in to restore…
..., Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce at 202-482-2440 or by e-mail: Sharron.Cook... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 738, 740, 745, and 748 [Docket...[ccedil]ao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral reef fish and benthos were surveyed at 150 shallow-water coral reef sites across the north coast of Timor-Leste and around Atauro Island in June 2013 during a...
Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio; Yehadji, Degninou
Smoking is a global public health concern. Timor-Leste is facing a rapidly growing epidemic of tobacco use. The trend of smoking in Timor-Leste seems to be increasing and the magnitude of the problem affects people who smoke before reaching adulthood. One of the factors implicated in the continuously rising trend of smoking among young people in Timor-Leste is clearly due to unavailability of restrictive laws and regulations. Therefore, our study sought to analyze available dataset from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in order to lower smoking risks among young people in Timor-Leste. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2009 GYTS in Timor-Leste. The 2009 GYTS assessed 1657 in-school students aged 13-15 years for current smoking prevalence and determinants of tobacco use. We used IBM SPSS version 21 software to analyze the data. Frequency analyses were computed to identify demographic characteristics of study participants. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each demographic characteristic as well as each independent variable and the outcome of being current smokers. Out of 1657 in-school students, 51 % were of ages less than 15; 53 % were girls; and 45 % were in grade 2. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was found to be 51 %. The prevalence of current smoking among in-school students increased with ages (from 46 % in less than 15 to 57 % in 15 plus). Boys were more likely to be smokers than girls (59 % versus 28 %). Significant factors positively associated with current smoking included parental smoking; closed-peer smoking; number of days people smoked in the house; having family discussion about harmful effects of smoking; being smoking in areas such as school, public places and home; and having seen cigarette advertisements on billboard. Timor-Leste has higher prevalence of cigarette smoking among minors, especially among boys. Our analysis
Elisa Maria Varela Bettencourt
Full Text Available The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste, highlighting the importance of animal production for the wellbeing and rural development, and relate the functions performed by livestock production with economic, social and cultural attributes of the communities. The data used in this study were collected in 2011 through a questionnaire survey in three rural communities in the district of Bobonaro, namely in a mountain area, an irrigation plain and a coastal zone, and were complemented with secondary data. Livestock production in Timor-Leste is predominantly familiar being chickens, pigs, goats, cattle, horses, buffaloes and sheep the main species. Beyond the economic function, each livestock species also performs social and cultural functions.
In Timor-Leste, high fertility, high maternal mortality and low levels of contraceptive prevalence demonstrate the importance of exploring perceptions, policies and practices around reproductive health and rights. This paper explores the influence of the Catholic Church on reproductive decision-making at different levels of policy and practice. Utilising a feminist qualitative research methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with a range of participants including nuns and priests, Timorese women and men of different ages and backgrounds and local and national stakeholders working in reproductive health and women's rights. Findings reveal that the Church is reported to play a significant role in reproductive health and rights decision-making at all levels of society, from policy-making to the reproductive decisions made by individual Timorese women and men. Nevertheless, the translation of Church teachings into practice, particularly by nuns, priests and Timorese men and women, reveal a range of attitudes and opinions; some that support and others that contest official Catholic doctrine. In light of the significant influence of the Timorese Catholic Church on policy and practice at many levels of society, there is a need to prioritise the development of rights-based strategies to improve reproductive health services in Timor-Leste.
Sawford, Kate; do Karmo, Antonino; da Conceicao, Felisiano; Geong, Maria; Tenaya, I Wayan Masa; Hartawan, Dinar H W; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a highly infectious pathogen of pigs and believed to be a major constraint to pig production in Timor-Leste. The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries conducts vaccination campaigns in an attempt to control clinical disease, however, there is no empirical data available concerning the seroprevalence and distribution of CSFV in Timor-Leste. To help address this knowledge deficit, a cross-sectional study to determine seroprevalence was conducted in the three districts that border Indonesia. Data on farmer- and pig-level factors were also collected to look at their impact on CSFV serological status. Overall, true CSFV seroprevalence was estimated at 34.4%. Seroprevalence estimates varied widely between and within districts, subdistricts, and villages. Older pigs and pigs that had been vaccinated for CSFV were more likely to test positive for CSFV antibody. Pigs owned by farmers that experienced the sudden death of pigs in the 12 months prior to the survey were more likely to test positive for CSFV antibody, while pigs that had been sick in the previous three months were less likely to test positive for CSFV antibody. The final multivariable model accounted for a large amount of variation in the data, however, much of this variation was explained by the random effects with less than one percent of the variation explained by the fixed effects. This work further supports the need for a collaborative approach to whole-island CSFV control between West Timor, Indonesia and Timor-Leste. Further work is needed to better understand the risk factors for CSFV serological status in order to allocate resources for control. As CSFV is now endemic in Timor-Leste research involving a combination of serology, antigen detection and in-depth investigation of suspect cases over a period of time may be required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.; Giller, K.E.; Braak, ter C.J.F.
Protected forests are sometimes encroached by surrounding communities. But patterns of cover change can vary even within one given setting – understanding these complexities can offer insights into the effective maintenance of forest cover. Using satellite image analyses together with historical
Takahashi, Kazuki; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Takamura, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu
The Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC) of East Antarctica forms a part of the latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian high-grade metamorphic segment of the East African-Antarctic Orogen. Here we present new petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological data on meta-igneous rocks from four localities (Austhovde, Telen, Skallevikshalsen, and Skallen) in the LHC, and evaluate the regional Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) arc magmatism in this terrane for the first time. The geochemical features reveal a volcanic-arc affinity for most of the meta-igneous rocks from Austhovde and Telen, suggesting that the protoliths of these rocks were derived from felsic to mafic arc magmatic rocks. The protoliths of two mafic granulites from Austhovde are inferred as non-volcanic-arc basalt such as E-MORB, suggesting the accretion of remnant oceanic lithosphere together with the volcanic-arc components during the subduction-collision events. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of the dominant population of magmatic zircons in felsic orthogneisses from Austhovde and Telen show 1819 ± 19 Ma and 1830 ± 10 Ma, respectively, corresponding to Paleoproterozoic magmatic event. The magmatic zircons in orthogneisses from other two localities yield upper intercept ages of 1837 ± 54 Ma (Skallevikshalsen), and 1856 ± 37 Ma and 1854 ± 45 Ma (Skallen), which also support Paleoproterozoic magmatism. The earlier thermal events during Neoarchean to Early Paleoproterozoic are also traced by 206Pb/238U ages of xenocrystic zircons in the felsic orthogneisses from Austhovde (2517 ± 17 Ma and 2495 ± 15 Ma) and Telen (2126 ± 16 Ma), suggesting partial reworking of the basement of a 2.5 Ga microcontinent during ca. 1.8 Ga continental-arc magmatism. The timing of peak metamorphism is inferred to be in the range of 645.6 ± 10.4 to 521.4 ± 12.0 Ma based on 206Pb/238U weighted mean ages of metamorphic zircon grains. The results of this study, together with the available magmatic ages as well as geophysical and
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to predict the number of traffic accident victims who died in Timor Tengah Regency with Trend Projection method and Backpropagation method, and compare the two methods based on the degree of guilt and predict the number traffic accident victims in the Timor Tengah Regency for the coming year. This research was conducted in Timor Tengah Regency where data used in this study was obtained from Police Unit in Timor Tengah Regency. The data is on the number of traffic accidents in Timor Tengah Regency from 2000 – 2013, which is obtained by a quantitative analysis with Trend Projection and Backpropagation method. The results of the data analysis predicting the number of traffic accidents victims using Trend Projection method obtained the best model which is the quadratic trend model with equation Yk = 39.786 + (3.297 X + (0.13 X2. Whereas by using back propagation method, it is obtained the optimum network that consists of 2 inputs, 3 hidden screens, and 1 output. Based on the error rates obtained, Back propagation method is better than the Trend Projection method which means that the predicting accuracy with Back propagation method is the best method to predict the number of traffic accidents victims in Timor Tengah Regency. Thus obtained predicting the numbers of traffic accident victims for the next 5 years (Years 2014-2018 respectively - are 106 person, 115 person, 115 person, 119 person and 120 person. Keywords: Trend Projection, Back propagation, Predicting.
Eggleston, Jack R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Carlson, Carl S.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Framingham, Massachusetts, has investigated the potential of proposed groundwater withdrawals at the Birch Road well site to affect nearby surface water bodies and wetlands, including Lake Cochituate, the Sudbury River, and the Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in east-central Massachusetts. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a Phase 1 numerical groundwater model of a complex glacial-sediment aquifer to synthesize hydrogeologic information and simulate potential future pumping scenarios. The model was developed with MODFLOW-NWT, an updated version of a standard USGS numerical groundwater flow modeling program that improves solution of unconfined groundwater flow problems. The groundwater model and investigations of the aquifer improved understanding of groundwater–surface-water interaction and the effects of groundwater withdrawals on surface-water bodies and wetlands in the study area. The initial work also revealed a need for additional information and model refinements to better understand this complex aquifer system.
Ismail, Fazli; Couvin, David; Farakhin, Izzah; Abdul Rahman, Zaidah; Rastogi, Nalin; Suraiya, Siti
Tuberculosis (TB) still constitutes a major public health problem in Malaysia. The identification and genotyping based characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates causing the disease is important to determine the effectiveness of the control and surveillance programs. This study intended a first assessment of spoligotyping-based MTBC genotypic diversity in Malaysia followed by a comparison of strains with those prevailing in neighboring countries by comparison with an international MTBC genotyping database. Spoligotyping was performed on a total of 220 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Kelantan and Kuala Lumpur. The results were compared with the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Spoligotyping revealed 77 different patterns: 22 corresponded to orphan patterns while 55 patterns containing 198 isolates were assigned a Spoligo International Type (SIT) designation in the database (the latter included 6 newly created SITs). The eight most common SITs grouped 141 isolates (5 to 56 strains per cluster) as follows: SIT1/Beijing, n = 56, 25.5%; SIT745/EAI1-SOM, n = 33, 15.0%; SIT591/EAI6-BGD1, n = 13, 5.9%; SIT256/EAI5, n = 12, 5.5%; SIT236/EAI5, n = 10, 4.6%; SIT19/EAI2-Manila, n = 9, 4.1%; SIT89/EAI2-Nonthaburi, n = 5, 2.3%; and SIT50/H3, n = 3, 1.4%. The association between city of isolation and lineages was statistically significant; Haarlem and T lineages being higher in Kuala Lumpur (p<0.01). However, no statistically significant differences were noted when comparing drug resistance vs. major lineages, nor between gender and clades. The ancestral East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was most predominant followed by the Beijing lineage. A comparison of strains with those prevailing in neighboring countries in South Asia, East Asia and South East Asia underlined the phylogeographical specificity of SIT745 for Malaysia, and its probable ongoing evolution with locally
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB still constitutes a major public health problem in Malaysia. The identification and genotyping based characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates causing the disease is important to determine the effectiveness of the control and surveillance programs.This study intended a first assessment of spoligotyping-based MTBC genotypic diversity in Malaysia followed by a comparison of strains with those prevailing in neighboring countries by comparison with an international MTBC genotyping database.Spoligotyping was performed on a total of 220 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Kelantan and Kuala Lumpur. The results were compared with the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe.Spoligotyping revealed 77 different patterns: 22 corresponded to orphan patterns while 55 patterns containing 198 isolates were assigned a Spoligo International Type (SIT designation in the database (the latter included 6 newly created SITs. The eight most common SITs grouped 141 isolates (5 to 56 strains per cluster as follows: SIT1/Beijing, n = 56, 25.5%; SIT745/EAI1-SOM, n = 33, 15.0%; SIT591/EAI6-BGD1, n = 13, 5.9%; SIT256/EAI5, n = 12, 5.5%; SIT236/EAI5, n = 10, 4.6%; SIT19/EAI2-Manila, n = 9, 4.1%; SIT89/EAI2-Nonthaburi, n = 5, 2.3%; and SIT50/H3, n = 3, 1.4%. The association between city of isolation and lineages was statistically significant; Haarlem and T lineages being higher in Kuala Lumpur (p<0.01. However, no statistically significant differences were noted when comparing drug resistance vs. major lineages, nor between gender and clades.The ancestral East-African-Indian (EAI lineage was most predominant followed by the Beijing lineage. A comparison of strains with those prevailing in neighboring countries in South Asia, East Asia and South East Asia underlined the phylogeographical specificity of SIT745 for Malaysia, and its probable ongoing evolution
- Саргон Хайдая
Full Text Available Syria was at the center of one of the geo-strategic complexes that have arisen as a result of the Cold War and the redistribution of global domination. Key characteristics of the political regime of Syria in the context of the contradictions between the global and regional political players in this important region of the world politics are closely monitored to many analysts, however, although these descriptions are valid to some extent, the Syrian regime is actually a mode of “nomenclature” that can not be reduced to any of the used stamps.
Yapabandara, Manel A M G; Sarmento, Raul; de Fatima Mota, Maria do Rosario; don Bosco, Johanes; Martins, Nelson; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R
Malaria has been a major public health problem in the newly established Democratic Republic of Timor Leste with over 200,000 cases being reported in 2006 and 2007. The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) was established in 2003. The progress made in malaria control in Timor Leste is reported. Records maintained at the NMCP, the district health services, the Health Information and Management System, the National Laboratory on malaria diagnosis and entomological data of the NMCP were reviewed. There has been a 97% decrease in the reported malaria incidence from 2006 (223,002 cases) to 2012 (6,202 cases). 185,106 clinical cases reported in 2006 decreased to 2,016 in 2012 with introduction and expansion of malaria microscopy services and introduction of monovalent RDTs in 2008 and bivalent RDTs in 2010 in all parts of the country. The National Treatment Guidelines using ACT as the first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infections and introduction of monovalent RDTs, led to a 42% and a 33% decrease from 2007 to 2008 in reported clinical and total malaria cases, respectively. LLINs were distributed initially to pregnant females and children under five and later per every two persons living in high-risk areas (based on microstratification at sub-district level). IRS was carried out in three districts in 2010 and extended to six districts in 2012. Anopheles barbirostris and Anopheles subpictus have been incriminated as malaria vectors. A National Laboratory, which routinely cross checks blood smears for quality assurance of microscopy was established. Malaria focal points at regional, district and sub district level, entomology surveillance staff, monitoring and evaluation officers, and quality control technicians were appointed to strengthen malaria control activities at all levels in the country. The 97% decrease in the incidence of malaria in Timor Leste is due to application of evidence-based malaria control methods that included enhancing improved
Asante, Augustine D; Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Irava, Wayne; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Limwattananon, Supon; Mills, Anne; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia
Equitable health financing remains a key health policy objective worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is evidence that many people are unable to access the health services they need due to financial and other barriers. There are growing calls for fairer health financing systems that will protect people from catastrophic and impoverishing health payments in times of illness. This study aims to assess equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste in order to support government efforts to improve access to healthcare and move towards universal health coverage in the two countries. The study employs two standard measures of equity in health financing increasingly being applied in LMICs-benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and financing incidence analysis (FIA). In Fiji, we will use a combination of secondary and primary data including a Household Income and Expenditure Survey, National Health Accounts, and data from a cross-sectional household survey on healthcare utilisation. In Timor-Leste, the World Bank recently completed a health equity and financial protection analysis that incorporates BIA and FIA, and found that the distribution of benefits from healthcare financing is pro-rich. Building on this work, we will explore the factors that influence the pro-rich distribution. The study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of New South Wales, Australia (Approval number: HC13269); the Fiji National Health Research Committee (Approval # 201371); and the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health (Ref MS/UNSW/VI/218). Study outcomes will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, targeted multidisciplinary seminars, peer-reviewed journal publications, policy briefs and the use of other web-based technologies including social media. A user-friendly toolkit on how to analyse healthcare financing equity will be developed for use by policymakers and development partners in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the performance of Bali bull in rainy season underfeedlotting management on farmer level in Timor Island. Twenty Bali bulls with 2.0-2.5 years old on thebasis of teeth eruption were used in this study. Feed for animals was field grass, king grass and cornstraw. The type, quantity and quality of feed given in accordance with the habits of farmers in thefattened cattle. Research was conducted by direct observation in farmer management during rainyseason. Data measured were daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The data collected wastabulated and analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the average of daily gain weight was 0.53kg/head/d, dry matter intake was 3.88 kg/head/d and feed conversion was 7.55 kg DM/kg daily gain. Inconclusion, performance of Bali bull fattened at farmers level with forage in the rainy season could beimproved.
Almeida, Nuno Carlos Henriques de
Tese de mestrado, Língua e Cultura Portuguesa, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, 2009 Este trabalho pretende apresentar um quadro geral da situação da língua portuguesa e do seu ensino em Timor-Leste, associando-o ao desenvolvimento de valores de cidadania. Para tal, começa-se por contextualizar a presença da língua portuguesa naquele país, através da apresentação de dados históricos, analisando o papel desta língua na formação de uma identidade cultural timorense e apresentando...
Alexandre Sandri Capucho
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a herança da resistência do Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03 à ferrugem-do-cafeeiro (Hemileia vastatrix. Para isso, a raça II e o patótipo 001 de ferrugem foram inoculados em 246 plantas da população F2, 115 plantas do retrocruzamento suscetível (RC S e 87 plantas do retrocruzamento resistente (RC R, originadas do cruzamento entre o genótipo suscetível cv. Catuaí Amarelo IAC 64 e a fonte de resistência Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03. Para ambos os inóculos, a cv. Catuaí Amarelo IAC 64 foi suscetível, enquanto o Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03, a planta representante da geração F1 e as plantas do RC R foram resistentes. As plantas F2, quando inoculadas com a raça II, apresentaram dois padrões de segregação significativos: 15:1 e 61:3. A herança da resistência foi confirmada pela inoculação das plantas do RC S, que segregaram na proporção de 3:1, padrão esperado para herança condicionada por dois genes. A hipótese de segregação 7:1 para três genes foi rejeitada. Resultados semelhantes foram obtidos para o patótipo 001. Dois genes dominantes e independentes conferem a resistência genética do Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03 à raça II e ao patótipo 001 de H. vastatrix.The aim of this work was to characterize the resistance inheritance of the Timor Hybrid UFV 443-03 to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix. For this, the race II and pathotype 001 of coffee leaf rust were inoculated in 246 F2 plants, 115 susceptible backcrossing (BCS plants, and 87 resistant backcrossing (BC R plants, derived from the crossing between the susceptible genotype 'Catuaí Amarelo' IAC 64 and the resistance source Timor Hybrid UFV 443-03. For both inoculums, the 'Catuaí Amarelo' IAC 64 was susceptible, while the Timor Hybrid, the plant representing F1 generation, and the BC R plants were resistant. The F2 plants inoculated with race II presented two significant segregation ratios: 15:1 and 61:3. The
Fernandes Flaviana Pinto
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of tropical cyclone frequency to the rainfall in Timor-Leste using monthly data for 30 years. The rainfall data obtained from tropical rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC. Daily rainfall In Situ data obtained from Direcção Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (DNMG. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA and Bureau of Meteorology Australia (BOM provided for tropical cyclone data. The impact of tropical cyclone to the rainfall can be observed from the seasonal pattern of DJF, MAM, JJA and SON. The highest and the lowest correlation seasonal pattern of MAM and DJF are about r = 0.99 and r = -0.97, respectively. Correlation in the seasonal pattern of JJA and SON are about r = 0.0, it because no cyclone in this season. If we observed the daily condition between tropical cyclone frequency to rainfall, the highest correlation occurred in March 2004 and April 2011 with the resulting correlation are about r = 0.73 and r = 0.79, respectively. This is an overall correlation a week before, after and during cyclone. For along 30 years, we found the correlation in 2000 and 2006 is about r = 0.41. So that, the value of correlation coefficient obtained from 1983 to 2012 is about r = 0.19, there is not a significant impact to the rainfall when tropical cyclone doesn’t occur in Timor-Leste. Keywords: Tropical Cyclone Frequency, Rainfall, Anomaly, Correlation
Higuchi, Michiyo; Okumura, Junko; Aoyama, Atsuko; Suryawati, Sri; Porter, John
To analyse nurses' and midwives' knowledge of and attitudes towards standard treatment guidelines (STGs), which were developed to help their practices at rural community health centres (CHCs) in Timor-Leste. Fifty-five nurses and midwives were individually interviewed. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. Overall, the standard treatments for acute respiratory tract infections, malaria and diarrhoea were well known by the respondents. Clinical nurses showed precise and detailed knowledge, especially for antibiotic use. The respondents were willing to use STGs and believed that they 'should' follow them. This feeling arose due to their self-awareness as frontline health workers and, at the same time, as peripheral civil servants. The changes brought about by the introduction of STGs were positively perceived. Three components of the change were observed: the concept, daily practice and perceived patient satisfaction. The respondents had previously felt a lack of confidence and hoped to improve their capacity as health care workers; they became confident in their practices by using STGs. Self-confidence was identified more clearly in the clinical nurse interviews. Few difficulties in using STGs were indicated, and the respondents suggested ways to deal with these difficulties. By using the STGs, the nurses/midwives gained knowledge and self-confidence. The positive perception of the changes promoted further use of the STGs. Clinical nurse training positively influenced the knowledge of and attitudes towards the STGs. Few difficulties in applying STGs in daily practice were identified, which is contrary to previous studies that targeted physicians in the Western world. Development of STGs within a health policy framework was considered a key factor. The STGs exist across related policies and various programmes, which are interconnected. The Timor-Leste experience indicates the value of STGs for non-physician health care providers at the
Ramke, Jacqueline; Brian, Garry; Palagyi, Anna
To examine the financial viability of the Timor-Leste National Spectacle Program as it increases spectacle availability, affordability and uptake, particularly for Timor's poor. In rural areas, three models of ready-made spectacles were dispensed according to a tiered pricing structure of US$3.00, 1.00, 0.10 and 0.00. In addition, custom-made spectacles were available in the capital, Dili. Spectacle costs, dispensing data and income for the National Spectacle Program for 18 months from March 2007 were analyzed. Rural services dispensed 3415 readymade spectacles: 47.1% to women, and 51.4% at subsidized prices, being 39.8% at US$0.10 and 11.6% free. A profit of US$1,529 was generated, mainly from the sale of US$3.00 spectacles. Women (odds ratio, OR, 1.3, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1-1.4) and consumers aged ≥65 years (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.7-2.6) were more likely to receive subsidized spectacles. Urban services dispensed 2768 spectacles; mostly US$3.00 readymade (52.8%) and custom-made single vision (29.6%) units. Custom-made spectacles accounted for 36.7% of dispensing, but 73.1% of the US$12,264 urban profit. The combined rural and urban profit covered all rural costs, leaving US$2,200 to meet administration and other urban expenses. It is instructive and encouraging that a national spectacle dispensing program in one of the ten poorest countries of the world can use tiered-pricing based on willingness-to-pay information to cover spectacle stock replacement costs and produce profit, while using cross-subsidization to provide spectacles to the poor.
Wangdi, Kinley; Clements, Archie C A; Du, Tai; Nery, Susana Vaz
Dengue remains an important public health problem in Timor-Leste, with several major epidemics occurring over the last 10 years. The aim of this study was to identify dengue clusters at high geographical resolution and to determine the association between local environmental characteristics and the distribution and transmission of the disease. Notifications of dengue cases that occurred from January 2005 to December 2013 were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Timor-Leste. The population of each suco (the third-level administrative subdivision) was obtained from the Population and Housing Census 2010. Spatial autocorrelation in dengue incidence was explored using Moran's I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate, Zero-Inflated, Poisson (ZIP) regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation with Gibbs sampling. The analysis used data from 3206 cases. Dengue incidence was highly seasonal with a large peak in January. Patients ≥ 14 years were found to be 74% [95% credible interval (CrI): 72-76%] less likely to be infected than those < 14 years, and females were 12% (95% CrI: 4-21%) more likely to suffer from dengue as compared to males. Dengue incidence increased by 0.7% (95% CrI: 0.6-0.8%) for a 1 °C increase in mean temperature; and 47% (95% CrI: 29-59%) for a 1 mm increase in precipitation. There was no significant residual spatial clustering after accounting for climate and demographic variables. Dengue incidence was highly seasonal and spatially clustered, with positive associations with temperature, precipitation and demographic factors. These factors explained the observed spatial heterogeneity of infection.
In 2007 Timor-Leste, a malaria endemic country, changed its Malaria Treatment Protocol for uncomplicated falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. The change in treatment policy was based on the rise in morbidity due to malaria and perception of increasing drug resistance. Despite a lack of nationally available evidence on drug resistance, the Ministry of Health decided to change the protocol. The policy process leading to this change was examined through a qualitative study on how the country developed its revised treatment protocol for malaria. This process involved many actors and was led by the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and the WHO country office. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities identified during this period of treatment protocol change. PMID:23672371
Wallace, Heather Julie; McDonald, Susan; Belton, Suzanne; Miranda, Agueda Isolina; da Costa, Eurico; da Conceicao Matos, Livio; Henderson, Helen; Taft, Angela
Maternal mortality remains a significant public health challenge for Timor-Leste. Although access to quality family planning measures may greatly reduce such deaths, consideration of indigenous perceptions, and how they influence reproductive health decision-making and behavior, is crucial if health services are to provide initiatives that are accepted and helpful in improving reproductive health outcomes. We aimed to demonstrate that body mapping is an effective method to traverse language and culture to gain emic insights and indigenous worldviews. The authors' two qualitative research projects (2013 and 2015) used a decolonizing methodology in four districts of Timor-Leste, body mapping with 67 men and 40 women to illuminate ethno-physiology and indigenous beliefs about conception, reproduction, and contraception. Body mapping provided a beneficial conduit for identifying established indigenous reproductive perceptions, understandings, and vocabulary, plus fears surrounding contraception. This may inform health service provision and engagement, ultimately improving the reproductive health of community members.
Full Text Available O artigo investiga e analisa os efeitos da dependência monetária através da dolarização oficial em economias nacionais. Realizou-se o estudo do caso de Timor Leste, que tem uma economia dolarizada desde 2000. Percebeu-se que, pelo menos para esse caso, a dolarização parece estar implicado mais desvantagens do que vantagens.
Hawkins, Zoe; Tilman, Teofilo
This paper describes the history and recent development of mental health services in Timor-Leste, a small developing country recovering from conflict. Challenges to effective service delivery are discussed as well as plans for future development. Timor-Leste's mental health service began just over a decade ago. Unlike many other low and middle income countries where hospital-based services predominate, the mental health model in Timor-Leste is entirely community based. However, challenges to effective mental health care delivery are similar to most developing countries and include a lack of sufficient financial resources, human resources, and mental health infrastructure. Addressing these issues successfully requires political will, a greater prioritization of mental health services, close coordination between stakeholders, as well as developments in the area of education, training and infrastructure. Greater understanding and education about the links between mental and physical health would benefit the overall health of the population, and integration of these respective policies may prove a successful method of more equitably redistributing finances and resources.
Basiita, Rose Komugisha; Zenger, Kyall Richard; Jerry, Dean Robert
The complex geological history of East Africa has been a driving factor in the rapid evolution of teleost biodiversity. While there is some understanding of how macroevolutionary drivers have shaped teleost speciation in East Africa, there is a paucity of research into how the same biogeographical factors have affected microevolutionary processes within lakes and rivers. To address this deficiency, population genetic diversity, demography, and structure were investigated in a widely distributed and migratory (potamodromous) African teleost species, Ssemutundu ( Bagrus docmak ). Samples were acquired from five geographical locations in East Africa within two major drainage basins; the Albertine Rift and Lake Victoria Basin. Individuals ( N = 175) were genotyped at 12 microsatellite loci and 93 individuals sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. Results suggested populations from Lakes Edward and Victoria had undergone a severe historic bottleneck resulting in very low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.004 and 0.006, respectively) and negatively significant Fu values (-3.769 and -5.049; p < .05). Heterozygosity deficiencies and restricted effective population size ( N eLD ) suggested contemporary exposure of these populations to stress, consistent with reports of the species decline in the East African Region. High genetic structuring between drainages was detected at both historical (ɸ ST = 0.62 for mtDNA; p < .001) and contemporary (microsatellite F ST = 0.460; p < .001) levels. Patterns of low genetic diversity and strong population structure revealed are consistent with speciation patterns that have been linked to the complex biogeography of East Africa, suggesting that these biogeographical features have operated as both macro- and micro-evolutionary forces in the formation of the East African teleost fauna.
This environmental baseline survey (EBS) documents the baseline environmental conditions of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) K-792 Switchyard Complex, which includes the former K-792 Switchyard, the K-79 1-B building, the K-796-A building, and the K-792 Northern Expansion Area located in the northwestern portion of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The total area of the property is approximately 19.91 acres. DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land area and buildings to the Heritage Center, LLC (Heritage Center), a subsidiary corporation of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned facility at ETTP to a non-federal entity. The area proposed for title transfer includes the former K-792 Switchyard, the K-792 Northern Expansion Area, Bldg. K-791-B, Bldg. K-796-A, and the underlying property known as the underlying fee. Located within the K-792 Switchyard footprint but not included in the transfer are Bldg. K-131 0-MP and Bldg. K- 131 0-MQ, two buildings owned by a private company that leases space in the northern portion of the Switchyard. The transfer footprint is bounded by Perimeter Road to the north and west, the parking area for Portal 8 to the south, and primarily the former K-792 Powerhouse Complex and Avenue 'U' North to the east; however, the eastern boundary along the Northern Expansion area has no physical features associated with it. Zone 2 remedial action objectives were developed by the DVS to support the future use of ETTP as a mixed-use commercial and industrial park. Therefore, remediation criteria were designed for the protection of the future industrial worker under the assumption the worker normally would not have the potential for exposure to soils at depths below 10 ft below ground surface (bgs). Accordingly, land use controls (LUCs) have been established to restrict disturbance of soils below 10
The insurgency must be isolated, and cross-border sanctuary denied , if it is to be defeated. Not yet mentioned, but intertwined in every issue...September 1999 under the command of Australian Major General Peter Cosgrove . They entered a situation of turmoil: “gangs and militia controlled the
Abdul Wahib Muhaimin
Full Text Available Cassava is a food crop with great economic value since its cost is affordable and has been passed down to the generation. People at Bitefa village are majority a farmer who depends their life on agriculture to meet the needs. Problems faced by farmers in farming cassava at Bitefa village are farming management that is not in accordance with the guidelines and the use of factors of production that is not suitable for the dose recommended. This suggests that the use of factors of production are not efficient. Research objectives are: (1 to analyze the factors that affect the production of cassava, (2 to analyze the level of allocative and technical efficiency, (3 to analyze factors that affect technical inefficiency. The efficient use of factors of production is expected to increase production and income for farmers of cassava. The result obtained using stochastic frontier production function analysis is that the influence of cassava farming real production is the production of land and seeds. Meanwhile, labor, cost factors and the use of manure have no effect on the real production of cassava. The technical efficiency level of cassava farming in the research area is the lowest by 0.80 of which amounted to 0.99. While the level of NPMxPx for land use allocative efficiency is 1 so that the allocation of land use in the area of research has not been efficient. NPMxPx for the use of seed allocation is 1 so that the use of seedlings is also not efficient. Nonformal education influence is real and marked positive effect against inefficiency. Formal education is marked negative but having a real effect against the inefficiency. Farmer's age is marked negative and not real, while the experience and the number of family members are marked positive but having no real effect on the production of cassava.
combined policing activities with friendship-building efforts by participating in local family events like weddings and funerals.148 To ease the...activity. Ninety percent of Timorese are Catholic . Most chaplain officers of the Sangnoksu force deployed from Korea were Catholic priests, and they
Petrarca, V; Nugud, A D; Ahmed, M A; Haridi, A M; Di Deco, M A; Coluzzi, M
The species composition of malaria vector mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from >40 localities in Sudan, representing most ecological situations, was determined by analysis of ovarian polytene chromosomes. Of 2162 females, 93% were identified as An. arabiensis Patton and 7% were An. gambiae Giles sensu stricto. No hybrids were found between the two species. Anopheles arabiensis occurred in all but two sites, whereas An. gambiae s.s. was effectively limited to the southernmost, more humid localities. For chromosomal paracentric inversions, the degree of polymorphism was low in An. gambiae s.s. (inversions 2La, 2Rb and 2Rd), higher in An. arabiensis (inversions Xe, 2Ra, b, bc, d1, s; 3Ra, d). Anopheles gambiae samples from Sudan were all apparently panmictic, i.e. they did not show restricted gene flow such as observed among West African populations (interpreted as incipient speciation). Chromosomal inversion patterns of An. gambiae in southern Sudan showed characteristics of intergrading Savanna/Forest populations similar to those observed in comparable eco-climatic situations of West Africa. Anopheles arabiensis was polymorphic for inversion systems recorded in West Africa (2Ra, 2Rb, 2Rdl, 3Ra) and for a novel 2Rs polymorphism, overlapping with inversion systems 2Rb and 2Rd1. Samples carrying the 2Rs inversion were mostly from Khashm-el-Girba area in central-eastern Sudan. In the great majority of the samples all polymorphic inversions were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Sudan populations of An. arabiensis should therefore be considered as generally panmictic. Anopheles arabiensis shows more inversion polymorphism in west than in east African populations. Sudan populations have more evident similarities with those from westwards than those from eastwards of the Great Rift Valley. The possible influence of the Rift on evolution of An. arabiensis is discussed.
Full Text Available We report new petrological data and geochronological measurements of granulites from Vesleknausen in the highest-grade section of the Lützow-Holm Complex, part of the Gondwana-assembling collisional orogen in East Antarctica. The locality is dominated by felsic to intermediate orthogneiss (charnockite and minor biotite gneiss, mafic orthogneiss, and hornblende-pyroxene granulite, with deformed and undeformed dykes of metagranite and felsic pegmatite. Pseudosection analysis of charnockite in the system NCKFMASHTO, supported by geothermometry of mafic orthogneiss, was used to infer peak metamorphic temperatures of 750–850 °C, approximately 150 °C lower than those estimated for metasedimentary gneisses from Rundvågshetta, 6 km to the northeast. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons from feldspar-pyroxene gneiss, which corresponds to a partially molten patch around mafic orthogneiss, yielded a Concordia upper intercept ages of 2507.9 ± 7.4 Ma, corresponding to the time of formation of the magmatic protolith to the orthogneiss. Partial melting during peak metamorphism probably took place between 591 and 548 Ma, as recorded in rims overgrew around magmatic zircon. Our results suggest that Rundvågshetta-Vesleknausen-Strandnibba region in southwestern Lützow-Holm Bay, where orthogneisses are dominant, consists of a single crustal block, possibly formed by ca. 2.5 Ga arc magmatism. The Neoarchean magmatic terrane was tectonically mingled with other fragments (such as metasedimentary units in northern Lützow-Holm Bay by subduction/collision events during the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent, and subsequently underwent ∼850 °C granulite-facies metamorphosed during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian final collisional event.
Silove, D; Brooks, R; Bateman, C Steel; Steel, Z; Amaral, Z Fonseca C; Rodger, J; Soosay, I
There is growing acknowledgment that research in the postconflict field needs to include a focus on social conditions. The authors applied structural equation modeling to epidemiologic data obtained from postconflict Timor-Leste, to examine for links involving potentially traumatic events and sociodemographic factors (age, gender, educational levels, and unemployment) with psychological symptoms and functioning. Exposure to trauma and lack of education emerged as most relevant with psychological distress impacting on education in the urban area. Age and gender exerted influences at different points in the model consistent with the known history of Timor. Although based on cross-sectional data, the model supports the relevance of past trauma, posttraumatic distress, and postconflict social conditions to functioning in societies such as Timor-Leste.
The International Agency for Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) South East Asia region (SEAR) that consists of 11 countries contains 26% of the world's population (1,761,000,000). In this region 12 million are blind and 78.5 million are visually impaired. This amounts to 30% of global blindness and 32% of global visual impairment. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) survey analysis. RAAB, either a repeat or a first time survey, was completed in 8 countries in this decade (2010 onwards). These include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Timor Leste. Cataract is the principal cause of blindness and severe visual impairment in all countries. Refractive error is the principal cause of moderate visual impairment in 4 countries: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka; cataract continues to be the principal cause of moderate visual impairment in 4 other countries: Bhutan, Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor Leste. Outcome of cataract surgery is suboptimal in the Maldives and Timor Leste. Rigorous focus is necessary to improve cataract surgery outcomes and correction of refractive error without neglecting the quality of care. At the same time allowances must be made for care of the emerging causes of visual impairment and blindness such as glaucoma and posterior segment disorders, particularly diabetic retinopathy. Copyright 2018 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.
José Manuel Brandão
Full Text Available The Mineralogical and Geological Museum of the Faculty of Sciences in Lisbon preserved until the fire of 1978 samples representing several geological units of Timor, collected willfully by agents of the colonial administration. The study of this unique collection in the mainland museums has helped to shed light on the geology of the most distant overseas Portuguese territory. The results were presented at the International Geological Congress, held in London in 1948. Most of the samples were lost in 1978, saving up however the collections sent by the governor of the province to the author of the study on the geology of Timor, former naturalist of the museum. This paper is based on scientific documentation and revisits the collections in order to contextualize its formation and composition, highlighting its role as landmark of sovereignty and the assertion of colonial science in the Portuguese Empire of the East.
Guterres, Verónica; Henriques, Pedro Damião de Sousa; Sequeira, Pedro; Carvalho, Maria Leonor da Silva; Tavares, Mário
O café é importante para Timor Leste porque é o principal produto de exportação no sector agrícola, apresenta-se como a maior fonte de rendimento para os agricultores nos distritos, sub-distritos, sucos e aldeias e dinamiza a actividade das principais empresas compradoras e exportadoras. A cultura de café em Timor Leste é muito mais um processo florestal que pomícola. O objectivo deste trabalho foi estudar a comercialização interna e externa de café na empresa de Timorcorp LTD e ao mesmo t...
Asep Kurnia Permana
Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.192The Triassic rocks of the (West Timor Basin have been identified that was mainly deposited in the marine environment. The fine grained clastics and carbonate rocks of this Triassic marine facies are considered to be the most promising source rocks potential in this basin. In this paper we present geochemical and petrographic data from outcrop samples of the Triassic carbonate Aitutu Formation, due to emphasized the organic maturation, kerogen type of the organic matter and the origin of the organic matter. A representative of selected sample were subjected to the Rock-Eval Pyrolisis, vitrinite reflectance and thermal alteration index, bitumen extraction, were analyzed on the GC-MS. The samples were collected from marine deposit of the Triassic Sequence. The TOC values of the analyzed sample range between rich and rich organic richness (0.51% - 9.16%, wt.%, TOC, which consists mainly of type II and III kerogen and the organic matter consider to be predominantly oil/gas prone and gas prone potential. The thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TAI, and vitrinite reflectance shows an immature to early peak mature stage of the organic matter. The GC-MS analyses of the biomarkers indicate mainly the organic matter derived from mixed source rocks facies containing alga debris and higher plant terrestrial origin.
Sloyan, B.; Wijffels, S. A.; Cowley, R.
A fundamental aspect of observing, describing, understanding and modeling the global climate and particularly the Maritime Continent, is a better knowledge of the fluxes of momentum, heat and freshwater in the ocean. The Indonesian seas are the only major low-latitude connection in the global oceans. This connection permits the transfer of Pacific waters into the Indian Ocean, known as the Indonesian Throughflow. The interaction of the Pacific and Indian basins and their modes of variability (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)), both through atmospheric teleconnections and the ocean link via the Indonesian Throughflow, is now being hotly pursued in the research community. We will present some initial findings from the 3-year time series (2011-2014) of the Timor Passage and Ombai Strait moorings. This mooring array is a component of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), and builds on the earlier results of the INSTANT (2003-2006) observational program. The moorings comprise of velocity, temperature and salinity instruments. Observations from these moorings provide the required spatial and temporal coverage to understand ocean dynamics, the ocean's role in climate variability and change, investigate forcing of the atmosphere and ocean and assess the realism of data-assimilative ocean models and coupled ocean-atmosphere models.
Burns, Kathryn A; Jones, Ross
In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km(2) area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100-200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g(-1)) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Wheat has a great potency to be cultivated in Timor Tengah Utara (TTU. However, disease is one of the risks for introduction of wheat. The existence of wheat disease in TTU is unknown because wheat has never been grown in this area. This study aims to determine the potential risks of major diseases that will infect wheat plants when introduced to the TTU. The methods used in this study consisted of wheat cultivation in the field, followed by observation and identification of the main diseases on wheat. Wheat varieties grown in field were Dewata, Selayar and Nias. Koch’s postulate were performed to identify the suspected microbes as pathogens. Morphological-based identification was applied on the isolated pathogens. The main diseases on wheat cultivated in TTU were leaf blight and stem rot. The results of Koch’s postulate showed that Helminthosporium gramineum was the causal of leaf blight and Rhizoctonia sp. was the causal of stem rot. Disease incidence reached 82–93% and 11–22% for leaf bligh and stem rot disease, respectively. Disease severity of leaf blight and stem rot disease on var. Dewata was the lowest compared to var. Selayar and var. Nias.
Kayli Janine Wild
Full Text Available The evidence-based policy (EBP movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature, however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organisation (NGO representatives and United Nations (UN advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this case study demonstrate the importance of political context, policy characteristics and the power of senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.
Samsudewa, D.; Capitan, S. S.; Sevilla, C. C.; Vega, R. S. A.; Ocampo, P. P.
The aim of this research was to observe hematologic profile i.e. erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and semen quality, i.e. semen volume, sperm motility and sperm abnormality of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer raised under captivity. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41kg body weight) at similar antler stages were use in this study. Before and after 43 days of establishment of dominance hierarchy blood were sampled after sedation for erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (mg/dL), and hematocrit (%). Likewise, semen was collected using electroejaculator and were analyzed for semen volume (ml), sperm motility (%) and sperm abnormality (%) to compare male deer at various heirarchies. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was done. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that highest count of erythrocyte shown on α and β-male (1.60 million per µL). The highest increase in hematocrit was observed in β-male (5%) and then followed by S2-male (4%). S2-male had the highest increase in hemoglobin (0.13 g/dL). The highest increase in semen volume was observed in α -male (0.75 ml). Social stress affected negatively the sperm motility and abnormality (P<0.05). The highest decrease was observed in S2-male.
Elizabeth Barreto Araujo
Full Text Available The development of tourism industry can provide opportunities for tourism products including culinary in Dili, Timor-Leste. This article aims to identify types of traditional foods, measure the perception of tourists on traditional food and formulate program to develop traditional food as culinary tourism. Data collection for this article used direct field observation, interviews and documentation study, while data analysis used SWOT matrix. The results of this article revealed that in Dili there were several types of traditional food such as Saboko, Tukir, Kulu tunu or Kulu Gisa could be developed as culinary tourism. In regard to tourist perception on traditional food processing while good on quality of traditional food, food cleanliness and quality of restaurant service. Several programs conducted by the government to develop traditional food are human resource quality improvement, creating market for traditional food, identification of potential local products in each district and assessment of traditional foods.The restaurant owners also develop several programs such as menu adjustment, creativity in traditional food processing, and promotion.
SOMMARIO: 1. «Deus summus Legislator: summus Iudex» - 2. «Bene facere: bonum facere» - 3. «Lex divina ad hoc ordinat hominem ut sit totaliter subditus Deo» - 4. «Opus operantis: opus operatum» - 5. «Sine dilectione boni nullus Deo placere potest» - 6.«Sollicitudo sacerdotalis: sollicitudo praelatitia» - 7. «A Deo omnia, et in Deum»: «nulla vita est quae non sit a Deo» - 8. «Sine dilectione boni nullusDeo placere potest» - 9. «Voluntas facit opus meritorium, non opus voluntatem» - 10. «Deus agit in homines per homines» - 11. «Homines vident ea quae parent: Deus autem intuetur cor» - 12. «Quodlibet factum vel dictum potest esse scandalum» - 13. «Non sunt mali cogendi ad bonum» - 14. «Animus non est cogendus, sed cogenda est actio» - 15. «Coacta servitia Deo non placent» - 16. «Quicumque ad bonum cogitur solo timore non amore ducitur» - 17. «quies fidelium: ordo constitutus» - 18. «Discrimen soporis animae».
Selver B. Sahin
Full Text Available This paper examines some of the major ideational aspects of Timor-Lesteâ€™s foreign policy orientation in the post-independence period. Drawing upon the constructivist accounts of state behaviour, the paper situates Timorese leadersâ€™ foreign policy decisions in the broader context of their search to position the fledging nation in the global political order. It argues that Timor-Lesteâ€™s insecure state identity has shaped its leadersâ€™ foreign policy preferences in the post-independence period. This identity can be examined by separating it into two parts: the construction of spatial boundaries and the creation of a temporal â€œotherâ€. The former is evidenced by the leadershipâ€™s rhetorical emphasis on the countryâ€™s Portuguese heritage and their prioritisation of ASEAN membership, both of which are closely related to the consolidation of the young nationâ€™s political and cultural identity. The creation of a temporal other, as illustrated by the rise of political discourse emphasising sovereignty, reflects a wider transitional process that is embedded in the countryâ€™s transformation from colony to independent state under international supervision as well as the stateâ€™s transformation from â€œfragileâ€ or â€œfailingâ€ to â€œstableâ€. A detailed analysis of the basic aspects of Timor-Lesteâ€™s insecurities as a constitutive element of its foreign policy becomes instrumental to understanding the countryâ€™s nation-state-building experience since its separation from Indonesia in 1999, as it enters a new phase of socio-political structuring following the withdrawal of the international security presence in 2012.
Dawkins, Rosie Claire Hewitt; Oliver, Genevieve Frances; Sharma, Manoj; Pinto, Basilio Martins; Jeronimo, Belmerio; Pereira, Bernadete; Magno, Julia; Motta, Lara Alexandra; Verma, Nitin; Shephard, Mark
Once considered an affliction of people in high-income countries, diabetes mellitus is increasingly seen as a global epidemic. However, for many countries very little is known about the prevalence of diabetes and its complications. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of diabetes, and diabetic retinopathy, in adults in Timor-Leste. From March 2013 to May 2014, adult patients being assessed for cataract surgery at the Sentru Matan Nasional (National Eye Centre) in Dili, Timor-Leste had a point-of-care HbA1c measurement performed on the DCA Vantage device (Siemens Ltd) under a quality framework. A diagnostic cut-off of 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) HbA1c was used for diagnosis of diabetes. Ocular examination, blood pressure, demographic and general health data were also collected. Diabetic retinopathy assessment was carried out by ophthalmologists. A total of 283 people [mean age 63.6 years (range 20-90 years)] were tested and examined during the study period. Forty-three people (15.2%) were found to have diabetes, with a mean HbA1c of 9.5% (77 mmol/mol). Of these, 27 (62.9%) were newly diagnosed, with a mean HbA1c of 9.7% (83 mmol/mol) and a range of 6.6-14% (49-130 mmol/mol). Nearly half (48.1%) of people newly diagnosed with diabetes had an HbA1c over 10.0% (86 mmol/mol). Of those with known diabetes, only 68.8% were receiving any treatment. Mean HbA1c for treated patients was 9.9% (85 mmol/mol). Diabetic retinopathy was identified in 18.6% of people with diabetes, of whom half had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. This study estimates the prevalence of diabetes at 15% in adults in Timor-Leste, a substantial proportion of whom have evidence of diabetic retinopathy. This is consistent with regional estimates. With the majority of patients undiagnosed, and management of people known to have diabetes largely inadequate, point-of-care testing is a valuable tool to assist with diabetes case detection and management. Whilst only a preliminary estimate, our data provides
Full Text Available Informasi mengenai biologi populasi ikan kakap yang diduga merupakan stok bersama dan dimanfaatkan oleh Indonesia dan Australia masih sangat minim. Begitu pula informasi mengenai pengaruh interaksi antara alat tangkap terhadap kelangsungan reproduksi ikan kakap. Informasi-informasi tersebut diharapkan dapat menunjang pengelolaan perikanan kakap merah yang dilakukan di Laut Timor dan Arafura terutama dalam hal pengaturan alokasi upaya penangkapan dan jumlah alat tangkap. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai pengaruh interaksi dari alat tangkap pukat ikan dan pancing dasar yang memiliki ikan target yang sama yaitu kakap merah. Penelitian ini berbasis pada data komposisi panjang ikan demersal laut dalam yang tertangkap trawl ikan dan rawai pancing dasar vertikal yang beroperasi di Laut Arafura dan Laut Timor. Estimasi parameter biologi dan populasi dilakukan untuk memenuhi masukan bagi analisis yield per recruit. Hasil analisis menunjukkan adanya interaksi antar perikanan pukat ikan dan pancing rawai dasar yang mengeksploitasi ikan demersal di perairan tersebut. Dampak perkembangan perikanan pukat ikan terhadap penurunan produksi dan yield keseluruhan perikanan tangkap terlihat sangat signifikan. Information on the biology of snapper populations which had possibility as a shared stock utilized by Indonesia and Australia fisheries is still lack. Moreover information on the effect of interactions between fishing gears to the sustainable of the snapper resource. This information is expected to support the management of red snapper in the Timor and Arafura Sea, especially in terms of setting the allocation of effort and number of fishing gear. The objective of this study is to obtain information regarding the interaction effect from two different fishing gears i.e. trawl fishing gear and vertical bottom long line which targeted red snapper as the main target species. The research was based on length composition
Santos, Fabiana Almeida dos; Pinto, Maria da Graça; Melo, Rosilene de
O presente trabalho propõe uma discussão sobre o ensino de Língua Portuguesa na formação de professores doTimor-Leste a partir das experiências vivenciadas nas aulas aos professores-alunos do Bacharelato em Ciências da Natureza (Física, Química, Matemática e Biologia). Na oportunidade, buscou-se envidar esforços em tornar esses professores proficientes na leitura e escrita de textos em Língua Portuguesa, quando utilizaram-se estratégias de ensino voltadas para a inserção desses professores-al...
Andrew A Lover
Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently
Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Mazzini, Adriano; Vita, Fabio; Sciarra, Alessandra
The Java Island is characterized by an intense volcanic activity with more then 100 active volcanoes. Moreover, this island is also known by the presence of many mud volcanoes and hydrothermal springs. In particular, in the 2006 several sudden hot mud eruptions, with fluids around 100° C, occurred in the NE side of the island resulting in a prominent eruption named Lusi (contraction of Lumpur Sidoarjo) located along the major Watukosek strike-slip fault zone. The Watukosek fault system, strikes from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, intersects Lusi and extends towards the NE of the Java island. Conversely of the normal mud eruptions (cold fluids emitted in a short time period of few days), the Lusi eruption was characterized by a persistent effusive hot fluids emissions for a long-time period of, so far, nearly a decade. Moreover, the isotopic composition of emitted gases like Helium showed a clear magmatic origin. For this reasons we decided to investigate the near Arjuno-Welirang complex located on the same strike-slip fault. Arjuno-Welirang is a twin strato-volcano system located in the East of Java along the Watukosek fault, at about 25 km SW respect to the Lusi volcano system. It features two main peaks: Arjuno (3339 masl) and Welirang (3156 masl). The last recorded eruptive activity took place in August 1950 from the flanks of Kawah Plupuh and in October 1950 from the NW part of the Gunung Welirang. This strato-volcano is characterized by a S-rich area, with high T-vent fumarole at least up to 220° C (and likely higher), located mainly in the Welirang crater. In addition, several hot springs vent from the flanks of the volcano, indicate the presence of a large hydrothermal system. During July 2015, in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), we carried out a geochemical field campaign on the Arjuno-Welirang volcano hydrothermal system area, sampling water and dissolved gases from the thermal and cold springs located on the flanks of
Rui Daniel de Carvalho
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of Classical Swine Fever (CSFvaccination on pigs in Timor-Leste. The study was conducted by analyzing the percentage of CSF antibodyin pigs sera that obtained from pigs in four districts which were located in the hills and coast of Timor-Leste. Evaluation was also carried out by observing the dominant factor that affecting the increase ofantibody titers in the sera. A total of 240 pigs sera were taken before and after vaccination and thenchecked for antibodies against of CSF virus by using PrioCheck CSFV Ab ELISA kits (Prionics Ag. Twohundred and forty serums obtained from non-vaccinated pigs and 240 other serum obtained from the samepigs, after being vaccinated with CSF vaccine. Time interval from the first and the second serum collectionwas at least 14 days post-vaccination. The results showed there was a significant difference (P<0.01 forthe presence of antibody in vaccinated pigs compared with the unvaccinated. A total of 75% serum fromvaccinated pigs was found positive for the antibody containing, while only 16.7% of serum from nonvaccinatedpigs was positive. The odd ratio analysis showed that the most influential factor for theincrease of antibody titer against CSF virus was vaccination status. among the other factors of age, sexand geographical study.
Timor-Leste offers a rich case study of the array of discursive influences on medium-of-instruction (MOI) policy in multilingual, post-colonial developing contexts. MOI policy in this young nation is a site of tension between struggles to define national identity in the shadow of colonial language ideologies and the globalised discourses of…
J.A. van Ast (Jacko); A. Widaryati; M. Bal (Mansee)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Local success stories of sustainable forest management can inspire scientists and decision-makers. This article analyses the traditional ‘Adat’ institution that plays a role in the management of Grand Forest Park ‘Herman Yohannes’, in the Western part of Timor where
Da Costa Cabral, Ildegrada; Martin-Jones, Marilyn
This article reveals how center-periphery relations have unfolded, over time, in language policy processes in one nation--Timor-Leste--on the global periphery. We take a "longue durée" perspective on the language policy processes at work in this historical context, showing how different regimes of language were imposed, in the past, by…
Saqab, Muhammad Mudasar; Bourget, Julien; Trotter, Julie; Keep, Myra
Numerous extensional faults offset the passive margin strata of the northern Bonaparte Basin. This extensional deformation has been attributed to lithospheric flexure of the descending Australian Plate, in an overall convergence setting. Here we use an extensive 2D and 3D seismic dataset calibrated with well biostratigraphy and strontium (Sr) isotope age data to constrain the timing of deformation along the northern Australian margin during the Neogene. Analysis of fault throw and differential thickness variations give new insights on the propagation and slip history of the faults. Along-dip throw profiles exhibit 'D' shape distributions, skewed towards the top. Positive throw gradients above the throw maxima, coinciding with intervals of growth strata, indicate multiphase fault activity. Results indicate that post-rift extensional deformation initiated during the latest Miocene (ca. 6 Ma). The development of the modern Timor Trough (as a foreland basin) and Cartier Trough also commenced during this period. A second episode of increased tectonic activity occurred around the Pliocene-Quaternary boundary (ca. 3 Ma), and the deformation continued intermittently to the present-day. These new results are in agreement with the timing of initiation of collision between the Australian Plate and the Banda Arc and uplift of the Timor Island, recently derived from stratigraphic analysis in Timor. These regional tectonic events have profoundly affected the paleogeography of the Timor Sea and may explain major changes in oceanic circulation and climate during the Neogene.
Octavio P.M Marques
Full Text Available Building project as one of the construction services are filled with varying risks during the construction phase of the project implementation. At the stage of the project implementation, risks may arise either the risk of time, cost and those which affect the quality of the project. Therefore, we need to understand the risks at the construction phase and mitigation to the risks to meet in execution of project based on initial planning. The study was conducted to identify the risks in the implementation of construction projects of government buildings by using survey methods that aim to get the opinion of the respondents regarding the risks at implementation of the government building construction projects in the city of Dili - Timor Leste. Further, it was done a risk assessment to determine the major or main risks. Major risk is controlled through mitigation measures and allocation of risks to the parties directly involved in construction projects such as Project Owner, Technical Supervisor, Consultant Design, Consultant Supervision and Contractor. The analysis used in this study is a qualitative analysis. The results showed 64 risks identified in the implementation of construction projects there are 10 government buildings risks (16% with an unacceptable category, 18 risks (28% with the undesirable category, 28 risks (44% with acceptable category and 8 risks (12% with negligible category. Ownership of major / main risk to the parties directly involved in the implementation of construction projects such as the project owner, technical supervisor, consultant design, consultant supervision and contractors. The project Owner and Technical Supervision (Department of Public Works is expected to further enhance the ability to manage projects so not throwing responsibility in managing government projects. consultant design and sonsultant supervision to be more careful in design till supervision during the implementation period so as to meet the cost
Martins, João Soares; Zwi, Anthony B; Hobday, Karen; Bonaparte, Fernando; Kelly, Paul M
Background Timor-Leste changed its malaria treatment protocol in 2007, replacing the first-line for falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. This study explored the factors affecting the implementation of the revised treatment protocol, with an emphasis on identifying key constraints. Methods A mixed method approach drew on both qualitative and quantitative data. The study included data from District Health Services in seven districts, community health centres in 14 sub-districts, four hospitals, five private clinics, one private pharmacy and the country's autonomous medical store. In-depth interviews with 36 key informants, five group interviews and 15 focus group discussions were conducted. A survey was also undertaken at community health centres and hospitals to assess the availability of a physical copy of the Malaria Treatment Protocol, as well as the availability and utilization of artemether-lumefantrine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Results Many factors impeded the implementation of the new malaria protocol. These included: inadequate introduction and training around the revised treatment protocol; unclear phasing out of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and phasing in of the revised treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, and the rapid diagnostic test (RDT); lack of supervision; lack of adherence to the revised guidelines by foreign health workers; lack of access to the new drug by the private sector; obstacles in the procurement process; and the use of trade names rather than generic drug description. Insufficient understanding of the rapid diagnostic test and the untimely supply of drugs further hampered implementation. Conclusion To effectively implement a revised malaria treatment protocol, barriers should be identified during the policy formulation process and those emerging during implementation should be recognized promptly and addressed. PMID:22460007
Joaninho Xavier Hei
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the English course book of (Manual do Aluno INGLÊS 12.o ano de escolaridade/Students’ English Manual for 12th Year Schooling in Timor Leste. The activities in the reading and listening sections of the course book were performed to determine whether they emphasized on lower or higher levels of cognitive process. The study attempted to answer the following question: Do the cognitive levels of the activities that relate to the focus on reading and listening in the 12th grade English course book sufficiently represent all the six levels of the New Bloom Taxonomy of thinking skills? The objective of this analysis was to discover the reading and listening activities that can sufficiently promote the levels of cognitive process. The activities determined as the criteria for analysis were: Wh-questions, true/false question, yes/no question, multiple choice question, complete the sentence phrase, a chart, matching questions, statement question, and a key word request question. The activities of the questions were gathered, listed with the total numbers of 161 questions and analyzed according to the six levels of New Bloom’s Taxonomy. The results showed that 98 activities emphasized mostly on lower levels cognitive order while only 63 activities emphasized the higher levels of thinking skills. So, the course book mentioned above targeted as a resource for students to learn the language, not as a resource for students to develop thinking skills because it fails to equip learners with the activities requiring higher levels of thinking order. By implication, for the teacher/syllabus designer can be aware to modify their own learning material by integrating more higher-order questions to achieve higher levels of thinking skills. Keywords: Course book Activities Analysis, and New Bloom’s Taxonomy
Schubert, Sarah J; Lee, Christopher W; de Araujo, Guilhermina; Butler, Susan R; Taylor, Graham; Drummond, Peter D
The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for treating trauma symptoms was examined in a postwar/conflict, developing nation, Timor Leste. Participants were 21 Timorese adults with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed as those who scored ≥2 on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Participants were treated with EMDR therapy. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Symptom changes post-EMDR treatment were compared to a stabilization control intervention period in which participants served as their own waitlist control. Sessions were 60-90 mins. The average number of sessions was 4.15 (SD = 2.06). Despite difficulties providing treatment cross-culturally (i.e., language barriers), EMDR therapy was followed by significant and large reductions in trauma symptoms (Cohen's d = 2.48), depression (d = 2.09), and anxiety (d = 1.77). At posttreatment, 20 (95.2%) participants scored below the HTQ PTSD cutoff of 2. Reliable reductions in trauma symptoms were reported by 18 participants (85.7%) posttreatment and 16 (76.2%) at 3-month follow-up. Symptoms did not improve during the control period. Findings support the use of EMDR therapy for treatment of adults with PTSD in a cross-cultural, postwar/conflict setting, and suggest that structured trauma treatments can be applied in Timor Leste. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This research aims to analyze underlying factors affecting child malnutrition at Timor Tengah Utara district, NTT. The design was a cross-sectional study. Sample of this study was household that have underfive years old children residing in the areas of Plan International. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire, focus group discussion and in-depth interview. Nutritional status was measured using anthropometric measurement with weight and height indicators and child consumption was recorded using 24 hours food’s recall. Result showed that in three villages prevalence of malnourished children was high, which were 6.0% classified as severe underweight, 15.3% severe stunting and 0.7% severe wasting. There was no significant difference in term of nutritional status. Child malnutrition was influenced by low access to nutrition and health information, low nutrition knowledge and practices, and low family income. Key words: underfive children, nutritional status, Timor Tengah Utara
Health research is crucial to understand a country’s needs and to improve health outcomes. We conducted a scoping review and analysis of existing health data in Timor-Leste to identify the health research priorities of the country. Published and unpublished health research in Timor-Leste from 2001 to 2011 that reported objectives, methods and results were identified. Key findings were triangulated with data from national surveys and the Health Management Information System; 114 eligible articles were included in the analysis, the leading topics of which were communicable (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases and dengue) and non-communicable (eye and mental health) diseases. There were 28 papers (25%) on safe motherhood, child health and nutrition, of which 20 (71%) were unpublished. The review of national indicators showed high infant, under-five and maternal mortality rates. Burden of disease is greatest in young children, with respiratory infections, febrile illnesses and diarrheal disease predominating. There is poor access to and utilization of health care. Childhood malnutrition is an important unresolved national health issue. There are several obstacles leading to under-utilization of health services. The following topics for future health research are suggested from the review: nutrition, safe motherhood, childhood illness (in particular identifying the causes and cause-specific burden of severe respiratory, febrile and diarrheal diseases) and access to and use of health services. PMID:23452321
Full Text Available Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic region, however no molecular study has been performed on G6PD deficiency in Timor Island, Indonesia a malarial hyperendemic area which Proto Malay is the majority of the people in that island. To observe the frequency and molecular type of mutations in G6PD deficient Proto Malay people, 118 native people were screened using formazan ring test. Mutation in the G6PD gene were determined by MPTP (Multiple PCR using Multiple Tandem Forward Primers and a common Reserve Pimer method and confirmed by automatic sequencer. This study shows that three males have lower G6PD activity. Using MPTP method, a point mutation could be indicated in the two cases. Sequencing of the amplified products in 2 G6PD patients disclosed mutations of T383C in exon 5 and C 592 T in exon 6 in respective case. Our result documents point mutations in exon 5 and exon 6 in the G6PD gene of two Proto Malay people in Timor. These mutations are common in Asia region. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 210-3Keywords: mutations, G6PD, Proto Malay.
Ioannis Th. Mazis; Georgios – Alexandros Sgouros
The geophysical and geological submarine features (pockmarks, gas chimneys, salt domes, etc).,identified by multi-beam echosounders and sidescan sonars ,seismic surveys in the region South, South-west and South-east of Cyprus, as well as the corresponding international interest of investors, especially in the marine region of the Levantine Basin, lead to the conclusion that, from a geopolitical standpoint, Greece must be urged to accelerate the consolidation of its sovereign rights and unders...
Guest, Glenn D; Scott, David F; Xavier, Joao P; Martins, Nelson; Vreede, Eric; Chennal, Antony; Moss, Daliah; Watters, David A
Timor-Leste suffered a destructive withdrawal by the Indonesian military in 1999, leaving only 20 Timorese-based doctors and no practising specialists for a population of 700 000 that has now grown to 1.2 million. This article assesses the outcomes and impact of Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) specialist medical support from 2001 to 2015. Three programmes were designed collaboratively with the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and Australian Aid. The RACS team began to provide 24/7 resident surgical and anaesthesia services in the capital, Dili, from July 2001. The arrival of the Chinese and Cuban Medical Teams provided a medical workforce, and the Cubans initiated undergraduate medical training for about 1000 nationals both in Cuba and in Timor-Leste, whilst RACS focused on specialist medical training. Australian Aid provided AUD$20 million through three continuous programmes over 15 years. In the first 10 years over 10 000 operations were performed. Initially only 10% of operations were done by trainees but this reached 77% by 2010. Twenty-one nurse anaesthetists were trained in-country, sufficient to cover the needs of each hospital. Seven Timorese doctors gained specialist qualifications (five surgery, one ophthalmology and one anaesthesia) from regional medical schools in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Indonesia and Malaysia. They introduced local specialist and family medicine diploma programmes for the Cuban graduates. Timor-Leste has developed increasing levels of surgical and anaesthetic self-sufficiency through multi-level collaboration between the Ministry of Health, Universidade Nacional de Timor Lorosa'e, and sustained, consistent support from external donors including Australian Aid, Cuba and RACS. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Borzée, Amaël; Jang, Yikweon; Li, Jia-Tang; Miura, Ikuo; Perrin, Nicolas; Stöck, Matthias
In contrast to the Western Palearctic and Nearctic biogeographic regions, the phylogeography of Eastern-Palearctic terrestrial vertebrates has received relatively little attention. In East Asia, tectonic events, along with Pleistocene climatic conditions, likely affected species distribution and diversity, especially through their impact on sea levels and the consequent opening and closing of land-bridges between Eurasia and the Japanese Archipelago. To better understand these effects, we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear markers to determine phylogeographic patterns in East-Asian tree frogs, with a particular focus on the widespread H. japonica. We document several cryptic lineages within the currently recognized H. japonica populations, including two main clades of Late Miocene divergence (~5 Mya). One occurs on the northeastern Japanese Archipelago (Honshu and Hokkaido) and the Russian Far-East islands (Kunashir and Sakhalin), and the second one inhabits the remaining range, comprising southwestern Japan, the Korean Peninsula, Transiberian China, Russia and Mongolia. Each clade further features strong allopatric Plio-Pleistocene subdivisions (~2-3 Mya), especially among continental and southwestern Japanese tree frog populations. Combined with paleo-climate-based distribution models, the molecular data allowed the identification of Pleistocene glacial refugia and continental routes of postglacial recolonization. Phylogenetic reconstructions further supported genetic homogeneity between the Korean H. suweonensis and Chinese H. immaculata, suggesting the former to be a relic population of the latter that arose when the Yellow Sea formed, at the end of the last glaciation. Patterns of divergence and diversity were likely triggered by Miocene tectonic activities and Quaternary climatic fluctuations (including glaciations), causing the formation and disappearance of land-bridges between the Japanese islands and the continent. Overall, this resulted in a ring
Qiu, Jingya; Moore, Jason H; Darabos, Christian
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry-specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits. Manual data extraction was necessary because the GWAS catalog reports statistics such as odds ratio and P-value, but does not consistently include ancestry information. Currently, many statistics are derived by combining initial and replication samples from study populations of mixed ancestry. Analysis of all-inclusive data can be misleading, as not all SNPs are transferable across diverse populations. We used ancestry data to construct ancestry-specific human phenotype networks (HPN) centered on T2DM. Quantitative and visual analysis of network models reveal the genetic disparities between ancestry groups. Of the 27 phenotypes in the East Asian HPN, six phenotypes were unique to the network, revealing the underlying ancestry-specific nature of some SNPs associated with T2DM. We studied the relationship between T2DM and five phenotypes unique to the East Asian HPN to generate new interaction hypotheses in a clinical context. The genetic differences found in our ancestry-specific HPNs suggest different pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM among different populations. Our study underlines the importance of ancestry in the development of T2DM and its implications in pharmocogenetics and personalized medicine. © 2016 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hou, Xiaohui; Witter, Sophie; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hafidz, Firdaus; Julia, Fernanda; Lemiere, Christophe; Sullivan, Eileen B; Saldanha, Estanislau; Palu, Toomas; Lievens, Tomas
The objectives of this study were to understand the labour market dynamics among health workers, including their preferences and concerns, and to assess the skills, competence and performance (i.e. the 'know-do gap') of doctors working in Timor-Leste. This cross-sectional survey was implemented in all 13 districts of Timor-Leste in 2014. We surveyed 443 health workers, including 175 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives (about 20% of the health workers in the country). We also observed 632 clinical consultations with doctors, including 442 direct clinical observations, and tested 190 vignettes. The study highlights some positive findings, including the gender balance of health workers overall, the concentration of doctors in rural areas, the high overall reported satisfaction of staff with their work and high motivation, the positive intention to stay in the public sector, the feeling of being well prepared by training for work, the relatively frequent and satisfactory supervisions, and the good attitudes towards patients as identified in observations and vignettes. However, some areas require more investigations and investments. The overall clinical performance of the doctors was very good in terms of attitude and moderate in regard to history taking, health education and treatment. However, the average physical examination performance score was low. Doctors performed better with simulated cases than the real cases in general, which means they have better knowledge and skills than they actually demonstrated. The factors that were significantly associated with the clinical performance of doctors were location of the health facility (urban doctors were better) and consultation time (cases with more consultation time were better). Regression analysis suggests that lack of knowledge was significantly associated with lack of performance, while lack of motivation and equipment were not significant. The survey provides essential information for workforce planning and for
João Carlos Soares
Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitiaan mengenai persepsi masyarakat terhadap pengelolaan sampah padat perkotaan dilaksanakan di Kecamatan Dom Aleixo, Kabupaten Dili Timor Leste dengan sampel penelitiannya adalah rumah tangga yang ada di Desa Comoro dan Bairopite. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk: (1 mengkaji persepsi masyarakat terhadap usaha pemerintah dalam memberdayakan, menguatkan serta bagaimana menfasilitasi peranserta masyarakat dalam mengelola sampah rumah tangganya; (2 mengkaji kelemahan-kelemahan maupun permasalahan yang dihadapi Pemerintah Kota Dili dalam hal: (a merumuskan kebijakan dan peraturan daerah tentang pengelolaan sampah padat perkotaan di Kecamatan Dom Aleixo; (b bagaimana usaha pemerintah daerah menggerakkan masyarakat agar berperan serta secara aktif dalam kegiatan pengelolaan sampah rumah tangganya; (3 mengkaji struktur kelembagaan Pemerintah Kota Dili guna mempertegas pendelegasian wewenang institusi pengelolaan sampah perkotaan; (4 membantu menfasilitasi keterlibatan stakeholder dalam mendukung program pemerintah mengenai pengelolaan sampah perkotaan di Kabupaten Dili. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yang merujuk pada kegiatan lapangan atau survei. Dari populasi yang ada dipilih sejumlah sampel mengunakan teknik sampling yaitu secara random sampling. Teknik ini dipilih karena populasi sudah diketahui memiliki karakteristik yang homogen sehingga setiap individu yang terpilih sebagai sampel diyakini mampu menggambarkan karakteristik dari populasi tersebut. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara mix method yaitu gabungan antara analisis kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Teknik analisis ini dipilih dengan pertimbangan bahwa data yang telah diolah secara kuantitatif yaitu dengan teknik scoring diharapkan dapat di interpretasi secara lebih luas dan mendalam dengan teknik kualitatif. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli 2010 sampai dengan Agustus 2010. Hasil dari penelitian ini : (a untuk kepentingan pemerintah daerah
Este artigo examina as relações entre o discurso da justiça e a prática do ritual nos bandos do governo colonial português em Timor Leste, entre a segunda metade do século XIX e as primeiras décadas do século XX. Os bandos consistiam em ordens e instruções de comando emanadas pelo governador português em Díli, e comunicadas de forma cerimonial por oficiais às populações dos diversos reinos timorenses dispersos pelo país. Bandos eram um instrumento por excelência de governação colonial dos ass...
Kambaru Windi, Yohanes; Whittaker, Andrea
Qualitative research was undertaken among Dawan people living in Fatumnasi, West Timor, to investigate the reasons for the Dawan's retention of traditional houses, ume kbubu, in the face of a national development campaign to introduce modern, "healthy" homes (rumah sehat). Indoor smoke pollution from internal fires and poor ventilation is believed to contribute to poor respiratory health among this population. The study explored Dawan cultural constructions of health to find that ume kbubu are fundamental to the Dawan's sense of psychosocial well-being and ethnic identity. While rumah sehat are associated with prosperity, public image and social status they do not provide the warmth, security and emotional nurturance that the Dawan perceive as necessary for optimum health and to protect them from disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harris, R. A.
The active Banda arc/continent collision of the Timor region provides many important contrasts to what is observed in Taiwan, which is mostly a function of differences in the nature of the subducting plate. One of the most important differences is the thermal state of the respective continental margins: 30 Ma China passive margin versus 160 Ma NW Australian continental margin. The subduction of the cold and strong NW Australian passive margin beneath the Banda trench provides many new constraints for resolving longstanding issues about the formative stages of collision and accretion of continental crust. Some of these issues include evidence for slab rollback and subduction erosion, deep continental subduction, emplacement or demise of forearc basement, relative amounts of uplift from crustal vs. lithospheric processes, influence of inherited structure, partitioning of strain away from the thrust front, extent of mélange development, metamorphic conditions and exhumation mechanisms, continental contamination and accretion of volcanic arcs, does the slab tear, and does subduction polarity reverse? Most of these issues link to the profound control of lower plate crustal heterogeneity, thermal state and inherited structure. The thermomechanical characteristics of subducting an old continental margin allow for extensive underthrusting of lower plate cover units beneath the forearc and emplacement and uplift of extensive nappes of forearc basement. It also promotes subduction of continental crust to deep enough levels to experience high pressure metamorphism (not found in Taiwan) and extensive contamination of the volcanic arc. Seismic tomography confirms subduction of continental lithosphere beneath the Banda Arc to at least 400 km with no evidence for slab tear. Slab rollback during this process results in massive subduction erosion and extension of the upper plate. Other differences in the nature of the subducting plates in Taiwan in Timor are differences in the
Full Text Available In the early twentieth century the Dutch in the Netherlands Indies began a concerted effort to confirm their authority throughout the archipelago. This policy had dire consequences for some indigenous rulers in Netherlands Timor, whose kingdoms were virtually destroyed. Other rulers felt that by allying themselves with the Dutch they could strengthen their position and rid themselves of rivals. This was the case with the ruler of Amanuban, Raja Bil Nope, who invited the Dutch into his kingdom in 1906. By 1910, however, Bil Nope was totally disenchanted with the Dutch administration and rose in revolt. Nope and a small band of followers later died during a siege of his palace. There are a number of unexplained matters concerning the revolt and death of Bil Nope and the paper concludes with some conjecture that the whole affair was subject to a cover-up by the Dutch authorities.
Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; FINAL
This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime encompasses many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared under the auspices of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program) that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas where contaminants from Y-12 operations are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) are presented in Appendix A. Brief data summary tables referenced in each section are contained within the text; supplemental information and extensive data tables are provided in Appendix B
Wild, Kayli; Barclay, Lesley; Kelly, Paul; Martins, Nelson
To examine the impact of maternity waiting homes on the use of facility-based birthing services for women in two remote districts of Timor-Leste. A before-and-after study design was used to compare the number of facility-based births in women who lived at different distances (0-5, 6-25, 26-50 and > 50 km) from the health centre before and after implementation of maternity waiting homes. Routine data were collected from health centre records at the end of 2007; they included 249 births in Same, Manufahi district, and 1986 births in Lospalos, Lautem district. Population data were used to estimate the percentage of women in each distance category who were accessing facility-based care. Most facility-based births in Same (80%) and Lospalos (62%) were among women who lived within 5 km of the health centre. There was no significant increase in the number of facility-based births among women in more remote areas following implementation of the maternity waiting homes. The percentage of births in the population that occurred in a health facility was low for both Manufahi district (9%) and Lautem district (17%), and use decreased markedly as distance between a woman's residence and the health facilities increased. The maternity waiting homes in Timor-Leste did not improve access to facility-based delivery for women in remote areas. The methods for distance analysis presented in this paper provide a framework that could be used by other countries seeking to evaluate maternity waiting homes.
Ramke, Jacqueline; Brian, Garry; Naduvilath, Thomas; Lee, Lucy; Qoqonokana, Mundi Qalo
To estimate the 2010 prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision among Timor-Leste adults aged ≥40 years, and compare these to the results of a survey conducted 5 years previously. A population-based cross-sectional survey used multistage cluster random sampling proportionate to size to identify 50 clusters of 45 people each. Cause of vision loss was determined for each eye with presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18. A participation rate of 89.5% (n = 2014) was achieved. The gender-age-domicile adjusted prevalence was 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.5, 8.8) for 6/60, and 3.6% (95% CI 2.7, 4.4) for 3/60 blindness (better eye presenting vision worse than 6/60 and 3/60, respectively) among Timorese aged ≥40 years. Cataract caused most blindness (69.3% at 6/60). The population prevalence of low vision (better eye presenting vision of 6/60 or better, but worse than 6/18) was 13.6% (95%CI 12.1, 15.1), most caused by uncorrected refractive error (57.4%) or cataract (39.5%). The prevalence and causes of blindness were unchanged compared with 5 years earlier, but low vision was less common. Unusually for a developing country, Timor-Leste has initiated a cycle of evidence-based eye care in which, although with limitations, population data are periodically available for monitoring and planning.
Background Skin infections are a common public health problem in developing countries; however, they are rarely managed using a population based approach. Recent data on the burden of skin infections in Timor-Leste are limited. Our survey appears to be the only widespread survey conducted in more than 30 years and was designed to determine the baseline prevalence of some common skin infections in Timor-Leste. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey in 14 sites including community health clinics, schools and hospitals within four different geographical regions. Participants were examined for five conditions (scabies, pyoderma, fungal infections, leprosy and yaws) by a multidisciplinary team. Analyses were conducted using EpiInfo version 6.04d. Results We examined the skin of 1535 participants aged between four months and 97 years. The majority of participants were male, aged between 11 and 20 years and had at least one condition of interest (56.0%, 56.0%, and 63.1%, respectively). Fungal infections were the most common presentation (39.0%) and males were more commonly affected than females (42.3% vs 34.0%, respectively, pvalue < 0.0001). Among those people with more than one condition the two most common co-infections were scabies with either pyoderma or a fungal infection (38.0% and 32.0%, respectively). The survey identified 29 previously undiagnosed cases of leprosy and six cases of yaws. Conclusions Our findings indicate the need for a comprehensive programme to address these conditions. There are successful disease control programmes in place within the country and it is hoped a healthy skin programme could be integrated into an established disease control programme in order to maximise health benefits and resources. PMID:20219136
Kathriner, Andrew; Bauer, Aaron M; O'shea, Mark; Sanchez, Caitlin; Kaiser, Hinrich
We describe a new species of bent-toed gecko from a single specimen initially collected in 1924 by Malcolm Smith on Timor Island in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago of Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus celatus sp. nov. is distinguished from all other congeners by the following combination of characters: small adult size; without spinose tubercles on the ventrolateral body fold and along the lateral margin of the tail; 16 longitudinal rows of tubercles at midbody; 42 ventral scales between the ventrolateral folds at midbody; no transversely enlarged, median subcaudal scales; 17 subdigital lamellae (seven basal + ten distal) under the fourth toe; no abrupt transition between postfemoral and ventral femoral scale series. The specimen is the earliest confirmed record of the genus Cyrtodactylus for Timor, and it is the first putatively endemic gecko species described from this island.
Au Timor-Leste, l'édification de l'État a progressé sur plusieurs plans. Le pays est maintenant stable, mais le secteur de la sécurité éprouve encore de problèmes qui appellent un examen. Ce projet de recherche appliquée évaluera la légitimité des militaires et de la police aux yeux de divers groupes de Timorais et ...
Full Text Available The attitudes of the tertiary students who are likely to comprise the next generation of leaders are pivotal to understanding the challenges of nation-building and national identity formation in post-conflict settings such as Timor-Leste. This article examines post-independence debates over national identity in Timor-Leste, presenting the findings of a longitudinal survey (Dili, 2002, 2007 and 2010 of East Timorese tertiary student attitudes to national identity. In particular, in the wake of the 2006 political-military crisis, the paper examines the evidence for differences in attitudes between students from eastern and western districts, concluding that the few significant differences in attitudes peaked in the 2007 survey, and were associated with the overt politicization of regional identity within Dili, and concerns over post-independence leadership, rather than any genuine ‘ethnic’ or ‘regional’ variation in attitudes. The paper also examines significant changes in some youth attitudes since independence, including a significant increase in the acceptance of the co-official status of the Portuguese language in the tertiary student demographic since the early years of independence. The survey also highlights the ongoing importance of tradition and adat in understandings of political community, but reveals significant gender differences in attitudes towards the role of traditional authorities.
Hall, Charlotte; Gibbons, Margaret; Murphy, Dan; Nourse, Clare
Limited data regarding prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Timor-Leste exist. An observational study of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) results of women delivering at Bairo Pite Clinic in Dili, Timor-Leste was carried out. Of the 781 women included in the study, 80.5% (626/777) of women who had accessed antenatal care had been tested for HBsAg, of whom 2.2% (14/626) were positive. Of the remaining women, 83.2% (129/155) received a test at the time of delivery, of whom 5.4% (7/129) were positive. Overall prevalence of HBsAg positivity was 2.8% (21/755). Further studies are urgently needed to establish the prevalence of HBV infection in Timor-Leste, particularly in pregnant women. Findings from this study suggest that routine HBV immunisation of newborns should be instituted promptly. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Williams, Kate; Haire, Bridget G; Nathan, Sally
Little is known about the experiences of people with HIV in the small island nation of Timor-Leste. This study explored the HIV-related stigma experiences of adults aged between 18 and 40 living with HIV in Dili, Timor-Leste. Participants were interviewed on topics related to living with HIV, both as key informants describing the experience of others with HIV known to them, and also with respect to their own personal experiences. Findings suggest that people with HIV in Timor-Leste face stigma and discrimination in various contexts. In this predominantly Catholic country, perceptions of HIV and attitudes towards people with HIV appear to be commonly shaped by religious beliefs. In families and communities, participants encountered gossip, social exclusion and threats of violence. In health settings, participants experienced discrimination from health providers in the form of failing to maintain confidentiality and inappropriate treatment. The impact of stigma was profoundly negative and influenced participants' decision to disclose their status to others. Participants attributed stigma to a lack of information about HIV among the general public. Unless stigma reduction interventions also address the Church's role in shaping perceptions of HIV, education campaigns are unlikely to be effective in reducing HIV-related stigma.
Verheyen, W.; Hulselmans, J.; Wendelen, W.
We revised the taxonomic status of the putative Acomys spinosissimus complex based on the comparative study of specimen collections from Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, DR Congo and South Africa, by means of analysis of external morphology, craniometry, enzymes, mitochondrial DNA sequence...
RAND Corporation, 2015
The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…
Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio
One current strategy to overcome the issue of shortage of qualified health workers has focused on the use of community health workers in the developing countries to deliver health care services specifically to the most vulnerable communities in the rural areas. Timor-Leste is the one of the world's newest developing countries that has incorporated the traditional birth attendance in its health system through a family health promoter initiative in response to reproductive and child health, hence to improve primary health care delivery and increase number of healthcare workforce. The study utilized a non-systematic review of the literature using key words such as community health workers, traditional birth attendants, reproductive health, child health and health outcomes. A case study from Timor-Leste was also used. Traditional birth attendants have performed wide variety of tasks including outreach and case finding, health and patient education, referrals, home visits and care management. Evidence indicated that there were, to varying degrees, positive associations between traditional birth attendance training and maternity care. Traditional birth attendance training was found to be associated with significant increases in attributes such as knowledge, attitude, behavior, advice for antenatal care, and pregnancy outcomes. However, some challenges faced by traditional birth attendants' role in encouraging women to go to health center for preventive services would be the compliance and refusal of the referral. The implementation case study from Timor-Leste shows that integrating traditional birth attendance into a national healthcare system through Family Health Promoter program has been programmatic effective. It is recommended that the implementation should consider regular communication between health staff and community leaders in recruiting members of family health promoters, and the use of supportive supervision tools to identify weaknesses in the management of
Price, Jennifer A; Soares, Ana I F Sousa; Asante, Augustine D; Martins, Joao S; Williams, Kate; Wiseman, Virginia L
Despite public health care being free at the point of delivery in Timor-Leste, wealthier patients access hospital care at nearly twice the rate of poorer patients. This study seeks to understand the barriers driving inequitable utilisation of hospital services in Timor-Leste from the perspective of community members and health care managers. This multisite qualitative study in Timor-Leste conducted gender segregated focus groups (n = 8) in eight districts, with 59 adults in urban and rural settings, and in-depth interviews (n = 8) with the Director of community health centres. Communication was in the local language, Tetum, using a pre-tested interview schedule. Approval was obtained from community and national stakeholders, with written consent from participants. Lack of patient transport is the critical cross-cutting issue preventing access to hospital care. Without it, many communities resort to carrying patients by porters or on horseback, walking or paying for (unaffordable) private arrangements to reach hospital, or opt for home-based care. Other significant out-of-pocket expenses for hospital visits were blood supplies from private suppliers; accommodation and food for the patient and family members; and repatriation of the deceased. Entrenched nepotism and hospital staff denigrating patients' hygiene and personal circumstances were also widely reported. Consequently, some respondents asserted they would never return to hospital, others delayed seeking treatment or interrupted their treatment to return home. Most considered traditional medicine provided an affordable, accessible and acceptable substitute to hospital care. Obtaining a referral for higher level care was not a significant barrier to gaining access to hospital care. Onerous physical, financial and socio-cultural barriers are preventing or discouraging people from accessing hospital care in Timor-Leste. Improving access to quality primary health care at the frontline is a key strategy for
Tunogae,Toshiaki; Osanai,Yasuhito; Toyoshima,Tsuyoshi; Owada,Masaaki; Hokada,Tomokazu; Crowe,Warwick A.
Metamorphic reactions and P-T conditions of mafic granulites from Tonagh Island in the Archean Napier Complex were examined to evaluate the nature of mafic granulite which has suffered ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism. Although a peak mineral assemblage is preserved in plagioclase-orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene mafic granulites, initial mineral chemistry was completely reset by retrograde metamorphism. Evidence of UHT metamorphism was therefore inferred using lamella-bearing pyroxenes as...
Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.
The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire
Wardell, Rebecca; Clements, Archie C A; Lal, Aparna; Summers, David; Llewellyn, Stacey; Campbell, Suzy J; McCarthy, James; Gray, Darren J; V Nery, Susana
In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district. The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong evidence to
Anna V. Vitkalova
Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology and preliminary results of a complex camera trap study of the Amur leopard. The main studies were concentrated on protected areas: the Land of the Leopard National Park with its buffer zone and the Kedrovaya Pad' Biosphere Reserve, a total area of 3600 sq.km. The first results of the 2014–2015 survey period are presented. According to spatial capture-recapture analysis at least 57 adult Amur leopards occupied the Russian protected areas with the density of about 0.98 individuals/100 sq.km. The sex ratio (male : female was 1:1.2. Five breeding females with 11 cubs were registered in 2014 and 9 females with 16 cubs in 2015. The basis was founded for long-term monitoring of and fundamental research on the Amur leopard in the protected areas in Primorsky Krai.
Boger, S. D.; Spelbrink, L. G.; Lee, R. I.; Sandiford, M.; Maas, R.; Woodhead, J. D.
Detrital zircon U-Pb age data collected from the argillitic sedimentary rocks of the Timorese Aileu Complex and Gondwana Sequence indicate that both units were derived from a common source containing 200-600 Ma, 900-1250 Ma and 1450-1900 Ma zircon. The modally most significant age population within this range of ages dates to c. 260 Ma. The observed spectrum of ages can be traced to the eastern active margin of Pangaea and its immediate foreland, which today is best exposed along the northeast coast of Australia. Compared to the relative homogeneity of the detrital zircon age data, geochemical and Nd isotopic data show that the mudstones of the Aileu Complex are on average more siliceous, have higher K2O/Na2O, Rb/Sr, Th/Sc and yield notably older Nd TDM model ages when compared to those from the Gondwana Sequence. These data are interpreted to suggest that, although both sequences share a common east Pangaea provenance, they were eroded from different sections of this active margin and deposited in spatially separated basins. The present proximity of these units is a result of their tectonic juxtaposition during the Pliocene to Recent collision between the northern edge of the Indo-Australia plate and the Banda Arc.
Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Galimberti, Marco; Kousathanas, Athanasios; Newton, Claire; Ivorra, Sarah; Paradis, Laure; Vigouroux, Yves; Carter, Robert; Tengberg, Margareta; Battesti, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Falquet, Laurent; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Wegmann, Daniel
For many crops, wild relatives constitute an extraordinary resource for cultivar improvement [1, 2] and also help to better understand the history of their domestication . However, the wild ancestor species of several perennial crops have not yet been identified. Perennial crops generally present a weak domestication syndrome allowing cultivated individuals to establish feral populations difficult to distinguish from truly wild populations, and there is frequently ongoing gene flow between wild relatives and the crop that might erode most genetic differences . Here we report the discovery of populations of the wild ancestor species of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), one of the oldest and most important cultivated fruit plants in hot and arid regions of the Old World. We discovered these wild individuals in remote and isolated mountainous locations of Oman. They are genetically more diverse than and distinct from a representative sample of Middle Eastern cultivated date palms and exhibit rounded seed shapes resembling those of a close sister species and archeological samples, but not modern cultivars. Whole-genome sequencing of several wild and cultivated individuals revealed a complex domestication history involving the contribution of at least two wild sources to African cultivated date palms. The discovery of wild date palms offers a unique chance to further elucidate the history of this iconic crop that has constituted the cornerstone of traditional oasis polyculture systems for several thousand years . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria Raquel Freire
Full Text Available Partindo do debate sobre intervencionismo e em particular discutindo a abordagem das Nações Unidas em termos de manutenção e construção da paz, este artigo adota uma leitura crítica de ações e reações, discurso e prática, bem como de terminologias adotadas e praticadas, sem consensualização quanto a conteúdos. O artigo analisa em particular a intervenção das Nações Unidas em Timor-Leste procurando identificar os principais contributos e limites da organização na promoção da paz, segurança e estabilidade no país. O texto conclui com o entendimento de que é necessário procurar equilíbrios na gestão destes processos complexos de intervenção, partindo do reconhecimento do contributo que estas presenças externas pode efetivamente significar em termos de consolidação da paz, embora questionando abordagens, e sugerindo uma melhor articulação entre instrumentos e práticas na operacionalização de mandatos.
Full Text Available It is recognized that international water sector development work has issues with a lack of sustained positive outcomes. A large driver of this outcome is how NGOs work with communities to implement and then manage water services. Many NGOs tend to focus their efforts on improving their reach and organisational growth by continually engaging in new projects. This behaviour is largely driven by short-term donor funding models that reward extended coverage, leaving little focus on sustained outcomes. Similarly, community-based management (CBM schemes often impede sustained services as a result of the community’s limited capacity to operate and maintain the technology. To explore these complicated drivers on water service sustainability, we used causal loop diagramming to analyse the key aspect influencing the combined dynamics between NGOs, donors and CBM. We demonstrate this methodology through a study in Timor-Leste, where we gathered data necessary to develop and apply causal loop diagrams to analyse rural water supply program outcomes. The analysis of these diagrams allowed identification of leverage points used to suggest structural changes for sustained benefits of water services. These structural changes emphasize the importance of increased robustness and reliability of water technology and the associated impact this has on community satisfaction and, conjointly, on water service sustainability.
Silove, Derrick; Ivancic, Lorraine; Rees, Susan; Bateman-Steel, Catherine; Steel, Zachary
It is important to define subpopulations with mental health and psychosocial reactions in the medium-term following conflict to ensure that an appropriate array of services are provided to meet the diversity of needs. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on epidemiological data drawn from an urban and rural sample of 1221 adults (581 men and 640 women, response 82%) in post-conflict Timor Leste 4 years after the cessation of violence. The prevalence of PTSD was 4.9%; severe distress 4.8%; anger attacks 38.3%; and paranoid-like symptoms 10.9%. The best fitting LCA yielded three classes comprising those with no or minimal symptoms (86%), a class with anger-paranoia (13%) and a comorbid mental disorder class (1.5%) characterized by PTSD (100%) and severe distress (98%). The comorbid mental disorder class had an over-representation of men, the unemployed, residents in the urban area and persons with the greatest exposure to human rights trauma, murder and health stress. The anger-paranoia class experienced moderate levels of trauma and had an over-representation of urban dwellers, women, and those with higher levels of education. The analysis assists in clarifying the populations with mental disorder and adverse psychosocial reactions in need of intervention in the medium-term following conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H.
Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. PMID:24756151
Prasodjo, Rachmalina; Musadad, D Anwar; Muhidin, Salut; Pardosi, Jerico; Silalahi, Maria
Families in the Timor society of Indonesia have customarily used traditional houses, called Ume Kbubu, for confinement practices of a newborn baby and the mother during the first 40 days after birth. The practice, known as Sei (smoke) tradition, involves retaining heat, which is believed to foster healing, inside the house by continuously burning a wood burning stove. Exacerbated by inadequate ventilation in the traditional house, this practice results in poor indoor air quality and negatively affects the health of the mother and baby. Preliminary findings from a baseline study conducted in 2009 identified high levels of indoor air pollution in Ume Kbubu where mothers practiced the Sei tradition. Many respondents expressed that they suffered from respiratory health problems during the practice. On the basis of those results, a follow-up study was conducted in 2011 to develop and test a communication-focused behavior change intervention that would foster conversion of traditional houses into healthy Ume Kbubu and promote changes to traditional practices for better health outcomes. The study suggests that redesigning an Ume Kbubu house could promote better air quality inside the house and involving the community in the health intervention program led to positive changes in the Sei practice (i.e., decreasing the Sei period's length from 40 days to 4 days on average and attempting to reduce household air pollution). The study resulted in several recommendations in relation to sustained transformation to improve health behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively, two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members, designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp
Linder, Hans Peter
The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood
Full Text Available This research aims to explain the Influence of Social Capital, Entrepreneurship Orientation on Business Strategy and Performance of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME. The population of this study - owners and/or managers of MSME furniture processing industry and traditional weaving industry in district of Timor Tengah Utara with a sample of 40 respondents. Sampling technique is done using simple random sampling. The analysis data technique used in this research is Partial Least Square approach. The results of this study indicate that social capital and entrepreneurship orientation have a significant effect on the business strategy and performance of MSME.
Jadwiga Treder; Joanna Nowak
The response of osteospermum 'Denebola' and New Guinea impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches to different water potential of growing medium applied during whole growing period was investigated by measuring plant growth parameters and stomatal conductance (gS). After cutting establishment, four different irrigation treatments based on soil water potential were applied to osteospermum: at -0,5 , -3,0 , -10,0 , -20 kPa. In the case of impatiens the last water treatment was omitted. Pla...
Capelo, Ana; Pedrosa, Maria Arminda; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria
To better understand current curricular reforms in some Asia-Pacific countries that came out of conflict periods, documents and information posted on various national and international agency websites were analysed. In this paper we aimed to (i) present a brief description of the conditions under which new secondary education curricula are being…
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for detection of vector transmitted virus infections in humans designed for conventional PCR thermal cyclers were modified for real-time PCR using a LightCycler...
Nalle Agus Arnold
Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the Domestic Resources Cost (DRC of beef cattle raised either on grazing, or a tethering system of small-scale beef cattle farming. The study was done using a survey method. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively to consist of 60 farmers applying the grazing system and another 60 farmers applying the tethering system. The parameters measured were socio-economic characteristic, Domestic Resources Cost Ratio (DRCR and Private Cost Ratio (PCR. Data were analyzed by applying a method of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result of the study indicated that 87% of those farmers involved in the grazing system and 85% of those involved in tethered beef cattle production, were within the productive age range. In the grazing system, the cattle farmers upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed area gain the private and social profit levels which is IDR 406,284,-/AU/year and IDR 688,388,-/AU/year, respectively. Further, in the tethering system, the average of private and social profit gain is IDR 855,222,-/AU/year and IDR 1,385,712,-/AU/year, respectively. The small-scale beef cattle farming upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed has competitive and comparative advantages, indicated by the value of PCR and DRCR which are less than 1. The PCR value was 0.41 in the grazing system and 0.71 on the tethering system; hence, the DRCR of the grazing system was 0.29 and 0.60 of the tethering system.
Capelo, Ana; Cabrita, Isabel
Given that reforms involving how to deal with the past are extremely difficult, especially when the past involves memories of victimization, death, and destruction so widespread that a high percentage of the population is affected, the main purpose of this article is to describe how the general secondary education (GSE) curriculum in East…
Hawkins, Stuart; O'Connor, Sue; Maloney, Tim Ryan; Litster, Mirani; Kealy, Shimona; Fenner, Jack N.; Aplin, Ken; Boulanger, Clara; Brockwell, Sally; Willan, Richard; Piotto, Elena; Louys, Julien
The Wallacea Archipelago provides an extraordinary laboratory for the study of human colonisation and adaptation, yet few detailed archaeological studies have been conducted in the region that span the earliest phase of human settlement. Laili Cave, in northern Timor-Leste, preserves the oldest human occupation in this insular region with a cultural sequence spanning 11,200 to 44,600 cal BP. Small-bodied vertebrates and invertebrates were recovered to the lowest excavated levels, associated with highly concentrated stone artefacts. We report on human behavioural adaptations within the context of Pleistocene environments and changing landscapes using zooarchaeological, stone artefact, bathymetric, and experimental isotopic analyses. Results indicate that Pleistocene humans used the abundant local chert liberally and engaged in mobile broad-spectrum exploitation of invertebrates and fishes from marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments within close proximity of Laili Cave. The faunal assemblage indicates heterogeneous but relatively stable environments during the late Pleistocene. Variability in subsistence strategies over time appears to be a response to changing landscapes and concomitant local resources. This record contrasts with marine specialisations evident from other sites in Timor-Leste and within the broader Wallacean region.
Marilia Juvi Gonçalves
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Timor-Leste's population growth rate increased by 2.4%. Data in 2013 showed thecontraceptive use among women of childbearing is only 37.3%. This study was aimed to determine the relationshipbetween knowledge and attitudes with contraceptive use.Methods: A cross-sectional was conducted with 83 female respondents. The dependent variable was contraceptiveuse. Knowledge concerning contraceptive use and attitudes were the independent variables. Data were collectedthrough a self-administered questionnaire, however, for illiterate respondents, researcher assisted with questionnairecompletion. Data analysis was conducted in stages: univariate and bivariate (chi-squared test.Results: The majority of respondents 41 (49.4% were aged 25-34 years, 37 (44.6% respondents obtained high schooleducation, and 62 (74.7%, good knowledge regarding family planning (39.8% had positive attitude (45,8%. Resultsindicate that there was a significant relationship between maternal knowledge (p=0.006 and attitude (p=0.017 withcontraceptives use among women of childbearing age.Conclusion: Level of knowledge and attitude are correlated to contraceptive use among women at Comoro HealthCentre, Dili District, Timor Leste.Keywords: knowledge, attitudes, contraceptive use, Comoro Health Centre
Liddell, Belinda J; Silove, Derrick; Tay, Kuowei; Tam, Natalino; Nickerson, Angela; Brooks, Robert; Rees, Susan; Zwi, Anthony B; Steel, Zachary
There is growing research interest in understanding and analyzing explosive forms of anger. General epidemiological studies have focused on the DSM-IV category of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED), while refugee and post-conflict research have used culturally-based indices of explosive anger. The aim of this study was to test the convergence of a culturally-sensitive community measure of explosive anger with a structured clinical interview diagnosis of IED in Timor-Leste, a country with a history of significant mass violence and displacement. A double-blind clinical concordance study was conducted amongst a stratified community sample in post-conflict Timor-Leste (n=85) to compare a community measure of anger against the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) module for IED. Clinical concordance between the two measures was high: the area under the curve (AUC) index was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.98); sensitivity and specificity were 93.3% and 87.5% respectively. Response rates were modest due to the participant's time commitments. It is possible to achieve convergence between culturally-sensitive measures of explosive anger and the DSM-IV construct of IED, allowing comparison of findings across settings and populations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.
Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...
Morgan, Ryan FitzGerald
Deltoblastus is a genus of Permian blastoid comprised of 15 species, each differing based on subtle thecal morphology differences. Three new species are introduced here, based on characteristics present which distinguish individuals from established morphotypes. In order to guarantee a more complete understanding of the genus, a complex character matrix containing all 15 named and three new species was created, defining all species based on the presence or absence of 30 unique traits. Differences in character compositions give evidence for unique thecal morphologies, supporting the three new species which are proposed.
Ramke, Jacqueline; Brian, Garry; Naduvilath, Thomas
To characterize refractive error, presbyopia, and spectacle correction among adults aged ≥40 years in Timor-Leste in 2010 and examine the impact of the National Spectacle Program by comparing results to those obtained 5 years earlier. A population-based, cross-sectional survey sampled 50 clusters of 45 people each. Participants with uncorrected and undercorrected refractive error (presenting visual acuity <6/18, but ≥6/18 in the better eye with pinhole), uncorrected and undercorrected presbyopia (
Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A
Timor-Leste has a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. High proportions of the population have been reported as being anaemic, and extremely high proportions of children as stunted or wasted. There have been no published analyses of the contributions of STH to these morbidity outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using baseline cross-sectional data from 24 communities (18 communities enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial, and identically-collected data from six additional communities), analyses of the association between STH infections and community haemoglobin and child development indices were undertaken. Stool samples were assessed for STH using qPCR and participant haemoglobin, heights and weights were measured. Questionnaires were administered to collect demographic and socioeconomic data. Intensity of infection was categorised using correlational analysis between qPCR quantification cycle values and eggs per gram of faeces equivalents, with algorithms generated from seeding experiments. Mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression were used to assess the association between STH infection intensity classes and anaemia, and child stunting, wasting and underweight. Very high stunting (60%), underweight (60%), and wasting (20%) in children, but low anaemia prevalence (15%), were found in the study communities. STH were not significantly associated with morbidity outcomes. Male children and those in the poorest socioeconomic quintile were significantly more likely to be moderately and severely stunted. Male children were significantly more likely than female children to be severely underweight. Increasing age was also a risk factor for being underweight. Few risk factors emerged for wasting in these analyses. According to World Health Organization international reference standards, levels of child morbidity in this population constitute a public health emergency, although the international reference standards need to be critically
Silove, Derrick; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Steel, Zachary; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Da Costa, Zelia Maria; Rees, Susan
Cumulative evidence suggests that explosive anger may be a common reaction among survivors of mass conflict. However, little is known about the course of explosive anger in the years following mass conflict, or the psychosocial factors that influence the trajectory of that reaction pattern. We examined these issues in a 6-year longitudinal study (2004-2010) conducted among adult residents of a rural and an urban village in Timor-Leste (n = 1022). We derived a brief, context-specific index of explosive anger using qualitative methods. Widely used measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and severe psychological distress were calibrated to the Timor context. We developed an index of the cumulative sense of injustice related to consecutive historical periods associated with conflict in Timor-Leste. We applied partial structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine pathways from baseline explosive anger, socio-demographic factors, recurrent trauma, mental health indices (PTSD, severe psychological distress) and the sense of injustice, to explosive anger. Half of the sample with explosive anger at baseline continued to report that reaction pattern after 6 years; and a third of those who did not report explosive anger at baseline developed the response by follow-up. A symmetrical pattern of younger age, female gender and the trauma count for the preceding historical period predicted explosive anger at each assessment point. The sense of injustice was related to explosive anger at follow-up. Explosive anger was associated with impairment in functioning and conflict with the intimate partner and wider family. Sampling constraints caution against generalizing our findings to other populations. Nevertheless, our data suggest that explosive anger may persist for a prolonged period of time following mass conflict and that the response pattern is initiated and maintained by recurrent trauma exposure associated with a sense of injustice. Averting recurrence of mass
This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoronavirusâMERS-CoV. Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 7/7/2014.
Journal Homepage Image. The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on original work and reviews of all aspects of medicine. Communications bearing on clinical and basic research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special attention. The EAMJ has a 3 ...
SILVAROLLA MARIA BERNADETE
Full Text Available A ferrugem alaranjada das folhas (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br. é a principal moléstia do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica no Brasil. Numerosos híbridos portadores de fatores genéticos que conferem resistência às raças desse fungo foram sintetizados e testados no Centro de Investigação das Ferrugens do Cafeeiro (CIFC em Oeiras, Portugal. Dentre esses híbridos, destacam-se os derivados do cruzamento entre as variedades Caturra Vermelho x Híbrido de Timor (CV x HT e Vila Sarchi x Híbrido de Timor (VS x HT. A partir de 1968, progênies de Caturra Vermelho x Híbrido de Timor e Vila Sarchi x Híbrido de Timor foram enviadas pelo CIFC ao Instituto Agronômico e, posteriormente, a vários outros centros experimentais para fins de seleção. Em 1982, instalou-se no Centro Experimental de Campinas um experimento (EP299, contendo 30 progênies de CV x HT, 12 de VS x HT e 15 de `Catuaí', sendo 9 de `Catuaí Amarelo' e 6 de `Catuaí Vermelho'. Nenhum tratamento fitossanitário foi feito para controlar o agente da ferrugem. O mate-rial foi avaliado quanto à produção, colhendo-se as plantas individualmente em 1984-89, e quanto ao aspecto vegetativo associado à produção, maturação dos frutos, altura e diâmetro da copa e incidência da ferrugem. A progênie de Catuaí Vermelho LCH2077-2-5-81-2 foi utilizada como testemunha. Verificou-se a existência de alta correlação positiva entre todas as variáveis estudadas. Os tratamentos puderam ser classificados em dois grupos, segundo a análise em componentes principais (ACP. O primeiro grupo é representado pelas linhagens dos cultivares Catuaí Vermelho e Catuaí Amarelo e o segundo grupo, pelos derivados de CV x HT e VS x HT. As plantas pertencentes ao primeiro grupo são mais produtivas, têm maior índice de avaliação visual (IAV, são mais tardias e suscetíveis ao agente da ferrugem, são mais altas e apresentam maior diâmetro da copa do que as do segundo grupo. Material bastante promissor
Nie, Juan; Unger, Jennifer Anna; Thompson, Susan; Hofstee, Marisa; Gu, Jing; Mercer, Mary Anne
Increasingly popular mobile health (mHealth) programs have been proposed to promote better utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services. However, women who lack access to a mobile phone are often left out of both mHealth programs and research. In this study, we determine whether household mobile phone ownership is an independent predictor of utilization of maternal and newborn health services in Timor-Leste. The study included 581 women aged 15-49 years with a child under the age of two years from the districts of Manufahi and Ainaro in Timor-Leste. Participants were interviewed via a structured survey of knowledge, practices, and coverage of maternal and child health services, with additional questions related to ownership and utilization of mobile phones. Mobile phone ownership was the exposure variable, and the dependent variables included having at least four antenatal care visits, skilled birth attendance, health facility delivery, a postnatal checkup within 24 h, and a neonatal checkup within 24 h for their youngest child. Logistic regression models were applied to assess for associations. Sixty-seven percent of women reported having at least one mobile phone in the family. Women who had a mobile phone were significantly more likely to be of higher socioeconomic status and to utilize maternal and newborn health services. However, after adjusting socioeconomic factors, household mobile phone ownership was not independently associated with any of the dependent variables. Evaluations of the effects of mHealth programs on health in a population need to consider the likelihood of socioeconomic differentials indicated by mobile phone ownership.
Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl
East issue a "permanent visa" to the author previously ostracized in the East. Asked today how Franz Kafka is faring in the CSSR, Frantisek Kautman...meeting of the research group "Planned Utilization of Product-Money Relationships" at the Franz Mehring Institute of the Karl-Marx University...Bucharest, 1984. 2. Andrew Dick Wood, "Plywoods of the World," Edinburgh and London, 1963. 3. Franz Kollmann, "Furnire," Lagenholzer und
JPRS-SEA-90-022 25 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 141 REPRODUCED BY U.S...Uxitaaitod DTIC QUALITY arsPBCTESD, East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-022 CONTENTS 25 JULY 1990 BURMA Karen Guerrillas Threaten To Kill Foreign...Crossborder Smuggling in Minh Hai Continues [KINH TE DOI NGOAI 5 May] 18 Report on Timber Export Corruption Case, Vice Minister’s Involvement [NHAN
An investigation was conducted by the East Suffolk Health Authority to determine whether there were any geographical variations in the incidence of leukaemia over the last fifteen years in East Suffolk suggesting an environmental hazard, e.g. Sizewell Power Station. No areas were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of leukaemia cases although there did appear to be a cluster of cases in the Leiston area. (U.K.)
Niven, Hamish; Jose, Hayden; Rawstorne, Patrick; Nathan, Sally
There has been limited research on the experiences of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste. Previous research has suggested a phenomenon by which same-sex-attracted men and transgender women have sexual and intimate relationships with straight-identifying men or mane-forte. Transactional sex has also been reported to be common. This paper, which complements a larger national size estimation among key populations at risk of HIV, further investigates sexual and social identities and roles, including sexual practices, among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste. Fifteen interviews were conducted with a profile of participants from urban and rural settings. Using inductive thematic analysis, we found that gender identity played a significant role in sexual relationships, with mane-forte having power over their sexual partner(s). Transactional sex was also found to be customary. Some participants experienced stigma, discrimination, sexual coercion and violence, while others, such as mane-forte, did not. Our research suggests that gender identity and power are significant in sexual relationships between men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste, have implications for HIV prevention efforts and may reflect gender norms within the broader community.
111030 JPRS-EER-87-003 7 JANUARY 1987 East Europe Report < ’Approved for public i’«sio*£se; . ttetrifavtion Unlimited »niiim .... n »I...1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-EER-87-003 7 JANUARY 1987 EAST EUROPE REPORT CONTENTS AGRICULTURE HUNGARY Success of...that is, as long as the one who offers and pays a bribe remains liable to punishment. [Sentence as published] What is your opinion? [Krupauer] I do
The MCH/FP services for women in Africa offer today limited services that do not cater to the multiple and complex problems that women face during their long productive lives. Many women are infertile, many suffer and die from abortions, many cannot get access to safe contraceptive technology or safe and sterile delivery services. At the same time women are more stressed than ever before with a proletarianisation process that has left them very often as the sole providers for their households, and with an intensified role in agricultural production. The health needs of women have thus intensified and become increasingly shaped by their growing role in production and in the social reproduction of the household. The paper examines the changing health needs of women in East Africa, why MCH/FP health services have failed to meet these needs, and identifies the types of services that women increasingly require.
Khanal, Vishnu; Lee, Andy H; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra
Timor-Leste is a young developing country in Asia. Most of its infrastructure was destroyed after a long armed conflict for independence. Despite recent expansion of health facilities and investment in healthcare, maternal mortality remains high with most mothers still giving birth at home. This study investigated factors affecting the non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in the aftermath of the independence conflict. The Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 was the latest two-stage national survey, which used validated questionnaires to obtain information from 26 clusters derived from 13 districts of the country. Factors influencing non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, accounting for the cluster sampling and sample weight of the survey. Of the total 5986 participants included in the study, 4472 (74.8%) did not deliver their last child at a health facility. Lack of education for the mother (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 2.66) and her partner (OR: 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), low household wealth status (OR: 5.20; 95% CI 3.93 to 6.90), and rural residence (OR: 2.83; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), were associated with increased likelihood of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth. Working mothers (OR: 1.55; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.81), who had high parity (OR: 1.78; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.32) and did not attend antenatal care service (OR: 4.68; 95% CI 2.65 to 8.28) were also vulnerable for not delivering at a health facility. Conversely, the prevalence of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth reduced with increasing number of service components received during antenatal care visits (OR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). Only a quarter of Timorese women delivered at a health facility. In order to reduce maternal mortality, future interventions should target disadvantaged mothers from poor families, those residing
Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; Wardell, Rebecca; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A
No investigations have been undertaken of risk factors for intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in Timor-Leste. This study provides the first analysis of risk factors for intensity of STH infection, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR), examining a broad range of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors, among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. A baseline cross-sectional survey of 18 communities was undertaken as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with additional identically-collected data from six other communities. qPCR was used to assess STH infection from stool samples, and questionnaires administered to collect WASH, demographic, and socioeconomic data. Environmental information was obtained from open-access sources and linked to infection outcomes. Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression was undertaken to assess risk factors for intensity of Necator americanus and Ascaris infection. 2152 participants provided stool and questionnaire information for this analysis. In adjusted models incorporating WASH, demographic and environmental variables, environmental variables were generally associated with infection intensity for both N. americanus and Ascaris spp. Precipitation (in centimetres) was associated with increased risk of moderate-intensity (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-19.3) and heavy-intensity (ARR 6.6; 95% CI 3.1-14.1) N. americanus infection, as was sandy-loam soil around households (moderate-intensity ARR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-4.3; heavy-intensity ARR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.5; compared to no infection). For Ascaris, alkaline soil around the household was associated with reduced risk of moderate-intensity infection (ARR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.51), and heavy-intensity infection (ARR 0.04; 95% CI 0.01-0.25). Few WASH risk factors were significant. In this high-prevalence setting, strong risk associations with environmental factors indicate that anthelmintic
Gupta, S. M.; Malmgren, B. A.
The western Pacific water enters into the Timor Sea (tropical Indian Ocean) by the thermohaline conveyor belt, and this region is under the influence of the SW monsoon. The higher precipitation during the monsoon rains lower the surface salinity in the north-eastern Indian Ocean towards the Bay of Bengal; whereas, the Arabian Sea remains highly saline due to higher evaporation in the region surrounding Arabian deserts. The salinity contrast in the northern Indian Ocean is very unique, and the radiolarian micro-zooplanktons living in the surface water serve a very good proxy for the monsoonal changes in the surface sea-water temperature (SST) and salinity in the geological past. We studied radiolarian faunal variation in the core MD01-2378, located at ~13oS and ~121oE (1783 m water depth), at the inlet of the thermohaline circulation into the Timor Sea. We applied the modern radiolarian based artificial neural networks (ANNs) (Gupta and Malmgren, 2009) to derive the SST and salinity during August-October for the last 140 ka (the full last glacial cycle). Based on the mean estimates of the 10 ANNs, the root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) for SST is ~1.4oC with correlation between observed and estimated values r=0.98 (Gupta and Malmgren, 2009). Similarly, the RMSEP is 0.3 psu (r=0.94) for the salinity estimates. We derived paleo-SSTs and salinity values using modern radiolarian ANNs and the fossil radiolarian data generated from the core for the last 140-ka (Fig.1). The age model of the core is based on δ18O benthic oxygen isotope stratigraphy and 21 AMS 14C ages up to ~30-ka (Holbourn et al., 2005). Paleo SST-summer varied between 22-28.5oC, and it is in very good agreement with the δ18O benthic record of Holbourn et al. (2005) defining the Last Glacial Maximum (~24 ka) and the Eemian (~125 ka) stages. The salinity fluctuated between 34-35 psu, and compared well with oxygen isotope record representing the LGM and Eemian periods. We gratefully acknowledge
W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley
Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. METHODS: A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response and qualitative interviews (n = 77 was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities; gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. RESULTS: Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2% were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X(2 (2 = 12.93 p = 0.0016. Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08-2.77; victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48-3.68; war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09-3.50; ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.77; extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08-1.39; and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35-3.28. In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and
Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary
Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X(2) (2) = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08-2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48-3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09-3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08-1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35-3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor
Kennedy, Elissa; Gray, Natalie; Azzopardi, Peter; Creati, Mick
Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report data for unmarried adolescents and report age-disaggregated data
East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 5 May 2002. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND KHA'I' CHEWING AMONG UNIVERSITY INSTRUCTORS IN ETHIOPIA. Y. Kebede. MD, MPH, Gondar College of Medical Sciences, PO. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND KHAT CHEWING AMONG UNIVERSITY ...
The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...
East African Medical Journal Vol: 93 No. 10 (Supplement) October 2016. UPTAKE OF ISONIAZID PREVENTIVE THERAPY AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG HIV POSITIVE. PATIENTS IN AN URBAN HEALTH CENTRE, KENYA. E.N. Omesa, MBChB, MPH, Resident, Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training ...
East African Medical Journal Vol: 93 No. 10 (Supplement) October 2016. AN ASSESSMENT OF WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE (WASH) PRACTICES AND QUALITY OF ROUTINELY. COLLECTED DATA IN MACHAKOS COUNTY KENYA. D. M. Kavoo, MSc, HND-CHN, RM, RN, S. H. Ali, MBChB, MPH, Ministry of ...
TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 , VmR ...U..ON 3TA.... A East Europe JPRS-EER-90-105 CONTENTS 17 July 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC PNUC...achieve, to [MTI [Hungarian Telegraph Agency] report: "In Japan use the language of sports , a track on which each com- They Picked Esztergom"] petitor
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...
Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems of East Asia, a better understanding of relationships between climate change and net primary productivity (NPP distribution is important to predict future carbon dynamics. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal-spatial patterns of NPP in East Asia (10°S - 55°N, 60 - 155°E from 1982 to 2006 using the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS model. Prior to the regional simulation, the annual simulated NPP was validated using field observed NPP demonstrating the ability of BEPS to simulate NPP in different ecosystems of East Asia.
Christin Debora Nabuasa
Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is an indicator of chronic malnutrition that reflects problem of overall social economic condition in the past and as a manifestation of further consequences of the prevalence of low birth weight and undernutrition in children underfive and absence of supreme catch-up growth in the followingyears. Stunting brings impact to physical growth disorder that results in low capacity in working memory, learning memory, visuospatial ability and cognitive function. Low economic condition, rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake for a long time cause high prevalence of stunting in children underfives. The result of basic health survey 2007 showed the prevalence of stunting at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur was 46.7%, in District of Timor Tengah Utara was 59.6% and at Subdistrict of Biboki Utara in two subsequent years were 64.6% and 60.2%.Objectives: To identify association between history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake and stunting in children of 24-59 months in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara District of Timor Tengah Utara Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur.Methods: The study was observational with case control design. Research instrument was questionnaire that was used to identify history of rearing pattern, eating pattern and nutrient intake through recall 4x24 hours subsequently. The study was carried out in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara with subject of the study were children of 24-59 months old involving a total of 152 subjects consisting of 76 children underfive as cases and 76 as control.Results: History of inadequate rearing pattern was 53.9%, eating pattern 55.9%, energy intake 55.9%, protein intake 52.6%, calcium intake 52.0%, infection disease 51.3%, family economy 61.8%, food tenacity 71.7%. The result of bivariate analysis showed variables of history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, infection disease, family economy had significant association (p<0
Pinto, Domingos; Shrestha, Sangam; Babel, Mukand S.; Ninsawat, Sarawut
Groundwater plays an important role for socio-economic development of Comoro watershed in Timor Leste. Despite the significance of groundwater for sustainable development, it has not always been properly managed in the watershed. Therefore, this study seeks to identify groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, using geographical information systems and remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process technique. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five classes and validated with the recorded bore well yield data. It was found that the alluvial plain in the northwest along the Comoro River has very high groundwater potential zone which covers about 5.4 % (13.5 km2) area of the watershed. The high groundwater potential zone was found in the eastern part and along the foothills and covers about 4.8 % (12 km2) of the area; moderate zone covers about 2.0 % (5 km2) of the area and found in the higher elevation of the alluvial plain. The poor and very poor groundwater potential zone covers about 87.8 % (219.5 km2) of the watershed. The hilly terrain located in the southern and central parts of the study area has a poor groundwater potential zone due to higher degree of slope and low permeability of conglomerate soil type. The demarcation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed will be helpful for future planning, development and management of the groundwater resources.
Full Text Available The response of osteospermum 'Denebola' and New Guinea impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches to different water potential of growing medium applied during whole growing period was investigated by measuring plant growth parameters and stomatal conductance (gS. After cutting establishment, four different irrigation treatments based on soil water potential were applied to osteospermum: at -0,5 , -3,0 , -10,0 , -20 kPa. In the case of impatiens the last water treatment was omitted. Plants were evaluated when they reach one ofthe three growth stages: lateral shoots development, visible flower buds (osteospermum or beginning of flowering (impatiens and at flowering. All plants produced with a moderate water deficit (irrigation at -3 and -10 kPa were more compact than plants irrigated at -0,5 kPa but their flowering were not affected. Strong decrease in pIant growth and flowering was observed when plants were irrigated at the lowest water potential (-20 kPa. However, for impatiens the highest irrigation frequency was also not favorable. As a result of water stress the decrease in stomatal conductance (g~ in both plants was observed. Osteospermum was more resistant to water stress than impatiens.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, Timor-Leste successfully obtained its first Global Fund grant for a three-year programme for malaria control. The grant aimed to reduce malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 30 % by the end of the implementation. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the impact of the grant implementation. Fifty-eight in-depth interviews, eight group interviews, 16 focus group discussions, and on-site observations were used. Morbidity data reported to the Ministry of Health were also examined to assess trends. Results The National Malaria Programme with funding support from the Global Fund grant and other development partners contributed considerably to strengthening malaria control and the general health system. It also brought direct and indirect benefits to pregnant women and to the community at large. However, it failed to achieve the stated objective of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by 30 %. The implementation was hampered by inadequate human resources, the rigidity of Global Fund rules, weak project management and coordination, and inadequate support from external stakeholders. Conclusion Despite limitations, the grant was implemented until the agreed closing date. Considerable contributions to malaria control, health system, and the community have been made and the malaria programme was sustained.
Background In 2003, Timor-Leste successfully obtained its first Global Fund grant for a three-year programme for malaria control. The grant aimed to reduce malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 30 % by the end of the implementation. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the impact of the grant implementation. Fifty-eight in-depth interviews, eight group interviews, 16 focus group discussions, and on-site observations were used. Morbidity data reported to the Ministry of Health were also examined to assess trends. Results The National Malaria Programme with funding support from the Global Fund grant and other development partners contributed considerably to strengthening malaria control and the general health system. It also brought direct and indirect benefits to pregnant women and to the community at large. However, it failed to achieve the stated objective of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by 30 %. The implementation was hampered by inadequate human resources, the rigidity of Global Fund rules, weak project management and coordination, and inadequate support from external stakeholders. Conclusion Despite limitations, the grant was implemented until the agreed closing date. Considerable contributions to malaria control, health system, and the community have been made and the malaria programme was sustained. PMID:22823965
Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Thorpe, Rosamund; Murray, Samantha; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Mira; Tol, Wietse; Silove, Derrick
Bride price is a widespread custom in many parts of the world, including in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We hypothesised that problems relating to the obligatory ongoing remittances made by the husband and his family to the bride's family may be a source of mental disturbance (in the form of explosive anger and severe mental distress) among women. In addition, we postulated that problems arising with bride price would be associated with conflict with the spouse and family, poverty and women's preoccupations with injustice. A mixed-methods study comprising a total community household survey and semistructured qualitative interviews. Two villages, one urban, the other rural, in Timor-Leste. 1193 married women participated in the household survey and a structured subsample of 77 women participated in qualitative interviews. Problems with bride price showed a consistent dose-effect relationship with sudden episodes of explosive anger, excessive anger and severe psychological distress. Women with the most severe problems with bride price had twice the poverty scores as those with no problems with the custom. Women with the most severe problems with bride price also reported a threefold increase in conflict with their spouse and a fivefold increase in conflict with family. They also reported heightened preoccupations with injustice. Our study is the first to show consistent associations between problems with bride price obligations and mental distress, poverty, conflict with spouse and family and preoccupations with injustice among women in a low-income, postconflict country.
off as of 7 p.m. The flickering light penetrates dark thoughts—of a small haul on the black market, the bribe money for corrupt officials. "That is...INFORMATIONSERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 tO no East Europe JPRS-EER-88-019 CONTENTS 7 MARCH 1988 POLITICAL BULGARIA Territory, Population of New...Meeting Reported [GAZETA POMORSKA, 29 Oct 87] 28 Free University Society Meeting [TRYBUNA LUDU, 19 Nov 87] 28 ROMANIA Hunger, Corruption Drive
Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage....
formerly East Timor) endured decades of conflict and massive human rights violations under Indonesian rule. Timor-Leste suffered high rates of political violence from 1975 until it achieved independence in 1999. Aceh fought for independence for ...
During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface
Conceição, Fernando da
Dissertação de mestrado em Língua, Literatura, Cultura Inglesas e Norte- Americana O presente trabalho é um estudo comparativo entre duas culturas indígenas de dois povos, especialmente de grupos nativos da América do Norte e do grupo étnico Mambae, do subdistrito de Ainaro, em Timor-Leste. Em séculos passados, os dois povos eram tradicionalmente animistas e criam nos seus antepassados e no sobrenatural de acordo com as suas perspetivas. Os nativos da América do Norte, através ...
This paper is a critical review of east German privatization policy. It is argued that the restitution of old property rights has been a major obstacle to investment and that the attempt to sell two thirds of an economy in the market place is bound to be a failure. Such an attempt implies serious macro and microeconomic stock-flow problems which erode the sales prices of Treuhand assets, induce the Treuhand to slow down its sales, and reduce private investment. By combining a participation mo...
22161 East Europe JPRS-EER-92-160 CONTENTS 19 November 1992 BULGARIA Commodity Markets Trade With Albania [168 CHASA 13 OctJ 1 Personality...93CH0068A Prague CESKY DENIK in Czech 24 0ct92p 1 [Commentary by Milan Caha: "Consent as a Bribe "] [Text] The crisis around the Gabcikovo-Nagymarosz hydro...solution based on using the Danube’s original riverbed, the Czech representation underesti- mated the situation. Consent to variant C became a bribe to
243113 JPRS-KAR-88-015 18 JULY 1988 -JPRS Repor East Asia Korea \\s #^ \\fl """telST^BXrtiOl^ blArEMENT Appro^6^ foi pub Distribution... Asia Korea JPRS-KAR-88-015 CONTENTS 18 July 1988 OLYMPICS TONG-A ILBO Discusses Co-Hosting Possibility SOUTH KOREA POLITICAL PPD Requests...tries should be thoroughly investigated. The main opposition party also called for an investiga- tion into whether an alleged bribe worth 6.25
Dressler, J; Müller, E
Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.
Full Text Available Organizing Alert Village is one of the efforts made by the North Central Timor Regency for improving maternal and child health. This study aims to assess the viability and form of participation in the organization of the standby system in particular at the level of the village as well as the specific tradition naketi. The study was conducted in August-November 2012 at the village health center Bijaepasu Tuabatan in the region, as well as the village health center Noeltoko and Noepesu region Eban. Types of non-intervention research with exploratory design. Information was obtained through in-depth interviews and direct observation. As informants are community leaders, religious leaders, LKMD, midwives and members of the network. There were six networks in each village that notification, transportation, planning, funding, and Blood Exclusive breastfeedin, but there is also a network of Community Total Sanitation (STBM in Tuabatan Village and Disaster networking in Noeltoko Village.Networking meetings are conducted regularly every month, led the meeting with an agenda initiator activity reports of each network , the problems that occurred during the current month as well as alternative solutions. There is a common tradition Naketi at between 7-9 months of gestation, namely the recognition of the wives to their husbands face to face followed by recantation married to a big family (parents/in-laws. Community-based alert system through idle villagers networking proved effective enough to increase public awareness of health in their communities. Indicators of success, terdatanya all pregnant women and women giving birth by the people themselves through their networks, not by medical personnel. All efforts deliveries in health facilities involves a commitment with all networks. Discussion and dialogue is quite intensive in networking meeting to adequately describe their high spirits for the improvement of health in their village. Naketi tradition as a
Camerlengo, A.L.; Saadon, M.N.; Awang, M.; Somchit, H.; Rang, L.Y.
The objective of this paper is to learn the variability of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and insolation in East Malaysia. The main results of our study are: (1) a gentle pressure gradient is observed at the east coast in the boreal winter, (2) smaller atmospheric pressure values are noted during the first inter-monsoon period all across East Malaysia, (3) lesser insolation values are observed in Sarawak and at the east coast during the boreal winter as compared to the boreal summer, and (4) a poleward increase of insolation is registered. (author)
Full Text Available Daily evapotranspiration (EVPT of two bedding plants osteospermum 'Denebola' and impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches was measured by weighing method, together with assessment of indoor climate parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity and leaf area index (LAI at different growth phases. The evaporation inside the greenhouse as affected by climatic factors i.e.: solar radiation, temperature, humidity and air velocity was also measured using Piche's evaporometer. Plants were irrigated according to soil water potential (irrigation at -0,5; -3; -10 and -20 kPa. Irrigation at high water potential decreased plant growth and leaf area of both plants. LAI of osteospermum decreased as water deficit increased. In the case of impatiens, the highest LAI at full flowering obtained plants irrigated at -3 kPa. The actual, daily EVPT of plants irrigated at -0,5 kPa increased with plant growth in the case ofosteospermum while that of impatiens remained at similar level. At flowering water stress decreased strongly EVPT of osteospermum and in lesser extent EVPT of impatiens. Osteospermum irrigated at -0,5 kPa had 2,5 higher EVPT than impatiens. For both plants good, positive correlation between EVPT and daily mean temperature, temperature between 7-17 h and evaporation according to Piche's evaporometer readings were obtained. As expected EVPT was negatively correlated with relative humidity, irrespective the growth phase and soil water potential. The correlation between EVPT and solar radiation, was changed during plant growth due to differences in temperature under shading screen, used during sunny days.
Liu, Wei; Baudin, François; Moreno, Eva; Dewilde, Fabien; Caillon, Nicolas; Fang, Nianqiao; Bassinot, Franck
Total organic carbon (TOC) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) records from different water depths in the Timor Sea (NE Indian Ocean) are compared in order to better reconstruct past changes in pelagic productivity, highlight the impact of preservation at depth, and unravel the interplay of organic carbon and carbonate sedimentation. New data are presented for core MD01-2376 located at 2376 m depth. These results are compared, over the last 240 ka, with published data on two neighboring cores (MD01-2378, 1783 m and MD98-2166, 3875 m). TOC fluctuations show strong glacial/interglacial variations and Milankovitch-type oscillations (i.e., dominant frequencies centered on the 100, 41, and 23 ka bands), with an enrichment during cold periods that reflects an increase in primary productivity as well as a lesser decomposition of organic matter with depth. During interglacials, TOC values are lower and show a stronger gradient with depth of deposition than during glacials. This suggests an overall better ventilation of deepwater masses and a steeper vertical gradient in the oxygen content, possibly associated to the upward extension of the oxygen-rich deep waters relative to the glacial situation. Temporal fluctuations in the CaCO3 records do not show such a glacial-interglacial pattern but reveal precession- and obliquity-related oscillations. Fluctuations in the 19-23 ka bands are only observed in the shallowest core, while fluctuations in the 41 ka band are clearly expressed in the two deepest cores, suggesting that this signal is more directly related to changes in carbonate preservation at the seafloor.
Joshi, Mary Sissons; Carter, Wakefield
Following Weinstein’s (1980) pioneering work many studies established that people have an optimistic bias concerning future life events. At first, the bulk of research was conducted using populations in North America and Northern Europe, the optimistic bias was thought of as universal, and little attention was paid to cultural context. However, construing unrealistic optimism as a form of self-enhancement, some researchers noted that it was far less common in East Asian cultures. The current study extends enquiry to a different non-Western culture. Two hundred and eighty seven middle aged and middle income participants (200 in India, 87 in England) rated 11 positive and 11 negative events in terms of the chances of each event occurring in “their own life,” and the chances of each event occurring in the lives of “people like them.” Comparative optimism was shown for bad events, with Indian participants showing higher levels of optimism than English participants. The position regarding comparative optimism for good events was more complex. In India those of higher socioeconomic status (SES) were optimistic, while those of lower SES were on average pessimistic. Overall, English participants showed neither optimism nor pessimism for good events. The results, whose clinical relevance is discussed, suggest that the expression of unrealistic optimism is shaped by an interplay of culture and socioeconomic circumstance. PMID:23407689
Chang, S. J.; CHO, S.
Japan island region is one of the most seismically active region in the world. As a large number of earthquakes have recently occurred along circum-Pacific belt called the ring of fire, concern over earthquakes is increasing in South Korea close to Japan. In this study, we perform seismic imaging based on relative S-wave travel-times to examine S-wave velocity upper mantle structure of East Asia. We used teleseismic events recorded at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) network and F-net network operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Relative travel-time residuals were obtained by a multi-channel cross-correlation method designed to automatically determine accurate relative phase arrival times. The resulting images show high-velocity anomalies along East and South side of Japan island region. These anomalies may indicate subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates, respectively. The velocity structure beneath southwest Japan is revealed very complex because the two slabs interact with each other there. Velocity structure of East Asia is useful to understand the tectonic evolution and the mechanism of earthquakes that occur in this region.
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig
The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...
Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico
Abstract Objective To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Methods Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4–5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country’s Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Findings Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Conclusion Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations. PMID:27994284
This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.'MISR', as it turns out, is the
Full Text Available This research was carried out in Tanjung Bastian Beach, on February and March 2009. The aim of this research is to identify composition, structure and environment condition of mangrove vegetation in Tanjung Bastian Beach, North Middle East Regency, Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur.Research method used was observation and squares sampling technique that straight with beach line toward upland. Data was analyzed using vegetation analysis.The result of this research shows that Tanjung Bastian mangrove with mangrove thickness about 50 – 1000 m, arranged by 29 type mangrove vegetation which consist of 11 major mangrove, 5 minor mangrove and 13 mangrove associate. In the A location where the activity was high, Significant Value Index of plant level and highest plant, dominated by Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 79,49% and 99,88%, while for pole level and seedling, dominated by Rhizophora apiculata 106,93% and 50,02%. In B location, the highest INP of plant level, pole and seedling dominated by B. gymnorrhiza with score 62,03%; 99,57%; 108,52% and 48,22%. B. gymnorrhiza also dominates for plant level, pole and seedling in C location with each value 55,05%; 49,68%; 69,39% and 35,81%. B. gymnorrhiza is predicted to dominate mangrove trees population in the Tanjung Bastian mangrove area. This is indicated with high population of seedling level and pole in the location with medium activity level and nature forest. Vegetation Variety Index Tanjung Bastian beach mangrove range between 0.6774 -1,1513, catagorized as poor.Destruction level of mangrove vegetation in C location nature forest is still in good category, while for B and A location medium and high activity is categorized as damage mangrove forest according to SK MENLH RI No. 201 Year 2004, about Standard Criteria and Standard of Mangrove Damage Principle.Condition of basic substrate in Tanjung Bastian mangrove dominated by sandy loam with organic-C range between 0,40 -4,04%. N value, range between 0,03 -0
Maria Denise Guedes
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2016v34n2p365 O presente artigo visa à sistematização dos resultados de estudos preliminares sobre os desafios e possibilidades de desenvolvimento de um trabalho de cooperação internacional compartilhada em Timor-Leste. Nesse sentido, partindo da problematização do papel da Cooperação Internacional para o Desenvolvimento nos países em desenvolvimento, tem-se como hipótese inicial que, após a restauração da independência, em 2002, e com a chegada das agências internacionais de cooperação, que aportaram em Timor-Leste com o objetivo de “ajudar” na construção do Estado-Nação, o maior desafio que o país vive é o enfrentamento da contradição entre, por um lado, atender às exigências das agências internacionais, capitaneadas pela Organização das Nações Unidas e pelo Banco Mundial, para colocar o Estado timorense e suas instituições nos trilhos da “globalização” e, por outro, defender e preservar sua identidade cultural. Portanto, com base em estudos de natureza bibliográfica, nos pressupostos teórico-metodológicos da dialética marxista e no pensamento de Paulo Freire, bem como na experiência vivida pelos autores por meio do Programa de Qualificação de Docentes e Ensino de Língua Portuguesa em Timor-Leste, conclui-se que o compromisso, a vontade política e o respeito pelas diferenças culturais entre os agentes envolvidos nas ações de cooperação são ingredientes necessários para superar os desafios e avançar na construção de uma relação de cooperação internacional compartilhada.
This paper presents a study about petroleum and natural gas reserves in East countries (former USSR, Middle Europe). Statistical data about petroleum production and petroleum products consumption are also given. 10 figs
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...
Palmses toimub sel nädalal rahvusvahelise stsenaariumikoolituse East of Eden seminar. Koolituse koordinatsioonikeskus tegutseb alates 2005.aastast Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse juures, Eesti--poolseks koordinaatoriks Anu Ernits
houses a huge building complex. There used to be a girls’ camp there, the residents of which would pick apricots and help cultivate the vineyards...more export opportunities. Our main interest in third world countries is concen- trated in India, Iran, Pakistan , and Indonesia, where the
Hasmy Bin Agam
The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report
Susan J Rees
Full Text Available Previous studies have identified high rates of explosive anger amongst post-conflict populations including Timor-Leste. We sought to test whether explosive anger was integrally associated with symptoms of grief amongst the Timorese, a society that has experienced extensive conflict-related losses. In 2010 and 2011 we recruited adults (n = 2964, 18-years and older, living in an urban and a rural village in Timor-Leste. We applied latent class analysis to identify subpopulations based on symptoms of explosive anger and grief. The best fitting model comprised three classes: grief (24%, grief-anger (25%, and a low symptom group (51%. There were more women and urban dwellers in the grief and grief-anger classes compared to the reference class. Persons in the grief and grief-anger classes experienced higher rates of witnessing murder and atrocities and traumatic losses, ongoing poverty, and preoccupations with injustice for the two historical periods of conflict (the Indonesian occupation and the later internal conflict. Compared to the reference class, only the grief-anger class reported greater exposure to extreme deprivations during the conflict, ongoing family conflict, and preoccupations with injustice for contemporary times; and compared to the grief class, greater exposure to traumatic losses, poverty, family conflict and preoccupations with injustice for both the internal conflict and contemporary times. A substantial number of adults in this post-conflict country experienced a combined constellation of grief and explosive anger associated with extensive traumatic losses, deprivations, and preoccupations with injustice. Importantly, grief-anger may be linked to family conflict in this post-conflict environment.
some crystal- lized theories as, frequently, on pseudotheories or dog- matic postures . Even when the need for reforms was perceived, they were not...the 1968 "Prague Spring" has shown that even a 20-year ideological indoctrination and all reeducation attempts were unsuccessful. No reasons are...zloty is one of the most complex and difficult economic problems if only owing to the global nature of currency as an instrument of a country’s
C. Kent Brooks
Full Text Available The Palaeogene North Atlantic Igneous Province is among the largest igneous provinces in the world and this review of the East Greenland sector includes large amounts of information amassed since previous reviews around 1990.The main area of igneous rocks extends from Kangerlussuaq (c. 67°N to Scoresby Sund (c. 70°N, where basalts extend over c. 65 000 km2, with a second area from Hold with Hope (c. 73°N to Shannon (c. 75°N. In addition, the Ocean Drilling Project penetrated basalt at five sites off South-East Greenland. Up to 7 km thickness of basaltic lavas have been stratigraphically and chemically described and their ages determined. A wide spectrum of intrusions are clustered around Kangerlussuaq, Kialeeq (c. 66°N and Mesters Vig (c. 72°N. Layered gabbros are numerous (e.g. the Skaergaard and Kap Edvard Holm intrusions, as are under- and oversaturated syenites, besides small amounts of nephelinite-derived products, such as the Gardiner complex (c. 69°N with carbonatites and silicate rocks rich in melilite, perovskite etc. Felsic extrusive rocks are sparse. A single, sanidine-bearing tuff found over an extensive area of the North Atlantic is thought to be sourced from the Gardiner complex.The province is famous for its coast-parallel dyke swarm, analogous to the sheeted dyke swarm of ophiolites, its associated coastal flexure, and many other dyke swarms, commonly related to central intrusive complexes as in Iceland. The dyke swarms provide time markers, tracers of magmatic evolution and evidence of extensional events. A set of dykes with harzburgite nodules gives unique insight into the Archaean subcontinental lithosphere.Radiometric dating indicates extrusion of huge volumes of basalt over a short time interval, but the overall life of the province was prolonged, beginning with basaltic magmas at c. 60 Ma and continuing to the quartz porphyry stock at Malmbjerg (c. 72°N at c. 26 Ma. Indeed, activity was renewed in the Miocene with
Full Text Available Four years (2010–2013 of observations with polarization lidar and sun/sky photometer at the combined European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET site of Limassol (34.7° N, 33° E, Cyprus, were used to compare extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios for desert dust from Middle East deserts and the Sahara. In an earlier article, we analyzed one case only and found comparably low lidar ratios < 40 sr for Middle East dust. The complex data analysis scheme is presented. The quality of the retrieval is checked within a case study by comparing the results with respective Raman lidar solutions for particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio. The applied combined lidar/photometer retrievals corroborate recent findings regarding the difference between Middle East and Saharan dust lidar ratios. We found values from 43–65 sr with a mean (±standard deviation of 53 ± 6 sr for Saharan dust and from 33–48 sr with a mean of 41 ± 4 sr for Middle East dust for the wavelength of 532 nm. The presented data analysis, however, also demonstrates the difficulties in identifying the optical properties of dust even during outbreak situations in the presence of complex aerosol mixtures of desert dust, marine particles, fire smoke, and anthropogenic haze.
Silove, Derrick; Liddell, Belinda; Rees, Susan; Chey, Tien; Nickerson, Angela; Tam, Natalino; Zwi, Anthony B; Brooks, Robert; Sila, Lazaro Lelan; Steel, Zachary
Little is known about the effect of recurrent episodes of communal violence on mental health in countries recovering from mass conflict. We report results of a 6-year longitudinal study in post-conflict Timor-Leste assessing changes in mental health after a period of communal violence. We assessed 1022 adults (600 from a rural village, 422 from an urban district) exposed to mass conflict during the Indonesian occupation after independence in 2004, and again in 2010-11, following a period of internal conflict. We took a census of all adults living at the two sites. The survey included measures of post-traumatic stress disorder, severe distress, traumatic events, poverty, ongoing conflict, and injustice. 1247 (80%) of 1554 invited adults participated in the baseline survey. 1038 (89% of those eligible) were followed up. The analysis included 1022 people who had sufficient data at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder increased from 23 of 1022 (2.3%) in 2004, to 171 of 1022 (16.7%) in 2010. The prevalence of severe distress also increased, from 57 of 1022 (5.6%) in 2004, to 162 of 1022 (15.9%) in 2010. Both these outcomes were associated with disability at follow-up. Having post-traumatic stress at follow-up was associated with being a woman (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.32), experience of human rights trauma (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.47), or exposure to murder (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) during the Indonesian occupation (1975-99), human rights trauma during the period of internal violence in 2006-07 (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.03), and ongoing family or community conflict (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15-2.80) or preoccupations with injustice for two or three historical periods (OR 4.06, 2.63-6.28). Severe distress at follow-up was associated with health stress (OR 1.47, 1.14-1.90), exposure to murder (OR 1.57, 1.27-1.95), and natural disaster (OR 1.65, 1.03-2.64) during the Indonesian occupation, conflict-related trauma during the internal
since followed Payne (1979) in treating garzetta and gularis as separate species with dimorpha included in garzetta, and schistacea within gularis. Meanwhile, Safford &. Hawkins (2013) have followed del Hoyo et al. (1992) in considering gularis, schistacea and dimorpha as being conspecific with garzetta, but agreed with ...
Objective: To investigate the optimal surgical management of patients with hepatic trauma. Design: A retrospective analysis of 197 patients treated for hepatic trauma in the two hospitals from January 1980 to January 2001. Setting: Qilu and Dodoma Hospital in China and Tanzania respectively. Patient interventions: Two ...
- Джеффри Лич
Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness
coexisted for at least a couple of hundred years: the late Funnel Beaker culture (TRB), the forager-oriented Pitted Ware culture and the Single Grave and Battle Axe cultures, the last two belonging to the overall Corded Ware complex. As the Funnel Beaker culture ceased, East Denmark entered an insignificant...... material elements were obtained and fitted into existing Funnel Beaker traditions forming a heterogeneous cultural expression....
Kronauer, Daniel Jc; Peters, Marcell K; Schöning, Caspar
Hybridization can have complex effects on evolutionary dynamics in ants because of the combination of haplodiploid sex-determination and eusociality. While hybrid non-reproductive workers have been found in a range of species, examples of gene-flow via hybrid queens and males are rare. We studied...... hybridization in East African army ants (Dorylus subgenus Anomma) using morphology, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and nuclear microsatellites....
The traditional approach to planning for public fire protection has been based on independent actions by each fire department or district. The county fire chiefsâ associations, while providing interagency communication, were not adequate to deal with the regional nature of the wildland urban interface problem. The formation of the East Bay Fire Chiefsâ Consortium grew...
Thomas J. Brandeis
This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...
K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis
This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...
This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey unitsâSoutheast (unit 1),...
Author Guidelines. The East African Medical Journal (EAMJ) aims to improve the practice of all aspects of medicine and health care in general. To achieve these objectives, the journal publishes original scientific articles, reviews, clinical case reports and letters dealing with any factor impacting on health. EAMJ in published ...
The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers and disseminates scientific and technological information to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities; and accepts ...
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... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS... Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor Leste (East...
Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…
Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).
Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology has been published since 1977 by the Bird Committee of the East Africa Natural History Society. Originally titled Scopus, the addition of Journal of East African Ornithology began with our January 2018 issue. The journal is published Open Access twice a year, typically in January ...
No Abstract. East African Journal of Natural History Vol. 96 (1) 2007: pp. 107-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(2007)96[107:PAIEA]2.0.CO;2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...
The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989
Center on Contemporary Conflict
FY 2013-2014. Project Lead: Brian Finlay In East Africa, small arms trafficking, organized crime, human trafficking, terrorist activity, underdevelopment, and nuclear proliferation all share a common denominator: border insecurity. Bridging the security interests of the global North (nonproliferation) and the global South (development) could reduce WMD proliferation supply chains and increase international security. The project aims to address the challenge of porous borders by developin...
This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.
Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon
This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.
The SESAME initiative, the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, is making progress. At a recent SESAME Council meeting at the end of May, Jordan, Iran and Israel confirmed their cash contributions to the project’s storage ring. The Palestinian Authority and Pakistan have confirmed their in-kind support and Egypt and Turkey are taking steps to allow their participation. Technically planned to start operation in 2015, SESAME has begun to show significant potential as a science for peace initiative in the Middle East. The SESAME site in Allaan, Jordan. (© SESAME) Jordan has provided the land and an elegant building that will house the accelerator complex and associated infrastructure; a number of states, organizations and synchrotron light laboratories have donated the injector and booster, beam lines or components, support for infras...
Field evaluation of the response of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) to three oviposition attractants and different ovitrap placements using black and clear autocidal ovitraps in a rural area of Same, Timor-Leste.
Anderson, E M; Davis, J A
Known oviposition attractants or stimulants were compared, singly and in combination, using inexpensive autocidal ovitraps designed to trap emerging adults, in a rural area of Timor-Leste during the dry season. In this area, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was abundant, but Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) L. was not detected. The attractants were: (a) a compound found in Aedes eggs (dodecanoic acid); (b) components of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium-based (NPK) fertilizer, and (c) infusions of discarded cigarette butts. A solution of ammonium phosphate and potassium nitrate was significantly more attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus than water only. Dodecanoic acid and cigarette butt infusions were not significantly more attractive than the control; however, they attracted various other Diptera and many non-culicid larvae developed in ovitraps in which these substances were used; thus, the presence of eggs or larvae of other species may have deterred Aedes oviposition. Significantly more Aedes eggs were found in ovitraps under vegetation than in ovitraps placed inside houses or against external walls. Clear-sided ovitraps in which black mesh was placed over a black ring floating on the water surface collected significantly fewer eggs than black ovitraps with identically placed mesh and rings. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.
Jacko A van Ast
Full Text Available Local success stories of sustainable forest management can inspire scientists and decision-makers. This article analyses the traditional ′Adat′ institution that plays a role in the management of Grand Forest Park ′Herman Yohannes′, in the Western part of Timor where the Adat forest management regulation has been formally restored. The original set of design principles for sustainable management of common pool resources of Elinor Ostrom (1990 has been used in this study as an analytical framework for understanding the role of the Adat institution in respect to the forest. In the park, the local community applies Adat for protection and management of the forest that has been its home for centuries. It appears that Ostrom′s design principles can be identified in the current Adat institution and play a role in the sustainable management of the forest. Although many other variables can lead to success or failure of institutions, the original (internal design principles are still valuable as a practical tool for building institutions that are - under certain conditions - able to sustain common pool resources. The findings confirm the importance of traditional institutions in successful forest management. The study recommends that decision-makers take into account existing traditional management systems that have shown long term functionality.
Silove, D M; Tay, A K; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Dos Reis, N; Alves, A; Rees, S
Little is known about the mental health of partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict countries. We studied 677 spouse dyads (n = 1354) drawn from a community survey (response 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. We used culturally adapted measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, explosive anger and grief. Latent class analysis identified three classes of couples: class 1, comprising women with higher trauma events (TEs), men with intermediate TEs (19%); class 2, including men with higher TEs, women with lower TEs (23%); and class 3, comprising couples in which men and women had lower TE exposure (58%) (the reference group). Men and women partners of survivors of higher TE exposure (classes 1 and 2) had increased symptoms of explosive anger and grief compared with the reference class (class 3). Women partners of survivors of higher TE exposure (class 2) had a 20-fold increased rate of PTSD symptoms compared with the reference class, a pattern that was not evident for men living with women exposed to higher levels of trauma (class 1). Men and women living with survivors of higher levels of trauma showed an increase in symptoms of grief and explosive anger. The manifold higher rate of PTSD symptoms amongst women living with men exposed to high levels of trauma requires replication. It is important to assess the mental health of partners when treating survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict settings.
Hp 630 Dual Core
ASEA Publication. COSECSA/ASEA Publication East and Central African Journal of Surgery. July/August 2015 Volume 20 (2). East and Central African Journal of Surgery. July/August 2015 Volume 20 (2). Omental Evisceration Following Bicycle ...
.... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Iran contains articles on Political Science, Economics, Regional...
.... This report contains articles on the Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan...
.... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Israel, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan contains articles on International, Regional, Political and Economic Issues...
This report contains foreign media information from the Near East and South Asia on issues concerning civil affairs, industries, political revolution, elections, exports, commerce, economics, imports...
.... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and Iran, contains articles on International Affairs, Politics...
Walsh, J H
This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.
This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs
Full Text Available Accounting for population genetic substructure is important in reducing type 1 errors in genetic studies of complex disease. As efforts to understand complex genetic disease are expanded to different continental populations the understanding of genetic substructure within these continents will be useful in design and execution of association tests. In this study, population differentiation (Fst and Principal Components Analyses (PCA are examined using >200 K genotypes from multiple populations of East Asian ancestry. The population groups included those from the Human Genome Diversity Panel [Cambodian, Yi, Daur, Mongolian, Lahu, Dai, Hezhen, Miaozu, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Naxi, Xibo, and Yakut], HapMap [ Han Chinese (CHB and Japanese (JPT], and East Asian or East Asian American subjects of Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino and Chinese ancestry. Paired Fst (Wei and Cockerham showed close relationships between CHB and several large East Asian population groups (CHB/Korean, 0.0019; CHB/JPT, 00651; CHB/Vietnamese, 0.0065 with larger separation with Filipino (CHB/Filipino, 0.014. Low levels of differentiation were also observed between Dai and Vietnamese (0.0045 and between Vietnamese and Cambodian (0.0062. Similarly, small Fst's were observed among different presumed Han Chinese populations originating in different regions of mainland of China and Taiwan (Fst's <0.0025 with CHB. For PCA, the first two PC's showed a pattern of relationships that closely followed the geographic distribution of the different East Asian populations. PCA showed substructure both between different East Asian groups and within the Han Chinese population. These studies have also identified a subset of East Asian substructure ancestry informative markers (EASTASAIMS that may be useful for future complex genetic disease association studies in reducing type 1 errors and in identifying homogeneous groups that may increase the power of such studies.
Simons, J.; Buckland, W.
In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,
Feb 28, 2018 ... complex in a unique binding motif and provide additional stability to the compound in the solid state. This iron(II) complex is able to catalyze the cleavage of aromatic C-C linkage of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid,. GA) in oxygen environment. The iron(II) complex in the presence of two equivalent ...
activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.
Crown, David A.; Price, Katherine H.; Greeley, Ronald
The Hellas basin is a dominant feature in the ancient, southern cratered highlands of Mars. The east rim of Hellas is a complex geologic region affected by volcanism, tectonism, and channeling. A detailed study of the area between 27.5-42.4 degrees S and 260-275 degrees W was initiated to analyze the processes forming surface materials and to decipher the evolution of this geologically important highland area. Major units include Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae in the north and Hesperian and Amazonian channeled plains and outflow channels in the south. A brief discussion of the findings is presented.
Archives: East African Journal of Statistics. Journal Home > Archives: East African Journal of Statistics. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 3 of 3 Items. 2007 ...
The article assesses the realignment of housing policy in various countries in East Asia since the late 1990s. Housing policies in East Asia reflect differences in institutional contents and combinations of public and private elements. The promotion of home ownership policies allows the expansion of
The Middle East once dominated the age of alchemy, and today it is experiencing a resurgence by transforming the age of petroleum chemicals into a greener science through Estidama. This green conversion is taking place through green chemical research and education. This report examines and reviews the understudied subject of green chemical education in the Middle East through the lens of context and history.
Naidoo, Josephine C.
In this paper, various studies and surveys on the status of East Indians in Canada and attitudes towards them are summarized. The history of the East Indian immigration into Canada is sketched. A 1976 survey of attitudes of Canadians toward multiculturalism (Berry, Kalin, and Taylor, 1976) is outlined. A study of the intercultural perceptions of…
The objects of the Association journal shall be the advancement of the science and art of surgery and the promotion of friendship and exchange of ideas between surgeons in the constituent countries of The Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) and The College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa ...
East African Orthopaedic Journal: About this journal. Journal Home > East African Orthopaedic Journal: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. People.
The Journal of East African Natural History is published jointly by the East Africa Natural History Society and the National Museums of Kenya. The Journal publishes papers and notes in the field of natural history, broadly defined as the study of organisms in their natural state, relevant to the eastern African region.
Tiivas, Gert, 1973-
Rootsi investeerimispanga East Capitali Balti regiooni juht Gert Tiivas soovitab investeerida Baltimaadest suurema potentsiaaliga riikide börsidele. Vt. samas: CV: Gert Tiivas; East Capitali fondid. Diagramm: East Capitali Venemaa fondis on enim raha
white powder that was thought CRS-13 54 “Indonesia Ambassador Recalled Early from Australia ,” Dow Jones News, June 14, 2005. 55 Mathew Moore...relations between Australia and Indonesia, which had been recovering since Australia’s involvement in East Timor in 1999. The East Timor intervention was...
Ober, Patrick; Decker, Janet R.
This case illustrates why future school leaders must be prepared to handle complex legal and political issues that commonly arise in school districts today. We discuss a long-standing and unresolved legal battle between a Hasidic Jewish community and the public school district in East Ramapo, New York. In particular, we examine the difficulties…
Cold War, the US has embraced East Asian policy founded on three theoretical frameworks: realism, neoliberalism , and neoliberal institutionalism...given high levels of interdependence in other areas. Neoliberalism and complex interdependence: An Attempt to Grow Together In contrast with the...containment effect implied by bilateral alliances, neoliberal policy attempts to integrate the pacifying influence of complex interdependence. US
Martha, Agustya Adi; Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Sri Widiyantoro; Masturyono
The complex geological structures in East Java and Bali provide important opportunities for natural resource exploitation, but also harbor perils associated with natural disasters. Such a condition makes the East Java region an important area for exploration of the subsurface seismic wave velocity structure, especially in its upper crust. We employed the ambient noise tomography method to image the upper crustal structure under this study area. We used seismic data recorded at 24 seismographs of BMKG spread over East Java and Bali. In addition, we installed 28 portable seismographs in East Java from April 2013 to January 2014 for 2-8 weeks, and we installed an additional 28 seismographs simultaneously throughout East Java from August 2015 to April 2016. We constructed inter-station Rayleigh wave Green's functions through cross-correlations of the vertical component of seismic noise recordings at 1500 pairs of stations. We used the Neighborhood Algorithm to construct depth profiles of shear wave velocity (Vs). The main result obtained from this study is the thickness of sediment cover. East Java's southern mountain zone is dominated by higher Vs, the Kendeng basin in the center is dominated by very low Vs, and the Rembang zone (to the North of Kendeng zone) is associated with medium Vs. The existence of structures with oil and gas potential in the Kendeng and Rembang zones can be identified by low Vs.
Clarke, Naomi E; Clements, Archie C A; Bryan, Stuart; McGown, John; Gray, Darren; Nery, Susana V
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions represent an important component of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection control, alongside the administration of anthelmintic drugs, which are generally targeted to school-aged children. Recent modelling studies have suggested that STH control programmes should be broadened to include all age groups across the community. We describe the protocol for a pilot study investigating the impact of school-versus-community-based delivery of integrated WASH and deworming programmes on STH infections in school-aged children in Timor-Leste. The (S)WASH-D for Worms pilot is a two-arm, non-randomised cluster intervention study. The aims are to determine feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and study procedures and to establish proof of principle for the hypothesis that STH control programmes directed to the entire community will lead to greater reductions in STH infections in children than programmes directed only to school-aged children. Of the six participating communities, three receive a school-based integrated WASH and deworming programme and three additionally receive a community-based integrated WASH and deworming programme. The primary outcomes are the proportions of eligible children who enrol in the study and participate in the data collection, and outcomes relating to WASH and deworming programme completion, coverage, and use. Secondary outcomes are the cumulative incidence and mean intensity of STH infection in school-aged children at 6-month follow-up, mean haemoglobin concentration and several anthropometric indices. Results will inform the design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT). This pilot study is being conducted in preparation for a cluster-RCT investigating the differential impact of school- and community-based integrated STH control programmes on STH infections in school-aged children. It aims to establish feasibility and proof of principle, while results of the subsequent RCT
In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
In this study, the influences of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the interannual variability of the East Asian winter climate are examined with a focus on the relative climate impacts of the two phenomena. Although the variations of the East Asian winter monsoon and the temperature and precipitation of China, Japan, and Korea are emphasized, the associated changes in the broad-scale atmospheric circulation patterns over Asia and the Pacific and in the extratropical North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are also investigated. It is demonstrated that there is no apparent relationship between ENSO and the interannual variability of EAJS core. The EAJS and ENSO are associated with distinctly different patterns of atmospheric circulation and SST in the Asian-Pacific regions. While ENSO causes major climate signals in the Tropics and over the North Pacific east of the dateline, the EAJS produces significant changes in the atmospheric circulation over East Asia and western Pacific. In particular, the EAJS explains larger variance of the interannual signals of the East Asian trough, the Asian continental high, the Aleutian low, and the East Asian winter monsoon. When the EAJS is strong, all these atmospheric systems intensify significantly. The response of surface temperature and precipitation to EAJS variability and ENSO is more complex. In general, the East Asian winter climate is cold (warm) and dry (wet) when the EAJS is strong (weak) and it is warm during El Nino years. However, different climate signals are found during different La Nina years. In terms of linear correlation, both the temperature and precipitation of northern China, Korea, and central Japan are more significantly associated with the EAJS than with ENSO.
Sidorova, N. G.; Novikova, S. A.
The development of the Russian fuel-energy complex is a priority for the national economic policy, and the Far East is a link between Russia and the Asia-Pacific region. Large-scale engineering of numerous resources of the Far East will force industrial development, increase living standard and strengthen Russia’s position in the global energy market. So, revealing the factors which influence rational structure of the fuel-energy complex is very urgent nowadays. With the use of depth analysis of development tendencies of the complex and its problems the authors show ways of its efficiency improvement.
Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.
The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by
PRS-NEA-89-043 13 JUNE 1989 !*■■■■ ■■■■■0 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE ^JPRS Report— Near East & South Asia Approved for public...QUÄLET* IigSPECTED 1 Near East & South Asia JPRS-NEA-89-043 CONTENTS 23 JUNE 1989 NEAR EAST REGIONAL AFFAIRS Gulf Trade With EC Reported [Muscat...Council Head Blames Economic Woes on Wars, Overpopulation [AL-AHRAM AL-IQTISADI 3 Apr] 14 Economist Envisages Life Without U.S. Aid [AL-AHRAM AL
Li, Ben-xian; Zhu, Jun-fang; Wang, Shun-guo
The presence of the East Turkistan terrorist network in China can be traced back to the rebellions on the BAREN region in Xinjiang in April 1990. This article intends to research the East Turkistan networks in China and offer a panoramic view. The events, terrorists and their relationship are described using matrices. Then social network analysis is adopted to reveal the network type and the network structure characteristics. We also find the crucial terrorist leader. Ultimately, some results show that the East Turkistan network has big hub nodes and small shortest path, and that the network follows a pattern of small world network with hierarchical structure.
Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S
Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.
This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,
Lee, William H K.
A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.
Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S
Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Michael B. Bishku
Full Text Available Turkmenistan is a weak country militarily, but well-endowed with natural gas reserves. While the latter also insulates it somewhat from international criticism of its human rights abuses, unfortunately, Turkmenistan is landlocked and dependent upon the goodwill of its neighbors in order to export that commodity. Additionally, Turkmenistan is in need of technological assistance. Given its relatively homogenous population and its hydrocarbon wealth it has adopted a policy of subsidizing certain necessities—though it underfunds other—and is fairly stable internally. Nevertheless, it is ruled under an autocratic political system, suffers massive corruption, and has to contend with fears of instability on its borders. Therefore, Turkmenistan has adopted a policy of permanent neutrality and is open to cooperation with all its neighbors as well as the big powers. The countries of the Middle East as both immediate and nearby neighbors play an important part in the international relations of Turkmenistan and in providing technological assistance and economic investments. This article, which reviews and analyzes those ties, utilizes government documents, academic works and newspapers from Turkmenistan and Middle Eastern countries.
Oleinik, E. B.; Sidorova, N. G.
This article reviews the current situation in the fuel and energy complex (FEC) of the Russian Far East, distinguishes its specific features, estimates the volume of investments required for further development of FEC in the Russian Far East. The use of econometric models makes it possible to get a forecast of electric power production, which serves as a basis of evaluation of the region’s electric power demand. It is noted that the main problem of the region development is surplus of energy production and a continuous population decline. The authors offer major strategic directions of development and mechanisms of energy policy implementation.
Childs, Lana; Roesel, Sigrun; Tohme, Rania A
In 2016, the Immunization Technical Advisory Group of the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) endorsed a regional goal to achieve ≤1% prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among 5-year-old children by 2020. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is largely preventable with a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB-BD) followed by two to three additional doses. We reviewed the progress towards hepatitis B control through vaccination in SEAR during 1992-2015. We summarized hepatitis B vaccination data and reviewed the literature to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infection pre- and post-vaccine introduction. We used a mathematical model to determine post-vaccine prevalence of HBsAg among 5 year olds in countries lacking national serosurvey data and estimated the impact of vaccination on disease burden. Regional coverage with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB3) increased from 56% in 2011 to 87% in 2015. By 2016, 7 of 11 countries had introduced universal HepB-BD. Regional HepB-BD coverage increased from 9% in 2011 to 34% in 2015. In 2015, estimated HBsAg among 5 year olds was 1.1% with variability among countries. Myanmar (3.8%), Timor-Leste (2.7%), Indonesia (1.8%), and India (1%) had the highest prevalence of HBsAg. During 1992-2015, vaccination prevented approximately 16 million chronic HBV infections and 2.6 million related deaths. In 2015, around 197,640 perinatal HBV infections occurred in SEAR with majority occurring in India (62%), Bangladesh (24%), and Myanmar (8%). Myanmar had the highest rate of perinatal chronic HBV infections at 16 per 1000 live births. Despite significant progress in the control of HBV, SEAR needs to secure political commitment for elimination and consider additional strategies, such as promoting health facility births, universal birth dose administration, developing strong coordination between health sectors, and using alternative vaccine delivery methods, to improve HepB-BD coverage and subsequently
.... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisa, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Iran and Pakistan, the articles are on Politics, Economics...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...
The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)
This report covers international issues relating to the Near East: regional affairs, Palestinian affairs, Iraq, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and the Republic of Yemen; and South Asia...
.... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Israel, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran and Pakistan, contains articles on Politics, Economics, Regional Affairs and Military Affairs...
The document is concerned with Soviet policy toward the Arab states in what the Soviet Union customarily defines as the Near East -- which includes the UAR, Syria, the two Yemens and the Sudan. (Author)
Principal Contact. Darcy Ogada Dr Bird Committee of the East Africa Natural History Society. Editors,. Scopus,. c/o Nature Kenya,. P.O. Box 44486,. G.P.O. 00100,. Nairobi, Kenya. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Hydrography layer is an area geometry depicting the various water features that include the rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, etc of East Baton Rouge Parish.
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Field Survey for East Ojai FIS mostly consists of hydraulic structures survey as well as geological and geomorphologic surveys. No topographic surveys are rendered...
The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)
East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 92, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Albright, Charlotte F.
Topics and resources for a discussion of the Middle East in a secondary social studies classroom are presented. The topics include geography and world resources, ethnic groups, religions, and case studies of specific countries. (AM)
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset depicts the polygon boundaries of the parcels of land within the Parish of East Baton Rouge, with the exception of those parcels that fall within the...
Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
The water conflict in the Middle East is reaching a crisis peak. The region suffers from a shortage of water, a high rate of population growth and the absence of a clear criteria for sharing waters within the region...
Ihle, Annette Haaber
part in the adventures and experiences of globalization in a socially and religiously acceptable way. With its high reputation the al-Azhar in Cairo, Egypt, has played a central role for the establishment of this tradition of religious study trips in an African context. On the basis of 10 months...... express as their expectations that they will through Islamic studies get an opportunity to move upwards socially and materially. Therefore, they dream of going abroad to study in the Middle East. For the time being, religious study grants to the Middle East seem to be one of the few ways for them to gain...... this African tradition of religious scholarship in the Middle East. The paper will, with the help of Pierre Bourdieu's notion of forms of capital related to various fields, analyse the challenges which Muslim students encounter during their stay in the Middle East and the forms of capital they bring back...
Kim, Yun; Choi, Byoung Mohk
The purpose of this paper is to review the trend of urbanization and the growth of cities in East Asia and to discuss the social, economic, environmental, and physical implications accompanying the rapid urbanization and the growth of large metropolitan cities. The paper discusses the past trend and distribution of urbanization and the growth of large cities in East Asia in comparison with those of other parts of Asia and the world at large.The urban structure and hierarchy, population concen...
JPRS-SEA-91-012 8 MAY 1991 ANNIVERSARY 1941 - 1991 JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia DXIC QUALITY IKSPEÜIW 19980515 124...NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-91-012 CONTENTS 8 May 1991 INTER-ASIAN Khun Sa To...5 INDONESIA POLITICAL Rudini Discusses Political Deregulation Issue [SUARA PEMBARUAN16 Mar] 7 Editorial Decries Corruption Problem [SUARA
Vanitha Ratnalingam; Thiageswari Umapathy; Kala Sumugam; Hanida Hanafi; Shamala Retnasabapathy
AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most com...
Chazine, Jean-Michel; Ferrie, Jean-Georges
International audience; Since 1992, thanks to the exceptional interest generated by caving teams crossing Kalimantan from west to east in 1988, a large quantity of archaeological discoveries has been revealed. A Franco-Indonesian team has surveyed caves and rockshelters in East Kalimantan to shed some light on an archaeologically unknown territory. Altogether, more than 100 caves have been visited and checked, of which over 30 contain undoubtable rock paintings. These sites are located in two...
The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility and viability of an East African political federation project. Since the late 1800s under the then British East Africa, the countries of East Africa have been searching for ways to integrate. The search led to the establishment of the East African Community (EAC) in December ...
Fisher, Stephen D
The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic
Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia
This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....
This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia
Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.
Alice and Bob are randomized agents. They exchange messages in order to compute a function f(x, y). We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...
Chao, Roger Y., Jr.
The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…
Г А Ханнанова
Full Text Available The article is devoted to an analysis of the main factors, determining German policy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. More active German military-technical engagement in the settlement of the crises in the region on the modern stage determines relevance of this article’s topic. Based on historical method, author considers the development of German foreign policy in the Arab world, examining the main aspects of the colonial policy of German empire on the threshold of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the prerequisites of the intensification of German-Arabic contacts in the period of Cold War. In accordance with the principals of system analysis Germany’s Middle East policy was investigated in complex, given geopolitical, economic and military aspects. Special emphasis is put on the problem of transformation of Middle East regional order as a factor of political instability. Notwithstanding the rea-sonableness of Germany’s standing for stable and predictable regional order, these goals were challenged owing to the fact that Germany benefits from the regional disorder in terms of increase of its influence. In reliance on the German goals in the Middle East and North Africa, mentioned in the Coalition Agreement of 2013, the author points out the priority of crisis management. At the same time the ethno-confessional conflict potential of the region meets the interests of German military-industrial complex. Increase of Germany’s export of weapons to the Arab states as well as neglecting the restrictions on export go to prove that Germany backs the armaments race in the Middle East. In this regard, German policy is characterized by “double standards” and inconsistency. These specifics can be explained by the ongoing process of Middle East policy shift and searching for new priorities on a long-term horizon. In the conclusion, the author analyzes the specifics and prospects of German policy in MENA region.
Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.
Afr. J. surg. COSECSA/ASEA Publication. COSECSA/ASEA Publication -East and Central African Journal of Surgery. November/December 2012 Volume 17 (3). East and Central African Journal of Surgery. November/December 2012 Volume 17 (3). Diagnostic challenge in Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: Case Report.
Hp 630 Dual Core
ASEA Publication. COSECSA/ASEA Publication East and Central African Journal of Surgery. July/August 2015 Volume 20 (2). East and Central African Journal of Surgery. July/August 2015 Volume 20 (2). Two- year review of Colorectal Cancer at ...
'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this
'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)
Suh, Mark Byung-Moon
East Asia was and still is divided into two conflicting ideological blocs. Because of the Cold War between these two blocs, two international wars were fought and tensions limited interactions among these countries. Despite these political constraints, in recent years East Asia has become economically one of the most dynamic regions in the world. Now that the Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union is over, the danger of global nuclear war involving the nuclear powers in the region has been practically eliminated. Nonetheless, security has become more complex and demands a whole new set of arrangements. Yet the region lacks a cohesive multilateral framework for conflict resolution, and only recently have various attempts been made to create a political forum for the countries in the region. The problem and the danger of nuclear proliferation was vividly shown by the North Korean nuclear crisis in the last years. This issue not only halted the fragile process of normalization between the two Koreas, which started in 1988, but almost led to a new military conflict on the peninsula involving the two Koreas and the USA. It was defused only after the USA proved willing to offer security guarantees to North Korea. This problem still needs to be resolved, and it demands radical changes in the overall political environment in the region. Needless to say, proliferation in North Korea would have entailed grave consequences for the security of the region as well as for the international non-proliferation regime. This paper reviews the issue of nuclear proliferation of the three non-nuclear states in the region and deals with the non-introduction of nuclear weapons in the region by the nuclear powers. It discusses the prospects for a nuclear-weapon-free zone on the Korean peninsula. Perspectives of a sustainable security environment in East Asia will be briefly discussed
The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...
Stein, Elias M
With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m
This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic
Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a forecasting system for currency crisis in East Asia based on a signaling approach. Our system uses 15 monthly indicators of five East Asian countries including Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand that were severely hit by the currency crisis in 1997. We investigate the performance of the system through deploying out-of-sample forecasting for the periods both before and after the 1997 East Asian currency crisis. Unlike the existing research based on the signaling approach, our out-of-sample forecasting does not fix the in-sample period. The out-of-sample forecasting between July 1995 and June 1997 shows that prior to breakout of the crisis, several indicators including real exchange rates and exports sent frequent warnings to all crisis-hit East Asian countries except the Philippines. This may indicate that a signaling-based early warning system for currency crisis could have been an useful method of forecasting the East Asian crisis. On the other hand, we also find that our forecasting system often generates warning signals during the out-of-sample period between July 1999 and June 2001. Since we have not observed any currency crisis in this region after 1998, these are all false alarms, indicating that our system may be seriously exposed to the type II error. We can, however, mitigate this problem if we adjust the optimal critical values of indicators depending on the preferences of forecasting system manager.
Communication complexity. Motivation . . . An abstract model to study the communicaiton required for computation. A tool for showing lower bounds in several computational models. The study often requires deep understanding of computation using tools from combinatorics, coding theory, algebra, analysis, etc. Jaikumar ...
1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and Forestry, Xinyang 464000, 2Henan. Economy and Trade ... Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and ...
Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta
In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...
Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.
African Community) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) have broader perceptions of the concept. According to EAC, security also concerns matters such as policy reform, legislation, education and infrastructure. IGAD considers food security and environmental and economic issues as part......When it comes to understanding the concept of security and the way fragile security situations should be solved, the difference is big. While EASF – the East African Standby Force – is a regular military force with a rather traditional, military perception of the concept of security, EAC (East...... planning to work with these organisations. The brief is the first outcome of a research project that analyses the regional security actors in East Africa and how Denmark can contribute to the regional security through them....
Over the past year, the prospects for both oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East have greatly improved. Apart from the increase in the price of oil, a long term strategy for better exploitation of gas reserves is enhancing the prospects for growth throughout the Middle East. The effect of the fall in oil prices hit Qatar particularly hard: the knock-on effect was felt throughout the whole of Qatar. The current objectives in Qatar are to develop the export market and make better use of the gas reserves at home: developments toward this aim are discussed. Developments in Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Iran and Egypt are discussed. Some speculative intra-regional and export pipeline projects are discussed. The main markets for middle east gas are mentioned
Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.
385049 JPRS-NEA-85- 1 32 2 3 October 198 5 Near East/South Asia Report 19980717 148 FBIS "WIC QUÄLET? INSPECT ft Approved for public...to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-NEA-85-132 23 October 1985 NEAR EAST/SOUTH ASIA ... Overpopulation in Cairo Discussed (Hamidah Na’na’ AL-TADAMUN, 24-30 Aug 85) 17 - a - Issue of Parliamentary Immunity Discussed (Faruq Abu-al-’Ala; AL
core of.(the Arab -Israeli conflict and that the legitimate rights of the Palestinian ppople must be respected. The problem can be solved by achieving a...So the Middle East has gone from war to war. The world is now aware that the question of Palestine is the core of the Arab -Israeli conflict and that...HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST’(1850-1920) AN ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC FACTORS THAT INFLUENCED THE ARAB -RENAISSANCE AND THE ARAB WAR OF
Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.
Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.
Koike, Tatsuhiko; Okudaira, Yosuke
We formulate and investigate the simplest version of time-optimal quantum computation theory (TO-QCT), where the computation time is defined by the physical one and the Hamiltonian contains only one- and two-qubit interactions. This version of TO-QCT is also considered as optimality by sub-Riemannian geodesic length. The work has two aims: One is to develop a TO-QCT itself based on a physically natural concept of time, and the other is to pursue the possibility of using TO-QCT as a tool to estimate the complexity in conventional gate-optimal quantum computation theory (GO-QCT). In particular, we investigate to what extent is true the following statement: Time complexity is polynomial in the number of qubits if and only if gate complexity is also. In the analysis, we relate TO-QCT and optimal control theory (OCT) through fidelity-optimal computation theory (FO-QCT); FO-QCT is equivalent to TO-QCT in the limit of unit optimal fidelity, while it is formally similar to OCT. We then develop an efficient numerical scheme for FO-QCT by modifying Krotov's method in OCT, which has a monotonic convergence property. We implemented the scheme and obtained solutions of FO-QCT and of TO-QCT for the quantum Fourier transform and a unitary operator that does not have an apparent symmetry. The former has a polynomial gate complexity and the latter is expected to have an exponential one which is based on the fact that a series of generic unitary operators has an exponential gate complexity. The time complexity for the former is found to be linear in the number of qubits, which is understood naturally by the existence of an upper bound. The time complexity for the latter is exponential in the number of qubits. Thus, both the targets seem to be examples satisfyng the preceding statement. The typical characteristics of the optimal Hamiltonians are symmetry under time reversal and constancy of one-qubit operation, which are mathematically shown to hold in fairly general situations.