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Sample records for complex corn traits

  1. Advanced complex trait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A; Stewart, I; Tenesa, A

    2012-12-01

    The Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) software package can quantify the contribution of genetic variation to phenotypic variation for complex traits. However, as those datasets of interest continue to increase in size, GCTA becomes increasingly computationally prohibitive. We present an adapted version, Advanced Complex Trait Analysis (ACTA), demonstrating dramatically improved performance. We restructure the genetic relationship matrix (GRM) estimation phase of the code and introduce the highly optimized parallel Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library combined with manual parallelization and optimization. We introduce the Linear Algebra PACKage (LAPACK) library into the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis stage. For a test case with 8999 individuals and 279,435 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we reduce the total runtime, using a compute node with two multi-core Intel Nehalem CPUs, from ∼17 h to ∼11 min. The source code is fully available under the GNU Public License, along with Linux binaries. For more information see http://www.epcc.ed.ac.uk/software-products/acta. a.gray@ed.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Few crop traits accurately predict variables important to productivity of processing sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recovery, case production, and gross profit margin, hereafter called ‘processor variables’, are as important metrics to processing sweet corn as grain yield is to field corn production. However, crop traits such as ear number or ear mass alone are reported in sweet corn production research rather t...

  3. Goss’s wilt incidence in sweet corn is independent of transgenic traits and glyphosate

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    Recently claims have been made that the use of glyphosate and transgenic crop traits increases the risk of plant diseases. Transgenic traits used widely for years in dent corn are now available in commercial sweet corn cultivars, specifically, the combination of glyphosate resistance (GR) and Lepid...

  4. Modeling evolution of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to transgenic corn with two insecticidal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Meinke, Lance J

    2010-06-01

    A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was created to evaluate the use of refuges in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn, Zea mays L., expressing one or two toxin traits. Hypothetical scenarios and a case study of a corn hybrid pyramided with existing toxins are simulated. In the hypothetical situations, results demonstrated that evolution is generally delayed by pyramids compared with deployment of a single-toxin corn hybrid. However, soil insecticide use in the refuge reduced this delay and quickened the evolution of resistance. Results were sensitive to the degree of male beetle dispersal before mating and to the effectiveness of both toxins in the pyramid. Resistance evolved faster as fecundity increased for survivors of insecticidal corn. Thus, effects on fecundity must be measured to predict which resistance management plans will work well. Evolution of resistance also occurred faster if the survival rate due to exposure to the two toxins was not calculated by multiplication of two independent survival rates (one for each insect gene) but was equivalent to the minimum of the two. Furthermore, when single-trait and pyramided corn hybrids were planted within rootworm-dispersal distance of each other, the toxin traits lost efficacy more quickly than they did in scenarios without single-trait corn. For the case study involving transgenic corn expressing Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, the pyramid delayed evolution longer than a single trait corn hybrid and longer than a sequence of toxins based on at least one resistance-allele frequency remaining below 50%. Results are discussed within the context of a changing transgenic corn marketplace and the landscape dynamics of resistance management.

  5. Statistical methods for analysing complex genetic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Galta, Rachid

    2006-01-01

    Complex traits are caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors, and are therefore difficult to study compared with simple Mendelian diseases. The modes of inheritance of Mendelian diseases are often known. Methods to dissect such diseases are well described in literature. For complex geneti

  6. Multi-ethnic studies in complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Jingyuan; Festen, Eleonora A. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2011-01-01

    The successes of genome-wide association (GWA) studies have mainly come from studies performed in populations of European descent. Since complex traits are characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity, the findings so far may provide an incomplete picture of the genetic architecture of complex trai

  7. Complex plant traits : time for polygenic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, mapping of genes for complex traits is an area of active theoretical research at the interface of genetics and statistics. Much progress has been made over the past few years in handling statistically complex but realistic multilocus models. Here, I describe the state of the art and discu

  8. The correlation of chemical and physical corn kernel traits with production performance in broiler chickens and laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S M; Stalder, K J; Beitz, D C; Stahl, C H; Fithian, W A; Bregendahl, K

    2008-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence on broiler chicken growth and laying hen performance of chemical and physical traits of corn kernels from different hybrids. A total of 720 male 1-d-old Ross-308 broiler chicks were allotted to floor pens in 2 replicated experiments with a randomized complete block design. A total of 240 fifty-two-week-old Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were allotted to cages in a randomized complete block design. Corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for 3 broiler growth phases and one 14-wk-long laying hen phase to be marginally deficient in Lys and TSAA to allow for the detection of differences or correlations attributable to corn kernel chemical or physical traits. The broiler chicken diets were also marginally deficient in Ca and nonphytate P. Within a phase, corn- and soybean-based diets containing equal amounts of 1 of 6 different corn hybrids were formulated. The corn hybrids were selected to vary widely in chemical and physical traits. Feed consumption and BW were recorded for broiler chickens every 2 wk from 0 to 6 wk of age. Egg production was recorded daily, and feed consumption and egg weights were recorded weekly for laying hens between 53 and 67 wk of age. Physical and chemical composition of kernels was correlated with performance measures by multivariate ANOVA. Chemical and physical kernel traits were weakly correlated with performance in broiler chickens from 0 to 2 wk of age (Ptraits were correlated with broiler chicken performance (Pphysical and chemical traits and laying hen performance (Pphysical traits for any single kernel trait were not large enough to base corn hybrid selection on for feeding poultry.

  9. The correlation of chemical and physical corn kernel traits with growth performance and carcass characteristics in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S M; Stalder, K J; Beitz, D C; Stahl, C H; Fithian, W A; Bregendahl, K

    2008-03-01

    Corn kernel composition may affect its nutritive value and, thus, pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the chemical and physical traits of corn kernels from different hybrids on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs. A total of 288 crossbred pigs were grown in a 3-phase program from 21 kg of BW until slaughter at 113 kg of BW with 12 pens (4 pigs/pen) per dietary treatment. Target BW for each phase were 20 to 40 kg (grower 1), 40 to 80 kg (grower 2), and 80 to 120 kg (finisher). In each phase, diets were formulated to be marginally deficient in Lys, TSAA, Ca, Na, and nonphytate P to improve the likelihood of detecting differences in performance due to corn hybrid. Each of 6 corn hybrids represented a wide range of kernel chemical and physical traits and was substituted for corn in a common diet formulation on an equal weight basis to make the 6 dietary treatments. Physical and chemical composition of the kernels were analyzed and correlated with performance measures by multivariate ANOVA. Kernel density was correlated with i.m. fat (IMF) content in LM (r = -.35, P physical and chemical traits were statistically significant yet not large enough to base corn hybrid selection for feeding pigs on any single kernel chemical or physical trait.

  10. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Complex traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Ali Reza

    In the last decade rapid development in biotechnologies has made it possible to extract extensive information about practically all levels of biological organization. An ever-increasing number of studies are reporting miltilayered datasets on the entire DNA sequence, transceroption, protein...... expression, and metabolite abundance of more and more populations in a multitude of invironments. However, a solid model for including all of this complex information in one analysis, to disentangle genetic variation and the underlying genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases, has not yet been...... proposed. This thesis introduced a novel way to integrate such huge data sets in an efficient and informative procedure to dissect the comæexity of obesity related traits (e.g. body wight, body fat, feed intake, etc) and map the flow from DNA through RNA ending with individual phenotypes....

  11. Effect Management Strategies Fertilizer Nitrogen and Biological on Morphological Traits, Yield and Quality Traits Corn (S.C. 704

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    eisa maghsoudi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, surplus usage of chemical fertilizers and inattention the importance organic matter to improve soil fertility, leading to increasing use of chemical fertilizer, environmental pollution and etc. In order to study the different fertilizer levels (organic, chemical and combined on yield of grain corn (S.C.704 experiment was conducted at the Research Farm Faculty of Agriculture Tarbiat Modarres University 2010 growing season factorial treatment were arranged in manner based on randomized complete block design with three replications. One factor include of the five nutritional systems: 1- (8 ton ha-1 of organic fertilizer, 2- (6 ton ha-1 of organic fertilizer + 46 kg ha-1 nitrogen, 3- (4 ton ha-1 of organic fertilizer + 92 kg/ha nitrogen, 4- (2 ton ha-1 of organic fertilizer + 138 kg ha-1 nitrogen and 5- (184 kg ha-1 nitrogen and second factor consisting of: 1- (Seed inoculation with free living nitrogen fixation bacteria and 2- (Non-inoculated seed. The results showed that the experimental treatments had a significant effect on the traits measured. Maximum leaf area (7.7, grain yield (1000 g m-2, thousand grain weight (213 g and protein percent (11 percent of A3 fertilizer level and the highest plant height and biological yield amount 256 cm and 22 ton ha-1 of A4 fertilizer level, respectively. Also in seeds inoculated with biological fertilizer measured traits had greater extent than treatment control (no inoculation, so that the leaf area (7.7, plant height (252 cm, grain yield (978 g m-2, thousand grain weight (205 g, biological yield (22 ton ha-1 and protein percent (10 percent in the inoculated treatments (one. According to the results that obtained the usage from of bio-fertilizers and manure combined with chemical is considered as appropriate procedure for increasing the yield and quality of corn.

  12. Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

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    Löfstedt Christer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary

  13. Integrative Systems Biology: Elucidating Complex Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune Hannes

    that body-mass index associated gene products coalesce onto distinct protein complexes, and show that these putative risk modules incriminate novel candidate obesitysusceptibility genes. e last overall line of research presented here, provides examples on how networks of human metabolism may serve...... traits and disease. e esis is structured as follows. Chapter  presents a few introductory remarks to integrative systems biology, and Chapter  gives a brief description of human genetic variation and GWA analysis. Chapters - present the main topics in the esis (integrative methodologies...... product itself. My doctoral studies have been focused on the development of integrative approaches to identify systemic risk-modifying and disease-causing patterns. ey have been rooted in the hypothesis that data integration of complementary data sets may yield additional etiologic insights compared...

  14. Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch-aroma compound inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Yibin; Jin, Shanshan; Meng, Xin; Yang, Liping; Wang, Haisong

    2017-01-01

    Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to (a) investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and (b) characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2 and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol and menthol respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of CO at 1771 cm(-1) and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch-polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS (13) C NMR) results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The Hidden Complexity of Mendelian Traits across Natural Yeast Populations

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    Jing Hou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mendelian traits are considered to be at the lower end of the complexity spectrum of heritable phenotypes. However, more than a century after the rediscovery of Mendel’s law, the global landscape of monogenic variants, as well as their effects and inheritance patterns within natural populations, is still not well understood. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a species-wide survey of Mendelian traits across a large population of isolates. We generated offspring from 41 unique parental pairs and analyzed 1,105 cross/trait combinations. We found that 8.9% of the cases were Mendelian. Further tracing of causal variants revealed background-specific expressivity and modified inheritances, gradually transitioning from Mendelian to complex traits in 30% of the cases. In fact, when taking into account the natural population diversity, the hidden complexity of traits could be substantial, confounding phenotypic predictability even for simple Mendelian traits.

  16. Relationships among ensiling, nutritional, fermentative, microbiological traits and contamination in corn silages addressed with partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, A; Bassi, D; Esposito, R; Moschini, M; Cocconcelli, P S; Masoero, F

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was to reduce the predictor dimensionality and to develop a model able to forecast contamination in corn silages. A survey on 33 dairy farms was performed, and samples from core, lateral, and apical parts of the feed-out face of corn silage bunkers were analyzed for chemical, biological (digestible and indigestible NDF), fermentative (pH, ammonia nitrogen, lactic acid, VFA, and ethanol), and microbiological (yeasts and molds) traits. Corn silage samples were analyzed for cell and spore counts by adoption of a molecular DNA-based method. A partial least squares (PLS) regression with a leave-one-out cross-validation method was used to reduce the dimensionality of the original predictors ( = 30) by projecting the independent variables into latent constructs. In a first step of the model development, the importance of independent variables in predicting contamination was assessed by plotting factor loadings of both dependent and independent variables on the first 2 components and by verifying for each predictor the variable influence on projection values adopting the Wold's criterion as well as the entity of standardized regression coefficients. Three ensiling characteristics (bunker type, presence of lateral wrap plastic film, and penetration resistance as a measurement of the ensiled mass density), a chemical trait (DM), 9 characterizations of the fermentative profile (pH, ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, ethanol, and lactic acid), and 2 microbiological traits (yeasts and molds) were retained as important terms in the PLS model. Three reduced-variable PLS (rPLS) regressions-the first based on ensiling, chemical, fermentative, and microbiological retained important variables (rPLSecfm); the second based on chemical, fermentative, and microbiological retained important traits (rPLScfm); and the last based on only chemical and fermentative retained important variables (r

  17. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

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    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  18. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Complex traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Ali Reza

    In the last decade rapid development in biotechnologies has made it possible to extract extensive information about practically all levels of biological organization. An ever-increasing number of studies are reporting miltilayered datasets on the entire DNA sequence, transceroption, protein...... proposed. This thesis introduced a novel way to integrate such huge data sets in an efficient and informative procedure to dissect the comæexity of obesity related traits (e.g. body wight, body fat, feed intake, etc) and map the flow from DNA through RNA ending with individual phenotypes....

  19. Beyond missing heritability: prediction of complex traits.

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    Robert Makowsky

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid advances in genomic technology, our ability to account for phenotypic variation using genetic information remains limited for many traits. This has unfortunately resulted in limited application of genetic data towards preventive and personalized medicine, one of the primary impetuses of genome-wide association studies. Recently, a large proportion of the "missing heritability" for human height was statistically explained by modeling thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms concurrently. However, it is currently unclear how gains in explained genetic variance will translate to the prediction of yet-to-be observed phenotypes. Using data from the Framingham Heart Study, we explore the genomic prediction of human height in training and validation samples while varying the statistical approach used, the number of SNPs included in the model, the validation scheme, and the number of subjects used to train the model. In our training datasets, we are able to explain a large proportion of the variation in height (h(2 up to 0.83, R(2 up to 0.96. However, the proportion of variance accounted for in validation samples is much smaller (ranging from 0.15 to 0.36 depending on the degree of familial information used in the training dataset. While such R(2 values vastly exceed what has been previously reported using a reduced number of pre-selected markers (<0.10, given the heritability of the trait (∼ 0.80, substantial room for improvement remains.

  20. Relationships between structural complexity, coral traits, and reef fish assemblages

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    Darling, Emily S.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; Nash, Kirsty L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2017-06-01

    With the ongoing loss of coral cover and the associated flattening of reef architecture, understanding the links between coral habitat and reef fishes is of critical importance. Here, we investigate whether considering coral traits and functional diversity provides new insights into the relationship between structural complexity and reef fish communities, and whether coral traits and community composition can predict structural complexity. Across 157 sites in Seychelles, Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we find that structural complexity and reef zone are the strongest and most consistent predictors of reef fish abundance, biomass, species richness, and trophic structure. However, coral traits, diversity, and life histories provided additional predictive power for models of reef fish assemblages, and were key drivers of structural complexity. Our findings highlight that reef complexity relies on living corals—with different traits and life histories—continuing to build carbonate skeletons, and that these nuanced relationships between coral assemblages and habitat complexity can affect the structure of reef fish assemblages. Seascape-level estimates of structural complexity are rapid and cost effective with important implications for the structure and function of fish assemblages, and should be incorporated into monitoring programs.

  1. Pedigree models for complex human traits involving the mitochrondrial genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schork, N.J.; Guo, S.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Recent biochemical and molecular-genetic discoveries concerning variations in human mtDNA have suggested a role for mtDNA mutations in a number of human traits and disorders. Although the importance of these discoveries cannot be emphasized enough, the complex natures of mitochondrial biogenesis, mutant mtDNA phenotype expression, and the maternal inheritance pattern exhibited by mtDNA transmission make it difficult to develop models that can be used routinely in pedigree analyses to quantify and test hypotheses about the role of mtDNA in the expression of a trait. In the present paper, the authors describe complexities inherent in mitochondrial biogenesis and genetic transmission and show how these complexities can be incorporated into appropriate mathematical models. The authors offer a variety of likelihood-based models which account for the complexities discussed. The derivation of the models is meant to stimulate the construction of statistical tests for putative mtDNA contribution to a trait. Results of simulation studies which make use of the proposed models are described. The results of the simulation studies suggest that, although pedigree models of mtDNA effects can be reliable, success in mapping chromosomal determinants of a trait does not preclude the possibility that mtDNA determinants exist for the trait as well. Shortcomings inherent in the proposed models are described in an effort to expose areas in need of additional research. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Variants affecting exon skipping contribute to complex traits.

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    Younghee Lee

    Full Text Available DNA variants that affect alternative splicing and the relative quantities of different gene transcripts have been shown to be risk alleles for some Mendelian diseases. However, for complex traits characterized by a low odds ratio for any single contributing variant, very few studies have investigated the contribution of splicing variants. The overarching goal of this study is to discover and characterize the role that variants affecting alternative splicing may play in the genetic etiology of complex traits, which include a significant number of the common human diseases. Specifically, we hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in splicing regulatory elements can be characterized in silico to identify variants affecting splicing, and that these variants may contribute to the etiology of complex diseases as well as the inter-individual variability in the ratios of alternative transcripts. We leverage high-throughput expression profiling to 1 experimentally validate our in silico predictions of skipped exons and 2 characterize the molecular role of intronic genetic variations in alternative splicing events in the context of complex human traits and diseases. We propose that intronic SNPs play a role as genetic regulators within splicing regulatory elements and show that their associated exon skipping events can affect protein domains and structure. We find that SNPs we would predict to affect exon skipping are enriched among the set of SNPs reported to be associated with complex human traits.

  3. Polyploidy and the Evolution of Complex Traits

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    Lukasz Huminiecki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how whole-genome duplications (WGDs may have given rise to complex innovations in cellular networks, innovations that could not have evolved through sequential single-gene duplications. We focus on two classical WGD events, one in bakers’ yeast and the other at the base of vertebrates (i.e., two rounds of whole-genome duplication: 2R-WGD. Two complex adaptations are discussed in detail: aerobic ethanol fermentation in yeast and the rewiring of the vertebrate developmental regulatory network through the 2R-WGD. These two examples, derived from diverged branches on the eukaryotic tree, boldly underline the evolutionary potential of WGD in facilitating major evolutionary transitions. We close by arguing that the evolutionary importance of WGD may require updating certain aspects of modern evolutionary theory, perhaps helping to synthesize a new evolutionary systems biology.

  4. Relationships among phenotypic traits of sweet corn and tolerance to crowding stress

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    Crowding stress tolerance is defined as the extent to which the crop maintains yield per unit area as plant population density increases beyond standard levels. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids grown for processing vary widely in tolerance to crowding stress; however, the mechanisms involved in crow...

  5. Epistasis: Obstacle or Advantage for Mapping Complex Traits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Casella, G.; McIntyre, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of genetic loci in complex traits has focused largely on one-dimensional genome scans to search for associations between single markers and the phenotype. There is mounting evidence that locus interactions, or epistasis, are a crucial component of the genetic architecture of biologica

  6. Ubiquitous polygenicity of human complex traits: genome-wide analysis of 49 traits in Koreans.

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    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available Recent studies in population of European ancestry have shown that 30% ~ 50% of heritability for human complex traits such as height and body mass index, and common diseases such as schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis, can be captured by common SNPs and that genetic variation attributed to chromosomes are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analysed 49 human quantitative traits, many of which are relevant to human diseases, in 7,170 unrelated Korean individuals genotyped on 326,262 SNPs. For 43 of the 49 traits, we estimated a nominally significant (P<0.05 proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Affymetrix 5.0 genotyping array ([Formula: see text]. On average across 47 of the 49 traits for which the estimate of h(G(2 is non-zero, common SNPs explain approximately one-third (range of 7.8% to 76.8% of narrow sense heritability. The estimate of h(G(2 is highly correlated with the proportion of SNPs with association P<0.031 (r(2 = 0.92. Longer genomic segments tend to explain more phenotypic variation, with a correlation of 0.78 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length, and 1% of the genome explains approximately 1% of the genetic variance. Despite the fact that there are a few SNPs with large effects for some traits, these results suggest that polygenicity is ubiquitous for most human complex traits and that a substantial proportion of the "missing heritability" is captured by common SNPs.

  7. Poly-omic prediction of complex traits: OmicKriging.

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    Wheeler, Heather E; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Gamazon, Eric R; Trubetskoy, Vassily V; Dolan, M Eileen; Huang, R Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Im, Hae Kyung

    2014-07-01

    High-confidence prediction of complex traits such as disease risk or drug response is an ultimate goal of personalized medicine. Although genome-wide association studies have discovered thousands of well-replicated polymorphisms associated with a broad spectrum of complex traits, the combined predictive power of these associations for any given trait is generally too low to be of clinical relevance. We propose a novel systems approach to complex trait prediction, which leverages and integrates similarity in genetic, transcriptomic, or other omics-level data. We translate the omic similarity into phenotypic similarity using a method called Kriging, commonly used in geostatistics and machine learning. Our method called OmicKriging emphasizes the use of a wide variety of systems-level data, such as those increasingly made available by comprehensive surveys of the genome, transcriptome, and epigenome, for complex trait prediction. Furthermore, our OmicKriging framework allows easy integration of prior information on the function of subsets of omics-level data from heterogeneous sources without the sometimes heavy computational burden of Bayesian approaches. Using seven disease datasets from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC), we show that OmicKriging allows simple integration of sparse and highly polygenic components yielding comparable performance at a fraction of the computing time of a recently published Bayesian sparse linear mixed model method. Using a cellular growth phenotype, we show that integrating mRNA and microRNA expression data substantially increases performance over either dataset alone. Using clinical statin response, we show improved prediction over existing methods. We provide an R package to implement OmicKriging (http://www.scandb.org/newinterface/tools/OmicKriging.html).

  8. Enzymatic complex in feed containing defatted corn germ meal for pigs during growth and finish phases

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    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the use of defatted corn germ meal (DCGM with an enzymatic complex (EC in feed for pigs in growing and finishing phases on the performance, digestibility, carcass, meat quality and economic efficiency characteristics. A total of 50 pigs (Agroceres PIC, 25 castrated male and 25 female, with initial average weight of 41.14 ± 2.95 kg, were used The animals were submitted to 5 treatments: T1- control feed (corn + soya meal, T2- ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM (isonutrient and isoenergetic compared to T1, T3- ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM and CE (isonutrient and isoenergetic compared to T1, T4 - ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM without EC (formulated equal T3, without considering the nutritional matrix of CE, with lower nutritional and energetic levels than T1, T5-ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM and EC (formulated equal T2, with EC added in on top form, presenting higher nutritional and energetic levels than T1. The experimental design was in random blocks, with 5 treatments and 5 repetitions per treatment, being each pen with two animals of different genders considered an experimental unit. Significant difference was verified for average weight gain when was considered the entire experimental period, with advantages for T5 and worst results for T4. For feed conversion, the worst result was verified in T4 (P<0.05. The highest final pH values for meat were observed for T1, but influences from this parameter could not be verified (in any of the treatments on the quality of the meat. Economic evaluations have shown best results for T3. Adding the enzymatic complex to diets in growing and finishing pigs with 20% DCGM has improved the zoo-technical performance without compromising carcass characteristic neither meat quality, with an increase in economic feasibility.

  9. Advances in the Research of Strategies and Methods for Analyzing Complex Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zai-xiang; XU Chen-wu

    2008-01-01

    Complex traits are the features whose properties are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Generally, complex traits include the classical quantitative traits with continuous distribution, the binary or categorical traits with discrete distribution controlled by polygene and other traits that cannot be measured exactly, such as behavior and psychology. Most human complex diseases and most economically important traits in plants and animals belong to the category. Understanding the molecular basis of complex traits plays a vital role in the genetic improvement of plant and animal breeding. In this article, the conception and research background of complex traits were summarized, and the strategies, methods and the great progress that had been made in dissecting genetic basis of complex traits were reviewed. The challenges and possible developments in future researches were also discussed.

  10. Anatomical traits of seven corn-inbred lines including two with gene brown midrib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cebrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical investigations of the stem in seven Zea mays L. Inbred lines were performed on specimens bred in the Experimental Institute of Breeding and Plant Acclimatization in Smolice. Two of the lines (bm1 and bm2 including the gene brown midrib were characterized by a higher digestability. The remaining five lines (S215, S335, 5336, S336A and S339 were selective inbred lines used as components in hybrid breeding at the Institute in Smolice. The investigated lines were compared in respect to 50 anatomical traits of the stem. The comparisons were performed by means of the Wrocław dendrite method. The lines formed three distinct groups according to the degree of similarity. The first group consisted of two lines with the gene brown midrib (bm1 and bm2, the second of four lines (5215, S336, S336A and S339, and the third of line S335. The inclusion of both the lines with gene bm into one group was based on similarity regarding the set of traits of parenchyma, particularly of the peripheral part of the stem, as well as metaxylem and metaphloem traits. However, these lines differed considerably in respect to epidermis traits. It was peculiar that the stomata of the Amaryllis type occurred in one of the lines (S339. Each line made a specific mosaic of traits. The sets of traits characterizing the particular lines were specific in such a degree that they could be used, like a fingerprint, for their identification.

  11. Complex genetic interactions in a quantitative trait locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Sinha

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Whether in natural populations or between two unrelated members of a species, most phenotypic variation is quantitative. To analyze such quantitative traits, one must first map the underlying quantitative trait loci. Next, and far more difficult, one must identify the quantitative trait genes (QTGs, characterize QTG interactions, and identify the phenotypically relevant polymorphisms to determine how QTGs contribute to phenotype. In this work, we analyzed three Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-temperature growth (Htg QTGs (MKT1, END3, and RHO2. We observed a high level of genetic interactions among QTGs and strain background. Interestingly, while the MKT1 and END3 coding polymorphisms contribute to phenotype, it is the RHO2 3'UTR polymorphisms that are phenotypically relevant. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis of the Htg QTGs in hybrids between S288c and ten unrelated S. cerevisiae strains reveals that the contributions of the Htg QTGs are not conserved in nine other hybrids, which has implications for QTG identification by marker-trait association. Our findings demonstrate the variety and complexity of QTG contributions to phenotype, the impact of genetic background, and the value of quantitative genetic studies in S. cerevisiae.

  12. A model for transgenerational imprinting variation in complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenguang; Wang, Zhong; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Qin; Li, Yao; Ahn, Kwangmi; Prows, Daniel R; Wu, Rongling

    2010-07-14

    Despite the fact that genetic imprinting, i.e., differential expression of the same allele due to its different parental origins, plays a pivotal role in controlling complex traits or diseases, the origin, action and transmission mode of imprinted genes have still remained largely unexplored. We present a new strategy for studying these properties of genetic imprinting with a two-stage reciprocal F mating design, initiated with two contrasting inbred lines. This strategy maps quantitative trait loci that are imprinted (i.e., iQTLs) based on their segregation and transmission across different generations. By incorporating the allelic configuration of an iQTL genotype into a mixture model framework, this strategy provides a path to trace the parental origin of alleles from previous generations. The imprinting effects of iQTLs and their interactions with other traditionally defined genetic effects, expressed in different generations, are estimated and tested by implementing the EM algorithm. The strategy was used to map iQTLs responsible for survival time with four reciprocal F populations and test whether and how the detected iQTLs inherit their imprinting effects into the next generation. The new strategy will provide a tool for quantifying the role of imprinting effects in the creation and maintenance of phenotypic diversity and elucidating a comprehensive picture of the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases.

  13. A model for transgenerational imprinting variation in complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Wang

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that genetic imprinting, i.e., differential expression of the same allele due to its different parental origins, plays a pivotal role in controlling complex traits or diseases, the origin, action and transmission mode of imprinted genes have still remained largely unexplored. We present a new strategy for studying these properties of genetic imprinting with a two-stage reciprocal F mating design, initiated with two contrasting inbred lines. This strategy maps quantitative trait loci that are imprinted (i.e., iQTLs based on their segregation and transmission across different generations. By incorporating the allelic configuration of an iQTL genotype into a mixture model framework, this strategy provides a path to trace the parental origin of alleles from previous generations. The imprinting effects of iQTLs and their interactions with other traditionally defined genetic effects, expressed in different generations, are estimated and tested by implementing the EM algorithm. The strategy was used to map iQTLs responsible for survival time with four reciprocal F populations and test whether and how the detected iQTLs inherit their imprinting effects into the next generation. The new strategy will provide a tool for quantifying the role of imprinting effects in the creation and maintenance of phenotypic diversity and elucidating a comprehensive picture of the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases.

  14. Contribution of large region joint associations to complex traits genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Guillaume; Asma, Senay; Deng, Wei Q

    2015-04-01

    A polygenic model of inheritance, whereby hundreds or thousands of weakly associated variants contribute to a trait's heritability, has been proposed to underlie the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, relatively few genetic variants have been positively identified so far and they collectively explain only a small fraction of the predicted heritability. We hypothesized that joint association of multiple weakly associated variants over large chromosomal regions contributes to complex traits variance. Confirmation of such regional associations can help identify new loci and lead to a better understanding of known ones. To test this hypothesis, we first characterized the ability of commonly used genetic association models to identify large region joint associations. Through theoretical derivation and simulation, we showed that multivariate linear models where multiple SNPs are included as independent predictors have the most favorable association profile. Based on these results, we tested for large region association with height in 3,740 European participants from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) study. Adjusting for SNPs with known association with height, we demonstrated clustering of weak associations (p = 2x10-4) in regions extending up to 433.0 Kb from known height loci. The contribution of regional associations to phenotypic variance was estimated at 0.172 (95% CI 0.063-0.279; p < 0.001), which compared favorably to 0.129 explained by known height variants. Conversely, we showed that suggestively associated regions are enriched for known height loci. To extend our findings to other traits, we also tested BMI, HDLc and CRP for large region associations, with consistent results for CRP. Our results demonstrate the presence of large region joint associations and suggest these can be used to pinpoint weakly associated SNPs.

  15. Effect of consolidate application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the physical and chemical traits of soil and qualitative index of corn (Zea mays L) plants

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Namazi; Ebrahim Fatahi Nejad; Shahram Lak

    2015-01-01

    Present study was conducted to analysis the effect of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on physical and chemical traits of soil's and qualitative indexes of corn plant. A factorial test with complete random block designs with 4 repetitions was conducted in the year of 2012. Three doses of chemical nitrogen fertilizers viz 50, 75 & 100 kg/hectare and two level of vermicompost viz 5 & 10 tons/hectare were used either individually or in combination with each others. Resul...

  16. On the Origin of Complex Adaptive Traits: Progress Since the Darwin Versus Mivart Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao K

    2017-06-01

    The evolutionary origin of complex adaptive traits has been a controversial topic in the history of evolutionary biology. Although Darwin argued for the gradual origins of complex adaptive traits within the theory of natural selection, Mivart insisted that natural selection could not account for the incipient stages of complex traits. The debate starting from Darwin and Mivart eventually engendered two opposite views: gradualism and saltationism. Although this has been a long-standing debate, the issue remains unresolved. However, recent studies have interrogated classic examples of complex traits, such as the asymmetrical eyes of flatfishes and leaf mimicry of butterfly wings, whose origins were debated by Darwin and Mivart. Here, I review recent findings as a starting point to provide a modern picture of the evolution of complex adaptive traits. First, I summarize the empirical evidence that unveils the evolutionary steps toward complex traits. I then argue that the evolution of complex traits could be understood within the concept of "reducible complexity." Through these discussions, I propose a conceptual framework for the formation of complex traits, named as reducible-composable multicomponent systems, that satisfy two major characteristics: reducibility into a sum of subcomponents and composability to construct traits from various additional and combinatorial arrangements of the subcomponents. This conceptual framework provides an analytical foundation for exploring evolutionary pathways to build up complex traits. This review provides certain essential avenues for deciphering the origin of complex adaptive traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetics of personalities: no simple answers for complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    Identifying the genes that underlie phenotypic variation in natural populations, and assessing the consequences of polymorphisms at these loci for individual fitness are major objectives in evolutionary biology. Yet, with the exception of a few success stories, little progress has been made, and our understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype is still in its infancy. For example, although body length in humans is largely genetically determined, with heritability estimates greater than 0.8, massive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have only been able to account for a very small proportion of this variation (Gudbjartsson et al. 2008). If it is so difficult to explain the genetics behind relatively 'simple' traits, can we envision that it will at all be possible to find genes underlying complex behavioural traits in wild non-model organisms? Some notable examples suggest that this can indeed be a worthwhile endeavour. Recently, the circadian rhythm gene Clock has been associated with timing of breeding in a wild blue tit population (Johnsen et al. 2007; Liedvogel et al. 2009) and the Pgi gene to variation in dispersal and flight endurance in Glanville fritillary butterflies (Niitepold et al. 2009). A promising candidate gene for influencing complex animal personality traits, also known as behavioural syndromes (Sih et al. 2004), is the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. Within the last decade, polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with variation in novelty seeking and exploration behaviour in a range of species, from humans to great tits (Schinka et al. 2002; Fidler et al. 2007). In this issue, Korsten et al. (2010) attempt to replicate this previously observed association in wild-living birds, and test for the generality of the association between DRD4 and personality across a number of European great tit populations.

  18. Genetic architecture of quantitative traits and complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenqing; O'Connor, Timothy D; Akey, Joshua M

    2013-12-01

    More than 150 years after Mendel discovered the laws of heredity, the genetic architecture of phenotypic variation remains elusive. Here, we discuss recent progress in deciphering how genotypes map onto phenotypes, sources of genetic complexity, and how model organisms are illuminating general principles about the relationship between genetic and phenotypic variation. Moreover, we highlight insights gleaned from large-scale sequencing studies in humans, and how this knowledge informs outstanding questions about the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and complex diseases. Finally, we articulate how the confluence of technologies enabling whole-genome sequencing, comprehensive phenotyping, and high-throughput functional assays of polymorphisms will facilitate a more principled and mechanistic understanding of the genetic architecture of phenotypic variation.

  19. Influence of outliers on QTL mapping for complex traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousaf HAYAT; Jian YANG; Hai-ming XU; Jun ZHU

    2008-01-01

    A method was proposed for the detection of outliers and influential observations in the framework of a mixed linear model, prior to the quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis. We investigated the impact of outliers on QTL mapping for complex traits in a mouse BXD population, and observed that the dropping of outliers could provide the evidence of additional QTL and epistatic loci affecting the 1 stBrain-OB and the 2ndBrain-OB in a cross of the abovementioned population. The results could also reveal a remarkable increase in estimating heritabilities of QTL in the absence of outliers. In addition, simulations were conducted to investigate the detection powers and false discovery rates (FDRs) of QTLs in the presence and absence of outliers. The results suggested that the presence of a small proportion of outliers could increase the FDR and hence decrease the detection power of QTLs. A drastic increase could be obtained in the estimates of standard errors for position, additive and additivex environment interaction effects of QTLs in the presence of outliers.

  20. Influence of outliers on QTL mapping for complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Yousaf; Yang, Jian; Xu, Hai-ming; Zhu, Jun

    2008-12-01

    A method was proposed for the detection of outliers and influential observations in the framework of a mixed linear model, prior to the quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis. We investigated the impact of outliers on QTL mapping for complex traits in a mouse BXD population, and observed that the dropping of outliers could provide the evidence of additional QTL and epistatic loci affecting the 1stBrain-OB and the 2ndBrain-OB in a cross of the abovementioned population. The results could also reveal a remarkable increase in estimating heritabilities of QTL in the absence of outliers. In addition, simulations were conducted to investigate the detection powers and false discovery rates (FDRs) of QTLs in the presence and absence of outliers. The results suggested that the presence of a small proportion of outliers could increase the FDR and hence decrease the detection power of QTLs. A drastic increase could be obtained in the estimates of standard errors for position, additive and additivex environment interaction effects of QTLs in the presence of outliers.

  1. New assessment based on the use of principal factor analysis to investigate corn silage quality from nutritional traits, fermentation end products and mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Moschini, Maurizio; Bruschi, Sara; Cerioli, Carla; Masoero, Francesco

    2016-01-30

    A survey on 68 dairy farms was carried out to evaluate the ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silage. Samples from core, lateral and apical zones of the feed-out face of silos were analysed. A principal factor analysis (PFA) was carried out on the entire database (196 silage samples and 36 variables) and 11 principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Ensiling procedures influenced the area exposed to risk of air penetration. Cores had higher dry matter, starch and lactic acid content or lower pH, fibre, propionate and butyrate concentrations than peripheral samples (P acid and roquefortina C concentrations were detected in lateral samples. Chemical and digestibility variables loaded on two PCs; four PCs were characterized by end-products associated with clostridia, heterolactic, homolactic and aerobic fermentations; two PCs were associated with mycotoxins, whereas three PCs explained ensiling procedures. The main quality traits of corn silages differed throughout the entire silo face. Minimization of the area exposed to risk of air penetration represents the best strategy to preserve the nutritional value and safety of corn silages. PFA allowed a clusterization of original variables into 11 PCs, appearing able to discriminate well and poorly preserved corn silages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Estimation of heterosis for grain yield and quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays var. sacharata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Dagla, R. N. Gadag, O. P. Sharma, Narendra Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to estimate heterosis for yield and biochemical quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays var. sacharata crosses. Forty five hybrids using diallel mating design excluding reciprocals were generated. These hybrids along with their ten parents and one standard check (Madhuri were grown at IARI, New Delhi during kharif-2008 in randomized block design (RBD. Estimation of heterosis over standard check (HSC ‘Madhuri’, mid-parent (HMP, and better parent (HBP was calculated. The significant heterosis over standard check for grain yield was found in five crosses, and for sugar content in twelve crosses out of forty five. The HMP for grain yield was found in eighteen crosses and for sugar content in nine crosses. The HMP for grain yield and sugar content was found in IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136, and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142. One cross IPSA-6137 × IPSA-6139 showed HMP for protein content and grain yield. One cross IPSA-6136 × IPSA-6139 showed HMP for sugar content and protein content. The HBP was observed in IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136, IPSA-6136 × IPSA-6139, IPSA-6138 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6139 × IPSA-6140 and IPSA-6140 × IPSA-6141 for sugar content and IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6137, IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6142, IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6139, IPSA-6140 × IPSA-6142, and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142 for grain yield. Two crosses IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136 and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142 have the HBP for grain yield and sugar content. One cross IPSA 6137 × IPSA 6139 showed the HBP for protein and grain yield.

  3. Allele-specific KRT1 expression is a complex trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Tao

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The differential expression of alleles occurs commonly in humans and is likely an important genetic factor underlying heritable differences in phenotypic traits. Understanding the molecular basis of allelic expression differences is thus an important challenge. Although many genes have been shown to display differential allelic expression, this is the first study to examine in detail the cumulative effects of multiple cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for allele-specific expression differences. We have used a variety of experimental approaches to identify and characterize cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for the extreme allele-specific expression differences of keratin-1 (KRT1 in human white blood cells. The combined data from our analyses provide strong evidence that the KRT1 allelic expression differences result from the haplotypic combinations and interactions of five cis-regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs whose alleles differ in their affinity to bind transcription factors and modulate KRT1 promoter activity. Two of these cis-regulatory SNPs bind transcriptional activators with the alleles on the high-expressing KRT1 haplotype pattern having a higher affinity than the alleles on the low-expressing haplotype pattern. In contrast, the other three cis-regulatory SNPs bind transcriptional inhibitors with the alleles on the low-expressing haplotype pattern having a higher affinity than the alleles on the high-expressing haplotype pattern. Our study provides important new insights into the degree of complexity that the cis-regulatory sequences responsible for allele-specific transcriptional regulation have. These data suggest that allelic expression differences result from the cumulative contribution of multiple DNA sequence polymorphisms, with each having a small effect, and that allele-specific expression can thus be viewed as a complex trait.

  4. Study on mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for animal complex binary traits using Bayesian-Markov chain Monte Carlo approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jianfeng; ZHANG; Yuan; ZHANG; Qin; WANG; Lixian; ZHANG; Jigang

    2006-01-01

    It is a challenging issue to map Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) underlying complex discrete traits, which usually show discontinuous distribution and less information, using conventional statistical methods. Bayesian-Markov chain Monte Carlo (Bayesian-MCMC) approach is the key procedure in mapping QTL for complex binary traits, which provides a complete posterior distribution for QTL parameters using all prior information. As a consequence, Bayesian estimates of all interested variables can be obtained straightforwardly basing on their posterior samples simulated by the MCMC algorithm. In our study, utilities of Bayesian-MCMC are demonstrated using simulated several animal outbred full-sib families with different family structures for a complex binary trait underlied by both a QTL and polygene. Under the Identity-by-Descent-Based variance component random model, three samplers basing on MCMC, including Gibbs sampling, Metropolis algorithm and reversible jump MCMC, were implemented to generate the joint posterior distribution of all unknowns so that the QTL parameters were obtained by Bayesian statistical inferring. The results showed that Bayesian-MCMC approach could work well and robust under different family structures and QTL effects. As family size increases and the number of family decreases, the accuracy of the parameter estimates will be improved. When the true QTL has a small effect, using outbred population experiment design with large family size is the optimal mapping strategy.

  5. Identifying Coopted Networks and Causative Mutations in the Origin of Novel Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A; Gupta, M D

    2016-01-01

    One of the central goals of the field of evo-devo is to understand how novel complex traits originate. Novel complex traits are often old, and this makes understanding the genetic basis of their origin difficult. The traditional genetics approach for identifying the causative mutations for trait origin, of crossing species with and without the trait, is often impossible when the species are too distantly related. Alternatively, if the species are closely related, the genetic basis of their differences is often the recent loss, rather than the gain, of the trait in one of them, and mutations resulting in trait loss are not always equivalent to those that led to trait gain. Here, we reexamine an evo-devo study of the origin of melanic spots in the wings of flies, which is presented in more than one mainstream undergraduate textbook on Evolution, as an example of molecular evolution leading to the origin of a novel trait. We put forth an alternative to the previously proposed scenario and, in our view, a more likely evolutionary framework that explains the data, the CRE-DDC model, and then review other case studies and avenues of research that should help identify where new complex traits come from, as well as the actual causative mutations underlying their origin.

  6. Performance, carcass traits and economic evaluation of the replacement of corn whole grain by pelleted soybean hulls in the feeding of feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Galafassi Zarpelon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of replacement of whole grain corn by pelleted soybean hulls in high concentrated diet, without long fiber use, on intake, productive performance and economical viability of feedlot lambs production. Twenty four Texel lambs, 12 males and 12 females of the same age, with average weight of 23 kg, distributed in 12 stalls, in a completely randomized design, were used. The treatments consisted of replacement of whole grain corn by pelleted soybean hulls, at levels of 0% (SH0, 15% (SH15 and 30% (SH30. Dry matter (DM (kg day-1, crude protein (CP (kg day-1, %AW, g AW0,75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF (kg day-1, %AW, g AW0,75 intake showed linear increasing behavior (P<0.05 according to increasing levels of soybean hulls replacing the corn grain in the diet, however, the ether extract (EE intake (g day-1 presented quadratic effect. There were no differences in DM intake in relation to weight and metabolic body size, as well as, to mineral material (MM (g day-1 and total digestible nutrients (TDN intake (kg day-1, %AW, g AW0,75. In average daily gain (ADG, a quadratic effect of different levels of soybean hulls in the diet was observed (P<0.05, with weight gain of 0.267; 0.327 and 0.224 kg day-1, in levels of 0, 15 and 30%, respectively. The feed conversion was affected in a increasing linear way (P<0.05 with the soybean hulls inclusion in the diet. It was not observed differences in the carcass traits. When increasing levels of soybean hulls were added to the diet, it was observed decreasing in cost/kg ration (R$, however, there was increasing cost of meat produced (kg. In a general way, it can be concluded that replacement of whole corn by pelleted soybean hulls in high concentrated diet, in a proportion of 15%, increases the weight gain in feedlot lambs. In the proportion of 30%, affect negatively the animal performance, however does not influence the

  7. Combined sequence-based and genetic mapping analysis of complex traits in outbred rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, Amelie; Hermsen, Roel; Guryev, Victor; Stridh, Pernilla; Graham, Delyth; McBride, Martin W.; Foroud, Tatiana; Calderari, Sophie; Diez, Margarita; Ockinger, Johan; Beyeen, Amennai D.; Gillett, Alan; Abdelmagid, Nada; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Jagodic, Maja; Tuncel, Jonatan; Norin, Ulrika; Beattie, Elisabeth; Huynh, Ngan; Miller, William H.; Koller, Daniel L.; Alam, Imranul; Falak, Samreen; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary; Martinez-Membrives, Esther; Canete, Toni; Blazquez, Gloria; Vicens-Costa, Elia; Mont-Cardona, Carme; Diaz-Moran, Sira; Tobena, Adolf; Hummel, Oliver; Zelenika, Diana; Saar, Kathrin; Patone, Giannino; Bauerfeind, Anja; Bihoreau, Marie-Therese; Heinig, Matthias; Lee, Young-Ae; Rintisch, Carola; Schulz, Herbert; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lathrop, Mark; Lansu, Nico; Toonen, Pim; Ruzius, Frans Paul; de Bruijn, Ewart; Hauser, Heidi; Adams, David J.; Keane, Thomas; Atanur, Santosh S.; Aitman, Tim J.; Flicek, Paul; Malinauskas, Tomas; Jones, E. Yvonne; Ekman, Diana; Lopez-Aumatell, Regina; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Johannesson, Martina; Holmdahl, Rikard; Olsson, Tomas; Gauguier, Dominique; Hubner, Norbert; Fernandez-Teruel, Alberto; Cuppen, Edwin; Mott, Richard; Flint, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Genetic mapping on fully sequenced individuals is transforming understanding of the relationship between molecular variation and variation in complex traits. Here we report a combined sequence and genetic mapping analysis in outbred rats that maps 355 quantitative trait loci for 122 phenotypes. We i

  8. Integrated translational genomics for analysis of complex traits in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We will report on the integration of sequencing and genotype data from natural variation (by whole genome resequencing [wgs] or genotype by sequencing [gbs]), transcriptome (RNA-seq) and mutant analysis (also by wgs) with the goal of identifying genes controlling important agronomic traits and tran...

  9. QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J

    2004-05-01

    In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.

  10. A Bayesian Algorithm for Functional Mapping of Dynamic Complex Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongling Wu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional mapping of dynamic traits measured in a longitudinal study was originally derived within the maximum likelihood (ML context and implemented with the EM algorithm. Although ML-based functional mapping possesses many favorable statistical properties in parameter estimation, it may be computationally intractable for analyzing longitudinal data with high dimensions and high measurement errors. In this article, we derive a general functional mapping framework for quantitative trait locus mapping of dynamic traits within the Bayesian paradigm. Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques were implemented for functional mapping to estimate biologically and statistically sensible parameters that model the structures of time-dependent genetic effects and covariance matrix. The Bayesian approach is useful to handle difficulties in constructing confidence intervals as well as the identifiability problem, enhancing the statistical inference of functional mapping. We have undertaken simulation studies to investigate the statistical behavior of Bayesian-based functional mapping and used a real example with F2 mice to validate the utilization and usefulness of the model.

  11. Improving biological understanding and complex trait prediction by integrating prior information in genomic feature models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    externally founded information, such as KEGG pathways, Gene Ontology gene sets, or genomic features, and estimate the joint contribution of the genetic variants within these sets to complex trait phenotypes. The analysis of complex trait phenotypes is hampered by the myriad of genes that control the trait......In this thesis we investigate an approach to integrate external data into the analysis of genetic variants. The goal is similar to that of gene-set enrichment tests, but relies on the robust statistical framework of linear mixed models. This approach has allowed us to integrate virtually any......, as these genes have small to moderate effects that can be difficult to detect. However, by looking at sets of genes, as in gene-set enrichment tests, it may become easier to assess an association between the set of genes and the complex trait. ---  The linear mixed models applied here are the same as used...

  12. Permeability of Plant Young Root Endodermis to Cu Ions and Cu-Citrate Complexes in Corn and Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanzhao; Lei, Wenrui; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    The non-selective apoplastic passage of Cu and Cu-citrate complexes into the root stele of monocotyledonous corn and dicotyledonous soybean was investigated using an inorganic-salt-precipitation technique. Either Cu ions or Cu-citrate complexes were drawn into root through the apoplast from the root growth medium, and K4[Fe(CN)6] was subsequently perfused through xylem vessels or the entire root cross section. Based on microscopic identification of the reddish-brown precipitates of copper ferrocyanide in the cell walls of the xylem of corn and soybean roots, Cu(2+) passed through the endodermal barrier into the xylem of both species. When the solution containing 200 μM CuSO4 and 400 μM sodium citrate (containing 199.98 μM Cu-citrate, 0.02 μM Cu(2+)) was drawn via differential pressure gradients into the root xylem while being perfused with K4[Fe(CN)6] through the entire root cross-section, reddish-brown precipitates were observed in the walls of the stele of soybean, but not corn root. However, when a CuSO4 solution containing 0.02 or 0.2 μM free Cu(2+) was used, no reddish-brown precipitates were detected in the stele of either of the two plants. Results indicated that endodermis was permeable to Cu-citrate complexes in primary roots of soybean, but not corn. The permeability of the endodermal barrier to the Cu-citrate complex may vary between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which has considerable implications for chelant-enhanced phytoextraction.

  13. Searching for causal networks involving latent variables in complex traits: Application to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, F; Valente, B D; Steibel, J P; Bates, R O; Ernst, C W; Khatib, H; Rosa, G J M

    2015-10-01

    Structural equation models (SEQM) can be used to model causal relationships between multiple variables in multivariate systems. Among the strengths of SEQM is its ability to consider causal links between latent variables. The use of latent variables allows modeling complex phenomena while reducing at the same time the dimensionality of the data. One relevant aspect in the quantitative genetics context is the possibility of correlated genetic effects influencing sets of variables under study. Under this scenario, if one aims at inferring causality among latent variables, genetic covariances act as confounders if ignored. Here we describe a methodology for assessing causal networks involving latent variables underlying complex phenotypic traits. The first step of the method consists of the construction of latent variables defined on the basis of prior knowledge and biological interest. These latent variables are jointly evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The estimated factor scores are then used as phenotypes for fitting a multivariate mixed model to obtain the covariance matrix of latent variables conditional on the genetic effects. Finally, causal relationships between the adjusted latent variables are evaluated using different SEQM with alternative causal specifications. We have applied this method to a data set with pigs for which several phenotypes were recorded over time. Five different latent variables were evaluated to explore causal links between growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. The measurement model, which included 5 latent variables capturing the information conveyed by 19 different phenotypic traits, showed an acceptable fit to data (e.g., χ/df = 1.3, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.028, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.041). Causal links between latent variables were explored after removing genetic confounders. Interestingly, we found that both growth (-0.160) and carcass traits (-0.500) have a significant

  14. Lessons Learned from a Complex FUSRAP Site - Sylvania Corning FUSRAP Site - 12269

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewy, Ann; Hays, David [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, 64106 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since its addition to the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 2005, the Sylvania Corning FUSRAP Site (the Site) in Hicksville, New York, has provided challenges and opportunities from which to gain lessons learned for conducting investigation work at a complex multi-contaminant FUSRAP Site. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and its contractors conducted a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RI) and are currently in the Feasibility Study (FS) phase at the Site. This paper presents the planning, execution, and reporting lessons learned by USACE during the RI/FS. The Site, operated from 1952 to 1967 for the research, development, and fabrication of nuclear elements under the Atomic Energy Commission, and other government and commercial contracts. Previous investigations performed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the current property owner have identified uranium, thorium, nickel, and chlorinated solvents, as Site contaminants [1]. The property owner is currently under two separate voluntary agreements with NYSDEC to investigate and remediate the Site. USACE's work at the site has been independent of this voluntary agreement and has moved on a parallel path with any work the property owner has completed. The project at the Site is complex because of the radiological and chemical concerns in both soils and groundwater, high hydraulically conductive soils, lack of a shallow aquiclude/aquitard, and a principal water table aquifer underlying the site. Contaminants are migrating from the Site and may potentially impact local drinking water supplies (municipal wells). During the RI/FS process the project team has encountered many issues and has thus developed many resolutions. The issues are organized into three categories: Planning and Contracting, Execution, and Reporting. Planning and Contracting lessons learned include

  15. Statistical power to detect genetic (covariance of complex traits using SNP data in unrelated samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Visscher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We have recently developed analysis methods (GREML to estimate the genetic variance of a complex trait/disease and the genetic correlation between two complex traits/diseases using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data in unrelated individuals. Here we use analytical derivations and simulations to quantify the sampling variance of the estimate of the proportion of phenotypic variance captured by all SNPs for quantitative traits and case-control studies. We also derive the approximate sampling variance of the estimate of a genetic correlation in a bivariate analysis, when two complex traits are either measured on the same or different individuals. We show that the sampling variance is inversely proportional to the number of pairwise contrasts in the analysis and to the variance in SNP-derived genetic relationships. For bivariate analysis, the sampling variance of the genetic correlation additionally depends on the harmonic mean of the proportion of variance explained by the SNPs for the two traits and the genetic correlation between the traits, and depends on the phenotypic correlation when the traits are measured on the same individuals. We provide an online tool for calculating the power of detecting genetic (covariation using genome-wide SNP data. The new theory and online tool will be helpful to plan experimental designs to estimate the missing heritability that has not yet been fully revealed through genome-wide association studies, and to estimate the genetic overlap between complex traits (diseases in particular when the traits (diseases are not measured on the same samples.

  16. Parameters in dynamic models of complex traits are containers of missing heritability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of human traits rarely explain more than a small proportion of the heritable variation, and improving this situation within the current paradigm appears daunting. Given a well-validated dynamic model of a complex physiological trait, a substantial part of the underlying genetic variation must manifest as variation in model parameters. These parameters are themselves phenotypic traits. By linking whole-cell phenotypic variation to genetic variation in a computational model of a single heart cell, incorporating genotype-to-parameter maps, we show that genome-wide association studies on parameters reveal much more genetic variation than when using higher-level cellular phenotypes. The results suggest that letting such studies be guided by computational physiology may facilitate a causal understanding of the genotype-to-phenotype map of complex traits, with strong implications for the development of phenomics technology.

  17. Exploring Corn-Ethanol As A Complex Problem To Teach Sustainability Concepts Across The Science-Business-Liberal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    The highly interdisciplinary nature of sustainability presents pedagogic challenges when sustainability concepts are incorporated into traditional disciplinary courses. At Bentley University, where over 90 percent of students major in business disciplines, we have created a multidisciplinary course module centered on corn ethanol that explores a complex social, environmental, and economic problem and develops basic data analysis and analytical thinking skills in several courses spanning the natural, physical, and social sciences within the business curriculum. Through an NSF-CCLI grant, Bentley faculty from several disciplines participated in a summer workshop to define learning objectives, create course modules, and develop an assessment plan to enhance interdisciplinary sustainability teaching. The core instructional outcome was a data-rich exercise for all participating courses in which students plot and analyze multiple parameters of corn planted and harvested for various purposes including food (human), feed (animal), ethanol production, and commodities exchanged for the years 1960 to present. Students then evaluate patterns and trends in the data and hypothesize relationships among the plotted data and environmental, social, and economic drivers, responses, and unintended consequences. After the central data analysis activity, students explore corn ethanol production as it relates to core disciplinary concepts in their individual classes. For example, students in Environmental Chemistry produce ethanol using corn and sugar as feedstocks and compare the efficiency of each process, while learning about enzymes, fermentation, distillation, and other chemical principles. Principles of Geology students examine the effects of agricultural runoff on surface water quality associated with extracting greater agricultural yield from mid-continent croplands. The American Government course examines the role of political institutions, the political process, and various

  18. The spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits and the genetics of fitness in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, K Christin; Glander, Shirin; He, Fei; Hu, Jinyong; de Meaux, Juliette; Schmitz, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis of natural variation in complex traits is the key for their effective management in crops or natural systems. This review focuses on plant variation. It will first, show that genetic modifications causing major alterations in polygenic phenotypes often hit targets within an array of 'candidate genes', second, present new methods that include mutations of all effect sizes, and help exhaustively describe the molecular systems underlying complex traits, and third, discuss recent findings regarding the role of epigenetic variants, which in plants are often maintained through both mitosis and meiosis. Exploring the whole spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits is made possible by the combination of genetic, genomic and epigenomic approaches.

  19. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  20. A Commentary on Pitfalls of Predicting Complex Traits From SNP's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Sorensen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    , imperfect marker–causal loci linkage disequilibrium (LD). Consequently, the marker-based model may largely misrepresent the data-generating process; this is exacerbated with unrelated individuals5. Under these conditions, it is not clear that the finite sample estimate of h2G-BLUP is an unbiased estimate...... relationships (owing to, for example, imperfect marker–causal loci LD) can impose a large-sample upper bound on R2TST that is considerably lower than the finite sample estimate of h2G-BLUP. The same study5 also presents simulation scenarios with nominally unrelated individuals, where R2TST can be extremely low......As stated by Wray and co-authors1, knowing the proportion of variance of a trait that is explained by regression on markers in the population (h2M) is relevant because, in principle, h2M represents the maximum prediction accuracy (R2TST) that is achievable in testing (TST) data if marker effects...

  1. Fungicide seed treatments for evaluating the corn seedling disease complex following a winter rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed treatments have been used to manage corn seedling diseases since the 1970’s and they contain a combination of active ingredients with specificity towards different pathogens. We hypothesized that using different seed treatment combinations and assessing seedling disease incidence and severity ...

  2. Worms under stress: unravelling genetic complex traits through perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of an organism could be considered ‘the most amazing piece of engineering’ existing in nature. Looking from a certain distance, the genetic complexity of an organism could be described as an immense jigsaw puzzle. As in a real jigsaw, the connection between two p

  3. Worms under stress: unravelling genetic complex traits through perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of an organism could be considered ‘the most amazing piece of engineering’ existing in nature. Looking from a certain distance, the genetic complexity of an organism could be described as an immense jigsaw puzzle. As in a real jigsaw, the connection between two p

  4. Combined sequence-based and genetic mapping analysis of complex traits in outbred rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Amelie; Hermsen, Roel; Guryev, Victor; Stridh, Pernilla; Graham, Delyth; McBride, Martin W.; Foroud, Tatiana; Calderari, Sophie; Diez, Margarita; Ockinger, Johan; Beyeen, Amennai D.; Gillett, Alan; Abdelmagid, Nada; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Jagodic, Maja; Tuncel, Jonatan; Norin, Ulrika; Beattie, Elisabeth; Huynh, Ngan; Miller, William H.; Koller, Daniel L.; Alam, Imranul; Falak, Samreen; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary; Martinez-Membrives, Esther; Canete, Toni; Blazquez, Gloria; Vicens-Costa, Elia; Mont-Cardona, Carme; Diaz-Moran, Sira; Tobena, Adolf; Hummel, Oliver; Zelenika, Diana; Saar, Kathrin; Patone, Giannino; Bauerfeind, Anja; Bihoreau, Marie-Therese; Heinig, Matthias; Lee, Young-Ae; Rintisch, Carola; Schulz, Herbert; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lathrop, Mark; Lansu, Nico; Toonen, Pim; Ruzius, Frans Paul; de Bruijn, Ewart; Hauser, Heidi; Adams, David J.; Keane, Thomas; Atanur, Santosh S.; Aitman, Tim J.; Flicek, Paul; Malinauskas, Tomas; Jones, E. Yvonne; Ekman, Diana; Lopez-Aumatell, Regina; Dominiczak, Anna F; Johannesson, Martina; Holmdahl, Rikard; Olsson, Tomas; Gauguier, Dominique; Hubner, Norbert; Fernandez-Teruel, Alberto; Cuppen, Edwin; Mott, Richard; Flint, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Genetic mapping on fully sequenced individuals is transforming our understanding of the relationship between molecular variation and variation in complex traits. Here we report a combined sequence and genetic mapping analysis in outbred rats that maps 355 quantitative trait loci for 122 phenotypes. We identify 35 causal genes involved in 31 phenotypes, implicating novel genes in models of anxiety, heart disease and multiple sclerosis. The relation between sequence and genetic variation is unexpectedly complex: at approximately 40% of quantitative trait loci a single sequence variant cannot account for the phenotypic effect. Using comparable sequence and mapping data from mice, we show the extent and spatial pattern of variation in inbred rats differ significantly from those of inbred mice, and that the genetic variants in orthologous genes rarely contribute to the same phenotype in both species. PMID:23708188

  5. Combined sequence-based and genetic mapping analysis of complex traits in outbred rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Amelie; Hermsen, Roel; Guryev, Victor; Stridh, Pernilla; Graham, Delyth; McBride, Martin W; Foroud, Tatiana; Calderari, Sophie; Diez, Margarita; Ockinger, Johan; Beyeen, Amennai D; Gillett, Alan; Abdelmagid, Nada; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Jagodic, Maja; Tuncel, Jonatan; Norin, Ulrika; Beattie, Elisabeth; Huynh, Ngan; Miller, William H; Koller, Daniel L; Alam, Imranul; Falak, Samreen; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary; Martinez-Membrives, Esther; Canete, Toni; Blazquez, Gloria; Vicens-Costa, Elia; Mont-Cardona, Carme; Diaz-Moran, Sira; Tobena, Adolf; Hummel, Oliver; Zelenika, Diana; Saar, Kathrin; Patone, Giannino; Bauerfeind, Anja; Bihoreau, Marie-Therese; Heinig, Matthias; Lee, Young-Ae; Rintisch, Carola; Schulz, Herbert; Wheeler, David A; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Lathrop, Mark; Lansu, Nico; Toonen, Pim; Ruzius, Frans Paul; de Bruijn, Ewart; Hauser, Heidi; Adams, David J; Keane, Thomas; Atanur, Santosh S; Aitman, Tim J; Flicek, Paul; Malinauskas, Tomas; Jones, E Yvonne; Ekman, Diana; Lopez-Aumatell, Regina; Dominiczak, Anna F; Johannesson, Martina; Holmdahl, Rikard; Olsson, Tomas; Gauguier, Dominique; Hubner, Norbert; Fernandez-Teruel, Alberto; Cuppen, Edwin; Mott, Richard; Flint, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    Genetic mapping on fully sequenced individuals is transforming understanding of the relationship between molecular variation and variation in complex traits. Here we report a combined sequence and genetic mapping analysis in outbred rats that maps 355 quantitative trait loci for 122 phenotypes. We identify 35 causal genes involved in 31 phenotypes, implicating new genes in models of anxiety, heart disease and multiple sclerosis. The relationship between sequence and genetic variation is unexpectedly complex: at approximately 40% of quantitative trait loci, a single sequence variant cannot account for the phenotypic effect. Using comparable sequence and mapping data from mice, we show that the extent and spatial pattern of variation in inbred rats differ substantially from those of inbred mice and that the genetic variants in orthologous genes rarely contribute to the same phenotype in both species.

  6. Effect of consolidate application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the physical and chemical traits of soil and qualitative index of corn (Zea mays L plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Namazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analysis the effect of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on physical and chemical traits of soil's and qualitative indexes of corn plant. A factorial test with complete random block designs with 4 repetitions was conducted in the year of 2012. Three doses of chemical nitrogen fertilizers viz 50, 75 & 100 kg/hectare and two level of vermicompost viz 5 & 10 tons/hectare were used either individually or in combination with each others. Results of the study revealed that the use of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer caused a significant increase in the percentage of seed oil contents. At individual application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer highest increment in seed oil content was reported at 100 kg/hectare application, while in combination it was reported higher in the combination of 75 kg/hectare chemical Nitrogen fertilizer and 10ton/hectare vermicompost. The least effective treatment of was the combination of 100 kg/hectare chemical nitrogen fertilizer and 10 tons/hectare vermicompost combination. The most bulk gravity and real gravity is due to the treatment of Nitrogen chemical fertilizer at 50kg/hectare of soil test and without the use of vermicompost and the least bulk and real gravity of soil belong to the treatment of Nitrogen chemical fertilizer at the amount of 100kg/hectare of soil test and use of vermicompost at the amount of 10 tons in hectare.

  7. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchill, Gary A.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Airey, D.C.; Allayee, H.; Angel, J.M.; Attie, A.D.; Beatty, J.; Beavis, W.D.; Belknap, J.K.; Bennett, B.; Berrettini, W.; Bleich, A.; Bogue, M.; Broman, K.W.; Buck, K.J.; Buckler, E.; Burmeister, M.; Chesler, E.J.; Cheverud, J.M.; Clapcote, S.; Cook, M.N.; Cox, R.D.; Crabbe, J.C.; Crusio, W.E.; Darvasi, A.; Deschnepper, C.F.; Doerge, R.W.; Farber, C.R.; Forejt, J.; Gaile, D.; Garlow, S.J.; Geiger, H.; Gershenfeld, H.; Gordon, T.; Gu, J.; Gu, W.K.; de Haan, G; Hayes, N.L.; Heller, C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Hitzemann, R.; Hunter, K.; Hsu, H.C.; Iraqi, F.A.; Ivandic, B.; Jacob, H.J.; Jjepsen, K.J.; Johnson, D.K.; Johnson, T.E.; Kempermann, G.; Kendziorski, C.; Kotb, M.; Kooy, R.F; Llamas, B.; Lammert, F.; Lassalle, J.M.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Lu, L.; Lusiss, A.; Manly, K.F.; Marcucio, R.; Matthews, D.; Medrano, J.F.; Miller, D.R.; Mittleman, G.; Mock, B.A.; Mogil, J.S.; Montagutelli, X.; Morahan, G.; Morris, D.G.; Mott, R; Nadeau, J.H.; Nagase, H.; Nowakowski, R.S.; O'Hara, B.F.; Osadchuk, A.V.; Page, G.P.; Paigen, B.; Paigen, K.; Palmer, Abraham A.; Pan, H.J.; Peltonen-Palotie, L.; Pomp, D.; Peirce, J.; Pravenec, M.; Prows, D.R.; Qi, Z.H.; Reeves, R.H.; Roder, J.; Rosen, G.D.; Schadt, E.E.; Schalkwyk, L.C.; Seltzer, Z.; Shimomura, K.; Shou, S.M.; Sillanpaa, M.J.; Siracusa, L.D.; Snoeck, H.W.; Spearow, J.L.; Deschepper, Christian F.; Jepsen, Karl J.; Lusis, Aldons; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Svenson, Karen; Threadgill, David; Toth, Linda A.; Valdar, William; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Warden, Craig; Whatley, Steve; Williams, Robert W.; Wiltshire, Tim; Yi, Nengjun; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Zou, Fei; Montagutelli, X.; Tarantino, LM; Toth, LA; de Villena, FPM; Yi, NJ; Zhang, DB; Williams, O.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Complex Trait Consortium is to promote the development of resources that can be used to understand, treat and ultimately prevent pervasive human diseases. Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are

  8. GeneLink: a database to facilitate genetic studies of complex traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfsberg Tyra G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to gene-mapping studies of simple Mendelian disorders, genetic analyses of complex traits are far more challenging, and high quality data management systems are often critical to the success of these projects. To minimize the difficulties inherent in complex trait studies, we have developed GeneLink, a Web-accessible, password-protected Sybase database. Results GeneLink is a powerful tool for complex trait mapping, enabling genotypic data to be easily merged with pedigree and extensive phenotypic data. Specifically designed to facilitate large-scale (multi-center genetic linkage or association studies, GeneLink securely and efficiently handles large amounts of data and provides additional features to facilitate data analysis by existing software packages and quality control. These include the ability to download chromosome-specific data files containing marker data in map order in various formats appropriate for downstream analyses (e.g., GAS and LINKAGE. Furthermore, an unlimited number of phenotypes (either qualitative or quantitative can be stored and analyzed. Finally, GeneLink generates several quality assurance reports, including genotyping success rates of specified DNA samples or success and heterozygosity rates for specified markers. Conclusions GeneLink has already proven an invaluable tool for complex trait mapping studies and is discussed primarily in the context of our large, multi-center study of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC. GeneLink is freely available at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/genelink.

  9. Estimation of effects of quantitative trait loci in large complex pedigrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Goddard, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    A method was derived to estimate effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using incomplete genotype information in large outbreeding populations with complex pedigrees. The method accounts for background genes by estimating polygenic effects. The basic equations used are very similar to the usual li

  10. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchill, Gary A.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Airey, D.C.; Allayee, H.; Angel, J.M.; Attie, A.D.; Beatty, J.; Beavis, W.D.; Belknap, J.K.; Bennett, B.; Berrettini, W.; Bleich, A.; Bogue, M.; Broman, K.W.; Buck, K.J.; Buckler, E.; Burmeister, M.; Chesler, E.J.; Cheverud, J.M.; Clapcote, S.; Cook, M.N.; Cox, R.D.; Crabbe, J.C.; Crusio, W.E.; Darvasi, A.; Deschnepper, C.F.; Doerge, R.W.; Farber, C.R.; Forejt, J.; Gaile, D.; Garlow, S.J.; Geiger, H.; Gershenfeld, H.; Gordon, T.; Gu, J.; Gu, W.K.; de Haan, G; Hayes, N.L.; Heller, C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Hitzemann, R.; Hunter, K.; Hsu, H.C.; Iraqi, F.A.; Ivandic, B.; Jacob, H.J.; Jjepsen, K.J.; Johnson, D.K.; Johnson, T.E.; Kempermann, G.; Kendziorski, C.; Kotb, M.; Kooy, R.F; Llamas, B.; Lammert, F.; Lassalle, J.M.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Lu, L.; Lusiss, A.; Manly, K.F.; Marcucio, R.; Matthews, D.; Medrano, J.F.; Miller, D.R.; Mittleman, G.; Mock, B.A.; Mogil, J.S.; Montagutelli, X.; Morahan, G.; Morris, D.G.; Mott, R; Nadeau, J.H.; Nagase, H.; Nowakowski, R.S.; O'Hara, B.F.; Osadchuk, A.V.; Page, G.P.; Paigen, B.; Paigen, K.; Palmer, Abraham A.; Pan, H.J.; Peltonen-Palotie, L.; Pomp, D.; Peirce, J.; Pravenec, M.; Prows, D.R.; Qi, Z.H.; Reeves, R.H.; Roder, J.; Rosen, G.D.; Schadt, E.E.; Schalkwyk, L.C.; Seltzer, Z.; Shimomura, K.; Shou, S.M.; Sillanpaa, M.J.; Siracusa, L.D.; Snoeck, H.W.; Spearow, J.L.; Deschepper, Christian F.; Jepsen, Karl J.; Lusis, Aldons; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Svenson, Karen; Threadgill, David; Toth, Linda A.; Valdar, William; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Warden, Craig; Whatley, Steve; Williams, Robert W.; Wiltshire, Tim; Yi, Nengjun; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Zou, Fei; Montagutelli, X.; Tarantino, LM; Toth, LA; de Villena, FPM; Yi, NJ; Zhang, DB; Williams, O.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Complex Trait Consortium is to promote the development of resources that can be used to understand, treat and ultimately prevent pervasive human diseases. Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are

  11. Molecular Diagnostics for Complex Pest and Disease Resistance and Tuber Quality Traits: Concept, Achievements and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardt, C.; Urbany, C.; Li, L.; Stich, B.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Draffehn, A.; Ballvora, A.

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the concept of molecular diagnostic of complex traits related to pest and disease resistance and to tuber quality of potato, and describe recent achievements and perspectives. Many potato characteristics are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Knowing the genes and

  12. Epigenetic variation in the Egfr gene generates quantitative variation in a complex trait in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Sebastian; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Abouheif, Ehab; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-03-11

    Complex quantitative traits, like size and behaviour, are a pervasive feature of natural populations. Quantitative trait variation is the product of both genetic and environmental factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms through which their interaction generates this variation. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene-by-environment interactions during development to generate discrete phenotypic variation. We therefore investigated the developmental role of DNA methylation in generating continuous size variation of workers in an ant colony, a key trait associated with division of labour. Here we show that, in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, global (genome-wide) DNA methylation indirectly regulates quantitative methylation of the conserved cell-signalling gene Epidermal growth factor receptor to generate continuous size variation of workers. DNA methylation can therefore generate quantitative variation in a complex trait by quantitatively regulating the transcription of a gene. This mechanism, alongside genetic variation, may determine the phenotypic possibilities of loci for generating quantitative trait variation in natural populations.

  13. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alice Kujur; Maneesha S Saxena; Deepak Bajaj; Laxmi; Swarup K Parida

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world’s food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of high-yielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern –omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  14. Genetic divergence and the genetic architecture of complex traits in chromosome substitution strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiezio Sabrina H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic architecture of complex traits strongly influences the consequences of inherited mutations, genetic engineering, environmental and genetic perturbations, and natural and artificial selection. But because most studies are under-powered, the picture of complex traits is often incomplete. Chromosome substitution strains (CSSs are a unique paradigm for these genome surveys because they enable statistically independent, powerful tests for the phenotypic effects of each chromosome on a uniform inbred genetic background. A previous CSS survey in mice and rats revealed many complex trait genes (QTLs, large phenotypic effects, extensive epistasis, as well as systems properties such as strongly directional phenotypic changes and genetically-determined limits on the range of phenotypic variation. However, the unusually close genetic relation between the CSS progenitor strains in that study raised questions about the impact of genetic divergence: would greater divergence between progenitor strains, with the corresponding changes in gene regulation and protein function, lead to significantly more distinctive phenotypic features, or alternatively would epistasis and systems constraints, which are pervasive in CSSs, limit the range of phenotypic variation regardless of the extent of DNA sequence variation? Results We analyzed results for an extensive survey of traits in two new panels of CSSs where the donor strains were derived from inbred strains with more distant origins and discovered a strong similarity in genetic and systems properties among the three CSS panels, regardless of divergence time. Conclusion Our results argue that DNA sequence differences between host and donor strains did not substantially affect the architecture of complex traits, and suggest instead that strong epistasis buffered the phenotypic effects of genetic divergence, thereby constraining the range of phenotypic variation.

  15. THE CORRELATIONS AMONG THE COMPLEX OF SPINE-PELVIS TRAITS AND THE FEET TRAITS IN BOYS AGED 4 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrozkowiak Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Early diagnosis is one of meaningful elements of prevention and treatment of postural defects. The objective of the study was an attempt to determine the correlations among the spine - pelvis traits and the feet traits in the population of boys aged 4 to 6 years living in rural areas and cities. Material and method: The study group covered 1506 boys aged 4 to 6 years. The measurement of 104 traits of the spine-pelvis and feet complex was conducted by means of the projection Moiré method for computer-based examination of body posture. Results: there is not much publications on the influence and correlations between the complex of the pelvis-spine traits and the feet traits. There is a correlation between the forming foot type and formation of the spine. The proposed Steinmetz suggestion assuming that if the spine can be corrected with the foot then the foot can be corrected by means of the spine, raises a number of doubts. The author emphasizes the meaning of wearing corrective footwear since proper foot positioning provided by special shoes cannot be the cause of spinal deformities. Conclusions: The spine-pelvis trait in the population of boys most frequently revealing significant influence on the feet traits is the height and depth of thoracic kyphosis. The foot trait among the population of boys living in cities most frequently revealing significant influence on the spine-pelvis traits was the value of the right foot length. In the rural population significant influence on the spine-pelvis traits was revealed by: the length and height of the fifth longitudinal arch of the left foot.

  16. Optimization of enzyme complexes for efficient hydrolysis of corn stover to produce glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yan; Meng, Jiatong; Cheng, Qiyue; Zhang, Zaixiao; Cui, Yuxiao; Liu, Jiajing; Teng, Lirong; Lu, Jiahui; Meng, Qingfan; Ren, Xiaodong

    2015-05-01

    Hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is the critical step for transferring the lignocellulose to the industrial chemicals. For improving the conversion rate of cellulose of corn stover to glucose, the cocktail of celllulase with other auxiliary enzymes and chemicals was studied in this work. Single factor tests and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the enzyme mixture, targeting maximum glucose release from corn stover. The increasing rate of glucan-to-glucose conversion got the higher levels while the cellulase was added 1.7μl tween-80/g cellulose, 300μg β-glucosidase/g cellulose, 400μg pectinase/g cellulose and 0.75mg/ml sodium thiosulphate separately in single factor tests. To improve the glucan conversion, the β-glucosidase, pectinase and sodium thiosulphate were selected for next step optimization with RSM. It is showed that the maximum increasing yield was 45.8% at 377μg/g cellulose Novozyme 188, 171μg/g cellulose pectinase and 1mg/ml sodium thiosulphate.

  17. The genome of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, provides insights into evolutionary adaptation and several complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Shen, Yingjia; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Catchen, Julian; Amores, Angel; Braasch, Ingo; Chalopin, Domitille; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Bisazza, Angelo; Minx, Pat; Hillier, LaDeana; Wilson, Richard K; Fuerstenberg, Susan; Boore, Jeffrey; Searle, Steve; Postlethwait, John H; Warren, Wesley C

    2013-05-01

    Several attributes intuitively considered to be typical mammalian features, such as complex behavior, live birth and malignant disease such as cancer, also appeared several times independently in lower vertebrates. The genetic mechanisms underlying the evolution of these elaborate traits are poorly understood. The platyfish, X. maculatus, offers a unique model to better understand the molecular biology of such traits. We report here the sequencing of the platyfish genome. Integrating genome assembly with extensive genetic maps identified an unexpected evolutionary stability of chromosomes in fish, in contrast to in mammals. Genes associated with viviparity show signatures of positive selection, identifying new putative functional domains and rare cases of parallel evolution. We also find that genes implicated in cognition show an unexpectedly high rate of duplicate gene retention after the teleost genome duplication event, suggesting a hypothesis for the evolution of the behavioral complexity in fish, which exceeds that found in amphibians and reptiles.

  18. Retrospective analysis of main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human complex traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of multifactorial human diseases involves complex interactions between numerous environmental factors and alleles of many genes. Efficient statistical tools are demanded in identifying the genetic and environmental variants that affect the risk of disease development....... This paper introduces a retrospective polytomous logistic regression model to measure both the main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human discrete and continuous complex traits. In this model, combinations of genotypes at two interacting loci or of environmental exposure...... regression model can be used as a convenient tool for assessing both main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human multifactorial diseases involving genetic and non-genetic factors as well as categorical or continuous traits....

  19. Inferring genetic architecture of complex traits using Bayesian integrative analysis of genome and transcriptiome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Alireza; Sørensen, Peter; Pomp, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand the genetic architecture of complex traits and bridge the genotype-phenotype gap, it is useful to study intermediate -omics data, e.g. the transcriptome. The present study introduces a method for simultaneous quantification of the contributions from single nucleotide...... polymorphisms (SNPs) and transcript abundances in explaining phenotypic variance, using Bayesian whole-omics models. Bayesian mixed models and variable selection models were used and, based on parameter samples from the model posterior distributions, explained variances were further partitioned at the level......-modal distribution of genomic values collapses, when gene expressions are added to the model Conclusions With increased availability of various -omics data, integrative approaches are promising tools for understanding the genetic architecture of complex traits. Partitioning of explained variances at the chromosome...

  20. Assessing the complex architecture of polygenic traits in diverged yeast populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Francisco A; Billi, Eleonora; Zörgö, Enikö; Parts, Leopold; Fargier, Patrick; Omholt, Stig; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas; Louis, Edward J; Liti, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Phenotypic variation arising from populations adapting to different niches has a complex underlying genetic architecture. A major challenge in modern biology is to identify the causative variants driving phenotypic variation. Recently, the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as a powerful model for dissecting complex traits. However, past studies using a laboratory strain were unable to reveal the complete architecture of polygenic traits. Here, we present a linkage study using 576 recombinant strains obtained from crosses of isolates representative of the major lineages. The meiotic recombinational landscape appears largely conserved between populations; however, strain-specific hotspots were also detected. Quantitative measurements of growth in 23 distinct ecologically relevant environments show that our recombinant population recapitulates most of the standing phenotypic variation described in the species. Linkage analysis detected an average of 6.3 distinct QTLs for each condition tested in all crosses, explaining on average 39% of the phenotypic variation. The QTLs detected are not constrained to a small number of loci, and the majority are specific to a single cross-combination and to a specific environment. Moreover, crosses between strains of similar phenotypes generate greater variation in the offspring, suggesting the presence of many antagonistic alleles and epistatic interactions. We found that subtelomeric regions play a key role in defining individual quantitative variation, emphasizing the importance of the adaptive nature of these regions in natural populations. This set of recombinant strains is a powerful tool for investigating the complex architecture of polygenic traits.

  1. Modelling effects of candidate genes on complex traits as variables over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyda, J; Komisarek, J; Antkowiak, I

    2014-06-01

    In this study, changes in gene effects for milk production traits were analysed over time. Such changes can be expected by investigating daily milk production yields, which increase during the early phase of lactation and then decrease. Moreover, additive polygenic effects on milk production traits estimated in other studies differed throughout the 305 days of lactation, clearly indicating changes in the genetic determination of milk production throughout this period. Our study focused on particular candidate genes known to affect milk production traits and on the estimation of potential changes in the magnitude of their effects over time. With two independent data sets from Holstein-Friesian and Jersey breeds, we show that the effects of the DGAT1:p.Lys232Ala polymorphism on fat and protein content in milk change during lactation. The other candidate genes considered in this study (leptin receptor, leptin and butyrophilin, subfamily 1, member A1) exhibited effects that vary across time, but these could be observed in only one of the breeds. Longitudinal modelling of SNP effects enables more precise description of the genetic background underlying the variation of complex traits. A gene that changes the magnitude or even the sign of its effect cannot be detected by a time-averaged model. This was particularly evident when analysing the effect of butyrophilin, missed by many previous studies, which considered butyrophilin's effect as constant over time.

  2. Predicting complex quantitative traits with Bayesian neural networks: a case study with Jersey cows and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okut Hayrettin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the study of associations between genomic data and complex phenotypes there may be relationships that are not amenable to parametric statistical modeling. Such associations have been investigated mainly using single-marker and Bayesian linear regression models that differ in their distributions, but that assume additive inheritance while ignoring interactions and non-linearity. When interactions have been included in the model, their effects have entered linearly. There is a growing interest in non-parametric methods for predicting quantitative traits based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces regressions on markers and radial basis functions. Artificial neural networks (ANN provide an alternative, because these act as universal approximators of complex functions and can capture non-linear relationships between predictors and responses, with the interplay among variables learned adaptively. ANNs are interesting candidates for analysis of traits affected by cryptic forms of gene action. Results We investigated various Bayesian ANN architectures using for predicting phenotypes in two data sets consisting of milk production in Jersey cows and yield of inbred lines of wheat. For the Jerseys, predictor variables were derived from pedigree and molecular marker (35,798 single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPS information on 297 individually cows. The wheat data represented 599 lines, each genotyped with 1,279 markers. The ability of predicting fat, milk and protein yield was low when using pedigrees, but it was better when SNPs were employed, irrespective of the ANN trained. Predictive ability was even better in wheat because the trait was a mean, as opposed to an individual phenotype in cows. Non-linear neural networks outperformed a linear model in predictive ability in both data sets, but more clearly in wheat. Conclusion Results suggest that neural networks may be useful for predicting complex traits using high

  3. The Allelic Landscape of Human Blood Cell Trait Variation and Links to Common Complex Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, William J; Elding, Heather; Jiang, Tao; Allen, Dave; Ruklisa, Dace; Mann, Alice L; Mead, Daniel; Bouman, Heleen; Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Kostadima, Myrto A; Lambourne, John J; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Downes, Kate; Kundu, Kousik; Bomba, Lorenzo; Berentsen, Kim; Bradley, John R; Daugherty, Louise C; Delaneau, Olivier; Freson, Kathleen; Garner, Stephen F; Grassi, Luigi; Guerrero, Jose; Haimel, Matthias; Janssen-Megens, Eva M; Kaan, Anita; Kamat, Mihir; Kim, Bowon; Mandoli, Amit; Marchini, Jonathan; Martens, Joost H A; Meacham, Stuart; Megy, Karyn; O'Connell, Jared; Petersen, Romina; Sharifi, Nilofar; Sheard, Simon M; Staley, James R; Tuna, Salih; van der Ent, Martijn; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wilder, Steven P; Iotchkova, Valentina; Moore, Carmel; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kuijpers, Taco W; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Juan, David; Rico, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso; Chen, Lu; Ge, Bing; Vasquez, Louella; Kwan, Tony; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Watt, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Guigo, Roderic; Beck, Stephan; Paul, Dirk S; Pastinen, Tomi; Bujold, David; Bourque, Guillaume; Frontini, Mattia; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J; Ouwehand, Willem H; Butterworth, Adam S; Soranzo, Nicole

    2016-11-17

    Many common variants have been associated with hematological traits, but identification of causal genes and pathways has proven challenging. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank and INTERVAL studies, testing 29.5 million genetic variants for association with 36 red cell, white cell, and platelet properties in 173,480 European-ancestry participants. This effort yielded hundreds of low frequency (<5%) and rare (<1%) variants with a strong impact on blood cell phenotypes. Our data highlight general properties of the allelic architecture of complex traits, including the proportion of the heritable component of each blood trait explained by the polygenic signal across different genome regulatory domains. Finally, through Mendelian randomization, we provide evidence of shared genetic pathways linking blood cell indices with complex pathologies, including autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and coronary heart disease and evidence suggesting previously reported population associations between blood cell indices and cardiovascular disease may be non-causal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Localising loci underlying complex trait variation using Regional Genomic Relationship Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Nagamine

    Full Text Available The limited proportion of complex trait variance identified in genome-wide association studies may reflect the limited power of single SNP analyses to detect either rare causative alleles or those of small effect. Motivated by studies that demonstrate that loci contributing to trait variation may contain a number of different alleles, we have developed an analytical approach termed Regional Genomic Relationship Mapping that, like linkage-based family methods, integrates variance contributed by founder gametes within a pedigree. This approach takes advantage of very distant (and unrecorded relationships, and this greatly increases the power of the method, compared with traditional pedigree-based linkage analyses. By integrating variance contributed by founder gametes in the population, our approach provides an estimate of the Regional Heritability attributable to a small genomic region (e.g. 100 SNP window covering ca. 1 Mb of DNA in a 300000 SNP GWAS and has the power to detect regions containing multiple alleles that individually contribute too little variance to be detectable by GWAS as well as regions with single common GWAS-detectable SNPs. We use genome-wide SNP array data to obtain both a genome-wide relationship matrix and regional relationship ("identity by state" or IBS matrices for sequential regions across the genome. We then estimate a heritability for each region sequentially in our genome-wide scan. We demonstrate by simulation and with real data that, when compared to traditional ("individual SNP" GWAS, our method uncovers new loci that explain additional trait variation. We analysed data from three Southern European populations and from Orkney for exemplar traits - serum uric acid concentration and height. We show that regional heritability estimates are correlated with results from genome-wide association analysis but can capture more of the genetic variance segregating in the population and identify additional trait loci.

  5. 3D graphical visualization of the genetic architectures underlying complex traits in multiple environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Cheng-cheng; YE Xiu-zi; ZHANG Yin; YU Rong-dong; YANG Jian; ZHU Jun

    2007-01-01

    An approach for generating interactive 3D graphical visualization of the genetic architectures of complex traits in multiple environments is described. 3D graphical visualization is utilized for making improvements on traditional plots in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis. Interactive 3D graphical visualization for abstract expression of QTL, epistasis and their environmental interactions for experimental populations was developed in framework of user-friendly software QTLNetwork (http://ibi.zju.edu.cn/software/qtlnetwork). Novel definition of graphical meta system and computation of virtual coordinates are used to achieve explicit but meaningful visualization. Interactive 3D graphical visualization for QTL analysis provides geneticists and breeders a powerful and easy-to-use tool to analyze and publish their research results.

  6. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  7. Effectiveness of Shrinkage and Variable Selection Methods for the Prediction of Complex Human Traits using Data from Distantly Related Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez‐Rodríguez, Paulino; Veturi, Yogasudha; Simianer, Henner; de los Campos, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) have detected large numbers of variants associated with complex human traits and diseases. However, the proportion of variance explained by GWAS‐significant single nucleotide polymorphisms has been usually small. This brought interest in the use of whole‐genome regression (WGR) methods. However, there has been limited research on the factors that affect prediction accuracy (PA) of WGRs when applied to human data of distantly related individuals. Here, we examine, using real human genotypes and simulated phenotypes, how trait complexity, marker‐quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage disequilibrium (LD), and the model used affect the performance of WGRs. Our results indicated that the estimated rate of missing heritability is dependent on the extent of marker‐QTL LD. However, this parameter was not greatly affected by trait complexity. Regarding PA our results indicated that: (a) under perfect marker‐QTL LD WGR can achieve moderately high prediction accuracy, and with simple genetic architectures variable selection methods outperform shrinkage procedures and (b) under imperfect marker‐QTL LD, variable selection methods can achieved reasonably good PA with simple or moderately complex genetic architectures; however, the PA of these methods deteriorated as trait complexity increases and with highly complex traits variable selection and shrinkage methods both performed poorly. This was confirmed with an analysis of human height. PMID:25600682

  8. CORN FLAVOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  9. Risk and information evaluation of prioritized genes for complex traits: application to bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Feng; Chuang, Li-Chung; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2014-10-01

    Many susceptibility genes for complex traits were identified without conclusive findings. There is a strong need to integrate rapidly accumulated genomic data from multi-dimensional platforms, and to conduct risk evaluation for potential therapeutic and diagnostic usages. We set up an algorithm to computationally search for optimal weight-vector for various data sources, while minimized potential noises. Through gene-prioritization framework, combined scores for the resulting prioritized gene-set were calculated using a genome-wide association (GWA) dataset, following with evaluation using weighted genetic risk score and risk-attributed information using an independent GWA dataset. The significance of association of GWA data was corrected for gene length. Enriched functional pathways were identified for the prioritized gene-set using the Gene Ontology analysis. We illustrated our framework with bipolar disorder. 233 prioritized genes were identified from 10,830 candidates that curated from six platforms. The prioritized genes were significantly enriched (P(adjusted) evaluation demonstrated higher weighted genetic risk score in bipolar patients than controls (P-values ranged from 0.002 to 3.8 × 10(-6)). Substantial risk-information (71%) was extracted from prioritized genes for bipolar illness than other candidate-gene sets. Our evidence-based prioritized gene-set provides opportunity to explore the complex network and to conduct follow-up basic and clinical studies for complex traits.

  10. Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gene; Hopkins, Melanie J.; Lidgard, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor-descendant series of populations from the fossil record. In addition to the standard three models, we assess more complex models with punctuations and shifts from one evolutionary mode to another. As in previous studies, we find that stasis is common in the fossil record, as is a strict version of stasis that entails no real evolutionary changes. Incidence of directional evolution is relatively low (13%), but higher than in previous studies because our analytical approach can more sensitively detect noisy trends. Complex evolutionary models are often favored, overwhelmingly so for sequences comprising many samples. This finding is consistent with evolutionary dynamics that are, in reality, more complex than any of the models we consider. Furthermore, the timing of shifts in evolutionary dynamics varies among traits measured from the same series. Finally, we use our empirical collection of evolutionary sequences and a long and highly resolved proxy for global climate to inform simulations in which traits adaptively track temperature changes over time. When realistically calibrated, we find that this simple model can reproduce important aspects of our paleontological results. We conclude that observed paleontological patterns, including the prevalence of stasis, need not be inconsistent with adaptive evolution, even in the face of unstable physical environments.

  11. Genetic strategies for dissecting complex traits in biomass willows (Salix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Steven J; Karp, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Willows are highly diverse catkin-bearing trees and shrubs of the genus Salix. They occur in many growth forms, from tall trees to creeping alpines, and successfully occupy a wide variety of ecological niches. Shrubby willows (sub-genus Vetrix) have many characteristics that render them suited to cultivation in much faster growth cycles than conventional forestry. They respond well to coppicing, can be propagated vegetatively as cuttings and achieve rapid growth with low fertilizer inputs. As a result, willows grown as short rotation coppice are now among the leading commercially grown biomass crops in temperate regions. However, although willows have a long history of cultivation for traditional uses, their industrial use is relatively recent and, compared with major arable crops, they are largely undomesticated. Breeding programmes initiated to improve willow as a biomass crop achieved a doubling of yields within a period of coppicing response (shoot number and shoot vigour), as well as resistance to pests, diseases and environmental stress, with little or no knowledge of the genetic basis of these traits. Genetics and genomics, combined with extensive phenotyping, have substantially improved our understanding of the basis of biomass traits in willow for more targeted breeding via marker-assisted selection. Here, we present the strategy we have adopted in which a genetic-based approach was used to dissect complex traits into more defined components for molecular breeding and gene discovery.

  12. The Collaborative Cross mouse genetic reference population designed for dissecting complex traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanifa Abu Toamih Atamni; Mahmoud Egbaria; Yaser Salaymeh; Aysar Nashif; Fuad AIraqi

    2016-01-01

    [ Abstract] Complex traits are multifactorial traits controlled by polygenic host factors.These trait-related phenotypic characteristics and performance including body weight, blood chemistry, immune cell profiles, as well host susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases.In recent years, tremendous efforts were invested aiming to map the host genetic factors attribute to these traits and subsequently clone the gene/s underlying these loci.In parallel to human studies, a number of mouse models and approaches were developed aimed to enhance the mapping process and the gene cloning.These include of using resources such as F2, backcross, advanced intercross lines, outbred populations, consomic, congenic and recombinant inbred lines (RIL).The constraints of these approaches were the limited resolution mapping of genomic regions of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the trait of interests, and the limited genetic diversity observed in the parental founders.To overcome these limitations, a new genetically highly diverse recombinant inbred lines of mouse population was established, namely the Collaborative Cross (CC), created from full reciprocal mating of 8 divergent strains of mice: A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1 /SvImJ, NOD/LtJ, NZO/HiLtJ, CAST/Ei, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ.By intercrossing these eight founders to generate the different CC lines, the genetic makeup of the newly developed resource is completely different from the eight parental lines, and will show heterosis, which subsequently will response differently comparing with their original founders.Finally, our results suggest that it is not essential to defining the phenotypic response of the eight parental lines, prior of assessing the CC lines, because it is believed that genetic interaction of the new genetic makeup of the new lines will reveal new phenotypic response, which completely different from the parental lines.In this report, we present to the community the power of the CC for dissecting

  13. Complex-disease networks of trait-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unveiled by information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiquan; Lee, Younghee; Chen, James L; Rebman, Ellen; Li, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Thousands of complex-disease single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these intragenic SNPs have not been collectively mined to unveil the genetic architecture between complex clinical traits. The authors hypothesize that biological annotations of host genes of trait-associated SNPs may reveal the biomolecular modularity across complex-disease traits and offer insights for drug repositioning. Methods Trait-to-polymorphism (SNPs) associations confirmed in GWAS were used. A novel method to quantify trait–trait similarity anchored in Gene Ontology annotations of human proteins and information theory was developed. The results were then validated with the shortest paths of physical protein interactions between biologically similar traits. Results A network was constructed consisting of 280 significant intertrait similarities among 177 disease traits, which covered 1438 well-validated disease-associated SNPs. Thirty-nine percent of intertrait connections were confirmed by curators, and the following additional studies demonstrated the validity of a proportion of the remainder. On a phenotypic trait level, higher Gene Ontology similarity between proteins correlated with smaller ‘shortest distance’ in protein interaction networks of complexly inherited diseases (Spearman p<2.2×10−16). Further, ‘cancer traits’ were similar to one another, as were ‘metabolic syndrome traits’ (Fisher's exact test p=0.001 and 3.5×10−7, respectively). Conclusion An imputed disease network by information-anchored functional similarity from GWAS trait-associated SNPs is reported. It is also demonstrated that small shortest paths of protein interactions correlate with complex-disease function. Taken together, these findings provide the framework for investigating drug targets with unbiased functional biomolecular networks rather than worn-out single-gene and subjective canonical pathway approaches

  14. UGMDR: a unified conceptual framework for detection of multifactor interactions underlying complex traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biological outcomes are governed by multiple genetic and environmental factors that act in concert. Determining multifactor interactions is the primary topic of interest in recent genetics studies but presents enormous statistical and mathematical challenges. The computationally efficient multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approach has emerged as a promising tool for meeting these challenges. On the other hand, complex traits are expressed in various forms and have different data generation mechanisms that cannot be appropriately modeled by a dichotomous model; the subjects in a study may be recruited according to its own analytical goals, research strategies and resources available, not only consisting of homogeneous unrelated individuals. Although several modifications and extensions of MDR have in part addressed the practical problems, they are still limited in statistical analyses of diverse phenotypes, multivariate phenotypes and correlated observations, correcting for potential population stratification and unifying both unrelated and family samples into a more powerful analysis. I propose a comprehensive statistical framework, referred as to unified generalized MDR (UGMDR), for systematic extension of MDR. The proposed approach is quite versatile, not only allowing for covariate adjustment, being suitable for analyzing almost any trait type, for example, binary, count, continuous, polytomous, ordinal, time-to-onset, multivariate and others, as well as combinations of those, but also being applicable to various study designs, including homogeneous and admixed unrelated-subject and family as well as mixtures of them. The proposed UGMDR offers an important addition to the arsenal of analytical tools for identifying nonlinear multifactor interactions and unraveling the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:25335557

  15. The measurement and model construction of complex permittivity of corn leaves at the main frequency points of L/S/C/X-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, J. Y.; Li, Z.; Tang, Z. H.; Chen, Q.; Bi, H. Y.; Zhao, L. B.

    2014-03-01

    The complex permittivity of target has a crucial influence on its microwave radiation characteristics. In the quantitative research of microwave remote sensing, the study of the dielectric properties of vegetation to establish the relationship between its specific physical parameters and complex permittivity is the basic work in this field. In this study, corn leaves samples of different types and heights were collected at the city of Zhangye which is the key study area of the Heihe watershed allied telemetry experimental research and also the largest breeding base of hybrid corn seeds in China. Then the vector network analyzer E8362B was used to measure the complex permittivity of these samples from 0.2 to 20 GHz by coaxial probe technique. Based on these measurements, an empirical model of corn leaves which describes the relationship between the gravimetric moisture and both the real part and imaginary part of complex permittivity at the main frequency points of L/S/C/X-band was established. Finally, the empirical model and the classical Debye-Cole model were compared and validated by the measured data collected from the Huailai county in Hebei province. The results show that the empirical model has higher accuracy and is more practical than the traditional Debye-Cole model.

  16. Kernel Approach for Modeling Interaction Effects in Genetic Association Studies of Complex Quantitative Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadaway, K Alaine; Duncan, Richard; Conneely, Karen N; Almli, Lynn M; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Epstein, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    The etiology of complex traits likely involves the effects of genetic and environmental factors, along with complicated interaction effects between them. Consequently, there has been interest in applying genetic association tests of complex traits that account for potential modification of the genetic effect in the presence of an environmental factor. One can perform such an analysis using a joint test of gene and gene-environment interaction. An optimal joint test would be one that remains powerful under a variety of models ranging from those of strong gene-environment interaction effect to those of little or no gene-environment interaction effect. To fill this demand, we have extended a kernel machine based approach for association mapping of multiple SNPs to consider joint tests of gene and gene-environment interaction. The kernel-based approach for joint testing is promising, because it incorporates linkage disequilibrium information from multiple SNPs simultaneously in analysis and permits flexible modeling of interaction effects. Using simulated data, we show that our kernel machine approach typically outperforms the traditional joint test under strong gene-environment interaction models and further outperforms the traditional main-effect association test under models of weak or no gene-environment interaction effects. We illustrate our test using genome-wide association data from the Grady Trauma Project, a cohort of highly traumatized, at-risk individuals, which has previously been investigated for interaction effects. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. JAG: A Computational Tool to Evaluate the Role of Gene-Sets in Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Esther S; Kooyman, Maarten; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Posthuma, Danielle

    2015-05-14

    Gene-set analysis has been proposed as a powerful tool to deal with the highly polygenic architecture of complex traits, as well as with the small effect sizes typically found in GWAS studies for complex traits. We developed a tool, Joint Association of Genetic variants (JAG), which can be applied to Genome Wide Association (GWA) data and tests for the joint effect of all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in a user-specified set of genes or biological pathway. JAG assigns SNPs to genes and incorporates self-contained and/or competitive tests for gene-set analysis. JAG uses permutation to evaluate gene-set significance, which implicitly controls for linkage disequilibrium, sample size, gene size, the number of SNPs per gene and the number of genes in the gene-set. We conducted a power analysis using the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) Crohn's disease data set and show that JAG correctly identifies validated gene-sets for Crohn's disease and has more power than currently available tools for gene-set analysis. JAG is a powerful, novel tool for gene-set analysis, and can be freely downloaded from the CTG Lab website.

  18. JAG: A Computational Tool to Evaluate the Role of Gene-Sets in Complex Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther S. Lips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gene-set analysis has been proposed as a powerful tool to deal with the highly polygenic architecture of complex traits, as well as with the small effect sizes typically found in GWAS studies for complex traits. We developed a tool, Joint Association of Genetic variants (JAG, which can be applied to Genome Wide Association (GWA data and tests for the joint effect of all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in a user-specified set of genes or biological pathway. JAG assigns SNPs to genes and incorporates self-contained and/or competitive tests for gene-set analysis. JAG uses permutation to evaluate gene-set significance, which implicitly controls for linkage disequilibrium, sample size, gene size, the number of SNPs per gene and the number of genes in the gene-set. We conducted a power analysis using the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC Crohn’s disease data set and show that JAG correctly identifies validated gene-sets for Crohn’s disease and has more power than currently available tools for gene-set analysis. JAG is a powerful, novel tool for gene-set analysis, and can be freely downloaded from the CTG Lab website.

  19. Effects of different enzyme complex supplements in corn-soybean feedstuff on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hua; WANG Kang-ning

    2008-01-01

    A six-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing different enzyme cocktails in corn-soybean-byproduct diets on broiler chickens' growth performance and nutrient utilization. A total of 630 one-day-old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 7 experimental groups with 6 replicates of 15 chicks. The group of chicks serving as the control group were fed a basal diet made of mainly corn and soybean meal, mixed with a little fish meal, rapeseed meal and wheat bran. The other six groups were fed the same basal diet supplemented with each a different enzyme complex at the dosage of 0.75 kg enzyme in 1 t basal diet. At the same time, a metabolic trial was carried out on 42 chicks at the 27 d age. The results showed that the average daily mass gain (ADG) of chicks in the starter phase, age 1 d to 21 d, was improved by all enzyme complex supplements except the cocktail made of 230 IU/g (-amylase, 5.6 kIU/g (-glucanase, 5.3 kIU/g cellulase, 15.5 kIU/g protease and 37.5 kIU/g xylanase. The enzyme cocktail made of 1.6 kIU/g (-amylase, 80 kIU/g protease and 1.6 kIU/g xylanase worked out the most significant difference (P(0.05). Enzyme supplementation decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 2.78% to 3.98% (P(0.05), indicating better utilization of nutritients. In the grower phase at the age from 22 d to 42 d, the enzyme cocktail made of 4.0 kIU/g (-glucanase, 3.8 kIU/g cellulase, 17.8 kIU/g protease, 4.5 kIU/g xylanase and 44 IU/g (-glactase, and that made of 240 IU/g (-amylase, 1.4.6 kIU/g (-glucanase, 2.0 kIU/g cellulase, 5.7 kIU/g protease, 400 IU/g xylanase, 20 IU/g (-glactase and 200 IU/g phytase imporved chicks' ADG and FCR significantly (P(0.05). These two cocktails also were shown to improve ADG and FCR in the entire period of broiler age from 1 d to 42 d. Exogenous digesting enzymes such as protease and amylase benefited the growth and nutrition utilization in young broilers in the starter phase but barely in the grower

  20. Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota eMorota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways, thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics.

  1. Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morota, Gota; Gianola, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways), thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics. PMID:25360145

  2. Endurance Exercise Ability in the Horse: A Trait with Complex Polygenic Determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Anne; Robert, Céline; Blouin, Christine; Baste, Fanny; Torquet, Gwendoline; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Rivière, Julie; Mach, Nuria; Mata, Xavier; Schibler, Laurent; Barrey, Eric

    2017-01-01

    lncRNA could be one element of the cardiac rhythm regulation. Our GWAS revealed that equine performance during endurance races is a complex polygenic trait, and is partially governed by at least 5 QTL: two coding genes involved in neuronal tissues and three other loci with many regulatory functions such as slowing down heart rate.

  3. Endurance Exercise Ability in the Horse: A Trait with Complex Polygenic Determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Ricard

    2017-06-01

    fibroblasts. This lncRNA could be one element of the cardiac rhythm regulation. Our GWAS revealed that equine performance during endurance races is a complex polygenic trait, and is partially governed by at least 5 QTL: two coding genes involved in neuronal tissues and three other loci with many regulatory functions such as slowing down heart rate.

  4. Endurance Exercise Ability in the Horse: A Trait with Complex Polygenic Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Anne; Robert, Céline; Blouin, Christine; Baste, Fanny; Torquet, Gwendoline; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Rivière, Julie; Mach, Nuria; Mata, Xavier; Schibler, Laurent; Barrey, Eric

    2017-01-01

    lncRNA could be one element of the cardiac rhythm regulation. Our GWAS revealed that equine performance during endurance races is a complex polygenic trait, and is partially governed by at least 5 QTL: two coding genes involved in neuronal tissues and three other loci with many regulatory functions such as slowing down heart rate. PMID:28702049

  5. Prediction of Complex Human Traits Using the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Vazquez, Ana I; Fernando, Rohan;

    2013-01-01

    ) models where phenotypes are regressed on hundreds of thousands of variants simultaneously. The Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction G-BLUP, a ridge-regression type method) is a commonly used WGR method and has shown good predictive performance when applied to plant and animal breeding populations......Despite important advances from Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), for most complex human traits and diseases, a sizable proportion of genetic variance remains unexplained and prediction accuracy (PA) is usually low. Evidence suggests that PA can be improved using Whole-Genome Regression (WGR...... by imperfect LD between markers and QTL is given by (12b) 2, where b is the regression of marker-derived genomic relationships on those realized at causal loci. For pairs of related individuals, due to within-family disequilibrium, the patterns of realized genomic similarity are similar across the genome...

  6. Heritability and demographic analyses in the large isolated population of Val Borbera suggest advantages in mapping complex traits genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Traglia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isolated populations are a useful resource for mapping complex traits due to shared stable environment, reduced genetic complexity and extended Linkage Disequilibrium (LD compared to the general population. Here we describe a large genetic isolate from the North West Apennines, the mountain range that runs through Italy from the North West Alps to the South. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study involved 1,803 people living in 7 villages of the upper Borbera Valley. For this large population cohort, data from genealogy reconstruction, medical questionnaires, blood, anthropometric and bone status QUS parameters were evaluated. Demographic and epidemiological analyses indicated a substantial genetic component contributing to each trait variation as well as overlapping genetic determinants and family clustering for some traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data provide evidence for significant heritability of medical relevant traits that will be important in mapping quantitative traits. We suggest that this population isolate is suitable to identify rare variants associated with complex phenotypes that may be difficult to study in larger but more heterogeneous populations.

  7. Development of a next-generation NIL library in Arabidopsis thaliana for dissecting complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard S; Mullen, Jack L; Yoder, Seth; Bauerle, William L; Reuning, Gretchen; Sen, Saunak; Meyer, Eli; Juenger, Thomas E; McKay, John K

    2013-09-25

    new and valuable resource to the Brassicaceae research community that enables rapid fine-mapping of candidate loci in parallel with QTL validation. These attributes along with dense marker coverage and genome-wide chromosomal introgressions make this population an ideal starting point for discovery of genes underlying important complex traits of agricultural and ecological significance.

  8. Melanoma susceptibility as a complex trait: genetic variation controls all stages of tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Ram, R; Handoko, H Y; Mukhopadhyay, P; Muller, H K; Soyer, H P; Morahan, G; Walker, G J

    2015-05-28

    Susceptibility to most common cancers is likely to involve interaction between multiple low risk genetic variants. Although there has been great progress in identifying such variants, their effect on phenotype and the mechanisms by which they contribute to disease remain largely unknown. We have developed a mouse melanoma model harboring two mutant oncogenes implicated in human melanoma, CDK4(R24C) and NRAS(Q61K). In these mice, tumors arise from benign precursor lesions that are a recognized strong risk factor for this neoplasm in humans. To define molecular events involved in the pathway to melanoma, we have for the first time applied the Collaborative Cross (CC) to cancer research. The CC is a powerful resource designed to expedite discovery of genes for complex traits. We characterized melanoma genesis in more than 50 CC strains and observed tremendous variation in all traits, including nevus and melanoma age of onset and multiplicity, anatomical site predilection, time for conversion of nevi to melanoma and metastases. Intriguingly, neonatal ultraviolet radiation exposure exacerbated nevus and melanoma formation in most, but not all CC strain backgrounds, suggesting that genetic variation within the CC will help explain individual sensitivity to sun exposure, the major environmental skin carcinogen. As genetic variation brings about dramatic phenotypic diversity in a single mouse model, melanoma-related endophenotype comparisons provide us with information about mechanisms of carcinogenesis, such as whether melanoma incidence is dependent upon the density of pre-existing nevus cells. Mouse models have been used to examine the functional role of gene mutations in tumorigenesis. This work represents their next phase of development to study how biological variation greatly influences lesion onset and aggressiveness even in the setting of known somatic driver mutations.

  9. Genetic Marker Discovery in Complex Traits: A Field Example on Fat Content and Composition in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Ramona Natacha; Ros-Freixedes, Roger; Tor, Marc; Estany, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c.2456C>A) has been reported. In contrast, identification of polymorphisms related to fat composition has been more successful. For instance, our group has described a variant in the stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD) gene that improves the desaturation index of fat without affecting overall fatness or growth. Identification of mutations in candidate genes can be a tedious and costly process. Genome-wide association studies can help in narrowing down the number of candidate genes by highlighting those which contribute most to the genetic variation of the trait. Results from our group and others indicate that fat content and composition are highly polygenic and that very few genes explain more than 5% of the variance of the trait. Moreover, as the complexity of the genome emerges, the role of non-coding genes and regulatory elements cannot be disregarded. Prediction of breeding values from genomic data is discussed in comparison with conventional best linear predictors of breeding values. An example based on real data is given, and the implications in phenotype prediction are discussed in detail. The benefits and limitations of using large SNP sets versus a few very informative markers as predictors of genetic merit of breeding candidates are evaluated using field data as an example. PMID:27983643

  10. Generation of sequence-based data for pedigree-segregating Mendelian or Complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Wang, Gao T; Leal, Suzanne M

    2015-11-15

    There is great interest in analyzing next generation sequence data that has been generated for pedigrees. However, unlike for population-based data there are only a limited number of rare variant methods to analyze pedigree data. One limitation is the ability to evaluate type I and II errors for family-based methods, due to lack of software that can simulate realistic sequence data for pedigrees. We developed RarePedSim (Rare-variant Pedigree-based Simulator), a program to simulate region/gene-level genotype and phenotype data for complex and Mendelian traits for any given pedigree structure. Using a genetic model, sequence variant data can be generated either conditionally or unconditionally on pedigree members' qualitative or quantitative phenotypes. Additionally, qualitative or quantitative traits can be generated conditional on variant data. Sequence data can either be simulated using realistic population demographic models or obtained from sequence-based studies. Variant sites can be annotated with positions, allele frequencies and functionality. For rare variants, RarePedSim is the only program that can efficiently generate both genotypes and phenotypes, regardless of pedigree structure. Data generated by RarePedSim are in standard Linkage file (.ped) and Variant Call (.vcf) formats, ready to be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluation of type I error and power, for association methods including mixed models and linkage analysis methods. bioinformatics.org/simped/rare sleal@bcm.edu. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 玉米秸秆夹层改善盐碱地土壤生物性状%Biological traits on corn straw interlayer in improving saline-alkali soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范富; 张庆国; 邰继承; 侯迷红; 孙德智; 王闪闪; 张佳楠

    2015-01-01

    development. And burying straw into soil also prevents the salt in the deeper soil to return to the surface layer. Tongliao City is the corn production base in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and even the whole nation. The corn planting area is more than 1 100 000 hm2 every year, and there is wide source and large storage capacity of corn straw. It is necessary to study the effect of corn straw interlayer on improving saline-alkali soil. In the experiment, corn straw interlayer was made in different soil depths (10,15 and 20 cm) and different dosages (30 000, 45 000 and 60 000 kg/hm2) using corn stalks in saline-alkali soil. The soil was collected from Huatugula, Tongliao City in 2008 and then the barley was planted in the soil from 2009 to 2011. The paper studied the microorganism number and the enzyme activity in saline-alkali soil, and the impact of corn stalk isolation layer on saline soil’s biological traits and barley yield. The results showed that the numbers of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, nitrite bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria, and the activities of urease, protease, amylase, cellulase and catalase significantly increased (P<0.01), while polyphenol oxidase activity reduced in alkali soil with corn straw interlayer (P<0.01). With the increasing of corn stalks’ quantity, the numbers of microorganisms and the activities of urease, protease, amylase and polyphenol oxidase all increased (P<0.01), while the activities of cellulase and catalase did not change significantly. With the increasing of corn stalks’ burying depth, the numbers of microorganisms and the protease activity both reduced (P<0.01), while polyphenol oxidase activity increased (P<0.01) and other enzymes’ activities did not change significantly. As the time increased, the numbers of microorganisms and the activities of enzymes in saline-alkali soil increased significantly (P<0.01). The treatment A3B1 (straw dosage of 60 000 kg/hm2, burying depth of 10 cm) reached the highest activity for 6

  12. The systems genetics resource: a web application to mine global data for complex disease traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nas, Atila; Pan, Calvin; Ingram-Drake, Leslie A; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Drake, Thomas A; Sobel, Eric M; Papp, Jeanette C; Lusis, Aldons J

    2013-01-01

    The Systems Genetics Resource (SGR) (http://systems.genetics.ucla.edu) is a new open-access web application and database that contains genotypes and clinical and intermediate phenotypes from both human and mouse studies. The mouse data include studies using crosses between specific inbred strains and studies using the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel. SGR is designed to assist researchers studying genes and pathways contributing to complex disease traits, including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, heart failure, osteoporosis, and lipoprotein metabolism. Over the next few years, we hope to add data relevant to deafness, addiction, hepatic steatosis, toxin responses, and vascular injury. The intermediate phenotypes include expression array data for a variety of tissues and cultured cells, metabolite levels, and protein levels. Pre-computed tables of genetic loci controlling intermediate and clinical phenotypes, as well as phenotype correlations, are accessed via a user-friendly web interface. The web site includes detailed protocols for all of the studies. Data from published studies are freely available; unpublished studies have restricted access during their embargo period.

  13. The Road to C4 Photosynthesis: Evolution of a Complex Trait via Intermediary States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Urte; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-05-01

    C4 photosynthesis enables high photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency as well as high nitrogen and water use efficiencies. Given the multitude of biochemical, structural and molecular changes in comparison with C3 photosynthesis, it appears unlikely that such a complex trait would evolve in a single step. C4 photosynthesis is therefore believed to have evolved from the ancestral C3 state via intermediary stages. Consequently, the identification and detailed characterization of plant species representing transitory states between C3 and C4 is important for the reconstruction of the sequence of evolutionary events, especially since C4 evolution occurred in very different phylogenetic backgrounds. There is also significant interest in engineering of C4 or at least C4-like elements into C3 crop plants. A detailed and mechanistic understanding of C3-C4 intermediates is likely to provide guidance for the experimental design of such approaches. Here we provide an overview on the most relevant results obtained on C3-C4 intermediates to date. Recent knowledge gains in this field will be described in more detail. We thereby concentrate especially on biochemical and physiological work. Finally, we will provide a perspective and outlook on the continued importance of research on C3-C4 intermediates.

  14. Rare and low-frequency variants in human common diseases and other complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettre, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    In humans, most of the genetic variation is rare and often population-specific. Whereas the role of rare genetic variants in familial monogenic diseases is firmly established, we are only now starting to explore the contribution of this class of genetic variation to human common diseases and other complex traits. Such large-scale experiments are possible due to the development of next-generation DNA sequencing. Early findings suggested that rare and low-frequency coding variation might have a large effect on human phenotypes (eg, PCSK9 missense variants on low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and coronary heart diseases). This observation sparked excitement in prognostic and diagnostic medicine, as well as in genetics-driven strategies to develop new drugs. In this review, I describe results and present initial conclusions regarding some of the recent rare and low-frequency variant discoveries. We can already assume that most phenotype-associated rare and low-frequency variants have modest-to-weak phenotypical effect. Thus, we will need large cohorts to identify them, as for common variants in genome-wide association studies. As we expand the list of associated rare and low-frequency variants, we can also better recognise the current limitations: we need to develop better statistical methods to optimally test association with rare variants, including non-coding variation, and to account for potential confounders such as population stratification.

  15. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  16. Dominant Genetic Variation and Missing Heritability for Human Complex Traits: Insights from Twin versus Genome-wide Common SNP Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Rahman, Iffat; Arpegård, Johannes; Viktorin, Alexander; Karlsson, Robert; Hägg, Sara; Svensson, Per; Pedersen, Nancy L; Magnusson, Patrik K E

    2015-11-05

    In order to further illuminate the potential role of dominant genetic variation in the "missing heritability" debate, we investigated the additive (narrow-sense heritability, h(2)) and dominant (δ(2)) genetic variance for 18 human complex traits. Within the same study base (10,682 Swedish twins), we calculated and compared the estimates from classic twin-based structural equation model with SNP-based genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood [GREML(d)] method. Contributions of δ(2) were evident for 14 traits in twin models (average δ(2)twin = 0.25, range 0.14-0.49), two of which also displayed significant δ(2) in the GREMLd analyses (triglycerides δ(2)SNP = 0.28 and waist circumference δ(2)SNP = 0.19). On average, the proportion of h(2)SNP/h(2)twin was 70% for ADE-fitted traits (for which the best-fitting model included additive and dominant genetic and unique environmental components) and 31% for AE-fitted traits (for which the best-fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental components). Independent evidence for contribution from shared environment, also in ADE-fitted traits, was obtained from self-reported within-pair contact frequency and age at separation. We conclude that despite the fact that additive genetics appear to constitute the bulk of genetic influences for most complex traits, dominant genetic variation might often be masked by shared environment in twin and family studies and might therefore have a more prominent role than what family-based estimates often suggest. The risk of erroneously attributing all inherited genetic influences (additive and dominant) to the h(2) in too-small twin studies might also lead to exaggerated "missing heritability" (the proportion of h(2) that remains unexplained by SNPs). Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Context dependence in complex adaptive landscapes: frequency and trait-dependent selection surfaces within an adaptive radiation of Caribbean pupfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher H

    2016-06-01

    The adaptive landscape provides the foundational bridge between micro- and macroevolution. One well-known caveat to this perspective is that fitness surfaces depend on ecological context, including competitor frequency, traits measured, and resource abundance. However, this view is based largely on intraspecific studies. It is still unknown how context-dependence affects the larger features of peaks and valleys on the landscape which ultimately drive speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, I explore this question using one of the most complex fitness landscapes measured in the wild in a sympatric pupfish radiation endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas by tracking survival and growth of laboratory-reared F2 hybrids. I present new analyses of the effects of competitor frequency, dietary isotopes, and trait subsets on this fitness landscape. Contrary to expectations, decreasing competitor frequency increased survival only among very common phenotypes, whereas less common phenotypes rarely survived despite few competitors, suggesting that performance, not competitor frequency, shapes large-scale features of the fitness landscape. Dietary isotopes were weakly correlated with phenotype and growth, but did not explain additional survival variation. Nonlinear fitness surfaces varied substantially among trait subsets, revealing one-, two-, and three-peak landscapes, demonstrating the complexity of selection in the wild, even among similar functional traits. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. SEX AND SPECIATION: GENETIC ARCHITECTURE AND EVOLUTIONARY POTENTIAL OF SEXUAL VERSUS NONSEXUAL TRAITS IN THE SIBLING SPECIES OF THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER COMPLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, Alberto; Singh, Rama S

    1998-08-01

    Phenotypic divergence in the male reproductive system (genitalia and gonads) between species of the Drosophila melanogaster complex and their hybrids was quantified to decipher the role of these traits in species differentiation and speciation. Internal as well as external, sexual and nonsexual traits were analyzed with respect to genetic variation and trait asymmetry between strains within species, genetic divergence between species, and dominance and asymmetry in species and hybrids. The variation between strains within species was significant among sexual traits, and only external traits were less asymmetric than internal ones, which suggests that sexual traits are not strongly constrained within species. Three main findings show that sexual traits are most divergent between species: (1) testis length and area, and the area of the posterior lobe of the genital arch (sexual traits) showed the highest proportion of variation between species; (2) linear discriminant functions with the highest components associated to sexual traits were better predictors of species membership; and (3) testis length and area revealed a departure from a linear relationship between members of the species group. Examination of interspecific hybrids showed that sexual traits had higher asymmetry in species hybrids than in the parental species and that sexual traits showed additivity or dominance whereas nonsexual traits showed overdominance (with the exception of malpighian tubules length). These results suggest that sexual traits have undergone more genetic changes and, as a result, tend to show higher divergence and stronger hybrid breakdown between species than nonsexual traits. We propose that sexual selection in the broad sense, affecting all aspects of sexuality, may be responsible for the diversified appearance of sexual traits among closely related species and that the genetic architecture underlying sexual traits may be more prone to disruption during the early stages of

  19. Identification of candidate genes for dissecting complex branch number trait in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-04-01

    The present study exploited integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy for genetic dissection of complex branch number quantitative trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association analysis in a branch number association panel was performed by utilizing the genotyping data of 401 SNP allelic variants mined from 27 known cloned branch number gene orthologs of chickpea. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrating both genome-wide GBS- (4556 SNPs) and candidate gene-based genotyping information of 4957 SNPs in a structured population of 60 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions (with 350-400 kb LD decay), detected 11 significant genomic loci (genes) associated (41% combined PVE) with branch number in chickpea. Of these, seven branch number-associated genes were further validated successfully in two inter (ICC 4958 × ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 12299 × ICC 8261)-specific mapping populations. The axillary meristem and shoot apical meristem-specific expression, including differential up- and down-regulation (4-5 fold) of the validated seven branch number-associated genes especially in high branch number as compared to the low branch number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two aforesaid mapping populations was apparent. Collectively, this combinatorial genomic approach delineated diverse naturally occurring novel functional SNP allelic variants in seven potential known/candidate genes [PIN1 (PIN-FORMED protein 1), TB1 (teosinte branched 1), BA1/LAX1 (BARREN STALK1/LIKE AUXIN1), GRAS8 (gibberellic acid insensitive/GAI, Repressor of ga13/RGA and Scarecrow8/SCR8), ERF (ethylene-responsive element-binding factor), MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) and lipase] governing chickpea branch number. The useful information generated from this study have potential to expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement by developing high-yielding cultivars with more number of productive (pods and seeds) branches in chickpea.

  20. Red Blood Cell Immune Complex Binding Capacity in Children with Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS) Living in P. falciparum Malaria Holoendemic Region of Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-08

    Children with Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS) Living in P. falciparum Malaria Holoendemic Region of Western Kenya Walter Otieno1,2, Benson BA Estambale1...anemia. Children with sickle cell trait (HbAS) are less predisposed to getting severe manifestations of malaria. We carried out a study to determine the...2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Red Blood Cell Immune Complex Binding Capacity in Children with Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS) Living in P

  1. Genomic selection and complex trait prediction using a fast EM algorithm applied to genome-wide markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Ross K; Meuwissen, Theo H E; Woolliams, John A

    2010-10-22

    The information provided by dense genome-wide markers using high throughput technology is of considerable potential in human disease studies and livestock breeding programs. Genome-wide association studies relate individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from dense SNP panels to individual measurements of complex traits, with the underlying assumption being that any association is caused by linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNP and quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the trait. Often SNP are in genomic regions of no trait variation. Whole genome Bayesian models are an effective way of incorporating this and other important prior information into modelling. However a full Bayesian analysis is often not feasible due to the large computational time involved. This article proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm called emBayesB which allows only a proportion of SNP to be in LD with QTL and incorporates prior information about the distribution of SNP effects. The posterior probability of being in LD with at least one QTL is calculated for each SNP along with estimates of the hyperparameters for the mixture prior. A simulated example of genomic selection from an international workshop is used to demonstrate the features of the EM algorithm. The accuracy of prediction is comparable to a full Bayesian analysis but the EM algorithm is considerably faster. The EM algorithm was accurate in locating QTL which explained more than 1% of the total genetic variation. A computational algorithm for very large SNP panels is described. emBayesB is a fast and accurate EM algorithm for implementing genomic selection and predicting complex traits by mapping QTL in genome-wide dense SNP marker data. Its accuracy is similar to Bayesian methods but it takes only a fraction of the time.

  2. Advances in biotechnology and linking outputs to variation in complex traits: Plant and Animal Genome meeting January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, R; Barrero, R; Bellgard, M

    2012-03-01

    The Plant and Animal Genome (PAG, held annually) meeting in January 2012 provided insights into the advances in plant, animal, and microbe genome studies particularly as they impact on our understanding of complex biological systems. The diverse areas of biology covered included the advances in technologies, variation in complex traits, genome change in evolution, and targeting phenotypic changes, across the broad spectrum of life forms. This overview aims to summarize the major advances in research areas presented in the plenary lectures and does not attempt to summarize the diverse research activities covered throughout the PAG in workshops, posters, presentations, and displays by suppliers of cutting-edge technologies.

  3. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  4. Analysis the Different Traits in Corn Ear%不同玉米穗部性状的配合力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昕昕; 李晶晶; 王俊; 刘正

    2009-01-01

    通过分析组合材料的特点,为筛选出符合目标性状的优良亲本组合.采用双列杂交的方法按照P(P-1)/2对9个不同的亲本材料进行配合力分析,结果表明:EGM、云油199、沈137等亲本材料的一般配合力高,EGM×云油199、沈137×云油199、T8×EGM等组合的特殊配合力高.从对各性状遗传参数的分析结果可知,各性状主要受加性基因遗传影响,而受环境条件的影响较小,均能较真实地将亲本的这4个性状遗传给F1代.%In this experiment, authors analyzed 9 different parent materials in order to screening excellent port-folio in double cross hybrid method according to the formula of P(P-1)/2. The results showed: EGM, yuny-ou-199, shen-137 and other parent materials had high combining ability. The combination EGM×yuny-ou-199, shen-137×EGM×yunyou-199 and T8xEGM had high special combining ability. According to the results of the genetic parameters of each trait, all traits were mainly impacted by additive genetic effects, and less conditions of environmental, It was descended from parents to F1.

  5. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  6. Complex pedigree analysis to detect quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.C.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the quantitative gene

  7. Novel genomic approaches unravel genetic architecture of complex traits in apple.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Garrick, D.J.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Whitworth, C.; Chagné, D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is important for developing genome-based crop improvement methods. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful technique for mining novel functional variants. Using a family-based design involving 1,200 apple (Malus × d

  8. Unraveling the complex trait of harvest index with association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobai Li

    Full Text Available Harvest index is a measure of success in partitioning assimilated photosynthate. An improvement of harvest index means an increase in the economic portion of the plant. Our objective was to identify genetic markers associated with harvest index traits using 203 O. sativa accessions. The phenotyping for 14 traits was conducted in both temperate (Arkansas and subtropical (Texas climates and the genotyping used 154 SSRs and an indel marker. Heading, plant height and weight, and panicle length had negative correlations, while seed set and grain weight/panicle had positive correlations with harvest index across both locations. Subsequent genetic diversity and population structure analyses identified five groups in this collection, which corresponded to their geographic origins. Model comparisons revealed that different dimensions of principal components analysis (PCA affected harvest index traits for mapping accuracy, and kinship did not help. In total, 36 markers in Arkansas and 28 markers in Texas were identified to be significantly associated with harvest index traits. Seven and two markers were consistently associated with two or more harvest index correlated traits in Arkansas and Texas, respectively. Additionally, four markers were constitutively identified at both locations, while 32 and 24 markers were identified specifically in Arkansas and Texas, respectively. Allelic analysis of four constitutive markers demonstrated that allele 253 bp of RM431 had significantly greater effect on decreasing plant height, and 390 bp of RM24011 had the greatest effect on decreasing panicle length across both locations. Many of these identified markers are located either nearby or flanking the regions where the QTLs for harvest index have been reported. Thus, the results from this association mapping study complement and enrich the information from linkage-based QTL studies and will be the basis for improving harvest index directly and indirectly in rice.

  9. Genome-wide search for segregation distortion loci associated with the expression of complex traits in Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang De-qiang; Zhang Zhi-yi; Yang Kai

    2007-01-01

    Segregation distortion of molecular markers has been reported in a broad range of organisms. It has been detected in an interspecific BC1 Populus pedigree established by controlled crossing between clone "LM50" (Populus tomentosa) and its hybrid clone "TB01" (P. tomentosa×P. bolleana). The study with a total of 150 AFLP markers (approximately 18.9% of the total loci)exhibited significant deviation from the Mendelian ratio (1:1) (p<0.01). Twenty-five percent of the markers were mapped on the parental specific genetic linkage maps of clones "LM50" and "TB01" with a pseudo-test-cross mapping strategy. Twelve linkage groups had markers with skewed segregation ratios, but the major regions were on linkage groups TLG2, TLG4 and TLG6 in the linkage map of clone "LM50". We also analyzed the association between distorted loci and expression of complex traits with Mapmaker/QTL software. A total of 16 putative QTLs affecting 12 traits were identified in the distorted regions on seven linkage groups.Therefore we could detect the distribution of skewed loci along the entire genome and identify the association between quantitative traits and segregation loci via genetic mapping in an interspecific BC1 P. tomentosa family. Furthermore, the genetic nature and possible causes of these segregation distortions for differentiation between female and male parents were also discussed.

  10. Genetic architecture of complex agronomic traits examined in two testcross populations of rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedaner Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye is an important European crop used for food, feed, and bioenergy. Several quality and yield-related traits are of agronomic relevance for rye breeding programs. Profound knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is needed to successfully implement marker-assisted selection programs. Nevertheless, little is known on quantitative loci underlying important agronomic traits in rye. Results We used 440 F3:4 inbred lines from two biparental populations (Pop-A, Pop-B fingerprinted with about 800 to 900 SNP, SSR and/or DArT markers and outcrossed them to a tester for phenotyping. The resulting hybrids and their parents were evaluated for grain yield, single-ear weight, test weight, plant height, thousand-kernel weight, falling number, protein, starch, soluble and total pentosan contents in up to ten environments in Central Europe. The quality of the phenotypic data was high reflected by moderate to high heritability estimates. QTL analyses revealed a total of 31 QTL for Pop-A and 52 for Pop-B. QTL x environment interactions were significant (P  Conclusions QTL mapping was successfully applied based on two segregating rye populations. QTL underlying grain yield and several quality traits had small effects. In contrast, thousand-kernel weight, test weight, falling number and starch content were affected by several major QTL with a high frequency of occurrence in cross validation. These QTL explaining a large proportion of the genotypic variance can be exploited in marker-assisted selection programs and are candidates for further genetic dissection.

  11. Agronomic traits and chemical composition of single hybrids of sweet corn Caracteres agronômicos e composição química de híbridos simples de milho doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kwiatkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the greengrocery market of sweet corn has been expanding along the country. In contrast, there have been few agri-industries canning sweet corn (Zea mays because of the lack of cultivars with agronomic characteristics proper to industrial purposes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA of seven inbred lines of sweet corn, and the specific combining ability (SCA of their hybrid combinations based on their agronomic traits, and the chemical composition of the grain. In the growing season 2006/2007, twenty-one single hybrids were evaluated in the Iguatemi Research Station, Maringá County, Northwestern Paraná, in Brazil using a complete randomized block design with four replications. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance and the genotypes were clustered by the Scott-Knott test. We estimated the GCA and SCA effects using the Griffing's method IV with the fixed model for plant height (PH, height of ear (EH, dehusked ears yield (DEY, reducing (RS and total sugars (TS, starch (ST, proteins (PTN, ether extract (EE and fibers (FB. The inbred line L4, which was originated from the 'Doce de Cuba', had the best GCA for crop yield and grain quality and therefore should be used in the next hybrid combinations. The hybrids L4xL5 and L3xL7 were the most promising with regard to crop yield and grain quality.No Brasil, poucas indústrias envazam o milho doce (Zea mays por causa da falta de cultivares para o processamento industrial. Em compensação, o mercado de milho verde doce aumentou. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC de sete linhagens de milho doce e da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC das combinações híbridas, com base em características agronômicas e composição química dos grãos. Os vinte e um híbridos simples foram avaliados em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, durante o ano agrícola 2006/2007, no distrito de Iguatemi

  12. Large-scale in silico mapping of complex quantitative traits in inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyuan Liu

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with approximately 40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community.

  13. Dynamic semiparametric Bayesian models for genetic mapping of complex trait with irregular longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kiranmoy; Li, Jiahan; Fu, Guifang; Wang, Zhong; Li, Runze; Wu, Rongling

    2013-02-10

    Many phenomena of fundamental importance to biology and biomedicine arise as a dynamic curve, such as organ growth and HIV dynamics. The genetic mapping of these traits is challenged by longitudinal variables measured at irregular and possibly subject-specific time points, in which case nonnegative definiteness of the estimated covariance matrix needs to be guaranteed. We present a semiparametric approach for genetic mapping within the mixture-model setting by jointly modeling mean and covariance structures for irregular longitudinal data. Penalized spline is used to model the mean functions of individual quantitative trait locus (QTL) genotypes as latent variables, whereas an extended generalized linear model is used to approximate the covariance matrix. The parameters for modeling the mean-covariances are estimated by MCMC, using the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We derive the full conditional distributions for the mean and covariance parameters and compute Bayes factors to test the hypothesis about the existence of significant QTLs. We used the model to screen the existence of specific QTLs for age-specific change of body mass index with a sparse longitudinal data set. The new model provides powerful means for broadening the application of genetic mapping to reveal the genetic control of dynamic traits.

  14. Exploring the complexity of the childhood trait-psychopathology association: Continuity, pathoplasty, and complication effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; De Caluwé, Elien; Verbeke, Lize

    2016-02-01

    Four different models have been generally proposed as plausible etiological explanations for the relation between personality and psychopathology, namely, the vulnerability, complication, pathoplasty, and spectrum or continuity model. The current study entails a joint investigation of the continuity, pathoplasty, and complication models to explain the nature of the associations between early maladaptive traits and psychopathology over time in 717 referred and community children (54.4% girls), aged from 8 to 14 years. Across a 2-year time span, maladaptive traits and psychopathology were measured at three different time points, thereby relying on comprehensive and age-specific dimensional operationalizations of both personality symptoms and psychopathology. The results demonstrate overall compelling evidence for the continuity model, finding more focused support for pathoplasty and complication effects for particular combinations of personality symptoms and psychopathology dimensions. As expected, the continuity associations were found to be more robust for those personality-psychopathology associations that are conceptually closer, such as the emotional instability/introversion-internalizing problems association and the disagreeableness-externalizing problems association. Continuity associations were also stronger when personality was considered from a maladaptive rather than from a general trait perspective. The implication of the findings for the treatment of psychopathology and personality symptoms are briefly discussed.

  15. Genome-enabled Modeling of Microbial Biogeochemistry using a Trait-based Approach. Does Increasing Metabolic Complexity Increase Predictive Capabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.; Karaoz, U.; Molins, S.; Bouskill, N.; Anantharaman, K.; Beller, H. R.; Banfield, J. F.; Steefel, C. I.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    The biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is shaped in part by genomic information stored in the subsurface microbiome. Cultivation-independent approaches allow us to extract this information through reconstruction of thousands of genomes from a microbial community. Analysis of these genomes, in turn, gives an indication of the organisms present and their functional roles. However, metagenomic analyses can currently deliver thousands of different genomes that range in abundance/importance, requiring the identification and assimilation of key physiologies and metabolisms to be represented as traits for successful simulation of subsurface processes. Here we focus on incorporating -omics information into BioCrunch, a genome-informed trait-based model that represents the diversity of microbial functional processes within a reactive transport framework. This approach models the rate of nutrient uptake and the thermodynamics of coupled electron donors and acceptors for a range of microbial metabolisms including heterotrophs and chemolithotrophs. Metabolism of exogenous substrates fuels catabolic and anabolic processes, with the proportion of energy used for cellular maintenance, respiration, biomass development, and enzyme production based upon dynamic intracellular and environmental conditions. This internal resource partitioning represents a trade-off against biomass formation and results in microbial community emergence across a fitness landscape. Biocrunch was used here in simulations that included organisms and metabolic pathways derived from a dataset of ~1200 non-redundant genomes reflecting a microbial community in a floodplain aquifer. Metagenomic data was directly used to parameterize trait values related to growth and to identify trait linkages associated with respiration, fermentation, and key enzymatic functions such as plant polymer degradation. Simulations spanned a range of metabolic complexities and highlight benefits originating from simulations

  16. PERFORMANCE, CARCASS TRAITS AND BODY COMPONENTS IN HAIR SHEEP FED WITH SUNFLOWER SILAGE AND CORN SILAGE DESEMPENHO, CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA E COMPONENTES CORPORAIS DE OVINOS DESLANADOS ALIMENTADOS COM SILAGEM DE GIRASSOL E SILAGEM DE MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenilce Sandra de Sousa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Twelve male lambs weighing 9,5 ± 0,4 kg were used to evaluate the use of sunflower silage as a roughage source in the sheep diet. Two treatments were used with six animals each. All received 300g/animal/day concentrate and sunflower or corn silage ad libitium depending on the treatment. Feed intake per group was controlled every three days and animals weighed every 15 days. The lambs were slaughtered 90 days after housed individually and the following traits measured: live weight, hot carcass weight, half carcass weight, carcass length, fat cover, skin (thickness and weight, leg, back, shoulder, rib, underbelly, neck, kidneys, liver, heart and lungs. The 12th rib was removed for later analysis. No significant differences were found between the two treatments in terms of weight gain or feed conversion. With the exception of fat cover, which was greater for lambs fed sunflower (p<0,05, no significant differences for carcass traits and 12th rib analysis were found between the two treatments. Sunflower silage can be used as an alternative source of roughage in lamb diet, obtaining similar results to corn silage.

    KEY WORDS: Growth, housed, nutrition, Santa Inês.

    Com objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, a carcaça e componentes corporais de borregos deslanados, alimentados com silagem de girassol em comparação com a silagem de milho, foram utilizados doze ovinos machos com aproximadamente sessenta dias de idade, com peso vivo médio 9,5 ± 0,4 kg divididos em dois tratamentos com seis repetições cada. Os animais receberam individualmente 300 g de concentrado por dia e, como volumoso, silagem de girassol ou silagem de milho ad libitium, conforme seu tratamento. O controle da ingestão da dieta foi feito três vezes por semana e a pesagem dos animais a cada quinze dias. O abate ocorreu

  17. Corn texture and particle size in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Benedetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers.

  18. "Are we there yet?": Deciding when one has demonstrated specific genetic causation in complex diseases and quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Grier P; George, Varghese; Go, Rodney C; Page, Patricia Z; Allison, David B

    2003-10-01

    Although mathematical relationships can be proven by deductive logic, biological relationships can only be inferred from empirical observations. This is a distinct disadvantage for those of us who strive to identify the genes involved in complex diseases and quantitative traits. If causation cannot be proven, however, what does constitute sufficient evidence for causation? The philosopher Karl Popper said, "Our belief in a hypothesis can have no stronger basis than our repeated unsuccessful critical attempts to refute it." We believe that to establish causation, as scientists, we must make a serious attempt to refute our own hypotheses and to eliminate all known sources of bias before association becomes causation. In addition, we suggest that investigators must provide sufficient data and evidence of their unsuccessful efforts to find any confounding biases. In this editorial, we discuss what "causation" means in the context of complex diseases and quantitative traits, and we suggest guidelines for steps that may be taken to address possible confounders of association before polymorphisms may be called "causative."

  19. GenoMatrix: A Software Package for Pedigree-Based and Genomic Prediction Analyses on Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Alireza; Gezan, Salvador Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    Genomic and pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction methodologies (G-BLUP and P-BLUP) have proven themselves efficient for partitioning the phenotypic variance of complex traits into its components, estimating the individuals' genetic merits, and predicting unobserved (or yet-to-be observed) phenotypes in many species and fields of study. The GenoMatrix software, presented here, is a user-friendly package to facilitate the process of using genome-wide marker data and parentage information for G-BLUP and P-BLUP analyses on complex traits. It provides users with a collection of applications which help them on a set of tasks from performing quality control on data to constructing and manipulating the genomic and pedigree-based relationship matrices and obtaining their inverses. Such matrices will be then used in downstream analyses by other statistical packages. The package also enables users to obtain predicted values for unobserved individuals based on the genetic values of observed related individuals. GenoMatrix is available to the research community as a Windows 64bit executable and can be downloaded free of charge at: http://compbio.ufl.edu/software/genomatrix/. © The American Genetic Association. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Cappa

    Full Text Available The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303 with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio, a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  1. Genome-wide association studies and the genetic dissection of complex traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Timofeev, Nadia; Dworkis, Daniel A.; Perls, Thomas T.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of affordable high throughput technology for parallel genotyping has opened the field of genetics to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and in the last few years hundreds of articles reporting results of GWAS for a variety of heritable traits have been published. What do these results tell us? Although GWAS have discovered a few hundred reproducible associations, this number is underwhelming in relation to the huge amount of data produced, and challenges the conjecture that common variants may be the genetic causes of common diseases. We argue that the massive amount of genetic data that result from these studies remains largely unexplored and unexploited because of the challenge of mining and modeling enormous data sets, the difficulty of using nontraditional computational techniques and the focus of accepted statistical analyses on controlling the false positive rate rather than limiting the false negative rate. In this article, we will review the common approach to analysis of GWAS data and then discuss options to learn more from these data. We will use examples from our ongoing studies of sickle cell anemia and also GWAS in multigenic traits. PMID:19569043

  2. Summary of Contributions to GAW Group 15: Family-Based Samples Are Useful in Identifying Common Polymorphisms Associated with Complex Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Stacey; Uh, Hae-Won; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, family-based samples have been used for genetic analyses of single-gene traits caused by rare but highly penetrant risk variants. The utility of family-based genetic data for analyzing common complex traits is unclear and contains numerous challenges. To assess the utility as well as to address these challenges, members of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Group 15 analyzed Framingham Heart Study data using family-based designs ranging from parent–offspring trios to large pedigrees....

  3. Investigation of obsessive-compulsive disorder and assessment of obsessionality as a personality trait in patients with complex partial seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banihashemian K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Behavioral changes in patients with epilepsy could cause comorbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders. This study is concerned with investigation of obsessive-compulsive disorders and assessment of obsessionality as a personality trait in patients with complex partial seizure. "n"nMethods: Seventy six patients with complex partial seizure, 74 patients with generalized epilepsy that referred to Shiraz psychiatric professional center during three month (from July to September 2009, and 76 matched healthy controls were randomly selected and evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS, short form of Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI and clinical interview. "n"nResults: Complex partial seizure and obsessive-compulsive disorder (%13.15 are significantly more prevalent than generalized seizure (%2.70 and than control groups (%1.31 (p<0.001, and mean of psychasthenia scale (Pt scale scores in patients with complex partial seizure is more than mean of Pt scores in generalized epilepsy and control groups (p<0.001. There is significant relationship between total score of Yale-Brown scale and Pt scale in MMPI (r=0.79, p<0.01."n"nConclusions: Patients with complex

  4. Influence of genotyping error in linkage mapping for complex traits – an analytic study

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    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the current trend towards large epidemiological studies of unrelated individuals, linkage studies in families are still thoroughly being utilized as tools for disease gene mapping. The use of the single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP array technology in genotyping of family data has the potential to provide more informative linkage data. Nevertheless, SNP array data are not immune to genotyping error which, as has been suggested in the past, could dramatically affect the evidence for linkage especially in selective designs such as affected sib pair (ASP designs. The influence of genotyping error on selective designs for continuous traits has not been assessed yet. Results We use the identity-by-descent (IBD regression-based paradigm for linkage testing to analytically quantify the effect of simple genotyping error models under specific selection schemes for sibling pairs. We show, for example, that in extremely concordant (EC designs, genotyping error leads to decreased power whereas it leads to increased type I error in extremely discordant (ED designs. Perhaps surprisingly, the effect of genotyping error on inference is most severe in designs where selection is least extreme. We suggest a genomic control for genotyping errors via a simple modification of the intercept in the regression for linkage. Conclusion This study extends earlier findings: genotyping error can substantially affect type I error and power in selective designs for continuous traits. Designs involving both EC and ED sib pairs are fairly immune to genotyping error. When those designs are not feasible the simple genomic control strategy that we suggest offers the potential to deliver more robust inference, especially if genotyping is carried out by SNP array technology.

  5. Drosophila and genome-wide association studies: a review and resource for the functional dissection of human complex traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, Michael F.; Hu, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of susceptibility loci for common diseases with complex genetic etiologies. Although the susceptibility variants identified by GWAS usually have only modest effects on individual disease risk, they contribute to a substantial burden of trait variation in the overall population. GWAS also offer valuable clues to disease mechanisms that have long proven to be elusive. These insights could lead the way to breakthrough treatments; however, several challenges hinder progress, making innovative approaches to accelerate the follow-up of results from GWAS an urgent priority. Here, we discuss the largely untapped potential of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, for functional investigation of findings from human GWAS. We highlight selected examples where strong genomic conservation with humans along with the rapid and powerful genetic tools available for flies have already facilitated fine mapping of association signals, elucidated gene mechanisms, and revealed novel disease-relevant biology. We emphasize current research opportunities in this rapidly advancing field, and present bioinformatic analyses that systematically explore the applicability of Drosophila for interrogation of susceptibility signals implicated in more than 1000 human traits, based on all GWAS completed to date. Thus, our discussion is targeted at both human geneticists seeking innovative strategies for experimental validation of findings from GWAS, as well as the Drosophila research community, by whom ongoing investigations of the implicated genes will powerfully inform our understanding of human disease. PMID:28151408

  6. Near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics analysis of complex traits in animal physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) applications have been expanding from the traditional framework of small molecule chemical purity and composition (as defined by spectral libraries) to complex system analysis and holistic exploratory approaches to questions in biochemistry, biophysics and environment...

  7. Spatial Patterns in Herbivory on a Coral Reef Are Influenced by Structural Complexity but Not by Algal Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergés, Adriana; Vanderklift, Mathew A.; Doropoulos, Christopher; Hyndes, Glenn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patterns of herbivory can alter the spatial structure of ecosystems, with important consequences for ecosystem functions and biodiversity. While the factors that drive spatial patterns in herbivory in terrestrial systems are well established, comparatively less is known about what influences the distribution of herbivory in coral reefs. Methodology and Principal Findings We quantified spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption in a cross-section of Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia). We used a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches to assess the influence of multiple macroalgal traits and structural complexity in establishing the observed spatial patterns in macroalgal herbivory, and to identify potential feedback mechanisms between herbivory and macroalgal nutritional quality. Spatial patterns in macroalgal consumption were best explained by differences in structural complexity among habitats. The biomass of herbivorous fish, and rates of herbivory were always greater in the structurally-complex coral-dominated outer reef and reef flat habitats, which were also characterised by high biomass of herbivorous fish, low cover and biomass of macroalgae and the presence of unpalatable algae species. Macroalgal consumption decreased to undetectable levels within 75 m of structurally-complex reef habitat, and algae were most abundant in the structurally-simple lagoon habitats, which were also characterised by the presence of the most palatable algae species. In contrast to terrestrial ecosystems, herbivory patterns were not influenced by the distribution, productivity or nutritional quality of resources (macroalgae), and we found no evidence of a positive feedback between macroalgal consumption and the nitrogen content of algae. Significance This study highlights the importance of seascape-scale patterns in structural complexity in determining spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption by fish. Given the importance of herbivory in maintaining the

  8. Unique and Interactive Associations Between Maltreatment and Complex Emotion Recognition Deficits and Psychopathic Traits in an Undergraduate Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; McCabe, Hannah K; Dotterer, Hailey L; Neumann, Craig S; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-09-13

    Psychopathy is defined by affective and interpersonal deficits, deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behaviors. Poor recognition of emotions and childhood maltreatment are two risk factors implicated in psychopathy. The current study examined whether childhood maltreatment and complex emotion recognition deficits showed unique and interactive associations with psychopathic traits among 261 undergraduate students. Results indicate that maltreatment was related to higher general psychopathy scores within a bifactor model comprising a general psychopathy factor and four specific factors tapping underlying dimensions of psychopathy (i.e., affective, interpersonal, lifestyle, and antisocial). A significant interaction emerged whereby maltreatment was related to higher antisocial factor scores among individuals showing poor recognition of positive emotions. In an intriguing interaction, more maltreatment was related to lower interpersonal factor scores among individuals with low/mean levels of neutral emotion recognition. The interaction of positive emotion recognition deficits and maltreatment highlights a potential intervention target among antisocial individuals who have experienced maltreatment.

  9. Tissue-specific genetic control of splicing: implications for the study of complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Heinzen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous genome-wide screens for polymorphisms that influence gene expression have provided key insights into the genetic control of transcription. Despite this work, the relevance of specific polymorphisms to in vivo expression and splicing remains unclear. We carried out the first genome-wide screen, to our knowledge, for SNPs that associate with alternative splicing and gene expression in human primary cells, evaluating 93 autopsy-collected cortical brain tissue samples with no defined neuropsychiatric condition and 80 peripheral blood mononucleated cell samples collected from living healthy donors. We identified 23 high confidence associations with total expression and 80 with alternative splicing as reflected by expression levels of specific exons. Fewer than 50% of the implicated SNPs however show effects in both tissue types, reflecting strong evidence for distinct genetic control of splicing and expression in the two tissue types. The data generated here also suggest the possibility that splicing effects may be responsible for up to 13 out of 84 reported genome-wide significant associations with human traits. These results emphasize the importance of establishing a database of polymorphisms affecting splicing and expression in primary tissue types and suggest that splicing effects may be of more phenotypic significance than overall gene expression changes.

  10. Identification of Nitrogen Use Efficiency Genes in Barley: Searching for QTLs Controlling Complex Physiological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Wong, Julia; Su, Tao; Beatty, Perrin H.; Good, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past half century, the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers has markedly increased crop yields, but with considerable negative effects on the environment and human health. Consequently, there has been a strong push to reduce the amount of N fertilizer used by maximizing the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crops. One approach would be to use classical genetics to improve the NUE of a crop plant. This involves both conventional breeding and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in combination with marker-assisted selection (MAS) to track key regions of the chromosome that segregate for NUE. To achieve this goal, one of initial steps is to characterize the NUE-associated genes, then use the profiles of specific genes to combine plant physiology and genetics to improve plant performance. In this study, on the basis of genetic homology and expression analysis, barley candidate genes from a variety of families that exhibited potential roles in enhancing NUE were identified and mapped. We then performed an analysis of QTLs associated with NUE in field trials and further analyzed their map-location data to narrow the search for these candidate genes. These results provide a novel insight on the identification of NUE genes and for the future prospects, will lead to a more thorough understanding of physiological significances of the diverse gene families that may be associated with NUE in barley. PMID:27818673

  11. Use of biological priors enhances understanding of genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits within and between dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-08-10

    A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic regions defined by genes grouped on the basis of "Gene Ontology" (GO), and that incorporating this independent biological information into genomic prediction models might improve their predictive ability. Four complex traits (i.e., milk, fat and protein yields, and mastitis) together with imputed sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP) to a genomic feature BLUP (GFBLUP) model, including an additional genomic effect quantifying the joint effect of a group of variants located in a genomic feature. The GBLUP model using a single random effect assumes that all genomic variants contribute to the genomic relationship equally, whereas GFBLUP attributes different weights to the individual genomic relationships in the prediction equation based on the estimated genomic parameters. Our results demonstrate that the immune-relevant GO terms were more associated with mastitis than milk production, and several biologically meaningful GO terms improved the prediction accuracy with GFBLUP for the four traits, as compared with GBLUP. The improvement of the genomic prediction between breeds (the average increase across the four traits was 0.161) was more apparent than that it was within the HOL (the average increase across the four traits was 0.020). Our genomic feature modelling approaches provide a framework to simultaneously explore the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits by taking advantage of

  12. Summary of contributions to GAW Group 15: family-based samples are useful in identifying common polymorphisms associated with complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Stacey; Uh, Hae-Won; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, family-based samples have been used for genetic analyses of single-gene traits caused by rare but highly penetrant risk variants. The utility of family-based genetic data for analyzing common complex traits is unclear and contains numerous challenges. To assess the utility as well as to address these challenges, members of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Group 15 analyzed Framingham Heart Study data using family-based designs ranging from parent--offspring trios to large pedigrees. We investigated different methods including traditional linkage tests, family-based association tests, and population-based tests that correct for relatedness between subjects, and tests to detect parent-of-origin effects. The analyses presented an assortment of positive findings. One contribution found increased power to detect epistatic effects through linkage using ascertainment of sibships based on extreme quantitative values or presence of disease associated with the quantitative value. Another contribution found four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a maternal effect, two SNPs with an imprinting effect, and one SNP having both effects on a binary high blood pressure trait. Finally, three contributions illustrated the advantage of using population-based methods to detect association to complex binary or quantitative traits. Our findings highlight the contribution of family-based samples to the genetic dissection of complex traits. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Label-free imaging to study phenotypic behavioural traits of cells in complex co-cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Rakesh; Smith, Gabrielle; Hazel, Kathryn E. A.; Kasprowicz, Richard; Coles, Mark; O'Toole, Peter; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a fundamental tool for studying cellular behaviours, however studies of primary cells in complex co-culture environments often requires fluorescent labelling and significant light exposure that can perturb their natural function over time. Here, we describe ptychographic phase imaging that permits prolonged label-free time-lapse imaging of microglia in the presence of neurons and astrocytes, which better resembles in vivo microenvironments. We demonstrate the use of ptychography as an assay to study the phenotypic behaviour of microglial cells in primary neuronal co-cultures through the addition of cyclosporine A, a potent immune-modulator.

  14. Multivariate dimensionality reduction approaches to identify gene-gene and gene-environment interactions underlying multiple complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ming Xu

    Full Text Available The elusive but ubiquitous multifactor interactions represent a stumbling block that urgently needs to be removed in searching for determinants involved in human complex diseases. The dimensionality reduction approaches are a promising tool for this task. Many complex diseases exhibit composite syndromes required to be measured in a cluster of clinical traits with varying correlations and/or are inherently longitudinal in nature (changing over time and measured dynamically at multiple time points. A multivariate approach for detecting interactions is thus greatly needed on the purposes of handling a multifaceted phenotype and longitudinal data, as well as improving statistical power for multiple significance testing via a two-stage testing procedure that involves a multivariate analysis for grouped phenotypes followed by univariate analysis for the phenotypes in the significant group(s. In this article, we propose a multivariate extension of generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR based on multivariate generalized linear, multivariate quasi-likelihood and generalized estimating equations models. Simulations and real data analysis for the cohort from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment are performed to investigate the properties and performance of the proposed method, as compared with the univariate method. The results suggest that the proposed multivariate GMDR substantially boosts statistical power.

  15. VARIATION IN ADAPTIVE TRAITS OF CORN HYBRIDS FIRST GENERATION (GENOTYPE) UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF GROWTH REGULATOR Варьирование адаптивных свойств гибридов кукурузы первого поколения (генотипов) под влиянием регулятора роста

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article reviews the results of studying the adaptive potential of hybrids of corn maturity of different groups in the Central Caucasus. It discusses the variation of adaptive traits of maize hybrids (ecological plasticity and stability of the manifestations of agronomic traits), as well as stabilizing the yield of corn on an annual basis in the processing of seed preparation "TMTD-plus", which contains in its composition Krezatsin growth regulator

  16. Mapping epistasis and environment × QTX interaction based on four -omics genotypes for the detected QTX loci controlling complex traits in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using newly developed methods and software, association mapping was conducted for chromium content and total sugar in tobacco leaf, based on four -omics datasets. Our objective was to collect data on genotype and phenotype for 60 leaf samples at four developmental stages, from three plant architectural positions and for three cultivars that were grown in two locations. Association mapping was conducted to detect genetic variants at quantitative trait SNP (QTS loci, quantitative trait transcript (QTT differences, quantitative trait protein (QTP variability, and quantitative trait metabolite (QTM changes, which can be summarized as QTX locus variation. The total heritabilities of the four -omics loci for both traits tested were 23.60% for epistasis and 15.26% for treatment interaction. Epistasis and environment × treatment interaction had important impacts on complex traits at all -omics levels. For decreasing chromium content and increasing total sugar in tobacco leaf, six methylated loci can be directly used for marker-assisted selection, and expression of ten QTTs, seven QTPs and six QTMs can be modified by selection or cultivation.

  17. Mapping epistasis and environment × QTX interaction based on four-omics genotypes for the detected QTX loci controlling complex traits in tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyuan; Zhou; Ruiyuan; Li; Longjiang; Fan; Yuewei; Shi; Zhihong; Wang; Shengdong; Xie; Yijie; Gui; Xueliang; Ren; Jun; Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Using newly developed methods and software, association mapping was conducted for chromium content and total sugar in tobacco leaf, based on four-omics datasets. Our objective was to collect data on genotype and phenotype for 60 leaf samples at four developmental stages, from three plant architectural positions and for three cultivars that were grown in two locations. Association mapping was conducted to detect genetic variants at quantitative trait SNP(QTS) loci, quantitative trait transcript(QTT) differences,quantitative trait protein(QTP) variability, and quantitative trait metabolite(QTM) changes,which can be summarized as QTX locus variation. The total heritabilities of the four-omics loci for both traits tested were 23.60% for epistasis and 15.26% for treatment interaction.Epistasis and environment × treatment interaction had important impacts on complex traits at all-omics levels. For decreasing chromium content and increasing total sugar in tobacco leaf, six methylated loci can be directly used for marker-assisted selection, and expression of ten QTTs, seven QTPs and six QTMs can be modified by selection or cultivation.

  18. A Mixture Model Approach to the Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci in Complex Populations With an Apllication to Multiple Cattle Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.; Johnson, David L.; Arendonk, Johan A.M. van

    1998-01-01

    A mixture model approach is presented for the mapping of one or more quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in complex populations. In order to exploit the full power of complete linkage maps the simultaneous likelihood of phenotype and a multilocus (all markers and putative QTLs) genotype is computed. Maxi

  19. A mixture model approach to the mapping of quantitative trait loci in complex populations with an application to multiple cattle families.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixture model approach is presented for the mapping of one or more quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in complex populations. In order to exploit the full power of complete linkage maps the simultaneous likelihood of phenotype and a multilocus (all markers and putative QTLs) genotype is computed. Maxi

  20. A Mixture Model Approach to the Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci in Complex Populations With an Application to Multiple Cattle Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.; Johnson, David L.; Arendonk, Johan A.M. van

    1998-01-01

    A mixture model approach is presented for the mapping of one or more quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in complex populations. In order to exploit the full power of complete linkage maps the simultaneous likelihood of phenotype and a multilocus (all markers and putative QTLs) genotype is computed. Maxi

  1. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  2. Potential of ayurgenomics approach in complex trait research: leads from a pilot study on rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C Juyal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inconsistent results across association studies including Genome-wide association, have posed a major challenge in complex disease genetics. Of the several factors which contribute to this, phenotypic heterogeneity is a serious limitation encountered in modern medicine. On the other hand, Ayurveda, a holistic Indian traditional system of medicine, enables subgrouping of individuals into three major categories namely Vata, Pitta and Kapha, based on their physical and mental constitution, referred to as Prakriti. We hypothesised that conditioning association studies on prior risk, predictable in Ayurveda, will uncover much more variance and potentially open up more predictive health. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Identification of genetic susceptibility markers by combining the prakriti based subgrouping of individuals with genetic analysis tools was attempted in a Rheumatoid arthritis (RA cohort. Association of 21 markers from commonly implicated inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways was tested using a case-control approach in a total cohort comprising 325 cases and 356 controls and in the three subgroups separately. We also tested few postulates of Ayurveda on the disease characteristics in different prakriti groups using clinico-genetic data. RESULTS: Inflammatory genes like IL1β (C-C-C haplotype, p=0.0005, OR=3.09 and CD40 (rs4810485 allelic, p=0.04, OR=2.27 seem to be the determinants in Vata subgroup whereas oxidative stress pathway genes are observed in Pitta (SOD3 rs699473, p=0.004, OR=1.83; rs2536512 p=0.005; OR=1.88 and PON1 rs662, p=0.04, OR=1.53 and Kapha (SOD3 rs2536512, genotypic, p=0.02, OR=2.39 subgroups. Fixed effect analysis of the associated markers from CD40, SOD3 and TNFα with genotype X prakriti interaction terms suggests heterogeneity of effects within the subgroups. Further, disease characteristics such as severity was most pronounced in Vata group. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study suggests discrete causal

  3. Eosinophil Count Is a Common Factor for Complex Metabolic and Pulmonary Traits and Diseases: The LifeLines Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashirova, Dinara; Prins, Bram P.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; van der Harst, Pim; Navis, Gerjan; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Postma, Dirkje S.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Boezen, H. Marike; Vonk, Judith; Snieder, Harold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    2016-01-01

    There is ongoing debate on the association between eosinophil count and diseases, as previous studies were inconsistent. We studied the relationship of eosinophil count with 22 complex metabolic, cardiac, and pulmonary traits and diseases. From the population-based LifeLines Cohort Study (N = 167,729), 13,301 individuals were included. We focused on relationship of eosinophil count with three classes of metabolic (7 traits, 2 diseases), cardiac (6 traits, 2 diseases), and pulmonary (2 traits, 2 diseases) outcomes. Regression analyses were applied in overall, women and men, while adjusted for age, sex, BMI and smoking. A p-value of <0.00076 was considered statistically significant. 58.2% of population were women (mean±SD 51.3±11.1 years old). In overall, one-SD higher of ln-eosinophil count was associated with a 0.04 (±SE ±0.002;p = 6.0×10−6) SD higher levels in ln-BMI, 0.06 (±0.007;p = 3.1×10−12) SD in ln-TG, 0.04 (±0.003;p = 7.0×10−6) SD in TC, 0.04 (±0.004;p = 6.3×10−7) SD in LDL, 0.04 (±0.006;p = 6.0×10−6) SD in HbA1c; and with a 0.05 (±0.004;p = 1.7×10−8) SD lower levels in HDL, 0.05 (±0.007;p = 3.4×10−23) SD in FEV1, and 0.09 (±0.001;p = 6.6×10−28) SD in FEV1/FVC. A higher ln-eosinophil count was associated with 1.18 (95%CI 1.09–1.28;p = 2.0×10−5) odds ratio of obesity, 1.29 (1.19–1.39;p = 1.1×10−10) of metabolic syndrome, 1.40 (1.25–1.56;p = 2.7×10−9) of COPD and 1.81 (1.61–2.03;p = 1.0×10−23) of asthma. Similar results were found in women. We found no association between ln-eosinophil count either with blood pressure indices in overall, women and men; or with BMI, LDL, HbA1c and obesity in men. In a large population based cohort, we confirmed eosinophil count as a potential factor implicated in metabolic and pulmonary outcomes. PMID:27978545

  4. Gelatinization and solubility of corn starch during heating in excess water: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2006-05-17

    Starch gelatinization is associated with the disruption of granular structure causing starch molecules to disperse in water. This study was designed to examine starch granules as they were heated in water, and their resulting morphological, structural, and solubility traits. The results indicate that starch gelatinization is a more complex process than the previously suggested order-to-disorder transition. The energy absorbed by the granules facilitates the rearrangement or formation of new bonds among molecules prior to the temperatures normally associated with the melting of amylopectin crystallites during gelatinization. It is also evident that amylose plays an important role during the initial stages of corn starch gelatinization.

  5. Some additional considerations in modelling the dynamic traits and genome-wide association studies. Comments on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kiranmoy

    2015-06-01

    The revolution in the genetic research in our time is mainly due to (i) the successful completion of human genome project (2003) and its derivative hapmap project (2005), (ii) advanced statistical methodologies for analyzing ultrahigh dimensional data and (iii) the availability of statistical softwares (R, SAS etc.) to analyze large datasets. When complex traits are to be modeled as dynamic systems, the statistical issues regarding the complexity in the model, predictive power of the model, computational cost etc. are to be addressed adequately for powerful inferences. I will mention two additional considerations (statistical) which make dynamic models more meaningful and the results from GWAS more reliable.

  6. Weighted Interaction SNP Hub (WISH) network method for building genetic networks for complex diseases and traits using whole genome genotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelman, Lisette J A; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput genotype (HTG) data has been used primarily in genome-wide association (GWA) studies; however, GWA results explain only a limited part of the complete genetic variation of traits. In systems genetics, network approaches have been shown to be able to identify pathways and their underlying causal genes to unravel the biological and genetic background of complex diseases and traits, e.g., the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) method based on microarray gene expression data. The main objective of this study was to develop a scale-free weighted genetic interaction network method using whole genome HTG data in order to detect biologically relevant pathways and potential genetic biomarkers for complex diseases and traits. We developed the Weighted Interaction SNP Hub (WISH) network method that uses HTG data to detect genome-wide interactions between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and its relationship with complex traits. Data dimensionality reduction was achieved by selecting SNPs based on its: 1) degree of genome-wide significance and 2) degree of genetic variation in a population. Network construction was based on pairwise Pearson's correlation between SNP genotypes or the epistatic interaction effect between SNP pairs. To identify modules the Topological Overlap Measure (TOM) was calculated, reflecting the degree of overlap in shared neighbours between SNP pairs. Modules, clusters of highly interconnected SNPs, were defined using a tree-cutting algorithm on the SNP dendrogram created from the dissimilarity TOM (1-TOM). Modules were selected for functional annotation based on their association with the trait of interest, defined by the Genome-wide Module Association Test (GMAT). We successfully tested the established WISH network method using simulated and real SNP interaction data and GWA study results for carcass weight in a pig resource population; this resulted in detecting modules and key functional and biological pathways

  7. Population genomics in Sardinia: a novel approach to hunt for genomic combinations underlying complex traits and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, M; Robledo, R; Bender, P K; Carcassi, C; Contu, L; Beck, J C

    1999-01-01

    The availability of highly polymorphic markers permits testing whether complex traits and diseases result from genomic interactions between nonallelic normal variants at separate loci. Such variants may be identified by deviations from the expected distributions of alleles at a high number of polymorphic loci, when individuals with the phenotype of interest are compared to normal controls of the same breeding unit, provided that both groups share the same remote ancestry and had no ancestors in common for the last three to four generations. The circumstances needed for such studies are ideally met on the island of Sardinia. The recurrent finding of the same type of association in separate breeding units between the phenotype of interest and a given genotype should allow a distinction between true genetic identity by descent and randomly occurring identities, as these will be obviously different in separate breeding units. The availability of several breeding units located in sharply different ecological environments will permit assessment of the role of nature/nurture factors in the degree of manifestation of each newly discovered genotype/phenotype association. A pilot study to evaluate the proposed strategy has been carried out in the Sardinian village of Carloforte, a community of about 8,000 individuals who have remained genetically homogeneous. Fifty-five control samples have been genotyped with six tetranucleotide microsatellites and with a subset of the 400 markers contained in the ABI PRISM linkage mapping panel, version 2. The allele frequencies for these microsatellite markers have been determined for these 55 individuals and compared to those from a random sampling of subsets of these 55 persons. For the six tetranucleotide microsatellites, a subset of as few as 20 people displayed the same allele frequency distributions as observed with the original 55 unrelated individuals. In conclusion, when samples are chosen from the same breeding unit, the number

  8. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided.

  9. From QTL to candidate gene: Genetical genomics of simple and complex traits in potato using a pooling strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vos Ric

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilization of the natural genetic variation in traditional breeding programs remains a major challenge in crop plants. The identification of candidate genes underlying, or associated with, phenotypic trait QTLs is desired for effective marker assisted breeding. With the advent of high throughput -omics technologies, screening of entire populations for association of gene expression with targeted traits is becoming feasible but remains costly. Here we present the identification of novel candidate genes for different potato tuber quality traits by employing a pooling approach reducing the number of hybridizations needed. Extreme genotypes for a quantitative trait are collected and the RNA from contrasting bulks is then profiled with the aim of finding differentially expressed genes. Results We have successfully implemented the pooling strategy for potato quality traits and identified candidate genes associated with potato tuber flesh color and tuber cooking type. Elevated expression level of a dominant allele of the β-carotene hydroxylase (bch gene was associated with yellow flesh color through mapping of the gene under a major QTL for flesh color on chromosome 3. For a second trait, a candidate gene with homology to a tyrosine-lysine rich protein (TLRP was identified based on allele specificity of the probe on the microarray. TLRP was mapped on chromosome 9 in close proximity to a QTL for potato cooking type strengthening its significance as a candidate gene. Furthermore, we have performed a profiling experiment targeting a polygenic trait, by pooling individual genotypes based both on phenotypic and marker data, allowing the identification of candidate genes associated with the two different linkage groups. Conclusions A pooling approach for RNA-profiling with the aim of identifying novel candidate genes associated with tuber quality traits was successfully implemented. The identified candidate genes for tuber flesh color

  10. Relationship between Plant Height, ASI and Ear Traits and Drought Resistance of Transgenic Corn%转基因玉米株高、ASI和穗部性状与抗旱性的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝成; 刘成; 王天宇; 黎裕; 张登峰; 李亮; 唐怀君; 石云素; 宋燕春

    2012-01-01

    [目的]干旱是限制我国玉米生产的主要因素,利用转基因技术可有效提高玉米抗旱育种效率.对转基因玉米材料进行抗旱性鉴定评价,为筛选转基因玉米抗旱种质和转基因玉米抗旱育种提供科学依据.[方法]通过开花期干旱胁迫的方法,对61份转基因玉米材料进行抗旱性鉴定评价,研究转基因玉米材料ASI(散粉至吐丝的间隔期,天)、株高、产量与抗旱性的关系,受旱后粒重和穗重、轴粗和穗粗、百粒体积和百粒重等比值的变化;以及在受体基础上通过转基因提高玉米抗旱性的效果.[结果]正常灌水条件下株体适当、产量较高,而在受旱后株高下降少、ASI小的转基因玉米材料通常有较强的抗旱性,这与以往非转基因玉米的研究结果一致;无论受旱与否,玉米的穗粗和轴粗、穗重和粒重、百粒体积和百粒重之间存在显著的正比关系.[结论]转基因玉米的抗旱性在其受体基础上可提高25% ~53%,突破果穗和籽粒之间的正比关系可能是大幅提高玉米产量的一条关键途径.%[ Objective ] Drought is one of major factors to restrict China's corn production, and the application of transgenic technology can effectively improve the efficiency of corn drought breeding. [Method] Through the drought stress in period of flowering, and taking identification and evaluation of drought resistance on 61 transgenic corn materials, this paper studied the relationship between transgenic corn ASI, plant height, the yield and drought resistance, the change of these ratio on the kernel weight and ear weight, cob diameter and ear diameter, 100 - kernel volume and 100 - kernel weight affected by drought, and die effect of improving the drought resistance of corn by transgenosis on the basis of its receptor. [ Result] The experiments'results showed that in normal irrigation conditions, the yield was higher, but when affected by the drought later, die plant

  11. Associations of the bovine major histocompatibility complex DRB3 (BoLA-DRB3) with production traits in Canadian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, S; Mallard, B A; Wilkie, B N; Sargeant, J M; Scott, H M; Dekkers, J C; Leslie, K E

    1999-04-01

    Associations of two alleles of the bovine major histocompatibility complex DRB3 gene (BoLA-DRB3) with lowered somatic cell score (SCS) and occurrence of disease (BoLA-DRB3.2* 16 and *23, respectively) have previously been documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential relationships between BoLA-DRB3 alleles with production traits, namely 305-day milk, milk fat and milk protein yield, in a population of Canadian dairy cattle (Holstein, n = 835 and Jersey, n = 66) over the course of two lactations. No significant associations were detected between BoLA alleles and production traits in Jerseys. In Holsteins, alleles *16 and *23 also did not show associations with production traits but allele *8 was significantly associated with increased 305-day milk, fat and protein yields in the previous lactation (the lactation prior to immunization with a gram negative core antigen vaccine), and with increased protein production in the subsequent (with reference to the time of immunization) lactation. Allele *22 was associated with decreased milk and protein yield in both previous and subsequent lactations. Therefore, it can be concluded that increasing or decreasing the frequency of BoLA alleles *16 and *23 to reduce SCS or increase resistance to mastitis in this population would not have adverse effects on production in this population, and that certain BoLA alleles (*8 and *22) are associated with altered production traits in Canadian Holsteins.

  12. Lz-0 × Berkeley: a new Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population for the mapping of complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Arnaud; Chang, Xue Feng; Shi, Chun; Beatson, Rodger; Berleth, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the generation and test of a genetic resource suited to identify determinants of cell biological traits in plants. The use of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for a better genetic understanding of cell biological traits is still at an early stage, even for biotechnologically important cell properties, such as the dimensions of fiber cells. A common strategy, the mapping of QTLs in recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, is limited by the fact that the existing RIL populations exploit only a small fraction of the existing natural variation. Here, we report the mapping of QTLs impacting on the length of fiber cells in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems in a newly generated RIL population derived from a cross between the accessions Berkeley and the little known Lz-0. Through inbreeding of individual F(2) plants, a total of 159 new F8 lines were produced and genotyped with a set of 49 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The population was successfully used not only for the mapping of three QTLs controlling fiber length, but also to map five QTL controlling flowering time under short and long-day conditions. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of this new genetic resource by mapping in it QTLs underlying a poorly explored cellular trait as well as an already better explored regulatory pathway. The new RIL population and an online platform for the continuous supplementation of genetic markers will be generally available to substantially broaden the genetic diversity through which loci with impact on plant quantitative traits can be identified.

  13. The Evolutionary Logic of the Obsessive Trait Complex: Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Complementary Behavioral Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Freud noted that the obsessive traits of orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy incontestably belonged together. This observation has been unfailingly justified, but unsatisfactorily explained. Being a highly heritable pattern essentially unaffected by parental influence, it is counterfactual to continue to explain the obsessive trait constellation as a pathological signature of harsh, authoritarian parenting. Alternatively, the present paper, building upon a previously promulgated evolutionary etiological model, describes how obsessive traits work in unison to enable survival within harsh northerly climates. What appears to be a loosely federated inventory of pathology, after the application of evolutionary reasoning, becomes a coherent behavioral package, adaptive suite, or behavioral syndrome. All three of these terms, taken from behavioral biology, suggest that traits strategically covary, such that the adaptive value of each trait is enhanced by the presence of the others. In this vein, the union of anxious tension and conscientiousness drives the obsessive personality to labor incessantly. The fruits of obsessive labor are then conserved through parsimoniousness, hoarding, vigilance, and niggardliness. And so, obsessive personality is a coherent behavioral package in that the drive to work towards the acquisition of necessities is paired with the drive to conserve and defend them.

  14. Quantitative trait locus mapping reveals complex genetic architecture of quantitative virulence in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ethan L; Croll, Daniel; Lendenmann, Mark H; Sanchez-Vallet, Andrea; Hartmann, Fanny E; Palma-Guerrero, Javier; Ma, Xin; McDonald, Bruce A

    2016-11-21

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of virulence in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. High-throughput phenotyping based on automated image analysis allowed the measurement of pathogen virulence on a scale and with a precision that was not previously possible. Across two mapping populations encompassing more than 520 progeny, 540 710 pycnidia were counted and their sizes and grey values were measured. A significant correlation was found between pycnidia size and both spore size and number. Precise measurements of percentage leaf area covered by lesions provided a quantitative measure of host damage. Combining these large and accurate phenotypic datasets with a dense panel of restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) genetic markers enabled us to genetically dissect pathogen virulence into components related to host damage and those related to pathogen reproduction. We showed that different components of virulence can be under separate genetic control. Large- and small-effect QTLs were identified for all traits, with some QTLs specific to mapping populations, cultivars and traits and other QTLs shared among traits within the same mapping population. We associated the presence of four accessory chromosomes with small, but significant, increases in several virulence traits, providing the first evidence for a meaningful function associated with accessory chromosomes in this organism. A large-effect QTL involved in host specialization was identified on chromosome 7, leading to the identification of candidate genes having a large effect on virulence.

  15. The IgA nephropathy Biobank. An important starting point for the genetic dissection of a complex trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulos Efstathios

    2005-12-01

    from the study of Mendelian diseases has shown that the genetic dissection of a complex trait is more powerful when combined linkage-based, association-based, and sequence-based approaches are performed. This Biobank continuously expanded contains a sample size of adequately matched IgAN patients and healthy subjects, extended multiplex pedigrees, parent-child trios, thus permitting the combined genetic approaches with collaborative studies.

  16. Corn processing method in finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T L; Milton, C T; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

    2003-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of corn processing method on performance and carcass traits in steers fed finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). In Trial 1, 480 steer calves (303 kg initial BW) were fed eight finishing diets: 1) dry-rolled corn (DRC) without; and 2) with 32% (DM basis) WCGF; 3) steam-flaked corn (SFC) without; and 4) with WCGF; 5) a combination of DRC and SFC without WCGF; 6) finely-ground corn (FGC) with WCGF; 7) high-moisture corn (HMC) with WCGF; and 8) whole corn (WC) with WCGF. Feeding WC + WCGF increased (P < 0.10) DMI and decreased gain:feed compared with all other treatments. Feeding DRC + WCGF increased (P < 0.10) DMI and decreased (P < 0.10) gain:feed compared with treatments other than WC + WCGF. Steers on treatments that included WCGF gained similarly, regardless of corn processing method, and at a rate 6% faster (P < 0.10) than steers fed diets that did not include WCGF. Gain:feed did not differ among steers fed SFC, SFC + WCGF, SFC + DRC, and HMC + WCGF. Steers fed SFC or SFC + WCGF were more efficient (P < 0.10) than steers fed DRC or FGC + WCGF. In Trial 2, 288 steer calves (382 kg initial BW) were fed six finishing diets: 1) DRC without; and 2) with 22% (DM basis) WCGF; 3) SFC without; and 4) with WCGF; 5) finely rolled corn (FRC) with WCGF; and 6) HMC corn with WCGF. Steers fed DRC + WCGF or FRC + WCGF consumed more DM (P < 0.10) than steers fed DRC, SFC, or SFC + WCGF. Feed intake did not differ between steers fed SFC + WCGF and HMC + WCGF. All treatment groups receiving WCGF consumed more DM (P < 0.10) feed than steers fed DRC or SFC without WCGF. Steers fed SFC + WCGF gained 8% faster (P < 0.10), and steers fed DRC 9.5% slower (P < 0.10) than steers receiving all other treatments. Daily gains did not differ among other treatment groups. Steers fed SFC or SFC + WCGF gained 10% more (P < 0.10) efficiently than all other treatment groups. Feed efficiency did not differ among steers fed DRC, DRC

  17. Actinomycetales from corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F

    1975-02-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  18. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    GlM procedure. Means of all treatments were comprised using least significant difference (LSD at 5 % probability level. Results and Discussion The effects of plant density on yield components of baby corn was significant. Increasing the plant densities increased the ear number and percentage of non-standard ears. The Highest yield of ear without husk, standard and non-standard were obtained (2649.5, 766.97, and 3043.9 kg.ha-1, respectively with 13 plants.m-2. In sweet corn, increasing plant density from 7 to 13 plants.m-2, decreased row per ear, grain per row and thousand grain weight. Highest grain yield (1232.5 kg ha-1 and green ear (12607.2 kg ha-1 of sweet corn were obtained with plant density of 9.m-2. Conclusions Analysis of correlation showed that in both baby and sweet corn, there were positive and significant correlations between yield and its components. There was the high number of non-standard ears in all experimental treatments. In sweet corn, the standard ear without husk yield has positive and significant correlation with all traits except the percentage of standard ear and sheathed ear weight. In addition, unsuitable climate conditions during silking stage reduced the yield of sweet corn through the high number of aborted florets. Yield of sweet corn yield showed negative and significant correlation with grain row per ear and grain per row. However, increasing the ear number.m-2 increased yield in higher plant densities up to 9 plant.m-2 density. Generally, the baby corn had high yield with good quality in this region, but, standard ear percent of the baby corn of the hybrid KSC 403 was very low. On the other hand, sweet corn grain yield was low due to high air temperatures during pollination and maturity stages.

  19. Western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) dispersal and adaptation to single-toxin transgenic corn deployed with block or blended refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David W; Nowatzki, Timothy M; Stanley, Bruce H; Meinke, Lance J; Flexner, J Lindsey

    2011-08-01

    A simulation model of the temporal and spatial dynamics and population genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was created to evaluate the use of block refuges and seed blends in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn (Zea mays L.). This Bt corn expresses one transgenic corn event, DAS-59122-7, that produces a binary insecticidal protein toxin (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and provides host-plant resistance. The model incorporates the latest information about larval and adult behavior. Results of this modeling effort indicate that the seed-blend scenarios in many cases produced equal or greater durability than block refuges that were relocated each year. Resistance evolved in the most likely scenarios in 10-16 yr. Our standard analysis presumed complete adoption of 59122 corn by all farmers in our hypothetical region, no crop rotation, and 100% compliance with Insect Resistant Management (IRM) regulations. As compliance levels declined, resistance evolved faster when block refuges were deployed. Seed treatments that killed the pest when applied to all seeds in a seed blend or just to seeds in Bt corn blocks delayed evolution of resistance. Greater control of the pest population by the seed treatment facilitated longer durability of the transgenic trait. Therefore, data support the concept that pyramiding a transgenic insecticidal trait with a highly efficacious insecticidal seed treatment can delay evolution of resistance.

  20. Investigating Transgenic Corn Hybrids as a Method for Mycotoxin Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids have been available for more than 10 years and are known to control specific insects. More recently, so-called “stacked-gene” hybrids, have been released with multiple insect resistance genes and genes for herbicide resistance, resulting in up to 6 traits per plant. Beca...

  1. A Chromosome Segment Substitution Library of Weedy Rice for Genetic Dissection of Complex Agronomic and Domestication Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Subudhi

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs are a powerful alternative for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL, analyzing gene interactions, and providing starting materials for map-based cloning projects. We report the development and characterization of a CSSL library of a U.S. weedy rice accession 'PSRR-1' with genome-wide coverage in an adapted rice cultivar 'Bengal' background. The majority of the CSSLs carried a single defined weedy rice segment with an average introgression segment of 2.8 % of the donor genome. QTL mapping results for several agronomic and domestication traits from the CSSL population were compared with those obtained from two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations involving the same weedy rice accession. There was congruence of major effect QTLs between both types of populations, but new and additional QTLs were detected in the CSSL population. Although, three major effect QTLs for plant height were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 8 in the CSSL population, the latter two escaped detection in both RIL populations. Since this was observed for many traits, epistasis may play a major role for the phenotypic variation observed in weedy rice. High levels of shattering and seed dormancy in weedy rice might result from an accumulation of many small effect QTLs. Several CSSLs with desirable agronomic traits (e.g. longer panicles, longer grains, and higher seed weight identified in this study could be useful for rice breeding. Since weedy rice is a reservoir of genes for many weedy and agronomic attributes, the CSSL library will serve as a valuable resource to discover latent genetic diversity for improving crop productivity and understanding the plant domestication process through cloning and characterization of the underlying genes.

  2. Limnephilid taxa revised by speciation traits: Rhadicoleptus, Isogamus, Melampophylax genera, Chaetopteryx rugulosa, Psilopteryx psorosa species groups, Drusus bolivari, Annitella kosciuszkii species complexes (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Speciation traits of paramere, paraproct and aedeagus were applied to find initial split criteria with fine structure analysis in order to prepare diverged trait matrices for delimiting phylogenetic incipient species of unsettled limnephilid taxa in the early stages of reproductive isolation. A brief history is presented how this phenotypic taxonomic tool of the speciation traits was discovered and applied in caddisfly taxonomy. The theoretical basis was elaborated for the phenotypic speciation trait by reviewing several relevant topics in the sciences of taxonomy, molecular genetics and phylogenetics. Perspectives of integrative taxonomy is discussed in context of phenotype versus genotype, immensely complex phenotype versus phenomic challenge, taxonomic impediment versus genetic expedient, taxonomic adaptation of genetic vocabulary versus genetic sophistication and virtualization, New Systematics of Huxley and Mayr versus New Taxonomy of Wheeler. Debates on magic trait, speciation phenotype, speciation trait and super traits are discussed concluding that evolution works with phenotype and why the cryptic species concept is irrelevant. Briefly summarized how speciation traits evolve in sexual selection, through accelerated reproductive isolation with genital evolution through sex-limited speciation traits, including minor sex chromosomes. Why neutral molecular markers are blind compared to the adaptive speciation traits sensitized by fine structure analysis and backed by the potential of high-tech and high-throughput phenotyping and cyber-infrastructure broadly accessible and fed by computable phenotype descriptions. What sort of genetics could really help taxonomy to describe biodiversity of the over 100 million unknown taxa? Collecting new and re-examining old type materials deposited in various collections, the following taxonomic actions were elaborated by speciation traits. Drusus bolivari new species complex has been erected with

  3. Compositional analysis of genetically modified corn events (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared to conventional corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Abbott, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    Compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops continues to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment for these materials. The present study was designed to detect the genetic modifications and investigate the compositional analysis of GM corn containing traits of multiple genes (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared with non-GM corn. Values for most biochemical components assessed for the GM corn samples were similar to those of the non-GM control or were within the literature range. Significant increases were observed in protein, fat, fiber and fatty acids of the GM corn samples. The observed increases may be due to the synergistic effect of new traits introduced into corn varieties. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis showed high similarity among the protein fractions of the investigated corn samples. These data indicate that GM corn samples were compositionally equivalent to, and as nutritious as, non-GM corn.

  4. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, ... the surfaces is your tender skin! What's a Blister? A blister is an area of raised skin ...

  5. Corns and calluses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rowers get calluses on their hands that prevent blisters from forming. People with bunions often develop a callus over the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems. Symptoms ...

  6. Histopathological Effects of Bt and TcdA Insecticidal Proteins on the Midgut Epithelium of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bowling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is a major corn pest in the United States, causing annual losses of over $1 billion. One approach to protect against crop loss by this insect is the use of transgenic corn hybrids expressing one or more crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 together comprise a binary insecticidal toxin with specific activity against WCR. These proteins have been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids resistant to WCR feeding damage. Cry34/35Ab1 is a pore forming toxin, but the specific effects of Cry34/35Ab1 on WCR cells and tissues have not been well characterized microscopically, and the overall histopathology is poorly understood. Using high-resolution resin-based histopathology methods, the effects of Cry34/35Ab1 as well as Cry3Aa1, Cry6Aa1, and the Photorhabdus toxin complex protein TcdA have been directly visualized and documented. Clear symptoms of intoxication were observed for all insecticidal proteins tested, including swelling and sloughing of enterocytes, constriction of midgut circular muscles, stem cell activation, and obstruction of the midgut lumen. These data demonstrate the effects of these insecticidal proteins on WCR midgut cells, and the collective response of the midgut to intoxication. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the insect cell biology and pathology of these insecticidal proteins, which should further the field of insect resistance traits and corn rootworm management.

  7. The Pseudomonas viridiflava phylogroups in the P. syringae species complex are characterized by genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity of pathogenicity-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Claudia; Berge, Odile; Monteil, Caroline L; Guilbaud, Caroline; Balestra, Giorgio M; Varvaro, Leonardo; Jones, Corbin; Dangl, Jeffery L; Baltrus, David A; Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-07-01

    As a species complex, Pseudomonas syringae exists in both agriculture and natural aquatic habitats. P.viridiflava, a member of this complex, has been reported to be phenotypically largely homogenous. We characterized strains from different habitats, selected based on their genetic similarity to previously described P.viridiflava strains. We revealed two distinct phylogroups and two different kinds of variability in phenotypic traits and genomic content. The strains exhibited phase variation in phenotypes including pathogenicity and soft rot on potato. We showed that the presence of two configurations of the Type III Secretion System [single (S-PAI) and tripartite (T-PAI) pathogenicity islands] are not correlated with pathogenicity or with the capacity to induce soft rot in contrast to previous reports. The presence/absence of the avrE effector gene was the only trait we found to be correlated with pathogenicity of P.viridiflava. Other Type III secretion effector genes were not correlated with pathogenicity. A genomic region resembling an exchangeable effector locus (EEL) was found in S-PAI strains, and a probable recombination between the two PAIs is described. The ensemble of the variability observed in these phylogroups of P.syringae likely contributes to their adaptability to alternating opportunities for pathogenicity or saprophytic survival.

  8. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, distillers dried grains with solubles composition, and lipid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in utilization of feedstocks other than corn for fuel ethanol production has been increasing due to political as well as environmental reasons. Grain sorghum is an identified alternative that has a number of potential benefits relative to corn in both composition and agronomic traits. Compo...

  9. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  10. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  11. Avaliação de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. em diferentes estádios de maturação: 1. Produtividade, características morfológicas e correlações Evaluation of five corn hybrids (Zea mays, L. at different maturity stages: 1. Productivity, morphologic traits and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fontanini Beleze

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para se avaliarem produtividade e as características morfológicas de cinco híbridos de milho Pioneer: superprecoce P32R21, os precoces P30R07, P3041, P30F33 e o semiprecoce P30F80, em cinco estádios de maturação. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. A colheita das amostras dos híbridos de milho foi adotada estimando-se cinco estádios de maturidade da planta: 30, 34, 38, 42 e 46% de matéria seca. Por ocasião da colheita, no primeiro estádio de maturação, foram tomados alguns parâmetros para avaliação, como altura da planta, altura inserção de espiga, peso da planta, diâmetro de colmo e número médio de espigas. Para cada estádio de maturação, procedeu-se à separação de colmo + bainha, lâmina foliar, grão, sabugo e palha. Os híbridos superprecoce P32R21 e o precoce P3041 apresentaram maiores peso, diâmetro de colmo e altura de planta. As produções de matéria seca (MS, massa verde, grãos, lâmina foliar e colmo + bainha, expressas em toneladas/ha, diferiram entre os híbridos avaliados e houve efeito de dias pós-plantio (DPP. O aumento na produção de MS verificado com o avanço do estádio de maturidade dos híbridos foi correlacionado positivamente com o aumento da produção de grãos (R² = 64,3%. A produção de MS correlacionou-se positivamente com a percentagem de espiga (R² = 56,0% e negativamente (R² = -56,7% com a percentagem de colmo + bainha (em relação a planta inteira.This study was conducted to evaluate productivity and morphologic traits of five hybrids of Pioneer corn: P32R21, P30R07, P3041, P30F33 and P30F80 at different maturity stages. The treatments were used in plots of 7 x 8 m in a randomized block design, with four replicates. The samples collected, of corn hybrid, were adopted trying to estimate phases of maturity of the plant (30, 34, 38, 42 and 46% of dry matter [DM]. In the first maturation stage

  12. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  13. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes.

  14. Research on Relationship between Panicle Traits and Yield of Summer Corn under Different Furrow Irrigation%不同沟灌方式下夏玉米穗部性状与产量相互关系的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪顺生; 刘慧; 孟鹏涛; 王帅杰; 陈倩云; 欧阳贺; 刘芳

    2015-01-01

    Through field experiment and taking the summer corn as the experimental material,this paper studies the effects of two furrow irrigation (wide ditch irrigation and conventional furrow irrigation) on the relationship between panicle traits and yield of summer maize under different water treatment.The results show that compared with conventional furrow irrigation,the yield of wide ditch irrigation increases significantly,the average increasing rate reaches 7.990%,spike length,spike coarse,spike grain number,hundred grain weight increases by 6.240%,3.869%,4.171% and 4.610%,respectively ;Too low or too high moisture control limit have adverse effect on the yield and its components;Under different furrow irrigation modes,all the correlation values of panicle traits and yield of summer maize are very high and reach extremely significant level;the spike length,spike coarse,spike grain number and hundred grain weight all have a promoting effect on yield;Under different furrow irrigation,the influence degree on panicle traits and yield of summer maize has a change.%采用田间试验,以夏玉米为试验材料,研究了两种沟灌方式(宽垄沟灌和常规沟灌),不同水分处理对夏玉米穗部性状与产量的相互关系.结果表明:较常规沟灌,宽垄沟灌模式增产明显,平均增产率达7.990%,穗长、穗粗、穗粒数、百粒重分别增加了6.240% 、3.869% 、4.171% 、4.610% ;过低或过高的水分控制下限对产量及其构成因子都会造成不利影响 ;不同沟灌方式下,夏玉米穗部性状与产量的相关性均很高,均达到极显著水平 ;夏玉米穗长、穗粗、穗粒数及百粒重对产量均有促进作用 ;不同沟灌方式下,夏玉米穗部性状对产量的影响程度发生变化.

  15. Use of biological priors enhances understanding of genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits within and between dairy cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei

    2017-01-01

    sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased...... regions defined by genes grouped on the basis of "Gene Ontology" (GO), and that incorporating this independent biological information into genomic prediction models might improve their predictive ability. RESULTS: Four complex traits (i.e., milk, fat and protein yields, and mastitis) together with imputed...... equally, whereas GFBLUP attributes different weights to the individual genomic relationships in the prediction equation based on the estimated genomic parameters. Our results demonstrate that the immune-relevant GO terms were more associated with mastitis than milk production, and several biologically...

  16. A Flexible Computational Framework Using R and Map-Reduce for Permutation Tests of Massive Genetic Analysis of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjani, Behrang; Toor, Salman; Nettelblad, Carl; Holmgren, Sverker

    2017-01-01

    In quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping significance of putative QTL is often determined using permutation testing. The computational needs to calculate the significance level are immense, 10(4) up to 10(8) or even more permutations can be needed. We have previously introduced the PruneDIRECT algorithm for multiple QTL scan with epistatic interactions. This algorithm has specific strengths for permutation testing. Here, we present a flexible, parallel computing framework for identifying multiple interacting QTL using the PruneDIRECT algorithm which uses the map-reduce model as implemented in Hadoop. The framework is implemented in R, a widely used software tool among geneticists. This enables users to rearrange algorithmic steps to adapt genetic models, search algorithms, and parallelization steps to their needs in a flexible way. Our work underlines the maturity of accessing distributed parallel computing for computationally demanding bioinformatics applications through building workflows within existing scientific environments. We investigate the PruneDIRECT algorithm, comparing its performance to exhaustive search and DIRECT algorithm using our framework on a public cloud resource. We find that PruneDIRECT is vastly superior for permutation testing, and perform 2 ×10(5) permutations for a 2D QTL problem in 15 hours, using 100 cloud processes. We show that our framework scales out almost linearly for a 3D QTL search.

  17. Analysis of the dynamics of adaptation to transgenic corn and crop rotation by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) using a daily time-step model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, D W; Onstad, D W; Cray, M E; Pierce, C M F; Hager, A G; Ratcliffe, S T; Steffey, K L

    2005-04-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has overcome crop rotation in several areas of the north central United States. The effectiveness of crop rotation for management of corn rootworm has begun to fail in many areas of the midwestern United States, thus new management strategies need to be developed to control rotation-resistant populations. Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., effective against western corn rootworm, may be the most effective new technology for control of this pest in areas with or without populations adapted to crop rotation. We expanded a simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of the western corn rootworm for a landscape of corn; soybean, Glycine max (L.); and other crops to study the simultaneous development of resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn. Results indicate that planting transgenic corn to first-year cornfields is a robust strategy to prevent resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn in areas where rotation-resistant populations are currently a problem or may be a problem in the future. In these areas, planting transgenic corn only in continuous cornfields is not an effective strategy to prevent resistance to either trait. In areas without rotation-resistant populations, gene expression of the allele for resistance to transgenic corn, R, is the most important factor affecting the evolution of resistance. If R is recessive, resistance can be delayed longer than 15 yr. If R is dominant, resistance may be difficult to prevent. In a sensitivity analysis, results indicate that density dependence, rotational level in the landscape, and initial allele frequency are the three most important factors affecting the results.

  18. Integrative Tissue-Specific Functional Annotations in the Human Genome Provide Novel Insights on Many Complex Traits and Improve Signal Prioritization in Genome Wide Association Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongshi Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive efforts have been made to understand genomic function through both experimental and computational approaches, yet proper annotation still remains challenging, especially in non-coding regions. In this manuscript, we introduce GenoSkyline, an unsupervised learning framework to predict tissue-specific functional regions through integrating high-throughput epigenetic annotations. GenoSkyline successfully identified a variety of non-coding regulatory machinery including enhancers, regulatory miRNA, and hypomethylated transposable elements in extensive case studies. Integrative analysis of GenoSkyline annotations and results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS led to novel biological insights on the etiologies of a number of human complex traits. We also explored using tissue-specific functional annotations to prioritize GWAS signals and predict relevant tissue types for each risk locus. Brain and blood-specific annotations led to better prioritization performance for schizophrenia than standard GWAS p-values and non-tissue-specific annotations. As for coronary artery disease, heart-specific functional regions was highly enriched of GWAS signals, but previously identified risk loci were found to be most functional in other tissues, suggesting a substantial proportion of still undetected heart-related loci. In summary, GenoSkyline annotations can guide genetic studies at multiple resolutions and provide valuable insights in understanding complex diseases. GenoSkyline is available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  19. A novel adaptive method for the analysis of next-generation sequencing data to detect complex trait associations with rare variants due to gene main effects and interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajiang J Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is solid evidence that rare variants contribute to complex disease etiology. Next-generation sequencing technologies make it possible to uncover rare variants within candidate genes, exomes, and genomes. Working in a novel framework, the kernel-based adaptive cluster (KBAC was developed to perform powerful gene/locus based rare variant association testing. The KBAC combines variant classification and association testing in a coherent framework. Covariates can also be incorporated in the analysis to control for potential confounders including age, sex, and population substructure. To evaluate the power of KBAC: 1 variant data was simulated using rigorous population genetic models for both Europeans and Africans, with parameters estimated from sequence data, and 2 phenotypes were generated using models motivated by complex diseases including breast cancer and Hirschsprung's disease. It is demonstrated that the KBAC has superior power compared to other rare variant analysis methods, such as the combined multivariate and collapsing and weight sum statistic. In the presence of variant misclassification and gene interaction, association testing using KBAC is particularly advantageous. The KBAC method was also applied to test for associations, using sequence data from the Dallas Heart Study, between energy metabolism traits and rare variants in ANGPTL 3,4,5 and 6 genes. A number of novel associations were identified, including the associations of high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein with ANGPTL4. The KBAC method is implemented in a user-friendly R package.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  1. TYK2 Protein-Coding Variants Protect against Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autoimmunity, with No Evidence of Major Pleiotropic Effects on Non-Autoimmune Complex Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Dorothée; Bastarache, Lisa; Liao, Katherine P.; Graham, Robert R.; Fulton, Robert S.; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Cui, Jing; Lee, Annette; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Kremer, Joel M.; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Franke, Barbara; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mariette, Xavier; Richard-Miceli, Corrine; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E.; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Crusius, J. Bart A.; Nurmohamed, Michael T.; Kurreeman, Fina; Mikuls, Ted R.; Okada, Yukinori; Stahl, Eli A.; Larson, David E.; Deluca, Tracie L.; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Ortmann, Ward; Cagan, Andrew; Gainer, Vivian; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kohane, Isaac; Murphy, Shawn N.; Martin, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Worthington, Jane; Mardis, Elaine R.; Seldin, Michael F.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Behrens, Timothy; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Denny, Joshua C.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease biology. Here, we genetically fine-map the RA risk locus at 19p13 to define causal variants, and explore the pleiotropic effects of these same variants in other complex traits. First, we combined Immunochip dense genotyping (n = 23,092 case/control samples), Exomechip genotyping (n = 18,409 case/control samples) and targeted exon-sequencing (n = 2,236 case/controls samples) to demonstrate that three protein-coding variants in TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2) independently protect against RA: P1104A (rs34536443, OR = 0.66, P = 2.3x10-21), A928V (rs35018800, OR = 0.53, P = 1.2x10-9), and I684S (rs12720356, OR = 0.86, P = 4.6x10-7). Second, we show that the same three TYK2 variants protect against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Pomnibus = 6x10-18), and provide suggestive evidence that two of the TYK2 variants (P1104A and A928V) may also protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Pomnibus = 0.005). Finally, in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) assessing >500 phenotypes using electronic medical records (EMR) in >29,000 subjects, we found no convincing evidence for association of P1104A and A928V with complex phenotypes other than autoimmune diseases such as RA, SLE and IBD. Together, our results demonstrate the role of TYK2 in the pathogenesis of RA, SLE and IBD, and provide supporting evidence for TYK2 as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25849893

  2. TYK2 protein-coding variants protect against rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmunity, with no evidence of major pleiotropic effects on non-autoimmune complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Diogo

    Full Text Available Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease biology. Here, we genetically fine-map the RA risk locus at 19p13 to define causal variants, and explore the pleiotropic effects of these same variants in other complex traits. First, we combined Immunochip dense genotyping (n = 23,092 case/control samples, Exomechip genotyping (n = 18,409 case/control samples and targeted exon-sequencing (n = 2,236 case/controls samples to demonstrate that three protein-coding variants in TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2 independently protect against RA: P1104A (rs34536443, OR = 0.66, P = 2.3 x 10(-21, A928V (rs35018800, OR = 0.53, P = 1.2 x 10(-9, and I684S (rs12720356, OR = 0.86, P = 4.6 x 10(-7. Second, we show that the same three TYK2 variants protect against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Pomnibus = 6 x 10(-18, and provide suggestive evidence that two of the TYK2 variants (P1104A and A928V may also protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; P(omnibus = 0.005. Finally, in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS assessing >500 phenotypes using electronic medical records (EMR in >29,000 subjects, we found no convincing evidence for association of P1104A and A928V with complex phenotypes other than autoimmune diseases such as RA, SLE and IBD. Together, our results demonstrate the role of TYK2 in the pathogenesis of RA, SLE and IBD, and provide supporting evidence for TYK2 as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  3. Resurrecting complexity: the interplay of plasticity and rapid evolution in the multiple trait response to strong changes in predation pressure in the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; Govaert, Lynn; Pauwels, Kevin; Jansen, Bastiaan; De Meester, Luc

    2015-12-09

    A resurrection ecology reconstruction of 14 morphological, life history and behavioural traits revealed that a natural Daphnia magna population rapidly tracked changes in fish predation by integrating phenotypic plasticity and widespread evolutionary changes both in mean trait values and in trait plasticity. Increased fish predation mainly generated rapid adaptive evolution of plasticity (especially in the presence of maladaptive ancestral plasticity) resulting in an important change in the magnitude and direction of the multivariate reaction norm. Subsequent relaxation of the fish predation pressure resulted in reversed phenotypic plasticity and mainly caused evolution of the trait means towards the ancestral pre-fish means. Relaxation from fish predation did, however, not result in a complete reversal to the ancestral fishless multivariate phenotype. Our study emphasises that the study population rapidly tracked environmental changes through a mosaic of plasticity, evolution of trait means and evolution of plasticity to generate integrated phenotypic changes in multiple traits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Modeling co-expression across species for complex traits: insights to the difference of human and mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions between genes or proteins contribute substantially to phenotypic evolution. We present a probabilistic model and a maximum likelihood approach for cross-species clustering analysis and for identification of conserved as well as species-specific co-expression modules. This model enables a "soft" cross-species clustering (SCSC approach by encouraging but not enforcing orthologous genes to be grouped into the same cluster. SCSC is therefore robust to obscure orthologous relationships and can reflect different functional roles of orthologous genes in different species. We generated a time-course gene expression dataset for differentiating mouse embryonic stem (ES cells, and compiled a dataset of published gene expression data on differentiating human ES cells. Applying SCSC to analyze these datasets, we identified conserved and species-specific gene regulatory modules. Together with protein-DNA binding data, an SCSC cluster specifically induced in murine ES cells indicated that the KLF2/4/5 transcription factors, although critical to maintaining the pluripotent phenotype in mouse ES cells, were decoupled from the OCT4/SOX2/NANOG regulatory module in human ES cells. Two of the target genes of murine KLF2/4/5, LIN28 and NODAL, were rewired to be targets of OCT4/SOX2/NANOG in human ES cells. Moreover, by mapping SCSC clusters onto KEGG signaling pathways, we identified the signal transduction components that were induced in pluripotent ES cells in either a conserved or a species-specific manner. These results suggest that the pluripotent cell identity can be established and maintained through more than one gene regulatory network.

  5. Impact of corn earworm injury on yield of transgenic corn producing Bt toxins in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., hybrids expressing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and insecticide applications to suppress injury from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) were evaluated in Florence, SC, and in Plymouth, NC, in 2012 and 2013. Based on kernel area injured, insecticide applications (chlorantraniliprole) every 3-4 d from R1 until H. zea had cycled out of corn reduced injury by 80-93% in Florence and 94-95% in Plymouth. Despite intensive applications of insecticide (13-18 per trial), limited injury still occurred in all treated plots in 2012, except in DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), based on kernels injured (both locations) and proportion of injured ears (Florence only). In 2013, ear injury was low in Plymouth, with no kernel injury in any insecticide-treated plots, except P1498R (non-Bt) and P1498YHR (Optimum Intrasect). Injury in Florence in 2013 did not occur in treated plots of DKC 68-04 (non-Bt), DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), and N785-3111 (Agrisure Viptera). Yields were not significantly affected by insecticide treatment and were not statistically different among near-isolines with and without Bt traits. Yields were not significantly associated with kernel injury based on regression analyses. The value of using Bt corn hybrids to manage H. zea is discussed.

  6. Genetic and QTL analyses of yield and a set of physiological traits in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, N.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Nicolaï, M.; Wubs, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Magan, J.; Voorrips, R.E.; Jansen, J.; Rodrigues, P.C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vercauteren, A.; Vuylsteke, M.; Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.; Barocsi, A.; Lefebvre, V.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2013-01-01

    An interesting strategy for improvement of a complex trait dissects the complex trait in a number of physiological component traits, with the latter having hopefully a simple genetic basis. The complex trait is then improved via improvement of its component traits. As first part of such a strategy t

  7. Genetic and QTL analyses of yield and a set of physiological traits in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, N.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Nicolaï, M.; Wubs, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Magan, J.; Voorrips, R.E.; Jansen, J.; Rodrigues, P.C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vercauteren, A.; Vuylsteke, M.; Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.; Barocsi, A.; Lefebvre, V.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2013-01-01

    An interesting strategy for improvement of a complex trait dissects the complex trait in a number of physiological component traits, with the latter having hopefully a simple genetic basis. The complex trait is then improved via improvement of its component traits. As first part of such a strategy t

  8. Toward elucidation of genetic and functional genetic mechanisms in corn host resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan eShan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by some species in the Aspergillus genus, such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Contamination of aflatoxins in corn profusely happens at pre-harvest stage when heat and drought field conditions favor A. flavus colonization. Commercial corn hybrids are generally susceptible to A. flavus infection. An ideal strategy for preventing aflatoxin contamination is through the enhancement of corn host resistance to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin production. Constant efforts have been made by corn breeders to develop resistant corn genotypes. Significantly low levels of aflatoxin accumulation have been determined in certain resistant corn inbred lines. A number of reports of quantitative trait loci (QTLs have provided compelling evidence supporting the quantitative trait genetic basis of corn host resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Important findings have also been obtained from the investigation on candidate resistance genes through transcriptomics approach. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms will provide in-depth understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and hence facilitate the breeding of corn with resistance to A. falvus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

  9. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  10. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  11. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...

  12. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  13. Genetic Sensitivity to the Environment: The Case of the Serotonin Transporter Gene and Its Implications for Studying Complex Diseases and Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Holmes, Andrew; Uher, Rudolf; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of marked variability in response among people exposed to the same environmental risk implies that individual differences in genetic susceptibility might be at work. The study of such Gene-by-Environment (G×E) interactions has gained momentum. In this article, the authors review research about one of the most extensive areas of inquiry: variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; also known as 5-HTT) and its contribution to stress sensitivity. Research in this area has both advanced basic science and generated broader lessons for studying complex diseases and traits. The authors evaluate four lines of evidence about the 5-HTT stress-sensitivity hypothesis: 1) observational studies about the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), stress sensitivity, and depression in humans; 2) experimental neuroscience studies about the 5-HTTLPR and biological phenotypes relevant to the human stress response; 3) studies of 5-HTT variation and stress sensitivity in nonhuman primates; and 4) studies of stress sensitivity and genetically engineered 5-HTT mutations in rodents. The authors then dispel some misconceptions and offer recommendations for G×E research. The authors discuss how G×E interaction hypotheses can be tested with large and small samples, how G×E research can be carried out before as well as after replicated gene discovery, the uses of G×E research as a tool for gene discovery, the importance of construct validation in evaluating G×E research, and the contribution of G×E research to the public understanding of genetic science. PMID:20231323

  14. Fine mapping of complex traits in non-model species: using next generation sequencing and advanced intercross lines in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frésard Laure

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As for other non-model species, genetic analyses in quail will benefit greatly from a higher marker density, now attainable thanks to the evolution of sequencing and genotyping technologies. Our objective was to obtain the first genome wide panel of Japanese quail SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and to use it for the fine mapping of a QTL for a fear-related behaviour, namely tonic immobility, previously localized on Coturnix japonica chromosome 1. To this aim, two reduced representations of the genome were analysed through high-throughput 454 sequencing: AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fragments as representatives of genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag as representatives of the transcriptome. Results The sequencing runs produced 399,189 and 1,106,762 sequence reads from cDNA and genomic fragments, respectively. They covered over 434 Mb of sequence in total and allowed us to detect 17,433 putative SNP. Among them, 384 were used to genotype two Advanced Intercross Lines (AIL obtained from three quail lines differing for duration of tonic immobility. Despite the absence of genotyping for founder individuals in the analysis, the previously identified candidate region on chromosome 1 was refined and led to the identification of a candidate gene. Conclusions These data confirm the efficiency of transcript and AFLP-sequencing for SNP discovery in a non-model species, and its application to the fine mapping of a complex trait. Our results reveal a significant association of duration of tonic immobility with a genomic region comprising the DMD (dystrophin gene. Further characterization of this candidate gene is needed to decipher its putative role in tonic immobility in Coturnix.

  15. Structural insight of dopamine β-hydroxylase, a drug target for complex traits, and functional significance of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Kapoor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH is an important therapeutic target for complex traits. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have also been identified in DBH with potential adverse physiological effect. However, difficulty in obtaining diffractable crystals and lack of a suitable template for modeling the protein has ensured that neither crystallographic three-dimensional structure nor computational model for the enzyme is available to aid rational drug design, prediction of functional significance of SNPs or analytical protein engineering. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adequate biochemical information regarding human DBH, structural coordinates for peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase and computational data from a partial model of rat DBH were used along with logical manual intervention in a novel way to build an in silico model of human DBH. The model provides structural insight into the active site, metal coordination, subunit interface, substrate recognition and inhibitor binding. It reveals that DOMON domain potentially promotes tetramerization, while substrate dopamine and a potential therapeutic inhibitor nepicastat are stabilized in the active site through multiple hydrogen bonding. Functional significance of several exonic SNPs could be described from a structural analysis of the model. The model confirms that SNP resulting in Ala318Ser or Leu317Pro mutation may not influence enzyme activity, while Gly482Arg might actually do so being in the proximity of the active site. Arg549Cys may cause abnormal oligomerization through non-native disulfide bond formation. Other SNPs like Glu181, Glu250, Lys239 and Asp290 could potentially inhibit tetramerization thus affecting function. CONCLUSIONS: The first three-dimensional model of full-length human DBH protein was obtained in a novel manner with a set of experimental data as guideline for consistency of in silico prediction. Preliminary physicochemical tests validated

  16. The genetic architecture of a complex trait: Resistance to multiple toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Aurélie; Paris, Margot; Frérot, Hélène; Bianco, Erica; Tetreau, Guillaume; Després, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is an increasingly popular alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling mosquito populations. Because Bti toxicity relies on the action of four main toxins, resistance to Bti is very likely a complex phenotype involving several genes simultaneously. Dissecting the underlying genetic basis thus requires associating a quantitative measure of resistance to genetic variation at many loci in a segregating population. Here, we undertake this task using the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, as a study model. We conducted QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) and admixture mapping analyses on two controlled crosses and on an artificial admixed population, respectively, all obtained from resistant and susceptible lab strains. We detected 16 QTL regions, among which four QTLs were revealed by different analysis methods. These four robust QTLs explained altogether 29.2% and 62.2% of the total phenotypic variance in the two QTL crosses, respectively. They also all showed a dominant mode of action. In addition, we found six loci showing statistical association with Bti resistance in the admixed population. Five of the supercontigs highlighted in this study contained candidate genes as suggested by their function, or by prior evidence from expression and/or outlier analyses. These genomic regions are thus good starting points for fine mapping of resistance to Bti or functional analyses aiming at identifying the underlying genes and mutations. Moreover, for the purpose of this work, we built the first Ae. aegypti genetic map based on markers associated with genes expressed in larvae. This genetic map harbors 229 SNP markers mapped across the three chromosomes for a total length of 311.9cM. It brought to light several assembly discrepancies with the reference genome, suggesting a high level of genome plasticity in Ae. aegypti.

  17. Study of southern corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavia Mubeen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern corn leaf blight is considered the most devastating disease of maize crop, which causes noticeable reduction in crop yield. Inbred lines are useful because they are genotyped, multiple time phenotyping is possible, and genetic uniformity, genetic stability and its vigor make inbred lines suitable to study in diversified environment. In present investigation, 12 maize genotypes viz: NC-2703 (hybrid, NC-2003 (hybrid, SP-3 (inbred line, NCML-73 (inbred line, NRL-6 (inbred line, NRL-4 (inbred line, Soan-3 (variety, Rakaposhi (variety, Margala (variety, EV-1097 (variety, Local-Y (variety, Local-W (variety were tested against southern corn leaf blight under laboratory and field conditions. According to disease severity scale (0–5 inbreds SP-3 and NCML-73 were found highly resistant; Local-W moderately resistance and rest of the genotypes were least resistance in in vitro analysis. In field screening, Margala, NRL-4, EV-1097 showed maximum resistance followed by moderately resistant SP-3, NCML-73, NC-2703, NRL-6 and Local-Y maize genotypes. NC-2003, Rakaposhi and Soan-3 showed least resistance during field evaluation. Cochliobolus heterostrophus showed considerable effects on yield of crop. Significant difference was found in grain yield, plant height, ear height and ear weight while ear placement, ear per plant and infected ear data were non-significant. The results clearly showed the effect on maize genotypes and its yield.

  18. Corn and sorghum phenotyping using a fixed-wing UAV-based remote sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeyin; Murray, Seth C.; Rooney, William L.; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Pugh, N. Ace; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Zhang, Dongyan; Thomasson, J. Alex

    2016-05-01

    Recent development of unmanned aerial systems has created opportunities in automation of field-based high-throughput phenotyping by lowering flight operational cost and complexity and allowing flexible re-visit time and higher image resolution than satellite or manned airborne remote sensing. In this study, flights were conducted over corn and sorghum breeding trials in College Station, Texas, with a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) carrying two multispectral cameras and a high-resolution digital camera. The objectives were to establish the workflow and investigate the ability of UAV-based remote sensing for automating data collection of plant traits to develop genetic and physiological models. Most important among these traits were plant height and number of plants which are currently manually collected with high labor costs. Vegetation indices were calculated for each breeding cultivar from mosaicked and radiometrically calibrated multi-band imagery in order to be correlated with ground-measured plant heights, populations and yield across high genetic-diversity breeding cultivars. Growth curves were profiled with the aerial measured time-series height and vegetation index data. The next step of this study will be to investigate the correlations between aerial measurements and ground truth measured manually in field and from lab tests.

  19. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  20. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol to produce corn silk extract. The extract may be concentrated at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract....

  1. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  2. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  3. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  4. Effects of different mechanized soil fertilization methods on corn nutrient accumulation and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingwen; Bai, Chunming; Wang, Huixin; Wu, Di; Song, Qiaobo; Dong, Zengqi; Gao, Depeng; Dong, Qiping; Cheng, Xin; Zhang, Yahao; Mu, Jiahui; Chen, Qinghong; Liao, Wenqing; Qu, Tianru; Zhang, Chunling; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Yifei; Han, Xiaori

    2017-05-01

    Aim: Experiments for mechanized corn soil fertilization were conducted in Faku demonstration zone. On this basis, we studied effects on corn nutrient accumulation and yield traits at brown soil regions due to different mechanized soil fertilization measures. We also evaluated and optimized the regulation effects of mechanized soil fertilization for the purpose of crop yield increase and production efficiency improvement. Method: Based on the survey of soil background value in the demonstration zone, we collected plant samples during different corn growth periods to determine and make statistical analysis. Conclusions: Decomposed cow dung, when under mechanical broadcasting, was able to remarkably increase nitrogen and potassium accumulation content of corns at their ripe stage. Crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage would remarkably increase phosphorus accumulation content of corn plants. When compared with top application, crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage would remarkably increase corn thousand kernel weight (TKW). Mechanized broadcasting of granular organic fertilizer and crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage, when compared with surface application, were able to boost corn yield in the in the demonstration zone.

  5. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  6. Avaliação da silagem de grãos de milho úmido com diferentes volumosos para tourinhos em terminação: desempenho e características de carcaça Feeding high moiture corn with different roughages for finishing young bulls: performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wignez Henrique

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar os efeitos do fornecimento de silagem de grãos de milho úmido com o milho em grão seco, associados à silagem de milho ou ao bagaço in natura de cana-de-açúcar, sobre o desempenho e as características da carcaça de bovinos em terminação. Em blocos ao acaso e esquema fatorial 2 × 2, 28 tourinhos Santa Gertrudes (dez meses de idade e peso corporal inicial de 245 kg foram mantidos em confinamento durante 142 dias. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais e receberam dietas com 12 e 20% da MS em forma de bagaço ou silagem, respectivamente. O milho úmido foi moído e ensilado quando se encontrava com 30% de umidade. Não houve interação significativa tipo de volumoso x tipo de processamento do milho sobre as variáveis estudadas. O bagaço mostrou-se viável como fonte exclusiva de fibra, apesar de os resultados de ganho de peso, eficiência alimentar, peso e rendimento de carcaça e espessura de gordura subcutânea terem sido inferiores aos obtidos com a silagem de milho. O ganho diário de peso nos animais alimentados com o bagaço foi em torno de 1,3 kg, enquanto, com a silagem, foi de 1,5 kg. O consumo de MS não foi influenciado pelo tipo de volumoso ou pelo processamento do milho. O uso da silagem de grãos de milho úmido melhorou a eficiência alimentar em 9,7% e reduziu o peso do fígado quando comparado ao milho seco, mas não alterou as demais características avaliadas.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of feeding diets containing corn silage or sugarcane bagasse plus high moisture corn or dry corn grain on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing young bulls. Twenty-eight Santa Gertrudis young bulls averaging 10 months of age and 245 kg of body weight were assigned to a completely randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Animals were maintained in individual pens during 142 days and were fed

  7. The Comparison of Sugar Components in the Developing Grains of Sweet Corn and Normal Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; WANG Kong-jun; ZHANG Ji-wang

    2003-01-01

    The sugar components and their dynamic variation in the developing grains of sweet corn(Zeamays L. seccharata Sturt)and normal corn (Zea mays L. indentata Sturt) were compared. There are WSP(water-soluble polysaccharides), sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannitol and sorbitol in both sweet corn and nor-mal corn, but no maltose. Two components with different degrees of polymerization (D. P. N) were detected inthe sweet corn; only one of them was detected in the normal corn 20 days after pollination. With the develop-ment of grains, the total soluble sugar content(TSS)in sweet corn increased, but in normal corn it decreased.The dynamic variation of WSP, sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol and sorbitol in sweet and normal corngrains are different. The contents of sugar components in the sweet corn grains are higher than that in the nor-mal corn. Sweet corn accumulates less starch than normal corn.

  8. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  9. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  10. Corn prices and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, W.

    1979-09-01

    Corn has attracted the most attention as a feedstock for alcohol production. The economics are computed on the basis of fixed costs for labor, taxes, depreciation, heat, and enzymes. Changes in feedstock prices are shown to determine whether corn is used for energy or protein as cattle feed. Comparisons of gasoline refined from imported oil and gasohol are made for a range of prices per bushel and oil prices per barrel. (DCK)

  11. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Vélez

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2, an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA's and Argonaute 2 (Ago2, an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2 did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA's. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance.

  12. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits.

  13. Corn replacement by broken rice in meat-type quail diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TMB Filgueira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of broken rice inclusion as substitute for corn in the diet on the performance, carcass yield, and economic viability of meat-type quails between 7 and 49 days of age. A number of 288 quails was distributed according to a completely randomized design into six treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of increasing levels of broken rice (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% in replacement of corn. Increasing levels of corn substitution by broken rice in the diet of 7- to 49-day-old meat-type quails did not affect feed intake, weight gain or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05. Relative to carcass traits, the inclusion of broken rice in the diets did not influence (p>0.05 dressing percentage or breast, leg (thigh+drumstick, liver, and gizzard yields. Moreover, feed cost per kilogram of live weight gain, cost index, and economic efficiency index were not influenced by the replacement of corn by broken rice in the diets. The performance, carcass traits and economic viability of broilers fed the different levels of broken rice inclusion were not different from the control group (p>0.05. These results indicate the economic viability of total replacement of corn by broken rice in the feeding of meat-type quails.

  14. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  15. Multicolored sweet-waxy corn variety-Caitiannuo 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Corn, as the third largest grain crop in China, isgrown on approximately 200 million ha per year. With theimprovement of people's living standard, variousrequirements for corn breeding have presented. Nowadays,the aim of corn breeding is not only for increasing yield,but also for higher quality and other special demands, suchas sweet corn, waxy corn, colored corn, oil-rich corn,lysine-rich corn, etc.

  16. Performance and carcass traits of lambs fed diets containing different cereal grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pastro Vidal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of lambs fed high-concentrate diets (92.65% containing different cereal grains (ground corn, whole grain corn, whole grain sorghum, or replacement of 40% whole grain corn with whole grain millet. Twenty-four feedlot intact lambs of undefined breed, with a body weight of 22.35 ± 3,.71 kg, kept in individual pens for 56 days were allocated in a completely randomized design. Dry matter intake expressed as a percentage of body weight was higher (P=0.0046 for the diets containing sorghum and ground corn (3.73% and 3.39%, respectively compared to the diets containing millet and whole grain corn (3.23% and 3.13%, respectively. Feed efficiency was higher (P=0.014 for whole grain corn and millet (0.293 and 0.269, respectively and lower for ground corn and sorghum (0.247 and 0.226, respectively. The apparent digestibility of organic matter, dry matter and crude protein was lower for the sorghum diet (P=0.0003. The carcass traits, meat cuts traits or objective longissimus muscle tenderness were not influenced by the diets offered to the animals. Meat color (P<0.0001 and luminosity (P=0.0063 were improved with inclusion of whole grains. The use of whole corn and millet grains is recommended for the feeding of feedlot lambs considering their nutritional benefits, feed efficiency, and improved carcass traits and meat quality attributes.

  17. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and...

  18. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  19. Transgenic corn for control of the European corn borer and corn rootworms: a survey of Midwestern farmers' practices and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ted A; Rice, Marlin E; Tollefson, Jon J; Pilcher, Clinton D

    2005-04-01

    In 2001, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1000 corn, Zea mays L., farmers in each of five states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska) to evaluate their perceptions of transgenic corn designed to control the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. Respondents returned 1,313 surveys (26.2%). Farmers with small acreages planted a greater portion of their corn (54.5%) with transgenic corn for control of European corn borer than farmers with large farms (39.2%). The majority (75.2%) of farmers use crop rotation to control the corn rootworm. Nine insecticides comprised 92.2% of the commercial soil insecticides used for control of corn rootworm larvae. More than one-third of the farmers in Illinois (33.5%) and Indiana (39.4%) treated first-year corn for corn rootworm, primarily due to western corn rootworm egg laying in soybean, Glycine max (L.). When asked whether they would plant transgenic corn protected against the corn rootworm, 35.0% of farmers responded they would, whereas 40.5% said they were unsure. The two greatest farmer concerns about transgenic corn were the ability to sell harvested grain (59.3%) and additional technology fees (54.8%). Respondents indicated that less farmer exposure to insecticide (69.9%) and less insecticide in the environment (68.5%) were the primary benefits of transgenic corn. Farmers who had no concerns about transgenic corn for rootworm control were more likely to purchase the product (46.8%). The most common refuge-planting options farmers favored were adjacent fields (30.9%) and split fields (29.9%). Farmers (21.1%) observed a yield increase (23.7 bu/ha [9.6 bu/acre]) when using transgenic corn for European corn borer control compared with non-transgenic corn. These data can help in understanding farmers' knowledge and concerns regarding transgenic corn. This information may be of value to guide researchers, extension specialists, and policy makers in designing

  20. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth M. Lenihan

    2003-12-12

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique ({alpha} < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (T{sub oG}), narrower range of gelatinization (R{sub G}), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization ({Delta}H{sub G}). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower T{sub oG}, wider R{sub G}, and lower {Delta}H{sub G}. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were studied by using DSC

  1. Mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, J A; Cuneah, O; Sulyok, M; Krska, R; Galon, N; Sharir, B; Shlosberg, A

    2013-01-01

    Silage is an important feed source for intensive dairy herds worldwide. Fungal growth and mycotoxin production before and during silage storage is a well-known phenomenon, resulting in reduced nutritional value and a possible risk factor for animal health. With this in mind, a survey was conducted to determine for the first time the occurrence of mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel. A total of 30 corn and wheat silage samples were collected from many sources and analysed using a multi-mycotoxin method based on LC-MS/MS. Most mycotoxins recorded in the present study have not been reported before in Israel. Overall, 23 mycotoxins were found in corn silage; while wheat silage showed a similar pattern of mycotoxin occurrence comprising 20 mycotoxins. The most common post-harvest mycotoxins produced by the Penicillium roqueforti complex were not found in any tested samples, indicative of high-quality preparation and use of silage. Moreover, none of the European Union-regulated mycotoxins--aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol and deoxynivalenol--were found above their limits of detection (LODs). The Alternaria mycotoxins--macrosporin, tentoxin and alternariol methyl ether--were highly prevalent in both corn and wheat silage (>80%), but at low concentrations. The most prominent (>80%) Fusarium mycotoxins in corn silage were fusaric acid, fumonisins, beauvericin, monilifomin, equisetin, zearalenone and enniatins, whereas in wheat silage only beauvericin, zearalenone and enniatins occurred in more than 80% of the samples. The high prevalence and concentration of fusaric acid (mean = 765 µg kg⁻¹) in Israeli corn silage indicates that this may be the toxin of highest potential concern to dairy cow performance. However, more data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in order to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Israeli silage.

  2. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  3. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  4. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  5. Contrast Study of Complex Enzyme Fermentation Corn Straw Configuration Bacteria Liquid Fattening Lamb%复合酶发酵玉米秸秆配置菌液饮水育肥羔羊对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴绍芳; 郭宪

    2012-01-01

    In order to utilize feed resources and improve lamb fattening effects,corn straw was crushed and fermented to feed lamb,meanwhile,AM bacterial liquid was added to water to carry out lamb fattening experiment.The results showed that feed intake,feed coversion ratio,carcass weight,net meat rate and economic profit of experiment group increased significantly compared to control group(P0.05),corn straw after fermentation showed good effects on lamb feed reward,it is worth popularizing in lamb fattening.%为了充分利用饲料资源,提高羔羊育肥效果,我们将玉米秸秆粉碎后,利用复合酶发酵饲喂羔羊,同时在饮用水中加入AM菌液对羔羊进行了育肥试验,结果试验组比对照组羔羊的采食量、饲料转化率、胴体重、净肉重和经济效益上都有明显提高(P〈0.05),经过复合酶发酵处理的玉米秸秆饲喂羔羊对提高羔羊饲料报酬方面有很好的作用,在羔羊育肥过程中值得大力推广。

  6. 家养动物复杂性状基因定位的统计分析和实验设计%Statistical Analysis and Experimental Design for Mapping Genes of Complex Traits in Domestic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y Da

    2003-01-01

    复杂性状基因定位的研究是人类、动植物研究中的1个热点领域.在畜禽的研究中,其目的是定位与生产性状、繁殖性状和疾病相关的基因.在人类中,复杂性状基因定位的研究具有极大的挑战性.尽管基因定位的结果积累得很快,但能得以确认的结果却很少.关于畜禽基因定位的研究结果同样也增长很快,目前在鸡、猪、奶牛等物种中几个大尺度的基因定位工作也正在开展中.虽然在不远的将来能够得到新的、可确信的结果,但是如何精确地理解这些复杂性状的基因仍然需要一定的时间.近来,复杂性状基因定位的方法已被用于通过基因表达的数据研究转录调节因子的定位工作中,这是基因定位研究中1个新的领域.基因定位的统计分析和实验设计是基因定位研究中的关键性步骤,研究的目的在于讨论畜禽复杂性状基因定位的统计分析和实验设计的研究进展及今后的发展.%Gene mapping for complex traits has been an active and challenging research area in humans,agricultural and laboratory species.In domestic animals and poultry,the goal of gene mapping is to find genes associated with production,reproduction and health traits.In humans,gene mapping for complex diseases has been a significant challenge.Although gene mapping results are accumulating rapidly,confirmed results are scarce[1].In domestic animals,gene mapping results are also accumulating rapidly and several large scale mapping projects in chickens,swine,and dairy cattle are currently in progress.Although new and more reliable results can be expected in the near future,the precise understanding of genes underlying complex traits is still some distance away.Recently,the approach of mapping genes of complex traits has been applied to gene expression data to map transcription regulatory elements[2],adding a new dimension to gene mapping.Statistical analysis of gene mapping data and

  7. Stacked -gene hybrids were not found to be superior to glyphosate resistant or Non-GMO corn hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed costs of modern corn hybrids genetically modified with multiple traits for insect and herbicide resistance “stacked-gene” are in excess of $100.00 US per acre. Yields and net returns per acre along with yield component data were determined for ten hybrids, four stacked-gene, four glyphosate re...

  8. Improved corn protein based articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  9. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  11. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  12. Evaluation of corn germplasm lines for multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Blanco, Michael H; Wilson, Jeffrey P

    2012-08-01

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases that reduce yield and impose health threats by mycotoxin contaminations in the grain, are critical impediments for corn (Zea mays L.) production in the southern United States. Ten germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program in Ames, IA, and Raleigh, NC, and 10 lines (derived from GEM germplasm) from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Lubbock, TX, were examined in 2007 and 2008 with local resistant and susceptible controls. Four types of insect damage and smut disease (Ustilago maydis) infection, as well as gene X environment (G X E) interaction, was assessed on corn ears under field conditions. Insect damage on corn ears was further separated as cob and kernel damage. Cob penetration rating was used to assess corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] and fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] feeding on corn cobs, whereas kernel damage was assessed using three parameters: 1) percentage of kernels discolored by stink bugs (i.e., brown stink bug [Euschistus serous (Say)], southern green stink bug [Nezara viridula (L.)], and green stink bug [Chinavia (Acrosternum) hilare (Say)]; 2) percentage of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky)-damaged kernels; and 3) percentage of kernels damaged by sap beetle (Carpophilus spp.), "chocolate milkworm" (Moodna spp.), and pink scavenger caterpillar [Pyroderces (Anatrachyntis) rileyi (Walsingham)]. The smut infection rates on ears, tassels, and nodes also were assessed. Ear protection traits (i.e., husk tightness and extension) in relation to insect damage and smut infection also were examined. Significant differences in insect damage, smut infection, and husk protection traits were detected among the germplasm lines. Three of the 20 germplasm lines were identified as being multiple insect and smut resistant. Of the three lines, entries 5 and 7 were derived from DKXL370, which was developed using corn germplasm from Brazil, whereas entry 14 was

  13. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  14. Brief Report: Effect of Spatial Complexity on Visual Short-Term Memory and Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits in Typically Developed Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junichi; Gyoba, Jiro; Yamawaki, Nozomi

    2013-01-01

    This report examines effects of the spatial complexity of configurations on visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity for individuals from the general population differing on autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) scores. During each trial, nine-line segments with various orientations were arrayed in simple or complex configurations and presented in both…

  15. Yield-trait performance landscapes: from theory to application in breeding maize for drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carlos D; Podlich, Dean; Dong, Zhanshan; Samples, Mitch; Cooper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of breeding strategies to increase drought resistance in crops could be increased further if some of the complexities in gene-to-phenotype (G → P) relations associated with epistasis, pleiotropy, and genotype-by-environment interactions could be captured in realistic G → P models, and represented in a quantitative manner useful for selection. This paper outlines a promising methodology. First, the concept of landscapes was extended from the study of fitness landscapes used in evolutionary genetics to the characterization of yield-trait-performance landscapes for agricultural environments and applications in plant breeding. Second, the E(NK) model of trait genetic architecture was extended to incorporate biophysical, physiological, and statistical components. Third, a graphical representation is proposed to visualize the yield-trait performance landscape concept for use in selection decisions. The methodology was demonstrated at a particular stage of a maize breeding programme with the objective of improving the drought tolerance of maize hybrids for the US Western Corn-Belt. The application of the framework to the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in maize supported selection of Doubled Haploid (DH) lines with improved levels of drought tolerance based on physiological genetic knowledge, prediction of test-cross yield within the target population of environments, and their predicted potential to sustain further genetic progress with additional cycles of selection. The existence of rugged yield-performance landscapes with multiple peaks and intervening valleys of lower performance, as shown in this study, supports the proposition that phenotyping strategies, and the directions emphasized in genomic selection can be improved by creating knowledge of the topology of yield-trait performance landscapes.

  16. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  17. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  18. Desempenho, características de carcaça e resultado econômico de cordeiros criados em creep feeding com silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Live weight gain, carcass traits and economic results on lambs fed with high moisture corn silage in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar níveis de substituição (0; 50 e 100% do milho grão seco moído pela silagem de grãos úmidos de milho na ração de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding. Vinte e quatro cordeiros Suffolk foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças. Também foi realizada uma análise econômica. As rações foram fornecidas ad libitum, sendo suas sobras pesadas para o cálculo do consumo médio por animal. Ao atingirem 28 kg de peso vivo, os cordeiros foram submetidos a jejum por 16 horas e, então, novamente pesados para se obter o peso vivo ao abate. Após o abate, os animais foram eviscerados para se obterem os pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente. As carcaças permaneceram por 24 horas em câmara de refrigeração, sendo novamente pesadas para se obterem os rendimentos de carcaça fria e as perdas por resfriamento. Os resultados revelaram que não houve efeito dos níveis de substituição sobre ganho médio diário de peso vivo, idade ao abate, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças quentes e frias, indicando que a silagem de grãos úmidos de milho pode ser utilizada em substituição ao milho moído na alimentação de cordeiros. Como o peso ao abate foi pré-fixado, as variações nas idades ao abate fizeram com que essa variável exercesse influência sobre os desempenhos, pesos e rendimentos e, quanto maiores essas idades, piores os resultados dos parâmetros avaliados. O tratamento com 50% de silagem de grãos úmidos apresentou os melhores resultados econômicos e o tratamento sem silagem de grãos úmidos foi o de menor rentabilidade.The experiment was carried to study three levels (0, 50 e 100% of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn grain in rations of lambs fed in creep feeding. Twenty four Suffolk lambs were evaluated to live weight (LW gain and carcasses dressing-outs percentage. It was performed an economical analysis too. Rations in creep feeding were fed ad

  19. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Santiago, Rogelio

    2011-04-01

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of resistant and susceptible inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Composition of cell wall polysaccharides, lignin concentration and composition, and cell wall bound forms of hydroxycinnamic acids were measured. As expected, most of the cell wall components were found at higher concentrations in the rind than in the pith tissues, with the exception of galactose and total diferulate esters. Pith of resistant inbred lines had significantly higher concentrations of total cell wall material than susceptible inbred lines, indicating that the thickness of cell walls could be the initial barrier against corn borer larvae attack. Higher concentrations of cell wall xylose and 8-O-4-coupled diferulate were found in resistant inbreds. Stem tunneling by corn borers was negatively correlated with concentrations of total diferulates, 8-5-diferulate and p-coumarate esters. Higher total cell wall, xylose, and 8-coupled diferulates concentrations appear to be possible mechanisms of corn borer resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Corning: supplier of multiple optical materials for telescope projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Navan, W. David; Edwards, Mary J.

    2006-06-01

    Corning manufactures several optical materials that can be used as reflective and transmissive optics for telescope optical systems. Corning can manufacture these materials in a large range of sizes and configurations. This paper discusses Corning's portfolio of optical materials and their properties, along with Corning's manufacturing capabilities using these materials. Specific examples of optical blanks that Corning has supplied will be discussed.

  1. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  2. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  3. Internal structure and physicochemical properties of corn starches as revealed by chemical surface gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuakpetoon, Daris; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2007-11-05

    The organization of amylose and amylopectin within starch granules is still not well elucidated. This study investigates the radial distribution of amylose and amylopectin in different corn starches varying in amylose content (waxy corn starch (WC), common corn starch (CC), and 50% and 70% amylose corn starches (AMC)). Corn starches were surface gelatinized by 13 M LiCl at room temperature to different extents (approximately 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). The gelatinized surface starch and remaining granules were characterized for amylose content, amylopectin chain-length distribution, thermal properties, swelling power (SP), and water solubility index (WSI). Except for the outmost 10% layer, the amylose content in CC increased slightly with increasing surface removal. In contrast, amylose was more concentrated at the periphery than at the core for 50% and 70% AMC. The proportion of amylopectin A chains generally decreased while that of B1 chains generally increased with increasing surface removal for all corn starches. The gelatinization enthalpy usually decreased, except for 70% AMC, whereas the retrogradation enthalpy relatively remained unchanged for CC but increased for WC, 50% and 70% AMC with increasing surface removal. The SP and WSI increased with increasing surface removal for all corn starches, with WC showing a significant increase in SP after the removal of the outmost 10% layer. The results of this study indicated that there were similarities and differences in the distribution of amylose and amylopectin chains along the radial location of corn starch granules with varying amylose contents. More amylose-lipid complex and amylopectin long chains were present at the periphery than at the core for amylose-containing corn starches.

  4. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  5. Systematics and biology of Cotesia typhae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), a potential biological control agent against the noctuid Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Laure; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chantre, Célina; Bodet, Matthieu; Kaoula, Ferial; Benoist, Romain; Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane; Herniou, Elisabeth A.; Jeannette, Rémi; Obonyo, Julius; Silvain, Jean-François; Ru, Bruno Le

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many parasitoid species are subjected to strong selective pressures from their host, and their adaptive response may result in the formation of genetically differentiated populations, called host races. When environmental factors and reproduction traits prevent gene flow, host races become distinct species. Such a process has recently been documented within the Cotesia flavipes species complex, all of which are larval parasitoids of moth species whose larvae are stem borers of Poales. A previous study on the African species C. sesamiae, incorporating molecular, ecological and biological data on various samples, showed that a particular population could be considered as a distinct species, because it was specialized at both host (Sesamia nonagrioides) and plant (Typha domingensis) levels, and reproductively isolated from other C. sesamiae. Due to its potential for the biological control of S. nonagrioides, a serious corn pest in Mediterranean countries and even in Iran, we describe here Cotesia typhae Fernandez-Triana sp. n. The new species is characterized on the basis of morphological, molecular, ecological and geographical data, which proved to be useful for future collection and rapid identification of the species within the species complex. Fecundity traits and parasitism success on African and European S. nonagrioides populations, estimated by laboratory studies, are also included. PMID:28769725

  6. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P generally occurs in soils as the anions H2PO4- or HPO4-2 depending on soil pH. These anions readily react with soil cations such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Crop recovery of applied phosphate fertilizer can be quite low during the season of application. In addition, the large amounts of crop residue present in no-tillage production systems can lower soil temperature thus reducing root growth and nutrient uptake of plants even on soils not low in available Phosphorus (P. Specialty Fertilizer Products, Leawood, KS has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of the applied P in available form for plant uptake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of AVAIL treated P-fertilizer on growth, P-uptake and yield of irrigated corn (Zea mays L. grown in a no-tillage production system. A 3-year experiment was conducted from 2001-2003 at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field, located near Scandia, KS, on a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Arquistoll. Treatments consisted of three rates of P with or without AVAIL. A no P check plot was also included. When averaged over the years and P rates, the use of AVAIL increased yield of corn by 1.1 Mg ha-1. AVAIL also increased corn dry weight at the six-leaf stage, whole plant P uptake at the six-leaf stage and P concentration at mid-silk. The use of AVAIL proved beneficial in overcoming many of the problems associated with P nutrition in corn. AVAIL consistently increased P uptake and yield in this experiment.

  7. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li

    2017-08-02

    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  9. Production of ethyl alcohol from corn silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H.J.; Ponitz, H.

    1973-01-01

    Corn silage may be employed as a raw material for the production of ethyl alcohol when starch is first cracked by pressure cooking and subsequently saccharified by microbial amalyses. Cracking conditions are: pressure increase 1.6 atmosphere within 60 minutes; maximum maintained for 35 minutes. The fermentation is complete after 72 hours. Extract decreases of fermented mashes made from corn silage are less than when dried corn is used. In the most advantageous case the degree of fermentation was -0.2 weight % of the extract. The maximum yields of alcohol were 26.0.1. pure alcohol/100 kg corn silage and 61.2.1. pure alcohol/100 kg starch. The latter is 3.9.1. pure alcohol lower than when dried corn was used. Despite the high bacterial infection of corn silage practically infection-free processing is assured.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly...

  11. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  12. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  13. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  14. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  15. Corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy with the addition of exogenous enzymes for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRB Dourado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolism assays were carried out to determine corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy when enzymes were added. In the first trial, 35 cockerels per studied feedstuff (corn and soybean meal were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments of seven replicates of one bird each. The evaluated treatments were: ingredient (corn and soybean meal with no enzyme addition, with the addition of an enzyme complex (xylanase, amylase, protease - XAP, xylanase, or phytase. Precise feeding method was used to determine true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (TMEn. The use of enzymes did not result in any differences (p>0.05 in soybean meal TMEn, but phytase improved corn TMEn in 2.3% (p=0.004. In the second trial, 280 seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of corn with no enzyme addition or with the addition of amylase, xylanase, phytase, XAP complex, XAP+phytase combination, or xylanase/ pectinase/β-glucanase complex (XPBG. Corn was supplemented with macro and trace minerals. Total excreta collection was used to determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn. Differences were observed (p=0.08 in AMEn and dry matter metabolizability coefficient (p=0.03. The combination of the XAP complex with phytase promoted a 2.11% increase in corn AMEn values, and the remaining enzymes allowed increased between 0.86% and 1.66%.

  16. TYK2 protein-coding variants protect against rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmunity, with no evidence of major pleiotropic effects on non-autoimmune complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, D.; Bastarache, L.; Liao, K.P.; Graham, R.R.; Fulton, R.S.; Greenberg, J.D.; Eyre, S.; Bowes, J.; Cui, J.; Lee, A.; Pappas, D.A.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Barton, A.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Franke, B.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Mariette, X.; Richard-Miceli, C.; Canhao, H.; Fonseca, J.E.; Vries, N. de; Tak, P.P.; Crusius, J.B.A.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Kurreeman, F.; Mikuls, T.R.; Okada, Y.; Stahl, E.A.; Larson, D.E.; Deluca, T.L.; O'Laughlin, M.; Fronick, C.C.; Fulton, L.L.; Kosoy, R.; Ransom, M.; Bhangale, T.R.; Ortmann, W.; Cagan, A.; Gainer, V.; Karlson, E.W.; Kohane, I.; Murphy, S.N.; Martin, J.; Zhernakova, A.; Klareskog, L.; Padyukov, L.; Worthington, J.; Mardis, E.R.; Seldin, M.F.; Gregersen, P.K.; Behrens, T.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Denny, J.C.; Plenge, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease

  17. TYK2 Protein-Coding Variants Protect against Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autoimmunity, with No Evidence of Major Pleiotropic Effects on Non-Autoimmune Complex Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, Dorothee; Bastarache, Lisa; Liao, Katherine P.; Graham, Robert R.; Fulton, Robert S.; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Cui, Jing; Lee, Annette; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Kremer, Joel M.; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Franke, Barbara; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mariette, Xavier; Richard-Miceli, Corrine; Canhao, Helena; Fonseca, Joao E.; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Crusius, J. Bart A.; Nurmohamed, Michael T.; Kurreeman, Fina; Mikuls, Ted R.; Okada, Yukinori; Stahl, Eli A.; Larson, David E.; Deluca, Tracie L.; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Ortmann, Ward; Cagan, Andrew; Gainer, Vivian; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kohane, Isaac; Murphy, Shawn N.; Martin, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Worthington, Jane; Mardis, Elaine R.; Seldin, Michael F.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Behrens, Timothy; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Denny, Joshua C.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease

  18. TYK2 Protein-Coding Variants Protect against Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autoimmunity, with No Evidence of Major Pleiotropic Effects on Non-Autoimmune Complex Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, Dorothee; Bastarache, Lisa; Liao, Katherine P.; Graham, Robert R.; Fulton, Robert S.; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Cui, Jing; Lee, Annette; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Kremer, Joel M.; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Franke, Barbara; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mariette, Xavier; Richard-Miceli, Corrine; Canhao, Helena; Fonseca, Joao E.; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Crusius, J. Bart A.; Nurmohamed, Michael T.; Kurreeman, Fina; Mikuls, Ted R.; Okada, Yukinori; Stahl, Eli A.; Larson, David E.; Deluca, Tracie L.; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Ortmann, Ward; Cagan, Andrew; Gainer, Vivian; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kohane, Isaac; Murphy, Shawn N.; Martin, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Worthington, Jane; Mardis, Elaine R.; Seldin, Michael F.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Behrens, Timothy; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Denny, Joshua C.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease b

  19. Identification of novel causative genes determining the complex trait of high ethanol tolerance in yeast using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Pais, Thiago; Claesen, Jürgen; Hubmann, Georg; Yang, Yudi; Demeke, Mekonnen; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.; Goovaerts, Annelies; Souvereyns, Kris; Clement, Lieven; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2012-01-01

    High ethanol tolerance is an exquisite characteristic of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which enables this microorganism to dominate in natural and industrial fermentations. Up to now, ethanol tolerance has only been analyzed in laboratory yeast strains with moderate ethanol tolerance. The genetic basis of the much higher ethanol tolerance in natural and industrial yeast strains is unknown. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to map all quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining high ethanol tolerance. We crossed a highly ethanol-tolerant segregant of a Brazilian bioethanol production strain with a laboratory strain with moderate ethanol tolerance. Out of 5974 segregants, we pooled 136 segregants tolerant to at least 16% ethanol and 31 segregants tolerant to at least 17%. Scoring of SNPs using whole-genome sequence analysis of DNA from the two pools and parents revealed three major loci and additional minor loci. The latter were more pronounced or only present in the 17% pool compared to the 16% pool. In the locus with the strongest linkage, we identified three closely located genes affecting ethanol tolerance: MKT1, SWS2, and APJ1, with SWS2 being a negative allele located in between two positive alleles. SWS2 and APJ1 probably contained significant polymorphisms only outside the ORF, and lower expression of APJ1 may be linked to higher ethanol tolerance. This work has identified the first causative genes involved in high ethanol tolerance of yeast. It also reveals the strong potential of pooled-segregant sequence analysis using relatively small numbers of selected segregants for identifying QTL on a genome-wide scale. PMID:22399573

  20. Risk assessment for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance on dual-gene versus single-gene corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kristine T; Caprio, Michael A; Allen, K Clint; Musser, Fred R

    2013-02-01

    Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decisions regarding resistance management in Bt-cropping systems have prompted concern in some experts that dual-gene Bt-corn (CrylA.105 and Cry2Ab2 toxins) may result in more rapid selection for resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) than single-gene Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn (CrylAb toxin). The concern is that Bt-toxin longevity could be significantly reduced with recent adoption of a natural refuge for dual-gene Bt-cotton (CrylAc and Cry2Ab2 toxins) and concurrent reduction in dual-gene corn refuge from 50 to 20%. A population genetics framework that simulates complex landscapes was applied to risk assessment. Expert opinions on effectiveness of several transgenic corn and cotton varieties were captured and used to assign probabilities to different scenarios in the assessment. At least 350 replicate simulations with randomly drawn parameters were completed for each of four risk assessments. Resistance evolved within 30 yr in 22.5% of simulations with single-gene corn and cotton with no volunteer corn. When volunteer corn was added to this assessment, risk of resistance evolving within 30 yr declined to 13.8%. When dual-gene Bt-cotton planted with a natural refuge and single-gene corn planted with a 50% structured refuge was simulated, simultaneous resistance to both toxins never occurred within 30 yr, but in 38.5% of simulations, resistance evolved to toxin present in single-gene Bt-corn (CrylAb). When both corn and cotton were simulated as dual-gene products, cotton with a natural refuge and corn with a 20% refuge, 3% of simulations evolved resistance to both toxins simultaneously within 30 yr, while 10.4% of simulations evolved resistance to CrylAb/c toxin.

  1. Carcass and meat traits of feedlot Nellore bulls fed different dietary energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Helber Batista Maia Filho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary energy sources on the carcass and meat traits of feedlot Nellore bulls. A total of 48 Nellore bulls at 32 months of age with 354.35±19.56 kg body weight were studied for 85 days. The bulls were allotted to four groups of 12 individuals: Whole corn grain - diet based on whole corn grain; Ground corn - diet based on ground corn grain; Citrus pulp - diet based on citrus pulp; and Steam-flaked corn - diet based on steam-flaked corn. Diets did not influence carcass quality or meat quality. Average values for fat depth, rib eye area, shear force, total cooking losses, and carcass yield were 4.97 mm, 74.71 cm2, 5.85 kgf, 26.82%, and 52.0%, respectively. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of this study, there is no restriction for the adoption of any of the tested diets in feedlots with Nellore bulls and the evaluated energy sources may be used to replace ground corn grain.

  2. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... and ecosystem models is necessary to generate realistic predictions on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems but remains extremely challenging. We propose that the use of trait-based approaches is a promising way to reduce complexity while retaining realism in developing novel descriptions of zooplankton...... traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for general patterns...

  3. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness la

  4. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuMoucheng; ChenXiaoyi

    2000-01-01

    Three corn varieties,supper-sweet corn(S),standard-sweet corn(M),corn-non corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein,vitamin,total sugar showed as parabola.Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually.Total sugar,protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn.VE and VC were very plentiful,and lysine was high.Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  5. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols.... (b) Specifications. Corn endosperm oil conforms to the following specifications: Total fatty...

  6. Hydroxycinnamate Synthesis and Association with Mediterranean Corn Borer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Barros-Rios, Jaime; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Butrón, Ana

    2016-01-27

    Previous results suggest a relationship between maize hydroxycinnamate concentration in the pith tissues and resistance to stem tunneling by Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) larvae. This study performs a more precise experiment, mapping an F2 derived from the cross between two inbreds with contrasting levels for hydroxycinnamates EP125 × PB130. We aimed to co-localize genomic regions involved in hydroxycinnamate synthesis and resistance to MCB and to highlight the particular route for each hydroxycinnamate component in relation to the better known phenylpropanoid pathway. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for p-coumarate, two QTLs for ferulate, and seven QTLs for total diferulates explained 81.7, 26.9, and 57.8% of the genotypic variance, respectively. In relation to borer resistance, alleles for increased hydroxycinnamate content (affecting one or more hydroxycinnamate compounds) could be associated with favorable effects on stem resistance to MCB, particularly the putative role of p-coumarate in borer resistance.

  7. Enzyme resistant feruloylated xylooligomer analogues from thermochemically treated corn fiber contain large side chains, ethyl glycosides and novel sites of acetylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Waard, de P.; Kabel, M.A.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to use corn fiber as a source for bioethanol production the enzymatic hydrolysis of the complex glucuronoarabinoxylans present has to be improved. Several oligosaccharides present in the supernatant of mild acid pretreated and enzymatically saccharified corn fiber that resist the current av

  8. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  9. 甜玉米%Growing Good Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2007-01-01

    @@ James Bender, in his book How to Talk Well (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1994)relates the story of a farmer who grew awardwinning corn. Each year he entered his corn in the state fair where it won a blue ribbon. One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it.

  10. Corn stalk as a bioenergy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Paul E., Jr.

    Waste corn stalk has the potential to help reduce the nation's dependence upon foreign sources of petroleum by becoming a major bioenergy resource. There are many sources of biomass that could also be utilized for this endeavor. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of agricultural waste are produced in the United States alone. This represents a significant source of energy. Through gasification, this waste could be used to generate power, fuels, and/or products. This dissertation shows that the gasification of corn stalk can produce char, heat, synthesis gases (CO and H2), and can also be used for work to dry moist biomass. Through the integration of drying, gasification, and carbon production, waste corn stalk can be used as a significant bioenergy resource. Novel concepts included in this dissertation include: (1) using corn stalk as a gasification fuel, (2) using corn stalk to generate activated carbon, (3) using activated carbon from corn stalk to adsorb organic pollutants, (4) using the gasification of corn stalk in a new process to dry moist biomass, (5) using the "partial" gasification of moist corn stalk in another new process to dry moist biomass in a single step. Each concept could be integrated with existing gasification technology to increase the efficient utilization of energy from biomass.

  11. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  12. Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: predictions from the laboratory and effects in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Aaron J

    2012-07-01

    Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide an effective management tool for many key insect pests. However, pest species have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to adapt to management practices. Results from laboratory selection experiments illustrate the capacity of pest species to evolve Bt resistance. Furthermore, resistance has been documented to Bt sprays in the field and greenhouse, and more recently, by some pests to Bt crops in the field. In 2009, fields were discovered in Iowa (USA) with populations of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, that had evolved resistance to maize that produces the Bt toxin Cry3Bb1. Fields with resistant insects in 2009 had been planted to Cry3Bb1 maize for at least three consecutive years and as many as 6years. Computer simulation models predicted that the western corn rootworm might evolve resistance to Bt maize in as few as 3years. Laboratory and field data for interactions between western corn rootworm and Bt maize indicate that currently commercialized products are not high-dose events, which increases the risk of resistance evolution because non-recessive resistance traits may enhance survival on Bt maize. Furthermore, genetic analysis of laboratory strains of western corn rootworm has found non-recessive inheritance of resistance. Field studies conducted in two fields identified as harboring Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm found that survival of western corn rootworm did not differ between Cry3Bb1 maize and non-Bt maize and that root injury to Cry3Bb1 maize was higher than injury to other types of Bt maize or to maize roots protected with a soil insecticide. These first cases of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm provide an early warning and point to the need to apply better integrated pest management practices when using Bt maize to manage western corn rootworm.

  13. The use of race variables in genetic studies of complex traits and the goal of reducing health disparities: a transdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Alexandra E; Fortun, Michael; Hammonds, Evelynn M; King, Patricia A; Lerman, Caryn; Rapp, Rayna; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2005-01-01

    The use of racial variables in genetic studies has become a matter of intense public debate, with implications for research design and translation into practice. Using research on smoking as a springboard, the authors examine the history of racial categories, current research practices, and arguments for and against using race variables in genetic analyses. The authors argue that the sociopolitical constructs appropriate for monitoring health disparities are not appropriate for use in genetic studies investigating the etiology of complex diseases. More powerful methods for addressing population structure exist, and race variables are unacceptable as gross proxies for numerous social/environmental factors that disproportionately affect minority populations. The authors conclude with recommendations for genetic researchers and policymakers, aimed at facilitating better science and producing new knowledge useful for reducing health disparities.

  14. Periodicity in tree rings from the corn belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, D M; Stockton, C W; Blasing, T J

    1985-07-26

    Previous tree-ring studies indicated that the total area affected by drought in the western United States has rhythmically expanded and contracted over the past 300 years, with a period near the 18.6-year lunar nodal and 22-year double-sunspot cycles. Recently collected tree-ring data from the U.S. Corn Belt for the years 1680 to 1980 were examined for evidence of either of these cycles on a regional scale. Spectral analysis indicated no periodicity in the eastern part of the Corn Belt, but a significant 18.33-year period in the western part. The period length changed from 17.60 to 20.95 years between the first 150 years and the last 151. High-resolution frequency analysis showed that the structure of the 18.33-year spectral peak was complex, with contributions from several frequencies near both the lunar nodal and double-sunspot periods. A t-test of difference of means in reconstructed annual precipitation weakly corroborated a previous finding of an association between drought area and the phase of the double-sunspot cycle. Both the high-resolution frequency analysis and the t-test results indicate that the periodic component of drought near 20 years is too weak and irregular to be of use in drought forecasting for the Corn Belt.

  15. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  16. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Analysis of the Interaction Between Corn Starch and an Exogenous Lipid During Hydrothermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Hernandez-Hernandez; C Avila-Orta; B Hsiao; j Castro-Rosas; J Gallegos-Infante; J Morales-Castro; L Ochoa-Martinez; C Gomez-Aldapa

    2011-12-31

    Lipids have an important effect on starch physicochemical properties. There exist few reports about the effect of exogenous lipids on native corn starch structural properties. In this work, a study of the morphological, structural and thermal properties of native corn starch with L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, the main phospholipid in corn) was performed under an excess of water. Synchrotron radiation, in the form of real-time small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), was used in order to track structural changes in corn starch, in the presence of LPC during a heating process from 30 to 85 C. When adding LCP, water absorption decreased within starch granule amorphous regions during gelatinization. This is explained by crystallization of the amylose-LPC inclusion complex during gelatinization, which promotes starch granule thermal stability at up to 95 C. Finally, a conceptual model is proposed for explaining the formation mechanism of the starch-LPC complex.

  17. Evaluation of the compositional and nutritional values of phytase transgenic corn to conventional corn in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G; Ji, C; Luo, X G; Tang, H F; Wei, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the compositional and nutritional values of corn grains [phytase transgenic corn (PTC) and isogenic conventional corn (CC)] and compare the efficacy of corn-based phytase and extraneous microbial phytase for enhancing the utilization of phytate phosphorus (P) in single corn or corn-soybean mixed meals (corn:soybean = 2.5:1, wt:wt) fed to roosters. Following a 48-h fasting period, 16 roosters were given 50 g of each sample via crop intubation and excreta were collected for 48 h. Nitrogen-free and phosphorus-free diets were used to evaluate endogenous amino acid and endogenous P losses, respectively. Chemical composition was not different between PTC and CC, whereas the phytase content for PTC was greater than CC (8,047 vs. 37 FTU/kg of corn, DM basis; P 0.05) between roosters fed PTC and extraneous microbial phytase in equivalent FTU/kg of diets. The results of this study indicated that the chemical composition, TME, and true amino acid availability in PTC are essentially equivalent to that in CC, and the true P utilization for roosters is higher in PTC than in CC. Corn expressing phytase is as efficacious as equivalent microbial phytase when supplemented in corn-soybean diets for chickens.

  18. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul

    2010-04-01

    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.

  19. Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-s1 with carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G L; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Smith, T P L

    2013-02-01

    Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult, because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in most beef cattle populations. This results in few animals homozygous for the minor alleles. selection to increase the frequencies of the minor alleles for 2 SNP markers in these genes was undertaken in a composite population. The objective was to obtain better estimates of genetic effects associated with these markers and determine if there were epistatic interactions. Selection increased the frequencies of minor alleles for both SNP from meat tenderness predicted at the abattoir by visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (P 0.10). Additive, dominance, and epistatic SNP association effects were estimated from genotypic effects for adjusted fat thickness and predicted meat tenderness. Adjusted fat thickness showed a dominance association with TG SNP (P meat tenderness, heterozygous TG meat was more tender than meat from either homozygote (P < 0.002). Dominance and epistatic associations can result in different SNP allele substitution effects in populations where SNP have the same linkage disequilibrium with causal mutations but have different frequencies. Although the complex associations estimated in this study would contribute little to within-population selection response, they could be important for marker-assisted management or reciprocal selection schemes.

  20. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  1. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  2. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  3. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  4. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  5. Mouse models of genomic syndromes as tools for understanding the basis of complex traits: an example with the smith-magenis and the potocki-lupski syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Mora, P; Molina, J; Encina, C A; Walz, K

    2009-06-01

    Each human's genome is distinguished by extra and missing DNA that can be "benign" or powerfully impact everything from development to disease. In the case of genomic disorders DNA rearrangements, such as deletions or duplications, correlate with a clinical specific phenotype. The clinical presentations of genomic disorders were thought to result from altered gene copy number of physically linked dosage sensitive genes. Genomic disorders are frequent diseases (~1 per 1,000 births). Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) are genomic disorders, associated with a deletion and a duplication, of 3.7 Mb respectively, within chromosome 17 band p11.2. This region includes 23 genes. Both syndromes have complex and distinctive phenotypes including multiple congenital and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Human chromosome 17p11.2 is syntenic to the 32-34 cM region of murine chromosome 11. The number and order of the genes are highly conserved. In this review, we will exemplify how genomic disorders can be modeled in mice and the advantages that such models can give in the study of genomic disorders in particular and gene copy number variation (CNV) in general. The contributions of the SMS and PTLS animal models in several aspects ranging from more specific ones, as the definition of the clinical aspects of the human clinical spectrum, the identification of dosage sensitive genes related to the human syndromes, to the more general contributions as the definition of genetic locus impacting obesity and behavior and the elucidation of general mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of gene CNV are discussed.

  6. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Moucheng; Chen Xiaoyi

    2000-01-01

    Three corn varieties, supper-sweet corn (S), standard-sweet corn (M), common corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein, vitamin, total sugar showed as parabola. Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually. Total sugar, protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn. VE and Vc were very plentiful, and lysine was high. Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21 ,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  7. Association of candidate genes with drought tolerance traits in diverse perennial ryegrass accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqing Yu; Guihua Bai; Shuwei Liu; Na Luo; Ying Wang; Douglas S. Richmond; Paula M. Pijut; Scott A. Jackson; Jianming Yu; Yiwei. Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress limiting growth of perennial grasses in temperate regions. Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that is controlled by multiple genes. Candidate gene association mapping provides a powerful tool for dissection of complex traits. Candidate gene association mapping of drought tolerance traits was conducted in 192 diverse...

  8. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

  9. 上位性及其对家养动物复杂经济性状形成的遗传学影响%Epistasis and its genetic influence on phenotype shaping of complex economic traits in domestic animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户国; 王守志; 李辉

    2012-01-01

    Bateson于1909年最早将上位性(Epistasis)这个概念引入遗传学领域,在1918年,Fisher将不同位点上的非等位基因相互作用定义为上位性,非等位基因间的交互作用而产生的基因效应定位为上位效应( Epistatic effect).自此,在相当长的时期内,受到试验方法及技术手段的限制,研究者多采用以数量遗传学为主的研究方法对上位性开展研究.近年来,伴随着分子数量遗传学与功能基因组学的飞速发展,人们现在已获得大量的理论和实验证据支持上位效应对家养动物复杂性状的表型塑造以及复杂遗传系统演化机制存在重要的遗传学影响.文章拟对目前使用较为广泛的上位性概念、类型及主要的学术观点加以评述,着重介绍了这些概念的产生的背景、原理以及差别之处,并对上位性对家养动物复杂经济性状的遗传学影响给予简要介绍,以期能够为相关领域的研究者提供参考.%Epistasis was first introduced into genetics by Bateson in 1909. The genetic interpretation of epistasis by Fisher in 1918 was generally defined as the interaction between two or more allele on different loci to influence a single trait. The factors participated in the mechanism of phenotype shaping in domestic animals are very complex. It often involvea the additive effect, dominant effect of the single locus, and the epistatic effect caused by the interaction among the alleles on different loci. The interaction between genes and the environment is an important factor, too. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular quantitative genetics and functional genomics, a lot of theoretical and experimental evidence has been obtained, which could support the epistatic effect with the fundamentally important influence on the structure and function of genetic pathways of complex phenotype in domestic animals and the evolutionary dynamics of complex genetic systems. This paper tried to introduce

  10. Properties of corn starch subjected hydrothermal modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryszkin, Artur; Zięba, Tomasz; Kapelko-Żeberska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heating a water dispersion of corn starch to various temperatures, followed by its freezing and defrosting, on selected properties of re-formed starch pastes. A suspension of starch was heated to various temperatures ranging from 59 to 94°C, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. The differential scanning calorimetry (Mettler Toledo, 822E) thermal characteristics of starch pre-heated to temperatures not inducing complete pasting revealed transitions of: (I) retrograded amylopectin, (II) non-pasted starch, (III) amylose-lipid complexes, (IV) retrograded amylose, and (V) highly thermostable starch structures. The application of higher temperatures during heating caused disappearance of transitions II and V. The increase of pre-heating temperature induced firstly a decrease and then stabilization of the swelling power as well as a successive decrease in starch solubility. Pastes pre-heated to temperatures over 79°C contained large macroparticles that were increasing viscosity of the re-formed starch paste (their size was positively correlated with viscosity value).

  11. ALKALINE PULP OF CORN STALKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SarwarJalaan; M.AN.Russell; S.A.N.Shamim; A.I.Mostafa; Md.AbdulQuaiyyum

    2004-01-01

    Pulping of corn stalks was studied in soda,soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft and kraft-AQprocesses. The time, temperature and alkaliconcentration were varied in soda process. In respectto kappa number and pulp yield, 1 hour cooking at1400C in 14% alkali were best conditions for cornstalks pulping. Pulp yield was increased by 5.5% andkappa number was reduced by 4.4 points with anaddition of 0.05% AQ in the soda liquor. Breakinglength was better in soda-AQ process than sodaprocess but tear strength was inferior. In the kraftprocess, pulp yield was increased with increasingsulphidity and decreasing active alkali. Theeffectiveness of AQ in the low and high sulphiditykraft process was studied. Results showed that AQwas more effective in low sulphidity than highsulphidity. Strength properties in kraft processeswere better than the soda and soda-AQ processes.

  12. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  13. Impact of Increased Corn Production on Ground Water Quality and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we use a complex coupled modeling system to assess the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater. In particular, we show how the models provide new information on the drivers of contamination in groundwater, and then relate pollutant concentration change...

  14. Peroxidase mediated conjugation of corn fibeer gum and bovine serum albumin to improve emulsifying properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum (CFG), a naturally-occurring polysaccharide protein complex, were improved by kinetically controlled formation of hetero-covalent linkages with bovine serum albumin (BSA), using horseradish peroxidase. The formation of hetero-crosslinked CFG-BSA conjugate...

  15. The Relationship of Trait Indecisiveness to Vocational Uncertainty, Career Indecision, and Interpersonal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stewart E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between trait indecisiveness, vocational uncertainty, and interpersonal characteristics in 325 college freshmen who completed the Interpersonal Checklist and Trait Indecisiveness Scale. Limited support for the hypothesized relationship suggests the complex nature of career indecision. (JAC)

  16. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  17. Ethanol from corn silage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlberg, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    The corn silage to ethanol process is described. The process feed is corn silage preserved with sulfuric acid. No anaerobic ensilement is necessary since H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ completely prevents microbial growth. The acidified corn silage is heated by steam injection as it is loaded into a batch reactor. The polysaccharides are hydrolyzed to xylose and glucose over a 6 to 8 hour period. Then the sugars are washed from the residual fibers over a 6 to 12 hour period with thin stillage or water. The hot, acidic syrup is then neutralized and cooled for fermentation. After fermentation the ethanol is distilled. The residual fibers containing the thin stillage, corn germ, cellulose, and lignin are unloaded from the reactor and dried with flue gases for animal feed.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  19. Breeding drought-tolerant maize hybrids for the US corn-belt: discovery to product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark; Gho, Carla; Leafgren, Roger; Tang, Tom; Messina, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Germplasm, genetics, phenotyping, and selection, combined with a clear definition of product targets, are the foundation of successful hybrid maize breeding. Breeding maize hybrids with superior yield for the drought-prone regions of the US corn-belt involves integration of multiple drought-specific technologies together with all of the other technology components that comprise a successful maize hybrid breeding programme. Managed-environment technologies are used to enable scaling of precision phenotyping in appropriate drought environmental conditions to breeding programme level. Genomics and other molecular technologies are used to study trait genetic architecture. Genetic prediction methodology was used to breed for improved yield performance for drought-prone environments. This was enabled by combining precision phenotyping for drought performance with genetic understanding of the traits contributing to successful hybrids in the target drought-prone environments and the availability of molecular markers distributed across the maize genome. Advances in crop growth modelling methodology are being used to evaluate the integrated effects of multiple traits for their combined effects and evaluate drought hybrid product concepts and guide their development and evaluation. Results to date, lessons learned, and future opportunities for further improving the drought tolerance of maize for the US corn-belt are discussed.

  20. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get Screened for Sickle Cell Trait Did you know there’s more than one way ...

  1. Exposure and nontarget effects of transgenic Bt corn debris in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter D; Dively, Galen P; Swan, Christopher M; Lamp, William O

    2010-04-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) transformed with a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) comprises 49% of all corn in the United States. The input of senesced corn tissue expressing the Bt gene may impact stream-inhabiting invertebrates that process plant debris, especially trichopteran species related to the target group of lepidopteran pests. Our goal was to assess risk associated with transgenic corn debris entering streams. First, we show the input of corn tissue after harvest was extended over months in a stream. Second, using laboratory bioassays based on European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)], we found no bioactivity of Cry1Ab protein in senesced corn tissue after 2 wk of exposure to terrestrial or aquatic environments. Third, we show that Bt near-isolines modify growth and survivorship of some species of invertebrates. Of the four nontarget invertebrate species fed Bt near-isolines, growth of two closely related trichopterans was not negatively affected, whereas a tipulid crane fly exhibited reduced growth rates, and an isopod exhibited reduced growth and survivorship on the Cry1Ab near-isoline but not on the stacked Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 near-isoline. Because of lack of evidence of bioactivity of Bt after 2 wk and because of lack of nontarget effects on the stacked near-isoline, we suggest that tissue-mediated differences, and not the presence of the Cry1Ab protein, caused the different responses among the species. Overall, our results provide evidence that adverse effects to aquatic nontarget shredders involve complex interactions arising from plant genetics and environment that cannot be ascribed to the presence of Cry1Ab proteins.

  2. Improved biomass degradation using fungal glucuronoyl-esterases-hydrolysis of natural corn fiber substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Errico, Clotilde; Börjesson, Johan; Ding, Hanshu

    2016-01-01

    between glucuronic acids in xylans and lignin alcohols. By means of synthesized complex LCC model substrates we provide kinetic data suggesting a preference of fungal GEs for esters of bulky arylalkyl alcohols such as ester LCCs. Furthermore, using natural corn fiber substrate we report the first examples...... of improved degradation of lignocellulosic biomass by the use of GEs. Improved C5 sugar, glucose and glucuronic acid release was observed when heat pretreated corn fiber was incubated in the presence of GEs from Cerrena unicolor and Trichoderma reesei on top of different commercial cellulase...

  3. Procedures and best management practices for genetically engineered traits in USDA/ARS germplasm and breeding lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two decades have passed since the commercialization in the U. S. of crops with genetically engineered (GE) traits. Today more than 80% of corn, soybean, canola, sugar beet and cotton acreage in the United States is planted to transgenic cultivars, but concerns exist regarding how best to manage the ...

  4. QTL analyses on genotype-specific component traits in a crop simulation model for capsicum annuum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Dieleman, J.A.; Magan, J.J.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: QTL for a complex trait like yield tend to be unstable across environments and show QTL by environment interaction. Direct improvement of complex traits by selecting on QTL is therefore difficult. For improvement of complex traits, crop growth models can be useful, as such models can disse

  5. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids and energy content of nine corn coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Kerr, B J; Zijlstra, R T; Patience, J F

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine a best fitting dietary fiber (DF) component to estimate the effect of DF concentration on the digestibility of energy, DF, and AA and energy value of 9 corn coproducts: corn bran (37.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP]); corn bran with solubles (17.1% NSP); cooked corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20.4% NSP); reduced oil DDGS (25.0% NSP); uncooked DDGS (22.0% NSP); high protein distillers dried grains (21.9% NSP); dehulled, degermed corn (1.1% NSP); corn germ meal (44.4% NSP); and corn gluten meal (4.9% NSP). A total of 20 growing pigs (initial BW: 25.9 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 10 dietary treatment groups in a 4-period incomplete block design with 8 observations per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and 9 diets obtained by mixing 70% of the basal diet with 30% of the test ingredient. In tested ingredients, 11 DF components were determined: 1) ADF, 2) NDF, 3) total dietary fiber, 4) hemicellulose, 5) total NSP, 6) NSP arabinose, 7) NSP xylose, 8) NSP mannose, 9) NSP glucose, 10) NSP galactose, and 11) arabinoxylan. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF and the AID of AA of ingredients were measured. A single best fitting DF component was assessed and ranked for each trait, showing that arabinoxylan concentration best explained variance in AID of GE (R(2) = 0.65; cubic, P 0.05) from the DF concentration. In conclusion, the arabinoxylan and NSP xylose residue were the DF components that best explained variation due to DF concentration and, with the exception of AID of Lys, can be used to predict the digestibility of energy and DF and the DE and ME values in corn coproducts.

  6. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Seed Physical and Nutrient Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xian-liang; ZHANG Tian-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the leading fiber crop,and an important source of the important edible oil and protein meals in the world.Complex genetics and strong environmental effects hinder much progress in seed quality trait breeding in cotton.The use of molecular markers will improve our understanding of the genetic factors conferring seed quality traits,and it is expected to assist in selection of superior genotypes.

  7. Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rod N; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly polymorphic in the corn-strain population and that produced four different haplotype subgroups. Comparisons of the frequency distribution of these haplotypes found no seasonal or plant host specificities, but they did demonstrate that the Brazil corn-strain population is different from corn-strain fall armyworm found in Florida. The development of a rapid means of distinguishing fall armyworm populations originating from Brazil versus Florida provides an opportunity for investigating and comparing the genetic complexity and long-range movements of this important agricultural pest.

  8. Nutritional perfomance of Tupinambis merianae lizards fed with corn starch as source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Vega Parry

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency in processing complex carbohydrates as a source of energy was studied in Tupinambis merianae lizards. Four isoproteic and isoenergetic diets in which different percentages of corn starch substituted fat (0, 10, 20 and 30 dry matter in the diet were provided. Even though consumption was similar in all diets, growth and feeding conversion rates decreased significantly with corn starch supplies of 10% and more. At the end of the trial, pancreatic alpha-amylase activity showed correlated increases, yet these were insufficient to compensate corn starch supplies. Results suggest that Tupinambis merianae lizards have a restricted omnivorous capacity. Therefore, diet formulation for these lizards should exclude high molecular weight carbohydrates.

  9. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  10. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  11. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  12. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  13. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  14. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-06-03

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  15. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to Sir

  16. Animal models of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functi

  17. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  18. Same Traits, Different Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Churchyard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.

  19. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  20. Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance mechanisms in 12 corn genotypes (transgenic hybrids: ..... FAW that fed on GM corn genotypes exhibited lower ... preference for other food types, particularly given the.

  1. Effect of corn cobs concentration on xylanase biosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION. Corn cobs ... like corn cobs, sugar cane bagasse , rice husk, rice straw and oat straw ... Xylanase hydrolyzes the polymer xylan into the xylose monomers. The free ..... using central composite rotary design.

  2. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What is high-fructose corn syrup? What are the health concerns? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. High-fructose corn syrup is a common sweetener in ...

  3. Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com complexos enzimáticos Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed corn soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymatic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Carrera de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de complexos enzimáticos à dieta sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte de ambos os sexos. Avaliaram-se cinco dietas: controle positivo - à base de milho e farelo de soja com farinha de carne e ossos, sem enzima; controle negativo - formulada com 3% menos de energia metabolizável; controle negativo + 0,05% do complexo A (xilanase, 600 U/g; amilase, 8.000 U/g; e protease, 800 U/g; controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B (α-amilase, 200 kNU/g; e β-glucanase, 350 FBG/g; e controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B + 0,01% da enzima C (xilanase, 1.000 FXU/g. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho das aves no período de 1 a 7 dias de idade. Na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, os machos consumiram mais ração e as dietas com o complexo B resultaram em maior ganho de peso. Os melhores resultados de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. No período total, o consumo de ração foi menor entre as aves (machos e fêmeas mantidas com a dieta controle positivo, enquanto o maior ganho de peso nos machos foi obtido com a dieta controle negativo contendo 0,04% do complexo B. Quanto à conversão alimentar, os machos apresentaram as melhores conversões com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre os rendimentos de carcaça, peito e gordura abdominal. Quando fornecidas dietas com redução de 3% da energia metabolizável, o uso dos complexos enzimáticos é efetivo na recuperação do desempenho das aves.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of enzymatic complexes on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from both sexes. Five diets were evaluated: positive control diet based on corn and soybean meal with meat and bone meal without enzyme; negative control diet formulated with 3% less of metabolizable energy; negative control + 0

  4. Plasticity regulators modulate specific root traits in discrete nitrogen environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam L Gifford

    Full Text Available Plant development is remarkably plastic but how precisely can the plant customize its form to specific environments? When the plant adjusts its development to different environments, related traits can change in a coordinated fashion, such that two traits co-vary across many genotypes. Alternatively, traits can vary independently, such that a change in one trait has little predictive value for the change in a second trait. To characterize such "tunability" in developmental plasticity, we carried out a detailed phenotypic characterization of complex root traits among 96 accessions of the model Arabidopsis thaliana in two nitrogen environments. The results revealed a surprising level of independence in the control of traits to environment - a highly tunable form of plasticity. We mapped genetic architecture of plasticity using genome-wide association studies and further used gene expression analysis to narrow down gene candidates in mapped regions. Mutants in genes implicated by association and expression analysis showed precise defects in the predicted traits in the predicted environment, corroborating the independent control of plasticity traits. The overall results suggest that there is a pool of genetic variability in plants that controls traits in specific environments, with opportunity to tune crop plants to a given environment.

  5. Ethanol production from corn, corn stover and corncob from the Jilin Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, E.; Thomsen, A.B. [Risoe National Lab., Biosystem Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Feng, L. [Jilin Light Industry Design and Reserch Inst., Changchun City (China)

    2005-06-01

    Among the available agricultural by-products, corn stover is far the most abundant lignocellulosic raw material for fuel ethanol production in China. More than 120 million tons of corn stover is produced annually, representing approximately 40 million tons of ethanol. In this study ethanol was produced from corn and alkaline wet oxidized (WO) corn stover and corncob followed by non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eight different combinations of reaction temperature and time were applied for wet oxidation of corn stover and corncob using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} as catalysts to find the best reaction conditions, resulting in both high glucose and ethanol yield. The best condition (200 deg. C, 8 min, 2g/L Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) increased the enzymatic conversion from cellulose to glucose of corn stover more then four times and resulted in 87% ethanol yield of theoretical, based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover. This was achieved with a substrate concentration of 6% (w/w) dry material at 20 FPU/g DM enzyme loading after 120 h of SSF. The pretreatment with NH{sub 3} at the same conditions resulted slightly lower cellulose conversion to glucose, but also gave promising ethanol yield (75%), demonstrated, that the baker's yeast still could adapt to the WO material and ferment the glucose content to ethanol efficiently. (au)

  6. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  7. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  8. Corn Heterotic Group and Model in Heilongjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; DONG Ling; YU Tianjiang; LI Yan; GUO Ran

    2009-01-01

    The concept and research achievements of the heterotic group and model in corn were introduced briefly. The results showed that the domestic corn germplasm could be divided into three main heterotic groups and two main heterotic models. The research on corn germplasm in Heilongjiang Province could be concluded as three main heterotic groups and three main heterotic models. Some new opinions about corn heterotic group and heterotic model in Heilongjiang Province were proposed such as Northeast group and NortheastxLancaster model.

  9. A method for sampling waste corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  10. Pretreatment of Corn Stalk by Steam Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵自强; 田永生; 谭惠民

    2003-01-01

    A steam explosion pretreatment, which is one of the best ways of pretreating plant stalk, is applied at various severities to corn stalk. It could effectively modify the super-molecular structure of corn stalk and defibrating corn stalk into individual components. The relationship between yield of reducing sugar and the operating conditions, including temperature, pressure of steam explosion pretreatment and acidity, is also established. Experimental results prove that the steam explosion substantially increases the yield of reducing sugar, and the optimal condition for steam explosion is as follows: the pressure is 2.0 MPa, the pressure-retaining time 300 s, the initial acid concentration 1% and the acid treatment time 24 h.

  11. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Rogelio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

  12. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-10-01

    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product.

  13. Search for Genetic Variants Underlying Musical Aptitude and Related Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Music perception and practice represents complex cognitive functions of the brain. There is an abundance of data about the neurophysiological effects of music on the human brain, but heritability and especially molecular studies have been lacking. The development of genome technologies and bioinformatics has enabled the identification of genetic variants underlying complex human traits. These methods can be applied to normal human traits like music perception and performance. Prior to th...

  14. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  15. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  16. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  17. Bacterial Diversity in Rhizospheres of Nontransgenic and Transgenic Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Min; Kremer, Robert J.; Peter P. Motavalli; Davis, Georgia

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in transgenic and nontransgenic corn rhizospheres was determined. In greenhouse and field studies, metabolic profiling and molecular analysis of 16S rRNAs differentiated bacterial communities among soil textures but not between corn varieties. We conclude that bacteria in corn rhizospheres are affected more by soil texture than by cultivation of transgenic varieties.

  18. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  19. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  20. High-yield Cultivation Techniques and Exploitation of Sweet Corn%甜玉米高产栽培技术和开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚赏; 郭书亚; 张艳; 汤其宁; 卢广远

    2014-01-01

    Sweet corn as a new vegetable and fruit food,already obtained the rapid development at home and abroad. The sweet corn had more polysaccharides,proteins and vitamins than normal corn contains,and had the good food taste,easy to digest and had high nutritional value. Sweet corn was developed using as the frozen food and processed into canned food,also as fresh corn for sale. Sweet corn had considerable economic benefits and wide market foreground. On the basis of quality traits and growth characteristics of sweet corn,and combined with the local production conditions,Systematically discussed and summarized the high yield cultivation techniques and the development and utilization of sweet corn.%由于甜玉米比普通玉米富含多糖、蛋白质及维生素,并且食用口感好、易于消化和营养价值极高,所以作为新兴蔬菜兼水果型食品,已经在国内外得到迅速发展。甜玉米的开发利用除作为速冻食品和加工成罐头食品外,也可以作为鲜食玉米出售。甜玉米具有较可观的经济效益和广阔的市场发展前景。该文介绍了甜玉米的品质性状、生育特点、高产栽培技术和开发利用。

  1. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  2. The nature and identification of quantitative trait loci : a community's view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abiola, O; Angel, JM; Avner, P; Bachmanov, AA; Belknap, JK; Bennett, B; Blankenhorn, EP; Blizard, DA; Bolivar, [No Value; Brockmann, GA; Buck, KJ; Bureau, JF; Casley, WL; Chesler, EJ; Cheverud, JM; Churchill, GA; Cook, M; Crabbe, JC; Crusio, WE; Darvasi, A; de Haan, G; Demant, P; Doerge, RW; Elliott, RW; Farber, CR; Flaherty, L; Flint, J; Gershenfeld, H; Gu, JPGJ; Gu, WK; Himmelbauer, H; Hitzemann, R; Hsu, HC; Hunter, K; Iraqi, FA; Jansen, RC; Johnson, TE; Jones, BC; Kempermann, G; Lammert, F; Lu, L; Manly, KF; Matthews, DB; Medrano, JF; Mehrabian, M; Mittleman, G; Mock, BA; Mogil, JS; Montagutelli, [No Value; Morahan, G; Mountz, JD; Nagase, H; Nowakowski, RS; O'Hara, BR; Osadchuk, AV; Paigen, B; Palmer, Abraham A.; Peirce, JL; Pomp, D; Rosemann, M; Rosen, GD; Schalkwyk, LC; Seltzer, Z; Settle, S; Shimomura, K; Shou, SM; Sikela, JM; Siracusa, LD; Spearow, JL; Teuscher, C; Threadgill, DW; Toth, LA; Toye, AA; Vadasz, C; Van Zant, G; Wakeland, E; Zhang, HG; Zou, F; Angel, Joe M.; Belknap, John K.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Bolivar, Valerie; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Buck, Kari J.; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Casley, William L.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Cheverud, James M.; Crabbe, John C.; Crusio, Wim E.; Elliott, Rosemary W.; Farber, Charles R.; Gibson, John P.; Gu, Jing; Gu, Weikuan; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Iraqi, Fuad A.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jones, Byron C.; Manly, Kenneth F.; Matthews, Douglas B.; Medrano, Juan F.; Mock, Beverly A.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Montagutelli, Xavier; Mountz, John D.; Nowakowski, Richard S.; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Osadchuk, Alexander V.; Peirce, Jeremy L.; Rosen, Glenn D.; Shou, Siming; Siracusa, Linda D.; Spearow, Jimmy L.; Threadgill, David W.; Toth, Linda A.; Williams, Robert W.; Zhang, Huang-Ge; Williams, O.

    2003-01-01

    This white paper by eighty members of the Complex Trait Consortium presents a community’s view on the approaches and statistical analyses that are needed for the identification of genetic loci that determine quantitative traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can be identified in several ways, but i

  3. Genome-wide association studies for Agronomical Traits in a world wide Spring Barley Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasam, R.K.; Sharma, R.; Malosetti, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Haseneyer, G.; Kilian, B.; Graner, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) provide a promising tool for the detection and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying complex agronomic traits. In this study we explored the genetic basis of variation for the traits heading dat

  4. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-11-05

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  5. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  6. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Meihls

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72% compared with control colonies (33%. For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest.

  7. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  8. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  9. An energy analysis of ethanol from cellulosic feedstock. Corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The shift from fossil resources to renewables for energy and materials production has been the driving force for research on energy analysis and environmental impact assessment of bio-based production. This study presents a detailed energy analysis of corn stover based ethanol production using advanced cellulosic technologies. The method used differs from that in LCA and from major studies on the subject as published in Science in two respects. First, it accounts for all the co-products together and so mainly avoids the allocation problems which plague all LCA studies explicitly and other studies implicitly. Second, the system boundaries only involve the content of the energy products used in the system but not the production processes of these energy products, like refining and electricity production. We normalized the six Science studies to this unified method. The resulting values of the total energy product use in both agricultural production and biomass conversion to ethanol are lower than these literature values. LCA-type of values including energy conversion would systematically be higher, in our case study around 45%. The net energy value of cellulosic ethanol production is substantially higher than the ones of the corn-based technologies, and it is similar to incineration and gasification for electricity production. The detailed analysis of energy inputs indicates opportunities to optimize the system. This form of energy analysis helps establishing models for the analysis of more complex systems such as biorefineries. (author)

  10. Impacts of climate change on corn yield and the length of corn growing season in U.S. Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, D.; Liu, X.; Takle, E. S.; Anderson, C.; Andresen, J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Gramig, B. M.; Doering, O.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a result of a USDA sponsored project titled Useful to Usable (U2U): "Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers". The objective of this project is to improve farm resilience and profitability in the U.S. Corn Belt region by transforming existing meteorological dataset into usable knowledge and tools for the agricultural community. In this study, we conducted the Hybrid-Maize corn growth simulation model at 18 sites across the U.S. Corn Belt with 5 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models. The crop model was running for two time periods: 1981-2010 ('current') and 2041-2070 ('future'). We also developed a "delta" method, which combines the current climate variability with the "mean" model projected climate change. The results indicate that under the 'future' climate, growing degree days (GDD) projected corn growing season (from planting date reach to maturity required GDD) are shortened due to the increasing of mean temperature. Compare to the contemporary simulations, the shorter growing season under "future" scenario brings lower attainable yields if farmers using the same cultivar. This presentation will focus on the details about the model simulations, the interactive process employed in developing the simulations, the implications of the results, the uncertainties, and the lessons learned.

  11. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allan G; Brockington, Samuel F; de Jager, Marinus L; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H; Glover, Beverley J

    2014-08-19

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations.

  12. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  13. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Leamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.

  14. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn.

  15. A mixed-model quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for multiple-environment trial data using environmental covariables for QTL-by-environment interactions, with an example in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Martin P; Wright, Deanne; Feng, Lizhi; Podlich, Dean W; Luo, Lang; Cooper, Mark; van Eeuwijk, Fred A

    2007-11-01

    Complex quantitative traits of plants as measured on collections of genotypes across multiple environments are the outcome of processes that depend in intricate ways on genotype and environment simultaneously. For a better understanding of the genetic architecture of such traits as observed across environments, genotype-by-environment interaction should be modeled with statistical models that use explicit information on genotypes and environments. The modeling approach we propose explains genotype-by-environment interaction by differential quantitative trait locus (QTL) expression in relation to environmental variables. We analyzed grain yield and grain moisture for an experimental data set composed of 976 F(5) maize testcross progenies evaluated across 12 environments in the U.S. corn belt during 1994 and 1995. The strategy we used was based on mixed models and started with a phenotypic analysis of multi-environment data, modeling genotype-by-environment interactions and associated genetic correlations between environments, while taking into account intraenvironmental error structures. The phenotypic mixed models were then extended to QTL models via the incorporation of marker information as genotypic covariables. A majority of the detected QTL showed significant QTL-by-environment interactions (QEI). The QEI were further analyzed by including environmental covariates into the mixed model. Most QEI could be understood as differential QTL expression conditional on longitude or year, both consequences of temperature differences during critical stages of the growth.

  16. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  17. An Economic Analysis of Corn-based Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A global multi-commodity simulation model was developed to estimate the impact of changes in ethanol production on the U.S. corn industry. Increased ethanol production under the Energy Acts of 2005 and 2007 resulted in a significant increase in the price of corn. However, for corn-based ethanol production, the break-even price of corn is approximately $4.52 per bushel with a federal subsidy of $0.51 per gallon of pure ethanol and $2.50 gasoline. With a corn price of $4.52, the economically de...

  18. The Response of Corn Acreage to Ethanol Plant Siting

    OpenAIRE

    Fatal, Yehushua S.; Thurman, Walter N.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. ethanol production capacity increased more than threefold between 2002 and 2008. We study the effect of this growth on corn acreage. Connecting annual changes in county-level corn acreage to changes in ethanol plant capacities, we find a positive effect on planted corn. The building of a typical plant is estimated to increase corn in the county by over 500 acres and to increase acreage in surrounding counties up to almost 300 miles away. All ethanol plants are estimated to increase corn ...

  19. Corn Stover Impacts on Near-Surface Soil Properties of No-Till Corn In Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.

    2006-01-06

    Corn stover is a primary biofuel feedstock and its expanded use could help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and net CO2 emissions. Excessive stover removal may, however, negatively impact near-surface soil properties within a short period after removal. We assessed changes in soil crust strength, bulk density, and water content over a 1-yr period following a systematic removal or addition of stover from three no-till soils under corn in Ohio.

  20. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic.

  1. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions.

  2. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  3. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  4. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  5. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L. var. subnigroviolaceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains and the cobs (cob in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%, called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bioactive compounds. The purple corn also provides significant amounts of starch, about 80% (complex carbohydrate, 10% of sugars provide sweetness, up to 11% protein, up to 2% minerals and B vitamins and ascorbic acid, concentrated in endosperm (grain free envelope. Also the nutritional value, the purple corn has a rich composition of phytochemicals, which have beneficial effects on our body, such as neutralize free radicals and act as antimutagenic. His review paper aimed to collect information on the studies undertaken to purple corn as an alternative to artificial food dyes and health benefits when included in the diet. Benefits such as cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, lowering cholesterol, fighting diabetes, being the most remarkable antioxidant action (wrinkle.

  6. The Effect of Different Levels of Minerals and Vitamins Premixes on Performance of Laying Hens fed by Wheat and Corn Base Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nobakht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of different levels of mineral and vitamin premixes with wheat and corn base diets on performance and egg traits of laying hens. Experiment carried out as 2*5 factorial include wheat and corn base diets and 5 levels of minerals and vitamin premixes (0, 0.25, 0.35, 0.45 and 0.55 percentage in a completely randomized design with 360 Hi-Line (W36 laying hens from 65 to 77 weeks in 10 treatments, 3 replicates and 12 hens in each replicate for 12 weeks. The results showed that diets composition, level of mineral and vitamin premixes, and interaction between them significantly affected the performance and egg traits of laying hens (P

  7. Effect of Row Circle Method and Variety of Hybrid Corn on Yield of Corn (Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Use Etica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn yield improved by genetic improving, plant population and fertilizer. The experiment aims to knowing the effect off row circle planting method and hybrid corn variety toward population and yield of corn. The experiment was conducted on August- November 2015 in Siman, Ponorogo, altitude 140 amsl and textured clay grumosol soil types. The experiment was a factorial experiment in a complete block randomized design with two factor and three replications. The first factor was hybrid corn varieties (Bisi-18, NK-7328, Pertiwi-3, and Pioneer-27. The second factor was row circle planting method (single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm; row circle planting method with interval planting of 60x100 cm and 100x50x50 cm. The result showed not significantly interaction between row circle planting method and hybrid corn varieties with respect to population total and corn yield. Row circle planting method with interval planting 100x50x50 cm increased plant population about 164.413 plants/ha and significantly different with single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm (62,881 plants/ha and row circle planting method with interval planting 60x100 cm (136,774 plants/ha. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly increased plant population. Pioneer-27 variety of hybrid corn produced weight of wet corn logs by 17,22 ton/Ha and significantly different with Bisi-18, NK-7328 and Pertiwi-3. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly affects to increasing produce of dry corn kernels. Variety of Pioneer-27 produced dry corn kernels 7,28 ton/ha and was not significantly different with varieties of Bisi-18, NK-7328, and Pertiwi-3. Variety of NK-7328 had percentage weight of wet corn logs into dry corn kernels as big as 55,38% bigger than varieties of Bisi-18, Pertiwi-3 and Pioneer-27.

  8. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  9. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  10. Performance of Fatty Liver Development in Response to Brown Rice and Corn-Based Diets in Overfed Landes Geese(Anser anser)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHOU Qi; HE Rui-guo; WANG Yu-lian; SUN Yun-zi; ZHOU Ying; YANG Zheng-mei; ZHANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    The effect of brown rice and corn-based diets on fatty liver weight, carcass traits, lipids accumulation and liver composition of Landes geese (Anser anser) after feeding the same amount of each diet was investigated. After 2 weeks overfeeding,besides body weight and body weight gain increased significantly, the fatty liver weights were increased dramatically from 94.67 to 554.67 and 754.00 g in corn treatment and rice treatment, respectively, and the accumulation lipids in adipose tissues reached up to or close to 2 folds of initial weight in both treatments. Liver weight was greater in brown rice group than in corn group(P<0.05). Compared to before overfeeding, triacylglycerols (TG) in geese fatty liver increased dramatically and predominated (from 9.08% to close to or more than 90% of hepatic lipids), whereas phospholipids (PL) and cholesteryl esters (CE) decreased sharply in both treatments (P<0.05). However, the percentages of lipids, TG and PL in fatty liver were higher in brown rice treatment than in corn treatment, and that of CE was lower (P<0.05). It indicates that overfeeding chiefly results in lipids accumulation in goose fatty liver and adipose tiss ues. Brown rice-based diet induces greater fatty liver, and brown rice is one of high quality overfeeding ingredients instead of corn.

  11. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corn must be planted to be considered fall, winter, or spring-planted sweet corn. Potential production... per acre if you have not produced the minimum amount of production of sweet corn contained in the... only able to harvest 5,627 containers of sweet corn. The net value of all sweet corn production...

  12. RISK AND RETURN TO IP GRAIN PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF HIGH OIL CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Todd D.; Gray, Allan W.; Dobbins, Craig L.

    2000-01-01

    Returns for soybeans, commodity corn and high oil corn under an export and domestic market buyer's-call contract were simulated. High oil corn is competitive with commodity corn when yield drag is two percent and bundling reduces seed cost. Commodity loan rate is important in reducing high oil corn price risk.

  13. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  14. Fomation of corn fiber gum-milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber arabinoxylan is hemicellulose B isolated from the fibrous portions (pericarp, tip cap, and endosperm cell wall fractions) of corn kernels and is commonly referred to as corn fiber gum (CFG). Our previous studies showed that CFG isolated from corn bran (a byproduct of corn dry milling) co...

  15. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Baby corn, green corn, and dry corn yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, milho verde e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato S Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In corn, when the first female inflorescence is removed, the plant often produces new female inflorescences. This allows the first ear to be harvested as baby corn (BC and the second as green corn (GC or dry corn (DC, that is, mature corn. The flexibility provided by a variety of harvested products allows the grower to compete with better conditions in the markets. We evaluated BC, GC, and DC yields in corn cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, and BRS 2020, after the first ear was harvested as BC. A random block design with ten replicates was utilized. The yields of MM, MV and MS were higher when these products were individually harvested than when they were harvested in combination with baby corn (BC + GC and BC + DC. Cultivar BRS 2020 was the best for producing BC exclusively, considering the number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and the number (NH of marketable husked ears. Considering weight (WH of BC marketable husked ears, cultivar AG 1051 was the best. Cultivars did not differ in baby corn yield when this product was harvested in combination with MS or MV, except with regard to NH and WH, with AG 1051 being superior. The cultivars did not differ between total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked green ears. However, cultivars AG 1051 and AG 2060 were the best with respect to marketable unhusked green ears and number and weight of marketable husked green ears. Cultivar AG 1051 was the best with regard to kernel yield.No milho, se a primeira inflorescência feminina é removida, existe frequentemente a produção de novas inflorescências femininas. Isso possibilita que a primeira espiga seja colhida como minimilho (MM e a segunda, como milho verde (MV, ou milho seco (MS, isto é, milho maduro. A flexibilidade proporcionada pela colheita de vários produtos permite ao agricultor competir melhor nos mercados. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de MM, MV e MS das cultivares AG 1051, AG 2060 e BRS 2020, ap

  17. Personality Traits and Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  18. Thalassaemia trait and pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The haematological variables, haematinic state, and placental function of more than 2000 pregnant women, heterozygous for either alpha- or beta-thalassaemia genes, were examined during pregnancy. Four features emerged. Firstly, it was possible by discriminant function analysis of haematological variables to distinguish in pregnant patients between the anaemia caused by thalassaemia trait and that caused by iron deficiency. Secondly, patients with thalassaemia become significantly more anaemic...

  19. Selection for resistance to mCry3A-expressing transgenic corn in western corn rootworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Ellersieck, Mark; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the development of resistance to mCry3A, a laboratory colony of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was established from field survivors of mCry3A-expressing (MIR604) corn, Zea mays L. Feral adults emerging from MIR604 (selected) and isoline (control) field plots were collected and returned to the laboratory. Progeny of each colony was reared one generation on isoline corn and then crossed reciprocally with a nondiapausing colony. The resulting nondiapausing progeny were then reared on greenhouse corn in accordance with the wild type parent's origin (on MIR604 or isoline corn). After four, seven, and 10 total generations of selection, the resistance ratio of the selected colony was 0.5, 4.3, and 15.4 in terms of lethal concentration (LC)50 values in toxicity assays, with the latter two LC50 values being significant. After seven generations of selection in total, selected and control colonies were screened on MIR604 and isoline corn under field conditions. There was a significant colony x corn pedigree interaction in terms of plant damage. There was no significant difference in damage between MIR604 and isoline corn, whereas this difference was significant for the control colony. After 14 generations of selection, a seedling bioassay was performed. Again, there was a significant colony x corn pedigree interaction, this time in terms of the number of larvae recovered. There was no significant difference in the number of larvae recovered from MIR604 and isoline corn for the selected colony, whereas this difference was significant for the control colony, although larval size was greater on isoline corn for both colonies. Resistance has developed in western corn rootworm laboratory colonies to all Bt proteins currently registered for corn rootworm management, which emphasizes the importance of adhering to resistance management plans for maintaining product efficacy.

  20. Quantitative traits and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzJohn, Richard G

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative traits have long been hypothesized to affect speciation and extinction rates. For example, smaller body size or increased specialization may be associated with increased rates of diversification. Here, I present a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (quantitative state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]) that can be used to test such hypotheses using extant character distributions. This approach assumes that diversification follows a birth-death process where speciation and extinction rates may vary with one or more traits that evolve under a diffusion model. Speciation and extinction rates may be arbitrary functions of the character state, allowing much flexibility in testing models of trait-dependent diversification. I test the approach using simulated phylogenies and show that a known relationship between speciation and a quantitative character could be recovered in up to 80% of the cases on large trees (500 species). Consistent with other approaches, detecting shifts in diversification due to differences in extinction rates was harder than when due to differences in speciation rates. Finally, I demonstrate the application of QuaSSE to investigate the correlation between body size and diversification in primates, concluding that clade-specific differences in diversification may be more important than size-dependent diversification in shaping the patterns of diversity within this group.

  1. Neural basis of interpersonal traits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2009-11-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas.

  2. Possibilities of utilization of co-products from corn grain ethanol and starch production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the expansion of alternative fuels production from crops traditionally used for food and animal feed has led to significant changes in the field of energy production, agriculture and food industry. Starch and sugar feedstocks for ethanol production (corn, wheat, sugar beet, sugar cane, etc. require increasing arable land to meet market demands for the biofuel production. Although intensive studies are being carried out in order to identify improved and more cost-effective methods for the utilization of lignocellulosic and communal waste in the production of alcohol fuel, the possibility of using dry distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS, by-product of bioethanol production from corn and wheat as well as alcoholic beverages industry, is now in focus. Application of DDGS in livestock and poultry diets in concentrations greater than traditional could positively affect the economic viability of this biofuel production, but also stabilize the current imbalance in the food and animal feed market. However, DDGS feedstuff should not be treated as a perfect substitute for corn because the complexity of ration formulation determined at the farm or feedlot level is driven by energy and protein and other nutrient requirements, as well as their relative costs in the ration. Nevertheless, processing of corn by wet milling provides a multitude of co-products suitable for feedstuffs, food industry, pharmaceuticals, chemistry etc. Some of the most important wet milling co-products that have their use in feedstuffs are corn gluten feed and corn gluten meal. The use of DDGS as a substitute for traditional feed could prevent indirect land-use changes associated with biofuel production, and therefore preserve the environmental destruction by saving the forests and permanent pastures. The use of distiller’s grains can be beneficial to biofuel growth as this is an additional, the second largest, source of income accounting of 10-20% total

  3. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel; van Rossum, Guus; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when compared to dried distillers grains (DDG), the main by-product of corn ethanol. Fast pyrolysis is an alternative thermal conversion technology for processing biomass. It has recently been optimized to produce a stream rich in levoglucosan, a fermentable glucose precursor for biofuel production. Additional product streams might be of value to the petrochemical industry. However, biomass heterogeneity is known to impact the composition of pyrolytic product streams, as a complex mixture of aromatic compounds is recovered with the sugars, interfering with subsequent fermentation. The present study investigates the feasibility of fast pyrolysis to produce fermentable pyrolytic glucose from two abundant lignocellulosic biomass sources in Ontario, switchgrass (potential energy crop) and corn cobs (by-product of corn industry). Demineralization of biomass removes catalytic centers and increases the levoglucosan yield during pyrolysis. The ash content of biomass was significantly decreased by 82-90% in corn cobs when demineralized with acetic or nitric acid, respectively. In switchgrass, a reduction of only 50% for both acids could be achieved. Conversely, levoglucosan production increased 9- and 14-fold in corn cobs when rinsed with acetic and nitric acid, respectively, and increased 11-fold in switchgrass regardless of the acid used. After pyrolysis, different configurations for upgrading the pyrolytic sugars were assessed and the presence of potentially inhibitory compounds was approximated at each step as double integral of the UV spectrum signal of an HPLC assay. The results showed that water extraction followed by acid hydrolysis and solvent extraction was the best upgrading strategy

  4. Fungal infections in corn picker hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Tomašev Milana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hand injuries caused by corn pickers are relatively rare but in most cases extensive, with massive tissue destruction. Severe wounds sustained during agricultural work are contaminated, with high incidence of infection. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of fungal infection in corn picker injuries and their impact on the course and outcome of treatment. Methods. Corn picker hand injuries for the period 2006-2012 were analyzed. After setting up clinical suspicion, direct examination of repeated swabs and histopathological analysis of biopsy material were done in order to detect fungi. Results. From the total number of 60 patients, there was a fungal infection in nine of them (which makes 15% of the total number of patients. Aspergillus spp. was isolated in seven patients, Candida spp. in three, and Mucor spp. in one patient. None of the patients had increased risk factors for developing a fungal infection. In most cases, there was loss of graft and tissue necrosis in previously normally looking wound, after seven or more days. All patients were treated with repeated surgical debridement and concomitant parenteral and topical application of appropriate antifungal agents. There was no need for reamputation in any patient. Conclusion. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are needed for early diagnosis of fungal infection. Confirmation of diagnosis and the initiation of surgical and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for a successful outcome.

  5. Calcium Transport by Corn Mitochondria 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marco Aurelio P.; Carnieri, Eva G. S.; Vercesi, Anibal E.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondria from some plant tissues possess the ability to take up Ca2+ by a phosphate-dependent mechanism associated with a decrease in membrane potential, H+ extrusion, and increase in the rate of respiration (AE Vercesi, L Pereira da Silva, IS Martins, CF Bernardes, EGS Carnieri, MM Fagian [1989] In G Fiskum, ed, Cell Calcium Metabolism. Plenum Press, New York, pp 103-111). The present study reexamined the nature of the phosphate requirement in this process. The main observations are: (a) Respiration-coupled Ca2+ uptake by isolated corn (Zea mays var Maya Normal) mitochondria or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone-induced efflux of the cation from such mitochondria are sensitive to mersalyl and cannot be dissociated from the silmultaneous movement of phosphate in the same direction. (b) Ruthenium red-induced efflux is not affected by mersalyl and can occur in the absence of phosphate movement. (c) In Ca2+-loaded corn mitochondria, mersalyl causes net Ca2+ release unrelated to a decrease in membrane potential, probably due to an inhibition of Ca2+ cycling at the level of the influx pathway. It is concluded that corn mitochondria (and probably other plant mitochondria) do possess an electrophoretic influx pathway that appears to be a mersalyl-sensitive Ca2+/inorganic phosphate-symporter and a phosphate-independent efflux pathway possibly similar to the Na2+-independent Ca2+ efflux mechanism of vertebrate mitochondria, because it is not stimulated by Na+. PMID:16668661

  6. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  7. Research and simulation on the rollover system of corn harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristics of our country's corn harvester are narrow-track, high centroid and existence of eccentric distance, so rollover accident is easily to occur when driving in mountainous and hilly regions. In order to improve the design quality of corn harvester and enhance the security of operation, it is of great significance to research the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester. Hydro-pneumatic suspension has powerful function of adjusting the balance of automobile body and good shock absorption function. In this paper, hydro-pneumatic suspension is applied to the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester to improve the ability of anti-rollover. At last using ADAMS simulation technology to simulate the roll stability of traditional corn harvester and the corn harvester with hydro pneumatic suspension, then calculating the heeling angle in both cases.

  8. Contributions to an animal trait ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, B; Smits, M A; te Pas, M F W; Woelders, H

    2012-06-01

    Improved understanding of the biology of traits of livestock species necessitates the use and combination of information that is stored in a variety of different sources such as databases and literature. The ability to effectively combine information from different sources, however, depends on a high level of standardization within and between various resources, at least with respect to the used terminology. Ontologies represent a set of concepts that facilitate standardization of terminology within specific domains of interest. The biological mechanisms underlying quantitative traits of farm animal species related to reproduction and host pathogen interactions are complex and not well understood. This knowledge could be improved through the availability of domain-specific ontologies that provide enhanced possibilities for data annotation, data retrieval, data integration, data exchange, data analysis, and ontology-based searches. Here we describe a framework for domain-specific ontologies and the development of 2 first-generation ontologies: Reproductive Trait and Phenotype Ontology (REPO) and Host Pathogen Interactions Ontology . In these first-generation ontologies, we focused on "female fertility in cattle" and "interactions between pigs and Salmonella". Through this, we contribute to the global initiative toward the development of an Animal Trait Ontology for livestock species. To demonstrate its usefulness, we show how REPO can be used to select candidate genes for fertility.

  9. Study on flaking of wet corn by heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingming; WANG Defu

    2007-01-01

    Flaking on high-moisture corn (wet corn) by hot-air heating was studied in the paper. The wet-heating approach was beneficial to improve corn gelatinization by experimental results. By the experiments, a set of optimal parameters was obtained: hot-air temperature 120-130 ℃, heating duration 70 min, gap between rollers 0.5-1.0 mm, 150-200 r·min-1 for rotational speed of rollers.

  10. The interplay of trait worry and trait anxiety in determining episodic retrieval: The role of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajkossy, Péter; Keresztes, Attila; Racsmány, Mihály

    2017-11-01

    Worrying is a key concept in describing the complex relationship between anxiety and cognitive control. On the one hand, cognitive control processes might underlie the specific tendency to engage in worrying (i.e., trait worry), conceptualized as a future-oriented mental problem-solving activity. On the other hand, the general tendency to experience the signs and symptoms of anxiety (i.e., trait anxiety) is suggested to impair cognitive control because worrisome thoughts interfere with task-relevant processing. Based on these opposing tendencies, we predicted that the effect of the two related constructs, trait anxiety and trait worry, might cancel out one another. In statistics, such instances have been termed suppressor situations. In four experiments, we found evidence for such a suppressor situation: When their shared variance was controlled, trait worry was positively whereas trait anxiety was negatively related to performance in a memory task requiring strategic, effortful retrieval. We also showed that these opposing effects are related to temporal context reinstatement. Our results suggest that trait worry and trait anxiety possess unique sources of variance, which differently relate to performance in memory tasks requiring cognitive control.

  11. Quantifying hummingbird preference for floral trait combinations: The role of selection on trait interactions in the evolution of pollination syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Charles B; Reynolds, Richard J; Williams, Christopher W; Makowsky, Robert; Dudash, Michele R

    2015-05-01

    Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multitrait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three related North American species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). We artificially generated 48 plant phenotypes corresponding to all combinations of key attractive traits differing among the three Silene species (color, height, inflorescence architecture, flower orientation, and corolla-tube width). We quantified main and interaction effects of trait manipulation on hummingbird visitation preference using experimental arrays. The main effects of floral display height and floral orientation strongly influenced hummingbird visitation, with hummingbirds preferring flowers held high above the ground and vertically to the sky. Hummingbirds also prefer traits in a nonadditive manner as multiple two-way and higher order interaction effects were important predictors of hummingbird visitation. Contemporary trait combinations found in hummingbird pollinated S. virginica are mostly preferred. Our study demonstrates the likelihood of pollination syndromes evolving due to selection on trait combinations and highlights the importance of trait interactions in understanding the evolution of complex adaptations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  13. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorous Biofertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Corn AS71 in Dareh-shahr, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fathi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizers are inputs that naturally supplement replace chemical fertilizers and they are recommended in sustainable agriculture. To study the effects of biological fertilizers on yield and yield components of corn, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications were conducted at Dareh-shahr, Iran in 2010. Biological factors were 4 levels of nitrogen biofertilizers (nitroxin, nitrokara, supernitroplus and control and 4 levels of phosphorus biofertilizers (biophosphore, phosphate fertilized 2, MC1 and control. Results showed that biological nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers had significant effects on all traits under study. Interaction of nitrogen biological fertilizer × phosphate biological fertilizer was significant on 100 seed weight (P

  14. POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI FROM NORTHERN AND MEXICAN CORN ROOTWORMS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) AND CROSS-AMPLIFICATION WITH OTHER DIABROTICA SPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...

  15. Modernizing the handling of ear corn. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleptz, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of the project was to modernize the handling of ear corn. The corn was picked with a three row JD 300 picker pulled by a tractor. Pulled behind the picker was a side dump wagon with a capacity of 150 bushels of ear corn. When the dump wagon was full, a grain truck was driven along side of the wagon and the dump wagon, controlled by the tractor driver, was emptied into the truck. After two dumps of the wagon, the truck was driven to the storage area. The storage area consisted of ten (ten) 2000 bushel corn cribs set in a semi circle so that the elevator that filled the cribs could be moved from one crib to the next without changing the fill point. At the storage area, the truck full of corn was dumped into the platform feeder. By using a platform feeder to feed the elevator, all ten (10) cribs could be filled without moving it. After the harvest was complete, the corn remains in the cribs until needed for feed or until the corn is sold. During the time that the corn remains in the cribs, the turbine ventilator draws air through the corn and dries it.

  16. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  17. The analysis of association between traits when differences between trait States matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf

    2011-12-01

    Because of their elementary significance in almost all fields of science, measures of association between two variables or traits are abundant and multiform. One aspect of association that is of considerable interest, especially in population genetics and ecology, seems to be widely ignored. This aspect concerns association between complex traits that show variable and arbitrarily defined state differences. Among such traits are genetic characters controlled by many and potentially polyploid loci, species characteristics, and environmental variables, all of which may be mutually and asymmetrically associated. A concept of directed association of one trait with another is developed here that relies solely on difference measures between the states of a trait. Associations are considered at three levels: between individual states of two variables, between an individual state of one variable and the totality of the other variable, and between two variables. Relations to known concepts of association are identified. In particular, measures at the latter two levels turn out to be interpretable as measures of differentiation. Examples are given for areas of application (search for functional relationships, distribution of variation over populations, genomic associations, spatiogenetic structure).

  18. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (Pglycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  19. The Response of Grain Corn Genotypes to Drought and Determination of rought Tolerance Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Golbashy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit is one of the most common constraints to crop productivity in the world and Iran. In order to study effect of drought stress on morphologic traits, yield and yield components of 34 hybrids of corn, an experiment was carried out based of complete randomized block design with three replication under F.C. irrigation and drought stress in Khorasan Razavi Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Institute mashhad,Iran on 2010. Results of analysis of variance showed that in both conditions there are significant different between all hybrids for all traits. In this experiment drought tolerance indices as TOL, MP, GMP, SSI, STI, HARM and also Golden Mean (new index were calculated. Results of hybrid means comparison showed that in F.C. Irrigation condition S.C500 hybrid and in stress condition N.11 hybrid was better than others in yield trait (13/79 and 5/69, respectively. It seems that Harm, STI, MP and GMP indices have a similar ability to separate drought sensitive and tolerant genotypes. According to cluster analysis (UPGMA method based on stress tolerance and susceptibility indices and grain yield in both F.C. and stress conditions, hybrids were classified in three groups with low intra- and high extra-group similarities. In conclusion, it can be suggested that H11 and SC250 hybrids should be recommended in Mashhad Plain.

  20. Chemical Changes during Maize Tissue Aging and its Relationship with the Mediterranean Corn Borer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Malvar, Ana; Ordas, Bernardo; Souto, Carlos; Encina, Antonio; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Santiago, Rogelio

    2017-10-02

    Mediterranean Corn Borer (MCB), Sesamia nonagrioides Lef, is an important pest of maize in temperate areas causing significant stalk lodging and yield losses. The main focus of the current study were to determine possible changes in chemical traits (phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, sugars, fibers, and lignin) during plant development after the flowering stage, and to assess how those traits may differ in diverse genotypes of maize, MCB resistant and susceptible respectively. Higher values for some particular traits in more mature tissues seemed to increase their effectiveness against the MCB attack. A reduced amount of borer damage in the field was recorded in the resistant inbred line and in older tissues (7.90 cm vs. 31.70 cm as mean for stalk tunnel length). In accordance with these results, the resistant inbred line showed higher hemicellulose cross-linkage (due to ferulic and diferulic acids), soluble sugars content, and higher stalk strength. The use of resistant varieties and early sowings is highly recommended as an integrated approach in order to reduce the yield losses produced by this pest.

  1. Evaluation of Forage Yield and Important Agronomic Indices of Corn Affected by Intercropping Systems with Peanut and Nitrogen Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nabati nasaz

    2016-07-01

    :1, 1:2 and 2:2 on alternative furrows as sub plot, comprised the experimental factors. Results and discussion The results of this experiment showed that the effects of nitrogen were significant for all measured characteristics except the leaf number, leaf length and wide. Also, the effects of intercropping were significant for all study traits except the ear diameter, leaf number, leaf length and wide. In addition, the interaction effects of the nitrogen × intercropping system were significant for peanut seed yield, corn forage yield, stem weight, stem diameter, ear diameter, leaf length and land equivalent ratio. The results of this experiment showed that the application of 300 kg nitrogen per hectare obtained the highest corn forage yield under (C6 intercropping system. At the same condition, no significant difference was observed for corn forage yield between (C4 and (C6 intercropping systems. The interaction between 100 kg N/ha × C5 intercropping system at the ratio of 1:2 showed the greatest peanut seed yield. Peanut seed yield decreased by increasing the nitrogen application rate. However, based on this experiment results, application of 300 kg nitrogen per hectare increased total production of both corn and peanut and land equivalent ratio (LER= 1.51 under (C3 intercropping system. The land equivalent ratio (LER under 100 and 300 kg per hectare and intercropping system of corn with peanut (C4 by the ratio of 2:1 was 1.42 and 1.39, respectively. There was no significant difference between the land equivalent ratio (LER under above mentioned conditions. The results showed that maize-peanut intercropping increased corn forage yield compared to peanut seed yield. Hence, increment of land equivalent ratio (LER related to corn forage yield more than seed yield of peanut. Conclusion In general, results showed that maize-peanut intercropping could be profitable due to use of the available resources. Maize-peanut intercropping system can decrease yield loss caused by

  2. Fractal kinetic analysis of the enzymatic saccharification of CO2 laser pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Ma, Sen; Wang, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Zheng-Nan

    2013-10-15

    The enzymatic hydrolyses of laser pretreated corn stover as a novel pretreatment method were examined to establish a simplified kinetic model for the complicated hydrolysis process. The time dependence of the total reducing sugars amount was closely related to the amounts of cellulosic materials and amounts of cellulase. The evaluated model fitted very well with the experimental data of enzymatic hydrolysis of laser pretreated corn stover under different conditions, including cellulase loading, nature of substrate, substrate loading in the reaction medium. The results indicated that the complex kinetics of cellulase enzymatic saccharification could be assessed with the fractal kinetic model. The cellulase enzymatic reaction process was effectively predicted and controlled with the kinetic model. The result showed that the model could effectively reflect dynamic process of enzyme hydrolysis.

  3. Effects of laccase on lignin depolymerization and enzymatic hydrolysis of ensiled corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Marshall, Megan N; Geib, Scott M; Tien, Ming; Richard, Tom L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the synergies of laccase, a ligninolytic enzyme, with cellulose and hemicellulase amendments on ensiled corn stover. Molecular signals of lignin decomposition were observed by tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (TMAH-GC-MS) analysis. The significant findings suggest that ensilage might provide a platform for biological pretreatment. By partially hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicellulose into soluble sugars, ensilage facilitates laccase penetration into the lignocellulose complex to enhance lignin degradation. Downstream cellulose hydrolysis was improved 7% with increasing laccase loading rate. These results demonstrate the potential of enzymes, either directly amended or expressed by microbes during ensilage, to maximize utilization of corn stover for cellulosic biofuels and other downstream fermentations. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Personality Traits and Social Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    During many decades, sociologists have downplayed the role that personality traits play in shaping individual’s lives. However, recent studies, mostly in economics, have shown the influence of these traits on a several educational and occupational outcomes. This thesis is an attempt to shed more light on this topic. By using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, it first investigates how the Big Five personality traits affect two important labor market outcomes: unemployment...

  5. A single major QTL controls expression of larval Cry1F resistance trait in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and is independent of midgut receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Brad S; Sumerford, Douglas V; Lopez, Miriam D; Wang, Haichuan; Fraser, Lisa M; Kroemer, Jeremy A; Spencer, Terrence; Kim, Kyung S; Abel, Craig A; Hellmich, Richard L; Siegfried, Blair D

    2011-08-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an introduced crop pest in North America that causes major damage to corn and reduces yield of food, feed, and biofuel materials. The Cry1F toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic hybrid corn is highly toxic to O. nubilalis larvae and effective in minimizing feeding damage. A laboratory colony of O. nubilalis was selected for high levels of Cry1F resistance (>12,000-fold compared to susceptible larvae) and is capable of survival on transgenic hybrid corn. Genetic linkage maps with segregating AFLP markers show that the Cry1F resistance trait is controlled by a single quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group 12. The map position of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers indicated that midgut Bt toxin-receptor genes, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N, and cadherin, are not linked with the Cry1F QTL. Evidence suggests that genes within this genome interval may give rise to a novel Bt toxin resistance trait for Lepidoptera that appears independent of known receptor-based mechanisms of resistance.

  6. Rapid corn and soybean mapping in US Corn Belt and neighboring areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Yu, Le; Li, Xuecao; Hu, Lina; Gong, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to promptly map the extent of corn and soybeans early in the growing season. A classification experiment was conducted for the US Corn Belt and neighboring states, which is the most important production area of corn and soybeans in the world. To improve the timeliness of the classification algorithm, training was completely based on reference data and images from other years, circumventing the need to finish reference data collection in the current season. To account for interannual variability in crop development in the cross-year classification scenario, several innovative strategies were used. A random forest classifier was used in all tests, and MODIS surface reflectance products from the years 2008–2014 were used for training and cross-year validation. It is concluded that the fuzzy classification approach is necessary to achieve satisfactory results with R-squared ~0.9 (compared with the USDA Cropland Data Layer). The year of training data is an important factor, and it is recommended to select a year with similar crop phenology as the mapping year. With this phenology-based and cross-year-training method, in 2015 we mapped the cropping proportion of corn and soybeans around mid-August, when the two crops just reached peak growth.

  7. Implications of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, infestation in an Aspergillus flavus-biocontrolled corn agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Mariangela; Accinelli, Cesare; Vicari, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    A novel biocontrol strategy consisting of field application of bioplastic-based granules inoculated with a non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus L. strain has recently been shown to be effective for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study focused on other factors that may affect the feasibility of this biocontrol technique, and more specifically the role of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis H., in the dispersal and infestation of A. flavus in corn and its impact on crop yield. In spite of the high percentage of corn ears showing larval feeding damage, ECB-bored kernels accounted for only 3 and 4% in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Most of the damaged kernels were localised in the ear tip or immediately below. More precisely, the average incidence of ECB-bored kernels in the upper end of the ear was 32%. However, less than 5% of kernels from the central body of the ear, which includes the majority of kernels, were injured by ECB. Although ECB larvae showed a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 and thus had the potential to serve as vectors of the mould, fungal infection of kernels was poorly associated with insect damage. ECB infestation resulted in grain yield losses not exceeding 2.5%. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development.

  9. 转基因抗虫耐除草剂(Cry1Ac+EPSPS)玉米对草甘膦耐受性研究%Tolerance of transgenic and herbicide-and insect-resistant corn to glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江帆; 刘凯强; 张天涛; 白树雄; 王振营; 何康来

    2016-01-01

    Insect-resistant cry 1Ac gene and glyphosate-tolerant gene were used to construct an insect-resistant/glyphosate-tolerant bivalent plant which had been patented.It effectively improved complex traits in corn.This study mainly evaluated the tolerance of insect-resistant/glyphosate-tolerant bivalent corn and glyphosate-tolerant corn to glyphosate,and measured the quantity of Cry1Ac and CP4 EPSPS protein expressed in corn tissues,in or-der to provide the basis for the improvement and application of the maize varieties.Insect-resistant/glyphosate-tolerant bivalent corn ‘CC-2×BT799’,insect-resistant corn ‘BT799’,herbicide-resistant corn ‘CC-2’,and con-ventional corn ‘Zheng 58’were compared by investigating the survival rates and heights of plants after spraying herbicides.Cry1Ac and CP4 EPSPS protein expression was measured by ELISA.‘CC-2’and ‘CC-2×BT799’per-formed excellent tolerance to glyphosate after spraying glyphosate with recommended and double recommended rates at the whorl stage.ELISA detection showed that CP4 EPSPS protein expression in the tassel was slightly higher than in leaves.CP4 EPSPS protein expression in ‘CC-2 ×BT799’was slightly higher than in ‘CC-2’. Cry1Ac protein expression in BT799 and ‘CC-2×BT799’was nearly the same in the tassel.However,Cry1Ac protein expression in BT799 leaves was about 2 times of that in ‘CC-2×BT799’.Insect-resistant/glyphosate-tolerant corn showed strong resistance to glyphosate.Cry1Ac protein expression varied among the corn varieties and tissues.%将具有我国自主知识产权的抗虫、耐除草剂基因转化到玉米中获得兼具抗虫和耐除草剂的复合性状转基因玉米,实现了玉米复杂性状的有效改良,研究了转耐除草剂 CC-2基因和可表达 Bt 毒素的 cry1Ac 基因的双抗玉米对除草剂的耐受性及目标蛋白表达量。通过调查喷施除草剂后玉米植株存活率及株高和生长发育情况,研究了转抗虫

  10. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location.

  11. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  12. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  13. Mycoflora And Mycotoxins Of Corned Beef

    OpenAIRE

    El Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed [سعد شحاتة محمد المراغي; Zohri, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty species and 5 varieties belonging to 21 genera of fungi were collected from 20 corned beef samples . The average total counts of fungi ranged from 56 -236,47-275 and 39-202 colonies /g on glucose - 10% NAC1 - glucose - and 15% NAC1 - glucose - Czapek's agar media , respectively . Aspergillus niger, A. flavus , and Pencillium chrysogenum were the most common species on the three tested media . A. fumigatus and A. sydowii were common on glucose -Czapek's medium only while A. speluneus and...

  14. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  15. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  16. Winter cover crops impact on corn production in semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the impact of winter brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...

  17. Evidence for fumonisin-corn matrix binding during nixtamalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticilliodes. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Nixtamalization (cooking in alkaline water) reduces detectable fumonisins; however, their concentrations in foods can be underestimated if fumonisin-matrix binding occurs. The purpose of this ...

  18. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was not used in the exp

  19. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  20. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  1. Nitrogen fertilization affects corn cellulosic biomass and ethanol yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research results on the effects of N management on corn (Zea mays L.) grain production in high-yielding cropping systems are widely available, but information on its effects on cellulosic ethanol potential from corn stover and cobs is limited. Stover and cob biomass and respective ethanol yields all...

  2. Bayesian linkage analysis of categorical traits for arbitrary pedigree designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abra Brisbin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pedigree studies of complex heritable diseases often feature nominal or ordinal phenotypic measurements and missing genetic marker or phenotype data. METHODOLOGY: We have developed a Bayesian method for Linkage analysis of Ordinal and Categorical traits (LOCate that can analyze complex genealogical structure for family groups and incorporate missing data. LOCate uses a Gibbs sampling approach to assess linkage, incorporating a simulated tempering algorithm for fast mixing. While our treatment is Bayesian, we develop a LOD (log of odds score estimator for assessing linkage from Gibbs sampling that is highly accurate for simulated data. LOCate is applicable to linkage analysis for ordinal or nominal traits, a versatility which we demonstrate by analyzing simulated data with a nominal trait, on which LOCate outperforms LOT, an existing method which is designed for ordinal traits. We additionally demonstrate our method's versatility by analyzing a candidate locus (D2S1788 for panic disorder in humans, in a dataset with a large amount of missing data, which LOT was unable to handle. CONCLUSION: LOCate's accuracy and applicability to both ordinal and nominal traits will prove useful to researchers interested in mapping loci for categorical traits.

  3. Uncovering the genetic landscape for multiple sleep-wake traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Winrow

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research in defining sleep-wake properties in mammals, little is known about the nature or identity of genes that regulate sleep, a fundamental behaviour that in humans occupies about one-third of the entire lifespan. While genome-wide association studies in humans and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses in mice have identified candidate genes for an increasing number of complex traits and genetic diseases, the resources and time-consuming process necessary for obtaining detailed quantitative data have made sleep seemingly intractable to similar large-scale genomic approaches. Here we describe analysis of 20 sleep-wake traits from 269 mice from a genetically segregating population that reveals 52 significant QTL representing a minimum of 20 genomic loci. While many (28 QTL affected a particular sleep-wake trait (e.g., amount of wake across the full 24-hr day, other loci only affected a trait in the light or dark period while some loci had opposite effects on the trait during the light vs. dark. Analysis of a dataset for multiple sleep-wake traits led to previously undetected interactions (including the differential genetic control of number and duration of REM bouts, as well as possible shared genetic regulatory mechanisms for seemingly different unrelated sleep-wake traits (e.g., number of arousals and REM latency. Construction of a Bayesian network for sleep-wake traits and loci led to the identification of sub-networks of linkage not detectable in smaller data sets or limited single-trait analyses. For example, the network analyses revealed a novel chain of causal relationships between the chromosome 17@29cM QTL, total amount of wake, and duration of wake bouts in both light and dark periods that implies a mechanism whereby overall sleep need, mediated by this locus, in turn determines the length of each wake bout. Taken together, the present results reveal a complex genetic landscape underlying multiple sleep-wake traits

  4. Seasonal succession in zooplankton feeding traits reveals trophic trait coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenitz, Kasia; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    succession and shows how the physical environment controls the vertical structure of plankton communities, where ambush feeders exhibit a preference for greater depths during summer. We characterize the seasonal succession as trophic trait coupling and conjecture that this coupling leads to a trophic trait......The seasonal forcing of pelagic communities invokes a succession of the dominant phytoplankton and zooplankton species. Here, we characterize the seasonal succession of the plankton traits and their interactions using observations and model simulations of the plankton community in the western...... English Channel. We focus on activity traits that characterize the defensive and feeding abilities of zooplankton and distinguish between low risk, low return ambush feeders and high risk, high return feeding-current feeders. While the phytoplankton succession depends on traits related to nutrient...

  5. Hydrolyzabilities of different corn stover fractions after aqueous ammonia pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongping; Ge, Xiaoyan; Xin, Donglin; Zhang, Junhua

    2014-02-01

    The effect of aqueous ammonia pretreatment on the hydrolysis of different corn stover fractions (rind, husk, leaf, and pith) by xylanase (XYL) with cellulases (CELs) was evaluated. The aqueous ammonia pretreatment had excellent delignification ability (above 66%) for different corn stover fractions. The corn rind exhibited the lowest susceptibility to aqueous ammonia pretreatment. The pretreated rind showed the lowest hydrolyzability by CEL and XYL, which was supported by a high content of crystalline cellulose in the hydrolyzed residues of rind, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). With the addition of 1 mg XYL/g dry matter, a high glucose yield (above 90%) could be obtained from the pretreated rind by CEL. The results revealed that a high hydrolyzate yield of corn rind after aqueous ammonia pretreatment could be obtained with 1 mg xylanase/g dry matter, showing that aqueous ammonia pretreatment and xylanase addition to cellulases have great potential for the efficient hydrolysis of corn stover without previous fractionation.

  6. Animal models of suicide-trait-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkesman, Oz; Pine, Daniel S; Tragon, Tyson; Austin, Daniel R; Henter, Ioline D; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-04-01

    Although antidepressants are moderately effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), concerns have arisen that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children, adolescents and young adults. Almost no experimental research in model systems has considered the mechanisms by which SSRIs might be associated with this potential side effect in some susceptible individuals. Suicide is a complex behavior and impossible to fully reproduce in an animal model. However, by investigating traits that show strong cross-species parallels in addition to associations with suicide in humans, animal models might elucidate the mechanisms by which SSRIs are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior. Traits linked with suicide in humans that can be successfully modeled in rodents include aggression, impulsivity, irritability and hopelessness/helplessness. Modeling these relevant traits in animals can help to clarify the impact of SSRIs on these traits, suggesting avenues for reducing suicide risk in this vulnerable population.

  7. Modeling Long Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Crop Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Alejandra Puntel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L. can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L. yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha-1 applied to corn. Our objectives were to: a quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; b compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and c utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the model simultaneously simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration, which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the model. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration. For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-yr mean differences in EONR’s were within the historical N rate error range (40 to 50 kg N ha-1. However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. Model analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching with precipitation. We concluded that long term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The model can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the model can add

  8. Modeling Long-Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Crop Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntel, Laila A; Sawyer, John E; Barker, Daniel W; Dietzel, Ranae; Poffenbarger, Hanna; Castellano, Michael J; Moore, Kenneth J; Thorburn, Peter; Archontoulis, Sotirios V

    2016-01-01

    Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the model simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration), which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the model. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration). For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-year mean differences in EONR's were within the historical N rate error range (40-50 kg N ha(-1)). However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. Model analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching) with precipitation. We concluded that long-term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The model can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the model can add value toward

  9. Aflatoxin contamination in corn sold for wildlife feed in texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Peper, Steven T; Downing, Carson D; Kendall, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Supplemental feeding with corn to attract and manage deer is a common practice throughout Texas. Other species, including northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), are commonly seen feeding around supplemental deer feeders. In many cases, supplemental feeding continues year-round so feed supply stores always have supplemental corn in stock. Fluctuating weather and improper storage of corn can lead to and/or amplify aflatoxin contamination. Due to the recent decline of bobwhites throughout the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, there has been interest in finding factors such as toxins that could be linked to their decline. In this study, we purchased and sampled supplemental corn from 19 locations throughout this ecoregion to determine if aflatoxin contamination was present in individual bags prior to being dispersed to wildlife. Of the 57 bags sampled, 33 bags (approximately 58%) contained aflatoxin with a bag range between 0.0-19.91 parts per billion (ppb). Additionally, three metal and three polypropylene supplemental feeders were each filled with 45.4 kg of triple cleaned corn and placed in an open field to study long-term aflatoxin buildup. Feeders were sampled every 3 months from November 2013-November 2014. Average concentration of aflatoxin over the year was 4.08 ± 2.53 ppb (±SE) in metal feeders, and 1.43 ± 0.89 ppb (±SE) in polypropylene feeders. The concentration of aflatoxins is not affected by the type of feeder (metal vs polypropylene), the season corn was sampled, and the location in the feeder (top, middle, bottom) where corn is sampled. It is unlikely that corn used in supplemental feeders is contributing to the bobwhite decline due to the low levels of aflatoxin found in purchased corn and long-term storage of corn used in supplemental feeders.

  10. [Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-yin; Zheng, Zheng; Zou, Xing-xing; Fang, Cai-xia; Luo, Yan

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of corn stalk digested alone at different total solid (TS) loading rates and co-digestion of various proportions of corn stalk and vermicompost were investigated by batch model at 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. The organic loading rates (OLRs) studied were in the range of 1.2%-6.0% TS and increasing proportions of vermicompost from 20% to 80% TS. A maximum methane yield of corn stalk digested alone was 217.60 mL/g obtained at the TS loading rate of 4.8%. However, when the TS loading rate was 6.0%, the anaerobic system was acidified and the lowest pH value was 5.10 obtained on day 4 and the biogas productivity decreased. Furthermore, co-digestion of vermicompost and corn stalk in varying proportions were investigated at constant of 6.0% TS. Co-digestion with vermicompost improved the biodegradability of corn stalk and the methane yield was improved by 4.42%-58.61%, and led to higher pH values, higher volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and lower alkalinity content compared with corn stalk digested alone. The maximum biogas yield and methane yield of 410.30 mL/g and 259. 35 mL/g were obtained for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk respectively. Compared with corn stalk digested alone, co-digested with vermicompost didn' t affect methane content and the fermentation type, but promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulose and the highest destruction rate was 29.36% for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk. Therefore, adding vermicompost was beneficial for the decomposition and increasing the biotransformation rate of corn stalk.

  11. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Monika; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%.

  12. Influence of Stenocarpella maydis infected corn on the composition of corn kernel and its conversion into ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread epidemics of Stenocarpella ear rot (formerly Diplodia ear rot) have occurred throughout the central U.S. Corn Belt in recent years, but the influence of S. maydis infected grain on corn ethanol production is unknown. In this study, S. maydis infected ears of variety 'Heritage 4646' were h...

  13. Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  14. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt c...

  15. Relationships Between Spielberger Trait Anxiety and Lykken Social and Physical Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankstein, Kirk R.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the relationship between Spielberger's measure of trait anxiety and social-interpersonal vs. physical danger trait anxiety, Ss were administered the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Lykken's Activity Preference Questionnaire (APQ). (Editor)

  16. History of northern corn leaf blight disease in the seventh cycle of recurrent selection of an UENF-14 popcorn population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moreira Ribeiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the genetic resistance to northern corn leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum disease in the UENF-14 popcorn population and the inclusion of this trait in the analysis, two hundred ten popcorn half-sib families were evaluated using an incomplete block design with treatments arranged in replicates "Sets". Regarding the Families within "Set" (F/S source of variation, enough genetic variability was found for northern corn leaf blight disease resistance to be explored in the next cycles of the UENF popcorn breeding program. The open-pollinated UENF-14 variety has a source of resistance to this disease in its genetic basis, given that it originated from crossing with an American cultivar with yellow grains that is resistant to disease. These results strengthen the possibility of selecting resistant families across the cycles, so it is concluded that the selection was effective at maintaining the balance in the occurrence of the disease in the study population and that the source of resistance is not lost with advancing cycles. The addition of the foliar disease variable in the analysis is of the utmost importance for the improvement of popcorn as it makes it possible to aggregate genes for resistance to this disease along with agronomic traits of interest.

  17. Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MBI International

    2007-12-31

    MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

  18. Multiparent intercross populations in analysis of quantitative traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujay Rakshit; Arunita Rakshit; J. V. Patil

    2011-04-01

    Most traits of interest to medical, agricultural and animal scientists show continuous variation and complex mode of inheritance. DNA-based markers are being deployed to analyse such complex traits, that are known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). In conventional QTL analysis, F2, backcross populations, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines and double haploids from biparental crosses are commonly used. Introgression lines and near isogenic lines are also being used for QTL analysis. However, such populations have major limitations like predominantly relying on the recombination events taking place in the F1 generation and mapping of only the allelic pairs present in the two parents. The second generation mapping resources like association mapping, nested association mapping and multiparent intercross populations potentially address the major limitations of available mapping resources. The potential of multiparent intercross populations in gene mapping has been discussed here. In such populations both linkage and association analysis can be conductted without encountering the limitations of structured populations. In such populations, larger genetic variation in the germplasm is accessed and various allelic and cytoplasmic interactions are assessed. For all practical purposes, across crop species, use of eight founders and a fixed population of 1000 individuals are most appropriate. Limitations with multiparent intercross populations are that they require longer time and more resource to be generated and they are likely to show extensive segregation for developmental traits, limiting their use in the analysis of complex traits. However, multiparent intercross population resources are likely to bring a paradigm shift towards QTL analysis in plant species.

  19. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. Methodology/Major Findings We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996–2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010–2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab—event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2—event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. Conclusions/Significance After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt

  20. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996-2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010-2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab-event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2-event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H

  1. Modeling the impact of cross-pollination and low toxin expression in corn kernels on adaptation of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic insecticidal corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Onstad, D W; Hellmich, R L; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D; Prasifka, J R

    2012-02-01

    We used a mathematical model with processes reflecting larval mortality resulting from feeding on cross-pollinated ears or Bt ears of corn to analyze the risk of evolution of Cry-toxin resistance in Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). In the simulations, evolution of resistance was delayed equally well by both seed mixtures and blocks with the same proportion of refuge. Our results showed that Bt-pollen drift has little impact on the evolution of Bt resistance in O. nubilalis. However, low-toxin expression in ears of transgenic corn can reduce the durability of transgenic corn expressing single toxin, whereas durability of pyramided corn hybrids is not significantly reduced. The toxin-survival rate of heterozygous larvae in Bt-corn ears expressing one or two proteins has more impact on evolution of Bt resistance in O. nubilalis than the parameters related to larval movement to Bt ears or the toxin-survival rate of the homozygous susceptible larvae in Bt ears. Bt resistance evolves slower when toxin mortality is distributed across the first two larval stadia than when only the first instars are susceptible to Bt toxins. We suggest that stakeholders examine toxin-survival rates for insect pests and take into account that instars may feed on different parts of Bt corn.

  2. Quantitative trait loci underlying udder morphology traits in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2008-09-01

    A genome scan was conducted on the basis of the daughter design to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing udder morphology traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep. A total of 739 ewes belonging to 11 half-sib families were genotyped for 182 microsatellite markers covering 3,248.2 cM (Kosambi) of the ovine autosomal genome. Phenotypic traits included scores for 5 linear udder traits: udder depth, udder attachment, teat placement, teat size, and udder shape. Quantitative measurements for the QTL analysis were calculated for each trait from evaluation scores using within-family yield deviations corrected for fixed environmental effects. Joint analysis of all families using Haley-Knott regression identified 5 regions that exceeded the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold on chromosomes 7, 14, 15, 20, and 26. Based on the across-family results, a within-family analysis was carried out to identify families segregated according to the QTL and to estimate the QTL effect. The allelic substitution effect for individual families ranged from 0.47 to 1.7 phenotypic standard deviation units for udder shape on chromosome 15 and udder depth on chromosome 14, respectively. These QTL regions provide a starting point for further research aimed at the characterization of genetic variability involved in udder traits in Churra sheep. This paper presents the first report of a sheep genome scan for udder-related traits in a dairy sheep outbred population.

  3. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits with Molecular Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chen-wu; LI Tao; SUN Chang-sen; GU Shi-liang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the genetic models for triploid endosperm traits and on the methods for mapping diploid quantitative traits loci (QTLs), the genetic constitutions, components of means and genetic variances of QTL controlling endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes of different generations were presented. From these results, a multiple linear regression method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits in cereals was proposed, which used the means of endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes as a dependent variable, the coefficient of additive effect ( d ) and dominance effect ( h 1 and/or h2 ) of a putative QTL in a given interval as independent variables. This method can work at any position in a genome covered by markers and increase the estimation precision of QTL location and their effects by eliminating the interference of other relative QTLs. This method can also be easily used in other uneven data such as markers and quantitative traits detected or measured in plants and tissues different either in generations or at chromosomal ploidy levels, and in endosperm traits controlled by complicated genetic models considering the effects produced by genotypes of both maternal plants and seeds on them.

  4. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...

  5. Effect of Irrigation Timing on Root Zone Soil Temperature, Root Growth and Grain Yield and Chemical Composition in Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High air temperatures during the crop growing season can reduce harvestable yields in major agronomic crops worldwide. Repeated and prolonged high night air temperature stress may compromise plant growth and yield. Crop varieties with improved heat tolerance traits as well as crop management strategies at the farm scale are thus needed for climate change mitigation. Crop yield is especially sensitive to night-time warming trends. Current studies are mostly directed to the elevated night-time air temperature and its impact on crop growth and yield, but less attention is given to the understanding of night-time soil temperature management. Delivering irrigation water through drip early evening may reduce soil temperature and thus improve plant growth. In addition, corn growers typically use high-stature varieties that inevitably incur excessive respiratory carbon loss from roots and transpiration water loss under high night temperature conditions. The main objective of this study was to see if root-zone soil temperature can be reduced through drip irrigation applied at night-time, vs. daytime, using three corn hybrids of different above-ground architecture in Uvalde, TX where day and night temperatures during corn growing season are above U.S. averages. The experiment was conducted in 2014. Our results suggested that delivering well-water at night-time through drip irrigation reduced root-zone soil temperature by 0.6 °C, increase root length five folds, plant height 2%, and marginally increased grain yield by 10%. However, irrigation timing did not significantly affect leaf chlorophyll level and kernel crude protein, phosphorous, fat and starch concentrations. Different from our hypothesis, the shorter, more compact corn hybrid did not exhibit a higher yield and growth as compared with taller hybrids. As adjusting irrigation timing would not incur an extra cost for farmers, the finding reported here had immediate practical implications for farm

  6. Effect of eastern gamagrass on fall armyworm and corn earworm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) are two important corn pests in the southern U.S. states. Effect of the leaves from the corn relative, the Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) on fall armyworm and corn earworm development ...

  7. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  9. Value addition of corn husks through enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Samanta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Corn husks are the major wastes of corn industries with meagre economic significance. The present study was planned for value addition of corn husk through extraction of xylan, followed by its enzymatic hydrolysis into xylooligosaccharides, a pentose based prebiotic. Compositional analysis of corn husks revealed neutral detergent fibre 68.87%, acid detergent fibre 31.48%, hemicelluloses 37.39%, cellulose 29.07% and crude protein 2.68%. Irrespective of the extraction conditions, sodium hydroxide was found to be more effective in maximizing the yield of xylan from corn husks than potassium hydroxide (84% vs. 66%. Application of xylanase over the xylan of corn husks resulted into production of xylooligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization namely, xylobiose and xylotriose in addition to xylose monomer. On the basis of response surface model analysis, the maximum yield of xylobiose (1.9 mg/ml was achieved with the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of pH 5.8, temperature 44°C, enzyme dose 5.7U/ml and hydrolysis time of 17.5h. Therefore, the corn husks could be used as raw material for xylan extraction vis a vis its translation into prebiotic xylooligosaccharides.

  10. Corn ethanol production, food exports, and indirect land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Kolinski Morris, E; Winkler, S L; Ginder, J M; Nielsen, O J

    2012-06-05

    The approximately 100 million tonne per year increase in the use of corn to produce ethanol in the U.S. over the past 10 years, and projections of greater future use, have raised concerns that reduced exports of corn (and other agricultural products) and higher commodity prices would lead to land-use changes and, consequently, negative environmental impacts in other countries. The concerns have been driven by agricultural and trade models, which project that large-scale corn ethanol production leads to substantial decreases in food exports, increases in food prices, and greater deforestation globally. Over the past decade, the increased use of corn for ethanol has been largely matched by the increased corn harvest attributable mainly to increased yields. U.S. exports of corn, wheat, soybeans, pork, chicken, and beef either increased or remained unchanged. Exports of distillers' dry grains (DDG, a coproduct of ethanol production and a valuable animal feed) increased by more than an order of magnitude to 9 million tonnes in 2010. Increased biofuel production may lead to intensification (higher yields) and extensification (more land) of agricultural activities. Intensification and extensification have opposite impacts on land use change. We highlight the lack of information concerning the magnitude of intensification effects and the associated large uncertainties in assessments of the indirect land use change associated with corn ethanol.

  11. Sustainable Dry Land Management Model on Corn Agribusiness System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Pujiharti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at building model of dry land management. Dynamic System Analysis was used to build model and Powersim 2.51 version for simulating. The parameter used in model were fertilizer (urea, SP-36, ACL, productivity (corn, cassava, mungbean, soil nutrient (N, P, K, crop nutrient requirements (corn, cassava, mungbean, mucuna, price (corn, cassava, mungbeans corn flour, feed, urea, SP-36, KCl, food security credit, area planted of (maize, cassava, mungbean, area harvested of (maize, cassava, mungbean, (corn, cassava, mungbean production, wages and farmer income. Sustainable indicator for ecology aspect was soil fertility level, economic aspects were productivity and farmer income, and social aspects were job possibility and traditions. The simulation result indicated that sustainable dry land management can improve soil fertility and increase farmer revenue, became sustainable farming system and farmer society. On the other hand, conventional dry land management decreased soil fertility and yield, caused farmer earnings to decrease and a farm activity could not be continued. Fertilizer distribution did not fulfill farmer requirement, which caused fertilizer scarcity. Food security credit increased fertilizer application. Corn was processed to corn flour or feed to give value added.

  12. Zapatista corn: a case study in biocultural innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Marisa

    2014-12-01

    In November 2001, Nature published a letter in which University of California Berkeley's biologists claimed to have found evidence of genetically modified (GM) DNA in regional varieties of maize in Oaxaca, even though the Mexican government had banned transgenic corn agriculture in 1998. While urban protesters marched against the genetic 'contamination' of Mexican corn by US-based agricultural biotech firms, rural indigenous communities needed a framework for understanding concepts such as GM before they could take action. This article analyzes how the indigenous organization, the Zapatistas, mobilized a program to address this novel entity. Their anti-GM project entailed educating local farmers about genetics, importing genetic testing kits, seed-banking landrace corn and sending seeds to 'solidarity growers' around the world. This article explores material-semiotic translations to explain one of the central aspects of this project, the definition and circulation of Zapatista corn--an entity defined not only through cultural geography, but also technological means. Through its circulation, Zapatista corn serves to perform a biocultural engagement with Zapatista's political project of resistance to neoliberalism. While much has been written about both regulatory policy and consumer activism against GM in the Global North, Zapatista corn also provides a case study in indigenous, anti-GM activism founded on biocultural innovation and the creation of alternative networks for circulating corn.

  13. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  14. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  15. A potential and novel type transgenic corn plant for control of the Corn Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Enyan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2017-01-01

    The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120 bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf was in the midgut of 5th instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression and food consumption were significantly promoted after food deprivation for 6 h. When npf was knocked down by double-stranded RNA for NPF, larval food intake, weight and body size were effectively inhibited through changes of a biosynthesis and metabolism pathway; i.e. gene silencing of NPF causes decreases of total lipid and glycogen and increases of trehalose production. Moreover, we produced transgenic corn plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that O. furnacalis larvae fed on these transgenic leaves had lower food consumption and smaller body size compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the feeding control of O. furnacalis and valuable for production of potential transgenic corn. PMID:28290513

  16. Quantitative trait loci analysis of swine meat quality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F

    2010-01-01

    were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level...... will be helpful for fine mapping and identifying genes affecting meat quality traits, and tightly linked markers may be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs......A QTL study was performed in large half-sib families to characterize the genetic background of variation in pork quality traits as well as to examine the possibilities of including QTL in a marker-assisted selection scheme. The quality traits included ultimate pH in LM and the semimembranosus, drip...

  17. PRODUCTIVITY, REPEATABILITY OF PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF LOCAL PIGEON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Darwati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to know productivity and repeatability of local pigeon. Data werecollected from 124 birds that reared under intensive management. The results showed that artificial pairwas 100% and polygamy was 16% (n=62 pair of pigeon. The ration of local pigeon consisting of 50%corn+50% of commercial feed for starter broiler chicken can be applied in field. The average of eggproduction was 1.8 eggs/pair/period, egg weight was 17.7 g, fertility was 96.6%, hatching rate was 77%,embryo mortality rate was 23%, interval period from laying to hatching and suckling was 51 days, 31.4days with hatching, and 17.6 days without hatching and suckling. The day old pigeon weight ranged10.9-16.2 g. Repeatability value of productive traits was high, in which egg weight was 0.64 and day oldpigeon weight was 0.737. Repeatability of reproductive traits was low, that was fertility and hatchabilitywas 0.12 and 0.048, respectively. The squab weight increased from week 0 to 4, then decreased in theweek 5. The growth rate was highest at the week 1, then decreased from the week 2 to 5 with thenegative growth rate occur at the 5th week. The squab growth rate followed a quadratic pattern. It wasconcluded that slaughter squab selection could be done at 4th week old.

  18. Hydrocolloid occlusion for the treatment of neurovascular corns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Beck, Jan Walther; Reumert, L N

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of hydrocolloid occlusion on neurovascular corns. The design was an observer-blinded, randomized, controlled study. Thirty consecutive patients participated in the trial. The patients received curettage alone or curettage with hydrocolloid...... occlusion. Six treatments were given over 12 weeks. A follow-up examination was performed 3 months after termination of the trial. Outcome measures were the size of the corns, a discomfort score, and an overall judgment of the trial. The results demonstrated no benefit of occlusion for symptoms or signs...... of neurovascular corns. The patients treated with occlusion were, however, generally more satisfied than the conventional group....

  19. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid...... pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical...... was observed from corn stover pretreated at 195 degrees for 15min with formic acid....

  20. Improving Early Season Sidedress Nitrogen Rate Prescriptions for Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Justin Rodgers

    2013-01-01

    Corn requires the most nitrogen (N) of cereal grain crops and N supply is correlated with grain yield.  Canopy reflectance has been used to assess crop N needs and to derive optimum application rates in mid-season corn.  Canopy reflectance has not been useful for N rate determination in early season corn because of low biomass and the sensing background can interfere, or overwhelm crop canopy reflectance measures.  Widespread adoption of canopy reflectance as a basis for generating in-season ...

  1. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  2. Linkage and association mapping for two major traits used in the maritime pine breeding program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Heerwaarden, van Joost; Chancerel, Emilie; Boury, Christophe; Lesur, Isabelle; Isik, Fikret; Bouffier, Laurent; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits, through analyses of genotype-phenotype associations and of the genes/polymorphisms accounting for trait variation, is crucial, to improve the integration of molecular markers into forest tree breeding. In this

  3. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  4. Enhancing knowledge and technology adoption in a misunderstood discipline: The weight trait project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently several commercial DNA marker panels are available for complex traits. In the fall of 2009, the American Angus Association integrated the results of an Angus-specific marker panel into their national cattle evaluation for carcass traits. Despite this advancement, there still exists treme...

  5. Influence of extruder temperature and screw speed on pretreatment of corn stover while varying enzymes and their ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanithy, Chinnadurai; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2010-09-01

    Pretreatment is being the first and most expensive step, it has pervasive impacts on all other steps in overall conversion process. There are several pretreatment methods using physical, chemical, and biological principles which are under various stages of investigation. Extrusion can be used as one of the physical pretreatment methods towards biofuel production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of barrel temperature and screw speed on sugar recovery from corn stover, to select a suitable enzyme combination and its ratio. Corn stover was pretreated in a single screw extruder with five screw speeds (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 rpm) and five barrel temperatures (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 degrees C). In order to select a suitable enzyme combination and ratio, different levels of cellulase and beta-glucosidase, multienzyme complex and beta-glucosidase were used during saccharification of pretreated corn stover. From the statistical analysis, it was found that screw speed and temperature had a significant effect on sugar recovery from corn stover. Higher glucose, xylose, and combined sugar recovery of 75, 49, and 61%, respectively, were recorded at 75 rpm and 125 degrees C. This pretreatment condition resulted in 2.0, 1.7, and 2.0 times higher than the control sample using 1:4 cellulase and beta-glucosidase combination.

  6. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A.; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by 60Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 °C. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), Tm(Ea)-Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  7. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  8. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  9. Genotype x Environment interaction for quality traits in durum wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Thus, these traits are controlled greatly by environmental effects than genetics. The variation due to ... Year of release. Range of agronomic ... Fertilizer used was a 19-38-0 (N-P-K) complex applied at a rate of. 150 kg/ha and ...

  10. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujita

    Full Text Available Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1 whether different elements (N or P have contrasting or shared influences, (2 which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years has better predictive power, and (3 if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy. The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration. The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  11. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  12. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  13. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  14. Market Anatomy of a Drought: Modeling Barge and Corn Market Adaptation to Reduced Rainfall and Low Mississippi River Water Levels During the 2012 Midwestern U.S. Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.; Characklis, G. W.; Thurman, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    In mid 2012, a severe drought swept across the Midwest, the heartland of corn production in the U.S. When the drought persisted into late Fall, corn markets were affected in two distinct ways: (1) reduced rainfall led to projected and actual corn yields that were lower than expected and (2) navigation restrictions, a result of low water levels on the Mississippi River, disrupted barge transportation, the most common and inexpensive mode for moving corn to many markets. Both (1) and (2) led to significant financial losses, but due to the complexity of the economic system and the coincidence of two different market impacts, the size of the role that low water levels played wass unclear. This is important, as losses related to low water levels are used to justify substantial investments in dredging activities on the Mississippi River. An "engineering" model of the system, suggests that low water levels should drive large increases in barge and corn prices, while some econometric models suggest that water levels explain very little of the changes in barge rates and corn prices. Employing a model that integrates both the engineering and economic elements of the system indicates that corn prices and barge rates during the drought display spatial and temporal behavior that is difficult to explain using either the engineering or econometric models alone. This integrated model accounts for geographic and temporal variations in drought impacts and identifies unique market responses to four different sets of conditions over the drought's length. Results illustrate that corn and barge price responses during the drought were a product of comingled, but distinct, reactions to both supply changes and navigation disruptions. Results also provide a more structured description of how the economic system that governs corn allocation interacts with the Mississippi River system during drought. As both public and private parties discuss potential managerial or infrastructural methods

  15. Production of red pigments by Monascus ruber in culture media containing corn steep liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Hamano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of red pigments by Monascus ruber was evaluated utilizing complex culture media composed of glucose or sucrose (10 g/L, corn steep liquor (5 or 10 g/L and monosodium glutamate (0, 5.0, 7.6, 11.4 or 15.2 g/L. Medium containing 10 g/L glucose, 5 g/L corn steep liquor and 7.6 g/L monosodium glutamate resulted the highest values of extracellular red pigment absorbance (20.7 U and productivity (0.35 U/h. This medium also produced better results than using semi-synthetic medium with analytical grade reagents (12.4 U and 0.21 U/h. The cell growth was similar in both media (X @ 6.5 g/L, indicating that the capacity of the cells to produce red pigments was higher in complex culture media. In addition, in the complex culture medium, less of the intracellular red pigments accumulated than in semi-synthetic medium (9.1% and 30%, respectively.

  16. Climate Prediction Center Weekly Corn Growing Degree Days

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A corn growing degree day (GDD) is an index used to express crop maturity. The index is computed by subtracting a base temperature of 50?F from the average of the...

  17. Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

  18. Thermogravimetric characterization of corn stover as gasification and pyrolysis feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajay; Wang, Lijun; Jones, David D.; Hanna, Milford A. [Industrial Agricultural Products Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 211 L.W. Chase Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Dzenis, Yuris A. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Interest in generating energy from biomass has grown tremendously in recent years. Corn stover is an agricultural by-product, which is abundant in quantity. Gasification and pyrolysis are efficient methods of harnessing energy efficiently from corn stover. The performances of mathematical models to predict the product gas quality rely on characterization of feed materials and the reaction kinetics of their thermal degradation. The objective of this research was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. Thermogravimetric analyses were performed at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50 C min{sup -1} in nitrogen (inert) and air (oxidizing) atmospheres. The parameters of the reaction kinetics were obtained and compared with other biomass. The weight losses of corn stover in both inert and oxidizing atmospheres were found to occur in three stages. (author)

  19. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from corn stovers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PANG, Huili; ZHANG, Meng; QIN, Guangyong; TAN, Zhongfang; LI, Zongwei; WANG, Yanping; CAI, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and twenty‐six strains were isolated from corn stover in Henan Province, China, of which 105 isolates were considered to be lactic acid bacteria (LAB) according to Gram‐positive, catalase...

  20. Experimental precision in corn trials using the Papadakis method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Storck, Lindolfo; Lopes, Sidinei José; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Lúcio, Alessandro Dal'Col; Toebe, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify whether the use of the Papadakis method in competing corn hybrid trials would lead to modifications in the validity of assumptions for the mathematical model...