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Sample records for complex carbohydrate research

  1. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  2. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Five-year report, September 15, 1987--December 31, 1992

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    Albersheim, Peter; Darvill, Alan

    1992-05-01

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) is the home of ten independent but complementary interdisciplinary research groups led by nine regular faculty and one adjunct faculty. The research of these groups represents a broad spectrum of interests, and they are involved in about 90 collaborations with their CCRC and UGA colleagues and with scientists at other institutions and companies in the US, Canada, Europe, Israel, and Japan. The hallmark of the CCRC is the collaborative, interactive environment encouraged by its directors, faculty and tong-term staff. Newcomers to the CCRC or short-term members soon learn that everyone benefits from this process. The team-oriented approach in carbohydrate science translates into the day-today generous giving of one's time and expertise to the work of others, whether it be in sharing specialized instrumentation, participating in the design of experiments and interpretalon of data, providing service to scientists outside the CCRC, or joining collaborative projects. The CCRC is founded on the principle that the cross-fertilization of ideas and know-how leads to the synergistic advancement of science. This report contains a series of appendices that document the extent and breadth of the Plant and Microbial Carbohydrate Center's contributions to collaborative research and education. Several collaborative research projects that have received postdoctoral research associate support from the Grant are highlighted, as these projects are particularly illustrative of the wide-ranging collaborations that have evolved as a result of this Grant and the quality of the science that the Grant enables.

  3. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  4. Complexes of natural carbohydrates with metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Yurii E; Garnovskii, Alexander D; Zhdanov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Data on the interaction of natural carbohydrates (mono-, oligo-, and poly-saccharides, amino sugars, and natural organic acids of carbohydrate origin) with metal cations are surveyed and described systematically. The structural diversity of carbohydrate metal complexes, caused by some specific features of carbohydrates as ligands, is demonstrated. The influence of complex formation on the chemical properties of carbohydrates is discussed. It is shown that the formation of metal complexes plays an important role in the configurational and conformational analysis of carbohydrates. The practical significance of the coordination interaction in the series of carbohydrate ligands is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 571 references.

  5. Center for Plant and Microbial Complex Carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center: Progress Report for the Funding Period November 1, 2002 - October 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2003-10-31

    This progress report describes the research, service, and training activities conducted with the support of the DOE center grant. The research activities are summarized in the form of reprints or abstracts of 46 papers citing support from the DOE center grant that were produced during the reporting period. These papers include those that are published, in press, submitted, or in preparation. The papers include those produced entirely by CCRC personnel and those papers representing research work conducted in collaboration with scientists at other institutions. (See Appendix I.) A major component of this grant is to provide service to researchers at other academic institutions and industries located throughout the US and other parts of the world. A summary of all our service activities during the reporting period is also included with this report, including samples of poly/oligosaccharides and antibodies distributed to scientists (see Appendix II). A description of the three training courses held at the CCRC during 2003 is also provided, together with the names and affiliations of participants who attended the courses (see Appendix III).

  6. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  7. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  8. Carbohydrate-Based Host-Guest Complexation of Hydrophobic Antibiotics for the Enhancement of Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daham; Joo, Sang-Woo; Shinde, Vijay Vilas; Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2017-08-08

    Host-guest complexation with various hydrophobic drugs has been used to enhance the solubility, permeability, and stability of guest drugs. Physical changes in hydrophobic drugs by complexation have been related to corresponding increases in the bioavailability of these drugs. Carbohydrates, including various derivatives of cyclodextrins, cyclosophoraoses, and some linear oligosaccharides, are generally used as host complexation agents in drug delivery systems. Many antibiotics with low bioavailability have some limitations to their clinical use due to their intrinsically poor aqueous solubility. Bioavailability enhancement is therefore an important step to achieve the desired concentration of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. Antibiotics encapsulated in a complexation-based drug delivery system will display improved antibacterial activity making it possible to reduce dosages and overcome the serious global problem of antibiotic resistance. Here, we review the present research trends in carbohydrate-based host-guest complexation of various hydrophobic antibiotics as an efficient delivery system to improve solubility, permeability, stability, and controlled release.

  9. Evidence supporting oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste sensitivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y Q Low

    Full Text Available Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. The aim of this paper is to investigate oral sensitivities of two different classes of complex carbohydrates (a soluble digestible and a soluble non-digestible complex carbohydrate, and to compare these to other caloric and non-nutritive sweeteners in addition to the prototypical tastes using two commonly used psychophysical measures. There were strong correlations between the detection thresholds and mean intensity ratings for complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose (r = 0.94, P 0.05. However, moderate correlations were observed between perceived intensities of complex carbohydrates and sweeteners (r = 0.48-0.61, P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that complex carbohydrates can be sensed in the oral cavity over a range of concentrations independent of sweet taste sensitivity at low concentrations, but with partial overlap with sweet taste intensity at higher concentrations.

  10. Food-derived carbohydrates--structural complexity and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2002-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biomolecules abundantly available in nature. They are found in bewildering types ranging from simple sugars through oligo- and polysaccharides to glycoconjugates and saccharide complexes, each exhibiting characteristic bio-physiological and/or nutritional functions both in in vivo and in vitro systems. For example, their presence or inclusion in food dictates the texture (body) and gives desirable customer appeal (satisfaction), or their inclusion in the diet offers beneficial effects of great therapeutic value. Thus, carbohydrates are integrally involved in a multitude of biological functions such as regulation of the immune system, cellular signaling (communication), cell malignancy, antiinfection responses, host-pathogen interactions, etc. If starch is considered the major energy storage carbohydrate, the gums/mucilages and other non-starch carbohydrates are of structural significance. The most investigated properties of starch are its gelatinization and melting behavior, especially during food processing. This has led to the development of the food polymer science approach, which has enabled a new interpretive and experimental frame work for the study of the plasticizing influence of simple molecules such as water, sugars, etc. on food systems that are kinetically constrained. Starch, although considered fully digestible, has been challenged, and starch is found to be partly indigestible in the GI tract of humans. This fraction of starch-resisting digestion in vivo is known as resistant starch (RS). The latter, due to its excellent fermentative capacity in the gut, especially yielding butyric acid is considered a new tool for the creation of fiber-rich foods, which are of nutraceutical importance. By a careful control of the processing conditions the content of RS, a man-made fiber, can be increased to as high as 30%. Arabinoxylans are the major endospermic cell wall polysaccharides of cereals. In wheat they are found complexed with ferulic

  11. Complex carbohydrate utilization by the healthy human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi L Cantarel

    Full Text Available The various ecological habitats in the human body provide microbes a wide array of nutrient sources and survival challenges. Advances in technology such as DNA sequencing have allowed a deeper perspective into the molecular function of the human microbiota than has been achievable in the past. Here we aimed to examine the enzymes that cleave complex carbohydrates (CAZymes in the human microbiome in order to determine (i whether the CAZyme profiles of bacterial genomes are more similar within body sites or bacterial families and (ii the sugar degradation and utilization capabilities of microbial communities inhabiting various human habitats. Upon examination of 493 bacterial references genomes from 12 human habitats, we found that sugar degradation capabilities of taxa are more similar to others in the same bacterial family than to those inhabiting the same habitat. Yet, the analysis of 520 metagenomic samples from five major body sites show that even when the community composition varies the CAZyme profiles are very similar within a body site, suggesting that the observed functional profile and microbial habitation have adapted to the local carbohydrate composition. When broad sugar utilization was compared within the five major body sites, the gastrointestinal track contained the highest potential for total sugar degradation, while dextran and peptidoglycan degradation were highest in oral and vaginal sites respectively. Our analysis suggests that the carbohydrate composition of each body site has a profound influence and probably constitutes one of the major driving forces that shapes the community composition and therefore the CAZyme profile of the local microbial communities, which in turn reflects the microbiome fitness to a body site.

  12. Structural studies of complex carbohydrates of plant cell walls. Progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains the abstracts of fourteen papers published, in press, or in preparation reporting on research activities to investigate the structure, as well as the function of cell walls in plants. This document also contains research on methods to determine the structure of complex carbohydrates of the cell walls.

  13. Development and Testing the Technology of Complex Transformation of Carbohydrates from Vegetable Raw Materials into Bioethanol

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    S.P. Tsygankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of development and testing the tentative technology of sweet sorghum and finger millet processing into bioethanol are described. The carbohydrates content and range of the studied vegetable biomass as the raw material is defined. Bioethanol potential output from sugar sorghum and finger millet carbohydrates and key technological parameters of preparation of both types of vegetable raw material for alcohol fermentation are defined. The concept of the tentative technology of bioethanol production from carbohydrate raw material of the first and second generations is offered. Testing of complex transformation of carbohydrates from vegetable raw materials into bioethanol is performed.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. The Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saris, W H; Astrup, A; Prentice, A M; Zunft, H J; Formiguera, X; Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Raben, A; Poppitt, S D; Seppelt, B; Johnston, S; Vasilaras, T H; Keogh, G F

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates. Randomized controlled multicentre trial (CARMEN), in which subjects were allocated for 6 months either to a seasonal control group (no intervention) or to one of three experimental groups: a control diet group (dietary intervention typical of the average national intake); a low-fat high simple carbohydrate group; or a low-fat high complex carbohydrate group. Three hundred and ninety eight moderately obese adults. The change in body weight was the primary outcome; changes in body composition and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Body weight loss in the low-fat high simple carbohydrate and low-fat high complex carbohydrate groups was 0.9 kg (P Fat mass changed by -1.3kg (Plow-fat high simple carbohydrate, low-fat high complex carbohydrate and control diet groups, respectively. Changes in blood lipids did not differ significantly between the dietary treatment groups. Our findings suggest that reduction of fat intake results in a modest but significant reduction in body weight and body fatness. The concomitant increase in either simple or complex carbohydrates did not indicate significant differences in weight change. No adverse effects on blood lipids were observed. These findings underline the importance of this dietary change and its potential impact on the public health implications of obesity.

  15. The Role of Supplemental Complex Dietary Carbohydrates and Gut Microbiota in Promoting Cardiometabolic and Immunological Health in Obesity: Lessons from Healthy Non-Obese Individuals

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    Petra C. Vinke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with complex carbohydrates is known to alter the composition of gut microbiota, and optimal implementation of the use of these so called “prebiotics” could be of great potential in prevention and possibly treatment of obesity and associated cardiometabolic and inflammatory diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. An alternative to this “microbiocentric view” is the idea that health-promoting effects of certain complex carbohydrates reside in the host, and could secondarily affect the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota. To circumvent this potential interpretational problem, we aimed at providing an overview about whether and how dietary supplementation of different complex carbohydrates changes the gut microbiome in healthy non-obese individuals. We then reviewed whether the reported changes in gut bacterial members found to be established by complex carbohydrates would benefit or harm the cardiometabolic and immunological health of the host taking into account the alterations in the microbiome composition and abundance known to be associated with obesity and its associated disorders. By combining these research areas, we aimed to give a better insight into the potential of (foods containing complex carbohydrates in the treatment and prevention of above-mentioned diseases. We conclude that supplemental complex carbohydrates that increase Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, without increasing the deleterious Bacteroides, are most likely promoting cardiometabolic and immunological health in obese subjects. Because certain complex carbohydrates also affect the host’s immunity directly, it is likely that host–microbiome interactions in determination of health and disease characteristics are indeed bidirectional. Overall, this review article shows that whereas it is relatively clear in which direction supplemental fermentable carbohydrates can alter the gut microbiome, the relevance of these changes regarding

  16. Structure and function of complex carbohydrates active in regulating plant-microbe interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P; Darvill, A G; McNeil, M

    1981-01-01

    A key regulatory role of complex carbohydrates in the interactions between plants and microbes has been established. The complex carbohydrates act as regulatory molecules or hormones in that the carbohydrates induce de novo protein synthesis in receptive cells. The first complex carbohydrate recognized to possess such regulatory properties is a polysaccharide (PS) present in the walls of fungi. Hormonal concentrations of this PS elicit plant cells to accumulate phytoalexins (antibiotics). More recently we have recognized that a PS in the walls of growing plant cells also elicits phytoalexin accumulation; microbes and viruses may cause the release of active fragments of this endogenous elicitor. Another PS in plant cell walls is the Proteinase Inhibitor Inducing Factor (PIIF). This hormone appears to protect plants by inducing synthesis in plants of proteins which specifically inhibit digestive enzymes of insects and bacteria. Glycoproteins secreted by incompatible races (races that do not infect the plant) of a fungal pathogen of soybeans protect seedlings from attack by compatible races. Glycoproteins from compatible races do not protect the seedlings. The acidic PS secreted by the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia appear to function in the infection of legumes by the rhizobia. W.D. Bauer and his co-workers have evidence that these PS are required for the development of root hairs capable of being infected by symbiont rhizobia. Current knowledge of the structures of these biologically active complex carbohydrates will be presented.

  17. Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Dietary Patterns and the Global Overweight and Obesity Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-10-04

    Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population's BMI (body mass index). We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions. Second, we collect figures for 185 countries (over the period 2012-2014) regarding the shares of simple (sugar and sweetener) and complex (cereal) carbohydrates in each country's total dietary energy supply. Third, we use regression techniques to: (1) estimate the impact of these shares on the country's prevalence of obesity and being overweight; (2) compute for each country an indicator of dietary pattern based on the ratio between simple and complex carbohydrates, weighted by their estimated effects on the prevalence of obesity and being overweight; and (3) measure the elasticity of the prevalence of obesity and being overweight with respect to changes in both carbohydrate dietary pattern and income per capita. We find that unhealthy eating habits and the associated prevalence of excessive body fat accumulation tend to behave as a 'normal good' in low, medium- and high-HDI (Human Development Index) countries, but as an 'inferior good' in very high-HDI countries.

  18. Supramolecular Complexation of Carbohydrates for the Bioavailability Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2015-10-27

    In this review, a comprehensive overview of advances in the supramolecular complexes of carbohydrates and poorly soluble drugs is presented. Through the complexation process, poorly soluble drugs could be efficiently delivered to their desired destinations. Carbohydrates, the most abundant biomolecules, have diverse physicochemical properties owing to their inherent three-dimensional structures, hydrogen bonding, and molecular recognition abilities. In this regard, oligosaccharides and their derivatives have been utilized for the bioavailability enhancement of hydrophobic drugs via increasing the solubility or stability. By extension, polysaccharides and their derivatives can form self-assembled architectures with poorly soluble drugs and have shown increased bioavailability in terms of the sustained or controlled drug release. These supramolecular systems using carbohydrate will be developed consistently in the field of pharmaceutical and medical application.

  19. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); O' Neill, Malcolm A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); York, William S. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  20. Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Dietary Patterns and the Global Overweight and Obesity Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population’s BMI (body mass index. We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions. Second, we collect figures for 185 countries (over the period 2012–2014 regarding the shares of simple (sugar and sweetener and complex (cereal carbohydrates in each country’s total dietary energy supply. Third, we use regression techniques to: (1 estimate the impact of these shares on the country’s prevalence of obesity and being overweight; (2 compute for each country an indicator of dietary pattern based on the ratio between simple and complex carbohydrates, weighted by their estimated effects on the prevalence of obesity and being overweight; and (3 measure the elasticity of the prevalence of obesity and being overweight with respect to changes in both carbohydrate dietary pattern and income per capita. We find that unhealthy eating habits and the associated prevalence of excessive body fat accumulation tend to behave as a ‘normal good’ in low, medium- and high-HDI (Human Development Index countries, but as an ‘inferior good’ in very high-HDI countries.

  1. Oxidation of lignin-carbohydrate complex from bamboo with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by Co(salen

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    Zhou Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of salen complexes toward hydrogen peroxide has been long recognized. Co(salen was tested as catalyst for the aqueous oxidation of a refractory lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC isolated from sweet bamboo (Dendrocalamushamiltonii in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Co(salen catalyzed the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with LCC. From the spectra analyses, lignin units in LCC were undergoing ring-opening, side chain oxidation, demethoxylation, β-O-4 cleavage with Co(salen catalytic oxidation. The degradation was also observed in the carbohydrate of LCC. The investigation on the refractory LCC degradation catalyzed by Co(salen may be an important aspect for environmentally-oriented biomimetic bleaching in pulp and paper industry.

  2. Effect of mono-unsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of two strictly controlled diets, one rich in complex carbohydrates, the other rich in olive oil, on serum lipids were studied in healthy men and women. Serum cholesterol levels fell on average by 0?44 mmol/l in the carbohydrate group and 0?46 mmol/l in the olive oil group. HDL

  3. Enzymatic degradation of lignin‐carbohydrate complexes (LCCs): Model studies using a fungal glucuronoyl esterase from Cerrena unicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Errico, Clotilde; Jørgensen, Jonas O.; Krogh, Kristian B. R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lignin‐carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) are believed to influence the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic plant material preventing optimal utilization of biomass in e.g. forestry, feed and biofuel applications. The recently emerged carbohydrate esterase (CE) 15 family of glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) has...

  4. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray...... of substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review covers the construction of carbohydrate microarrays, detection methods of carbohydrate microarrays and their applications in biological and biomedical research....

  5. Protein-carbohydrate complex reveals circulating metastatic cells in a microfluidic assay

    KAUST Repository

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2013-02-11

    Advances in carbohydrate sequencing technologies reveal the tremendous complexity of the glycome and the role that glycomics might have to bring insight into the biological functions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions, in particular, are known to be crucial to most mammalian physiological processes as mediators of cell adhesion and metastasis, signal transducers, and organizers of protein interactions. An assay is developed here to mimic the multivalency of biological complexes that selectively and sensitively detect carbohydrate-protein interactions. The binding of β-galactosides and galectin-3 - a protein that is correlated to the progress of tumor and metastasis - is examined. The efficiency of the assay is related to the expression of the receptor while anchoring to the interaction\\'s strength. Comparative binding experiments reveal molecular binding preferences. This study establishes that the assay is robust to isolate metastatic cells from colon affected patients and paves the way to personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Protein-carbohydrate complex reveals circulating metastatic cells in a microfluidic assay

    KAUST Repository

    Simone, Giuseppina; Malara, Natalia Maria; Trunzo, Valentina; Perozziello, Gerardo; Neužil, Pavel; Francardi, Marco; Roveda, Laura; Renne, Maria; Prati, Ubaldo; Mollace, Vincenzo; Manz, Andreas; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in carbohydrate sequencing technologies reveal the tremendous complexity of the glycome and the role that glycomics might have to bring insight into the biological functions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions, in particular, are known to be crucial to most mammalian physiological processes as mediators of cell adhesion and metastasis, signal transducers, and organizers of protein interactions. An assay is developed here to mimic the multivalency of biological complexes that selectively and sensitively detect carbohydrate-protein interactions. The binding of β-galactosides and galectin-3 - a protein that is correlated to the progress of tumor and metastasis - is examined. The efficiency of the assay is related to the expression of the receptor while anchoring to the interaction's strength. Comparative binding experiments reveal molecular binding preferences. This study establishes that the assay is robust to isolate metastatic cells from colon affected patients and paves the way to personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Using action research for complex research initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the research process of such a complex research initiative. Action research is one research method that lends itself to these complex projects. The paper uses the Ability Based Technology Interventions (AbTi) research project as a case study to analyse...

  8. Detecting Elusive Intermediates in Carbohydrate Conversion: A Dynamic Ensemble of Acyclic Glucose-Catalyst Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille Rose

    2017-01-01

    within few seconds prior to reaching a steady state. Exchange between the acyclic intermediates increases at conditions that favor epimerization. Species accounting for less than 0.05% of total glucose can be monitored with sub-second time resolution to allow kinetic analysis of intermediate formation...... and catalytic conversion. Epimerization occurs 2-3 orders of magnitude-fold faster than the binding of acyclic glucose to the catalyst at near-optimum reaction conditions. The current study brings insight in to the nature of acyclic intermediate-catalyst complexes of very low population and into experimental...... strategies for characterizing very minor intermediates in carbohydrate conversion to value-added compounds....

  9. Recent progress in heteronuclear long-range NMR of complex carbohydrates: 3D H2BC and clean HMBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    2009-01-01

    carbohydrates whose structure has been determined by NMR, not least due to the enhanced resolution offered by the third dimension in 3D H2BC and the improved spectral quality due to artifact suppression in clean HMBC. Hence these new experiments set the scene to take advantage of the sensitivity boost achieved...... by the latest generation of cold probes for NMR structure determination of even larger and more complex carbohydrates in solution.......The new NMR experiments 3D H2BC and clean HMBC are explored for challenging applications to a complex carbohydrate at natural abundance of 13C. The 3D H2BC experiment is crucial for sequential assignment as it yields heteronuclear one- and two-bond together with COSY correlations for the 1H spins...

  10. Computer simulation of protein—carbohydrate complexes: application to arabinose-binding protein and pea lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. S. R.; Biswas, Margaret; Mukhopadhyay, Chaitali; Balaji, P. V.

    1989-03-01

    The CCEM method (Contact Criteria and Energy Minimisation) has been developed and applied to study protein-carbohydrate interactions. The method uses available X-ray data even on the native protein at low resolution (above 2.4 Å) to generate realistic models of a variety of proteins with various ligands. The two examples discussed in this paper are arabinose-binding protein (ABP) and pea lectin. The X-ray crystal structure data reported on ABP-β- L-arabinose complex at 2.8, 2.4 and 1.7 Å resolution differ drastically in predicting the nature of the interactions between the protein and ligand. It is shown that, using the data at 2.4 Å resolution, the CCEM method generates complexes which are as good as the higher (1.7 Å) resolution data. The CCEM method predicts some of the important hydrogen bonds between the ligand and the protein which are missing in the interpretation of the X-ray data at 2.4 Å resolution. The theoretically predicted hydrogen bonds are in good agreement with those reported at 1.7 Å resolution. Pea lectin has been solved only in the native form at 3 Å resolution. Application of the CCEM method also enables us to generate complexes of pea lectin with methyl-α- D-glucopyranoside and methyl-2,3-dimethyl-α- D-glucopyranoside which explain well the available experimental data in solution.

  11. Anti-HIV and immunomodulation activities of cacao mass lignin-carbohydrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kawano, Michiyo; Thet, May Maw; Hashimoto, Ken; Satoh, Kazue; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Haishima, Yuji; Maeda, Yuuichi; Sakurai, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a prominent antiviral and macrophage stimulatory activity of cacao lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) has been reported. However, the solubility and sterility of LCC have not been considered yet. In the present study, complete solubilisation and sterilisation was achieved by autoclaving under mild alkaline conditions and the previously reported biological activities were re-examined. LCCs were obtained by 1% NaOH extraction and acid precipitation, and a repeated extraction-precipitation cycle. Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine productions were assayed by the Griess method and ELISA, respectively. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical-scavenging activity was determined by ESR spectroscopy. Cacao mass LCC showed reproducibly higher anti-HIV activity than cacao husk LCC. Cacao mass LCC, up to 62.5 μg/ml, did not stimulate mouse macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 and J774.1) to produce NO, nor did it induce iNOS protein, in contrast to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cacao mass LCC and LPS synergistically stimulated iNOS protein expression, suggesting a different point of action. Cacao mass LCC induced tumour necrosis factor-α production markedly less than LPS, and did not induce interleukin-1β, interferon-α or interferon-γ. ESR spectroscopy showed that cacao mass LCC, but not LPS, scavenged NO produced from NOC-7. This study demonstrated several new biological activities of LCCs distinct from LPS and further confirmed the promising antiviral and immunomodulating activities of LCCs.

  12. Variation in the complex carbohydrate biosynthesis loci of Acinetobacter baumannii genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna J Kenyon

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are major immunogenic components of the bacterial cell envelope. However, little is known about their biosynthesis in the genus Acinetobacter, which includes A. baumannii, an important nosocomial pathogen. Whether Acinetobacter sp. produce a capsule or a lipopolysaccharide carrying an O antigen or both is not resolved. To explore these issues, genes involved in the synthesis of complex polysaccharides were located in 10 complete A. baumannii genome sequences, and the function of each of their products was predicted via comparison to enzymes with a known function. The absence of a gene encoding a WaaL ligase, required to link the carbohydrate polymer to the lipid A-core oligosaccharide (lipooligosaccharide forming lipopolysaccharide, suggests that only a capsule is produced. Nine distinct arrangements of a large capsule biosynthesis locus, designated KL1 to KL9, were found in the genomes. Three forms of a second, smaller variable locus, likely to be required for synthesis of the outer core of the lipid A-core moiety, were designated OCL1 to OCL3 and also annotated. Each K locus includes genes for capsule export as well as genes for synthesis of activated sugar precursors, and for glycosyltransfer, glycan modification and oligosaccharide repeat-unit processing. The K loci all include the export genes at one end and genes for synthesis of common sugar precursors at the other, with a highly variable region that includes the remaining genes in between. Five different capsule loci, KL2, KL6, KL7, KL8 and KL9 were detected in multiply antibiotic resistant isolates belonging to global clone 2, and two other loci, KL1 and KL4, in global clone 1. This indicates that this region is being substituted repeatedly in multiply antibiotic resistant isolates from these clones.

  13. Differential effects of simple vs. complex carbohydrates on VLDL secretion rates and HDL metabolism in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M L; Abdel-Fattah, G; McNamara, D J

    1995-04-28

    Guinea pigs were fed isocaloric diets containing 52% (w/w) carbohydrate, either sucrose or starch, to investigate effects of simple vs. complex carbohydrates on plasma VLDL and HDL metabolism. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were not different between dietary groups while plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and VLDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased in animals fed the sucrose diet (P < 0.05). Hepatic VLDL TAG secretion rates measured following intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339 were not affected by carbohydrate type whereas the rate of apo B secretion was 1.9-fold higher in sucrose fed animals (P < 0.02). Nascent VLDL from the sucrose group contained less TAG per apo B suggesting that the higher plasma TAG in animals fed simple carbohydrates results from increased secretion of VLDL particles with lower TAG content. Sucrose fed animals exhibited higher concentrations of hepatic free cholesterol (P < 0.01) while hepatic TAG levels and acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity were not different between groups. Plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations and composition, and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity were not affected by diet yet there was a positive correlation between HDL cholesteryl ester content and LCAT activities (r = 0.70, P < 0.05). Hepatic membranes from the sucrose group had a higher hepatic HDL binding protein number (Bmax) with no changes in the dissociation constant (Kd). These results suggest that at the same carbohydrate energy intake, simple sugars induce modest changes in HDL metabolism while VLDL metabolism is affected at multiple sites, as indicated by the higher concentrations of hepatic cholesterol, dissociation in the synthesis rates of VLDL components, and compositional changes in nascent and mature VLDL.

  14. The natural catalytic function of CuGE glucuronoyl esterase in hydrolysis of genuine lignin-carbohydrate complexes from birch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Caroline; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.

    2018-01-01

    Glucuronoyl esterases belong to carbohydrate esterase family 15 and catalyze de-esterification. Their natural function is presumed to be cleavage of ester linkages in lignin-carbohydrate complexes particularly those linking lignin and glucuronoyl residues in xylans in hardwood. Here, we show...... for the first time a detailed product profile of aldouronic acids released from birchwood lignin by a glucuronoyl esterase from the white-rot fungus Cerrena unicolor (CuGE). CuGE releases substrate for GH10 endo-xylanase which results in significantly increased product release compared to the action of endo......-xylanase alone. CuGE also releases neutral xylo-oligosaccharides that can be ascribed to the enzymes feruloyl esterase side activity as demonstrated by release of ferulic acid from insoluble wheat arabinoxylan. The data verify the enzyme's unique ability to catalyze removal of all glucuronoxylan associated...

  15. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eHanif

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of RuII(arene complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well with cellular accumulation. The most lipophilic compound bearing a biphenyl moiety and a cyclohexylidene-protected carbohydrate is the most cytotoxic with unprecedented IC50 values for the compound class in three human cancer cell lines. This compound shows reactivity to the DNA model nucleobase 9-ethylguanine, but does not alter the secondary structure of plasmid DNA indicating that other biological targets are responsible for its cytotoxic effect.

  16. Liamocins, sophorolipids, and frost grape polysaccharides. New carbohydrate research from the USDA’s NCAUR national laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA’s National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research has a prominent history in carbohydrate research, including the development of xanthan gum, ‘super slurper’ polysaccharides, beta-dextrans, alternan, and beta lactamase antibiotics (penicillins), as well as analytical tools such as ald...

  17. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  18. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  19. Aspergillus oryzae–Saccharomyces cerevisiae Consortium Allows Bio-Hybrid Fuel Cell to Run on Complex Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Hoyt, Thomas; LeFors, Hannah M.; Sumner, James J.; Mackie, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Consortia of Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are examined for their abilities to turn complex carbohydrates into ethanol. To understand the interactions between microorganisms in consortia, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to follow the concentrations of various metabolites such as sugars (e.g., glucose, maltose), longer chain carbohydrates, and ethanol to optimize consortia conditions for the production of ethanol. It is shown that with proper design A. oryzae can digest food waste simulants into soluble sugars that S. cerevisiae can ferment into ethanol. Depending on the substrate and conditions used, concentrations of 13% ethanol were achieved in 10 days. It is further shown that a direct alcohol fuel cell (FC) can be coupled with these A. oryzae-enabled S. cerevisiae fermentations using a reverse osmosis membrane. This “bio-hybrid FC” continually extracted ethanol from an ongoing consortium, enhancing ethanol production and allowing the bio-hybrid FC to run for at least one week. Obtained bio-hybrid FC currents were comparable to those from pure ethanol—water mixtures, using the same FC. The A. oryzae–S. cerevisiae consortium, coupled to a bio-hybrid FC, converted food waste simulants into electricity without any pre- or post-processing. PMID:27681904

  20. Facilitating the enzymatic saccharification of pulped bamboo residues by degrading the remained xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Li, Xin; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9 to 2.99/100C9 after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A mini review of dolphin carbohydrate metabolism and suggestions for future research using exhaled air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam eRidgway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health.

  2. Combustion & Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLDRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Combustion and Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLRDC) supports the experimental and computational study of fundamental combustion phenomena to...

  3. Three-dimensional representations of complex carbohydrates and polysaccharides--SweetUnityMol: a video game-based computer graphic software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Serge; Tubiana, Thibault; Imberty, Anne; Baaden, Marc

    2015-05-01

    A molecular visualization program tailored to deal with the range of 3D structures of complex carbohydrates and polysaccharides, either alone or in their interactions with other biomacromolecules, has been developed using advanced technologies elaborated by the video games industry. All the specific structural features displayed by the simplest to the most complex carbohydrate molecules have been considered and can be depicted. This concerns the monosaccharide identification and classification, conformations, location in single or multiple branched chains, depiction of secondary structural elements and the essential constituting elements in very complex structures. Particular attention was given to cope with the accepted nomenclature and pictorial representation used in glycoscience. This achievement provides a continuum between the most popular ways to depict the primary structures of complex carbohydrates to visualizing their 3D structures while giving the users many options to select the most appropriate modes of representations including new features such as those provided by the use of textures to depict some molecular properties. These developments are incorporated in a stand-alone viewer capable of displaying molecular structures, biomacromolecule surfaces and complex interactions of biomacromolecules, with powerful, artistic and illustrative rendering methods. They result in an open source software compatible with multiple platforms, i.e., Windows, MacOS and Linux operating systems, web pages, and producing publication-quality figures. The algorithms and visualization enhancements are demonstrated using a variety of carbohydrate molecules, from glycan determinants to glycoproteins and complex protein-carbohydrate interactions, as well as very complex mega-oligosaccharides and bacterial polysaccharides and multi-stranded polysaccharide architectures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  4. Carbohydrate-based heteronuclear complexes as topoisomerase Iα inhibitor: approach toward anticancer chemotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Mohd; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Usman, Mohammad; Tabassum, Sartaj

    2018-04-18

    Due to the critical role of cellular enzymes necessary for cell proliferation by deciphering topological hurdles in the process of DNA replication, topoisomerases have been one of the major targets in the anticancer drug development area. A need, therefore, arises for new metallodrugs that specifically recognizes DNA and inhibits the activity of topoisomerase enzymes, herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-based glycoconjugate entities containing heterobimetallic core Cu II -Sn IV (1) and Ni II -Sn IV (2) derived from N-glycoside ligand (L). The optimized structure of complex 1 and other significant vibrational modes have been explained using dispersion corrected B3LYP/DFT calculations. In vitro DNA binding profile of the L and both the complexes 1 and 2 were done by various biophysical studies. Complex 1 breaks pBR322 DNA via a hydrolytic means which was validated by T4 DNA enzymatic assay. To get a mechanistic insight of mode of action topoisomerase I (Topo I) inhibition assay was carried out. Also, we have taken the help of molecular modeling studies in accordance with experimental findings. In vitro cytotoxicity of the complex 1 was evaluated against a panel of cancer cells which exhibited remarkably good anticancer activity (GI 50 values <10 μg/ml). Moreover, intracellular localization of the complex 1 was visualized by confocal microscopy against HeLa cells.

  5. Transcriptome, carbohydrate, and phytohormone analysis of Petunia hybrida reveals a complex disturbance of plant functional integrity under mild chilling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Martin Andreas; Winkelmann, Traud; Franken, Philipp; Druege, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of chilling-tolerant ornamental crops at lower temperature could reduce the energy demands of heated greenhouses. To provide a better understanding of how sub-optimal temperatures (12°C vs. 16°C) affect growth of the sensitive Petunia hybrida cultivar ‘SweetSunshine Williams’, the transcriptome, carbohydrate metabolism, and phytohormone homeostasis were monitored in aerial plant parts over 4 weeks by use of a microarray, enzymatic assays and GC-MS/MS. The data revealed three consecutive phases of chilling response. The first days were marked by a strong accumulation of sugars, particularly in source leaves, preferential up-regulation of genes in the same tissue and down-regulation of several genes in the shoot apex, especially those involved in the abiotic stress response. The midterm phase featured a partial normalization of carbohydrate levels and gene expression. After 3 weeks of chilling exposure, a new stabilized balance was established. Reduced hexose levels in the shoot apex, reduced ratios of sugar levels between the apex and source leaves and a higher apical sucrose/hexose ratio, associated with decreased activity and expression of cell wall invertase, indicate that prolonged chilling induced sugar accumulation in source leaves at the expense of reduced sugar transport to and reduced sucrose utilization in the shoot. This was associated with reduced levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the apex and high numbers of differentially, particularly up-regulated genes, especially in the source leaves, including those regulating histones, ethylene action, transcription factors, and a jasmonate-ZIM-domain protein. Transcripts of one Jumonji C domain containing protein and one expansin accumulated in source leaves throughout the chilling period. The results reveal a dynamic and complex disturbance of plant function in response to mild chilling, opening new perspectives for the comparative analysis of differently tolerant cultivars

  6. Bringing research into a first semester organic chemistry laboratory with the multistep synthesis of carbohydrate-based HIV inhibitor mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of incorporating research experiences into laboratory courses have been well documented, yet examples of research projects designed for the first semester introductory organic chemistry lab course are extremely rare. To address this deficiency, a Carbohydrate-Based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Inhibitor project consisting of a synthetic scheme of four reactions was developed for and implemented in the first semester organic lab. Students carried out the synthetic reactions during the last 6 of 10 total labs in the course, generating carbohydrate-based dimeric target molecules modeled after published dimers with application in HIV therapy. The project was designed to provide a research experience through use of literature procedures for reactions performed, exploration of variation in linker length in the target structure, and synthesis of compounds not previously reported in the scientific literature. Project assessment revealed strong student support, indicating enhanced engagement and interest in the course as a direct result of the use of scientific literature and the applications of the synthesized carbohydrate-based molecules. Regardless of discussed challenges in designing a research project for the first semester lab course, the finding from data analysis that a project implemented in the first semester lab had significantly greater student impact than a second semester project should provide motivation for development of additional research projects for a first semester organic course. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. The Role of Supplemental Complex Dietary Carbohydrates and Gut Microbiota in Promoting Cardiometabolic and Immunological Health in Obesity : Lessons from Healthy Non-Obese Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Petra C; El Aidy, Sahar; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with complex carbohydrates is known to alter the composition of gut microbiota, and optimal implementation of the use of these so called "prebiotics" could be of great potential in prevention and possibly treatment of obesity and associated cardiometabolic and inflammatory

  8. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimman Rajendran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21 than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30, and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  9. WATER-SOLUBLE ORGANOMETALLIC CATALYSTS FROM CARBOHYDRATES. 1. DIARYLPHOSPHINITE-RH COMPLEXES. (R826120)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Glycoconjugate Oxime Formation Catalyzed at Neutral pH: Mechanistic Insights and Applications of 1,4-Diaminobenzene as a Superior Catalyst for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Mads; Christensen, Niels Johan; Hjuler, Christian T; Jensen, Knud J; Thygesen, Mikkel B

    2018-04-18

    The reaction of unprotected carbohydrates with aminooxy reagents to provide oximes is a key method for the construction of glycoconjugates. Aniline and derivatives serve as organocatalysts for the formation of oximes from simple aldehydes, and we have previously reported that aniline also catalyzes the formation of oximes from the more complex aldehydes, carbohydrates. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the effect of aniline analogues on the formation of carbohydrate oximes and related glycoconjugates depending on organocatalyst structure, pH, nucleophile, and carbohydrate, covering more than 150 different reaction conditions. The observed superiority of the 1,4-diaminobenzene (PDA) catalyst at neutral pH is rationalized by NMR analyses and DFT studies of reaction intermediates. Carbohydrate oxime formation at pH 7 is demonstrated by the formation of a bioactive glycoconjugate from a labile, decorated octasaccharide originating from exopolysaccharides of the soil bacterium Mesorhizobium loti. This study of glycoconjugate formation includes the first direct comparison of aniline-catalyzed reaction rates and equilibrium constants for different classes of nucleophiles, including primary oxyamines, secondary N-alkyl oxyamines, as well as aryl and arylsulfonyl hydrazides. We identified 1,4-diaminobenzene as a superior catalyst for the construction of oxime-linked glycoconjugates under mild conditions.

  11. A higher-complex carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes mellitus achieves glucose targets and lowers postprandial lipids: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Daniels, Linda J; West, Nancy A; Donahoo, William T; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    The conventional diet approach to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) advocates carbohydrate restriction, resulting in higher fat (HF), also a substrate for fetal fat accretion and associated with maternal insulin resistance. Consequently, there is no consensus about the ideal GDM diet. We hypothesized that, compared with a conventional, lower-carbohydrate/HF diet (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein), consumption of a higher-complex carbohydrate (HCC)/lower-fat (LF) Choosing Healthy Options in Carbohydrate Energy (CHOICE) diet (60/25/15%) would result in 24-h glucose area under the curve (AUC) profiles within therapeutic targets and lower postprandial lipids. Using a randomized, crossover design, we provided 16 GDM women (BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m2) with two 3-day isocaloric diets at 31 ± 0.5 weeks (washout between diets) and performed continuous glucose monitoring. On day 4 of each diet, we determined postprandial (5 h) glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) following a controlled breakfast meal. There were no between-diet differences for fasting or mean nocturnal glucose, but 24-h AUC was slightly higher (∼6%) on the HCC/LF CHOICE diet (P = 0.02). The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) revealed modestly higher 1- and 2-h postprandial glucose on CHOICE (1 h, 115 ± 2 vs. 107 ± 3 mg/dL, P ≤ 0.01; 2 h, 106 ± 3 vs. 97 ± 3 mg/dL, P = 0.001) but well below current targets. After breakfast, 5-h glucose and insulin AUCs were slightly higher (P diet. This highly controlled study randomizing isocaloric diets and using a CGMS is the first to show that liberalizing complex carbohydrates and reducing fat still achieved glycemia below current treatment targets and lower postprandial FFAs. This diet strategy may have important implications for preventing macrosomia.

  12. In-situ annotation of carbohydrate diversity, abundance, and degradability in highly complex mixtures using NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Many functions of carbohydrates depend on the detection of short structural motifs, approximately up to hexasaccharide length, by receptors or catalysts. This study investigates the usefulness of state-of-the-art 1H–13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for characterizing the diversity......, abundance, and degradability of such short structural motifs in plant-derived carbohydrates. Assignments of carbohydrate signals for 1H–13C NMR spectra of beer, wine, and fruit juice yield up to >130 assignments in situ, i.e. in individual samples without separation or derivatization. More than 500...... structural motifs can be resolved over a concentration range of ~103 in experiments of a few hours duration. The diversity of carbohydrate units increases according to power laws at lower concentrations for both cereal and fruit-derived samples. Simple graphs resolve the smaller overall contribution of more...

  13. Quantifying the complexity of medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Loging, William T

    2013-11-15

    A crucial phenomenon of our times is the diminishing marginal returns of investments in pharmaceutical research and development. A potential reason is that research into diseases is becoming increasingly complex, and thus more burdensome, for humans to handle. We sought to investigate whether we could measure research complexity by analyzing the published literature. Through the text mining of the publication record of multiple diseases, we have found that the complexity and novelty of disease research has been increasing over the years. Surprisingly, we have also found that research on diseases with higher publication rate does not possess greater complexity or novelty than that on less-studied diseases. We have also shown that the research produced about a disease can be seen as a differentiated area of knowledge within the wider biomedical research. For our analysis, we have conceptualized disease research as a parallel multi-agent search in which each scientific agent (a scientist) follows a search path based on a model of a disease. We have looked at trends in facts published for diseases, measured their diversity and turnover using the entropy measure and found similar patterns across disease areas. raul.rodriguez-esteban@roche.com.

  14. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  15. Complex Plasma Research Under Extreme Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Complex plasma research under extreme conditions is described. The extreme conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.

  16. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejčiříková, Veronika; Fábry, Milan; Marková, Vladimíra; Malý, Petr; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate binding domain was overexpressed in E. coli and crystallized in the presence of lactose. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42 1 2 and diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Galectin-4 is thought to play a role in the process of tumour conversion of cells of the alimentary tract and the breast tissue; however, its exact function remains unknown. With the aim of elucidating the structural basis of mouse galectin-4 (mGal-4) binding specificity, we have undertaken X-ray analysis of the N-terminal domain, CRD1, of mGal-4 in complex with lactose (the basic building block of known galectin-4 carbohydrate ligands). Crystals of CRD1 in complex with lactose were obtained using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42 1 2 with unit-cell parameters a = 91.1, b = 91.16, c = 57.10 Å and preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. An optimized crystallization procedure and cryocooling protocol allowed us to extend resolution to 2.1 Å. Structure refinement is currently under way; the initial electron-density maps clearly show non-protein electron density in the vicinity of the carbohydrate binding site, indicating the presence of one lactose molecule. The structure will help to improve understanding of the binding specificity and function of the potential colon cancer marker galectin-4

  18. The use of fast atom bombardment and laser desorption mass spectrometry in the analysis of complex carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, H.; Peter-Katalinic, J.; Karas, M.; Stahl, B.

    1991-01-01

    Oligosaccharides occurring free in secretions or bound to lipid or protein, are known to modulate the biological response in many living systems. The structural characterization of these highly diverse oligosaccharides, that may be further complicated by the occurrence of non-carbohydrate substituents such as alkyl, acyl, sulfate, or phosphate groups, for example, represents the first step towards a rational approach that is able to relate structure to function. The structural delineation of carbohydrate residues at defined sites of attachment is especially important in recombinant glycoproteins because the type and extent of glycosylation affect their biological properties. In recent years the development of soft ionization procedures and the increase in mass range above 10,000 mass units at full acceleration, together with the development of highly sensitive detectors, has allowed the analysis of glycans containing more than 30 sugar units in the nano-and subnanomolar range. (author)

  19. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  20. Voltammetric investigation of the distribution of hydroxo-, chloro-, edta and carbohydrate complexes of lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium and copper: Potential application to metal speciation studies in brewery wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Catherine Ngila

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results on complex formation reactions between OH-, Cl-, EDTA and carbohydrate ligands with Pb2+ ions at various [LT]:[MT] ratios and at different pH values (1.5-13.0. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV employing an ex situ plated thin mercury film electrode (TMFE was used to measure the shifts in peak potentials. Formation of simple, polyligand as well as mixed ligand complexes are reported. The reactions between the Pb(II and the carbohydrate ligands showed pronounced pH dependency on metal forms compared to reactions with simple inorganic ions such as chloride. Modeling of the experimental data obtained with the DPASV method was done using computer software (3D-VISE. The calculated complex formation curves (CCFC based on mass balance equations were fitted to the experimental complex formation curves (ECFC and the goodness of the fit evaluated (RSD < 5%. These studies were applied to Pb, Cr, Zn, Cd and Cu speciation in brewery wastewater in which differences between total metal determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS after acid digestion and labile fraction determined by DPASV were used to estimate the percentage of non-labile fraction (mainly metal-organic complexes. Up to 90% of the metal was found to exist as the “inert” fraction, implying that the effluent system from the brewery industry poses minimal health risks to the environment with regard to toxic forms of the metals as the organically bound metal forms are generally known to have low toxicity compared to the aquo or labile metal forms.

  1. Who is the carbohydrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Enrique Cuevas Mestanza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is a complex science that studies biomolecules and their interactions in metabolic pathways in living beings. Due to the large amount of contents against the short period to apply them, only expositive classes are not enough to arouse the interest of students and solve questions. In this perspective, is very important to develop new educational tools to improve the understanding of these contents. “Who is the carbohydrate?” It is a didactic game created to review the structural and functional relationship of carbohydrates. Based on the classic “Guess who?” The objective of the player or group is to first find out the opponent's carbohydrate name.

  2. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  3. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Carbohydrates Print en ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  4. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  5. Complete genome sequence of the complex carbohydrate-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Weiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40 is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides. We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 complex polysaccharides. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, many of the enzymes exhibit unusual architecture including novel combinations of catalytic and substrate-binding modules. We hypothesize that many of these features are adaptations that facilitate depolymerization of complex polysaccharides in the marine environment. This is the first sequenced genome of a marine bacterium that can degrade plant cell walls, an important component of the carbon cycle that is not well-characterized in the marine environment.

  6. Research on image complexity evaluation method based on color information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Duan, Jin; Han, Xue-hui; Xiao, Bo

    2017-11-01

    In order to evaluate the complexity of a color image more effectively and find the connection between image complexity and image information, this paper presents a method to compute the complexity of image based on color information.Under the complexity ,the theoretical analysis first divides the complexity from the subjective level, divides into three levels: low complexity, medium complexity and high complexity, and then carries on the image feature extraction, finally establishes the function between the complexity value and the color characteristic model. The experimental results show that this kind of evaluation method can objectively reconstruct the complexity of the image from the image feature research. The experimental results obtained by the method of this paper are in good agreement with the results of human visual perception complexity,Color image complexity has a certain reference value.

  7. Rigour and Complexity in Educational Research. Conducting Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathleen; Kincheloe, Joe

    2004-01-01

    What does it mean to engage in rigorous research? What does a researcher need to know to produce such research? What is specifically involved in multiple method bricolage research? In an era where talk abounds about scientific rigour and evidence-based research in education, this groundbreaking book presents a new and compelling examination of…

  8. Microbial degradation of whole-grain complex carbohydrates and impact on short-chain fatty acids and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    Whole-grain cereals have a complex dietary fiber (DF) composition consisting of oligosaccharides (mostly fructans), resistant starch, and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs); the most important are arabinoxylans, mixed-linkage β(1,3; 1,4)-d-glucan (β-glucan), and cellulose and the noncarbohydrate...... to the intake of DF. The type and composition of cereal DF can consequently be used to modulate the microbial composition and activity as well as the production and molar ratios of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Arabinoxylans and β-glucan in whole-grain cereals and cereal ingredients have been shown...... on the concentration in peripheral blood was less because the majority of propionate and butyrate is cleared in the liver. Active microbial fermentation with increased SCFA production reduced the exposure of potentially toxic compounds to the epithelium, potentially stimulating anorectic hormones and acting...

  9. Classroom-oriented research from a complex systems perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bringing a complex systems perspective to bear on classroom-oriented research challenges researchers to think differently, seeing the classroom ecology as one dynamic system nested in a hierarchy of such systems at different levels of scale, all of which are spatially and temporally situated. This article begins with an introduction to complex dynamic systems theory, in which challenges to traditional ways of conducting classroom research are interwoven. It concludes with suggestions for research methods that are more consistent with the theory. Research does not become easier when approached from a complex systems perspective, but it has the virtue of reflecting the way the world works.

  10. Expanded potential of seleno-carbohydrates as a molecular tool for X-ray structural determination of a carbohydrate-protein complex with single/multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Makyio, Hisayoshi; Ando, Hiromune; Komura, Naoko; Menjo, Masanori; Yamada, Yusuke; Imamura, Akihiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Kato, Ryuichi; Kiso, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Seleno-lactoses have been successfully synthesized as candidates for mimicking carbohydrate ligands for human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD). Selenium was introduced into the mono- or di-saccharides using p-methylselenobenzoic anhydride (Tol2Se) as a novel selenating reagent. The TolSe-substituted monosaccharides were converted into selenoglycosyl donors or acceptors, which were reacted with coupling partners to afford seleno-lactoses. The seleno-lactoses were converted to the target compounds. The structure of human galectin-9 NCRD co-crystallized with 6-MeSe-lactose was determined with single/multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD/MAD) phasing and was similar to that of the co-crystal with natural lactose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  12. Semantic Support for Complex Ecosystem Research Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, M.; McGuinness, D. L.; Pinheiro, P.; Santos, H. O.; Chastain, K.

    2015-12-01

    As ecosystems come under increasing stresses from diverse sources, there is growing interest in research efforts aimed at monitoring, modeling, and improving understanding of ecosystems and protection options. We aimed to provide a semantic infrastructure capable of representing data initially related to one large aquatic ecosystem research effort - the Jefferson project at Lake George. This effort includes significant historical observational data, extensive sensor-based monitoring data, experimental data, as well as model and simulation data covering topics including lake circulation, watershed runoff, lake biome food webs, etc. The initial measurement representation has been centered on monitoring data and related provenance. We developed a human-aware sensor network ontology (HASNetO) that leverages existing ontologies (PROV-O, OBOE, VSTO*) in support of measurement annotations. We explicitly support the human-aware aspects of human sensor deployment and collection activity to help capture key provenance that often is lacking. Our foundational ontology has since been generalized into a family of ontologies and used to create our human-aware data collection infrastructure that now supports the integration of measurement data along with simulation data. Interestingly, we have also utilized the same infrastructure to work with partners who have some more specific needs for specifying the environmental conditions where measurements occur, for example, knowing that an air temperature is not an external air temperature, but of the air temperature when windows are shut and curtains are open. We have also leveraged the same infrastructure to work with partners more interested in modeling smart cities with data feeds more related to people, mobility, environment, and living. We will introduce our human-aware data collection infrastructure, and demonstrate how it uses HASNetO and its supporting SOLR-based search platform to support data integration and semantic browsing

  13. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  14. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  15. Analytical and ethical complexities in video game research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Lund; Chimiri, Niklas Alexander; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    Session: Sociomaterial complexities in digital-analog spaces Abstract: Analytical and ethical complexities in video game research A central issue that video game research seldom explicitly articulates is the ethical complexities involved in its empirical and analytical work. The presentation...... explores common research questions posed and analytical foci chosen by video game researchers subscribing to either the media effects tradition, represented by (ref.) or to interdisciplinary Game Studies. Both fields, which tend to depict themselves as polar-opposites, build on ethical assumptions...... of theoretical or analytical arrogance. The relevance of acknowledging and situating ethical complexity becomes pertinent when alternatively taking a sociomaterial perspective on doing empirical and analytical work on video gaming. From an agential realist point of view, for instance, a researcher...

  16. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  17. Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Randomized to a Higher-Complex Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Manifest Lower Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Glucose, and Free Fatty Acids: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Reece, Melanie S; Reynolds, Regina M; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Heerwagen, Margaret; Donahoo, William T; Daniels, Linda J; Chartier-Logan, Catherine; Janssen, Rachel C; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    Diet therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has focused on carbohydrate restriction but is poorly substantiated. In this pilot randomized clinical trial, we challenged the conventional low-carbohydrate/higher-fat (LC/CONV) diet, hypothesizing that a higher-complex carbohydrate/lower-fat (CHOICE) diet would improve maternal insulin resistance (IR), adipose tissue (AT) lipolysis, and infant adiposity. At 31 weeks, 12 diet-controlled overweight/obese women with GDM were randomized to an isocaloric LC/CONV (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein; n = 6) or CHOICE (60%/25%/15%; n = 6) diet. All meals were provided. AT was biopsied at 37 weeks. After ∼7 weeks, fasting glucose (P = 0.03) and free fatty acids (P = 0.06) decreased on CHOICE, whereas fasting glucose increased on LC/CONV (P = 0.03). Insulin suppression of AT lipolysis was improved on CHOICE versus LC/CONV (56 vs. 31%, P = 0.005), consistent with improved IR. AT expression of multiple proinflammatory genes was lower on CHOICE (P vs. 12.6 ± 2%, respectively). A CHOICE diet may improve maternal IR and infant adiposity, challenging recommendations for a LC/CONV diet. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Research teams as complex systems: implications for knowledge management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in research collaboration creates the need to better understand the interaction between individual researchers and the collaborative team. The paper elaborates the conceptualisation of research teams as complex systems which emerge out of the local interactions of individual

  19. Radiolysis of carbohydrates and of carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Adam, S.; Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicological evaluation of irradiated foodstuffs requires knowledge of radiation-induced chemical changes. A review of the literature reveals much information on the radiation chemistry of pure substances, e.g., dilute solutions of individual carbohydrates. Much less is known about the interactions of food constituents during irradiation. In an effort to remedy this situation, radiation effects on various compounds have been studied in systems of increasing complexity. In one approach, gas chromatography was used to investigate the radiolysis of tehalose in pure solution and in the presence of amino acids or proteins. In another approach, radiation-induced aggregation of proteins and of [ 14 C]tryptophan with proteins was studied in the absence and presence of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch), emulsified sunfower oil, and a mixture of carbohydrates and emulsified sunflower oil

  20. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  2. Chemoselective Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates from Unprotected Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus; Martos Maldonado, Manuel Cristo; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or their conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates......, such as glycopeptides or glycolipids. Glycobiology and its “omics”, glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates...

  3. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  4. Automated complex for research of electric drives control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avlasko, P. V.; Antonenko, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    In the article, the automated complex intended for research of various control modes of electric motors including the inductor motor of double-way feed is described. As a basis of the created complex, the National Instruments platform is chosen. The operating controller built in a platform is delivered with an operating system of real-time for creation of systems of measurement and management. The software developed in the environment of LabVIEW consists of several connected modules which are in different elements of a complex. Besides the software for automated management by experimental installation, the program complex is developed for modelling of processes in the electric drive. As a result there is an opportunity to compare simulated and received experimentally transitional characteristics of the electric drive in various operating modes.

  5. Research on the Fault Coefficient in Complex Electrical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and isolation in a complex system are research hotspots and frontier problems in the reliability engineering field. Fault identification can be regarded as a procedure of excavating key characteristics from massive failure data, then classifying and identifying fault samples. In this paper, based on the fundamental of feature extraction about the fault coefficient, we will discuss the fault coefficient feature in complex electrical engineering in detail. For general fault types in a complex power system, even if there is a strong white Gaussian stochastic interference, the fault coefficient feature is still accurate and reliable. The results about comparative analysis of noise influence will also demonstrate the strong anti-interference ability and great redundancy of the fault coefficient feature in complex electrical engineering.

  6. The complex and transdisciplinarity thought as frames of scientific research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Galati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to describe and support, from the methodological point of view, Edgar Morin’s complex thought and Basarab Nicolescu’s transdisciplinarity. It is structured based on the philosophical and logical contexts of multi-method; and then developing methodological ideas from transdisciplinarity and complexity. The methodology used is the documentation, taking into account articles on doctrine and teaching experience. There is discourse analysis, classification and interpretation, also creating categories. The implications of integrative, complex and transdisciplinary philosophy are seen, in a research design for Social Sciences. Transdisciplinary category of "property" is provided, adding it to the "production" category. Developing the complexity and transdisciplinarity as a methodology, "transdisciplinary instructions" arise, which are applied to research although they were originally thought for teaching. From the structure of the research design, unsystematic transdisciplinary methodological strategies and systematic strategies element by element of the research project are identified. As another result, the creation of the category of "General Theory / Interim Science" is added, approached from transdisciplinarity

  7. Accelerating complex for basic researches in the nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovbnya, A.N.; Guk, I.S.; Kononenko, S.G.; Peev, F.A.; Tarasenko, A.S.; Botman, J.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 in NSC KIPT was begun the work on development the project of accelerator, base facility IHEPNP NSC KIPT electron recirculator SALO. The accelerator will be disposed in target hall of accelerator LU 2000 complex. It is projected first of all as facility for basic researches in the field of

  8. Research ethics in dissertations: ethical issues and complexity of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, S; Ross, S N; Fridlund, B

    2010-07-01

    Conducting ethically sound research is a fundamental principle of scientific inquiry. Recent research has indicated that ethical concerns are insufficiently dealt with in dissertations. To examine which research ethical topics were addressed and how these were presented in terms of complexity of reasoning in Swedish nurses' dissertations. Analyses of ethical content and complexity of ethical reasoning were performed on 64 Swedish nurses' PhD dissertations dated 2007. A total of seven ethical topics were identified: ethical approval (94% of the dissertations), information and informed consent (86%), confidentiality (67%), ethical aspects of methods (61%), use of ethical principles and regulations (39%), rationale for the study (20%) and fair participant selection (14%). Four of those of topics were most frequently addressed: the majority of dissertations (72%) included 3-5 issues. While many ethical concerns, by their nature, involve systematic concepts or metasystematic principles, ethical reasoning scored predominantly at lesser levels of complexity: abstract (6% of the dissertations), formal (84%) and systematic (10%). Research ethics are inadequately covered in most dissertations by nurses in Sweden. Important ethical concerns are missing, and the complexity of reasoning on ethical principles, motives and implications is insufficient. This is partly due to traditions and norms that discount ethical concerns but is probably also a reflection of the ability of PhD students and supervisors to handle complexity in general. It is suggested that the importance of ethical considerations should be emphasised in graduate and post-graduate studies and that individuals with capacity to deal with systematic and metasystematic concepts are recruited to senior research positions.

  9. The complexity of collaboration: Opportunities and challenges in contracted research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bowl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the challenges of utilising collaborative research approaches when undertaking contracted research projects for government and non-government agencies in the adult and community education (ACE sector. To discuss these challenges, the article draws on three recent examples of research projects undertaken for ACE sector organisations in Aotearoa New Zealand. These challenges include managing relationships with the different parties to the research; dealing with conflicting expectations of funding agencies, commissioning organisations and practitioners; and ownership and dissemination of findings. We highlight the complexity of notions of collaboration and the importance of deliberate trust-building in establishing credibility. We also open up for discussion the thorny issues of who owns the right to disseminate research findings and how far should researchers’ and universities’ responsibilities extend to ensure that research findings are put in the public domain?

  10. Quantifying complexity in translational research: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, David A; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify complexity in translational research. The impact of major operational steps and technical requirements is calculated with respect to their ability to accelerate moving new discoveries into clinical practice. A three-phase integrated quality function deployment (QFD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to quantify complexity in translational research. A case study in obesity was used to usability. Generally, the evidence generated was valuable for understanding various components in translational research. Particularly, the authors found that collaboration networks, multidisciplinary team capacity and community engagement are crucial for translating new discoveries into practice. As the method is mainly based on subjective opinion, some argue that the results may be biased. However, a consistency ratio is calculated and used as a guide to subjectivity. Alternatively, a larger sample may be incorporated to reduce bias. The integrated QFD-AHP framework provides evidence that could be helpful to generate agreement, develop guidelines, allocate resources wisely, identify benchmarks and enhance collaboration among similar projects. Current conceptual models in translational research provide little or no clue to assess complexity. The proposed method aimed to fill this gap. Additionally, the literature review includes various features that have not been explored in translational research.

  11. Relationships between economic and technical research in nuclear power complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, M.; Martinek, J.

    1984-01-01

    The period from projecting and construction to operation and decommissioning of a nuclear power plant spans approximately 5a years. During this period it is necessary to resolve a range of technical, economic and social research problems. Even more complicated is the nuclear power complex as a whole. The respective technical and economic aspects are interactive and cannot be solved separately. It is therefore suggested that the respective national research and development program be linked with the national program of economic research, this both at the preparatory stage, in the course of work and during the evaluation of achieved results. (Ha)

  12. Commentary: Competency restoration research--complicating an already complex process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Merrill; Greenspan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Predicting restorability in individuals found not competent to stand trial is an enduring focus of interest among forensic clinicians and academicians. In our commentary, we suggest that to understand this area even more comprehensively, we must look further. We must build on existing research on fitness to stand trial, move beyond diagnosis and a binary competence variable, and include the complex interplay between symptoms and fitness-related capacities that may be associated with lack of adjudicative competence and challenges to restorability.

  13. Embedding research in health systems: lessons from complexity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Louise; Wolfe, Charles; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-07-22

    Internationally, there has been increasing focus on creating health research systems. This article aims to investigate the challenges of implementing apparently simple strategies to support the development of a health research system. We focus on a case study of an English National Health Service Hospital Trust that sought to implement the national recommendation that health organisations should introduce a statement about research on all patient admission letters. We apply core concepts from complexity theory to the case study and undertake a documentary analysis of the email dialogue between staff involved in implementing this initiative. The process of implementing a research statement in patient admission letters in one clinical service took 1 year and 21 days. The length of time needed was influenced firstly by adaptive self-organisation, underpinned by competing interests. Secondly, it was influenced by the relationship between systems, rather than simply being a product of issues within those systems. The relationship between the health system and the research system was weaker than might have been expected. Responsibilities were unclear, leading to confusion and delayed action. Conventional ways of thinking about organisations suggest that change happens when leaders and managers change the strategic vision, structure or procedures in an organisation and then persuade others to rationally implement the strategy. However, health research systems are complex adaptive systems characterised by high levels of unpredictability due to self-organisation and systemic interactions, which give rise to 'emergent' properties. We argue for the need to study how micro-processes of organisational dynamics may give rise to macro patterns of behaviour and strategic organisational direction and for the use of systems approaches to investigate the emergent properties of health research systems.

  14. New modulated design, docking and synthesis of carbohydrate-conjugate heterobimetallic CuII-SnIV complex as potential topoisomerase II inhibitor: in vitro DNA binding, cleavage and cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2014-03-03

    New carbohydrate-conjugate heterobimetallic complexes [C₂₂H₅₀N₆O₁₃CuSnCl₂] (3) and [C₂₂H₅₈N₆O₁₇NiSnCl₂] (4) were synthesized from their monometallic analogs [C₂₂H₅₂N₆O₁₃Cu] (1) and [C₂₂H₆₀N₆O₁₇Ni] (2) containing N-glycoside ligand (L). In vitro DNA binding studies of L and complexes (1-4) with CT DNA were carried out by employing various biophysical and molecular docking techniques which revealed that heterobimetallic complex 3 strongly binds to DNA in comparison to 4, monometallic complexes (1 and 2) and the free ligand. Complex 3 cleaves pBR322 DNA via hydrolytic pathway (confirmed by T4 DNA ligase assay) and inhibited Topo-II activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, complex 3 was docked into the ATPase domain of human-Topo-II in order to probe the possible mechanism of inhibition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  16. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  17. [Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Franka; Pahlke, Stephanie; Diesing, Alice; Marin, Nina; Klasen, Fionna; Pawils, Silke; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2018-03-01

    Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice Frequent traumata in childhood and adolescence are long-term or repeated interpersonal traumata caused by perpetrators in the close environment of the minors. For the description of the extensive symptoms after interpersonal Type II traumata, the complex trauma-related disorders Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) or Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) and the Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) are being discussed for inclusion in the classification systems for mental disorders. Scientific knowledge and practical experiences regarding CPTSD, DESNOS and DTD in children and adolescents up to 18 years were examined by 1) a Systematic Review of 1,070 publications identified by database research and additional search strategies, and 2) a nationwide online survey of 374 psychotherapists and psychiatrists for children and adolescents in Germany. Of 13 included empirical studies (8 CPTSD or DESNOS, 5 DTD), 9 were conducted in the USA, 4 based on file coding and 3 on secondary data analysis and only 7 reported diagnosis rates (range: 0-78 %). Of the interviewed therapists, 100 % considered the CPTSD as being met with at least one patient with interpersonal traumata up to 18 years of age in 2014 and 99 % gave this estimate for the DTD. Two thirds of therapists rated the diagnostic option CPTSD and DTD as "very often" or "often" helpful for their therapeutic work with children and adolescents. While empirical data available is to be considered insufficient and characterized by methodological limitations, the relevance of complex trauma-related disorders is perceived as high by practitioners.

  18. Carbohydrates as T-cell antigens with implications in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Middleton, Dustin R; Wantuch, Paeton L; Ozdilek, Ahmet; Avci, Fikri Y

    2016-10-01

    Glycosylation is arguably the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins in microbial and mammalian cells. During the past few years, there has been intensive research demonstrating that carbohydrates, either in pure forms or in conjunction with proteins or lipids, evoke and modulate adaptive immune responses. We now know that carbohydrates can be directly recognized by T cells or participate in T-cell stimulation as components of T-cell epitopes. T-cell recognition of carbohydrate antigens takes place via their presentation by major histocompatibility complex pathways on antigen-presenting cells. In this review, we summarize studies on carbohydrates as T-cell antigens modulating adaptive immune responses. Through discussion of glycan-containing antigens, such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, zwitterionic polysaccharides and carbohydrate-based glycoconjugate vaccines, we will illustrate the key molecular and cellular interactions between carbohydrate antigens and T cells and the implications of these interactions in health and disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Complexity and agent-based modelling in urban research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    influence on the bigger system. Traditional scientific methods or theories often tried to simplify, not accounting complex relations of actors and decision-making. The introduction of computers in simulation made new approaches in modelling, as for example agent-based modelling (ABM), possible, dealing......Urbanisation processes are results of a broad variety of actors or actor groups and their behaviour and decisions based on different experiences, knowledge, resources, values etc. The decisions done are often on a micro/individual level but resulting in macro/collective behaviour. In urban research...

  20. Carbohydrates in diversity-oriented synthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, E; Menchi, G; Trabocchi, A

    2016-01-21

    Over the last decade, Diversity-Oriented Synthesis (DOS) has become a new paradigm for developing large collections of structurally diverse small molecules as probes to investigate biological pathways, and to provide a larger array of the chemical space. Drug discovery and chemical biology are taking advantage of DOS approaches to exploit highly-diverse and complex molecular platforms, producing advances in both target and ligand discovery. In this view, carbohydrates are attractive building blocks for DOS libraries, due to their stereochemical diversity and high density of polar functional groups, thus offering many possibilities for chemical manipulation and scaffold decoration. This review will discuss research contributions and perspectives on the application of carbohydrate chemistry to explore the accessible chemical space through appendage, stereochemical and scaffold diversity.

  1. Research Strategy for Modeling the Complexities of Turbine Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a NASA research program, known as the Coolant Flow Management Program, which focuses on the interaction between the internal coolant channel and the external film cooling of a turbine blade and/or vane in an aircraft gas turbine engine. The turbine gas path is really a very complex flow field. The combination of strong pressure gradients, abrupt geometry changes and intersecting surfaces, viscous forces, rotation, and unsteady blade/vane interactions all combine to offer a formidable challenge. To this, in the high pressure turbine, we add the necessity of film cooling. The ultimate goal of the turbine designer is to maintain or increase the high level of turbine performance and at the same time reduce the amount of coolant flow needed to achieve this end. Simply stated, coolant flow is a penalty on the cycle and reduces engine thermal efficiency. Accordingly, understanding the flow field and heat transfer associated with the coolant flow is a priority goal. It is important to understand both the film cooling and the internal coolant flow, particularly their interaction. Thus, the motivation for the Coolant Flow Management Program. The paper will begin with a brief discussion of the management and research strategy, will then proceed to discuss the current attack from the internal coolant side, and will conclude by looking at the film cooling effort - at all times keeping sight of the primary goal the interaction between the two. One of the themes of this paper is that complex heat transfer problems of this nature cannot be attacked by single researchers or even groups of researchers, each working alone. It truly needs the combined efforts of a well-coordinated team to make an impact. It is important to note that this is a government/industry/university team effort.

  2. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  3. Exotic plant species around Jeongeup Research Complex and RFT industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cha, Min Kyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Jin Hong

    2015-01-01

    In Shinjeong-dong of Jeongeup, there are three government-supported research institutes and an RFT industrial complex which is currently being established. Increased human activities can affect flora and fauna as a man-made pressure onto the region. As a baseline study, status of exotic plants was investigated prior to a full operation of the RFT industrial complex. A total of 54 species and 1 variety of naturalized or introduced plants were found in the study area. Among them, three species (Ambrosia artemisifolia var. elatior, Rumex acetocella and Aster pilosus) belong to 'nuisance species', and four species (Phytolacca americana, Iopomoea hederacea, Ereechtites hieracifolia and Rudbeckia laciniata) to ‘monitor species’ designated by the ministry of Environment. Some of naturalized trees and plants were intentionally introduced in this area, while others naturally immigrated. Physalis angulata seems to immigrate in the study area in the form of mixture with animal feeds as its distribution coincided with the transportation route of the animal feeds. Liquidambar styraciflua is amenable to the ecological investigation on the possible expansion of the species to the nearby Naejang National Park as its leave shape and autumn color are very similar to those of maple trees. The number of naturalized plants around the RFT industrial complex will increase with an increase in floating population, in human activities in association with constructions of factories and operations of the complex. The result of this study provides baseline data for assessing the ecological change of the region according to the operation of the RFT industrial complex

  4. Exotic plant species around Jeongeup Research Complex and RFT industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cha, Min Kyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Jin Hong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In Shinjeong-dong of Jeongeup, there are three government-supported research institutes and an RFT industrial complex which is currently being established. Increased human activities can affect flora and fauna as a man-made pressure onto the region. As a baseline study, status of exotic plants was investigated prior to a full operation of the RFT industrial complex. A total of 54 species and 1 variety of naturalized or introduced plants were found in the study area. Among them, three species (Ambrosia artemisifolia var. elatior, Rumex acetocella and Aster pilosus) belong to 'nuisance species', and four species (Phytolacca americana, Iopomoea hederacea, Ereechtites hieracifolia and Rudbeckia laciniata) to ‘monitor species’ designated by the ministry of Environment. Some of naturalized trees and plants were intentionally introduced in this area, while others naturally immigrated. Physalis angulata seems to immigrate in the study area in the form of mixture with animal feeds as its distribution coincided with the transportation route of the animal feeds. Liquidambar styraciflua is amenable to the ecological investigation on the possible expansion of the species to the nearby Naejang National Park as its leave shape and autumn color are very similar to those of maple trees. The number of naturalized plants around the RFT industrial complex will increase with an increase in floating population, in human activities in association with constructions of factories and operations of the complex. The result of this study provides baseline data for assessing the ecological change of the region according to the operation of the RFT industrial complex.

  5. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  6. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  7. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  8. Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxic and antitubercular activities of new gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing ligands derived from carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Joana Darc Souza; Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; Paula, Marcela Cristina Ferreira; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Azevedo, Gustavo Chevitarese; Matos, Renato Camargo; Lourenço, Maria Cristina S; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula Soares; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Novel gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing derivatives of D-galactose, D-ribose and D-glucono-1,5-lactone as ligands were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, and (13)C NMR, high resolution mass spectra and cyclic voltammetry. The compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity against three types of tumor cells: cervical carcinoma (HeLa) breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and glioblastoma (MO59J) and one non-tumor cell line: human lung fibroblasts (GM07492A). Their antitubercular activity was evaluated as well expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) in μg/mL. In general, the gold(I) complexes were more active than gold(III) complexes, for example, the gold(I) complex (1) was about 8.8 times and 7.6 times more cytotoxic than gold(III) complex (8) in MO59J and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Ribose and alkyl phosphine derivative complexes were more active than galactose and aryl phosphine complexes. The presence of a thiazolidine ring did not improve the cytotoxicity. The study of the cytotoxic activity revealed effective antitumor activities for the gold(I) complexes, being more active than cisplatin in all the tested tumor cell lines. Gold(I) compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (6) exhibited relevant antitubercular activity even when compared with first line drugs such as rifampicin.

  9. Carbohydrate linked organotin(IV) complexes as human topoisomerase Iα inhibitor and their antiproliferative effects against the human carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rais Ahmad; Yadav, Shipra; Hussain, Zahid; Arjmand, Farukh; Tabassum, Sartaj

    2014-02-14

    Dimethyltin(IV) complexes with ethanolamine (1) and biologically significant N-glycosides (2 and 3) were designed and synthesized. The structural elucidation of complexes 1-3 was done using elemental and spectroscopic methods; in addition, complex 1 was studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The in vitro DNA binding profile of complexes 2 and 3 was carried out by employing different biophysical methods to ascertain the feasibility of glycosylated complexes. Further, the cleaving ability of 2 and 3 was investigated by the agarose gel electrophoretic mobility assay with supercoiled pBR322 DNA, and demonstrated significantly good nuclease activity. Furthermore, both the complexes exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of human Topo I at lower concentration than standard drugs. Computer-aided molecular docking techniques were used to ascertain the mode and mechanism of action towards the molecular target DNA and Topo I. The cytotoxicity of 2 and 3 against human hepatoma cancer cells (Huh7) was evaluated, which revealed significant regression in cancerous cells as compared with the standard drug. The antiproliferative activities of 2 and 3 were tested against human hepatoma cancer cells (Huh7), and results showed significantly good activity. Additionally, to validate the remarkable antiproliferative activity of complexes 2 and 3, specific regulatory gene expression (MMP-2 and TGF-β) was obtained by real time PCR.

  10. Structural characterisation of human galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with glycerol, lactose, 3′-sulfo-lactose, and 2′-fucosyllactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bum-Erdene, Khuchtumur; Leffler, Hakon; Nilsson, Ulf J.; Blanchard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat galectin with two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD). Galectin-4 is expressed mainly in the alimentary tract and is proposed to function as a lipid raft and adherens junction stabilizer by its glycan cross-linking capacity. Galectin-4 plays divergent roles in cancer and inflammatory conditions, either promoting or inhibiting each disease progression, depending on the specific pathological condition. The study of galectin-4’s ligand-binding profile may help decipher its roles under specific conditions. Here we present the X-ray structures of human galectin-4 N-terminal CRD (galectin-4N) bound to different saccharide ligands. Galectin-4’s overall fold and its core interactions to lactose are similar to other galectin CRDs. Galectin-4N recognises the sulfate cap of 3′-sulfated glycans by a weak interaction through Arg45 and two water-mediated hydrogen bonds via Trp84 and Asn49. When galectin-4N interacts with the H-antigen mimic, 2′-fucosyllactose, an interaction is formed between the ring oxygen of fucose and Arg45. The extended binding site of galectin-4N may not be well suited to the A/B-antigen determinants, α-GalNAc/α-Gal, specifically due to clashes with residue Phe47. Overall, galectin-4N favours sulfated glycans whilst galectin-4C prefers blood group determinants. However, the two CRDs of galectin-4 can, to a less extent, recognise each other’s ligands. PMID:26828567

  11. How nature works complexity in interdisciplinary research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sanayei, Ali; Zenil, Hector; Rössler, Otto

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on the outcome of the “2012 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held at the island of Kos.  The book consists of 12 selected papers of the symposium starting with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems, continuing by chapters about complexity, its observation, modeling and its applications to solving various problems including real-life applications. More exactly, readers will have an encounter with the structural complexity of vortex flows, the use of chaotic dynamics within evolutionary algorithms, complexity in synthetic biology, types of complexity hidden inside evolutionary dynamics and possible controlling methods, complexity of rugged landscapes, and more. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-art discussions on aspects of complexity.  The book will be useful as instructional material for senior undergraduate and entry-level graduate students in computer science, physics, applied mathemat...

  12. Evaluation of the National Research Council (2001) dairy model and derivation of new prediction equations. 1. Digestibility of fiber, fat, protein, and nonfiber carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Roman-Garcia, Y; Firkins, J L; VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weiss, W P; McGill, T; Garnett, R; Hanigan, M D

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of ration balancing systems such as the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements series is important for improving predictions of animal nutrient requirements and advancing feeding strategies. This work used a literature data set (n = 550) to evaluate predictions of total-tract digested neutral detergent fiber (NDF), fatty acid (FA), crude protein (CP), and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) estimated by the NRC (2001) dairy model. Mean biases suggested that the NRC (2001) lactating cow model overestimated true FA and CP digestibility by 26 and 7%, respectively, and under-predicted NDF digestibility by 16%. All NRC (2001) estimates had notable mean and slope biases and large root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE), and concordance (CCC) ranged from poor to good. Predicting NDF digestibility with independent equations for legumes, corn silage, other forages, and nonforage feeds improved CCC (0.85 vs. 0.76) compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form (NRC equation with parameter estimates re-derived against this data set). Separate FA digestion coefficients were derived for different fat supplements (animal fats, oils, and other fat types) and for the basal diet. This equation returned improved (from 0.76 to 0.94) CCC compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form. Unique CP digestibility equations were derived for forages, animal protein feeds, plant protein feeds, and other feeds, which improved CCC compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form (0.74 to 0.85). New NFC digestibility coefficients were derived for grain-specific starch digestibilities, with residual organic matter assumed to be 98% digestible. A Monte Carlo cross-validation was performed to evaluate repeatability of model fit. In this procedure, data were randomly subsetted 500 times into derivation (60%) and evaluation (40%) data sets, and equations were derived using the derivation data and then evaluated against the independent evaluation data. Models

  13. Composite carbohydrate interpenetrating polyelectrolyte nano-complexes (IPNC) as a controlled oral delivery system of citalopram HCl for pediatric use: in-vitro/in-vivo evaluation and histopathological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Rabab; Abbas, Haidy; El-Naa, Mona

    2018-06-01

    Citalopram HCl (CH) is one of the few drugs which can be used safely in childhood psychiatric disorders. This study was focused on the preparation of interpenetrating polyelectrolytes nano-complexes (IPNC) to transform the hydrophilic carbohydrate polymers into an insoluble form. The IPNCs were loaded with CH to sustain its effect. The IPNC2 (composed of chitosan:pectin in a 3:1 ratio) showed the most extended drug release pattern (P < 0.05) and followed a Higuchi-order kinetics model. It was characterized using SEM, X-rays diffractometry, and FTIR. In-vivo studies were performed using immature rats with induced depression, and were based on the investigation of behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological changes at different time intervals up to 24 h. Rats treated with IPNC2 showed a significant more rapid onset of action and more extended effect in the behavioral tests, in addition to a significantly higher serotonin brain level up to 24 h, compared to rats treated with the market product (P < 0.05). The histopathological examination showed a profound amelioration of the cerebral cortex features of the depressed rats after IPNC2 administration. This study proves the higher efficacy and more extended effect of the new polyelectrolytes nano-complexes compared to the market product.

  14. Model for conductometric detection of carbohydrates and alcohols as complexes with boric acid and borate ion in high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, G.L.; Armstrong, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    In recent articles, Okada has demonstrated the utility of indirect conductometric detection of electrically neutral sugars and alcohols through their complexes in boric acid solution. The use of a boric acid eluent provides a highly sensitive means of detection for monosaccharides, lactose, and sugar alcohols but not for polysaccharides (other than lactose) and simple alcohols. Addition of sorbitol, mannitol, or fructose to the boric acid eluent allows detection of the polysaccharides and simple alcohols, as well as lactose, glucose, fructose, and presumably other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. These results were interpreted in terms of the ability of an analyte to form either dissociated or undissociated complexes with boric acid. This interpretation was quantified with a mathematical description of the complexation equilibria and the conductivity due to ionic species. Unfortunately, the mathematical model contains some incorrect assumptions that severely limit the utility of the derived equations and may prevent optimization of this potentially important technique. We present here a more general mathematical model that does not suffer from these limitations

  15. New and Old Aspects of Complexity in Modern Research

    CERN Document Server

    Musaev, Djamaladdin

    2012-01-01

    Complexity occurs in biological and synthetic systems alike.  This general phenomenon has been addressed in recent publications by investigators in disciplines ranging from chemistry and biology to psychology and philosophy.  Studies of complexity for molecular scientists have focussed on breaking symmetry, dissipative processes, and emergence.  Investigators in the social and medical sciences have focused on neurophenomenology, cognitive approaches and self-consciousness.  Complexity in both structure and function is inherent in many scientific disciplines of current significance and also in technologies of current importance that are rapidly evolving to address global societal needs.  Several of these multifaceted scientific disciplines are addressed in this book including complexity from the general and philosophical perspective, magnetic phenomena, control of self assembly and function in large multicomponent clusters, application of theory to probe structure and mechanism in highly complex molecular...

  16. Carbohydrate intake and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related

  17. Research and Measurement of Software Complexity Based on Wuli, Shili, Renli (WSR and Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complexity is an important factor throughout the software life cycle. It is increasingly difficult to guarantee software quality, cost and development progress with the increase in complexity. Excessive complexity is one of the main reasons for the failure of software projects, so effective recognition, measurement and control of complexity becomes the key of project management. At first, this paper analyzes the current research situation of software complexity systematically and points out existing problems in current research. Then, it proposes a WSR framework of software complexity, which divides the complexity of software into three levels of Wuli (WL, Shili (SL and Renli (RL, so that the staff in different roles may have a better understanding of complexity. Man is the main source of complexity, but the current research focuses on WL complexity, and the research of RL complexity is extremely scarce, so this paper emphasizes the research of RL complexity of software projects. This paper not only analyzes the composing factors of RL complexity, but also provides the definition of RL complexity. Moreover, it puts forward a quantitative measurement method of the complexity of personnel organization hierarchy and the complexity of personnel communication information based on information entropy first and analyzes and validates the scientificity and rationality of this measurement method through a large number of cases.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiříková, Veronika; Fábry, Milan; Marková, Vladimíra; Malý, Petr; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 7 (2008), s. 665-667 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : 3-D structure * sugar binding * tumour marker Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.606, year: 2008

  19. RESEARCH ON COMPLEX, LARGE INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS IN TRANSNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more projects from different industrial sectors developed in transnational environment are becoming more characterized as "complex". In recent years, there has been much discussion and controversy about the complexity of the projects, and, despite what has been written and said in various papers, journals and professional conferences, more confusion than clarification was created, complexity of projects being interpreted differently from one author to another. Most of the literature studied is based on linear, analytical and rational approach, focusing on the size of project management planning and control and actually less on projects that are characterized as taking place and grow into a dynamic socio-human environment in a continuous change. This study represents a critical review of existing theoretical models found in literature, highlighting their limitations. The output of this literature study represents an integration of different approaches concerning complexity under one umbrella to provide a common understanding of the evolution of this concept.

  20. Process evaluation of complex interventions: Medical Research Council guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, G.F.; Audrey, S.; Barker, M.; Bond, L.; Bonell, C.; Hardeman, W.; Moore, L.; O'Cathain, A.; Tinati, T.; Wight, D.; Baird, J.

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to tackle problems such as smoking and obesity increasingly use complex interventions. These are commonly defined as interventions that comprise multiple interacting components, although additional dimensions of complexity include the difficulty of their implementation and the number of organisational levels they target.1 Randomised controlled trials are regarded as the gold standard for establishing the effectiveness of interventions, when randomisation is feasible. However, effect ...

  1. Research and assessment of competitiveness of large engineering complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivorotov V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the problem of ensuring the competitiveness of manufacturing and high-tech sectors is shown. Substantiated the decisive role of the large industrial complexes in the formation of the results of the national economy; the author’s interpretation of the concept of “industrial complex” with regard to current economic systems. Current approaches to assessing the competitiveness of enterprises and industrial complexes are analyzed; showing their main advantages and disadvantages. Provides scientific-methodological approach to the study and management of competitiveness of a large industrial complex; the description of its main units is provided. As a Central element of the scientific methodology approach proposed the methodology for assessing the competitiveness of a large industrial complex based on the Pattern-method; a modular system of indicators of competitiveness is developed and its adaptation to a large engineering complexes is made. Using the developed methodology the competitiveness of one of the largest engineering complexes of the group of companies Uralelectrotyazhmash, which is the leading enterprises in electrotechnical industry of Russia is assessed. The evaluation identified the main problems and bottlenecks in the development of these enterprises, and their comparison with leading competitors is provided. According to the results of the study the main conclusions and recommendations are formed.

  2. [The toxic effect of methylmercuric chloride on the organism in light of research on the hematopoietic system and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids in heart and liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, A

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of our experiments was to demonstrate possible changes in the activities of the hematopoietic system and the metabolism of the cardiac muscle and liver in the condition of the subacute poisoning with the methylmercuric acid. The tests were performed on 310 rats. The animals were administered the methylmercuric chloride per os in three different doses during three weeks. The activity of the hematopoietic system was analysed on the basis of selected factors concerning the erythrocytic system (the number of reticulocytes and erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes), the leukocytic system (number, percentage composition and the osmotic resistance of leukocytes), and the thrombocytes. The alterations in the cardiac muscle and the liver were analysed on the basis of selected elements of the carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. The indicators of the carbohydrate metabolism were glycogen, pyruvic, lactic, and citric acids. For the lipid metabolism we determined the concentration of free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids. A tendency to increase the minimum osmotic resistance of erythrocytes appeared under the influence of the methylmercuric chloride, probably as a result of the binding between the absorbed methylmercury with lipids and with the proteins of the erythrocyte cell membranes. As to the percentage composition of leukocytes, we observed the reduction of the number of eosinophils in the peripheral blood. The rats poisoned with the methylmercuric chloride reacted to the administered foreign toxic substance with the excitation of their reticuloendothelial systems which was demonstrated by a very clear increase of the reticular cells number. We found a reduction of the content of the basic energy substrate in the cardiac muscle, i.e. the free fatty acids, with the parallel increase of triglyceride concentration. The reductions of the glycogen and lactic acid concentrations were

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello Lidia

    2006-05-01

    D proteins form cell-surface protein complexes and play a role in carbon source acquisition. Primary occurrence in plant-associated gram-positive bacteria suggests a possible role in degradation and utilization of plant oligo- or poly-saccharides.

  4. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  5. [Specific problems posed by carbohydrate utilization in the rainbow trout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergot, F

    1979-01-01

    Carbohydrate incorporation in trout diets arises problems both at digestive and metabolic levels. Digestive utilization of carbohydrate closely depends on their molecular weight. In addition, in the case of complex carbohydrates (starches), different factors such as the level of incorporation, the amount consumed and the physical state of starch influence the digestibility. The measurement of digestibility in itself is confronted with methodological difficulties. The way the feces are collected can affect the digestion coefficient. Dietary carbohydrates actually serve as a source of energy. Nevertheless, above a certain level in the diet, intolerance phenomena may appear. The question that arises now is to establish the optimal part that carbohydrates can take in the metabolizable energy of a given diet.

  6. Cumulative complexity: a functional, patient-centered model of patient complexity can improve research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Nathan D; Shah, Nilay D; May, Carl R; Mair, Frances S; Montori, Victor M

    2012-10-01

    To design a functional, patient-centered model of patient complexity with practical applicability to analytic design and clinical practice. Existing literature on patient complexity has mainly identified its components descriptively and in isolation, lacking clarity as to their combined functions in disrupting care or to how complexity changes over time. The authors developed a cumulative complexity model, which integrates existing literature and emphasizes how clinical and social factors accumulate and interact to complicate patient care. A narrative literature review is used to explicate the model. The model emphasizes a core, patient-level mechanism whereby complicating factors impact care and outcomes: the balance between patient workload of demands and patient capacity to address demands. Workload encompasses the demands on the patient's time and energy, including demands of treatment, self-care, and life in general. Capacity concerns ability to handle work (e.g., functional morbidity, financial/social resources, literacy). Workload-capacity imbalances comprise the mechanism driving patient complexity. Treatment and illness burdens serve as feedback loops, linking negative outcomes to further imbalances, such that complexity may accumulate over time. With its components largely supported by existing literature, the model has implications for analytic design, clinical epidemiology, and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling Complex Nesting Structures in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Nielsen, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    hierarchical random coefficient models (RCM) are often used for the analysis of multilevel phenomena, IB issues often result in more complex nested structures. This paper illustrates how cross-nested multilevel modeling allowing for predictor variables and cross-level interactions at multiple (crossed) levels...

  8. Structure, Agency, Complexity Theory and Interdisciplinary Research in Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Education Studies needs to develop its existing interdisciplinarity understanding of structures and agencies by giving greater attention to the modern process theories of self-organisation in the physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, sometimes given the umbrella term "complexity theory". The…

  9. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  10. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Fuglsang, C. C.; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2009), s. 638-640 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbohydrate oxidase * crystallization * data processing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  11. Adopting the Transformational Leadership Perspective in a Complex Research Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Timothy N.; Pilgreen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Transformational Leadership is a popular topic among leadership scholars, but for research administrators, Transformational Leadership might seem like an enigmatic approach given its various contexts. Research administrators might think the transformational approach is only for executives, or that they do not have enough staff to call themselves…

  12. Data Mining: A Hybrid Methodology for Complex and Dynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Susan; Baehr, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which data and text mining have potential as research methodologies in composition studies. It introduces data mining in the context of the field of composition studies and discusses ways in which this methodology can complement and extend our existing research practices by blending the best of what…

  13. The Challenge of Researching Violent Societies: Navigating Complexities in Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2009-01-01

    Through use of a recent study researching democratic education and citizenship in Zimbabwe, this paper examines the methodological dilemmas and challenges faced by an ethnographer, particularly by a research student in a violent context. The article posits a bricolage strategy to navigate some of the dangers and methodological dilemmas inherent so…

  14. The Wide and Complex Field of NAFLD Biomarker Research: Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Wichro, Erika; Macheiner, Tanja; Schmid, Jasmin; Kavsek, Barbara; Sargsyan, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now acknowledged as a complex public health issue linked to sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and related disorders like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aims. We aimed to retrieve its trends out of the huge amount of published data. Therefore, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify possible biomarker and/or biomarker combinations by retrospectively assessing and evaluating common and novel biomarkers to predict progression a...

  15. Research of complex briquetted modifiers influence on cast iron properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталя Валеріївна Сусло

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Such properties of cast iron as hardness and shock resistance are relevant and have been investigated. Some possible ways to improve these properties have been studied and solutions to the assigned tasks in accordance with modern trends have been found. The use of nano-dispersed modifiers is most promising in modification. The compositions of experimental complex briquetted modifiers have been developed. The technology of cast iron processing with complex briquetted modifiers has been developed. A series of experiments on the effect of a complex briquetted modifier introduced into cast iron on its properties were carried out. The rational content of components in the briquette that makes maximum use of the modifying effect and improves such service characteristics of cast iron as hardness, impact - and wear-resistance has been defined. Ways of a briquette destruction in metal have been explored. The effect of an organic binder amount on the destruction of a briquette and its dissolution in the melt has been investigated. Rational composition of the briquetted modifier that makes it possible to increase hardness and impact resistance of cast iron has been developed

  16. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungermann, K; Thurman, R G

    1992-01-01

    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes possess different amounts and activities of the rate-generating enzymes of carbohydrate and oxidative energy metabolism and thus different metabolic capacities. This is the basis of the model of metabolic zonation, according to which periportal cells catalyze predominantly the oxidative catabolism of fatty and amino acids as well as glucose release and glycogen formation via gluconeogenesis, and perivenous cells carry out preferentially glucose uptake for glycogen synthesis and glycolysis coupled to liponeogenesis. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the periportal and perivenous zones is different; gradients of oxygen, substrates and products, hormones and mediators and nerve densities exist which are important not only for the short-term regulation of carbohydrate metabolism but also for the long-term regulation of zonal gene expression. The specialization of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes in carbohydrate metabolism has been well characterized. In vivo evidence is provided by the complex metabolic situation termed the 'glucose paradox' and by zonal flux differences calculated on the basis of the distribution of enzymes and metabolites. In vitro evidence is given by the different flux rates determined with classical invasive techniques, e.g. in periportal-like and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture, in periportal- and perivenous-enriched hepatocyte populations and in perfused livers during orthograde and retrograde flow, as well as with noninvasive techniques using miniature oxygen electrodes, e.g. in livers perfused in either direction. Differences of opinion in the interpretation of studies with invasive and noninvasive techniques by the authors are discussed. The declining gradient in oxygen concentrations, the decreasing glucagon/insulin ratio and the different innervation could be important factors in the zonal expression of the genes of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. While it is clear that

  17. Experimental complex for high flux-materials interaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagen-Torn, V.K.; Kirillov, I.R.; Komarov, V.L.; Litunovsky, V.N.; Mazul, I.V.; Ovchinnikov, I.B.; Prokofjev, Yu.G.; Saksagansky, G.L.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The experimental complex for high heat flux testing of divertor materials and bumper mock-ups under conditions close to both ITER stationary and plasma disruption PFC heat loads is described. High power plasma and electron beams are using as high heat flux sources. The former are applied to disruption simulation experiments. The values of pulsed plasma heat flux load up to 110 MJ/m 2 and stationary e-beam load up to 15 MW/m 2 can obtained on these facilities. (orig.)

  18. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  19. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  20. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  1. Methods for researching intercultural communication in globalized complex societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The field of intercultural communication research is challenged theoretically as well as methodologically by global changes such as migration, global mobility, mass media, tourism, etc. According to these changes cultures can no longer be seen as national entities, and cultural identity can...

  2. The ethics of good communication in a complex research partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeke, Stephen; Turner, Timothy; Tarver, Will

    2010-08-01

    The tripartite partnership among Morehouse School of Medicine, Tuskegee University, and University of Alabama at Birmingham is complex. In 2005, the three schools--with different institutional cultures, characters, and resources--agreed to collaborate in efforts to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in cancer burdens. Pursuing this laudable aim predictably involved some miscommunication. The Bioethics Shared Resource (BSR) group foresaw such challenges and monitored interactions to prevent harm, noting that while effective communication is critical to the achievement of mutual goals, an understanding and prudent use of proven communication principles is a sine qua non for success. In this commentary, we share the undergirding moral concepts, communication approaches, and lessons learned. This experience has led us to propose an ethics of good communication for others to consider.

  3. The Wide and Complex Field of NAFLD Biomarker Research: Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichro, Erika; Macheiner, Tanja; Schmid, Jasmin; Kavsek, Barbara; Sargsyan, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now acknowledged as a complex public health issue linked to sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and related disorders like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aims. We aimed to retrieve its trends out of the huge amount of published data. Therefore, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify possible biomarker and/or biomarker combinations by retrospectively assessing and evaluating common and novel biomarkers to predict progression and prognosis of obesity related liver diseases. Methodology. We analyzed finally 62 articles accounting for 157 cohorts and 45,288 subjects. Results. Despite the various approaches, most cohorts were considerably small and rarely comparable. Also, we found that the same standard parameters were measured rather than novel biomarkers. Diagnostics approaches appeared incomparable. Conclusions. Further collaborative investigations on harmonizing ways of data acquisition and identifying such biomarkers for clinical use are necessary to yield sufficient significant results of potential biomarkers.

  4. Dermal tumorigen PAH and complex mixtures for biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Ho, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen commercially available, commonly reported four-five ring dermal tumorigen PAHs, were determined in a set of complex mixtures consisting of crude and upgraded coal liquids, and petroleum crude oils and their distillate fractions. Semi-preparative scale, normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation followed by capillary column gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the measurements. Deuterated or carbon-14 labeled PAH served as internal standards or allowed recovery corrections. Approaches for the preparation and measurement of radiolabeled PAH were examined to provide chemical probes for biological study. Synthetic routes for production of 14 C labeled dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene and 14 C- or 3 H 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene are being studied to provide tracers for fundamental studies in tracheal transplant and skin penetration systems. (DT)

  5. Research on Evolutionary Mechanism of Agile Supply Chain Network via Complex Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Ru Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper establishes the evolutionary mechanism model of agile supply chain network by means of complex network theory which can be used to describe the growth process of the agile supply chain network and analyze the complexity of the agile supply chain network. After introducing the process and the suitability of taking complex network theory into supply chain network research, the paper applies complex network theory into the agile supply chain network research, analyzes the complexity of agile supply chain network, presents the evolutionary mechanism of agile supply chain network based on complex network theory, and uses Matlab to simulate degree distribution, average path length, clustering coefficient, and node betweenness. Simulation results show that the evolution result displays the scale-free property. It lays the foundations of further research on agile supply chain network based on complex network theory.

  6. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  7. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Recommended Research Directions for Improving the Validation of Complex Systems Models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finley, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Improved validation for models of complex systems has been a primary focus over the past year for the Resilience in Complex Systems Research Challenge. This document describes a set of research directions that are the result of distilling those ideas into three categories of research -- epistemic uncertainty, strong tests, and value of information. The content of this document can be used to transmit valuable information to future research activities, update the Resilience in Complex Systems Research Challenge's roadmap, inform the upcoming FY18 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) call and research proposals, and facilitate collaborations between Sandia and external organizations. The recommended research directions can provide topics for collaborative research, development of proposals, workshops, and other opportunities.

  9. Dynamics of Research Team Formation in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Wan, Yuzi; Chen, Yu

    Most organizations encourage the formation of teams to accomplish complicated tasks, and vice verse, effective teams could bring lots benefits and profits for organizations. Network structure plays an important role in forming teams. In this paper, we specifically study the dynamics of team formation in large research communities in which knowledge of individuals plays an important role on team performance and individual utility. An agent-based model is proposed, in which heterogeneous agents from research communities are described and empirically tested. Each agent has a knowledge endowment and a preference for both income and leisure. Agents provide a variable input (‘effort’) and their knowledge endowments to production. They could learn from others in their team and those who are not in their team but have private connections in community to adjust their own knowledge endowment. They are allowed to join other teams or work alone when it is welfare maximizing to do so. Various simulation experiments are conducted to examine the impacts of network topology, knowledge diffusion among community network, and team output sharing mechanisms on the dynamics of team formation.

  10. 1992 annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1992 the Santa Fe Institute hosted more than 100 short- and long-term research visitors who conducted a total of 212 person-months of residential research in complex systems. To date this 1992 work has resulted in more than 50 SFI Working Papers and nearly 150 publications in the scientific literature. The Institute`s book series in the sciences of complexity continues to grow, now numbering more than 20 volumes. The fifth annual complex systems summer school brought nearly 60 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to Santa Fe for an intensive introduction to the field. Research on complex systems-the focus of work at SFI-involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex adaptive behavior range upwards from DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complex behavior include spin glasses, cellular automata, and genetic algorithms. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simple components; (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy); and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions.

  11. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  13. Myostatin and carbohydrate disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assyov, Yavor S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2017-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: Myostatin is a myokine that has been shown to inhibit muscle growth and to have potentially deleterious effects on metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare its circulating serum levels in subjects from the whole spectrum of carbohydrate disturbances leading to diabetes. A total of 159 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects participated in the study - 50 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 60 had prediabetes (PreDM), and 49 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to determine glucose tolerance. Serum myostatin was quantified by means of ELISA. Circulating serum myostatin levels were highest in patients with T2D, lower in subjects with prediabetes, and lowest in subjects with normoglycemia (all p Myostatin was shown to be positively associated with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, hepatic enzymes, uric acid, and FINDRISC questionnaire scores in both sexes. ROC analyses determined circulating myostatin levels to be of value for differentiating subjects with T2D (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.002 in men; AUC = 0.70, p = 0.004 in women) in the study population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in a multiple binary logistic regression model, serum myostatin added further information to traditional risk estimates in distinguishing subjects with T2D. Serum myostatin levels are higher with deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Furthermore, circulating myostatin is positively associated with traditional biochemical estimates of poor metabolic health. These data add to evidence of the involvement of this myokine in the pathogenesis of T2D.

  14. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  15. Recent Progress in Chemical and Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthana, Saddam; Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The important roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes and their potential application in diagnosis, therapeutics, and vaccine development have made them attractive synthetic targets. Despite ongoing challenges, tremendous progresses have been made in recent years for the synthesis of carbohydrates. The chemical glycosylation methods have become more sophisticated and the synthesis of oligosaccharides has become more predictable. Simplified one-pot glycosylation strategy and automated synthesis are increasingly used to obtain biologically important glycans. On the other hand, chemoenzymatic synthesis continues to be a powerful alternative for obtaining complex carbohydrates. This review highlights recent progress in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates with a particular focus on the methods developed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycolipids, and glycosylated natural products. PMID:19833544

  16. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  17. Update on Marine Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Trincone

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After generating much interest in the past as an aid in solving structural problems for complex molecules such as polysaccharides, carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes of marine origin still appear as interesting biocatalysts for a range of useful applications in strong interdisciplinary fields such as green chemistry and similar domains. The multifaceted fields in which these enzymes are of interest and the scarce number of original articles in literature prompted us to provide the specialized analysis here reported. General considerations from modern (2016–2017 interval time review articles are at start of this manuscript; then it is subsequently organized in sections according to particular biopolymers and original research articles are discussed. Literature sources like the Science Direct database with an optimized W/in search, and the Espacenet patent database were used.

  18. Conceptualizing Debates in Learning and Educational Research: Toward a Complex Systems Conceptual Framework of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Kapur, Manu; Reimann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework of learning based on perspectives and methodologies being employed in the study of complex physical and social systems to inform educational research. We argue that the contexts in which learning occurs are complex systems with elements or agents at different levels--including neuronal, cognitive,…

  19. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part I: introducing a complex systems paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    The drinking environment is a complex system consisting of a number of heterogeneous, evolving and interacting components, which exhibit circular causality and emergent properties. These characteristics reduce the efficacy of commonly used research approaches, which typically do not account for the underlying dynamic complexity of alcohol consumption and the interdependent nature of diverse factors influencing misuse over time. We use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as an example for framing our argument for a complex systems paradigm. A complex systems paradigm, grounded in socio-ecological and complex systems theories and computational modeling and simulation, is introduced. Theoretical, conceptual, methodological and analytical underpinnings of this paradigm are described in the context of college drinking prevention research. The proposed complex systems paradigm can transcend limitations of traditional approaches, thereby fostering new directions in alcohol prevention research. By conceptualizing student alcohol misuse as a complex adaptive system, computational modeling and simulation methodologies and analytical techniques can be used. Moreover, use of participatory model-building approaches to generate simulation models can further increase stakeholder buy-in, understanding and policymaking. A complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can provide a holistic understanding of the underlying drinking environment and its long-term trajectory, which can elucidate high-leverage preventive interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  1. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  2. A new derivatization method for δ18O analysis of individual carbohydrates with GC-Pyrolysis-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, M. M.; Siegwolf, R. T.; Saurer, M.; Blees, J.; Fischer, M.; Zech, M.

    2015-12-01

    Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) with gas chromatography coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-Pyr-IRMS) is nowadays a powerful tool that is widely used by a broad spectrum of research fields to investigate the isotopic signature of diverse metabolites. While many CSIA methods for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopes are known, CSIA methods for the analysis of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) are still not widely established. Especially, reliable and precise methods for the δ18O analyses of individual carbohydrates are scarce, which is caused by the highly sensitive nature of the sugars. However, carbohydrates are important components of living organisms, source for many biochemical reactions, and can be found in all organisms, in soils, sediments, and in air. Thus, a method, allowing the investigation of the 18O/16O ratio in carbohydrates will enhance the scope of research using isotopes. We developed a new and easy to handle derivatization method to determine δ18O in carbohydrates with GC-Pyr-IRMS that consists of a catalyzed one-pot reaction in acetonitrile, resulting in complete methylation of all sugar hydroxyl groups within 24 hours, with silver oxide as the proton acceptor and methyl iodide as the methyl group carrier. Results derived from standard material show unrivalled δ18O precision ranging from about 0.2 to 1.1 ‰ for different individual carbohydrates of different classes and a generally very good accuracy, with a narrow range of 0.2 ‰ around the reference value, despite of high area variations. We applied this method on real samples, demonstrating that the method can commonly be used for analyzing honey samples, and for the analyses of more complex carbohydrate mixtures from plant leaves, including glucose, fructose, pinitol, and sucrose. Our new method may be used for food, beverage, and medical applications, as well as for biogeochemical and paleoclimatic sciences.

  3. Advances and Future Directions for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research: Recommendations From the 2015 Strategic Planning Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Henske, Elizabeth P; Manning, Brendan D; Ess, Kevin C; Bissler, John J; Klann, Eric; Kwiatkowski, David J; Roberds, Steven L; Silva, Alcino J; Hillaire-Clarke, Coryse St; Young, Lisa R; Zervas, Mark; Mamounas, Laura A

    2016-07-01

    On March 10 to March 12, 2015, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, to assess progress and new opportunities for research in tuberous sclerosis complex with the goal of updating the 2003 Research Plan for Tuberous Sclerosis (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/about_ninds/plans/tscler_research_plan.htm). In addition to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance, participants in the strategic planning effort and workshop included representatives from six other Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research Program, and a broad cross-section of basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex along with representatives from the pharmaceutical industry. Here we summarize the outcomes from the extensive premeeting deliberations and final workshop recommendations, including (1) progress in the field since publication of the initial 2003 research plan for tuberous sclerosis complex, (2) the key gaps, needs, and challenges that hinder progress in tuberous sclerosis complex research, and (3) a new set of research priorities along with specific recommendations for addressing the major challenges in each priority area. The new research plan is organized around both short-term and long-term goals with the expectation that progress toward specific objectives can be achieved within a five to ten year time frame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Addressing the Evidence Gap in Stroke Rehabilitation for Complex Patients: A Preliminary Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle L; McKellar, Kaileah A; Munce, Sarah; Kelloway, Linda; Hans, Parminder Kaur; Fortin, Martin; Lyons, Renee; Bayley, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests that a stroke occurs in isolation (no comorbid conditions) in less than 6% of patients. Multimorbidity, compounded by psychosocial issues, makes treatment and recovery for stroke increasingly complex. Recent research and health policy documents called for a better understanding of the needs of this patient population, and for the development and testing of models of care that meet their needs. A research agenda specific to complexity is required. The primary objective of the think tank was to identify and prioritize research questions that meet the information needs of stakeholders, and to develop a research agenda specific to stroke rehabilitation and patient complexity. A modified Delphi and World Café approach underpinned the think tank meeting, approaches well recognized to foster interaction, dialogue, and collaboration between stakeholders. Forty-three researchers, clinicians, and policymakers attended a 2-day meeting. Initial question-generating activities resulted in 120 potential research questions. Sixteen high-priority research questions were identified, focusing on predetermined complexity characteristics-multimorbidity, social determinants, patient characteristics, social supports, and system factors. The final questions are presented as a prioritized research framework. An emergent result of this activity is the development of a complexity and stroke rehabilitation research network. The research agenda reflects topics of importance to stakeholders working with stroke patients with increasingly complex care needs. This robust process resulted in a preliminary research agenda that could provide policymakers with the evidence needed to make improvements toward better-organized services, better coordination between settings, improved patient outcomes, and lower system costs. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Method Optimization for Rapid Measurement of Carbohydrates in Plasma by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ductoan; Yu, Jondong; Mho, Sunil; Lee, Gwang; Lee, Haelee; Paik, Manjeong; Yee, Sungtae

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, the developed HPLC coupled with ESI-MS was a powerful technique for the separation and characterization of carbohydrates by either SIM or MRM mode. The present method will be useful for the monitoring of carbohydrate profile in biological fluids from various diseases including diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia and hyperosmolar coma. Carbohydrates are one of the most abundant classes of organic compounds in nature, which not only constitute complex biomolecules in human and animals but are also distributed in plants and bacteria

  6. Fostering Complexity Thinking in Action Research for Change in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Rogers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complexity thinking is increasingly being embraced by a wide range of academics and professionals as imperative for dealing with today's pressing social-ecological challenges. In this context, action researchers partner directly with stakeholders (communities, governance institutions, and work resource managers, etc. to embed a complexity frame of reference for decision making. In doing so, both researchers and stakeholders must strive to internalize not only "intellectual complexity" (knowing but also "lived complexity" (being and practicing. Four common conceptualizations of learning (explicit/tacit knowledge framework; unlearning selective exposure; conscious/competence learning matrix; and model of learning loops are integrated to provide a new framework that describes how learning takes place in complex systems. Deep reflection leading to transformational learning is required to foster the changes in mindset and behaviors needed to adopt a complexity frame of reference. We then present three broad frames of mind (openness, situational awareness, and a healthy respect for the restraint/action paradox, which each encompass a set of habits of mind, to create a useful framework that allows one to unlearn reductionist habits while adopting and embedding those more conducive to working in complex systems. Habits of mind provide useful heuristic tools to guide researchers and stakeholders through processes of participative planning and adaptive decision making in complex social-ecological systems.

  7. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde......Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important...... therapy with glycosylation enzyme inhibitors will, however, require the development of more specific and less toxic compounds. If carbohydrate antigens can elicit a neutralizing immune response in vivo, the possibility exists that carbohydrate neoantigens can be utilized in the construction of a vaccine...

  8. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  9. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, Ole; Møller, Grith; Andersen, Henning K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of selfmanagement education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low...... to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004–2014 for guidelines, meta...... to moderate carbohydrate diets have greater effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes compared with high-carbohydrate diets in the first year of intervention. The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater glucose lowering, a relationship that has not been demonstrated earlier. Apart from...

  11. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  12. Interdisciplinarity, Qualitative Research, and the Complex Phenomenon: Toward an Integrative Approach to Intercultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Phillip; Kurtz, Jill Sornsen; Carter, Deanne; Pester, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    This article is a collaboration by the lead faculty member in a Masters program in Intercultural Studies and students who completed the program under his aegis. This article presents the program's approach to its research course sequence, an approach involving the integration of interdisciplinary and qualitative research. The authors first provide…

  13. Complex research of acoustic impact on gas-dust flow in vortex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complex research of acoustic impact on gas-dust flow in vortex-acoustic dispenser. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Introduction The processing of wastes from mining operations is usually related to the needs of related industries in raw materials. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Quantitative Research Methods in Chaos and Complexity: From Probability to Post Hoc Regression Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to qualitative methods presented in chaos and complexity theories in educational research, this article addresses quantitative methods that may show potential for future research studies. Although much in the social and behavioral sciences literature has focused on computer simulations, this article explores current chaos and…

  15. 1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

  16. What qualitative research can contribute to a randomized controlled trial of a complex community intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Macnaughton, Eric; Goering, Paula

    2015-11-01

    Using the case of a large-scale, multi-site Canadian Housing First research demonstration project for homeless people with mental illness, At Home/Chez Soi, we illustrate the value of qualitative methods in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a complex community intervention. We argue that quantitative RCT research can neither capture the complexity nor tell the full story of a complex community intervention. We conceptualize complex community interventions as having multiple phases and dimensions that require both RCT and qualitative research components. Rather than assume that qualitative research and RCTs are incommensurate, a more pragmatic mixed methods approach was used, which included using both qualitative and quantitative methods to understand program implementation and outcomes. At the same time, qualitative research was used to examine aspects of the intervention that could not be understood through the RCT, such as its conception, planning, sustainability, and policy impacts. Through this example, we show how qualitative research can tell a more complete story about complex community interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple purpose research complex on the basis of electron accelerators and terahertz free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this report the basic positioning parameters of multiple purpose research complex are presented, the list of potential experiments and technological uses on the example of results received in the multiuser center of G.I. Budker Institut of nuclear physics Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Sciences is discussed. This research complex is directed on work in the big universities and nano technology centers. Electron accelerators is intended for development of electron-beam technologies different material modification, for production of nano powder, nano materials and solution of ecological tasks. In this work the project of multiple purpose research complex on the basis of new generation electron accelerator Il-14 and workable terahertz free electron laser is suggested. Terahertz free electron laser will be used for researches in the sphere of physics and chemistry, biology and medicine, nanotechnology engineering and different methods of nanodiagnostics.

  18. Using mixed methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions in palliative care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Morag C; Ewing, Gail; Booth, Sara

    2011-12-01

    there is increasing interest in combining qualitative and quantitative research methods to provide comprehensiveness and greater knowledge yield. Mixed methods are valuable in the development and evaluation of complex interventions. They are therefore particularly valuable in palliative care research where the majority of interventions are complex, and the identification of outcomes particularly challenging. this paper aims to introduce the role of mixed methods in the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care, and how they may be used in palliative care research. the paper defines mixed methods and outlines why and how mixed methods are used to develop and evaluate complex interventions, with a pragmatic focus on design and data collection issues and data analysis. Useful texts are signposted and illustrative examples provided of mixed method studies in palliative care, including a detailed worked example of the development and evaluation of a complex intervention in palliative care for breathlessness. Key challenges to conducting mixed methods in palliative care research are identified in relation to data collection, data integration in analysis, costs and dissemination and how these might be addressed. the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care benefit from the application of mixed methods. Mixed methods enable better understanding of whether and how an intervention works (or does not work) and inform the design of subsequent studies. However, they can be challenging: mixed method studies in palliative care will benefit from working with agreed protocols, multidisciplinary teams and engaging staff with appropriate skill sets.

  19. How to make complexity look simple? Conveying ecosystems restoration complexity for socio-economic research and public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenk, Klaus; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems degradation represents one of the major global challenges at the present time, threating people’s livelihoods and well-being worldwide. Ecosystem restoration therefore seems no longer an option, but an imperative. Restoration challenges are such that a dialogue has begun on the need to re-shape restoration as a science. A critical aspect of that reshaping process is the acceptance that restoration science and practice needs to be coupled with socio-economic research and public engagement. This inescapably means conveying complex ecosystem’s information in a way that is accessible to the wider public. In this paper we take up this challenge with the ultimate aim of contributing to making a step change in science’s contribution to ecosystems restoration practice. Using peatlands as a paradigmatically complex ecosystem, we put in place a transdisciplinary process to articulate a description of the processes and outcomes of restoration that can be understood widely by the public. We provide evidence of the usefulness of the process and tools in addressing four key challenges relevant to restoration of any complex ecosystem: (1) how to represent restoration outcomes; (2) how to establish a restoration reference; (3) how to cope with varying restoration time-lags and (4) how to define spatial units for restoration. This evidence includes the way the process resulted in the creation of materials that are now being used by restoration practitioners for communication with the public and in other research contexts. Our main contribution is of an epistemological nature: while ecosystem services-based approaches have enhanced the integration of academic disciplines and non-specialist knowledge, this has so far only followed one direction (from the biophysical underpinning to the description of ecosystem services and their appreciation by the public). We propose that it is the mix of approaches and epistemological directions (including from the public to the

  20. Implications of complex adaptive systems theory for interpreting research about health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordon, Michelle; Lanham, Holly Jordan; Anderson, Ruth A; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2010-02-01

    Data about health care organizations (HCOs) are not useful until they are interpreted. Such interpretations are influenced by the theoretical lenses used by the researcher. Our purpose was to suggest the usefulness of theories of complex adaptive systems (CASs) in guiding research interpretation. Specifically, we addressed two questions: (1) What are the implications for interpreting research observations in HCOs of the fact that we are observing relationships among diverse agents? (2) What are the implications for interpreting research observations in HCOs of the fact that we are observing relationships among agents that learn? We defined diversity and learning and the implications of the non-linear relationships among agents from a CAS perspective. We then identified some common analytical practices that were problematic and may lead to conceptual and methodological errors. Then we described strategies for interpreting the results of research observations. We suggest that the task of interpreting research observations of HCOs could be improved if researchers take into account that the systems they study are CASs with non-linear relationships among diverse, learning agents. Our analysis points out how interpretation of research results might be shaped by the fact that HCOs are CASs. We described how learning is, in fact, the result of interactions among diverse agents and that learning can, by itself, reduce or increase agent diversity. We encouraged researchers to be persistent in their attempts to reason about complex systems and learn to attend not only to structures, but also to processes and functions of complex systems.

  1. Impact of carbohydrates on weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2015-07-01

    Research on obesity treatment has shifted its focus from weight loss to weight-loss maintenance strategies. The conventional approach of a low-fat diet is challenged by insights from glycemic effects of carbohydrates on body weight regulation. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations to weight loss that contribute to weight regain involve reduced energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and enhanced orexigenic signals. This review summarizes the impact of carbohydrates on energetic efficiency, partitioning of weight regain as fat and lean mass, and appetite control. Both the amount and frequency of postprandial glycemia add to body weight regulation after weight loss and strengthen the concept of glycemic index and glycemic load. In addition, dietary fiber and slowly or poorly absorbable functional sugars modify gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite and metabolic regulation and exert prebiotic effects. Current evidence suggests that a low-glycemic load diet with a preference for low-glycemic index foods and integration of slowly digestible, poorly absorbable carbohydrates may improve weight-loss maintenance. Future studies should investigate the health benefits of low glycemic functional sweeteners (e.g., isomaltulose and tagatose).

  2. Research of the complex of functional and technological properties of animal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна Дроменко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of analytical and practical research of the complex of functional and technological properties of animal protein Gelexcel A-95 as the basis for creation of complex functional additives is shown. The regularities of their changes are determined depending on technological factors. Rational parameters of animal protein rehydration, gelation conditions, emulsification for further use in the process of production of meat products are identified

  3. Meta-analysis, complexity, and heterogeneity: a qualitative interview study of researchers' methodological values and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Theo; Felix, Lambert; Petticrew, Mark; Melendez-Torres, G J; Thomas, James; Thomas, Sian; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Richardson, Michelle

    2016-11-16

    Complex or heterogeneous data pose challenges for systematic review and meta-analysis. In recent years, a number of new methods have been developed to meet these challenges. This qualitative interview study aimed to understand researchers' understanding of complexity and heterogeneity and the factors which may influence the choices researchers make in synthesising complex data. We conducted interviews with a purposive sample of researchers (N = 19) working in systematic review or meta-analysis across a range of disciplines. We analysed data thematically using a framework approach. Participants reported using a broader range of methods and data types in complex reviews than in traditional reviews. A range of techniques are used to explore heterogeneity, but there is some debate about their validity, particularly when applied post hoc. Technical considerations of how to synthesise complex evidence cannot be isolated from questions of the goals and contexts of research. However, decisions about how to analyse data appear to be made in a largely informal way, drawing on tacit expertise, and their relation to these broader questions remains unclear.

  4. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2011-11-25

    The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people's social and cultural lives. I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health.

  5. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  6. Aminooxylated Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Carlo; Daskhan, Gour Chand; Fiore, Michele; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René; Renaudet, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    Among other classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are widely involved in numerous biological functions. In addition to addressing the related synthetic challenges, glycochemists have invested intense efforts in providing access to structures that can be used to study, activate, or inhibit these biological processes. Over the past few decades, aminooxylated carbohydrates have been found to be key building blocks for achieving these goals. This review provides the first in-depth overview covering several aspects related to the syntheses and applications of aminooxylated carbohydrates. After a brief introduction to oxime bonds and their relative stabilities compared to related C═N functions, synthetic aspects of oxime ligation and methodologies for introducing the aminooxy functionality onto both glycofuranosyls and glycopyranosyls are described. The subsequent section focuses on biological applications involving aminooxylated carbohydrates as components for the construcion of diverse architectures. Mimetics of natural structures represent useful tools for better understanding the features that drive carbohydrate-receptor interaction, their biological output and they also represent interesting structures with improved stability and tunable properties. In the next section, multivalent structures such as glycoclusters and glycodendrimers obtained through oxime ligation are described in terms of synthetic design and their biological applications such as immunomodulators. The second-to-last section discusses miscellaneous applications of oxime-based glycoconjugates, such as enantioselective catalysis and glycosylated oligonucleotides, and conclusions and perspectives are provided in the last section.

  7. Synthesis and emulsifying properties of carbohydrate fatty acid esters produced from Agave tequilana fructans by enzymatic acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Godoy, Leticia; Arrizon, Javier; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Plou, Francisco J; Sandoval, Georgina

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid esters are non-ionic surfactants with a broad spectrum of applications. These molecules are generally synthesized using short carbohydrates or linear fructans; however in this research carbohydrate fatty acid esters were produced for the first time with branched fructans from Agave tequilana. Using immobilized lipases we successfully acylated A. tequilana fructans with vinyl laurate, obtaining products with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Lipozyme 435 was the most efficient lipase to catalyze the transesterification reaction. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis proved the presence of a mixture of acylated products as a result of the chemical complexity of fructans in the A. tequilana. The ESI-MS spectra showed a molecular mass shift between 183 and 366g/mol for fructooligosaccharides with a DP lower than 6, which indicated the presence of Agave fructans that had been mono- and diacylated with lauric acid. The carbohydrate fatty acid esters (CFAE) obtained showed good emulsifying properties in W/O emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural basis of carbohydrate recognition by lectin II from Ulex europaeus, a protein with a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, R; De Greve, H; Dao-Thi, M H; Messens, J; Imberty, A; Wyns, L

    2000-08-25

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are the language of choice for inter- cellular communication. The legume lectins form a large family of homologous proteins that exhibit a wide variety of carbohydrate specificities. The legume lectin family is therefore highly suitable as a model system to study the structural principles of protein-carbohydrate recognition. Until now, structural data are only available for two specificity families: Man/Glc and Gal/GalNAc. No structural data are available for any of the fucose or chitobiose specific lectins. The crystal structure of Ulex europaeus (UEA-II) is the first of a legume lectin belonging to the chitobiose specificity group. The complexes with N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucosylgalactose show a promiscuous primary binding site capable of accommodating both N-acetylglucos amine or galactose in the primary binding site. The hydrogen bonding network in these complexes can be considered suboptimal, in agreement with the low affinities of these sugars. In the complexes with chitobiose, lactose and fucosyllactose this suboptimal hydrogen bonding network is compensated by extensive hydrophobic interactions in a Glc/GlcNAc binding subsite. UEA-II thus forms the first example of a legume lectin with a promiscuous binding site and illustrates the importance of hydrophobic interactions in protein-carbohydrate complexes. Together with other known legume lectin crystal structures, it shows how different specificities can be grafted upon a conserved structural framework. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently

  10. Multiple Stressors and Ecological Complexity Require A New Approach to Coral Reef Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwood Hagan Pendleton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, climate change, and other environmental stressors threaten coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend upon them. New science reveals that these multiple stressors interact and may affect a multitude of physiological and ecological processes in complex ways. The interaction of multiple stressors and ecological complexity may mean that the negative effects on coral reef ecosystems will happen sooner and be more severe than previously thought. Yet, most research on the effects of global change on coral reefs focus on one or few stressors and pathways or outcomes (e.g. bleaching. Based on a critical review of the literature, we call for a regionally targeted strategy of mesocosm-level research that addresses this complexity and provides more realistic projections about coral reef impacts in the face of global environmental change. We believe similar approaches are needed for other ecosystems that face global environmental change.

  11. Compatible topologies and parameters for NMR structure determination of carbohydrates by simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingang

    2017-01-01

    The use of NMR methods to determine the three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates and glycoproteins is still challenging, in part because of the lack of standard protocols. In order to increase the convenience of structure determination, the topology and parameter files for carbohydrates in the program Crystallography & NMR System (CNS) were investigated and new files were developed to be compatible with the standard simulated annealing protocols for proteins and nucleic acids. Recalculating the published structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes and glycosylated proteins demonstrates that the results are comparable to the published structures which employed more complex procedures for structure calculation. Integrating the new carbohydrate parameters into the standard structure calculation protocol will facilitate three-dimensional structural study of carbohydrates and glycosylated proteins by NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams in seismic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negmatullaev, S.Kh.; Yasunov, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    This article is devoted to complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams (Nurec hydroelectric power station) in seismic region. Geological, seismological, model, and engineering investigations are discussed in this work. At construction of Nurec hydroelectric power station the rich experience is accumulated. This experience can be used in analogous seismically active regions at construction similar hydroelectric power stations.

  13. Coding for Language Complexity: The Interplay among Methodological Commitments, Tools, and Workflow in Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Coding, the analytic task of assigning codes to nonnumeric data, is foundational to writing research. A rich discussion of methodological pluralism has established the foundational importance of systematicity in the task of coding, but less attention has been paid to the equally important commitment to language complexity. Addressing the interplay…

  14. Use of Movement Imagery in Neurorehabilitation: Researching Effects of a Complex Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susy M.; Wade, Derick T.; Beurskens, Anna J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the use of mental practice and movement imagery within several medical professions in rehabilitation and therapy has received an increased attention. Before this introduction in healthcare, the use of movement imagery was mainly researched in sports science. Mental practice is a complex intervention. When…

  15. A Complex Systems Framework for Research on Leadership and Organizational Dynamics in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a historiographical analysis of major leadership and organizational development theories that have shaped our thinking about how we lead and administrate academic libraries. Drawing from behavioral, cognitive, systems, and complexity theories, this article discusses major theorists and research studies appearing over the past…

  16. Envisioning Complexity: Towards a New Conceptualization of Educational Research for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipere, Anita

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present some conceptual insights into the research paradigm of complexity that deals with such problems like sustainability, education, and, more specifically--sustainability education. The transdisciplinary perspective and cognitive approaches of a hermeneutical cycle and semantic waves used in argumentation assist in grasping…

  17. When Complexity Theory Meets Critical Realism: A Platform for Research on Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Ell, Fiona; Grudnoff, Lexie; Ludlow, Larry; Haigh, Mavis; Hill, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have concluded that teacher education research needs to take a complex view, resist simplification, and account more fully for teacher education's contexts and processes as well as its impact on teacher candidates' and school students' learning (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005; Grossman & McDonald, 2008; Opfer & Pedder,…

  18. Impact of Carbohydrate Restriction on Healthy Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Hannah M; Duriancik, David M

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are known for their impact on weight loss; however, research is still required to determine if low-carbohydrate diets are safe for adolescents. Carbohydrates directly stimulate an insulin response, and studies have recently shown that insulin and binding to respective insulin receptors (IRs) are critical in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neuronal development. These neurons directly stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which activates the pituitary-gonadal axis during puberty. This information suggests that carbohydrate restriction may delay pubertal development in adolescents due to the impact on insulin and Kiss1 transcription. Studies have observed disturbed insulin metabolism in Type I Diabetics leading to delayed puberty, along with overfeeding stimulating early pubertal onset. Additionally, recent clinical trials bred female mice with IR deletions on Kiss1 neurons and observed delayed vaginal opening and estrus. Current animal research suggests low carbohydrate intake may delay pubertal onset, however additional research is required to determine outcome in human subjects. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  19. Intestinal absorption of copper: influence of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Balkman, C

    1992-02-01

    Macronutrients can modulate the intestinal absorption of trace elements by binding the metal or altering mucosal function. We investigated whether certain simple and complex carbohydrates modify copper (Cu) absorption, using an in vivo perfusion technique in the rat. Corn syrup solids, which contain a mixture of glucose polymers of diverse length, added at either 20 or 50 mosm/kg enhanced Cu absorption from a 31.5 microM (2 mg/liter) Cu solution (128 +/- 11 and 130 +/- 11 pmol/min x cm, respectively, vs 101 +/- 4 pmol/min x cm, P less than 0.05, in the absence of carbohydrate). This was concomitant with a stimulation of net water absorption (1.05 +/- 0.08 and 0.84 +/- 0.08 microliter/min x cm, respectively, vs 0.63 +/- 0.02 microliter/min x cm with no carbohydrate, P less than 0.05). Glucose, fructose, lactose, or sucrose had no influence on Cu absorption, although they altered water exchanges, an effect attributable to a reduction of the outflow component of fluid recirculation. Low concentrations of lactose resulted in a greater accumulation of Cu in the intestinal mucosa (8.75 +/- 0.71 micrograms/g vs 5.77 +/- 0.68 micrograms/g for controls, P less than 0.05). Hence, solutes that moderately stimulate mucosa-to-serosa fluid influx in a progressive manner, such as glucose polymers, may contribute to functionally increase Cu absorption. Conversely, conditions which tend to reduce water inflow or increase water outflow across the small intestinal mucosa, as may occur with high lactose diets or in cases of chronic diarrhea, may have negative effects.

  20. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RESEARCH OF PROBLEMS OF DESIGN OF COMPLEX TECHNICAL PROVIDING AND THE GENERALIZED MODEL OF THEIR DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In this work the general ideas of a method of V. I. Skurikhin taking into account the specified features develop and questions of the analysis and synthesis of a complex of technical means, with finishing them to the level suitable for use in engineering practice of design of information management systems are in more detail considered. In work the general system approach to the solution of questions of a choice of technical means of the information management system is created, the general technique of the sys tem analysis and synthesis of a complex of the technical means and its subsystems providing achievement of extreme value of criterion of efficiency of functioning of a technical complex of the information management system is developed. The main attention is paid to the applied party of system researches of complex technical providing, in particular, to definition of criteria of quality of functioning of a technical complex, development of methods of the analysis of information base of the information management system and definition of requirements to technical means, and also methods of structural synthesis of the main subsystems of complex technical providing. Thus, the purpose is research on the basis of system approach of complex technical providing the information management system and development of a number of methods of the analysis and the synthesis of complex technical providing suitable for use in engineering practice of design of systems. The well-known paradox of development of management information consists of that parameters of the system, and consequently, and requirements to the complex hardware, can not be strictly reasonable to development of algorithms and programs, and vice versa. The possible method of overcoming of these difficulties is prognostication of structure and parameters of complex hardware for certain management informations on the early stages of development, with subsequent clarification and

  2. Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmeen Nishat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are regarded as promising targets for vaccine development against infectious disease because cell surface glycans on many infectious agents are attributed to playing an important role in pathogenesis. In addition, oncogenic transformation of normal cells, in many cases, is associated with aberrant glycosylation of the cell surface glycan generating tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs. Technological advances in glycobiology have added a new dimension to immunotherapy when considering carbohydrates as key targets in developing safe and effective vaccines to combat cancer, bacterial infections, viral infections, etc. Many consider effective vaccines induce T-cell dependent immunity with satisfactory levels of immunological memory that preclude recurrence. Unfortunately, carbohydrates alone are poorly immunogenic as they do not bind strongly to the MHCII complex and thus fail to elicit T-cell immunity. To increase immunogenicity, carbohydrates have been conjugated to carrier proteins, which sometimes can impede carbohydrate specific immunity as peptide-based immune responses can negate antibodies directed at the targeted carbohydrate antigens. To overcome many challenges in using carbohydrate-based vaccine design and development approaches targeting cancer and other diseases, zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs, isolated from the capsule of commensal anaerobic bacteria, will be discussed as promising carriers of carbohydrate antigens to achieve desired immunological responses.

  3. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  4. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  5. Low-carbohydrate diets for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Chung, Stephanie T

    2018-04-18

    Summarize the physiological effects of low-carbohydrate diets as they relate to weight loss, glycemic control, and metabolic health. Low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective for weight loss as other diets, but claims about increased energy expenditure and preferential loss of body fat are unsubstantiated. Glycemic control and hyperinsulinemia are improved by low-carbohydrate diets, but insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion may be impaired, especially in the absence of weight loss. Fasting lipid parameters are generally improved, but such improvements may depend on the quality of dietary fat and the carbohydrates they replaced. Postprandial hyperlipemia is a potential concern given the high fat content typical of low-carbohydrate diets. Low-carbohydrate diets have several potential benefits for treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but more research is required to better understand their long-term consequences as well as the variable effects on the endocrine control of glucose, lipids, and metabolism.

  6. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  7. Catalytic Deoxydehydration of Carbohydrates and Polyols to Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Kenneth M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-01-15

    As the world's fossil fuel resources are being depleted and their costs increase, there is an urgent need to discover and develop new processes for the conversion of renewable, biomass resources into fuels and chemical feedstocks. Research and development in this area have been given high priority by both governmental agencies and industry. To increase the energy content and decrease the boiling points of biomass-derived carbohydrates and polyols to the useful liquid range it is necessary to chemically remove water (dehydrate) and, preferably, oxygen (deoxygenate/reduce). The poly-hydroxylic nature of carbohydrates is attractive for their use as functionalized chemical building blocks, but it presents a daunting challenge for their selective conversion to single product chemicals or fuels. The long term, practical objective of this project is to develop catalytic processes for the deoxydehydration (DODH) of biomass-derived carbohydrates and polyols to produce unsaturated alcohols and hydrocarbons of value as chemical feedstocks and fuels; DODH: polyol + reductant --(LMOx catalyst)--> unsaturate + oxidized reductant + H2O. Limited prior studies have established the viability of the DODH process with expensive phosphine reductants and rhenium-catalysts. Initial studies in the PI's laboratory have now demonstrated: 1) the moderately efficient conversion of glycols to olefins by the economical sulfite salts is catalyzed by MeReO3 and Z+ReO4-; 2) effective phosphine-based catalytic DODH of representative glycols to olefins by cheap LMoO2 complexes; and 3) computational studies (with K. Houk, UCLA) have identified several Mo-, W-, and V-oxo complexes that are likely to catalyze glycol DODH. Seeking practically useful DODH reactions of complex polyols and new understanding of the reactivity of polyoxo-metal species with biomass-oxygenates we will employ a two-pronged approach: 1) investigate experimentally the reactivity, both stoichiometric and catalytic, of

  8. The popularisation of Positive Psychology as a defence against behavioural complexity in research and organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the systems psychodynamic nature of the manifesting defensive structures operating in Positive Psychology. Motivation for the study: The study investigated the popularity of Positive Psychology amongst academics, students and organisational consultants and the tendency to avoid the complexity of the relatedness between positive and negative as part of the human condition. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research by means of a Listening Post was used, consisting of six psychologists in their roles as lecturers and organisational consultants. Thematic analyses led to the formulation of various working hypotheses, integrated into a research hypothesis. Main findings: Four themes manifested – namely, the manifesting defence mechanisms, a reluctance to relinquish positive psychology as an object of hope, a need to guard against being too hasty in breaking down positive psychology and a need for a psychology that can engage us in a conversation about integrating the complexities of the human condition. Practical/managerial implications: The findings were linked to Deo Strümpfer’s work, indicating that Positive Psychology originated in early 20th century psychology, which is indeed not about simplification, but is imbedded in the complexity of various behavioural continua. Contribution/value-add: Academics, students and organisational consultants are encouraged to revisit Strümpfer’s work to ensure that this psychology is appreciated for its depth and quality.

  9. Synthetic carbohydrate research based on organic electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokami, Toshiki; Saito, Kodai; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi

    2012-12-01

    Development of a novel method for generating glycosyl cations or their equivalents is highly desired, because such intermediates are crucial for developing stereoselective glycosylations in oligosaccharide syntheses. In this review we focus on electrochemical methods that we have recently developed. The anodic oxidation of thioglycosides is effective for generating glycosyl triflate pools, which react with glycosyl acceptors. The reaction of glycosyl triflate pools with diorganosulfides gives glycosyl sulfonium ions, which also serve as effective glycosylation intermediates. The indirect electrochemical method is effective for the generation of glycosyl cations or their equivalents and the use of a flow-microreactor system enables glycosylation using such intermediates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbohydrate Microarray on Glass: a Tool for Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Giesbers, M.; Visser, G.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to immobilize carbohydrates on a glass surface to obtain a carbohydrate microarray is described. The array was used to study carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The glass surface was modified with aldehyde terminated linker groups of various chain lengths. Coupling of carbohydrates

  11. A complex, nonlinear dynamic systems perspective on Ayurveda and Ayurvedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    The fields of complexity theory and nonlinear dynamic systems (NDS) are relevant for analyzing the theory and practice of Ayurvedic medicine from a Western scientific perspective. Ayurvedic definitions of health map clearly onto the tenets of both systems and complexity theory and focus primarily on the preservation of organismic equanimity. Health care research informed by NDS and complexity theory would prioritize (1) ascertaining patterns reflected in whole systems as opposed to isolating components; (2) relationships and dynamic interaction rather than static end-points; (3) transitions, change and cumulative effects, consistent with delivery of therapeutic packages in the reality of the clinical setting; and (4) simultaneously exploring both local and global levels of healing phenomena. NDS and complexity theory are useful in examining nonlinear transitions between states of health and illness; the qualitative nature of shifts in health status; and looking at emergent properties and behaviors stemming from interactions between organismic and environmental systems. Complexity and NDS theory also demonstrate promise for enhancing the suitability of research strategies applied to Ayurvedic medicine through utilizing core concepts such as initial conditions, emergent properties, fractal patterns, and critical fluctuations. In the Ayurvedic paradigm, multiple scales and their interactions are addressed simultaneously, necessitating data collection on change patterns that occur on continuums of both time and space, and are viewed as complementary rather than isolated and discrete. Serious consideration of Ayurvedic clinical understandings will necessitate new measurement options that can account for the relevance of both context and environmental factors, in terms of local biology and the processual features of the clinical encounter. Relevant research design issues will need to address clinical tailoring strategies and provide mechanisms for mapping patterns of

  12. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  13. Research Area 3: Mathematics (3.1 Modeling of Complex Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Title: RESEARCH AREA 3: MATHEMATICS (3.1 Modeling of Complex Systems). Proposal should be directed to Dr. John Lavery Report Term: 0-Other Email ...Paolo Rosso Email : prosso@dsic.upv.es values of the profile characteristics taken by the users), intersection (they represent the relationship between...accuracy, especially when adding fully connected layers at the end of the network. This work has resulted in the writing of a manuscript for the Journal

  14. The Concept of Information Sharing Behaviors in Complex Organizations: Research in Latvian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejs Cekuls

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors influencing behaviors of information sharing in complex organizations. Evaluation of the previous studies on provision of information turnover process and the role of organizational culture in competitive intelligence of business environment in Latvia indicated the trends that employees of Latvian enterprises lack incentive to share information. Tasks of the study were to research the basis of the review of scientific sources and study aspects influencing habits of information sharing in complex organizations. For this particular study, the focus group is selected as the most appropriate data collection method for high-quality research. To find out individuals' opinions and attitudes two focus group discussions were carried out. Members from various industries and with different employment period were included in discussion groups. In aggregate, opinions of the employees from 41 different companies were summarized regarding the aspects affecting the process of information sharing in organizations. Results of researches show that that influence the sharing of information are closely related to the values: interpersonal trust, organizational trust, and organizational identification, support, fairness etc. Results of discussions showed that it is important for a manager to be aware of the factors affecting the performance of the organization. To identify the need for changes, a manager should follow events in the environment and analyze the extent, to which they affect the performance of the organization. Complexity science suggests that maturity to changes emerges when the system is far from balance, but the tension makes to accept changes.

  15. Effect of Carbohydrate, Caffeine, and Carbohydrate + Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Intermittent Running Performance in Collegiate Male Lacrosse Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Patrick; Witherbee, Kyle E; Peterson, Kimi M; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-09-01

    Dolan, P, Witherbee, KE, Peterson, KM, and Kerksick, CM. Effect of carbohydrate, caffeine, and carbohydrate + caffeine mouth rinsing on intermittent running performance in collegiate male lacrosse athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2473-2479, 2017-Recently, an interest has developed in the potential to rinse the oral cavity with key nutrients to impact various types of exercise and presumably sporting performance. Although multiple studies examining carbohydrate mouth rinsing have been completed, conflicting evidence surrounding caffeine mouth rinsing persists, and no research has explored its ability to impact high-intensity, intermittent running performance. This study investigated the independent and synergistic ability of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing to improve intermittent running performance. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo Level 1) was completed in 10 collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] Division II) male lacrosse players after a 10-second mouth rinse with a solution of either carbohydrate (CHO), caffeine (CAF), carbohydrate + caffeine (CHO + CAF), placebo (H2O), or a no rinse control (CON). No significant improvements in Yo-Yo IRT-1 performance were found (p > 0.05). Perceptual indications of effort (i.e., rating of their perceived exertion [RPE]) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in CHO and CHO + CAF when compared with CON after speed level 11. Interestingly, RPE levels were nonsignificantly lower in all but one level of the Yo-Yo Level 1 for CHO in comparison with other groups. Carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing seems to exert no impact on running performance before maximal intermittent running in a group of male collegiate lacrosse players.

  16. Final report: A Broad Research Project in the Sciences of Complexity; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    Previous DOE support for ''A Broad Research Program in the Sciences of Complexity'' permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its Integrative Core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing-ground for the study of general principles of complex systems. The critical aspect of this support is its effectiveness in seeding new areas of research. Indeed, this Integrative Core has been the birthplace of dozens of projects that later became more specifically focused and then won direct grant support independent of the core grants. But at early stages most of this multidisciplinary research was unable to win grant support as individual projects-both because it did not match well with existing grant program guidelines, and because the amount of handing needed was often too modest to justify a formal proposal to an agency. In fact, one of the attributes of core support has been that it permitted SFI to encourage high-risk activities because the cost was quite low. What is significant is how many of those initial efforts have been productive in the SFI environment. Many of SFI'S current research foci began with a short visit from a researcher new to the SFI community, or as small working groups that brought together carefully selected experts from a variety of fields. As mentioned above, many of the ensuing research projects are now being supported by other funding agencies or private foundations. Some of these successes are described

  17. Final report: A Broad Research Project in the Sciences of Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-02-01

    Previous DOE support for ''A Broad Research Program in the Sciences of Complexity'' permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its Integrative Core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing-ground for the study of general principles of complex systems. The critical aspect of this support is its effectiveness in seeding new areas of research. Indeed, this Integrative Core has been the birthplace of dozens of projects that later became more specifically focused and then won direct grant support independent of the core grants. But at early stages most of this multidisciplinary research was unable to win grant support as individual projects--both because it did not match well with existing grant program guidelines, and because the amount of handing needed was often too modest to justify a formal proposal to an agency. In fact, one of the attributes of core support has been that it permitted SFI to encourage high-risk activities because the cost was quite low. What is significant is how many of those initial efforts have been productive in the SFI environment. Many of SFI'S current research foci began with a short visit from a researcher new to the SFI community, or as small working groups that brought together carefully selected experts from a variety of fields. As mentioned above, many of the ensuing research projects are now being supported by other funding agencies or private foundations. Some of these successes are described.

  18. Diverse Complexities, Complex Diversities: Resisting "Normal Science" in Pedagogical and Research Methodologies. A Perspective from Aotearoa (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of complexities of the contexts for education in Aotearoa, which include the need to recognise and include Maori (Indigenous) perspectives, but also to extend this inclusion to the context of increasing ethnic diversity. These complexities include the situation of worsening disparities between rich and poor which…

  19. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  20. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-03-10

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  1. Organizational Influences on Interdisciplinary Interactions during Research and Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Seifert, Colleen M.; Papalambros, Panos Y.

    2012-01-01

    The design of large-scale complex engineered systems (LaCES) such as an aircraft is inherently interdisciplinary. Multiple engineering disciplines, drawing from a team of hundreds to thousands of engineers and scientists, are woven together throughout the research, development, and systems engineering processes to realize one system. Though research and development (R&D) is typically focused in single disciplines, the interdependencies involved in LaCES require interdisciplinary R&D efforts. This study investigates the interdisciplinary interactions that take place during the R&D and early conceptual design phases in the design of LaCES. Our theoretical framework is informed by both engineering practices and social science research on complex organizations. This paper provides preliminary perspective on some of the organizational influences on interdisciplinary interactions based on organization theory (specifically sensemaking), data from a survey of LaCES experts, and the authors experience in the research and design. The analysis reveals couplings between the engineered system and the organization that creates it. Survey respondents noted the importance of interdisciplinary interactions and their significant benefit to the engineered system, such as innovation and problem mitigation. Substantial obstacles to interdisciplinarity are uncovered beyond engineering that include communication and organizational challenges. Addressing these challenges may ultimately foster greater efficiencies in the design and development of LaCES and improved system performance by assisting with the collective integration of interdependent knowledge bases early in the R&D effort. This research suggests that organizational and human dynamics heavily influence and even constrain the engineering effort for large-scale complex systems.

  2. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  3. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  4. Capturing complexity in work disability research: application of system dynamics modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Hettinger, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    Work disability (WD) is characterized by variable and occasionally undesirable outcomes. The underlying determinants of WD outcomes include patterns of dynamic relationships among health, personal, organizational and regulatory factors that have been challenging to characterize, and inadequately represented by contemporary WD models. System dynamics modeling (SDM) methodology applies a sociotechnical systems thinking lens to view WD systems as comprising a range of influential factors linked by feedback relationships. SDM can potentially overcome limitations in contemporary WD models by uncovering causal feedback relationships, and conceptualizing dynamic system behaviors. It employs a collaborative and stakeholder-based model building methodology to create a visual depiction of the system as a whole. SDM can also enable researchers to run dynamic simulations to provide evidence of anticipated or unanticipated outcomes that could result from policy and programmatic intervention. SDM may advance rehabilitation research by providing greater insights into the structure and dynamics of WD systems while helping to understand inherent complexity. Challenges related to data availability, determining validity, and the extensive time and technical skill requirements for model building may limit SDM's use in the field and should be considered. Contemporary work disability (WD) models provide limited insight into complexity associated with WD processes. System dynamics modeling (SDM) has the potential to capture complexity through a stakeholder-based approach that generates a simulation model consisting of multiple feedback loops. SDM may enable WD researchers and practitioners to understand the structure and behavior of the WD system as a whole, and inform development of improved strategies to manage straightforward and complex WD cases.

  5. Science Study Aids 3: Carbohydrates - Nature's Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the third of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 12. It is concerned with the role of carbohydrates as important nutrients for consumers. This guide will enable…

  6. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: A meta-analysis exemplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon A.; Martin, Ellen E.; Garcia, Theresa J.; Winter, Mary A.; García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E.; Sumlin, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, e.g., EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process, as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic processes we designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive quantitative model-testing meta-analysis we are conducting. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to: decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be employed, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

  7. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Final Report: A Broad Research Project on the Sciences of Complexity, September 15, 1994 - November 15, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-02-01

    DOE support for a broad research program in the sciences of complexity permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its integrative core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing ground for the study of the general principles of complex systems. Results are presented on computational biology, biodiversity and ecosystem research, and advanced computing and simulation.

  9. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  10. Research on Extraction of Ship Target in Complex Sea-sky Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, W J; Ding, X M; Cui, J W; Ao, L

    2006-01-01

    Research on the extraction of ship target in complex sea-sky background has important value to improve the capability of imaging-typed sea navigation and nautical traffic control systems. According to the imaging property of complex sea-sky background, a reliable ship target extraction method is proposed in this paper. The general guide line is that getting the sea-sky division line as a priori knowledge and then the target potential area is determined through discontinuous region of the sea-sky division line. Firstly, a local selective window filter is adopted to filter the image; secondly, eight directions Sobel operator edge detection method and gradient Hough transform are combined to extract sea-sky division line in the image; then a multi-histogram matching technique is adopted to remove the sea and sky background and thus ship target is extracted from complex background. The experiments show that our method has the merits of robustness to noise, small computational complexity and stability

  11. Molecular Tools for Facilitative Carbohydrate Transporters (Gluts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasova, Marina; Fedie, Joseph R

    2017-09-19

    Facilitative carbohydrate transporters-Gluts-have received wide attention over decades due to their essential role in nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors directed towards understanding the mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in a multidisciplinary research field spanning protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the molecular interactions behind Glut-mediated sugar uptake, Glut-targeting probes, therapeutics, and inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Complex Intelligent Systems: Juxtaposition of Foundational Notions and a Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros A.M. Gelepithis

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The cardinality of the class, C , of complex intelligent systems, i.e., systems of intelligent systems and their resources, is steadily increasing. Such an increase, whether designed, sometimes changes significantly and fundamentally, the structure of C . Recently,the study of members of C and its structure comes under a variety of multidisciplinary headings the most prominent of which include General Systems Theory, Complexity Science, Artificial Life, and Cybernetics. Their common characteristic is the quest for a unified theory of a certain class of systems like a living system or an organisation. So far, the only candidate for a general theory of intelligent systems is Newell's Soar. To my knowledge there is presently no candidate theory of C except Newell's claimed extensibility of Soar. This paper juxtaposes the elements of Newell's conceptual basis with those of an alternative conceptual framework based on the thesis that communication and understanding are the primary processes shaping the structure of C and its members. It is patently obvious that a research agenda for the study of C can be extremely varied and long. The third section of this paper presents a highly selective research agenda that aims to provoke discussion among complexity theory scientists.

  13. Theory and research in audiology education: understanding and representing complexity through informed methodological decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L

    2013-05-01

    The discipline of audiology has the opportunity to embark on research in education from an informed perspective, learning from professions that began this journey decades ago. The goal of this article is to position our discipline as a new member in the academic field of health professional education (HPE), with much to learn and contribute. In this article, I discuss the need for theory in informing HPE research. I also stress the importance of balancing our research goals by selecting appropriate methodologies for relevant research questions, to ensure that we respect the complexity of social processes inherent in HPE. Examples of relevant research questions are used to illustrate the need to consider alternative methodologies and to rethink the traditional hierarchy of evidence. I also provide an example of the thought processes and decisions that informed the design of an educational research study using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. As audiology enters the scholarly field of HPE, we need to arm ourselves with some of the knowledge and perspective that informs the field. Thus, we need to broaden our conceptions of what we consider to be appropriate styles of academic writing, relevant research questions, and valid evidence. Also, if we are to embark on qualitative inquiry into audiology education (or other audiology topics), we need to ensure that we conduct this research with an adequate understanding of the theories and methodologies informing such approaches. We must strive to conduct high quality, rigorous qualitative research more often than uninformed, generic qualitative research. These goals are imperative to the advancement of the theoretical landscape of audiology education and evolving the place of audiology in the field of HPE. American Academy of Audiology.

  14. Embracing Complexity of Crop Phytobiomes with a Multidisciplinary Roadmap for Phytobiomes Research and an Industry-Academic Research Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, K.

    2016-12-01

    To meet the demands of a global human population expected to exceed 9.6 billion by 2055, crop productivity in sustainable agricultural systems must improve considerably in the face of a steadily changing climate and increased biotic and abiotic stressors. Traditional agricultural sciences have relied mostly on research within individual disciplines and linear, reductionist approaches for crop improvement. While significant advancements have been made in developing and characterizing genetic and genomic resources for crops, we still have a very limited understanding of genotype by environment x management (GxExM) interactions that determine productivity, sustainability, quality, and the ability to withstand biotic and abiotic stressors. Embracing complexity and the non-linear organization and regulation of biological systems would enable a paradigm shift in breeding and crop production by allowing us to move towards a holistic, systems level approach that integrates a wide range of disciplines (e.g., geophysics, biology, agronomy, physiology, genomics, genetics, breeding, physics, pattern recognition, feedback loops, modeling, and engineering) and knowledge about crop phytobiomes (i.e., plants, their associated macro- and micro-organisms, and the geophysical environment of distinct geographical sites). By focusing on the phytobiome, we will be able to elucidate, quantify, model, predict, act, manipulate, and prevent and ultimately prescribe the cropping systems, methods, and management practices most suited for a particular farm, grassland, or forest. The recently released, multidisciplinary roadmap entitled Phytobiomes: A Roadmap for Research and Translation and the new International Alliance for Phytobiomes Research, an industry-academic consortium, will be presented.

  15. Research on Characteristics, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Dihydroquercetin and Its Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dihydroquercetin is a kind of dihydroflavonol compounds with antioxidant, antitumor, antivirus and radioresistance activities. This study attempted to produce the dihydroquercetin complexes with lecithin and β-cyclodextrin, and research their characteristics and bioactivities via ultraviolet spectrum (UV, infrared spectroscopy (IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD, and MTT assay. Results showed that the complexes with lecithin and β-cyclodextrin could improve the solubility and dissolution rate, and remove the characteristic endothermic peak of dihydroquercetin. IR spectra proved their interaction, and results of SEM and XRD showed the amorphous characteristics of the dihydroquercetin compounds. These results indicated that dihydroquercetin was combined by lecithin or β-cyclodextrin with better physical and chemical properties, which would effectively improve the application value in the food and drug industries.

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Dynamics of Polyatomic Van der Waals Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Janda, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    This publication is the Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on the Dynamics of Polyatomic Van der Waals Molecules held at the Chateau de Bonas, Castera-Verduzan, France, from August 21 through August 26, 1989. Van der Waals complexes provide important model problems for understanding energy transfer and dissipation. These processes can be described in great detail for Van der Waals complexes, and the insight gained from such studies can be applied to more complicated chemical problems that are not amenable to detailed study. The workshop concentrated on the current questions and future prospects for extend­ ing our highly detailed knowledge of triatomic Van der Waals molecule dynamics to polyatomic molecules and clusters (one molecule surrounded by several, or up to sev­ eral tens of, atoms). Both experimental and theoretical studies were discussed, with particular emphasis on the dynamical behavior of dissociation as observed in the dis­ tributions of quantum states of the dissociatio...

  17. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  18. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  19. [Clinical-diagnostic estimation of carbohydrates metabolism in obturation jaundice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychytaĭlo, M Iu; Malyk, S V

    2004-07-01

    Complex examination of 175 patients with obturation jaundice was conducted, peculiar attention was spared to the carbohydrates metabolism changes, characterizing hepatic state. It was established, that in obturation jaundice in the liver there are occurring inflammatory changes and disturbances of all kinds of metabolism, including that of carbohydrates, severity of which depends on duration of jaundice, the concurrent diseases presence, they shows lowering of the glucose and glycogen level in the blood, as well as the hepatic glycogen content, that's why they may be applied as a complex of prognostic criterions for the disease course. An early conduction of operative treatment, elimination of the biliary ducts impassability promote the rehabilitation period shortening and the hepatic functional activity normalization.

  20. Recognition properties of receptors consisting of imidazole and indole recognition units towards carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mazik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Compounds 4 and 5, including both 4(5-substituted imidazole or 3-substituted indole units as the entities used in nature, and 2-aminopyridine group as a heterocyclic analogue of the asparagine/glutamine primary amide side chain, were prepared and their binding properties towards carbohydrates were studied. The design of these receptors was inspired by the binding motifs observed in the crystal structures of protein–carbohydrate complexes. 1H NMR spectroscopic titrations in competitive and non-competitive media as well as binding studies in two-phase systems, such as dissolution of solid carbohydrates in apolar media, revealed both highly effective recognition of neutral carbohydrates and interesting binding preferences of these acyclic compounds. Compared to the previously described acyclic receptors, compounds 4 and 5 showed significantly increased binding affinity towards β-galactoside. Both receptors display high β- vs. α-anomer binding preferences in the recognition of glycosides. It has been shown that both hydrogen bonding and interactions of the carbohydrate CH units with the aromatic rings of the receptors contribute to the stabilization of the receptor–carbohydrate complexes. The molecular modeling calculations, synthesis and binding properties of 4 and 5 towards selected carbohydrates are described and compared with those of the previously described receptors.

  1. Use of computerized tomography in the Multibrauch Research and Technology Complex ''Eye microsurgery''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, S.N.; Ivashina, A.I.; Anisimov, S.I.; Prokopenko, L.N.; Moskvichev, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is devoted to analysis of the results of computerized tomography (CT) in 1000 patients examined in te Multibranch Research and Technology Complex ''Eye Microsurgery''. The specific feature of CT in this institution is that 52% of all investigations of ophthalmological patients fall to the share of eyeball abnormality and 40% - to a study of the other parts of the organ of vision. CT indications are extended for low tension glaucoma, complicated high myopia, and for monitoring the position of microsurgical implants. The use of CT is such a highly specialized medical institution as the MRTC ''Eye Microsurgery'' is considered indispensable

  2. Shielding considerations for an electron linear accelerator complex for high energy physics and photonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Huntzinger, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation shielding considerations for a major high-energy physics and photonics research complex which comprise a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator injector, a 1.0 GeV electron linear accelerator and a 1.3 GeV storage ring are discussed. The facilities will be unique because of the close proximity of personnel to the accelerator beam lines, the need to adapt existing facilities and shielding materials and the application of strict ALARA dose guidelines while providing maximum access and flexibility during a phased construction program

  3. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as kidney beans, black beans, pinto beans, black-eyed peas, split peas, and garbanzo beans Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, corn, green peas, and parsnips Whole grains, such as brown rice, oats, barley, and quinoa Refined grains, such as ...

  4. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the great nutrients. That's why your best bet is whole grain. Enriched products means some of ... Molasses Syrup and malt syrup If you are thinking about using a sugar substitute, you may wonder ...

  5. The Y-12 National Security Complex Foreign Research Reactor Uranium Supply Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T. [Nuclear Technology and Nonproliferation Programs, B and W Y-12, L.L.C., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Keller, A.P. [Disposition and Supply Programs, B and W Y-12, L.L.C., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) HEU Disposition, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR), and the United States (U.S.) FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Programs. The FRR Supply Program supports the important U.S. government nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel under the RERTR Program. The NNSA Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign government agencies for the supply of LEU for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. In addition to uranium metal feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 can produce LEU in different forms to support new fuel development or target fabrication for medical isotope production. With production improvements and efficient delivery preparations, Y-12 continues to successfully support the global research reactor community. (author)

  6. 2009 Cellulosomes, Cellulases & Other Carbohydrate Modifying Enzymes GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Harry [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2009-07-26

    The 2009 Gordon Conference on Cellulosomes, Cellulases & Other Carbohydrate Modifying Enzymes will present cutting-edge research on the enzymatic degradation of cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics that includes the enzymology of plant structural degradation, regulation of the degradative apparatus, the mechanism of protein complex assembly, the genomics of cell wall degrading organisms, the structure of the substrate and the industrial application of the process particularly within the biofuel arena. Indeed the deployment of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in biofuel processes will be an important feature of the meeting. It should be emphasized that the 2009 Conference will be expanded to include, in addition to cellulase research, recent advances in other plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and contributions from people working on hemicellulases and pectinases will be particularly welcome. Invited speakers represent a variety of scientific disciplines, including biochemistry, structural biology, genetics and cell biology. The interplay between fundamental research and its industrial exploitation is a particularly important aspect of the meeting, reflecting the appointment of the chair and vice-chair from academia and industry, respectively. The meeting will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with more established figures in the field. Indeed, some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented. The Conference is likely to be heavily subscribed so we would recommend that you submit

  7. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Pijl, H.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  8. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  9. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E. Francois

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  10. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Gillen, Jenna B; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  11. Determination of carbohydrates in fermentation processes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, A.; Stuempfel, J.; Fiedler, H.P. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Biologie)

    1989-11-01

    HPLC is a universal, fast, accurate and selective method for the quantification of carbohydrates during fermentation processes. HPLC is not affected by complex constituents of fermentation media, such as meat extract, soybean meal or distillers solubles. The detection limit of the different investigated carbohydrates by refractive index monitoring ranges between 20 and 40 mg/l using a cation-exchange resin and between 50 and 100 mg/l using amino- or diol-bonded phases. (orig.).

  12. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  13. The sweet world of liquid crystals : The synthesis of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E

    1998-01-01

    The research in carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals was initiated by a review article by Jeffrey in 1986. This is rather late if one considers that the research on liquid crystals underwent a revival already in the 1960s after the discovery of the liquid crystal display (LCD). Carbohydrates were

  14. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, J.

    1999-12-01

    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  15. SOCIAL MEASUREMENT OF YOUTH’S HEALTH: DESIGNING OF INDICATORS OF COMPLEX SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Valeriyevich Kulish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to solving the problem of social measurement of modern youth’s health. The subject of the analysis is the content of the concept, characteristics and indicators of the social health of young people, which enable using sociological research’ methods to measure a given status of the younger generation in contemporary Russian society. The purpose of this work is to define the theoretical and methodological foundations of the sociological analysis of the young people social health and to substantiate its main indicators in the tools of complex sociological research. Methodology of the study. The basis of the research is formed by the system approach, the complex approach, the logical-conceptual method and general scientific methods of research: comparative analysis, system analysis, construction of social indicators, modeling. Results. The social health of young people is defined through the category “status” and is considered as an integrated indicator of the social quality of the younger generation. It is substantiated that the social health of youth is a status of socio-demographic community in which it is able not only to adapt to the changing conditions of the social environment but is also ready to transform actively the surrounding reality, having the potential to resist destructive social phenomena and processes. The main indicators that allow measuring the social health of young people by sociological methods are determined: adaptability in the social environment, social activity in all spheres of public life, social orientation and significance of activity, behavior regulativity by social norms and universal values, creativity of thinking and behavior, readiness for social integration and self-development. A system of social indicators and indicators for conducting a sociological study of social health in historical memory, value orientations and everyday practices of young people has been developed.

  16. Carbohydrate Green Chemistry: C-Glycoside Ketones as Potential Chiral Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Green chemistry" methods to produce new chemicals from renewable agricultural feedstocks will decrease our dependence on imported petroleum feedstocks and lower the environmental impact of consumer products. Our current research focuses on development of new carbohydrate-based derivatives, "locked...

  17. Sugar Lego: gene composition of bacterial carbohydrate metabolism genomic loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznadzey, Anna; Shelyakin, Pavel; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2017-11-25

    Bacterial carbohydrate metabolism is extremely diverse, since carbohydrates serve as a major energy source and are involved in a variety of cellular processes. Bacterial genes belonging to same metabolic pathway are often co-localized in the chromosome, but it is not a strict rule. Gene co-localization in linked to co-evolution and co-regulation. This study focuses on a large-scale analysis of bacterial genomic loci related to the carbohydrate metabolism. We demonstrate that only 53% of 148,000 studied genes from over six hundred bacterial genomes are co-localized in bacterial genomes with other carbohydrate metabolism genes, which points to a significant role of singleton genes. Co-localized genes form cassettes, ranging in size from two to fifteen genes. Two major factors influencing the cassette-forming tendency are gene function and bacterial phylogeny. We have obtained a comprehensive picture of co-localization preferences of genes for nineteen major carbohydrate metabolism functional classes, over two hundred gene orthologous clusters, and thirty bacterial classes, and characterized the cassette variety in size and content among different species, highlighting a significant role of short cassettes. The preference towards co-localization of carbohydrate metabolism genes varies between 40 and 76% for bacterial taxa. Analysis of frequently co-localized genes yielded forty-five significant pairwise links between genes belonging to different functional classes. The number of such links per class range from zero to eight, demonstrating varying preferences of respective genes towards a specific chromosomal neighborhood. Genes from eleven functional classes tend to co-localize with genes from the same class, indicating an important role of clustering of genes with similar functions. At that, in most cases such co-localization does not originate from local duplication events. Overall, we describe a complex web formed by evolutionary relationships of bacterial

  18. Foreign research reactor uranium supply program: The Y-12 national security complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; Eddy, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the HEU Disposition Program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, and the United States FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program. The Y-12 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign governments for the supply of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. This program supports the important U.S. government and nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to LEU fuel under the guidance of the NNSA RERTR Program. In conjunction with the FRR SNF Acceptance Program which supports the global nonproliferation efforts to disposition U.S.-origin HEU, the Y-12 FRR Uranium Supply Program can provide the LEU for the replacement fuel fabrication. In addition to feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 supplies LEU for target fabrication for medical isotope production. The Y-12 process uses supply forecasting tools, production improvements and efficient delivery preparations to successfully support the global research reactor community

  19. Complexities and Controversies in Himalayan Research: A Call for Collaboration and Rigor for Better Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya range encompasses enormous variation in elevation, precipitation, biodiversity, and patterns of human livelihoods. These mountains modify the regional climate in complex ways; the ecosystem services they provide influence the lives of almost 1 billion people in 8 countries. However, our understanding of these ecosystems remains rudimentary. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report that erroneously predicted a date for widespread glacier loss exposed how little was known of Himalayan glaciers. Recent research shows how variably glaciers respond to climate change in different Himalayan regions. Alarmist theories are not new. In the 1980s, the Theory of Himalayan Degradation warned of complete forest loss and devastation of downstream areas, an eventuality that never occurred. More recently, the debate on hydroelectric construction appears driven by passions rather than science. Poor data, hasty conclusions, and bad science plague Himalayan research. Rigorous sampling, involvement of civil society in data collection, and long-term collaborative research involving institutions from across the Himalaya are essential to improve knowledge of this region.

  20. Enriching gender in physics education research: A binary past and a complex future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    This talk draws on research in physics, science education, and women's studies to propose a more nuanced treatment of gender in physics education research (PER). A growing body of PER has examined gender differences in students' participation, performance, and attitudes toward physics. Though valuable, this body of work often follows a ``binary deficit'' model of gender, where the achievements of men are implicitly taken as the most appropriate standard and where individual experiences and student identities are undervalued. I will discuss more up-to-date viewpoints on gender from other fields, as well as work on the intersection of identities [e.g., gender with race and ethnicity, or with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) status]. A few PER studies examine the intersection of gender and race, and identify the lack of a unitary identity as a key challenge of ``belonging'' in physics. Acknowledging this complexity of identity allows further critique of the binary deficit model, which casts gender as a fixed binary trait and frames research questions around investigating deficiencies in women rather than issues of systemic bias. More nuanced models of gender allow a greater range and fluidity of gender identities, and highlight deficiencies in data that exclude women's experiences. I will conclude by suggesting new investigations that might build on an expanded gender framework in PER.

  1. Complexity, rhizome and magma, three key elements in pattern building in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera de Echeverri, Ana Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The following reading synthesizes the rur-urban-agrary environmental research pattern that appear from the research Caldas Agrary Environmental Profile (IDEA, National University, Manizales - Colciencias, 1998 - 2000). This pattern is constructed from three ideas of the contemporary philosophy: complexity, rhizome and magma that comes from another disciplines: the mathematics, botanic, and geology. The genetics-historical method that follows this article, starts with a critical analysis to the relation forms between society and nature that belongs to the modernity, to do then, a presentation of the influence of the ecology in the construction of new relations between society and nature, culture and nature, and the influence of the theory of systems in a systemic view of society, culture, and nature. Finish with a presentation of the pattern ecosystem-culture made for Augusto Angel Maya and the critical-development that becomes form this pattern, that we had named rur-urban-agrary rhizoma. For example we show how this research pattern let us to amplify the methodology of river basins that we use inside the Agrary Environmental Profile

  2. The Use of Complex Adaptive Systems as a Generative Metaphor in an Action Research Study of an Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callum

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic behaviour of organisations is challenging and this study uses a model of complex adaptive systems as a generative metaphor to address this challenge. The research question addressed is: How might a conceptual model of complex adaptive systems be used to assist in understanding the dynamic nature of organisations? Using an…

  3. Diverse complexities, complex diversities: Resisting ‘normal science’ in pedagogical and research methodologies. A perspective from Aotearoa (New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an overview of complexities of the contexts for education in Aotearoa, which include the need to recognise and include Māori (Indigenous perspectives, but also to extend this inclusion to the context of increasing ethnic diversity. These complexities include the situation of worsening disparities between rich and poor which disproportionately position Māori and those from Pacific Island backgrounds in situations of poverty. It then offers a brief critique of government policies before providing some examples of models that resist ‘normal science’ categorisations. These include: the Māori values underpinning the effective teachers’ profile of the Kotahitanga project and of the Māori assessment model for early childhood education; the dispositions identified in a Samoan model for assessing young children’s learning; and the approach developed for assessing Māori children’s literacy and numeracy within schools where Māori language is the medium of instruction. These models all position learning within culturally relevant frames that are grounded in non-Western onto-epistemologies which include spiritual, cultural, and collective aspirations.

  4. Systems Engineering Design Via Experimental Operation Research: Complex Organizational Metric for Programmatic Risk Environments (COMPRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Unique and innovative graph theory, neural network, organizational modeling, and genetic algorithms are applied to the design and evolution of programmatic and organizational architectures. Graph theory representations of programs and organizations increase modeling capabilities and flexibility, while illuminating preferable programmatic/organizational design features. Treating programs and organizations as neural networks results in better system synthesis, and more robust data modeling. Organizational modeling using covariance structures enhances the determination of organizational risk factors. Genetic algorithms improve programmatic evolution characteristics, while shedding light on rulebase requirements for achieving specified technological readiness levels, given budget and schedule resources. This program of research improves the robustness and verifiability of systems synthesis tools, including the Complex Organizational Metric for Programmatic Risk Environments (COMPRE).

  5. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  6. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5 ′ -monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results

  9. Carbohydrate epitopes on Haemonchus contortus antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of infective larvae and adults of the trichostrongylid Haemonchus contortus were studied for the presence of carbohydrate moieties. Several different lectin-binding sites were demonstrated in both stages using a panel of nine lectins. The carbohydrate specificity of the lectins used

  10. Determining a carbohydrate profile for Hansenula polymorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the levels of carbohydrates in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha required the development of new analytical procedures. Existing fractionation and analytical methods were adapted to deal with the problems involved with the lysis of whole cells. Using these new procedures, the complete carbohydrate profiles of H. polymorpha and selected mutant strains were determined and shown to correlate favourably with previously published results.

  11. Total dissolved carbohydrate in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    Total dissolved carbohydrate varied from 4.37-15 mg l-1 and 3.71-15.95 mg l-1 in the surface and bottom samples respectively. Highest concentration of carbohydrate was observed at station 1 which decreased downward upto Station 6 which showed...

  12. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  13. A functional carbohydrate chip platform for analysis of carbohydrate-protein interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    A carbohydrate chip based on glass or other transparent surfaces has been suggested as a potential tool for high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we proposed a facile, efficient, and cost-effective method whereby diverse carbohydrate types are modified in a single step and directly immobilized onto a glass surface, with retention of functional orientation. We modified various types of carbohydrates by reductive amination, in which reducing sugar groups were coupled with 4-(2-aminoethyl)aniline, which has di-amine groups at both ends. The modified carbohydrates were covalently attached to an amino-reactive NHS-activated glass surface by formation of stable amide bonds. This proposed method was applied for efficient construction of a carbohydrate microarray to analyze carbohydrate-protein interactions. The carbohydrate chip prepared using our method can be successfully used in diverse biomimetic studies of carbohydrates, including carbohydrate-biomolecule interactions, and carbohydrate sensor chip or microarray development for diagnosis and screening.

  14. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  15. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  16. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  17. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  18. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  19. The evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care: an exploration of the potential of case study research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Complex, incrementally changing, context dependent and variable palliative care services are difficult to evaluate. Case study research strategies may have potential to contribute to evaluating such complex interventions, and to develop this field of evaluation research. This paper explores definitions of case study (as a unit of study, a process, and a product) and examines the features of case study research strategies which are thought to confer benefits for the evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care settings. Ten features of case study that are thought to be beneficial in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care are discussed, drawing from exemplars of research in this field. Important features are related to a longitudinal approach, triangulation, purposive instance selection, comprehensive approach, multiple data sources, flexibility, concurrent data collection and analysis, search for proving-disproving evidence, pattern matching techniques and an engaging narrative. The limitations of case study approaches are discussed including the potential for subjectivity and their complex, time consuming and potentially expensive nature. Case study research strategies have great potential in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care settings. Three key features need to be exploited to develop this field: case selection, longitudinal designs, and the use of rival hypotheses. In particular, case study should be used in situations where there is interplay and interdependency between the intervention and its context, such that it is difficult to define or find relevant comparisons.

  20. Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    With the introduction of intuitive graphical software, structural biologists who are not experts in crystallography are now able to build complete protein or nucleic acid models rapidly. In contrast, carbohydrates are in a wholly different situation: scant automation exists, with manual building attempts being sometimes toppled by incorrect dictionaries or refinement problems. Sugars are the most stereochemically complex family of biomolecules and, as pyranose rings, have clear conformational preferences. Despite this, all refinement programs may produce high-energy conformations at medium to low resolution, without any support from the electron density. This problem renders the affected structures unusable in glyco-chemical terms. Bringing structural glycobiology up to 'protein standards' will require a total overhaul of the methodology. Time is of the essence, as the community is steadily increasing the production rate of glycoproteins, and electron cryo-microscopy has just started to image them in precisely that resolution range where crystallographic methods falter most. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and Developmental Research on the VV&A of Complex Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A of a complex simulation system is a complex systems engineering. Based on the brief introduction to the concept of VV&A, this paper puts forward its design principles, approaches and basic contents, expounds the typical developing process and predicts its up-to-date technology developing trend of complex simulation system.

  2. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  3. HPLC studies of aquatic humic compounds and complexes from the Drigg Research Site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes an investigation into the applicability of high performance liquid chromatographic techniques for the separation of the complex mixtures of organic acids commonly found in groundwaters. This work has shown that reverse phase ion-pair chromatography using a large pore stationary phase can be successfully applied to humic material in both natural and concentrated groundwater from the Drigg Research Site. The methodology separates the organic species into a number of well resolved components the majority of which have a molecular weight of greater than 500 Dalton. Separations obtained have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed using a Diode array spectrophotometer. The components in excess of 500 Dalton show UV absorption spectra similar to humic and fulvic acids where as the component with a molecular weight of less than 500 Dalton shows a sharp UV absorption cutoff at 230 nm. It was noted that this component was not removed by passage through DEAEA cellulose. Reverse phase HPLC was also investigated, and results were found to be consistent with a separation based on an ion-repulsion/size exclusion mechanism. It was concluded that any separation based on this mechanism is likely to suffer from poor inter run reproducibility and must therefore be discounted as a suitable method. Similarly, ion-suppression reverse phase was shown to be equally impracticable, requiring a mobile phase pH of less than 2 to obtain separation (this low pH renders a silica based stationary phase unstable). (author)

  4. The Results of Complex Research of GSS "SBIRS-Geo 2" Behavior in the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Sukhov, K. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Motrunich, I. I.

    2017-04-01

    The new generation of geosynchronous satellites SBIRS of US Air Force early warning system series (Satellite Early Warning System) replaced the previous DSP-satellite series (Defense Support Program). Currently from the territory of Ukraine, several GSS of DSP series and one "SBIRS-Geo 2" are available to observation. During two years of observations, we have received and analyzed for two satellites more than 30 light curves in B, V, R photometric system. As a result of complex research, we propose a model of "SBIRS-Geo" 2 orbital behavior compared with the same one of the DSP-satellite. To control the entire surface of the Earth with 15-16 sec interval, including the polar regions, 4 SBIRS satellites located every 90 deg. along the equator are enough in GEO orbit. Since DSP-satellites provide the coverage of the Earth's surface to 83 deg. latitudes with a period of 50 sec, DSP-satellites should be 8. All the conclusions were made based on an analysis of photometric and coordinate observations using the simulation of the dynamics of their orbital behavior.

  5. Lanthanide-IMAC enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-03-01

    In this study a new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography resin for the enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols was synthesized by radical polymerization reaction of vinyl phosphonic acid and 1,4-butandiole dimethacrylate using azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as radical initiator. Interaction between the chelated trivalent lanthanide ions and negatively charged hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates and polyols was observed by applying high pH values. The new method was evaluated by single standard solutions, mixtures of standards, honey and a more complex extract of Cynara scolymus. The washing step was accomplished by acetonitrile in excess volumes. Elution of enriched carbohydrates was successfully performed with deionized water. The subsequent analysis was carried out with matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry involving a TiO2 -coated steel target, especially suitable for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances. Quantitative analysis of the sugar alcohol xylitol as well as the determination of the maximal loading capacity was performed by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometric detection after chemical derivatization. In a parallel approach quantum mechanical geometry optimizations were performed in order to compare the coordination behavior of various trivalent lanthanide ions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Raman and infrared spectroscopy of carbohydrates: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercigroch, Ewelina; Szafraniec, Ewelina; Czamara, Krzysztof; Pacia, Marta Z.; Majzner, Katarzyna; Kochan, Kamila; Kaczor, Agnieszka; Baranska, Malgorzata; Malek, Kamilla

    2017-10-01

    Carbohydrates are widespread and naturally occurring compounds, and essential constituents for living organisms. They are quite often reported when biological systems are studied and their role is discussed. However surprisingly, up till now there is no database collecting vibrational spectra of carbohydrates and their assignment, as has been done already for other biomolecules. So, this paper serves as a comprehensive review, where for selected 14 carbohydrates in the solid state both FT-Raman and ATR FT-IR spectra were collected and assigned. Carbohydrates can be divided into four chemical groups and in the same way is organized this review. First, the smallest molecules are discussed, i.e. monosaccharides (D-(-)-ribose, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, L-(-)-arabinose, D-(+)-xylose, D-(+)-glucose, D-(+)-galactose and D-(-)-fructose) and disaccharides (D-(+)-sucrose, D-(+)-maltose and D-(+)-lactose), and then more complex ones, i.e. trisaccharides (D-(+)-raffinose) and polysaccharides (amylopectin, amylose, glycogen). Both Raman and IR spectra were collected in the whole spectral range and discussed looking at the specific regions, i.e. region V (3600-3050 cm- 1), IV (3050-2800 cm- 1) and II (1200-800 cm- 1) assigned to the stretching vibrations of the OH, CH/CH2 and C-O/C-C groups, respectively, and region III (1500-1200 cm- 1) and I (800-100 cm- 1) dominated by deformational modes of the CH/CH2 and CCO groups, respectively. In spite of the fact that vibrational spectra of saccharides are significantly less specific than spectra of other biomolecules (e.g. lipids or proteins), marker bands of the studied molecules can be identified and correlated with their structure.

  7. A Pragmatic Approach to Guide Implementation Evaluation Research: Strategy Mapping for Complex Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis K. Huynh

    2018-05-01

    for producing valid and reliable process evaluation data, mapping implementation strategies has informed development of a pragmatic blueprint for implementation and longitudinal analyses and evaluation activities.DiscussionWe update recent recommendations on specification of implementation strategies by considering the implications for multi-strategy frameworks and propose an approach for mapping the use of implementation strategies within complex, multi-level interventions, in support of rigorous evaluation. Developing pragmatic tools to aid in operationalizing the conduct of implementation and evaluation activities is essential to enacting sound implementation research.

  8. Research on application of complex-genetic algorithm in nuclear component optimal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shijing; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun; Wang Meng

    2010-01-01

    Complex algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods in the mechanical design optimization, such as the optimization of nuclear component. An improved method,complex-genetic algorithm(CGA), is developed based on traditional complex algorithm(TCA), in which the disadvantages of TCA have been overcome. An optimal calculation,which represents the pressurizer, is carried out in order to analyze the optimization capability of CGA. The results show that CGA has better optimizing performance than TCA. (authors)

  9. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include inexpen...... was characterized in human colon carcinoma xenograft bearing nude mice. A tumor specific accumulation of HES 450 was observed, which proves it’s potential as carrier for passive tumor targeting....

  10. Digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rani

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in Arctic charr, Eurasian perch and tilapia. Two sources of carbohydrates, native starch (wheat) and chitin (zygomycete biomass), were evaluated. Gut tissue of Arctic charr displayed significant chitinase activity, of both endo- and exo-chitinase forms. Moreover, the distribution pattern along the gastrointestinal tract of Arctic charr differed between endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase. The endo-chitinase activity in sto...

  11. Enhancement of amylase production by Aspergillus sp. using carbohydrates mixtures from triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojnov Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of finding a suitable available inducer in combination with starvation, carbohydrate mixtures from triticale was used as inducers and compared with well-known amylase inducers in fungi. Carbohydrate mixtures from triticale induced production of amylase cocktail (α-amylase and glucoamylase in Aspergillus niger, unlike induction with well-known inducers which induce only glucoamylase, showed by zymogram and TLC analysis of carbohydrates mixtures before and after fermentations. Glucoamylase production by A. niger was highest in the presence of extract obtained after autohydrolysis of starch from triticale (95.88 U/mL. Carbohydrate mixtures from triticale induced production of α-amylase in A. oryzae. More α-amylase isoforms were detected upon using complex carbohydrate mixture, compared to induction with maltose or starch. The 48 h induction was the most efficient by using triticale extract (101.35 U/mL. Carbohydrates from triticale extracts can be used as very good cheap amylase inducers. Triticale, still not fully utilized, could be taken into consideration as the inducer in amylase production by Aspergillus sp, such a way it could be used as sole substrate in fermentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172048

  12. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  13. Enriching gender in physics education research: A binary past and a complex future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Traxler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] In this article, we draw on previous reports from physics, science education, and women’s studies to propose a more nuanced treatment of gender in physics education research (PER. A growing body of PER examines gender differences in participation, performance, and attitudes toward physics. We have three critiques of this work: (i it does not question whether the achievements of men are the most appropriate standard, (ii individual experiences and student identities are undervalued, and (iii the binary model of gender is not questioned. Driven by these critiques, we propose a conception of gender that is more up to date with other fields and discuss gender as performance as an extended example. We also discuss work on the intersection of identities [e.g., gender with race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT status], much of which has been conducted outside of physics. Within PER, some studies examine the intersection of gender and race, and identify the lack of a single identity as a key challenge of “belonging” in physics. Acknowledging this complexity enables us to further critique what we term a binary gender deficit model. This framework, which is implicit in much of the gender-based PER, casts gender as a fixed binary trait and suggests that women are deficient in characteristics necessary to succeed. Alternative models of gender allow a greater range and fluidity of gender identities, and highlight deficiencies in data that exclude women’s experiences. We suggest new investigations that diverge from this expanded gender framework in PER.

  14. How the Center for Public Partnerships and Research Navigates Complex Social Problems to Make a Collective Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Jacqueline; Gillam, Rebecca; Garstka, Teri A; Urbach, Ember

    2018-01-01

    The challenge of maximizing the well-being of children, youth, and families is recognizing that change occurs within complex social systems. Organizations dedicated to improving practice, advancing knowledge, and informing policy for the betterment of all must have the right approach, structure, and personnel to work in these complex systems. The University of Kansas Center for Public Partnerships and Research cultivates a portfolio of innovation, research, and data science approaches positioned to help move social service fields locally, regionally, and nationally. Mission, leadership, and smart growth guide our work and drive our will to affect positive change in the world.

  15. Using Multiple Sources of Information in Establishing Text Complexity. Reading Research Report. #11.03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2011-01-01

    A focus of the Common Core State Standards/English Language Arts (CCSS/ELA) is that students become increasingly more capable with complex text over their school careers. This focus has redirected attention to the measurement of text complexity. Although CCSS/ELA suggests multiple criteria for this task, the standards offer a single measure of…

  16. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...

  17. Histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infect millions of people around the world. It occupies a niche in the human gastrointestinal tract characterized by high expression of a repertoire of carbohydrates. ABO and Lewis histo-blood group systems are controlled by genes coding for functional glycosyltransferases which synthesize great diversity of related fucosylated carbohydrate in different tissues, including gastrointestinal mucosa, and exocrine secretions. The structural diversity of histo-blood group carbohydrates is highly complex and depends on epistatic interactions among gene-encoding glycosyltransferases. The histo-blood group glycosyltransferases act in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids in the human gastrointestinal tract allowing the expression of a variety of potential receptors in which H. pylori can adhere. These oligosaccharide molecules are part of the gastrointestinal repertoire of carbohydrates which act as potential receptors for microorganisms, including H. pylori. This Gram-negative bacillus is one of the main causes of the gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, and cancer of stomach. Previous reports showed that some H. pylori strains use carbohydrates as receptors to adhere to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Since some histo-blood group carbohydrates are highly expressed in one but not in others histo-blood group phenotypes it has pointed out that quantitative differences among them influence the susceptibility to diseases caused by H. pylori. Additionally, some experiments using animal model are helping us to understand how this bacillus explore histo-blood group carbohydrates as potential receptors, offering possibility to explore new strategies of management of infection, disease treatment, and prevention. This text highlights the importance of structural diversity of ABO and Lewis histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical research on effects of substituents and the solvent on quadruple hydrogen bonded complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjia Xu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Semiempirical AM1 and INDO/CIS methods were used to study the structures and spectroscopy of hydrogen bonded complexes formed by the oligophenyleneethynylene (monomer A with isophthalic acid (monomer B. The binding energies of the complexes are lowered by increasing electron-donating abilities of the substituents near the hydrogen bonds on monomer A. The first absorptions in the electronic spectra and the vibration frequencies of the N-H bonds in the IR spectra for the complexes are both red-shifted compared with those of the monomers. The presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO can reduce the binding energy of the complex through hydrogen bonding. This results in a blue-shift for the first absorption in the electronic spectrum and red-shift for the vibration frequencies of the N-H bonds in the IR spectrum of the complex.

  19. A model for integrating clinical care and basic science research, and pitfalls of performing complex research projects for addressing a clinical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, R; Epari, D R; Schuetz, M A

    2010-07-01

    The collaboration of clinicians with basic science researchers is crucial for addressing clinically relevant research questions. In order to initiate such mutually beneficial relationships, we propose a model where early career clinicians spend a designated time embedded in established basic science research groups, in order to pursue a postgraduate qualification. During this time, clinicians become integral members of the research team, fostering long term relationships and opening up opportunities for continuing collaboration. However, for these collaborations to be successful there are pitfalls to be avoided. Limited time and funding can lead to attempts to answer clinical challenges with highly complex research projects characterised by a large number of "clinical" factors being introduced in the hope that the research outcomes will be more clinically relevant. As a result, the complexity of such studies and variability of its outcomes may lead to difficulties in drawing scientifically justified and clinically useful conclusions. Consequently, we stress that it is the basic science researcher and the clinician's obligation to be mindful of the limitations and challenges of such multi-factorial research projects. A systematic step-by-step approach to address clinical research questions with limited, but highly targeted and well defined research projects provides the solid foundation which may lead to the development of a longer term research program for addressing more challenging clinical problems. Ultimately, we believe that it is such models, encouraging the vital collaboration between clinicians and researchers for the work on targeted, well defined research projects, which will result in answers to the important clinical challenges of today. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of carbohydrate intake and its sources on hemoglobin A1c levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes not taking anti-diabetic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimoto H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hajime Haimoto,1 Shiho Watanabe,2 Masashi Komeda,3 Kenji Wakai4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Jinsenkai Hospital, Morofuku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan Background: Although postprandial glucose levels largely depend on carbohydrate intake, the impact of carbohydrate and its sources on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels has not been demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM probably because, in previous studies, more than 50% of patients were taking anti-diabetic medication, and the researchers used energy percent of carbohydrate as an indicator of carbohydrate intake.Patients and methods: We recruited 125 Japanese men (mean age 58±12 years and 104 women (mean age 62±10 years with T2DM who were not taking anti-diabetic medication and dietary therapy. We used 3-day dietary records to assess total carbohydrate intake and its sources, computed Spearman’s correlation coefficients, and conducted multiple regression analyses for associations of carbohydrate sources with HbA1c by sex.Results: Mean HbA1c and total carbohydrate intake were 8.2%±1.9% and 272.0±84.6 g/day in men and 7.6%±1.3% and 226.7±61.5 g/day in women, respectively. We observed positive correlation of total carbohydrate intake (g/day with HbA1c in men (rs=0.384 and women (rs=0.251, but no correlation for % carbohydrate in either sex. Regarding carbohydrate sources, we found positive correlations of carbohydrate from noodles (rs=0.231 and drinks (rs=0.325, but not from rice, with HbA1c in men. In women, carbohydrate from rice had a positive correlation (rs=0.317, but there were no correlations for carbohydrate from noodles and drinks. The association of total carbohydrate intake (g/day and carbohydrate from soft drinks with HbA1c in

  1. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  2. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex

  3. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex networked systems

  4. PROCARB: A Database of Known and Modelled Carbohydrate-Binding Protein Structures with Sequence-Based Prediction Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Malik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the three-dimensional structures of proteins that interact with carbohydrates covalently (glycoproteins as well as noncovalently (protein-carbohydrate complexes is essential to many biological processes and plays a significant role in normal and disease-associated functions. It is important to have a central repository of knowledge available about these protein-carbohydrate complexes as well as preprocessed data of predicted structures. This can be significantly enhanced by tools de novo which can predict carbohydrate-binding sites for proteins in the absence of structure of experimentally known binding site. PROCARB is an open-access database comprising three independently working components, namely, (i Core PROCARB module, consisting of three-dimensional structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes taken from Protein Data Bank (PDB, (ii Homology Models module, consisting of manually developed three-dimensional models of N-linked and O-linked glycoproteins of unknown three-dimensional structure, and (iii CBS-Pred prediction module, consisting of web servers to predict carbohydrate-binding sites using single sequence or server-generated PSSM. Several precomputed structural and functional properties of complexes are also included in the database for quick analysis. In particular, information about function, secondary structure, solvent accessibility, hydrogen bonds and literature reference, and so forth, is included. In addition, each protein in the database is mapped to Uniprot, Pfam, PDB, and so forth.

  5. Improving Education through Research? From Effectiveness, Causality and Technology to Purpose, Complexity and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of research in the improvement of educational practice. I use the "10 Principles for Effective Pedagogy," which were formulated on the basis of research conducted in the UK's Teacher and Learning Research Programme as an example to highlight some common problems in the discussion about research and…

  6. A call for a multifaceted approach to language learning motivation research: Combining complexity, humanistic, and critical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Pigott

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give an overview of recent developments in the L2 motivation field, in particular the movement away from quantitative, questionnaire-based methodologies toward smaller-scale qualitative studies incorporating concepts from complexity theory. While complexity theory provides useful concepts for exploring motivation in new ways, it has nothing to say about ethics, morality, ideology, politics, power or educational purpose. Furthermore, calls for its use come primarily from researchers from the quantitative tradition whose aim in importing this paradigm from the physical sciences appears to be to conceptualize and model motivation more accurately. The endeavor therefore remains a fundamentally positivist one. Rather than being embraced as a self-contained methodology, I argue that complexity theory should be used cautiously and prudently alongside methods grounded in other philosophical traditions. Possibilities abound, but here I suggest one possible multifaceted approach combining complexity theory, a humanisticconception of motivation, and a critical perspective.

  7. Research of experience of leading foreign countries in the management by a build complex

    OpenAIRE

    Borovik, Yu

    2010-01-01

    In the article the experience of leading foreign countries is explored in the management by build industry and possibilities of his application in the management by the transport build complex of Ukraine.

  8. Cynefin as Reference Framework to Facilitate Insight and Decision-Making in Complex Contexts of Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Kempermann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cynefin scheme is a concept of knowledge management, originally devised to support decision making in management, but more generally applicable to situations, in which complexity challenges the quality of insight, prediction, and decision. Despite the fact that life itself, and especially the brain and its diseases, are complex to the extent that complexity could be considered their cardinal feature, complex problems in biomedicine are often treated as if they were actually not more than the complicated sum of solvable sub-problems. Because of the emergent properties of complex contexts this is not correct. With a set of clear criteria Cynefin helps to set apart complex problems from “simple/obvious,” “complicated,” “chaotic,” and “disordered” contexts in order to avoid misinterpreting the relevant causality structures. The distinction comes with the insight, which specific kind of knowledge is possible in each of these categories and what are the consequences for resulting decisions and actions. From student's theses over the publication and grant writing process to research politics, misinterpretation of complexity can have problematic or even dangerous consequences, especially in clinical contexts. Conceptualization of problems within a straightforward reference language like Cynefin improves clarity and stringency within projects and facilitates communication and decision-making about them.

  9. Renewable carbohydrates are a potential high-density hydrogen carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Biological Systems Engineering Department, 210-A Seitz Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The possibility of using renewable biomass carbohydrates as a potential high-density hydrogen carrier is discussed here. Gravimetric density of polysaccharides is 14.8 H{sub 2} mass% where water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H{sub 2} mass% without water recycling; volumetric densities of polysaccharides are >100 kg of H{sup 2}/m{sup 3}. Renewable carbohydrates (e.g., cellulosic materials and starch) are less expensive based on GJ than are other hydrogen carriers, such as hydrocarbons, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and ammonia. Biotransformation of carbohydrates to hydrogen by cell-free synthetic (enzymatic) pathway biotransformation (SyPaB) has numerous advantages, such as high product yield (12 H{sub 2}/glucose unit), 100% selectivity, high energy conversion efficiency (122%, based on combustion energy), high-purity hydrogen generated, mild reaction conditions, low-cost of bioreactor, few safety concerns, and nearly no toxicity hazards. Although SyPaB may suffer from current low reaction rates, numerous approaches for accelerating hydrogen production rates are proposed and discussed. Potential applications of carbohydrate-based hydrogen/electricity generation would include hydrogen bioreactors, home-size electricity generators, sugar batteries for portable electronics, sugar-powered passenger vehicles, and so on. Developments in thermostable enzymes as standardized building blocks for cell-free SyPaB projects, use of stable and low-cost biomimetic NAD cofactors, and accelerating reaction rates are among the top research and development priorities. International collaborations are urgently needed to solve the above obstacles within a short time. (author)

  10. The complex nature of mixed farming systems requires multidimensional actions supported by integrative research and development efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G

    2012-01-01

    the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification...

  11. Differential impact of amino acids on OXPHOS system activity following carbohydrate starvation in Arabidopsis cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Quinhones, Carla G S; Schertl, Peter; Brito, Danielle S; Eubel, Holger; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Braun, Hans-Peter; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-12-01

    Plant respiration mostly depends on the activity of glycolysis and the oxidation of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle to synthesize ATP. However, during stress situations plant cells also use amino acids as alternative substrates to donate electrons through the electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF)/ETF:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex to the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC). Given this, we investigated changes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in Arabidopsis thaliana cell culture under carbohydrate starvation supplied with a range of amino acids. Induction of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) activity was observed under carbohydrate starvation which was associated with increased amounts of IVDH protein detected by immunoblotting. Furthermore, activities of the protein complexes of the mETC were reduced under carbohydrate starvation. We also observed that OXPHOS system activity behavior is differently affected by different amino acids and that proteins associated with amino acids catabolism are upregulated in cells following carbohydrate starvation. Collectively, our results support the contention that ETF/ETFQO is an essential pathway to donate electrons to the mETC and that amino acids are alternative substrates to maintain respiration under carbohydrate starvation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. A novel approach for the quantitation of carbohydrates in mash, wort, and beer with RP-HPLC using 1-naphthylamine for precolumn derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakete, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-04-24

    A novel universal method for the determination of reducing mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides in complex matrices on RP-HPLC using 1-naphthylamine for precolumn derivatization with sodium cyanoborhydride was established to study changes in the carbohydrate profile during beer brewing. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection enabled very sensitive analyses of beer-relevant carbohydrates. Mass spectrometry additionally allowed the identification of the molecular weight and thereby the degree of polymerization of unknown carbohydrates. Thus, carbohydrates with up to 16 glucose units were detected. Comparison demonstrated that the novel method was superior to fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The results proved the HPLC method clearly to be more powerful in regard to sensitivity and resolution. Analogous to FACE, this method was designated fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate HPLC (FAC-HPLC).

  13. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...

  14. Theory of Change: a theory-driven approach to enhance the Medical Research Council's framework for complex interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Mary J; Breuer, Erica; Lee, Lucy; Asher, Laura; Chowdhary, Neerja; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram

    2014-07-05

    The Medical Research Councils' framework for complex interventions has been criticized for not including theory-driven approaches to evaluation. Although the framework does include broad guidance on the use of theory, it contains little practical guidance for implementers and there have been calls to develop a more comprehensive approach. A prospective, theory-driven process of intervention design and evaluation is required to develop complex healthcare interventions which are more likely to be effective, sustainable and scalable. We propose a theory-driven approach to the design and evaluation of complex interventions by adapting and integrating a programmatic design and evaluation tool, Theory of Change (ToC), into the MRC framework for complex interventions. We provide a guide to what ToC is, how to construct one, and how to integrate its use into research projects seeking to design, implement and evaluate complex interventions using the MRC framework. We test this approach by using ToC within two randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized evaluation of complex interventions. Our application of ToC in three research projects has shown that ToC can strengthen key stages of the MRC framework. It can aid the development of interventions by providing a framework for enhanced stakeholder engagement and by explicitly designing an intervention that is embedded in the local context. For the feasibility and piloting stage, ToC enables the systematic identification of knowledge gaps to generate research questions that strengthen intervention design. ToC may improve the evaluation of interventions by providing a comprehensive set of indicators to evaluate all stages of the causal pathway through which an intervention achieves impact, combining evaluations of intervention effectiveness with detailed process evaluations into one theoretical framework. Incorporating a ToC approach into the MRC framework holds promise for improving the design and evaluation of complex

  15. Theory of Change: a theory-driven approach to enhance the Medical Research Council's framework for complex interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Medical Research Councils’ framework for complex interventions has been criticized for not including theory-driven approaches to evaluation. Although the framework does include broad guidance on the use of theory, it contains little practical guidance for implementers and there have been calls to develop a more comprehensive approach. A prospective, theory-driven process of intervention design and evaluation is required to develop complex healthcare interventions which are more likely to be effective, sustainable and scalable. Methods We propose a theory-driven approach to the design and evaluation of complex interventions by adapting and integrating a programmatic design and evaluation tool, Theory of Change (ToC), into the MRC framework for complex interventions. We provide a guide to what ToC is, how to construct one, and how to integrate its use into research projects seeking to design, implement and evaluate complex interventions using the MRC framework. We test this approach by using ToC within two randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized evaluation of complex interventions. Results Our application of ToC in three research projects has shown that ToC can strengthen key stages of the MRC framework. It can aid the development of interventions by providing a framework for enhanced stakeholder engagement and by explicitly designing an intervention that is embedded in the local context. For the feasibility and piloting stage, ToC enables the systematic identification of knowledge gaps to generate research questions that strengthen intervention design. ToC may improve the evaluation of interventions by providing a comprehensive set of indicators to evaluate all stages of the causal pathway through which an intervention achieves impact, combining evaluations of intervention effectiveness with detailed process evaluations into one theoretical framework. Conclusions Incorporating a ToC approach into the MRC framework holds promise for

  16. The Importance of Team Sex Composition in Team-Training Research Employing Complex Psychomotor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Steven M; Glaze, Ryan M; Schurig, Ira; Arthur, Winfred

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between team sex composition and team performance on a complex psychomotor task was examined because these types of tasks are commonly used in the lab-based teams literature. Despite well-documented sex-based differences on complex psychomotor tasks, the preponderance of studies-mainly lab based-that use these tasks makes no mention of the sex composition of teams across or within experimental conditions. A sample of 123 four-person teams with varying team sex composition learned and performed a complex psychomotor task, Steal Beasts Pro PE. Each team completed a 5-hr protocol whereby they conducted several performance missions. The results indicated significant large mean differences such that teams with larger proportions of males had higher performance scores. These findings demonstrate the potential effect of team sex composition on the validity of studies that use complex psychomotor tasks to explore and investigate team performance-related phenomena when (a) team sex composition is not a focal variable of interest and (b) it is not accounted for or controlled. Given the proclivity of complex psychomotor action-based tasks used in lab-based team studies, it is important to understand and control for the impact of team sex composition on team performance. When team sex composition is not controlled for, either methodologically or statistically, it may affect the validity of the results in teams studies using these types of tasks.

  17. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expanding the Reach of Physics-Engaging Students in Interdisciplinary Research Involving complex, real-world situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bililign, Solomon

    2014-03-01

    Physics plays a very important role in most interdisciplinary efforts and can provide a solid foundation for students. Retention of students in STEM areas can be facilitated by enhanced interdisciplinary education and research since students are strongly attracted to research with societal relevance and show increasing enthusiasm about problems that have practical consequences. One such area of research is a collaborative Earth System Science. The Earth System is dynamic and complex. It is comprised of diverse components that interact. By providing students the opportunities to work in interdisciplinary groups on a problem that reflects a complex, real-world situation they can see the linkages between components of the Earth system that encompass climate and all its components (weather precipitation, temperature, etc.) and technology development and deployment of sensors and sensor networks and social impacts. By involving students in the creation of their own personalized professional development plan, students are more focused and engaged and are more likely to remain in the program.

  19. One-Pot Conversion of Carbohydrates into Furan Derivatives via Furfural and 5-Hydroxylmethylfurfural as Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Zehui

    2016-08-23

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the transformation of renewable biomass into value-added fuels and chemicals. The catalytic conversion of naturally abundant carbohydrates can generate two-important furan chemicals: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from C6 carbohydrates and furfural from C5 carbohydrates. Both HMF and furfural have received great interest as precursors in the synthesis of commodity chemicals and liquid fuels. In recent years, a trend has emerged to integrate sequential catalytic processes involving multistep reactions for the direct one-pot transformation of carbohydrates into the aimed fuels and chemicals. One-pot reactions have remarkably unique and environmentally friendly benefits, including the fact that isolation and purification of intermediate compounds can be avoided. Herein, the present article aims to review recent advances in the one-pot conversion of carbohydrates into furan derivatives via furfural and HMF as intermediates. Special attention will be paid to the catalytic systems, mechanistic insight, reaction pathways, and catalyst stability. It is expected that this review will guide researchers to develop effective catalytic systems for the one-pot transformation of carbohydrates into furan derivatives. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Carbohydrates for Soccer: A Focus on Skilled Actions and Half-Time Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P. Hills

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate consumption is synonymous with soccer performance due to the established effects on endogenous energy store preservation, and physical capacity maintenance. For performance-enhancement purposes, exogenous energy consumption (in the form of drinks, bars, gels and snacks is recommended on match-day; specifically, before and during match-play. Akin to the demands of soccer, limited opportunities exist to consume carbohydrates outside of scheduled breaks in competition, such as at half-time. The link between cognitive function and blood glucose availability suggests that carbohydrates may influence decision-making and technical proficiency (e.g., soccer skills. However, relatively few reviews have focused on technical, as opposed to physical, performance while also addressing the practicalities associated with carbohydrate consumption when limited in-play feeding opportunities exist. Transient physiological responses associated with reductions in activity prevalent in scheduled intra-match breaks (e.g., half-time likely have important consequences for practitioners aiming to optimize match-day performance. Accordingly, this review evaluated novel developments in soccer literature regarding (1 the ergogenic properties of carbohydrates for skill performance; and (2 novel considerations concerning exogenous energy provision during half-time. Recommendations are made to modify half-time practices in an aim to enhance subsequent performance. Viable future research opportunities exist regarding a deeper insight into carbohydrate provision on match-day.

  1. HPLC studies of aquatic humic compounds and complexes from the Drigg research site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.

    1992-01-01

    The work described in this report forms part of a multidisciplinary project, the broad objective of which is to study the ability of natural organic compounds present in groundwater to form mobile complexes with radionuclides. Other components of this work include the development of High Performance Liquid Chromatogaphic techniques (HPLC) to extract natural organic material from groundwater with minimal alteration, the separation of those organic fractions that complex with cations, and the development of geochemical speciation models to describe or predict metal binding. 17 Refs., 25 Figs., 4 Tabs

  2. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrates are a diverse group of substances with a range of chemical, physical, and physiological properties. The primary chemical classification of carbohydrates is by molecular size (degree of polymerization [DP]), the type of linkage (α or β), and composition of individual...... to their potential for digestion by endogenous enzymes. Carbohydrates are the principal substrates for energy metabolism but also exert a number of other effects throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The starch structure as well as type and levels of DF influence, to a varying degree, the rate of starch digestion...... in the small intestine. Some types of soluble NSP are found to interact with intestinal mucus and produce a layer that significantly delays the transport of lipid digestion products. Potentially, the same may be the case for proteinous compounds. The delay in the transport of the nutrients to the gut...

  3. Systems-Level Energy Audit for Main Complex, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Mike

    2003-01-01

    ... (Buildings 1, 2, and 3) was conducted. The goals of the audit were to review energy and water use in the current main complex building, to review and inventory energy system equipment, and to devise short- and long-term energy improvement...

  4. The Oedipal Complex and Child Sexual Abuse Research: A Re-examination of Freud's Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.

    In 1896, Sigmund Freud stated that early childhood seduction caused hysteria in his female patients. He later recanted his original finding and claimed that the reports of abuse he heard from his patients were not descriptions of real events, but his patients' expressions of unconscious childhood wishes. The theory of the Oedipal complex gave…

  5. Researchers and stakeholders shape advances in management of tree and vine trunk-disease complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grapevine trunk-disease complex limits grape production and vineyard longevity worldwide. Every vineyard in California eventually is infected by one or more trunk diseases. The causal fungi, which are taxonomically unrelated Ascomycetes, infect and then degrade the permanent woody structure of t...

  6. A Research on Wind Farm Micro-sitting Optimization in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain is a pretty difficult issue for onshore wind farm. In this article, a novel optimization method is proposed to optimize the layout for wind farms in complex terrain. This method utilized Lissaman and Jensen wake models for taking the terrain height...... that the CPSO method has a higher optimal value, and could be used to optimize the actual wind farm micro-sitting engineering projects.......Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain is a pretty difficult issue for onshore wind farm. In this article, a novel optimization method is proposed to optimize the layout for wind farms in complex terrain. This method utilized Lissaman and Jensen wake models for taking the terrain height...... turbines’ park coordinates which subject to the boundary and minimum distance conditions between two wind turbines. A Cross Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) method is developed and applied to optimize the layout for a certain wind farm case. Compared with the uniform and experience method, results show...

  7. Aspects of Cognitive Complexity Theory and Research as Applied to a Managerial Decision Making Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    existence of at least a limited typography : Some degree of generality of cognitive style across domains was obtained. Which style is utilized in a...obtained results indicating that complexity is related to affect and dispersion of affect ratings for brands of toothpaste and automobiles. Specifically

  8. Software and hardware complex for research and management of the separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a program for studying the operation of an asynchronous electric drive using vector-algorithmic switching of windings, as well as the development of a hardware-software complex for controlling parameters and controlling the speed of rotation of an asynchronous electric drive for investigating the operation of a cyclone. To study the operation of an asynchronous electric drive, a method was used in which the average value of flux linkage is found and a method for vector-algorithmic calculation of the power and electromagnetic moment of an asynchronous electric drive feeding from a single-phase network is developed, with vector-algorithmic commutation, and software for calculating parameters. The software part of the complex allows to regulate the speed of rotation of the motor by vector-algorithmic switching of transistors or, using pulse-width modulation (PWM), set any engine speed. Also sensors are connected to the hardware-software complex at the inlet and outlet of the cyclone. The developed cyclone with an inserted complex allows to receive high efficiency of product separation at various entrance speeds. At an inlet air speed of 18 m / s, the cyclone’s maximum efficiency is achieved. For this, it is necessary to provide the rotational speed of an asynchronous electric drive with a frequency of 45 Hz.

  9. Embracing Connectedness and Change: A Complex Dynamic Systems Perspective for Applied Linguistic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Complex dynamic systems (CDS) theory offers a powerful metaphorical model of applied linguistic processes, allowing holistic descriptions of situated phenomena, and addressing the connectedness and change that often characterise issues in our field. A recent study of Kenyan conflict transformation illustrates application of a CDS perspective. Key…

  10. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  11. Survey and research of the latest works of LES about models near wall boundary and applications to complex flow path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Norio; Shimizu, Takeshi

    2005-02-01

    Since treatments for wall boundaries and flows around complex paths are issues in LES modeling, a literature research on the LES methods for wall boundaries and applications to flows at complex paths was conducted to investigate the latest trend. Publications of domestic or international societies, workshops, symposiums, and journals about for past 3 years (2001-2004) were searched and collected, from which 23 research papers were selected and investigated. For the investigation, the treatments for wall boundaries used in the literature were classified roughly into five methods, i.e. (1) no-slip condition, (2) algebraic wall model (wall function), (3) wall model based on boundary-layer approximations (differential equation wall model), (4) hybrid method, (5) immersed boundary method. No-slip conditions were widely applied in recent works. For algebraic wall models, new wall functions that considered the effect of the velocity component vertical to a wall or circulation regions were examined. There were also some researches that devised the process of calculating the wall-shear stress with a conventional wall function. The researches using differential equation wall models presented the dynamic modification of model coefficients, or the application of high-order turbulence model such as the k-e model to the solution of Navier-Stokes equation in the boundary layer. The researches of hybrid methods focused on the discontinuity of velocity and eddy viscosity at the LES/RANS interface. Several researches that adopted immersed boundary methods for Cartesian girds with curved wall boundaries introduced the investigation of the Poisson solvers and the numerical modification of pressure boundary conditions. Many of investigated researches used hybrid methods. Thus, it is expected that they will be mainly applied to large-scale and complex simulations if the standard treatment for the discontinuity at the interface is developed. (author)

  12. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  13. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  14. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, K J; Davey, B; Lang, A; Segal, D G

    2013-04-10

    Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin delivery for meals based on a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin relationship. It is our hypothesis that a non-linear relationship exists between the amounts of carbohydrate consumed and the insulin required to cover it. To document blood glucose exposure in response to increasing carbohydrate loads on fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. Five type 1 diabetic subjects receiving insulin pump therapy with good control were recruited. Morning basal rates and carbohydrate- to-insulin ratios were optimised. A Medtronic glucose sensor was used for 5 days to collect data for area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, during which standardised meals of increasing carbohydrate loads were consumed. Increasing carbohydrate loads using a fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio resulted in increasing glucose AUC. The relationship was found to be exponential rather than linear. Late postprandial hypoglycaemia followed carbohydrate loads of >60 g and this was often followed by rebound hyperglycaemia that lasted >6 hours. A non-linear relationship exists between carbohydrates consumed and the insulin required to cover them. This has implications for control of postprandial blood sugars, especially when consuming large carbohydrate loads. Further studies are required to look at the optimal ratios, duration and type of insulin boluses required to cover increasing carbohydrate loads.

  15. Stacking interactions between carbohydrate and protein quantified by combination of theoretical and experimental methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Wimmerová

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-receptor interactions are an integral part of biological events. They play an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell differentiation and in-cell signaling. Carbohydrates can interact with a receptor by using several types of intermolecular interactions. One of the most important is the interaction of a carbohydrate's apolar part with aromatic amino acid residues, known as dispersion interaction or CH/π interaction. In the study presented here, we attempted for the first time to quantify how the CH/π interaction contributes to a more general carbohydrate-protein interaction. We used a combined experimental approach, creating single and double point mutants with high level computational methods, and applied both to Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL lectin complexes with α-L-Me-fucoside. Experimentally measured binding affinities were compared with computed carbohydrate-aromatic amino acid residue interaction energies. Experimental binding affinities for the RSL wild type, phenylalanine and alanine mutants were -8.5, -7.1 and -4.1 kcal x mol(-1, respectively. These affinities agree with the computed dispersion interaction energy between carbohydrate and aromatic amino acid residues for RSL wild type and phenylalanine, with values -8.8, -7.9 kcal x mol(-1, excluding the alanine mutant where the interaction energy was -0.9 kcal x mol(-1. Molecular dynamics simulations show that discrepancy can be caused by creation of a new hydrogen bond between the α-L-Me-fucoside and RSL. Observed results suggest that in this and similar cases the carbohydrate-receptor interaction can be driven mainly by a dispersion interaction.

  16. Participatory Action Research with "Minority Communities" and the Complexities of Emancipatory Tensions: Intersectionality and Cultural Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallah, Momodou

    2014-01-01

    Conducting research with communities constructed as the "other" from a purely positivist paradigm can often be replete with colossal flaws with enormous potential to oppress the researched--especially minority communities in this case. This article presents an analysis of the cultural and experiential affinity experiences of the author…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  18. Psychotherapy and Outcome Research in PTSD: Understanding the Challenges and Complexities in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Timothy G.

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews the existing literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) as it relates to outcome research and psychotherapy. An initial examination of the issues involved in outcome research includes the issue of assessment and diagnosis, followed by the issue of measurement. The article is meant…

  19. Using video-based observation research methods in primary care health encounters to evaluate complex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient-clinician interaction in primary care settings. We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings. This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared "unmanned" video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies. With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.

  20. Navigating the Complexity of Qualitative Research in Postmodern Contexts: Assemblage, Critical Reflexivity, and Communion as Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina

    2015-01-01

    For graduate students and other emerging qualitative researchers, the ever-evolving and sometimes conflicting perspectives, methodologies, and practices within various post-positivist frameworks (e.g. feminist, critical, Indigenous, participatory) can be overwhelming. Qualitative researchers working within postmodern contexts of multiplicity and…

  1. Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency and Lexis in Task-Based Performance: A Synthesis of the Ealing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehan, Peter; Foster, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will present a research synthesis of a series of studies, termed here the Ealing research. The studies use the same general framework to conceptualise tasks and task performance, enabling easier comparability. The different studies, although each is self-contained, build into a wider picture of task performance. The major point of…

  2. Research on a scheduling mechanism in a complex system based on TOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zhang; Ya-Ming, Zhang; Jinbo, Chen; Kaijun, Leng

    2016-01-01

    Under the condition where there is no seasonal demand fluctuation, short life cycle product supply chain should confront the market environment such as the decreasing of product value, the launch of substitutes and the appearance of competitors’ similar products, and the supply chain will become a very complex system. In this paper, the authors consider a TOC-based scheduling mechanism in this complex supply chain system. under the constant total production cost, it is more important to improve the availability of the wanted product in order to enhance the overall supply chain competitiveness so to obtain more effective output(profit rate) for the supply chain in a long period. Especially we try to apply the SDBR concept into a schedule mechanism in a particular supply chain system, and use numerical analysis to test the efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Research on the Complexity of Dual-Channel Supply Chain Model in Competitive Retailing Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Li, Ting; Ren, Wenbo

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the optimal decisions of dual-channel game model considering the inputs of retailing service. We analyze how adjustment speed of service inputs affect the system complexity and market performance, and explore the stability of the equilibrium points by parameter basin diagrams. And chaos control is realized by variable feedback method. The numerical simulation shows that complex behavior would trigger the system to become unstable, such as double period bifurcation and chaos. We measure the performances of the model in different periods by analyzing the variation of average profit index. The theoretical results show that the percentage share of the demand and cross-service coefficients have important influence on the stability of the system and its feasible basin of attraction.

  4. Modelling of ion sorption on complex solid materials. Synthesis of research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmier, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to Supervise Researches) report, the author proposes an overview of his research activities which are part of efforts of qualification and quantification of retention capacities of synthetic and artificial materials used to confine nuclear wastes in an underground geological site by absorption of radio-elements possibly passed into solution. More specifically, these research works focused on models aimed at predicting the behaviour of a mixing with respect to adsorption, and thus at avoiding too cumbersome experimental characterizations. The author presents the designed modelling approach and models, describes the implemented scientific approach and the associated data acquisition methodology, and discusses the obtained results. He finally proposed an assessment of these research works, and discusses research perspectives on a short and medium term [fr

  5. Speleomycological research in underground Osówka complex in Sowie Mountains (Lower Silesia, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Pusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osówka (Germ. Säuferhöhen, is one of the elements of the unfinished Nazi military complex called “Riese”. The total length of corridors of Osówka complex is about 1,700 m and its capacity amounts to 30,000 m3. As described geologically, Osówka is situated within the Sowie Mts. Massif which consists mostly of various gneisses with different structural characteristics, but with a constant mineral composition. The rock-forming minerals are feldspar (oligoclase, quartz, biotite and light micas, accesory minerals are garnet, sillimanite and dysten. Fine-grained shallow-sea deposits were probably a protolith of these rocks. The study aimed at first mycological evaluation of the air and the rocks in Osówka adit. The air samples were taken from one location outside the adit and from four locations inside of it. Mycological evaluation of the rocks inside the adit was performed using three different methods. Fifteen taxa of filamentous fungi were isolated from the internal air sampled, and several taxa - from the outside of the adit, whereas only eleven species were isolated from the rocks. Cladosporium spp. were the fungi most frequently isolated from internal atmosphere of the underground Osówka complex, and from the external air. On the other hand, the fungi most frequently isolated from the rocks were Aspergillus niger group (when using swab sampling procedure and Mucor spp. (from debris and rinse sampling procedure.

  6. Research on evaluation of degree of complexity of mining fault network based on GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Zhang; Yun-jia Wang; Chuan-zhi Liu [China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China). School of Environment Science and Spatial Informatics

    2007-03-15

    A large number of spatial and attribute data are involved in coal resource evaluation. Databases are a relatively advanced data management technology, but their major defects are the poor graphic and spatial data functions, from which it is difficult to realize scientific management of evaluation data with spatial characteristics and evaluation result maps. On account of these deficiencies, the evaluation of degree of complexity of mining fault network based on a geographic information system (GIS) is proposed which integrates management of spatial and attribute data. A fractal is an index which can reflect the comprehensive information of faults' number, density, size, composition and dynamics mechanism. A fractal dimension is used as the quantitative evaluation index. Evaluation software has been developed based on a component GIS-MapX, with which the degree of complexity of fault network is evaluated quantitatively using the quantitative index of fractal dimensions in Liuqiao No.2 coal mine as an example. Results show that it is effective in acquiring model parameters and enhancing the definition of data and evaluation results with the application of GIS technology. The fault network is a system with fractal structure and its complexity can be described reasonably and accurately by fractal dimension, which provides an effective method for coal resource evaluation. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  8. Structure of Dioclea virgata lectin: relations between carbohydrate binding site and nitric oxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatorre, P.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Nobrega, R.B.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nascimento, K.S.; Naganao, C.S.; Sampaio, A.H.; Cavada, B.S.; Pires, A.F.; Assreuy, A.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins with at least one noncatalytic domain binding reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. By binding to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface, lectins participate in a range of cellular processes without changing the properties of the carbohydrates involved. The lectin of Dioclea virgata (DvirL), both native and complexed with X-man, was submitted to X-ray diffraction analysis and the crystal structure was compared to that of other Diocleinae lectins in order to better understand differences in biological proper- ties, especially with regard to the ability of lectins to induce nitric oxide (NO) production. The DvirL diffraction analysis revealed that both the native crystal and the X-Man-complexed form are orthorhombic and belong to space group I222. The cell parameters were: a=65.4 , b=86.6 and c=90.2 (native structure), and a=61.89 , b=87.67 and c=88.78 (X-Man-complexed structure). An association was observed between the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), the ability to induce NO production and the relative positions of Tyr12, Arg228 and Leu99. Thus, differences in biological activity induced by Diocleinae lectins are related to the configuration of amino acid residues in the carbohydrate binding site and to the structural conformation of subsequent regions capable of influencing site-ligand interactions. In conclusion, the ability of Diocleinae lectins to induce NO production depends on CRD configuration. (author)

  9. Characterisation of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium metacestode glycoprotein antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, B I; Obregón-Henao, A; Mesa, M; Gil, D L; Ortiz, B L; Mejía, J S; Villota, G E; Sanzón, F; Teale, J M

    2000-05-01

    Human neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. It usually affects the central nervous system of humans and can be confused with other brain pathologies. The Lens culinaris-binding glycoproteins from this parasite have been shown to be ideal targets for the development of a highly specific immunoassay for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. In the present study we characterised the carbohydrates associated with five antigenic glycoproteins of T. solium metacestodes in the range of 12-28 kilodaltons. Lectin-affinities and enzymatic deglycosylations suggested that each of the five antigens contain various glycoforms of asparagine-linked carbohydrates of the hybrid, complex and probably high mannose type. These carbohydrates accounted for at least 30-66% of the apparent molecular mass of the glycoconjugates. In contrast, there was no evidence for the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. Lectin affinity patterns suggested that the sugars are short and truncated in their biosynthetic route, and that some contain terminal galactose moieties. Elucidating the precise structure of the carbohydrates and establishing their role in antigenicity will be essential to design strategies to produce them in large and reproducible amounts for the development of improved immunoassays.

  10. Research activities of MPA, Stuttgart University, for enhanced safety and reliability of components under complex load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Maile, K.

    2004-01-01

    MPA research activities focus on fracture prevention and on the development of a generally applicable method of component integrity testing which, independent of the safety relevance of the components involved, is also part of ageing management. (orig.) [de

  11. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in normal subjects and patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Bonanome, A; Grundy, S M; Unger, R H; Breslau, N A; Pak, C Y

    1990-04-01

    Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60% carbohydrate and 25% fat) with high fat diets (50% fat and 35% carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.

  12. A complex process - transforming scientific research into regulatory rules for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.J.; Goss, D.; Huffman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The protection of isolated wetlands from consumptive use withdrawals has been a policy in the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) for over 15 years. A guideline for protecting isolated wetlands was established in the mid-1980's for the consumptive water use permitting program administered by the SFWMD. The guideline specifies groundwater drawdown criteria associated with well field pumpage. In 1994, the SFWMD convened a panel of wetland scientists to review the existing groundwater drawdown criteria. The panel concluded there was insufficient information to determine if the criteria were either too restrictive or insufficient in protecting wetlands. The panel recommended that the SFWMD conduct research to answer related questions. Since that time, staff at the SFWMD have developed a research plan, selected 38 isolated wetland monitoring sites in seven study areas, collected over four years of data, and developed an integrated surface water and groundwater simulation model. However, the staff at the SFWMD has had difficulties in transforming the research results into regulatory rules. The nature of an isolated wetland is quite complicated. Its setting changes significantly from time to time depending on the variation of rainfall, hydro-geological conditions, and human activities. A regulatory rule requires simple and more easily measurable criteria. The regulatory staff need simple tools to evaluate many permit applications within a limited time frame. The tools used in the research process are often complicated and time consuming. This paper describes the wetland research, and the difficulties of transforming research results into regulatory rules. (author)

  13. Enacting Kaitiakitanga: Challenges and Complexities in the Governance and Ownership of Rongoā Research Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amohia Boulton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the tensions one research team has faced in securing appropriate governance or stewardship (which we refer to as kaitiakitanga of research data. Whilst ethical and regulatory frameworks exist which provide a minimum standard for researchers to meet when working with Māori, what our experience has highlighted is there is currently a “governance” gap in terms of who should hold stewardship of research data collected from Māori individuals or collectives. In the case of a project undertaken in the traditional healing space, the organisation best placed to fulfil this governance role receives no funding or support to take on such a responsibility; consequently by default, this role is being borne by the research team until such time as capacity can be built and adequate resourcing secured. In addition, we have realised that the tensions played out in this research project have implications for the broader issue of how we protect traditional knowledge in a modern intellectual property law context, and once again how we adequately support those, often community-based organisations, who work at the interface between Indigenous knowledge and the Western world.

  14. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  15. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  16. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  17. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  18. Profiling of carbohydrate polymers in biotechnology using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of carbohydrate polymers is very demanding and challenging because of the similar physical and chemical properties they possess. Enzymatic hydrolysis is employed to cleave the polymers. The use of enzymes in analytical chemistry requires an analytical system that has on-line capability, is fast, ...

  19. Radiation chemistry of carbohydrates, ch. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, J.F.; Saint-Lebe, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The physical and chemical changes undergone by carbohydrates at irradiation are reviewed. The discussion includes the irradiation of pure sugars (low molecular weight sugars and derivatives in the solid state or in solution; polysaccharides) as well as the irradiation of simple mixtures containing a given sugar, emphasizing the irradiation of foodstuffs containing one or more sugars

  20. Carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight to nineteen ethanol-soluble carbohydrate components were identified in vegetative tissues of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica. The analysed carbohydrates included: monosaccharides, cyclitols, galactosyl cyclitols, raffinose family oligosaccharides, lichnose family oligosaccharides, kestose family oligosaccharides. The analysed vegetative tissues accumulated from 447 to 139 mg/g d.m. soluble carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis, Deschampsia antarctica respectively. The raffinose family oligosaccharides constituted 53.3% in Colobanthus quitensis of the identified soluble carbohydrate component pool. Vegetative tissues accumulated starch in Colobanthus quitensis 20.6 mg/g d.m. and 261.6 mg/g d.m. in Deschampsia antarctica. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative part of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica revealed the presence of various ergastic materials in intercellular spaces, cell walls and protoplasts. Various parts of these plants contain insoluble, PAS positive polysaccharides in intercellular spaces and in cell walls. Chloroplasts of analysed tissues contained starch. Less starch was visible in young, growing parts of shoots of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica, more starch appears in mature, differentiated parts.

  1. Dissolved carbohydrate in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhople, V.M.; Bhosle, N.B.

    with chlorophyll a (P 0.001) and phaeopigments (P 0.001) suggesting its release from the former and zooplankton grazing in the latter. Inverse correlations with dissolved oxygen, phosphate and nitrate indicated the possibility of the release of carbohydrate from...

  2. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  3. STICS: surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Ranade, Sneha C; Li, Aixiao; Parlato, M Cristina; Sims, Charles R; Shulga, Olga V; Stine, Keith J; Demchenko, Alexei V

    2009-04-14

    A new surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis (STICS) technology is presented in which a surface functionalized 'stick' made of chemically stable high surface area porous gold allows one to perform cost efficient and simple synthesis of oligosaccharide chains; at the end of the synthesis, the oligosaccharide can be cleaved off and the stick reused for subsequent syntheses.

  4. DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND β-CAROTENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    A sample of each vegetable was washed and ground to a fine pulp using pestle and mortar. The operation was done under dim light to reduce the rate of carotene oxidation contained in them. One gramme (1g) and 10g of macerated sample were weighed using Metler PT balance for carbohydrate and β-carotene analysis ...

  5. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  6. Identification of global oil trade patterns: An empirical research based on complex network theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qiang; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A global oil trade core network is analyzed using complex network theory. • The global oil export core network displays a scale-free behaviour. • The current global oil trade network can be divided into three trading blocs. • The global oil trade network presents a ‘robust and yet fragile’ characteristic. - Abstract: The Global oil trade pattern becomes increasingly complex, which has become one of the most important factors affecting every country’s energy strategy and economic development. In this paper, a global oil trade core network is constructed to analyze the overall features, regional characteristics and stability of the oil trade using complex network theory. The results indicate that the global oil export core network displays a scale-free behaviour, in which the trade position of nodes presents obvious heterogeneity and the ‘hub nodes’ play a ‘bridge’ role in the formation process of the trade network. The current global oil trade network can be divided into three trading blocs, including the ‘South America-West Africa-North America’ trading bloc, the ‘Middle East–Asian–Pacific region’ trading bloc, and ‘the former Soviet Union–North Africa–Europe’ trading bloc. Geopolitics and diplomatic relations are the two main reasons for this regional oil trade structure. Moreover, the global oil trade network presents a ‘robust but yet fragile’ characteristic, and the impacts of trade interruption always tend to spread throughout the whole network even if the occurrence of export disruptions is localised

  7. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Korolev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG in the space-rocket equipment is motivated by some advantages. That is why a lot of tests and works are actively carried out now on rocket engines using liquefied natural gas.To provide the engine tests and subsequent rocket complex operation a creation of LNG storages is demanded as a part of ground processing equipment and support for their safe operation conditions.One of LNG danger factor is its low boiling temperature, and also changing the condition, density and LNG boiling temperature at storage due to evaporation of light component, namely methane. At refill of the storages having fuel remains with a new LNG portion these factors can lead to formation of the stratified macro-layers and cause a mode of the intensive mixing that is called "rollover", with almost instant evaporation of LNG big mass and sharp pressure boost, capable to result in the storage distraction with catastrophic effects.The work objectives are formulated such as a technique development for forecasting of the LNG parameters in operating storages including the rollover mode, a comparison of calculated results of the LNG parameters with the experimental data, and a definition of possible recommendations for safe operation of LNG storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment.The paper reviews 12 publications concerning the issues and proceeding processes at operation of LNG storages, including the rollover mode.To verify the reliability of process simulation results in the LNG, represented in models by the binary methane-ethane mixture the calculated values have been compared with the experimental data for a LNG storage mode in the reservoir of a ground test complex.The reliability of developed models of the heat-mass-exchange processes in stratified on density and temperature in LNG storage with emergence of conditions for the rollover mode has been verified by comparing the settlement characteristics to the published

  8. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Recent advances in Nonlinear Dynamics and Complex System Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Giulio; Complex Phenomena in Nanoscale Systems

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale physics has become one of the rapidly developing areas of contemporary physics because of its direct relevance to newly emerging area, nanotechnologies. Nanoscale devices and quantum functional materials are usually constructed based on the results of fundamental studies on nanoscale physics. Therefore studying physical phenomena in nanosized systems is of importance for progressive development of nanotechnologies. In this context study of complex phenomena in such systems and using them for controlling purposes is of great practical importance. Namely, such studies are brought together in this book, which contains 27 papers on various aspects of nanoscale physics and nonlinear dynamics.

  9. System of complex neurorehabilitation of newborns with cerebral pathology// Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal CNS damage is one of most actual problem of neonatology and its rate in structure of children invalidity is 60%. The purpose was to learn clinical efficiency of a course transcranial magnet therapy in complex with preparation Pantogam in rehabilitation of children with perinatal CNS damage. Materials. Clinical and neurophysiological studies were performed in 60 newborn children from 10 to 28 day of life. Results. The study showed that results of combined treatment (traveling impulse magnet field + Pantogam was significantly (1,5 times higher that efficacy of routine treatment only

  10. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  11. Carbohydrate secretion by phototrophic communities in tidal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winder, B.; Staats, N.; Stal, L.J.; Paterson, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different benthic phototrophic communities on tidal flats were investigated for their carbohydrate content and distribution. Carbohydrates were analysed as two operationally defined fractions, related to the difficulty of extraction from the sediment matrix. Water-soluble (colloidal) and EDTA-

  12. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...

  13. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    ... carbohydrate intake is hypothesised to provide additional substrate for oxidation[3] ... performance is attained when a multiple carbohydrate drink is ingested. ..... and often intense exercise, such as can be seen in events such as the Tour de ...

  14. Collaborative Observation and Research (CORE) Watersheds: new strategies for tracking the regional effects of climate change on complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, P. S.

    2007-12-01

    The past 30 years of environmental research have shown that our world is not made up of discrete components acting independently, but rather of a mosaic of complex relations among air, land, water, living resources, and human activities. Recent warming of the climate is having a significant effect on the functioning of those systems. A national imperative is developing to quickly establish local, regional, and national systems for anticipating environmental degradation from a changing climate and developing cost-effective adaptation or mitigation strategies. In these circumstances, the debate over research versus monitoring becomes moot--there is a clear need for the integrated application of both across a range of temporal and spatial scales. A national framework that effectively addresses the multiple scales and complex multi-disciplinary processes of climate change is being assembled largely from existing programs through collaboration among Federal, State, local, and NGO organizations. The result will be an observation and research network capable of interpreting complex environmental changes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, but at less cost than if the network were funded as an independent initiative. A pilot implementation of the collaborative framework in the Delaware River Basin yielded multi-scale assessments of carbon storage and flux, and the effects of forest fragmentation and soil calcium depletion on ecosystem function. A prototype of a national climate-effects observation and research network linking research watersheds, regional surveys, remote sensing, and ecosystem modeling is being initiated in the Yukon River Basin where carbon flux associated with permafrost thaw could accelerate global warming.

  15. Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research: Reflections on the Research Approach Used to Understand the Complexity of Maternal Health Issues in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Byrne, Elaine; Manandhar, Mary; Hemmings, Joanne; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2017-07-01

    Many methodological approaches have been used to understand cultural dimensions to maternal health issues. Although a well-designed quantitative survey with a representative sample can provide essential information on trends in behavior, it does not necessarily establish a contextualized understanding of the complexity in which different behaviors occur. This article addresses how contextualized data can be collected in a short time and under conditions in which participants in conflict-affected zones might not have established, or time to establish, trust with the researchers. The solution, the Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research (PEER) approach, is illustrated through a study whereby South Sudanese marginalized women were trained to design research instruments, and collect and analyze qualitative data. PEER overcomes the problem that many ethnographic or participatory approaches face-the extensive time and resources required to develop trusting relationships with the community to understand the local context and the social networks they form.

  16. Research on the EDM Technology for Micro-holes at Complex Spatial Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Liu, J.; Guo, J. M.; Sun, D. J.; Cai, Y. H.; Ding, L. T.; Jiang, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the demands on machining micro-holes at complex spatial location, several key technical problems are conquered such as micro-Electron Discharge Machining (micro-EDM) power supply system’s development, the host structure’s design and machining process technical. Through developing low-voltage power supply circuit, high-voltage circuit, micro and precision machining circuit and clearance detection system, the narrow pulse and high frequency six-axis EDM machining power supply system is developed to meet the demands on micro-hole discharging machining. With the method of combining the CAD structure design, CAE simulation analysis, modal test, ODS (Operational Deflection Shapes) test and theoretical analysis, the host construction and key axes of the machine tool are optimized to meet the position demands of the micro-holes. Through developing the special deionized water filtration system to make sure that the machining process is stable enough. To verify the machining equipment and processing technical developed in this paper through developing the micro-hole’s processing flow and test on the real machine tool. As shown in the final test results: the efficient micro-EDM machining pulse power supply system, machine tool host system, deionized filtration system and processing method developed in this paper meet the demands on machining micro-holes at complex spatial locations.

  17. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh

    2008-01-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  18. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh [South African Young Nuclear Professional Society, PO Box 9396, Centurion, 0157 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  19. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  20. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Vranova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  1. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  2. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design...

  3. Research based teaching as a model for developing complex pre-cast concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    master students assisted in the development and realisation of an amorphous, catenary grid-shell. Development in many areas simultaneously was essential for the success of the case studies, which made them suitable for a research-based teaching setup, where didactic considerations on a general...... and specific level were important: On a general level, three didactic tools were used: the first being the presentation of knowledge generation as something that happens between researcher and student. The second involved presenting students with a narrow focus before presenting a wide one, and the third......: viewing the teaching studio as an interdisciplinary laboratory. On a specific level, didactic considerations involved a division of responsibility into smaller areas of investigation, allowing the students to conduct relevant experimentation while negotiating other areas of the research. Also...

  4. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    combinations have been investigated for the production of hydrogen from biomass carbohydrate. Chemical catalysis approaches include pyrolysis [19...temperature. High fructose corn syrup, low-cost sucrose replacement, is made by stabilized glucose isomerase, which can work at ~60 °C for even about two...gasoline, vegetable oil vs. biodiesel, corn kernels vs. ethanol [31,109]. Given a price of $0.18/kg carbohydrate (i.e., $10.6/GJ) [2,44], the hydrogen

  5. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Hsp90 Complex in Microbes and Man | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why would cancer researchers be interested in how a bacteria named Escherichia coli (E. coli) rebuilds its cellular proteins after they have been inactivated by environmental stress such as heat?  The answer lies in a protein remodeling mechanism that is shared by microbes and man.

  7. Going beyond Procedure: Engaging with the Ethical Complexities of Being an Embedded Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    This article is a reflection upon the ethical dimension of my work and practice as an embedded researcher during my doctorate. To begin with, I describe my experiences of gaining ethical approval from The University of Manchester while also highlighting some of the concerns that were raised by the ethics board. This leads me to recognise how the…

  8. Enriching Gender in Physics Education Research: A Binary Past and a Complex Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Adrienne L.; Cid, Ximena C.; Blue, Jennifer; Barthelemy, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we draw on previous reports from physics, science education, and women's studies to propose a more nuanced treatment of gender in physics education research (PER). A growing body of PER examines gender differences in participation, performance, and attitudes toward physics. We have three critiques of this work: (i) it does not…

  9. "Knowledge Must Be Contextual": Some Possible Implications of Complexity and Dynamic Systems Theories for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggis, Tamsin

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that qualitative and quantitative research traditions, rather than being seen as opposed to or in competition with each other (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995; Furlong, 2004 ) should be used, where appropriate, in some kind of combination (Bryman & Cramer, 1999; Moore et al., 2003 ). How this combining is to be understood…

  10. Increasing Complexity of Clinical Research in Gastroenterology: Implications for Training Clinician-Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Frank I.; McConnell, Ryan A.; Lewis, Matthew E.; Lewis, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant advances have been made in clinical and epidemiologic research methods over the past 30 years. We sought to demonstrate the impact of these advances on published research in gastroenterology from 1980 to 2010. Methods Three journals (Gastroenterology, Gut, and American Journal of Gastroenterology) were selected for evaluation given their continuous publication during the study period. Twenty original clinical articles were randomly selected from each journal from 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Each article was assessed for topic studied, whether the outcome was clinical or physiologic, study design, sample size, number of authors and centers collaborating, and reporting of statistical methods such as sample size calculations, p-values, confidence intervals, and advanced techniques such as bioinformatics or multivariate modeling. Research support with external funding was also recorded. Results A total of 240 articles were included in the study. From 1980 to 2010, there was a significant increase in analytic studies (pgastroenterology and hepatology over the last three decades. This increase highlights the need for advanced training of clinical investigators to conduct future research. PMID:22475957

  11. Responding to complex societal challenges: A decade of Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) interdisciplinary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Rice, M.; Bogardi, J.; Canadell, J.G.; Dhakal, S.; Ingram, J.; Leemans, R.; Rosenberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Earth system is an integrated, self-regulating system under increasing pressure from anthropogenic transformation. The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), which was established by the international global environmental change research programs (i.e., DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP)

  12. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is

  13. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  14. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  15. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center methods for systematically reviewing complex multicomponent health care interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Chang, Christine; Viswanathan, Meera; Glick, Susan; Treadwell, Jonathan; Umscheid, Craig A; Whitlock, Evelyn; Fu, Rongwei; Berliner, Elise; Paynter, Robin; Anderson, Johanna; Motu'apuaka, Pua; Trikalinos, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center methods white paper was to outline approaches to conducting systematic reviews of complex multicomponent health care interventions. We performed a literature scan and conducted semistructured interviews with international experts who conduct research or systematic reviews of complex multicomponent interventions (CMCIs) or organizational leaders who implement CMCIs in health care. Challenges identified include lack of consistent terminology for such interventions (eg, complex, multicomponent, multidimensional, multifactorial); a wide range of approaches used to frame the review, from grouping interventions by common features to using more theoretical approaches; decisions regarding whether and how to quantitatively analyze the interventions, from holistic to individual component analytic approaches; and incomplete and inconsistent reporting of elements critical to understanding the success and impact of multicomponent interventions, such as methods used for implementation the context in which interventions are implemented. We provide a framework for the spectrum of conceptual and analytic approaches to synthesizing studies of multicomponent interventions and an initial list of critical reporting elements for such studies. This information is intended to help systematic reviewers understand the options and tradeoffs available for such reviews. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of complex utilization of mineral raw materials In geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.; Varju, G.

    1979-01-01

    Presents Hungarian research efforts on ways of utilizing the secondary raw materials alunite, pumice and slate coal from various mines. The slate coal is separated from brown coal and disposed of at spoil banks of brown coal mines, due to its high ash content (up to 56.8% under dry conditions), silicate content up to 58.2% and low calorific value between 1500 and 2780 kcal/kg. The research proposal for utilizing slate coal is directed at partial separation of the mineral and coal content by comminution, peptization and hydrocentrifugal separation. The larger part of the silicate content is held in the colloid suspension, which could be used for conditioning drilling mud or foundry sand. The produced coal concentrate has a reduced ash content and higher calorific value (between 500 and 800 kcal/kg) and could be employed in soil amelioration or combustion. (10 refs.) (In German)

  17. [Research in ethnobotany and the return of systematized knowledge to the community: a complex issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzlaff, Rubia Graciela; Peixoto, Ariane Luna

    2009-01-01

    How should information gathered in ethnobotanical research be returned to the social environment where it was generated? What should be taken to the community? These questions motivated the accompaniment of two ethnobotanical studies and their respective proposals for how to return to the community the knowledge associated to plants, systematized by the scientist. It is common for research data to be returned to a community by means of manuals, information booklets, illustrated lists of plants, lectures and courses. Nevertheless, other forms have been prepared that characterize an exchange of knowledge among the scientist and the community, with mutual gains. This study corroborates these alternatives and suggests that the definition of the activities to return knowledge to the community, even that proposed and agreed to at the beginning of the study, be flexible, allowing the inclusion of new needs that arise during the execution of the study.

  18. Is there a role for the lexis-grammar interface in interlanguage complexity research?

    OpenAIRE

    Paquot, Magali; Colloquium on cross-linguistic aspects of complexity in second language research

    2014-01-01

    A major contribution of recent research in theoretical linguistics, corpus linguistics and psycholinguistics has been to provide convergent evidence that lexis and grammar are closely intertwined (Sinclair, 1991; Stefanowitsch & Gries, 2003; Goldberg, 2006, Ellis & Cadierno, 2009; Römer, 2009). It has also been convincingly demonstrated that language is essentially made up of word combinations that constitute single choices and that words acquire meanings from their context (Sinclair, 1991; B...

  19. Process evaluation for complex interventions in health services research: analysing context, text trajectories and disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jamie

    2016-08-19

    Process evaluations assess the implementation and sustainability of complex healthcare interventions within clinical trials, with well-established theoretical models available for evaluating intervention delivery within specific contexts. However, there is a need to translate conceptualisations of context into analytical tools which enable the dynamic relationship between context and intervention implementation to be captured and understood. In this paper I propose an alternative approach to the design, implementation and analysis of process evaluations for complex health interventions through a consideration of trial protocols as textual documents, distributed and enacted at multiple contextual levels. As an example, I conduct retrospective analysis of a sample of field notes and transcripts collected during the ESTEEM study - a cluster randomised controlled trial of primary care telephone triage. I draw on theoretical perspectives associated with Linguistic Ethnography to examine the delivery of ESTEEM through staff orientation to different texts. In doing so I consider what can be learned from examining the flow and enactment of protocols for notions of implementation and theoretical fidelity (i.e. intervention delivered as intended and whether congruent with the intervention theory). Implementation of the triage intervention required staff to integrate essential elements of the protocol within everyday practice, seen through the adoption and use of different texts that were distributed across staff and within specific events. Staff were observed deploying texts in diverse ways (e.g. reinterpreting scripts, deviating from standard operating procedures, difficulty completing decision support software), providing numerous instances of disruption to maintaining intervention fidelity. Such observations exposed tensions between different contextual features in which the trial was implemented, offering theoretical explanations for the main trial findings. The value of

  20. 3D Dynamic Modeling of the Head-Neck Complex for Fast Eye and Head Orientation Movements Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D dynamic computer model for the movement of the head-neck complex is presented. It incorporates anatomically correct information about the diverse elements forming the system. The skeleton is considered as a set of interconnected rigid 3D bodies following the Newton-Euler laws of movement. The muscles are modeled using Enderle's linear model, which shows equivalent dynamic characteristics to Loeb's virtual muscle model. The soft tissues, namely, the ligaments, intervertebral disks, and facet joints, are modeled considering their physiological roles and dynamics. In contrast with other head and neck models developed for safety research, the model is aimed to study the neural control of the complex during fast eye and head movements, such as saccades and gaze shifts. In particular, the time-optimal hypothesis and the feedback control ones are discussed.

  1. Understanding complexities of synaptic transmission in medically intractable seizures: A paradigm of epilepsy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the changes associated with the development of epileptic state in humans is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Understanding the intricacies of medically intractable epilepsy still remains a challenge for neurosurgeons across the world. A significant number of patients who has undergone resective brain surgery for epilepsy still continue to have seizures. The reason behind this therapy resistance still eludes us. Thus to develop a cure for the difficult to treat epilepsy, we need to comprehensively study epileptogenesis. Although various animal models are developed but none of them replicate the pathological conditions in humans. So the ideal way to understand epileptogenecity is to examine the tissue resected for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Advanced imaging and electrical localization procedures are utilized to establish the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients. Further molecular and cytological studies are required for the microscopic analysis of brain samples collected from the epileptogenic focus. As alterations in inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission are key features of epilepsy, understanding the regulation of neurotransmission in the resected surgery zone is of immense importance. Here we summarize various modalities of in vitro slice analysis from the resected brain specimen to understand the changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in epileptogenic zone. We also review evidence pertaining to the proposed role of nicotinic receptors in abnormal synaptic transmission which is one of the major causes of epileptiform activity. Elucidation of current concepts in regulation of synaptic transmission will help develop therapies for epilepsy cases that cannot me managed pharmacologically.

  2. The research on the buried public monumental complexes of Lupiae (Lecce) by geophysical prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Di Giacomo, Giacomo; Ditaranto, Imma; Miccoli, Ilaria; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing and extensive urbanisation may threaten important archaeological structures that are still buried in urban areas. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) method is the most promising alternative for resolving buried archaeological structures in urban territories. This paper presents a case study that involves a geophysical survey employing the surface three-dimensional (3D) GPR techniques, in order to archaeologically characterise the investigated areas. The site is located in the south-western sector of the historical centre of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), where the modern city overlaps the main public monuments of the Roman municipium of Lupiae, only partially preserved or excavated: the amphitheatre, the theatre, the baths and maybe also the Forum. GPR measurements, integrated with the results of archaeological excavations and the topographical surveys of the preserved remains, were carried out in several areas regarding sectors of the ancient roman city. The GPR data were collected along a dense network of parallel profiles. The GPR sections were processed applying specific filters to the data in order to enhance their information content. The GPR images significantly contributed in reconstructing the complex subsurface properties in these modern urban areas. Strong GPR reflections features were correlated with possible ancient structures and they were integrated in the digital archaeological map of the city.

  3. Research on lossless compression of true color RGB image with low time and space complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, ShuLin; Xie, ChengJun; Xu, Lin

    2008-12-01

    Eliminating correlated redundancy of space and energy by using a DWT lifting scheme and reducing the complexity of the image by using an algebraic transform among the RGB components. An improved Rice Coding algorithm, in which presents an enumerating DWT lifting scheme that fits any size images by image renormalization has been proposed in this paper. This algorithm has a coding and decoding process without backtracking for dealing with the pixels of an image. It support LOCO-I and it can also be applied to Coder / Decoder. Simulation analysis indicates that the proposed method can achieve a high image compression. Compare with Lossless-JPG, PNG(Microsoft), PNG(Rene), PNG(Photoshop), PNG(Anix PicViewer), PNG(ACDSee), PNG(Ulead photo Explorer), JPEG2000, PNG(KoDa Inc), SPIHT and JPEG-LS, the lossless image compression ratio improved 45%, 29%, 25%, 21%, 19%, 17%, 16%, 15%, 11%, 10.5%, 10% separately with 24 pieces of RGB image provided by KoDa Inc. Accessing the main memory in Pentium IV,CPU2.20GHZ and 256MRAM, the coding speed of the proposed coder can be increased about 21 times than the SPIHT and the efficiency of the performance can be increased 166% or so, the decoder's coding speed can be increased about 17 times than the SPIHT and the efficiency of the performance can be increased 128% or so.

  4. Research on Copy-Move Image Forgery Detection Using Features of Discrete Polar Complex Exponential Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yanfen; Zhong, Junliu

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of sophisticated photo-editing software, such as Photoshop, copy-move image forgery operation has been widely applied and has become a major concern in the field of information security in the modern society. A lot of work on detecting this kind of forgery has gained great achievements, but the detection results of geometrical transformations of copy-move regions are not so satisfactory. In this paper, a new method based on the Polar Complex Exponential Transform is proposed. This method addresses issues in image geometric moment, focusing on constructing rotation invariant moment and extracting features of the rotation invariant moment. In order to reduce rounding errors of the transform from the Polar coordinate system to the Cartesian coordinate system, a new transformation method is presented and discussed in detail at the same time. The new method constructs a 9 × 9 shrunk template to transform the Cartesian coordinate system back to the Polar coordinate system. It can reduce transform errors to a much greater degree. Forgery detection, such as copy-move image forgery detection, is a difficult procedure, but experiments prove our method is a great improvement in detecting and identifying forgery images affected by the rotated transform.

  5. Rapid qualitative research methods during complex health emergencies: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger A; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted both the successes and limitations of social science contributions to emergency response operations. An important limitation was the rapid and effective communication of study findings. A systematic review was carried out to explore how rapid qualitative methods have been used during global heath emergencies to understand which methods are commonly used, how they are applied, and the difficulties faced by social science researchers in the field. We also asses their value and benefit for health emergencies. The review findings are used to propose recommendations for qualitative research in this context. Peer-reviewed articles and grey literature were identified through six online databases. An initial search was carried out in July 2016 and updated in February 2017. The PRISMA checklist was used to guide the reporting of methods and findings. The articles were assessed for quality using the MMAT and AACODS checklist. From an initial search yielding 1444 articles, 22 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Thirteen of the articles were qualitative studies and nine used a mixed-methods design. The purpose of the rapid studies included: the identification of causes of the outbreak, and assessment of infrastructure, control strategies, health needs and health facility use. The studies varied in duration (from 4 days to 1 month). The main limitations identified by the authors were: the low quality of the collected data, small sample sizes, and little time for cross-checking facts with other data sources to reduce bias. Rapid qualitative methods were seen as beneficial in highlighting context-specific issues that need to be addressed locally, population-level behaviors influencing health service use, and organizational challenges in response planning and implementation. Recommendations for carrying out rapid qualitative research in this context included the early designation of community leaders as a point of

  6. Mixed-method research protocol: defining and operationalizing patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Evelyn; Kleinknecht-Dolf, Michael; Müller, Marianne; Kugler, Christiane; Spirig, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    To define the concept of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals and to operationalize it in a questionnaire. The concept of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals has not been conclusively defined in the literature. The operationalization in a corresponding questionnaire is necessary, given the increased significance of the topic, due to shortened lengths of stay and increased patient morbidity. Hybrid model of concept development and embedded mixed-methods design. The theoretical phase of the hybrid model involved a literature review and the development of a working definition. In the fieldwork phase of 2015 and 2016, an embedded mixed-methods design was applied with complexity assessments of all patients at five Swiss hospitals using our newly operationalized questionnaire 'Complexity of Nursing Care' over 1 month. These data will be analysed with structural equation modelling. Twelve qualitative case studies will be embedded. They will be analysed using a structured process of constructing case studies and content analysis. In the final analytic phase, the quantitative and qualitative data will be merged and added to the results of the theoretical phase for a common interpretation. Cantonal Ethics Committee Zurich judged the research programme as unproblematic in December 2014 and May 2015. Following the phases of the hybrid model and using an embedded mixed-methods design can reach an in-depth understanding of patient-related complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals, a final version of the questionnaire and an acknowledged definition of the concept. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Development of Complexity Science and Technology Tools for NextGen Airspace Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Sawhill, Bruce K.; Herriot, James; Seehart, Ken; Zellweger, Dres; Shay, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research by NextGen AeroSciences, LLC is twofold: 1) to deliver an initial "toolbox" of algorithms, agent-based structures, and method descriptions for introducing trajectory agency as a methodology for simulating and analyzing airspace states, including bulk properties of large numbers of heterogeneous 4D aircraft trajectories in a test airspace -- while maintaining or increasing system safety; and 2) to use these tools in a test airspace to identify possible phase transition structure to predict when an airspace will approach the limits of its capacity. These 4D trajectories continuously replan their paths in the presence of noise and uncertainty while optimizing performance measures and performing conflict detection and resolution. In this approach, trajectories are represented as extended objects endowed with pseudopotential, maintaining time and fuel-efficient paths by bending just enough to accommodate separation while remaining inside of performance envelopes. This trajectory-centric approach differs from previous aircraft-centric distributed approaches to deconfliction. The results of this project are the following: 1) we delivered a toolbox of algorithms, agent-based structures and method descriptions as pseudocode; and 2) we corroborated the existence of phase transition structure in simulation with the addition of "early warning" detected prior to "full" airspace. This research suggests that airspace "fullness" can be anticipated and remedied before the airspace becomes unsafe.

  8. Elements for Critical and Complex Research of Public Opinion in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Andrés Venegas Vergara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss and propose theoretical elements considered relevant to open and develop a theoretical-empiric line of research on the public opinion (PO in Chile today. We suggest that there are different conceptions, practices and actors involved in “making PO”, recognizing five areas in this field: media system, subaltern counter-publics, social digital networks, survey industry and elites. In each of these areas it is necessary to inquire into their specific actors, practices and senses mobilized in the process of production of PO.The paper focuses on discussing the development of the main current comprehensive modalities of the PO and presenting a conceptual proposal for each of the five areas described above, as well as a brief characterization of these areas in Chile. We consider these definitions as a basic starting point to habilitate a line of research that allows us to design a device for monitoring PO. The device will be hosted at the PO observatory and it will contribute to activate networks of knowledge and action in the public sphere by providing periodically with public information regarding issues of general interest to the actors involved in the production of PO.

  9. International Conference on Translational Research ICTR 2003 Conference Summary: Marshalling resources in a complex time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C. Norman

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge, tools, and environment for the practice of radiation oncology are changing rapidly. The National Cancer Institute has articulated the need for a balanced portfolio, including the interrelated components of discovery, development, and delivery. Underpinning practice is the emerging knowledge from molecular, cellular, and tumor biology that is the engine of discovery. The use of high-throughput technologies to analyze biochemical and molecular profiles will ultimately enable the individualization of cancer treatment requiring the appropriate integration of radiation with a range of systemic therapies, including chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and immunotherapy. Technological advances in treatment delivery using photons, brachytherapy, particle therapy, radioisotopes, and other forms of energy require an improved ability to localize the tumor and critical subregions and to ensure necessary tissue immobilization and/or real-time target adjustment. Functional imaging is helping to define tumor characteristics and response to treatment. The development of appropriate radiation oncology treatment requires a wide range of expertise, a multimodality approach, and multi-institutional collaboration to provide improved and cost-effective outcome. The delivery of appropriate cancer care to those who need it requires biology and technology but also reaching the underserved populations worldwide. ICTR 2003 demonstrated substantial progress in translational radiation oncology. Faced with financial constraints for research and patient care, the broad field of radiation oncology must continually examine and balance its research and development portfolio and invest in its future leaders to enable it be an important contributor to the future of cancer care

  10. The Effect of CO2 Injection on Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium Biomass Growth Rate and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many species of macroalga grow in marine ecosystem and potentially as raw material for bioethanol resource. Bioethanol is a conversion result of carbohydrate, one of macroalgae biomass content. The exploration of macroalgae require information about  growth rate ability to determine availability in the nature. This research analyze growth rate and carbohydrate content of marine macroalga Gelidium latifolium on cultivation using varied injection of carbon dioxide and aeration. The treatments were control (K, 2000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P1, 3000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P2, 2000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P3, and 3000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P4. Samples weight were 3 gram in early cultivation on laboratorium scale for 42 days observation. The results showed that the daily growth rate Gelidium latifolium during the study ranged from 0.02-1.06%. The highest daily growth rate was 1.06±0.14% (P2. Carbohydrate yield was 18.23% in early cultivation then 19.40% (K and P2, 20.40% (P1, 16.87% (K3, and 16.40% (P4 after cultivation. The high of carbohydrates value may not guarantee the sustainable Gelidium latifolium biomass utilization as raw material for bioethanol production because of the low growth rate, thus it is necessary to modified and encourage cultivation method effectively. Keywords: CO2 injection, growth rate, carbohydrate, macroalgae, Gelidium latifolium

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALTITUDES AND THE CONTENTS OF PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranto Tjiptowibisono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita moschata or pumpkin can be used as an alternative food mainly due to its carbohydrate content, and it is very easy to grow in many different habitats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the biochemical contents of C. moschata based on the altitudes and also to examine whether any relationship between the environmental conditions and protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. Proximate analysis was used for statistical consideration of the results obtained. Chemical analysis was conducted by using mesocarp of pumpkin after cleaning, peeling and removing seeds from the center of fruits. Kjedahl and soxhlet methods were used to look at the content of protein and lipid respectively. Meanwhile, the method of difference was employed to measure the percentage of carbohydrates. Although there was no significant relationship between the biochemical contents and the environmental conditions, it was recorded that plants grown at higher altitudes with high soil pH and air temperature tended to have higher protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents, compared to that of higher soil moisture. This results showed that the highest biochemical contents of protein, carbohydrate and lipid of two varieties C. moschata were evident at the lowest altitude.

  12. Influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance during a soccer match simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance throughout exercise that replicates soccer match-play. Experimentation was conducted in a randomised, double-blind and cross-over study design. After familiarization, 15 professional academy soccer players completed a soccer match simulation incorporating passing, dribbling and shooting on two separate occasions. Participants received a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or electrolyte solution (PL). Precision, success rate, ball speed and an overall index (speed-precision-success; SPS) were determined for all skills. Blood samples were taken at rest, immediately before exercise, every 15 min during exercise (first half: 15, 30 and 45 min; second half: 60, 75 and 90 min), and 10 min into the half time (half-time). Carbohydrate supplementation influenced shooting (time×treatment interaction: pinteraction: pCarbohydrate supplementation attenuated decrements in shooting performance during simulated soccer match-play; however, further research is warranted to optimise carbohydrate supplementation regimes for high-intensity intermittent sports. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  14. Towards a complex systems approach in sports injury research: simulating running-related injury development with agent-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M

    2018-06-18

    There have been recent calls for the application of the complex systems approach in sports injury research. However, beyond theoretical description and static models of complexity, little progress has been made towards formalising this approach in way that is practical to sports injury scientists and clinicians. Therefore, our objective was to use a computational modelling method and develop a dynamic simulation in sports injury research. Agent-based modelling (ABM) was used to model the occurrence of sports injury in a synthetic athlete population. The ABM was developed based on sports injury causal frameworks and was applied in the context of distance running-related injury (RRI). Using the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), we simulated the dynamic relationship between changes in weekly running distance and RRI through the manipulation of various 'athlete management tools'. The findings confirmed that building weekly running distances over time, even within the reported ACWR 'sweet spot', will eventually result in RRI as athletes reach and surpass their individual physical workload limits. Introducing training-related error into the simulation and the modelling of a 'hard ceiling' dynamic resulted in a higher RRI incidence proportion across the population at higher absolute workloads. The presented simulation offers a practical starting point to further apply more sophisticated computational models that can account for the complex nature of sports injury aetiology. Alongside traditional forms of scientific inquiry, the use of ABM and other simulation-based techniques could be considered as a complementary and alternative methodological approach in sports injury research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A Research Program on Implementing Integrated Care for Older Adults with Complex Health Needs (iCOACH: An International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter P. Wodchis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Health and social care systems across western developed nations are being challenged to meet the needs of an increasing number of people aging with multiple complex health and social needs. Community based primary health care (CBPHC has been associated with more equitable access to services, better population level outcomes and lower system level costs. Itmay be well suited to the increasingly complex needs of populations; however the implementation of CBPHC models of care faces many challenges. This paper describes a program of research by an international, multi-university, multidisciplinary research team who are seeking to understand how to scale up and spread models of Integrated CBPHC (ICBPHC. The key question being addressed is “What are the steps to implementing innovative integrated community-based primary health care models that address the health and social needs of older adults with complex care needs?” and will be answered in three phases. In the first phase we identify and describe exemplar models of ICBPHC and their context in relation to relevant policies and performance across the three jurisdictions (New Zealand, Ontario and Québec, Canada. The second phase involves a series of theory-informed, mixed methods case studies from which we shall develop a conceptual framework that captures not only the attributes of successful innovative ICBPHC models, but also how these models are being implemented. In the third phase, we aim to translate our research into practice by identifying emerging models of ICBPHC in advance, and working alongside policymakers to inform the development and implementation of these models in each jurisdiction. The final output of the program will be a comprehensive guide to the design, implementation and scaling-up of innovative models of ICBPHC.

  16. I-RREACH: an engagement and assessment tool for improving implementation readiness of researchers, organizations and communities in complex interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion; Yeates, Karen; Barron, Marcia; Hua, Diane; Liu, Peter; Moy Lum-Kwong, Margaret; Perkins, Nancy; Sleeth, Jessica; Tobe, Joshua; Wabano, Mary Jo; Williamson, Pamela; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2015-05-04

    Non-communicable chronic diseases are the leading causes of mortality globally, and nearly 80% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In high-income countries (HICs), inequitable distribution of resources affects poorer and otherwise disadvantaged groups including Aboriginal peoples. Cardiovascular mortality in high-income countries has recently begun to fall; however, these improvements are not realized among citizens in LMICs or those subgroups in high-income countries who are disadvantaged in the social determinants of health including Aboriginal people. It is critical to develop multi-faceted, affordable and realistic health interventions in collaboration with groups who experience health inequalities. Based on community-based participatory research (CBPR), we aimed to develop implementation tools to guide complex interventions to ensure that health gains can be realized in low-resource environments. We developed the I-RREACH (Intervention and Research Readiness Engagement and Assessment of Community Health Care) tool to guide implementation of interventions in low-resource environments. We employed CBPR and a consensus methodology to (1) develop the theoretical basis of the tool and (2) to identify key implementation factor domains; then, we (3) collected participant evaluation data to validate the tool during implementation. The I-RREACH tool was successfully developed using a community-based consensus method and is rooted in participatory principles, equalizing the importance of the knowledge and perspectives of researchers and community stakeholders while encouraging respectful dialogue. The I-RREACH tool consists of three phases: fact finding, stakeholder dialogue and community member/patient dialogue. The evaluation for our first implementation of I-RREACH by participants was overwhelmingly positive, with 95% or more of participants indicating comfort with and support for the process and the dialogue it creates. The I

  17. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, the possibility of early and rapid progress of complications, a large number of undiagnosed cases and disappointing forecasts of the World Health Organization on the prospects of DM spreading in the world, timely and accurate diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders is important. The criteria for the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism and DM are shown in the article. The article includes a new consensus on the staging of type 1 DM and a discussion of a proposed unifying diabetes classification scheme that focuses on β-cell dysfunction and disease stage as indicated by glucose status. Modern recommendations 2017 of the American Diabetes Association are shown in relation to the criteria of diagnostics of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. The value of insulin resistance and functional state of pancreatic β-cells is underlined in determination of type 2 DM duration. A plan of type 2 DM management is brought.

  18. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  20. Carbocyclic Carbohydrate Mimics as Potential Glycosidase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    It has been proven that aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain could be potential anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors [1]. A successful pathway for synthesising mimics to L-carbohydrates 2, by introducing nitrogen to the C6 position in compound 1, has been...... developed in our group. A similar strategy has been used for synthesising mimics of D-carbohydrates. The α,β-unsaturated lactone 3 was cyclised to compound 4 which was further transformed into 5. The nitrogen functionality in compound 7 is introduced by an Overman rearrangement of 6 and the hydroxyl...... functionalities was introduced by either epoxidation or dihydroxylation of 7. Finally, reduction of the lactone ring led to the sugar mimics 8. The synthesis of several isomers of 8 will be presented. [1] a) Kleban, M. ; Hilgers, P. ; Greul, J.N. ; Kugler, R.D. ; Li, J. ; Picasso, S. ; Vogel, P. ; Jäger, V. Chem...

  1. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using a proprietary fractionated white bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay; Singh, Betsy B

    2007-01-01

    A proprietary fractionated white bean extract of Phaseolus vulgaris has been shown in vitro to inhibit the digestive enzyme alpha-amylase. This may prevent or delay the digestion of complex carbohydrates, potentially resulting in weight loss. A 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 25 healthy subjects consuming 1000 mg of a proprietary fractioned white bean extract or an identical placebo twice a day before meals in conjunction with a multi-component weight-loss program, including diet, exercise, and behavioral intervention, was conducted. Both groups reduced their weight and waist size significantly from baseline. The active group lost 6.0 lbs (P=.0002) and 2.2 in (P=.0050), and the placebo group lost 4.7 lbs (P=.0016) and 2.1 in (P=.0001). The differences between groups were not significant (weight P=.4235, waist size P=.8654). Through subsequent exploratory analysis to investigate group findings further, subjects were stratified by total dietary carbohydrate intake. This probative analysis revealed that the tertile of subjects who had consumed the most carbohydrates demonstrated significant reductions in both weight (8.7 lbs vs 1.7 lbs, P=.0412) and waist size (3.3 in vs 1.3 in P=.0100) compared with placebo subjects in the same tertile of carbohydrate intake. Subjects who adhere to a program including dietary modification, exercise, and behavioral intervention can significantly reduce their weight and waist size in a short period of time. In an exploratory analysis of data, the tertile of subjects who ate the most carbohydrates experienced a significant reduction in both weight and waist size with the addition of the white bean extract compared to the placebo group of the same tertile of carbohydrate consumption. Longer studies with a larger pool of subjects are required to validate these findings.

  2. Endometriosis research: animal models for the study of a complex disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-González, Irene; Barrientos, Gabriela; Tariverdian, Nadja; Arck, Petra C; García, Mariana G; Klapp, Burghard F; Blois, Sandra M

    2010-11-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease that is characterized and defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, causing painful periods and subfertility in approximately 10% of women. After more than 50 years of research, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the development and establishment of this condition. Animal models allow us to study the temporal sequence of events involved in disease establishment and progression. Also, because this disease occurs spontaneously only in humans and non-human primates and there are practical problems associated with studying the disease, animal models have been developed for the evaluation of endometriosis. This review describes the animal models for endometriosis that have been used to date, highlighting their importance for the investigation of disease mechanisms that would otherwise be more difficult to elucidate, and proposing new alternatives aimed at overcoming some of these limitations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research on Control Strategy of Complex Systems through VSC-HVDC Grid Parallel Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Mei-Juan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After the completion of grid parallel, the device can turn to be UPFC, STATCOM, SSSC, research on the conversion circuit and transform method by corresponding switching operation. Accomplish the grid parallel and comprehensive control of the tie-line and stable operation and control functions of grid after parallel. Defines the function select operation switch matrix and grid parallel system branch variable, forming a switch matrix to achieve corresponding function of the composite system. Formed a criterion of the selection means to choose control strategy according to the switch matrix, to accomplish corresponding function. Put the grid parallel, STATCOM, SSSC and UPFC together as a system, improve the stable operation and flexible control of the power system.

  4. Research on the Topological Properties of Air Quality Index Based on a Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the dynamic characteristics of air quality for enforcing effective measures to prevent and evade air pollution harm, air quality index (AQI time series data was selected and transformed into a symbol sequence consisting of characters (H, M, L through the coarse graining process; then each 6-symbols series was treated as one vertex by time sequence to construct the AQI directed-weighted network; finally the centrality, clusterability, and ranking of the AQI network were analyzed. The results indicated that vertex strength and cumulative strength distribution, vertex strength and strength rank presented power law distributions, and the AQI network is a scale-free network. Only 17 vertices possessed a higher weighted clustering coefficient; meanwhile weighted clustering coefficient and vertex strength didn’t show a strong correlation. The AQI network did not have an obvious central tendency towards intermediaries in general, but 20.55% of vertices accounted for nearly 1/2 of the intermediaries, and the varieties still existed. The mean distance of 68.4932% of vertices was 6.120–9.973, the AQI network did not have obvious small-world phenomena, the conversion of AQI patterns presented the characteristics of periodicity and regularity, and 20.2055% of vertices had high proximity prestige. The vertices fell into six islands, the AQI pattern indicating heavy or serious air pollution lasting six days always lingered for a long time. The number of triads 2-012 was the largest, and the AQI network followed the transitivity model. The study has instructional significance in understanding time change regulation of air quality in Beijing, opening a new way for time series prediction research. Additionally, the factors causing the change of topological properties should be analyzed in the future research.

  5. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, M.J.; Neeser, J-R.; Hall, L.D.; Pate, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  6. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an e...

  7. A qualitative inquiry into the challenges and complexities of research supervision: viewpoints of postgraduate students and faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Alireza; Bazrafkan, Leila; Yamani, Nikoo

    2015-07-01

    The supervision of academic theses at the Universities of Medical Sciences is one of the most important issues with several challenges. The aim of the present study is to discover the nature of problems and challenges of thesis supervision in Iranian universities of medical sciences. The study was conducted with a qualitative method using conventional content analysis approach. Nineteen faculty members, using purposive sampling, and 11 postgraduate medical sciences students (Ph.D students and residents) were selected on the basis of theoretical sampling. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and field observations in Shiraz and Isfahan universities of medical sciences from September 2012 to December 2014. The qualitative content analysis was used with a conventional approach to analyze the data. While experiencing the nature of research supervision process, faculties and the students faced some complexities and challenges in the research supervision process. The obtained codes were categorized under 4 themes Based on the characteristics; included "contextual problem", "role ambiguity in thesis supervision", "poor reflection in supervision" and "ethical problems". The result of this study revealed that there is a need for more attention to planning and defining the supervisory, and research supervision. Also, improvement of the quality of supervisor and students relationship must be considered behind the research context improvement in research supervisory area.

  8. Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, Vojtěch; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2010), s. 243-251 ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : carbohydrates * meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2010

  9. Reaction of protein and carbohydrates with EDC for making unique biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research from this laboratory has demonstrated the feasibility of using chemical and enzymatic treatments on protein and carbohydrate waste products for the purpose of making fillers to enhance the properties of leather. These treatments (microbial transglutaminase, genipin, and polyphenols i...

  10. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Pedro L Mangabeira

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  11. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  12. Research on Statistical Flow of the Complex Background Based on Image Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huanhai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with our country city changes a process continues to accelerate, city road traffic system pressure increasing. Therefore, the importance of intelligent transportation system based on computer vision technology is becoming more and more significant. Using the image processing technology for the vehicle detection has become a hot topic in the research field of. Only accurately segmented from the background of vehicle can recognize and track vehicles. Therefore, the application of video vehicle detection technology and image processing technology, identify a number of the same sight many car can, types and moving characteristics, can provide real-time basis for intelligent traffic control. This paper first introduces the concept of intelligent transportation system, the importance and the image processing technology in vehicle recognition in statistics, overview of video vehicle detection method, and the video detection technology and other detection technology, puts forward the superiority of video detection technology. Finally we design a real-time and reliable background subtraction method and the area of the vehicle recognition method based on information fusion algorithm, which is implemented with the MATLAB/GUI development tool in Windows operating system platform. In this paper, the application of the algorithm to study the frame traffic flow image. The experimental results show that, the algorithm of recognition of vehicle flow statistics, the effect is very good.

  13. Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease, Normal and Impaired Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Cherniavska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to conduct the comparative analysis of the profile of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and normal either impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods. One hundred and forty two patients were observed. In order to estimate the rate of different forms of CHD depending on the state of carbohydrate metabolism such groups were formed: the first group consisted of 83 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, the second group involved 34 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, the third group consisted of 25 patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. The ischemic changes of myocardium were detected by ambulatory ECG monitoring with the obligatory achievement of submaximal heart rate during the research. Results. Silent myocardial ischemia was educed in 19 (22.9 % patients with type 2 DM, in 3 (8.8 % persons with IGT and in 2 (8.0 % patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. Smoking, burdened heredity, violation in the haemostatic system more often occurred in the group of patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia in comparison with the patients with type 2 DM without CHD. The profile of general population cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CHD and type 2 DM belongs to the most unfavorable. At the same time for patients with early violations of carbohydrate metabolism and normal carbohydrate metabolism such profile statistically does not differentiate meaningfully. Conclusions. Patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia as compared to patients with type 2 DM without CHD have more expressed violations of indexes of general population cardiovascular risk factors for certain.

  14. Converting Carbohydrates to Carbon-Based Photocatalysts for Environmental Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhuofeng; Shen, Zhurui; Yu, Jimmy C

    2017-06-20

    Carbohydrates in biomass can be converted to semiconductive hydrothermal carbonation carbon (HTCC), a material that contains plenty of sp 2 -hybridization structures. Under solar light illumination, HTCC generates photoexcited electrons, holes, and hydroxyl radicals. These species can be used for photocatalytic treatment such as water disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants. The photocatalytic activity of HTCC can be significantly enhanced by iodine doping. The enhancement mechanism is investigated by density functional theoretical calculations and electrochemical measurements. The iodine dopants twist and optimize the structures of the sp 2 -hybridization in HTCC, thereby favoring photon-induced excitation. Moreover, the iodine dopants facilitate the charge transfer between different sp 2 -hybridization structures, thus increasing the conductivity and activity of the HTCC. An added benefit is that the I-doped HTCC exhibits lower cytotoxic effect than the pure HTCC. In addition to monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (sucrose), and polysaccharides (starch), we have also transformed crops (e.g., rice), plants (e.g., grass), and even agricultural waste (e.g., straw) and animal waste (e.g., cow dung). The conversion of carbohydrates to HTCC may be considered as a "Trash to Treasure" approach. We believe this discovery will attract a lot of attention from researchers involved in environmental catalysis, waste recycling, and pollution treatment.

  15. Sources of carbohydrates in the ingestive behavior of feedlot steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we research the influence of different sources of carbohydrates (corn, soybean hulls or wheat bran upon the digestive behavior of 24 confined castrated steers with an initial average age and weight of 20 months and 330 kg born from the cross between Charolais and Nellore. The diet was composed of 40% sorghum silage and 60% concentrate. The time spent on total ruminating (an average of 454.6 min/day was not influenced by the source of carbohydrate. The animals from the wheat bran treatment spent less time idle (718 min in relation to those on the corn and soybean hulls treatments, which did not differ between themselves (an average of 792 min/day. The steers from the wheat bran treatment remained less time feeding (184 min/day compared with those fed the other treatments, whose average time of permanence in this activity was 214 minutes per day. The other studied variables did not present a significant difference between the treatments. Inclusion of wheat bran in the diet of the confined steers results in less spent time idle, while steers feeding on soybean hulls spend less time feeding. The use of corn, soybean hulls, or wheat bran in the diet of the confined steers does not affect the total cudding time.

  16. Catalytic Processes for Utilizing Carbohydrates Derived from Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Yamaguchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high productivity of oil biosynthesized by microalgae has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Due to the application of such oils in jet fuels, the algal biosynthetic pathway toward oil components has been extensively researched. However, the utilization of the residue from algal cells after oil extraction has been overlooked. This residue is mainly composed of carbohydrates (starch, and so we herein describe the novel processes available for the production of useful chemicals from algal biomass-derived sugars. In particular, this review highlights our latest research in generating lactic acid and levulinic acid derivatives from polysaccharides and monosaccharides using homogeneous catalysts. Furthermore, based on previous reports, we discuss the potential of heterogeneous catalysts for application in such processes.

  17. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  18. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment. (paper)

  19. Serotonin's Complex Role in Alcoholism: Implications for Treatment and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-06-01

    Current pharmacological treatments for alcohol dependence have focused on reducing alcohol consumption, but to date there are few treatments that also address the negative affective symptoms during acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal which are often exacerbated in people with comorbid anxiety and depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are sometimes prescribed to ameliorate these symptoms but can exacerbate anxiety and cravings in a select group of patients. In this critical review, we discuss recent literature describing an association between alcohol dependence, the SERT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), and pharmacological response to SSRIs. Given the heterogeneity in responsiveness to serotonergic drugs across the spectrum of alcoholic subtypes, we assess the contribution of specific 5-HT circuits to discrete endophenotypes of alcohol dependence. 5-HT circuits play a distinctive role in reward, stress, and executive function which may account for the variation in response to serotonergic drugs. New optogenetic and chemogenetic methods for dissecting 5-HT circuits in alcohol dependence may provide clues leading to more effective pharmacotherapies. Although our current understanding of the role of 5-HT systems in alcohol dependence is incomplete, there is some evidence to suggest that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are effective in people with the L/L genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism while SSRIs may be more beneficial to people with the S/L or S/S genotype. Studies that assess the impact of serotonin transporter polymorphisms on 5-HT circuit function and the subsequent development of alcohol use disorders will be an important step forward in treating alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. The complex nature of mixed farming systems requires multidimensional actions supported by integrative research and development efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Vaarst, M

    2012-05-01

    Mixed farming systems (MFS) have demonstrated some success by focusing on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms, and rationally building on and using the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhancing biodiversity, optimizing complementarities between crops and animal systems and finally increasing opportunities in rural livelihoods. Focusing our analysis and discussion on field experiences and empirical knowledge in the Caribbean islands, this paper discusses the opportunities for a change needed in current MFS research-development philosophy. The importance of shifting from fragile/specialized production systems to MFS under current global conditions is argued with an emphasis on the case of Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and the Caribbean. Particular vulnerable characteristics as well as the potential and constraints of SIDS and their agricultural sectors are described, while revealing the opportunities for the 'richness' of the natural and local resources to support authentic and less dependent production system strategies. Examples are provided of the use of natural grasses, legumes, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. We analyse the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification of research priorities, as well as the generation, exchange and dissemination of knowledge and technology innovations, while strengthening the leadership roles in the conduct of integrative and participative research and development projects.

  1. Resolving complex research data management issues in biomedical laboratories: Qualitative study of an industry-academia collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Bova, G Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Chen, Steve H; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to (1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, (2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to (3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discovery and design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; Araújo, Ana C; Bini, Davide; Gabrielli, Luca; Russo, Laura; Shaikh, Nasrin

    2010-08-01

    Till now, the importance of carbohydrates has been underscored, if compared with the two other major classes of biopolymers such as oligonucleotides and proteins. Recent advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry have imparted a strong interest in the study of this enormous family of biomolecules. Carbohydrates have been shown to be implicated in recognition processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and cell-intruder recognition phenomena. In addition, carbohydrates are recognized as differentiation markers and as antigenic determinants. Due to their relevant biological role, carbohydrates are promising candidates for drug design and disease treatment. However, the growing number of human disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation that are being identified as resulting from abnormalities in glycan structures and protein glycosylation strongly indicates that a fast development of glycobiology, glycochemistry and glycomedicine is highly desirable. The topics give an overview of different approaches that have been used to date for the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; this includes the use of native synthetic carbohydrates, the use of carbohydrate mimics designed on the basis of their native counterpart, the use of carbohydrates as scaffolds and finally the design of glyco-fused therapeutics, one of the most recent approaches. The review covers mainly literature that has appeared since 2000, except for a few papers cited for historical reasons. The reader will gain an overview of the current strategies applied to the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; in particular, the advantages/disadvantages of different approaches are highlighted. The topic is presented in a general, basic manner and will hopefully be a useful resource for all readers who are not familiar with it. In addition, in order to stress the potentialities of carbohydrates, several examples of carbohydrate-based marketed therapeutics are given

  3. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  4. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J C; Aslam, Shazia N; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N

    2013-09-24

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions.

  5. Satiety in the obese Zucker rat: effects of carbohydrate type and acarbose (Bay g 5421).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Vasselli, J R

    1989-09-01

    Despite the obese Zucker rat's hyperphagia on carbohydrate diets such as laboratory chow, this laboratory has found that its satiety response to glucose and other simple sugars is comparable to that of its lean control rat. To further investigate carbohydrate satiety in the Zucker rat, the short-term feeding behavior of obese and lean rats was observed following intragastric infusions (7.2 kcal in 10 ml) of corn starch and the starch hydrolysates Polycose and dextrin. There were no reliable between-genotype differences in the feeding inhibitory effects of Polycose and dextrin. However, in obese rats, the satiety effect of corn starch was delayed and reduced compared to that observed in lean rats (p less than 0.04). To modify the effect of corn starch, rats were administered 0.2 or 0.6 mg/infusion of the carbohydrate digestive inhibitor acarbose (Bay g 5421). Acarbose significantly reduced the satiety effect of corn starch in lean rats (p less than 0.001), and further attenuated satiety in obese rats (p less than 0.02). Since secretion of pancreatic amylase, the enzyme that initiates starch digestion, is decreased in obese rats, this result suggests that alterations of digestive and/or absorptive processes may underlie the obese rat's impaired satiety response to complex carbohydrate.

  6. Carbohydrate synthesis and biosynthesis technologies for cracking of the glycan code: Recent advances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Hynek; Weignerová, Lenka; Bojarová, Pavla; Novák, Petr; Vaněk, Ondřej; Bezouška, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 17-37 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0477; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA ČR GAP207/10/0321; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13041 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cellular factories * Complex carbohydrates * Glycodrugs Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 8.905, year: 2013

  7. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covington, Elizabeth Dunn; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies in plants often require enzyme extraction from tissues containing high concentrations of phenols and polyphenols. Unless removed or neutralized, such compounds may hinder extraction, inactivate enzymes, and interfere with enzyme detection. The following protocol for activity...... assays for enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism, while based on our recently published one for quantitative measurement of activities using coupled spectrophotometric assays in a 96-well format, is tailored to the complexities of phenolic- and anthocyanin-rich extracts from grapevine leaf...

  8. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate ('Eco-Atkins') diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-02-05

    Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Change in body weight. 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to -6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and -5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) -1.1 kg (-2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) -0.49 mmol/L (-0.70 to -0.28), pvegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516.

  9. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  10. Dietary carbohydrates and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parillo, M; Riccardi, G

    1995-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrates represent one of the major sources of energy for the human body. However, the main (if not the only) therapy for diabetes since ancient times has been based on reducing dietary carbohydrates drastically because of their effects on blood glucose levels. The introduction of insulin in the 1920s and then of oral hypoglycaemic drugs led to various studies evaluating the biochemical characteristics of carbohydrates and their effects on glucose metabolism in diabetic patients. This review considers the role of dietary carbohydrates in the diet of diabetic patients in the light of the most recent studies and provides a short summary of the biochemistry of carbohydrates and the physiology of carbohydrate digestion.

  11. CARBOHYDRATES CONTENT IN JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS DURING VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Levina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is rich in vitamins, carbohydrates, fiber. Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke consist valuable  substance inulin, which has a complex of health properties. Breeders create new hybrids and varieties of Jerusalem artichoke to increase the content of nutrients, productivity and climate resilience. The authors analysed moisture content, dry residue and fractional  composition of carbohydrates in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke  varieties Skorospelka and Sireniki and the hybrids PBB and PBK in  various phases of vegetation. In the flowering stage the moisture of  the tubers of the investigated varieties was in the range of 77.2-81.3 percent, the value of dry residue of nutrients was 18.7-22.8 percent. The greatest number of non-reducing and total sugars in  the flowering stage contained in the tuber varieties of Sireniki and was equaled 78.3 and 61.8 percent, respectively. A similar analysis was conducted in the maturation phase. In this phase the solids  content slightly increased and amounted to 22.9-26.2 percent. Non- reducing sugars content, including inulin, increased in all the studied samples of Jerusalem artichoke. However, the greatest values of 72  percent were noted for variety Sireniki and hybrid PBK. The content  of inulin depends on the phase of the growing season and the  varietal characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke and the absence of decisive superiority of the hybrids.

  12. DNP NMR of carbohydrate converting enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    intermediate, however, this evidence is based on mutant of X-ray crystallography and simulations. As the natural substrate lactose does not have any quaternary carbon with long T1, the unnatural substrate o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside was used (figure 1) as the quaternarypositions have T1 relaxations...... of ca. 15 s instead of hydrolysis of this substrate can be seen in figure 2, and another use of this substrate is for optimizing the conditions for a labelled substrate (figure 1), which would further increase the signal and allow monitoring of the carbohydrate...

  13. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III.

    1994-01-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group's discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15

  14. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  15. Taking peer victimization research to the next level: complex interactions among genes, teacher attitudes/behaviors, peer ecologies, & classroom characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-01-01

    This commentary reviews research findings of the five papers in the special entitled "School-related Factors in the Development of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization", which represent critical areas that are often overlooked in the literature. First, one paper points to the complex interaction between a genetic disposition for aggression and classroom norms toward aggression. Second, an intervention paper unpacks the underlying mechanisms of an efficacious school-wide bully prevention program by opening the "black box" and testing for mediators. Third, the remaining studies employ a wide range of rigorous designs to identify how teachers' attitudes, behaviors, and classroom practices play a critical role in the prevalence of victimization and bullying in the classroom. Further, teachers' attitudes and behaviors are shown to be predictive of youth's willingness to intervene to assist a peer who is being victimized. Results are situated in what is known about bullying prevention, and how the findings from these studies could maximize the sensitivity of future prevention efforts.

  16. Dual-harmonic auto voltage control for the rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Tamura

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dual-harmonic operation, in which the accelerating cavities are driven by the superposition of the fundamental and the second harmonic rf voltage, is useful for acceleration of the ultrahigh intensity proton beam in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. However, the precise and fast voltage control of the harmonics is necessary to realize the dual-harmonic acceleration. We developed the dual-harmonic auto voltage control system for the J-PARC RCS. We describe details of the design and the implementation. Various tests of the system are performed with the RCS rf system. Also, a preliminary beam test has been done. We report the test results.

  17. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex II: Neutron Scattering Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakajima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The neutron instruments suite, installed at the spallation neutron source of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, is reviewed. MLF has 23 neutron beam ports and 21 instruments are in operation for user programs or are under commissioning. A unique and challenging instrumental suite in MLF has been realized via combination of a high-performance neutron source, optimized for neutron scattering, and unique instruments using cutting-edge technologies. All instruments are/will serve in world-leading investigations in a broad range of fields, from fundamental physics to industrial applications. In this review, overviews, characteristic features, and typical applications of the individual instruments are mentioned.

  18. Beam commissioning of the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC was commissioned in October 2007, and successfully accomplished 3 GeV acceleration on October 31. Six run cycles through February 2008 were dedicated to commissioning the RCS, for which the initial machine parameter tuning and various underlying beam studies were completed. Then since May 2008 the RCS beam has been delivered to the downstream facilities for their beam commissioning. In this paper we describe beam tuning and study results following our beam commissioning scenario and a beam performance and operational experience obtained in the first commissioning phase through June 2008.

  19. Overview of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) project and Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yujiro

    2008-01-01

    The J-PARC project has been conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK since 2001. This paper reports an overview and current status of the project. The high intensity proton accelerator consists of a 400 MeV Linac, a 3 GeV synchrotron and 50 GeV synchrotron to deliver MW level pulsed proton beam to experimental facilities. The MW proton power will provide an advanced scientific experimental research complex aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science with neutron and muon, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. Regarding the project being close to its completion in 2008, this paper describes the overview of J-PARC project with emphasis of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility, in which the MW pulsed neutron and muon sources, are placed to provide high quality neutron and muon beams to the world wide users. (author)

  20. [Complexity, law and science: Reflections on the UNESCO Recommendation on the status and responsibility of the scientific researcher].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2017-10-13

    The analysis of the complexity and interactivity in the production of social norms between science and technology, on the one hand, and between law and ethics, on the other hand, must be our first concern because without a lucid and in deep assessment of the fragmented and even opposed realities that make up our world, not only do we lose all forms of collective freedom but above all we favor reductive totalitarianism and warlike confrontation.It is with this in mind that it is necessary to examine whether the revision of the 1974 Recommendation on the Status and Responsibility of the Scientific Researcher is likely to provide relevant elements for responding to these changes.

  1. A role for carbohydrate recognition in mammalian sperm-egg binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mammalian sperm-egg binding as a carbohydrate dependent species recognition event. • The role of carbohydrate recognition in human, mouse and pig sperm-egg binding. • Historical perspective and future directions for research focused on gamete binding. - Abstract: Mammalian fertilization usually requires three sequential cell–cell interactions: (i) initial binding of sperm to the specialized extracellular matrix coating the egg known as the zona pellucida (ZP); (ii) binding of sperm to the ZP via the inner acrosomal membrane that is exposed following the induction of acrosomal exocytosis; and (iii) adhesion of acrosome-reacted sperm to the plasma membrane of the egg cell, enabling subsequent fusion of these gametes. The focus of this review is on the initial binding of intact sperm to the mammalian ZP. Evidence collected over the past fifty years has confirmed that this interaction relies primarily on the recognition of carbohydrate sequences presented on the ZP by lectin-like egg binding proteins located on the plasma membrane of sperm. There is also evidence that the same carbohydrate sequences that mediate binding also function as ligands for lectins on lymphocytes that can inactivate immune responses, likely protecting the egg and the developing embryo up to the stage of blastocyst hatching. The literature related to initial sperm-ZP binding in the three major mammalian models (human, mouse and pig) is discussed. Historical perspectives and future directions for research related to this aspect of gamete adhesion are also presented

  2. A role for carbohydrate recognition in mammalian sperm-egg binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Gary F., E-mail: clarkgf@health.missouri.edu

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Mammalian sperm-egg binding as a carbohydrate dependent species recognition event. • The role of carbohydrate recognition in human, mouse and pig sperm-egg binding. • Historical perspective and future directions for research focused on gamete binding. - Abstract: Mammalian fertilization usually requires three sequential cell–cell interactions: (i) initial binding of sperm to the specialized extracellular matrix coating the egg known as the zona pellucida (ZP); (ii) binding of sperm to the ZP via the inner acrosomal membrane that is exposed following the induction of acrosomal exocytosis; and (iii) adhesion of acrosome-reacted sperm to the plasma membrane of the egg cell, enabling subsequent fusion of these gametes. The focus of this review is on the initial binding of intact sperm to the mammalian ZP. Evidence collected over the past fifty years has confirmed that this interaction relies primarily on the recognition of carbohydrate sequences presented on the ZP by lectin-like egg binding proteins located on the plasma membrane of sperm. There is also evidence that the same carbohydrate sequences that mediate binding also function as ligands for lectins on lymphocytes that can inactivate immune responses, likely protecting the egg and the developing embryo up to the stage of blastocyst hatching. The literature related to initial sperm-ZP binding in the three major mammalian models (human, mouse and pig) is discussed. Historical perspectives and future directions for research related to this aspect of gamete adhesion are also presented.

  3. Characterization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Involved in Arabinogalactan Protein Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva

    and tissues, their functions and synthesis are still poorly understood. The aim of the research presented in the thesis was to characterize carbohydrate active enzymes involved in AGP biosynthesis and modification to gain insights into the biosynthesis of the glycoproteins in plants. Candidate...... glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases were selected based on co-expression profiles from a transcriptomics analysis. Reverse genetics approach on a novel glucuronosyltransferase involved in AGP biosynthesis has revealed that the enzyme activity is required for normal cell elongation in etiolated seedlings....... The enzymatic activity of a hydrolase from GH family 17 was investigated, without successful determination of the activity. Members of hydrolase family 43 appeared to be localized in the Golgi-apparatus, which is also the compartment for glycan biosynthesis. The localization of these glycoside hydrolases...

  4. Carbohydrate modified polysiloxanes, 3 - Solution properties of carbohydrate-polysiloxane conjugates in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Jonas, Gerd; Stadler, Reimund

    2001-01-01

    High molecular weight poly(hydromethyl-co-dimethyl) siloxanes containing 0.6 and 3 mol-% of Si-H units are polar functionalized by the addition of various mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Due to the hydrogen bond interaction between the carbohydrate moieties, the solution properties are strongly

  5. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  6. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  7. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yao, Chih-Chien; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lim, Chee-Sang; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2018-01-12

    Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded. There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet. More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34+/-6 y; BMI 23.4+/-2.2 kg m(-2)).

  9. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34±6y; BMI 23.4±2.2 kg m-2).

  10. Development and Application of a New Microarray- Based Method for High-Throughput Screening of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal Melgosa, Silvia

    single defined polysaccharides, mixtures of defined polysaccharides and complex biomass extracts. Furthermore, the capacity of the technique to analyse endo- and exo-acting glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases has been confirmed...... will contribute to both the discovery of CAZymes and the empirical characterisation of their activities, thus aiding their industrial utilisation and biological understanding...

  11. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  12. Comparison of efficacy of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet education programs in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Chul; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Cho, Yong Kyun; Ahn, Sang Bong

    2018-02-01

    Composition of macronutrients is important in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Diet education programs that mainly emphasize reducing fat consumption have been used for NAFLD patients. We compared the efficacy of conventional low-fat diet education with low-carbohydrate diet education in Korean NAFLD patients. One hundred and six NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to low-fat diet education or low-carbohydrate education groups for 8 weeks. Liver chemistry, liver / spleen ratio, and visceral fat using abdominal tomography were measured. Intrahepatic fat accumulation decreased significantly in the low-carbohydrate group compared to low-fat group (liver/spleen 0.85 vs. 0.92, P low-carbohydrate and 16.7% for the low-fat group (P = 0.016). Not only liver enzyme, but also low density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure levels significantly decreased in the low-carbohydrate group. Total energy intake was also further decreased in the low-carbohydrate group compared to the low-fat group. Although body weight changes were not different between the two groups, the carbohydrate group had a lower total abdominal fat amount. A low-carbohydrate diet program is more realistic and effective in reducing total energy intake and hepatic fat content in Korean NAFLD patients. This trial is registered with the National Research Institute of Health: KCT0000970 (https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp). © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  13. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Østergaard, Lars Henrik; Fuglsang, Claus Crone; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Industrially used carbohydrate oxidase was successfully crystallized in several forms, diffraction data suitable for structural analysis were collected. Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was produced by heterologous recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, purified and crystallized. The enzyme crystallizes with varying crystal morphologies depending on the crystallization conditions. Several different crystal forms were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, two of which were used for diffraction measurements. Hexagon-shaped crystals (form I) diffracted to 2.66 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.7, c = 610.4 Å and apparent space group P6 2 22. Analysis of the data quality showed almost perfect twinning of the crystals. Attempts to solve the structure by molecular replacement did not give satisfactory results. Recently, clusters of rod-shaped crystals (form II) were grown in a solution containing PEG MME 550. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic system C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.9, b = 56.6, c = 86.5 Å, β = 95.7°. Data sets were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method. Model refinement is currently in progress

  14. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  15. Resisting the seduction of "ethics creep": using Foucault to surface complexity and contradiction in research ethics review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, Adrian; Nixon, Stephanie A; Wilson, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine "ethics creep", a concept developed by Haggerty (2004) to account for the increasing bureaucratization of research ethics boards and institutional review boards (REB/IRBs) and the expanding reach of ethics review. We start with an overview of the recent surge of academic interest in ethics creep and similar arguments about the prohibitive effect of ethics review. We then introduce elements of Michel Foucault's theoretical framework which are used to inform our analysis of empirical data drawn from a multi-phase study exploring the accessibility of community-engaged research within existing ethics review structures in Canada. First, we present how ethics creep emerged both explicitly and implicitly in our data. We then present data that demonstrate how REB/IRBs are experiencing their own form of regulation. Finally, we present data that situate ethics review alongside other trends affecting the academy. Our results show that ethics review is growing in some ways while simultaneously being constrained in others. Drawing on Foucauldian theory we reframe ethics creep as a repressive hypothesis which belies the complexity of the phenomenon it purports to explain. Our discussion complicates ethics creep by proposing an understanding of REB/IRBs that locates them at the intersection of various neoliberal discourses about the role of science, ethics, and knowledge production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Korenman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The extraction of fructose, glucose, galactose, sucrose and lactose from aqueous salt solutions, hydrophilic solvents (aliphatic alcohols, alkyl acetates, ketones of double and triple mixtures has been studied. Under identical conditions set quantitative characteristics extraction has been established. It was found that from the all studied carbohydrateы most fully extracted disaccharides lactose and sucrose. The conditions of concentration and almost complete recovery of carbohydrates from aqueous salt solutions has beenoptimized. The technique of extraction-potentiometric selective determination of carbohydrates in foods and beverages has been developed. As a titrant was used isopropanol solution of boric acid. The developed method allows to determine separately the mono- or disaccharides in milk, which include those contained 5 or less carbohydrates. The complex of photocolorimetric, polarimetric, potentiometric and chromatographic methods for determining carbohydrates in aqueous media and food (diabetic confectionery, juices, dairy products, honey wasproposed. To determine the fructose, glucose and sucrose in natural juices us used optical methods (photoelectrocolorimeters, polarimetry. Method is express, does not require expensive equipment and reagents. Fructose and sucrose in diabetic confectionery was determined by ascending thin layer chromatography. Some diabetic products based on fructose, produced by Russian confectionery factorieshas beenanalyzed. Duration analysis, 50-60 minutes, selective determination of error within 5-7%. Extracts from honey and milk were analyzed potentiometrically. We have developed a technique characterized by the following advantages compared with state standards: rapidity (analysis time 30-35 min, accuracy (relative error within 5 %, does not require expensive equipment and reagents, as well as dilution and filtration of milk stage sampling.

  17. Global microarray analysis of carbohydrate use in alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajian Song

    Full Text Available The alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 has a broad substrate spectrum and exhibits the capacity to utilize complex carbohydrates such as galactomannan, xylan, and pectin. In the monosaccharide mixture, sequential utilization by Bacillus sp. N16-5 was observed. Glucose appeared to be its preferential monosaccharide, followed by fructose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. Global transcription profiles of the strain were determined separately for growth on six monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose and four polysaccharides (galactomannan, xylan, pectin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose using one-color microarrays. Numerous genes potentially related to polysaccharide degradation, sugar transport, and monosaccharide metabolism were found to respond to a specific substrate. Putative gene clusters for different carbohydrates were identified according to transcriptional patterns and genome annotation. Identification and analysis of these gene clusters contributed to pathway reconstruction for carbohydrate utilization in Bacillus sp. N16-5. Several genes encoding putative sugar transporters were highly expressed during growth on specific sugars, suggesting their functional roles. Two phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems were identified as candidate transporters for mannose and fructose, and a major facilitator superfamily transporter was identified as a candidate transporter for arabinose and xylose. Five carbohydrate uptake transporter 1 family ATP-binding cassette transporters were predicted to participate in the uptake of hemicellulose and pectin degradation products. Collectively, microarray data improved the pathway reconstruction involved in carbohydrate utilization of Bacillus sp. N16-5 and revealed that the organism precisely regulates gene transcription in response to fluctuations in energy resources.

  18. Global Microarray Analysis of Carbohydrate Use in Alkaliphilic Hemicellulolytic Bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yajian; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-01-01

    The alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 has a broad substrate spectrum and exhibits the capacity to utilize complex carbohydrates such as galactomannan, xylan, and pectin. In the monosaccharide mixture, sequential utilization by Bacillus sp. N16-5 was observed. Glucose appeared to be its preferential monosaccharide, followed by fructose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. Global transcription profiles of the strain were determined separately for growth on six monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose) and four polysaccharides (galactomannan, xylan, pectin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose) using one-color microarrays. Numerous genes potentially related to polysaccharide degradation, sugar transport, and monosaccharide metabolism were found to respond to a specific substrate. Putative gene clusters for different carbohydrates were identified according to transcriptional patterns and genome annotation. Identification and analysis of these gene clusters contributed to pathway reconstruction for carbohydrate utilization in Bacillus sp. N16-5. Several genes encoding putative sugar transporters were highly expressed during growth on specific sugars, suggesting their functional roles. Two phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems were identified as candidate transporters for mannose and fructose, and a major facilitator superfamily transporter was identified as a candidate transporter for arabinose and xylose. Five carbohydrate uptake transporter 1 family ATP-binding cassette transporters were predicted to participate in the uptake of hemicellulose and pectin degradation products. Collectively, microarray data improved the pathway reconstruction involved in carbohydrate utilization of Bacillus sp. N16-5 and revealed that the organism precisely regulates gene transcription in response to fluctuations in energy resources. PMID:23326578

  19. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Fertility Hormones and Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Women: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrice, Melanie; Porter, Judi

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Medical interventions including assisted reproductive technologies have improved fertility outcomes for many sub-fertile couples. Increasing research interest has investigated the effect of low carbohydrate diets, with or without energy restriction. We aimed to systematically review the published literature to determine the extent to which low carbohydrate diets can affect fertility outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42016042669) and followed Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Infertile women were the population of interest, the intervention was low carbohydrate diets (less than 45% total energy from carbohydrates), compared to usual diet (with or without co-treatments). Four databases were searched from date of commencement until April 2016; a supplementary Google scholar search was also undertaken. Title and abstract, then full text review, were undertaken independently and in duplicate. Reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews were checked to ensure that all relevant studies were identified for inclusion. Quality assessment was undertaken independently by both authors using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Outcome measures were improved fertility outcomes defined by an improvement in reproductive hormones, ovulation rates and/or pregnancy rates; (3) Results: Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the evidence synthesis. Interventions were diverse and included a combination of low carbohydrate diets with energy deficit or other co-treatments. Study quality was rated as positive for six studies, suggesting a low risk of bias, with one study rated as neutral. Of the six studies which reported changes in reproductive hormones, five reported significant improvements post intervention; (4) Conclusion: The findings of these

  20. Synthesizing models useful for ecohydrology and ecohydraulic approaches: An emphasis on integrating models to address complex research questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas; Mollenhauer, Robert; Stewart, David; McManamay, Ryan; Guertault, Lucie; Moore, Desiree

    2018-01-01

    Ecohydrology combines empiricism, data analytics, and the integration of models to characterize linkages between ecological and hydrological processes. A challenge for practitioners is determining which models best generalizes heterogeneity in hydrological behaviour, including water fluxes across spatial and temporal scales, integrating environmental and socio‐economic activities to determine best watershed management practices and data requirements. We conducted a literature review and synthesis of hydrologic, hydraulic, water quality, and ecological models designed for solving interdisciplinary questions. We reviewed 1,275 papers and identified 178 models that have the capacity to answer an array of research questions about ecohydrology or ecohydraulics. Of these models, 43 were commonly applied due to their versatility, accessibility, user‐friendliness, and excellent user‐support. Forty‐one of 43 reviewed models were linked to at least 1 other model especially: Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (linked to 21 other models), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (19), and Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (15). However, model integration was still relatively infrequent. There was substantial variation in model applications, possibly an artefact of the regional focus of research questions, simplicity of use, quality of user‐support efforts, or a limited understanding of model applicability. Simply increasing the interoperability of model platforms, transformation of models to user‐friendly forms, increasing user‐support, defining the reliability and risk associated with model results, and increasing awareness of model applicability may promote increased use of models across subdisciplines. Nonetheless, the current availability of models allows an array of interdisciplinary questions to be addressed, and model choice relates to several factors including research objective, model complexity, ability to link to other models, and

  1. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural Basis for Carbohydrate Recognition and Anti-inflammatory Modulation by Gastrointestinal Nematode Parasite Toxascaris leonina Galectin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Young; Jeong, Mi Suk; Park, Sang Kyun; Ha, Sung Chul; Yu, Hak Sun; Jang, Se Bok

    2016-01-01

    Toxascaris leonina galectin (Tl-gal) is a galectin-9 homologue protein isolated from an adult worm of the canine gastrointestinal nematode parasite, and Tl-gal-vaccinated challenge can inhibit inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease-induced mice. We determined the first X-ray structures of full-length Tl-gal complexes with carbohydrates (lactose, N-acetyllactosamine, lacto-N-tetraose, sialyllactose, and glucose). Bonds were formed on concave surfaces of both carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in Tl-gal. All binding sites were found in the HXXXR and WGXEER motifs. Charged Arg61/Arg196 and Glu80/Glu215 on the conserved motif of Tl-gal N-terminal CRD and C-terminal CRD are critical amino acids for recognizing carbohydrate binding, and the residues can affect protein folding and structure. The polar amino acids His, Asn, and Trp are also important residues for the interaction with carbohydrates through hydrogen bonding. Hemagglutination activities of Tl-gal were inhibited by interactions with carbohydrates and mutations. We found that the mutation of Tl-gal (E80A/E215A) at the carbohydrate binding region induced protein aggregation and could be caused in many diseases. The short linker region between the N-terminal and C-terminal CRDs of Tl-gal was very stable against proteolysis and maintained its biological activity. This structural information is expected to elucidate the carbohydrate recognition mechanism of Tl-gal and improve our understanding of anti-inflammatory mediators and modulators of immune response. PMID:27742836

  3. Fueling the caries process: carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation by Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary D. Moye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the oral cavity and host behaviors has mandated that the oral microbiota evolve mechanisms for coping with environmental fluctuations, especially changes in the type and availability of carbohydrates. In the case of human dental caries, the presence of excess carbohydrates is often responsible for altering the local environment to be more favorable for species associated with the initiation and progression of disease, including Streptococcus mutans. Some of the earliest endeavors to understand how cariogenic species respond to environmental perturbations were carried out using chemostat cultivation, which provides fine control over culture conditions and bacterial behaviors. The development of genome-scale methodologies has allowed for the combination of sophisticated cultivation technologies with genome-level analysis to more thoroughly probe how bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stimuli. Recent investigations in S. mutans and other closely related streptococci have begun to reveal that carbohydrate metabolism can drastically impact pathogenic potential and highlight the important influence that nutrient acquisition has on the success of pathogens; inside and outside of the oral cavity. Collectively, research into pathogenic streptococci, which have evolved in close association with the human host, has begun to unveil the essential nature of careful orchestration of carbohydrate acquisition and catabolism to allow the organisms to persist and, when conditions allow, initiate or worsen disease.

  4. Fueling the caries process: carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation by Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D.; Zeng, Lin; Burne, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the oral cavity and host behaviors has mandated that the oral microbiota evolve mechanisms for coping with environmental fluctuations, especially changes in the type and availability of carbohydrates. In the case of human dental caries, the presence of excess carbohydrates is often responsible for altering the local environment to be more favorable for species associated with the initiation and progression of disease, including Streptococcus mutans. Some of the earliest endeavors to understand how cariogenic species respond to environmental perturbations were carried out using chemostat cultivation, which provides fine control over culture conditions and bacterial behaviors. The development of genome-scale methodologies has allowed for the combination of sophisticated cultivation technologies with genome-level analysis to more thoroughly probe how bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stimuli. Recent investigations in S. mutans and other closely related streptococci have begun to reveal that carbohydrate metabolism can drastically impact pathogenic potential and highlight the important influence that nutrient acquisition has on the success of pathogens; inside and outside of the oral cavity. Collectively, research into pathogenic streptococci, which have evolved in close association with the human host, has begun to unveil the essential nature of careful orchestration of carbohydrate acquisition and catabolism to allow the organisms to persist and, when conditions allow, initiate or worsen disease. PMID:25317251

  5. A Novel Carbohydrate-binding Module from Sugar Cane Soil Metagenome Featuring Unique Structural and Carbohydrate Affinity Properties*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Bruna Medeia; Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Zanphorlin, Letícia Maria; Ematsu, Gabriela Cristina; Barud, Hernane; Polikarpov, Igor; Ruller, Roberto; Gilbert, Harry J.; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are appended to glycoside hydrolases and can contribute to the degradation of complex recalcitrant substrates such as the plant cell wall. For application in bioethanol production, novel enzymes with high catalytic activity against recalcitrant lignocellulosic material are being explored and developed. In this work, we report the functional and structural study of CBM_E1, which was discovered through a metagenomics approach and is the founding member of a novel CBM family, CBM81. CBM_E1, which is linked to an endoglucanase, displayed affinity for mixed linked β1,3-β1,4-glucans, xyloglucan, Avicel, and cellooligosaccharides. The crystal structure of CBM_E1 in complex with cellopentaose displayed a canonical β-sandwich fold comprising two β-sheets. The planar ligand binding site, observed in a parallel orientation with the β-strands, is a typical feature of type A CBMs, although the expected affinity for bacterial crystalline cellulose was not detected. Conversely, the binding to soluble glucans was enthalpically driven, which is typical of type B modules. These unique properties of CBM_E1 are at the interface between type A and type B CBMs. PMID:27621314

  6. Investigation on Carbohydrate Counting Method in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Son

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT have propounded the importance of the approach of treatment by medical nutrition when treating diabetes mellitus (DM. During this study, we tried to inquire carbohydrate (Kh count method’s positive effects on the type 1 DM treatment’s success as well as on the life quality of the patients. Methods. 22 of 37 type 1 DM patients who applied to Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, had been treated by Kh count method and 15 of them are treated by multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment with applying standard diabetic diet as a control group and both of groups were under close follow-up for 6 months. Required approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, as well as informed consent from the patients. The body weight of patients who are treated by carbohydrate count method and multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment during the study beginning and after 6-month term, body mass index, and body compositions are analyzed. A short life quality and medical research survey applied. At statistical analysis, t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results. There had been no significant change determined at glycemic control indicators between the Kh counting group and the standard diabetic diet and multiple dosage insulin treatment group in our study. Conclusion. As a result, Kh counting method which offers a flexible nutrition plan to diabetic individuals is a functional method.

  7. Determination of proteins and carbohydrates in the effluents from wastewater treatment bioreactors using resonance light-scattering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Lin; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2008-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method was developed for the determination of low-concentration proteins and carbohydrates in the effluents from biological wastewater treatment reactors using resonance light-scattering (RLS) technique. Two ionic dyes, Congo red and Neutral red were, respectively used as an RLS probes for the determination of proteins and carbohydrates. This method is based on the interactions between biomacromolecules and dyes, which cause a substantial increase in the resonance scattering signal of dyes in the wavelength range of 200-650 nm. The characteristics of RLS spectra of the macromolecule-dye complexes, influencing factors, and optimum analytical conditions for the measurement were explored. The method was satisfactorily applied to the measurement of proteins and carbohydrates in the effluents from 10 aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors, and a high sensitivity were achieved.

  8. Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit into a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity. Carbohydrates are an essential part of a healthy diet, and provide many important nutrients. Still, not all carbs are created equal. Here's how to make healthy carbohydrates work in a balanced diet: Emphasize fiber-rich fruits and vegetables. Aim for ...

  9. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALLY WELL-DEFINED CARBOHYDRATE DENDRIMER CONJUGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner...... conjugates and their use in vaccination, production of antibodies, high throughput screening, diagnostic assays and libraries....

  10. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  11. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  12. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  13. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... improvement in 40 km time trial time between an isocaloric GP-only or a GP and fructose drink, and no differences in any of the measured variables other than exogenous carbohydrate oxidation at 90 minutes during the pre-time trial steady state ride. Keywords: multiple carbohydrate, cycling, endurance, glucose, fructose ...

  14. Carbohydrates in the waters of ponds of Ramanthuruthu Island, Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Kumaran, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Stephen, R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    carbohydrate showed high variability and the concentration varied from 0.2 to 11 mg/l. High concentration of particulate carbohydrate observed during monsoon months is believed to be due to high phytoplankton population and also to the large amount of organic...

  15. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  16. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  17. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  18. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......% of the total molecular weight, and the molar ratios of the individual sugars to protein of the O-linked glycans were determined. The glycan structures of MUC15 were further studied by enzymatic deglycosylation experiments using different endo- and exoglycosidases as well as a panel of lectins. The N......-linked glycans. By comparing the results of peanut agglutinin lectin binding, enzymatic deglycosylation, and monosaccharide composition analysis, we concluded that bovine MUC15 also contains more complex O-glycans containing high amounts N-acetylglucosamine residues. Furthermore, a small subset of the O...

  19. Nutrigenomics of Neuradaptogen Amino-Acid-Therapy and Neurometabolic Optimizers: Overcoming carbohydrate bingeing and overeating through neurometabolic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Braverman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of obesity, the epidemic continues to rise worldwide. While pharmacological treatment of obesity may be effective, medications may have significant side effects and can be potentially fatal. This review will provide significant evidence to substantiate the existence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome in Obesity and the role of catecholaminergic pathways in aberrant substance seeking behavior, in particular cravings for carbohydrates. The genetic basis for generalized craving behavior will be established. Evidence to support the augmentation of precursor amino acid therapy and enkephalinase, MOA and COMT inhibition leading to enhanced levels of neurotransmitters: serotonin, enkephalins, GABA and dopamine/norepinephrine as well increasing insulin sensitivity (affecting dopamineFunctional Foods in Health and Disease: 9:310-378neuronal synthesis regulation through the use of certain neurometabolic optimizers will also be provided. This review article cites many published studies to support a conceptual paradigm shift towards the use of this proposed nutrigenomic formula. The analysis and research preceding this formulation is outlined. This formulation has a generalized anti-craving effect and can inhibit carbohydrate bingeing, inducing significant healthy fat loss and prevention of relapse. This is the first time that components of this formula have been combined, at the dosage levels indicated with the goal of promoting successful and sustainable body recomposition. We are encouraging other laboratories to further evaluate Neuroadtagen Amino-Acid Therapy (NAAT/Nurometabolic optimizers as a putative anti-obesity complex in larger controlled blinded studies and await interpretation of must these needed studies.

  20. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form