WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex behaviour change

  1. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  2. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated......The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  3. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  4. Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Poston, Lucilla; Briley, Annette L; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Croker, Helen; Coxon, Kirstie; Essex, Holly N; Hunt, Claire; Hayes, Louise; Howard, Louise M; Khazaezadeh, Nina; Kinnunen, Tarja; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robson, Stephen C; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T; Wardle, Jane; Sanders, Thomas A B; Sandall, Jane

    2013-07-15

    Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity behaviours, and b) to refine the intervention protocol through process evaluation of intervention fidelity. We undertook a pilot RCT of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women, comparing routine antenatal care with an intervention to reduce dietary glycaemic load and saturated fat intake, and increase physical activity. Subjects included 183 obese pregnant women (mean BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Compared to women in the control arm, women in the intervention arm had a significant reduction in dietary glycaemic load (33 points, 95% CI -47 to -20), (p change. Physical discomfort and sustained barriers to physical activity were common at 28 weeks' gestation. Process evaluation identified barriers to recruitment, group attendance and compliance, leading to modification of intervention delivery. This pilot trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women suggests greater potential for change in dietary intake than for change in physical activity, and through process evaluation illustrates the considerable advantage of performing an exploratory trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women before undertaking a large RCT. ISRCTN89971375.

  5. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... of key journals and personal contact with content area experts. Randomised controlled trials and non-equivalent group designs with pre- and post-intervention measures were included. Outcome measures were those used by the study authors. For each study we determined whether these were positive, negative...

  6. Behavioural models of technological change

    Zeppini, P.

    2011-01-01

    Technological change still remains an important driver of the economy. This thesis studies the endogenous forces of technological change stemming from behavioural interactions within populations of many agents. Four theoretical models are proposed that describe consumers’ and suppliers’ behaviour

  7. Organisational change management and workers' behaviour: A ...

    Change is the only constant phenomenon. An organisation that fails to recognise the inevitability of change is doomed to fail. However, workers' behaviour towards change has become a serious issue facing today's management in complex and ever evolving organisations. Employees' resistance to change has been ...

  8. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  9. Changing Environmentally Relevant Behaviour.

    Gudgion, T. J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1991-01-01

    Considered is the role of psychology in helping to change those human behaviors which have deleterious environmental effects. The foremost conclusion is that behavioral psychology can offer practical techniques for such change, yet there are indications that enduring behaviors may be better realized through the intrinsic motivation maintained by…

  10. A complex behavioural change intervention to reduce the risk of diabetes and prediabetes in the pre-conception period in Malaysia: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Skau, Jutta K H; Nordin, Awatef Binti Amer; Cheah, Julius C H; Ali, Roslinah; Zainal, Ramli; Aris, Tahir; Ali, Zainudin Mohd; Matzen, Priya; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Hanson, Mark A; Norris, Shane A

    2016-04-27

    Over the past two decades, the population of Malaysia has grown rapidly and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia has dramatically increased, along with the frequency of obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Early-life influences play an important role in the development of non-communicable diseases. Indeed, maternal lifestyle and conditions such as gestational diabetes mellitus or obesity can affect the risk of diabetes in the next generation. Lifestyle changes can help to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a protocol for an unblinded, community-based, randomised controlled trial in two arms to evaluate the efficacy of a complex behavioural change intervention, combining motivational interviewing provided by a community health promoter and access to a habit formation mobile application, among young Malaysian women and their spouses prior to pregnancy. Eligible subjects will be Malaysian women in the age group 20 to 39 years, who are nulliparous, not diagnosed with diabetes and own a smartphone. With an alpha-value of 0.05, a statistical power of 90 %, 264 subjects will need to complete the study. Subjects with their spouses will be randomised to either the intervention or the control arm for an 8-month period. The primary endpoint is change in waist circumference from baseline to end of intervention period and secondary endpoints are changes in anthropometric parameters, biochemical parameters, change in health literacy level, dietary habits, physical activity and stress level. Primary endpoint and the continuous secondary endpoints will be analysed in a linear regression model, whereas secondary endpoints on an ordinal scale will be analysed by using the chi-squared test. A multivariate linear model for the primary endpoint will be undertaken to account for potential confounders. This study has been approved by the Medical Research and Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health Malaysia (protocol number: NMRR-14

  11. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Abstract. A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the.

  12. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change. PMID:27535821

  13. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.

  14. Behavioural design: A process for integrating behaviour change and design

    Cash, Philip; Hartlev, Charlotte Gram; Durazo, Christine Boysen

    2017-01-01

    Nudge, persuasion, and the influencing of human behaviour through design are increasingly important topics in design research and in the wider public consciousness. However, current theoretical approaches to behaviour change have yet to be operationalized this in design process support....... Specifically, there are few empirically grounded processes supporting designers in realising behaviour change projects. In response to this, 20 design projects from a case company are analysed in order to distil a core process for behavioural design. Results show a number of process stages and activities...... associated with project success, pointing to a new perspective on the traditional design process, and allowing designers to integrate key insights from behaviour change theory. Using this foundation we propose the Behavioural Design process....

  15. Energy, the Environment and Behaviour Change: A survey of insights from behavioural economics

    Baddeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of climate change is largely undisputed but moderating the impacts not only of climate change but also of resource depletion is a complex, multi-faceted problem. Technical solutions will have a large role to play but engineering behaviour change within households and firms is essential to harnessing the potential for energy efficient consumption, production and investment. To inform debates about behavior change, this paper explores some insights from behavioural economics including ...

  16. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic and mechan...... these interfaces and interfaced compartments and processes. Climate, sea-level, oceanographic currents and hydrological processes are all affected, while anthropogenic changes are often intense in the geographic settings corresponding to such interfaces....... and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  17. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change. The case of folate.

    Jensen, Birger B; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G; Brown, Kerry A; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from "rational model of man", behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in behaviour and the possible alternatives that require no or only minor changes in behaviour. Dissecting the theories provides new approaches to food-related behaviour that will aid the development of batteries of policy options when targeting nutritional problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On system behaviour using complex networks of a compression algorithm

    Walker, David M.; Correa, Debora C.; Small, Michael

    2018-01-01

    We construct complex networks of scalar time series using a data compression algorithm. The structure and statistics of the resulting networks can be used to help characterize complex systems, and one property, in particular, appears to be a useful discriminating statistic in surrogate data hypothesis tests. We demonstrate these ideas on systems with known dynamical behaviour and also show that our approach is capable of identifying behavioural transitions within electroencephalogram recordings as well as changes due to a bifurcation parameter of a chaotic system. The technique we propose is dependent on a coarse grained quantization of the original time series and therefore provides potential for a spatial scale-dependent characterization of the data. Finally the method is as computationally efficient as the underlying compression algorithm and provides a compression of the salient features of long time series.

  19. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  20. Negotiating behavioural change: therapists' proposal turns in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    Ekberg, Katie; Lecouteur, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an internationally recognised method for treating depression. However, many of the techniques involved in CBT are accomplished within the therapy interaction in diverse ways, and with varying consequences for the trajectory of therapy session. This paper uses conversation analysis to examine some standard ways in which therapists propose suggestions for behavioural change to clients attending CBT sessions for depression in Australia. Therapists' proposal turns displayed their subordinate epistemic authority over the matter at hand, and emphasised a high degree of optionality on behalf of the client in accepting their suggestions. This practice was routinely accomplished via three standard proposal turns: (1) hedged recommendations; (2) interrogatives; and (3) information-giving. These proposal turns will be examined in relation to the negotiation of behavioural change, and the implications for CBT interactions between therapist and client will be discussed.

  1. PNN NGC 246: A Complex Photometric Behaviour That Requires Wet

    Pérez J. M. González

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a study over three single-site campaigns to investigate the photometric behaviour of the PNN NGC 246. We observed this object in 2000 and 2001. The analysis of the light curves indicates complex and variable temporal spectra. Using wavelet analysis we have found evidences for changes on time scales of hours in the 2000 dataset. The temporal spectra obtained during 2001 are quite different from the results of the previous year. The modulations in the light curve are more noticeable and the temporal spectra present a higher number of modulation frequencies. One peculiar characteristic is the presence of a variable harmonic structure related to one of these modulation frequencies. This complex photometric behaviour may be explained by a more complicated unresolved combination of modulation frequencies, but more likely due to a combination of pulsations of the star plus modulations related to interaction with a close companion, maybe indicating a disc. However, these characteristics cannot be confirmed from single site observations. The complex and variable behaviour of NGC 246 needs the WET co-operation in order to completely resolve its light curve.

  2. On user behaviour adaptation under interface change

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Haifa, Israel, 24-27 February 2014 On User Behaviour Adaptation Under Interface Change Benjamin Rosman_ Subramanian Ramamoorthy M. M. Hassan Mahmud School of Informatics University of Edinburgh...

  3. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between boundedly rational costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic

  4. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic substitutes and

  5. Improving Collaborative Behaviour Planning in Adult Auditory Rehabilitation: Development of the I-PLAN Intervention Using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Barker, Fiona; Lusignan, Simon de; Deborah, Cooke

    2018-05-18

    The consequences of poorly managed hearing loss can be ameliorated with hearing aid use but rates of use are sub-optimal. The impact of audiologist behaviour on subsequent use, particularly over the long term, is unknown. This study aimed to describe the role of the behaviour change wheel in developing an intervention to introduce and embed particular clinical behaviours into adult hearing aid fitting consultations, within the framework of the Medical Research Council guidance on complex interventions. Following the steps of the behaviour change wheel, audiologist behaviours that might influence hearing aid use were identified based on a systematic review and qualitative work with audiologists. An analysis, using the COM-B model, identified potential drivers of the target behaviours. This was used to select intervention functions and behaviour change techniques likely to influence behaviour in this context. The target behaviours were as follows: giving information about the benefits of hearing aid use and the negative consequences of non-use, providing prompts for use and engaging in collaborative behavioural planning for use. The behavioural analysis suggested that psychological capability, opportunity and motivation were potential drivers of these behaviours. The intervention functions of education, coercion, training, environmental restructuring, modelling and enablement were selected and combined to develop a single complex intervention that seeks to address the target behaviours.

  6. Behavioural mechanisms and adaptation to climate change

    Nigussie, Yalemzewd

    2017-01-01

    The literature on climate change adaptation in developing countries focused on the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of adaptation decisions to climate change. Decision behavioural among others is thought to influence the path of innovation uptake related to climate change. We need to

  7. Obesity and dietary behavioural changes

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... people's self-esteem, there are many detrimental health implications to ... making small changes leads to the successful achievement of long-term goals.5 ... Ask empathetic questions such as “What do you think about your.

  8. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  9. Drama for behaviour change communicatuon on breastfeeding ...

    ... continued breast feeding for 2 years as against 0.0% at baseline survey. Conclusion: In this study, drama was shown to be an effective method of behaviour change communication to increase infant and young child feeding practices among mothers. Key words: intervention, drama, breastfeeding, complementary feeding ...

  10. Summary of design for behavioural change approaches

    Niedderer, Kristina; Clune, Stephen; Ludden, Geke; Niedderer, Kristina; Clune, Stephen; Ludden, Geke

    2017-01-01

    The chapters in Part 2 have presented a diverse selection of design for behavioural change approaches. This summary chapter explores the approaches presented in relation to the psychological and sociological (and other) models that authors have drawn on. This is achieved by first presenting the

  11. Promoting entrepreneurship - changing attitudes or behaviour

    Dreisler, P.; Blenker, P.; Nielsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether...... the target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action....

  12. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  13. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  14. Single molecule magnet behaviour in robust dysprosium-biradical complexes.

    Bernot, Kevin; Pointillart, Fabrice; Rosa, Patrick; Etienne, Mael; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2010-09-21

    A Dy-biradical complex was synthesized and characterized down to very low temperature. ac magnetic measurements reveal single molecule magnet behaviour visible without any application of dc field. The transition to the quantum tunneling regime is evidenced. Photophysical and EPR measurements provide evidence of the excellent stability of these complexes in solution.

  15. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  16. Ethnographic methods for process evaluations of complex health behaviour interventions.

    Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah; Wood, Fiona

    2016-05-04

    This article outlines the contribution that ethnography could make to process evaluations for trials of complex health-behaviour interventions. Process evaluations are increasingly used to examine how health-behaviour interventions operate to produce outcomes and often employ qualitative methods to do this. Ethnography shares commonalities with the qualitative methods currently used in health-behaviour evaluations but has a distinctive approach over and above these methods. It is an overlooked methodology in trials of complex health-behaviour interventions that has much to contribute to the understanding of how interventions work. These benefits are discussed here with respect to three strengths of ethnographic methodology: (1) producing valid data, (2) understanding data within social contexts, and (3) building theory productively. The limitations of ethnography within the context of process evaluations are also discussed.

  17. Evaluation of European energy behavioural change programmes

    Gynther, L.; Mikkonen, I. [Motiva Oy, Urho Kekkosenkatu 4-6 A, 00100 Helsinki (Finland); Smits, A. [NL Agency, Swentiboldstraat 21, 6137 AE Sittard (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    This article is based on the findings of the BEHAVE Project (Evaluation of Energy Behavioural Change Programmes) which was supported by the European Commission under the EU Intelligent Energy-Europe (IEE) Programme. The project started with a review of behavioural theories and their applicability in the development and evaluation of energy-related behavioural change programmes, progressed to a case study analysis and finished with a publication of guidelines for programme developers and policy makers. This paper concentrates on the results of the case study analysis and the recommendations arising from it. In the case study analysis, information was collected on almost 100 cases aiming at behavioural change in energy use from 11 European countries. More detailed information was collected on 41 cases which were subject to meta-analysis to identify success factors and weak points and to gather information on the current evaluation practices in such programmes. The meta-analysis was carried out in five phases: context (pre-planning), planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Planning and evaluation were recognised as two of the most critical phases. Many of the programmes operated with quite formal plans but were typically not based on scientific theories or evidence. In many cases, there was lack of market segmentation; the goals were not targeted and the programmes tried to offer 'everything to everybody'. A multitude of ex-post evaluation methods for programme impacts were reported ranging from participant surveys, testing and comparison with control groups to top-down method evaluating the impact of several programmes focusing on the same target group. Process evaluation (25 cases) was slightly less common than impact evaluation (29 cases). Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the programmes was a rarity, most likely due to difficulties in quantitative impact evaluation.

  18. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  19. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change. The case of folate.

    Jensen, BB; Lähteenmäki, L; Grunert, KG; Brown, KA; Timotijevic, L; Barnett, J; Shepherd, R; Raats, MM

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from "rational model of man", behavioural economics, health psychology and social...

  20. Theoretical explanations for maintenance of behaviour change: a systematic review of behaviour theories.

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals in achieving temporary behaviour change. Behaviour change maintenance, however, is rarely attained. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise current theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance to inform future research and practice. Potentially relevant theories were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO). In addition, an existing database of 80 theories was searched, and 25 theory experts were consulted. Theories were included if they formulated hypotheses about behaviour change maintenance. Included theories were synthesised thematically to ascertain overarching explanations for behaviour change maintenance. Initial theoretical themes were cross-validated. One hundred and seventeen behaviour theories were identified, of which 100 met the inclusion criteria. Five overarching, interconnected themes representing theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance emerged. Theoretical explanations of behaviour change maintenance focus on the differential nature and role of motives, self-regulation, resources (psychological and physical), habits, and environmental and social influences from initiation to maintenance. There are distinct patterns of theoretical explanations for behaviour change and for behaviour change maintenance. The findings from this review can guide the development and evaluation of interventions promoting maintenance of health behaviours and help in the development of an integrated theory of behaviour change maintenance.

  1. Theoretical explanations for maintenance of behaviour change: a systematic review of behaviour theories

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals in achieving temporary behaviour change. Behaviour change maintenance, however, is rarely attained. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise current theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance to inform future research and practice. Methods: Potentially relevant theories were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO). In addition, an existing database of 80 theories was searched, and 25 theory experts were consulted. Theories were included if they formulated hypotheses about behaviour change maintenance. Included theories were synthesised thematically to ascertain overarching explanations for behaviour change maintenance. Initial theoretical themes were cross-validated. Findings: One hundred and seventeen behaviour theories were identified, of which 100 met the inclusion criteria. Five overarching, interconnected themes representing theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance emerged. Theoretical explanations of behaviour change maintenance focus on the differential nature and role of motives, self-regulation, resources (psychological and physical), habits, and environmental and social influences from initiation to maintenance. Discussion: There are distinct patterns of theoretical explanations for behaviour change and for behaviour change maintenance. The findings from this review can guide the development and evaluation of interventions promoting maintenance of health behaviours and help in the development of an integrated theory of behaviour change maintenance. PMID:26854092

  2. Theoretical explanations for maintenance of behaviour change: a systematic review of behaviour theories

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals in achieving temporary behaviour change. Behaviour change maintenance, however, is rarely attained. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise current theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance to inform future research and practice. Methods: Potentially relevant theories were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO). In a...

  3. Synthesis, characterization and oxidative behaviour of dioxoruthenium(VI) complexes

    Agarwal, D.D.; Rastogi, Rachana

    1995-01-01

    Dioxoruthenium(VI) complexes are found to give low yield of epoxide but good yield of cyclohexanone. The complexes are electro active giving metal centered Ru VI /Ru V couple. Cis-stilbene gives trans epoxide and benzaldehyde. Norbornene gives exo epoxy norbornene. The selectivity for allylic oxidation is high. In the present note the synthesis of dioxoruthenium(VI) complexes and their oxidation behaviour is reported. The dioxoruthenium(VI) complexes have been stoichiometrically found to be good oxidants. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab

  4. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based.

  5. Electrochemical behaviour of cuprous complexes of dithia-alkanedicarboxylic acids

    Pieterse, M.M.J.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1972-01-01

    The composition and electrochemical behaviour of the cuprous complexes of dithia-alkanedicarboxylic acids viz., 2,5-dithiahexane-1,6-dicarboxylic acid (I); 3,6 dithiaoctane-1,8-dicarboxylic acid (II); 4,7-dithiadecane-1,10-dicarboxylic acid (III) and 2,2,

  6. Electrochemical behaviour of silver complexes of dithia-alkanedicarboxylic acids

    Janssen, L.J.J.; Hoogland, J.G.

    1972-01-01

    The composition and electrochemical behaviour of the Ag-complexes of dithia-alkane-dicarboxylic acids, viz. 2,5-dithiahexane-1,6-dicarboxylic acid (I), 3,6-dithiaoctane-1,8-dicarboxylic acid(II), 4,7-dithiadecane-1,10-dicarboxylic acid (III) and 2,2,7,7,-tetramethyl-3,6-dithiaoctane-1,8-dicarboxylic

  7. Complexity in behavioural organization and strongylid infection among wild chimpanzees

    Burgunder, J.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, David; Hashimoto, C.; MacIntosh, A. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, July (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : behavioural complexity * chimpanzees * fractal analysis * health monitoring * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * strongylid infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  8. Complexity in behavioural organization and strongylid infection among wild chimpanzees

    Burgunder, J.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.; Hashimoto, C.; MacIntosh, A. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, July (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : behavioural complexity * chimpanzees * fractal analysis * health monitoring * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * strongylid infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  9. Chirality-selected phase behaviour in ionic polypeptide complexes

    Perry, Sarah L.; Leon, Lorraine; Hoffmann, Kyle Q.; Kade, Matthew J.; Priftis, Dimitrios; Black, Katie A.; Wong, Derek; Klein, Ryan A.; Pierce, Charles F.; Margossian, Khatcher O.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes present new opportunities for self-assembled soft matter. Factors determining whether the phase of the complex is solid or liquid remain unclear. Ionic polypeptides enable examination of the effects of stereochemistry on complex formation. Here we demonstrate that chirality determines the state of polyelectrolyte complexes, formed from mixing dilute solutions of oppositely charged polypeptides, via a combination of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Fluid complexes occur when at least one of the polypeptides in the mixture is racemic, which disrupts backbone hydrogen-bonding networks. Pairs of purely chiral polypeptides, of any sense, form compact, fibrillar solids with a β-sheet structure. Analogous behaviour occurs in micelles formed from polypeptide block copolymers with polyethylene oxide, where assembly into aggregates with either solid or fluid cores, and eventually into ordered phases at high concentrations, is possible. Chirality is an exploitable tool for manipulating material properties in polyelectrolyte complexation. PMID:25586861

  10. Swarm robotics and complex behaviour of continuum material

    dell'Erba, Ramiro

    2018-05-01

    In swarm robotics, just as for an animal swarm in nature, one of the aims is to reach and maintain a desired configuration. One of the possibilities for the team, to reach this aim, is to see what its neighbours are doing. This approach generates a rules system governing the movement of the single robot just by reference to neighbour's motion. The same approach is used in position-based dynamics to simulate behaviour of complex continuum materials under deformation. Therefore, in some previous works, we have considered a two-dimensional lattice of particles and calculated its time evolution by using a rules system derived from our experience in swarm robotics. The new position of a particle, like the element of a swarm, is determined by the spatial position of the other particles. No dynamic is considered, but it can be thought as being hidden in the behaviour rules. This method has given good results in some simple situations reproducing the behaviour of deformable bodies under imposed strain. In this paper we try to stress our model to highlight its limits and how they can be improved. Some other, more complex, examples are computed and discussed. Shear test, different lattices, different fracture mechanisms and ASTM shape sample behaviour have been investigated by the software tool we have developed.

  11. Training Programs That Facilitate Lasting Change in Student Academic Behaviour

    Hodge, Brad

    2014-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that changing a person's pattern of behaviour is extremely difficult, with past behaviour being one of the strongest predictors of future behaviour. This is particularly evident in the university setting where students tend to use the same academic processes they have used throughout their schooling despite any…

  12. Learning and adaptation: neural and behavioural mechanisms behind behaviour change

    Lowe, Robert; Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    This special issue presents perspectives on learning and adaptation as they apply to a number of cognitive phenomena including pupil dilation in humans and attention in robots, natural language acquisition and production in embodied agents (robots), human-robot game play and social interaction, neural-dynamic modelling of active perception and neural-dynamic modelling of infant development in the Piagetian A-not-B task. The aim of the special issue, through its contributions, is to highlight some of the critical neural-dynamic and behavioural aspects of learning as it grounds adaptive responses in robotic- and neural-dynamic systems.

  13. Health behaviour change theories: contributions to an ICF-based behavioural exercise therapy for individuals with chronic diseases.

    Geidl, Wolfgang; Semrau, Jana; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective is (1) to incorporate recent psychological health behaviour change (HBC) theories into exercise therapeutic programmes, and (2) to introduce the International Classification of Functioning (ICF)-based concept of a behavioural exercise therapy (BET). Relevant personal modifiable factors of physical activity (PA) were identified based on three recent psychological HBC theories. Following the principles of intervention mapping, a matrix of proximal programme objectives specifies desirable parameter values for each personal factor. As a result of analysing reviews on behavioural techniques and intervention programmes of the German rehabilitation setting, we identified exercise-related techniques that impact the personal determinants. Finally, the techniques were integrated into an ICF-based BET concept. Individuals' attitudes, skills, emotions, beliefs and knowledge are important personal factors of PA behaviour. BET systematically addresses these personal factors by a systematic combination of adequate exercise contents with related behavioural techniques. The presented 28 intervention techniques serve as a theory-driven "tool box" for designing complex BET programmes to promote PA. The current paper highlights the usefulness of theory-based integrative research in the field of exercise therapy, offers explicit methods and contents for physical therapists to promote PA behaviour, and introduces the ICF-based conceptual idea of a BET. Implications for Rehabilitation Irrespective of the clients' indication, therapeutic exercise programmes should incorporate effective, theory-based approaches to promote physical activity. Central determinants of physical activity behaviour are a number of personal factors: individuals' attitudes, skills, emotions, beliefs and knowledge. Clinicians implementing exercise therapy should set it within a wider theoretical framework including the personal factors that influence physical activity. To increase

  14. Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities.

    Gorzelak, Monika A; Asay, Amanda K; Pickles, Brian J; Simard, Suzanne W

    2015-05-15

    Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. We have found that the behavioural changes in ectomycorrhizal plants depend on environmental cues, the identity of the plant neighbour and the characteristics of the MN. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground 'tree talk' is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  15. The Challenge of Behaviour Change and Health Promotion

    Glenn Laverack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The evidence about the effectiveness of behaviour change approaches—what works and what does not work—is unclear. What we do know is that single interventions that target a specific behavioural risk have little impact on the determinants that actually cause poor health, especially for vulnerable people. This has not prevented health promoters from continuing to invest in behaviour change interventions which are widely used in a range of programs. The future of behaviour change and health promotion is through the application of a comprehensive strategy with three core components: (1 a behaviour change approach; (2 a strong policy framework that creates a supportive environment and (3 the empowerment of people to gain more control over making healthy lifestyle decisions. This will require the better planning of policy interventions and the coordination of agencies involved in behaviour change and empowerment activities at the community level, with government to help develop policy at the national level.

  16. Using theories of behaviour change to inform interventions for addictive behaviours.

    Webb, Thomas L; Sniehotta, Falko F; Michie, Susan

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews a set of theories of behaviour change that are used outside the field of addiction and considers their relevance for this field. Ten theories are reviewed in terms of (i) the main tenets of each theory, (ii) the implications of the theory for promoting change in addictive behaviours and (iii) studies in the field of addiction that have used the theory. An augmented feedback loop model based on Control Theory is used to organize the theories and to show how different interventions might achieve behaviour change. Briefly, each theory provided the following recommendations for intervention: Control Theory: prompt behavioural monitoring, Goal-Setting Theory: set specific and challenging goals, Model of Action Phases: form 'implementation intentions', Strength Model of Self-Control: bolster self-control resources, Social Cognition Models (Protection Motivation Theory, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Health Belief Model): modify relevant cognitions, Elaboration Likelihood Model: consider targets' motivation and ability to process information, Prototype Willingness Model: change perceptions of the prototypical person who engages in behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory: modify self-efficacy. There are a range of theories in the field of behaviour change that can be applied usefully to addiction, each one pointing to a different set of modifiable determinants and/or behaviour change techniques. Studies reporting interventions should describe theoretical basis, behaviour change techniques and mode of delivery accurately so that effective interventions can be understood and replicated. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. The emergence of complex behaviours in molecular magnetic materials.

    Goss, Karin; Gatteschi, Dante; Bogani, Lapo

    2014-09-14

    Molecular magnetism is considered an area where magnetic phenomena that are usually difficult to demonstrate can emerge with particular clarity. Over the years, however, less understandable systems have appeared in the literature of molecular magnetic materials, in some cases showing features that hint at the spontaneous emergence of global structures out of local interactions. This ingredient is typical of a wider class of problems, called complex behaviours, where the theory of complexity is currently being developed. In this perspective we wish to focus our attention on these systems and the underlying problematic that they highlight. We particularly highlight the emergence of the signatures of complexity in several molecular magnetic systems, which may provide unexplored opportunities for physical and chemical investigations.

  18. Neptunium speciation (complexation and redox behaviour) in aqueous citrate medium

    Bonin, L.; Ansoborlo, E.; Moisy, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the French Environmental Nuclear Toxicology programme, additional experiments related to the decorporation of actinides are planned. The lack of information on the neptunium behaviour within blood and the inefficiency of therapeutic treatments, led us to study the complexation of this element with basic anions. Within this purpose, the in vitro behaviour of Np IV and Np V in simple media simulating biological media was studied: blood plasma is one of the media of interest and it can be simulated, from a chemical point of view, by an aqueous solution with pH 7.4, containing ions such as citrate (1.6 10 -4 mol/L), lactate (1.5 10 -3 mol/L), CO 3 2- (2.5 10 -2 mol/L), PO 4 3- (1.1 10 -3 mol/L), SO 4 2- (3.3 10 -4 mol/L) and Cl - (9 10 -2 mol/L). This study was more specifically focused on the behaviour of neptunium with citrate ion, which is also a basic ligand to consider when one wishes to study the migration of actinides in the environment, since it exists in significant amounts in the ground due to its production by the plants. In order to determine the speciation of this system, spectrophotometry was more particularly used. Concerning the complexation phenomenon, the existence of several complexes of Np V with various acid-basic forms of the citrate anion was observed; regarding Np IV , two complexes, with 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometry, have been respectively observed. The reactivity of Np VI is probably similar to the behaviour of U VI , which is reported in literature to form a complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry with the Cit 3- anion From the quantitative study of these equilibria, it has been possible to determine the values of various equilibrium constants. Concerning the stability of neptunium towards oxido-reduction, it was confirmed that Np VI was very quickly reduced to Np V by the citrate anions, whereas Np IV was stable. In the case of Np V , it was observed that, depending on the pH and the citrate

  19. Collective behaviour, uncertainty and environmental change.

    Bentley, R Alexander; O'Brien, Michael J

    2015-11-28

    A central aspect of cultural evolutionary theory concerns how human groups respond to environmental change. Although we are painting with a broad brush, it is fair to say that prior to the twenty-first century, adaptation often happened gradually over multiple human generations, through a combination of individual and social learning, cumulative cultural evolution and demographic shifts. The result was a generally resilient and sustainable population. In the twenty-first century, however, considerable change happens within small portions of a human generation, on a vastly larger range of geographical and population scales and involving a greater degree of horizontal learning. As a way of gauging the complexity of societal response to environmental change in a globalized future, we discuss several theoretical tools for understanding how human groups adapt to uncertainty. We use our analysis to estimate the limits of predictability of future societal change, in the belief that knowing when to hedge bets is better than relying on a false sense of predictability. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change.

    Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika

    2011-08-01

    The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of

  1. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  2. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  3. Mechanisms of change in human behaviour

    Marchal, Paul; Bartelings, Heleen; Bastardie, François; Batsleer, Jurgen; Delaney, Alyne; Girardin, Raphael; Gloaguen, Pierre; Hamon, Katell; Hoefnagel, Ellen; Jouanneau, Charlène; Mahevas, Stephanie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Poos, Jan-jaap; Schulze, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this report is to present the science developed within the VECTORS project to improve the understanding of the key processes driving the behaviour of human agents utilising a variety of EU maritime domains. While particular attention has been paid to the spatial interactions between fishing activities and other human uses (e.g., maritime traffic, offshore wind parks, aggregate extractions), the behaviour of non-fishing sectors of activity has also been considered. Various quantit...

  4. Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change

    Kathryn van Boom

    Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change. While our knowledge about physical activity and health, physical performance and the risk of injury increases in leaps and bounds, the conversion of this information into action and changed behaviour lags behind. There seems to be a sticking point which often causes a ...

  5. Evolutionary learning processes as the foundation for behaviour change.

    Crutzen, Rik; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram

    2018-03-01

    We argue that the active ingredients of behaviour change interventions, often called behaviour change methods (BCMs) or techniques (BCTs), can usefully be placed on a dimension of psychological aggregation. We introduce evolutionary learning processes (ELPs) as fundamental building blocks that are on a lower level of psychological aggregation than BCMs/BCTs. A better understanding of ELPs is useful to select the appropriate BCMs/BCTs to target determinants of behaviour, or vice versa, to identify potential determinants targeted by a given BCM/BCT, and to optimally translate them into practical applications. Using these insights during intervention development may increase the likelihood of developing effective interventions - both in terms of behaviour change as well as maintenance of behaviour change.

  6. Neptunium speciation (complexation and redox behaviour) in aqueous citrate medium

    Bonin, L.; Ansoborlo, E.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Marcoule (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the French Environmental Nuclear Toxicology programme, additional experiments related to the decorporation of actinides are planned. The lack of information on the neptunium behaviour within blood and the inefficiency of therapeutic treatments, led us to study the complexation of this element with basic anions. Within this purpose, the in vitro behaviour of Np{sup IV} and Np{sup V} in simple media simulating biological media was studied: blood plasma is one of the media of interest and it can be simulated, from a chemical point of view, by an aqueous solution with pH 7.4, containing ions such as citrate (1.6 10{sup -4} mol/L), lactate (1.5 10{sup -3} mol/L), CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} (2.5 10{sup -2} mol/L), PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} (1.1 10{sup -3} mol/L), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (3.3 10{sup -4} mol/L) and Cl{sup -} (9 10{sup -2} mol/L). This study was more specifically focused on the behaviour of neptunium with citrate ion, which is also a basic ligand to consider when one wishes to study the migration of actinides in the environment, since it exists in significant amounts in the ground due to its production by the plants. In order to determine the speciation of this system, spectrophotometry was more particularly used. Concerning the complexation phenomenon, the existence of several complexes of Np{sup V} with various acid-basic forms of the citrate anion was observed; regarding Np{sup IV}, two complexes, with 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometry, have been respectively observed. The reactivity of Np{sup VI} is probably similar to the behaviour of U{sup VI}, which is reported in literature to form a complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry with the Cit{sup 3-}anion From the quantitative study of these equilibria, it has been possible to determine the values of various equilibrium constants. Concerning the stability of neptunium towards oxido-reduction, it was confirmed that Np{sup VI} was very quickly reduced to Np{sup V} by the citrate anions

  7. Behaviour and communication change in reducing HIV: is Uganda ...

    The basic elements - a continuum of communication, behaviour change and care - were integrated at community level. They were also strongly supported by distinctive Ugandan policies from the 1980s. We identify a similar, early behaviour and communication response in other situations where HIV has declined: Thailand, ...

  8. Which behaviours? Identifying the most common and burdensome behaviour changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Andrews, Sophie Claire; Pavlis, Alexia; Staios, Mathew; Fisher, Fiona

    2017-04-01

    Behaviour change is increasingly recognised as a common feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and may be similar to that seen in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The behaviours most disturbed in ALS, and those that relate most significantly to caregiver burden, however, have not been well established. Forty ALS participants and their caregivers, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls and their relatives, participated in this study. ALS participants were assessed on a disease rating scale, and caregivers and control informants completed the revised version of the Cambridge Behaviour Inventory and a measure of burden. ALS caregivers reported significantly more disturbance than healthy control informants on the functional domains of everyday skills, self-care, and sleep, and in the behavioural domains of mood and motivation. There were no differences between groups in frequency of memory and orientation difficulties, or behaviours characteristic of FTD, such as changes to eating habits or stereotypic and motor behaviour, indicating that the behavioural profile in ALS may differ from FTD. In the ALS group, the domains with the strongest relationship to caregiver burden were everyday skills, motivation and memory, likely because poor motivation, memory dysfunction and difficulties completing activities of daily living require more carer support via direct supervision, prompting or hands on care. Services to support ALS patients and caregivers need to provide targeted interventions for those functional and behavioural changes which are most burdensome in the disease.

  9. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public

  10. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability.

    Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda I J; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, B V; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled 'Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability'. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today's environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes - particularly in developing and emerging countries - imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public-private partnerships.

  11. Health Behaviour Change Through Computer Games: Characterising Interventions.

    Poultney, Nathan; Maeder, Anthony; Ginige, Jeewani Anupama

    2016-01-01

    Recently games in the form of video, computer, or mobile apps have been utilised as an effective component of interventions for health behaviour change. This paper provides an overview of related projects reported in peer-review literature in the period 2006 to 2016. Nine highly relevant references were considered for analysis. The findings are presented according to 3 dimensions of characterisation: health intention, behaviour change principle, and health purpose.

  12. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Fern?ndez, Mar?a E.; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters fo...

  13. Interactive Evolution of Complex Behaviours Through Skill Encapsulation

    González de Prado Salas, Pablo; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Human-based computation (HBC) is an emerging research area in which humans and machines collaborate to solve tasks that neither one can solve in isolation. In evolutionary computation, HBC is often realized through interactive evolutionary computation (IEC), in which a user guides evolution by it...... in evolutionary computation and, as the results in this paper show, IEC-ESP is able to solve complex control problems that are challenging for a traditional fitness-based approach.......Human-based computation (HBC) is an emerging research area in which humans and machines collaborate to solve tasks that neither one can solve in isolation. In evolutionary computation, HBC is often realized through interactive evolutionary computation (IEC), in which a user guides evolution...... by iteratively selecting the parents for the next generation. IEC has shown promise in a variety of different domains, but evolving more complex or hierarchically composed behaviours remains challenging with the traditional IEC approach. To overcome this challenge, this paper combines the recently introduced ESP...

  14. Explaining the food safety behaviours of food handlers using theories of behaviour change: a systematic review.

    Young, Ian; Thaivalappil, Abhinand; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Waddell, Lisa

    2018-06-01

    Theories of behaviour change can explain the factors affecting food handlers' use of food safety practices. A systematic review was conducted on this topic to identify which theories have been applied in this area and to determine which theories are the most consistent predictors of food handlers' behaviours. Standard systematic review procedures were followed: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; article characterization; data extraction; risk-of-bias assessment; and descriptive analysis. Among 19 relevant studies, the most commonly investigated theories were the Theory of Planned Behaviour (n = 9 studies) and Health Belief Model (n = 5). All investigated theories were useful to explain food handlers' behavioural intentions and behaviours related to food safety across different settings, and could serve as useful frameworks for future research and practice. However, there was wide variability in the predictive ability of the theories and their specific constructs, indicating theories should be adapted to the local context of application.

  15. Situating interventions to bridge the intention-behaviour gap: A framework for recruiting nonconscious processes for behaviour change

    Papies, Esther K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a situated cognition framework for creating social psychological interventions to bridge the intention–behaviour gap and illustrates this framework by reviewing examples from the domains of health behaviour, environmental behaviour, stereotyping, and aggression. A recurrent problem in behaviour change is the fact that often, intentions are not translated into behaviour, causing the so-called intention–behaviour gap. Here, it is argued that this happens when situational cue...

  16. Developmental origins, behaviour change and the new public health

    Barker, Mary

    2016-01-01

    A developmental approach to public health focuses attention on better nourishing girls and young women, especially those of low socio-economic status, to improve mothers’ nutrition and thereby the health of future generations. There have been significant advances in the behavioural sciences that may allow us to understand and support dietary change in young women and their children in ways that have not previously been possible. This paper describes some of these advances and aims to show how they inform this new approach to public health. The first of these has been to work out what is effective in supporting behaviour change which has been achieved by careful and detailed analysis of behaviour change techniques used by practitioners in intervention, and of the effectiveness of these in supporting change. There is also a new understanding of the role that social and physical environments play in shaping our behaviours, and that behaviour is influenced by automatic processes and ‘habits’ as much as by reflective processes and rational decisions. To be maximally effective, interventions therefore have to address both influences on behaviour. An approach developed in Southampton aims to motivate, support and empower young women to make better food choices, but also to change the culture in which those choices are being made. Empowerment is the basis of the new public health. An empowered public demand for better access to better food can go a long way towards improving maternal, infant and family nutrition, and therefore the health of generations to come. PMID:26152930

  17. Developmental origins, behaviour change and the new public health.

    Barker, M

    2015-10-01

    A developmental approach to public health focuses attention on better nourishing girls and young women, especially those of low socio-economic status, to improve mothers' nutrition and thereby the health of future generations. There have been significant advances in the behavioural sciences that may allow us to understand and support dietary change in young women and their children in ways that have not previously been possible. This paper describes some of these advances and aims to show how they inform this new approach to public health. The first of these has been to work out what is effective in supporting behaviour change, which has been achieved by careful and detailed analysis of behaviour change techniques used by practitioners in intervention, and of the effectiveness of these in supporting change. There is also a new understanding of the role that social and physical environments play in shaping our behaviours, and that behaviour is influenced by automatic processes and 'habits' as much as by reflective processes and rational decisions. To be maximally effective, interventions therefore have to address both influences on behaviour. An approach developed in Southampton aims to motivate, support and empower young women to make better food choices, but also to change the culture in which those choices are being made. Empowerment is the basis of the new public health. An empowered public demand for better access to better food can go a long way towards improving maternal, infant and family nutrition, and therefore the health of generations to come.

  18. Digital and social media opportunities for dietary behaviour change.

    McGloin, Aileen F; Eslami, Sara

    2015-05-01

    The way that people communicate, consume media and seek and receive information is changing. Forty per cent of the world's population now has an internet connection, the average global social media penetration is 39% and 1·5 billion people have internet access via mobile phone. This large-scale move in population use of digital, social and mobile media presents an unprecedented opportunity to connect with individuals on issues concerning health. The present paper aims to investigate these opportunities in relation to dietary behaviour change. Several aspects of the digital environment could support behaviour change efforts, including reach, engagement, research, segmentation, accessibility and potential to build credibility, trust, collaboration and advocacy. There are opportunities to influence behaviour online using similar techniques to traditional health promotion programmes; to positively affect health-related knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. The abundance of data on citizens' digital behaviours, whether through search behaviour, global positioning system tracking, or via demographics and interests captured through social media profiles, offer exciting opportunities for effectively targeting relevant health messages. The digital environment presents great possibilities but also great challenges. Digital communication is uncontrolled, multi-way and co-created and concerns remain in relation to inequalities, privacy, misinformation and lack of evaluation. Although web-based, social-media-based and mobile-based studies tend to show positive results for dietary behaviour change, methodologies have yet to be developed that go beyond basic evaluation criteria and move towards true measures of behaviour change. Novel approaches are necessary both in the digital promotion of behaviour change and in its measurement.

  19. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from soci...... systemically consider individuals’ engagement, including behavioural aspects, interaction with project teams and higher level business organisations.......This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from social...... sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to practice ecodesign. This original experience of green nudging in a private company context supported the diffusion...

  1. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from social sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to prac...

  2. Changing behaviour: successful environmental programmes in the workplace

    Young, CW; Davis, M; McNeill, IM; Malhotra, B; Russell, S; Unsworth, K; Clegg, CW

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on improving the pro-environmental attitudes, behaviour and habits of individuals whether at home, in education, traveling, shopping or in the workplace. This article focuses on the workplace by conducting a multi-disciplinary literature review of research that has examined the influence of organisation-based behaviour change initiatives. The review includes only research evidence that measured actual environmental performance (e.g. energy use) rather than solely ...

  3. Catalytic properties and dynamic behaviour of uranium complexes

    Le Marechal, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The catalytic properties of organometallic uranium III and IV compounds in solution as well as reaction mechanisms are studied. The structure in solution of CpUCl 3 L 2 (L=THF, HMPA, OPPh 3 , OP(OR) 3 ) is investigated. When L=HMPA, the complex exists in two isomers in equilibrium with the L ligands either in trans or mer-cis configuration. The isomerization (Ea=92 kJ mol -1 ) as well as the bimolecular exchange with an outer sphere ligand L are observable in 1 H and 31 P NMR, and quantified with the spin saturation transfer technique in several solvents and at different temperatures between 230 and 330 K. This property is extended to other ligands. The compound U(AlH 4 ) 3 is synthetized. This compound catalyses the hydroalumination of olefins by LiAlH 4 with a very good anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity. A simple mechanism for this reaction is suggested. The reactions of the organoaluminates products with several reactants (D 2 O, I 2 , CH 2 O, Allyl-Br...) has been shown to be a powerful synthetic tool. Some specific alkenes and alkynes exhibit an interesting behaviour as dimerization or β-alkyl elimination which is easily interpreted by our mechanism [fr

  4. Behaviour change techniques to change the postnatal eating and physical activity behaviours of women who are obese: a qualitative study.

    Smith, D M; Taylor, W; Lavender, T

    2016-01-01

    To explore the experiences of postnatal women who are obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ] in relation to making behaviour changes and use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Qualitative interview study. Greater Manchester, UK. Women who were 1 year postnatal aged ≥18 years, who had an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy, and an antenatal booking BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) . Eighteen semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were conducted by a research midwife with women who volunteered to be interviewed 1 year after taking part in a pilot randomised controlled trial. The six stages of thematic analysis were followed to understand the qualitative data. The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy (version 1) was used to label the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) reported by women. Themes derived from 1-year postnatal interview transcripts. Two themes were evident: 1. A focused approach to postnatal weight management: women reported making specific changes to their eating and physical activity behaviours, and 2. Need for support: six BCTs were reported as helping women make changes to their eating and physical activity behaviours; three were reported more frequently than others: Self-monitoring of behaviour (2.3), Prompts/cues (7.1) and Social support (unspecified; 3.1). All of the BCTs required support from others for their delivery; food diaries were the most popular delivery method. Behaviour change techniques are useful to postnatal women who are obese, and have the potential to improve their physical and mental wellbeing. Midwives and obstetricians should be aware of such techniques, to encourage positive changes. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  6. Surfing depth on a behaviour change website: predictors and effects on behaviour.

    Jacobs, Nele; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Claes, Neree

    2010-03-01

    The primary objectives of the present study were to gain insight into website use and to predict the surfing depth on a behaviour change website and its effect on behaviour. Two hundred eight highly educated adults from the intervention condition of a randomised trial received access to a medical intervention, individual coaching (by e-mail, post, telephone or face-to-face) and a behaviour change website. Website use (e.g. surfing depth, page view duration) was registered. Online questionnaires for physical activity and fat intake were filled out at baseline and after 6 months. Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict surfing depth and its effect on behaviour. Seventy-five per cent of the participants visited the website. Fifty-one and fifty-six per cent consulted the physical activity and fat intake feedback, respectively. The median surfing depth was 2. The total duration of interventions by e-mail predicted deeper surfing (beta=0.36; pSurfing depth did not predict changes in fat intake (beta=-0.07; p=0.45) or physical activity (beta=-0.03; p=0.72). Consulting the physical activity feedback led to more physical activity (beta=0.23; p=0.01). The findings from the present study can be used to guide future website development and improve the information architecture of behaviour change websites.

  7. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the ‘stages of change model’, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to ‘global good’, so-called ‘social marketing’, to improve ‘welfare of the individual and society’ is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement ‘antibiotic mainstreaming’ as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society. PMID:24735112

  8. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study.

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A

    2013-05-16

    Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of

  9. The Complexity of Leveraging University Program Change

    Crow, Gary M.; Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon; Reed, Cynthia J.; Shoho, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies four elements of complexity that influence how university educational leadership programs can leverage program change: faculty reward systems, faculty governance, institutional resources, and state-level influence on leadership preparation. Following the discussion of the elements of complexity, the article provides a…

  10. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy.

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-03-15

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showing direct effects of food allergic immune responses on social behaviour is very limited. In the present study, we show that a food allergic reaction to cow's milk protein, induced shortly after weaning, reduced social behaviour and increased repetitive behaviour in mice. This food allergic reaction increased levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the number of 5-HT positive cells, and decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the intestine. Behavioural changes in food allergic mice were accompanied by reduced dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal activation (c-Fos expression) was increased in the prefrontal cortex and reduced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus after exposure to a social target. We hypothesize that an intestinal allergic response regulates complex, but critical, neuroimmune interactions, thereby affecting brain circuits involved in social interaction, repetitive behaviour and cognition. Together with a genetic predisposition and multiple environmental factors, these effects of allergic immune activation may exacerbate behavioural abnormalities in patients with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interventions for sustained healthcare professional behaviour change: a protocol for an overview of reviews.

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Campbell, Pauline; Frost, Helen; Pollock, Alex; McLellan, Julie; MacGillivray, Steve; Gavine, Anna; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Carroll, Ronan; Cheyne, Helen; Presseau, Justin; Williams, Brian

    2016-10-13

    Failure to successfully implement and sustain change over the long term continues to be a major problem in health and social care. Translating evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously complex, and it is recognised that to implement new evidence-based interventions and sustain them over time, professional behaviour needs to change accordingly. A number of theories and frameworks have been developed to support behaviour change among health and social care professionals, and models of sustainability are emerging, but few have translated into valid and reliable interventions. The long-term success of healthcare professional behavioural change interventions is variable, and the characteristics of successful interventions unclear. Previous reviews have synthesised the evidence for behaviour change, but none have focused on sustainability. In addition, multiple overlapping reviews have reported inconsistent results, which do not aid translation of evidence into practice. Overviews of reviews can provide accessible succinct summaries of evidence and address barriers to evidence-based practice. We aim to compile an overview of reviews, identifying, appraising and synthesising evidence relating to sustained social and healthcare professional behaviour change. We will conduct a systematic review of Cochrane reviews (an Overview). We plan to systematically search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We will include all systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials comparing a healthcare professional targeted behaviour change intervention to a standard care or no intervention control group. Two reviewers will independently assess the eligibility of the reviews and the methodological quality of included reviews using the ROBIS tool. The quality of evidence within each comparison in each review will be judged based on the GRADE criteria. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion. Effects of interventions will be systematically tabulated and the

  12. Behavioural, Haematological and Histopathological Changes in the ...

    Prof. Ogunji

    28.8°C to 29.4°C and the pH varied between. 7.4 and 7.9. ... pH. 7.7±0.1. 7.6±0.2. 7.5±0.3. 7.4±0.3. Conductivity (µS/cm). 688±5. 802±12. 811±10. 845±12. Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L). 6.8±0.2. 3.0±0.3. 2.5±0.5. 2.0±0.8. TDS (mg/L) ... Table 2. Changes in level of PVC, WBC, RBC and Hb of C. gariepinus exposed to different.

  13. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-09

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research.

    DeCosta, Patricia; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating behaviour. The authors recommend future research to examine how taste and palatability can positively affect children's attitudes and eating behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Health behaviour change interventions for couples: A systematic review.

    Arden-Close, Emily; McGrath, Nuala

    2017-05-01

    Partners are a significant influence on individuals' health, and concordance in health behaviours increases over time in couples. Several theories suggest that couple-focused interventions for health behaviour change may therefore be more effective than individual interventions. A systematic review of health behaviour change interventions for couples was conducted. Systematic search methods identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized interventions of health behaviour change for couples with at least one member at risk of a chronic physical illness, published from 1990-2014. We identified 14 studies, targeting the following health behaviours: cancer prevention (6), obesity (1), diet (2), smoking in pregnancy (2), physical activity (1) and multiple health behaviours (2). In four out of seven trials couple-focused interventions were more effective than usual care. Of four RCTs comparing a couple-focused intervention to an individual intervention, two found that the couple-focused intervention was more effective. The studies were heterogeneous, and included participants at risk of a variety of illnesses. In many cases the intervention was compared to usual care for an individual or an individual-focused intervention, which meant the impact of the couplebased content could not be isolated. Three arm studies could determine whether any added benefits of couple-focused interventions are due to adding the partner or specific content of couple-focused interventions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Health behaviours and health behaviour change are more often concordant across couples than between individuals in the general population. Couple-focused interventions for chronic conditions are more effective than individual interventions or usual care (Martire, Schulz, Helgeson, Small, & Saghafi, ). What does this study add? Identified studies targeted a variety of health behaviours, with few studies in any one area. Further

  16. Appropriate complexity for the prediction of coastal and estuarine geomorphic behaviour at decadal to centennial scales

    French, Jon; Payo, Andres; Murray, Brad; Orford, Julian; Eliot, Matt; Cowell, Peter

    2016-03-01

    a reduced complexity model and the term itself is both misleading and, arguably, unhelpful. Accordingly, we synthesise a set of requirements for what might be termed 'appropriate complexity modelling' of quantitative coastal morphological change at scales commensurate with contemporary management and policy-making requirements: 1) The system being studied must be bounded with reference to the time and space scales at which behaviours of interest emerge and/or scientific or management problems arise; 2) model complexity and comprehensiveness must be appropriate to the problem at hand; 3) modellers should seek a priori insights into what kind of behaviours are likely to be evident at the scale of interest and the extent to which the behavioural validity of a model may be constrained by its underlying assumptions and its comprehensiveness; 4) informed by qualitative insights into likely dynamic behaviour, models should then be formulated with a view to resolving critical state changes; and 5) meso-scale modelling of coastal morphological change should reflect critically on the role of modelling and its relation to the observable world.

  17. Changes in mental state and behaviour in Huntington's disease.

    Eddy, Clare M; Parkinson, Ellice G; Rickards, Hugh E

    2016-11-01

    Changes in mental state and behaviour have been acknowledged in Huntington's disease since the original monograph in 1872 provided evidence of disinhibition and impaired social cognition. Behavioural problems can manifest before obvious motor symptoms and are frequently the most disabling part of the illness. Although pharmacological treatments are used routinely for psychiatric difficulties in Huntington's disease, the scientific evidence base for their use is somewhat sparse. Moreover, effective treatments for apathy and cognitive decline do not currently exist. Understanding the social cognitive impairments associated with Huntington's disease can assist management, but related therapeutic interventions are needed. Future research should aim to design rating scales for behaviour and mental state in Huntington's disease that can detect change in clinical trials. Generally, communication and understanding of behaviour and mental state in Huntington's would be enhanced by a clear conceptual framework that unifies ideas around movement, cognition, emotion, behaviour, and mental state, reflecting both the experience of the patient and their underlying neuropathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changing dietary behaviour: the role and development of practitioner communication.

    Whitehead, Kirsten

    2015-05-01

    The need to support people to change diet-related behaviour is widely advocated and how to do this effectively in practice is an expanding area of research. Important factors to consider are how healthcare practitioners communicate with their patients and how that communication may affect diet-related behaviour change and subsequent outcomes. The aim of the present paper is to discuss communication skills for behaviour change (CSBC), focusing predominantly on registered dietitians who are required to communicate effectively and have an important role in supporting patients to change diet-related behaviour. The views of dietitians in relation to CSBC have been investigated and respondents have consistently reported that they perceive these skills to be of vital importance in practice. Patient views have reiterated the importance of good CSBC in one-to-one consultations. However, pre-qualification training of dietitians is thought to deliver practitioners who are competent at a minimum level. The need for ongoing continuous professional development (CPD) in relation to CSBC has been recognised but currently most CPD focuses on updating knowledge rather than improving these essential skills. Measuring CSBC in a consistent and objective manner is difficult and an assessment tool, DIET-COMMS, has been developed and validated for this purpose. DIET-COMMS can be used to support CSBC development, but concerns about logistical challenges and acceptability of implementing this in practice have been raised. Although a suitable assessment tool now exists there is a need to develop ways to facilitate assessment of CSBC in practice.

  19. Environmental Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One aim of environmental education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their environmental behaviour; this is particularly significant with environmental problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global warming. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…

  20. Divergent pheromone-mediated insect behaviour under global atmospheric change

    Edward B. Mondor; Michelle N. Tremblay; Caroline S. Awmack; Richard L. Lindroth

    2004-01-01

    While the effects of global atmospheric changes on vegetation and resulting insect populations('bottom-up interactions') are being increasingly studied, how these gases modify interactions among insects and their natural enemies ('top-down interactions') is less clear. As natural enemy efficacy is governed largely by behavioural mechanisms, altered...

  1. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  2. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Kozica, Samantha; Lombard, Catherine; Teede, Helena; Ilic, Dragan; Murphy, Kerry; Harrison, Cheryce

    2015-01-01

    Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis. A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649) that participated in the prevention trial. Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i) no change, (ii) relapse, (iii) intermittent and (iv) continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress. Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex process. Our

  3. Corrosion behaviours of the dental magnetic keeper complexes made by different alloys and methods.

    Wu, Min-Ke; Song, Ning; Liu, Fei; Kou, Liang; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Min; Wang, Hang; Shen, Jie-Fei

    2016-09-29

    The keeper and cast dowel-coping, as a primary component for a magnetic attachment, is easily subjected to corrosion in a wet environment, such as the oral cavity, which contains electrolyte-rich saliva, complex microflora and chewing behaviour and so on. The objective of this in vitro study was to examine the corrosion resistance of a dowel and coping-keeper complex fabricated by finish keeper and three alloys (cobalt-chromium, CoCr; silver-palladium-gold, PdAu; gold-platinum, AuPt) using a laser-welding process and a casting technique. The surface morphology characteristics and microstructures of the samples were examined by means of metallographic microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) with SEM provided elements analysis information for the test samples after 10% oxalic acid solution etching test. Tafel polarization curve recordings demonstrated parameter values indicating corrosion of the samples when subjected to electrochemical testing. This study has suggested that massive oxides are attached to the surface of the CoCr-keeper complex but not to the AuPt-keeper complex. Only the keeper area of cast CoCr-keeper complex displayed obvious intergranular corrosion and changes in the Fe and Co elements. Both cast and laser-welded AuPt-keeper complexes had the highest free corrosion potential, followed by the PdAu-keeper complex. We concluded that although the corrosion resistance of the CoCr-keeper complex was worst, the keeper surface passive film was actually preserved to its maximum extent. The laser-welded CoCr- and PdAu-keeper complexes possessed superior corrosion resistance as compared with their cast specimens, but no significant difference was found between the cast and laser-welded AuPt-keeper complexes. The Fe-poor and Cr-rich band, appearing on the edge of the keeper when casting, has been proven to be a corrosion-prone area.

  4. From Climate Change Awareness to Energy Efficient Behaviour

    Niamir, Leila; Filatova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and predicting how climate will change, and whether and how a transition to low-carbon economies will develop over the next century is of vital importance. Nowadays there is high competition between countries to achieve a low-carbon economy. They are examining different ways e.g. different energy efficient technologies and low-carbon energy sources, however they believe that human choices and behavioural change has a crucial impact, which is many times discussed in the literatur...

  5. Combining energy, comfort and health data for behavioural change

    Fabi, Valentina; Barthelmes, Verena M.; Kingma, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and gaining insights on occupant behaviour requires a multidisciplinary approach and involvement of various scientific expertise. By bringing together the necessary scientific expertise a step forward can be made in understanding how the occupants behave, how they can be motivated......, and how to stimulate them to change their behaviour based on targeted feedback and guidance. Finally, users could be provided of confidence of choosing the right thing and making the right decisions concerning energy, comfort and health. This paper presents a research project funded on the framework...

  6. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  7. Complexity in Climate Change Manipulation Experiments

    Kreyling, Juergen; Beier, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Climate change goes beyond gradual changes in mean conditions. It involves increased variability in climatic drivers and increased frequency and intensity of extreme events. Climate manipulation experiments are one major tool to explore the ecological impacts of climate change. Until now...... variability in temperature are ecologically important. Embracing complexity in future climate change experiments in general is therefore crucial......., precipitation experiments have dealt with temporal variability or extreme events, such as drought, resulting in a multitude of approaches and scenarios with limited comparability among studies. Temperature manipulations have mainly been focused only on warming, resulting in better comparability among studies...

  8. Efficacy of behavioural interventions for transport behaviour change: systematic review, meta-analysis and intervention coding.

    Arnott, Bronia; Rehackova, Lucia; Errington, Linda; Sniehotta, Falko F; Roberts, Jennifer; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2014-11-28

    of a combination of information provision and behavioural regulation techniques. There was a lack of consideration of opportunity for change and behaviour in context. There is no evidence for the efficacy of existing behavioural interventions to reduce car trips included in this review. The evidence for efficacy of behavioural interventions to decrease distance and duration of car journeys is limited and inconclusive. Overall the evidence is highly heterogeneous and is at considerable risk of bias. Future research should investigate alternative behavioural interventions in high quality, controlled studies informed by existing evidence, theory, and viewers of potential users. Future intervention studies should increase scientific rigour, include objective outcome measures, and incorporate thorough evaluations as standard.

  9. Predictive ethoinformatics reveals the complex migratory behaviour of a pelagic seabird, the Manx Shearwater

    Freeman, Robin; Dean, Ben; Kirk, Holly; Leonard, Kerry; Phillips, Richard A.; Perrins, Chris M.; Guilford, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of animals in the wild is fundamental to conservation efforts. Advances in bio-logging technologies have offered insights into the behaviour of animals during foraging, migration and social interaction. However, broader application of these systems has been limited by device mass, cost and longevity. Here, we use information from multiple logger types to predict individual behaviour in a highly pelagic, migratory seabird, the Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). Using behavioural states resolved from GPS tracking of foraging during the breeding season, we demonstrate that individual behaviours can be accurately predicted during multi-year migrations from low cost, lightweight, salt-water immersion devices. This reveals a complex pattern of migratory stopovers: some involving high proportions of foraging, and others of rest behaviour. We use this technique to examine three consecutive years of global migrations, revealing the prominence of foraging behaviour during migration and the importance of highly productive waters during migratory stopover. PMID:23635496

  10. The transnational regime complex for climate change

    Kenneth W Abbott

    2012-01-01

    In climate change, as in other areas, recent years have produced a ‘Cambrian explosion’ of transnational institutions, standards, financing arrangements, and programs. As a result, climate governance has become complex, fragmented, and decentralized, operating without central coordination. Most studies of climate governance focus on inter­state institutions. In contrast, I map a different realm of climate change governance: the diverse array of transnational schemes. I analyze this emerging s...

  11. Complex partial seizure, disruptive behaviours and the Nigerian ...

    Background: Complex partial seizure is an epileptic seizure which results in impairment of responsiveness or awareness such as altered level of consciousness. Complex partial seizures are often preceded by an aura such as depersonalization, feelings of de javu, jamais vu and fear. The ictal phase of complex partial ...

  12. Pleiotropy constrains the evolution of protein but not regulatory sequences in a transcription regulatory network influencing complex social behaviours

    Daria eMolodtsova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly apparent that genes and networks that influence complex behaviour are evolutionary conserved, which is paradoxical considering that behaviour is labile over evolutionary timescales. How does adaptive change in behaviour arise if behaviour is controlled by conserved, pleiotropic, and likely evolutionary constrained genes? Pleiotropy and connectedness are known to constrain the general rate of protein evolution, prompting some to suggest that the evolution of complex traits, including behaviour, is fuelled by regulatory sequence evolution. However, we seldom have data on the strength of selection on mutations in coding and regulatory sequences, and this hinders our ability to study how pleiotropy influences coding and regulatory sequence evolution. Here we use population genomics to estimate the strength of selection on coding and regulatory mutations for a transcriptional regulatory network that influences complex behaviour of honey bees. We found that replacement mutations in highly connected transcription factors and target genes experience significantly stronger negative selection relative to weakly connected transcription factors and targets. Adaptively evolving proteins were significantly more likely to reside at the periphery of the regulatory network, while proteins with signs of negative selection were near the core of the network. Interestingly, connectedness and network structure had minimal influence on the strength of selection on putative regulatory sequences for both transcription factors and their targets. Our study indicates that adaptive evolution of complex behaviour can arise because of positive selection on protein-coding mutations in peripheral genes, and on regulatory sequence mutations in both transcription factors and their targets throughout the network.

  13. Understanding social behaviour with the help of complexity science (Invited article)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    In the study of complexity, a new kind of explanation has been developed for social behaviour. It shows how patterns of social behaviour can arise as a side-effect of the interaction of individuals with their social or physical environment (e.g. by self-organization). This development may influence

  14. Knowing your genes: does this impact behaviour change?

    O'Donovan, Clare B; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2017-08-01

    It is postulated that knowledge of genotype may be more powerful than other types of personalised information in terms of motivating behaviour change. However, there is also a danger that disclosure of genetic risk may promote a fatalistic attitude and demotivate individuals. The original concept of personalised nutrition (PN) focused on genotype-based tailored dietary advice; however, PN can also be delivered based on assessment of dietary intake and phenotypic measures. Whilst dietitians currently provide PN advice based on diet and phenotype, genotype-based PN advice is not so readily available. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for genotype-based personalised information on motivating behaviour change, and factors which may affect the impact of genotype-based personalised advice. Recent findings in PN will also be discussed, with respect to a large European study, Food4Me, which investigated the impact of varying levels of PN advice on motivating behaviour change. The researchers reported that PN advice resulted in greater dietary changes compared with general healthy eating advice, but no additional benefit was observed for PN advice based on phenotype and genotype information. Within Food4Me, work from our group revealed that knowledge of MTHFR genotype did not significantly improve intakes of dietary folate. In general, evidence is weak with regard to genotype-based PN advice. For future work, studies should test the impact of PN advice developed on a strong nutrigenetic evidence base, ensure an appropriate study design for the research question asked, and incorporate behaviour change techniques into the intervention.

  15. Motivational processes associated with unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviours.

    Mussap, Alexander J

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between approach-avoidance motivational processes and unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviours was investigated. Self-reported sensitivity to rewards (SR) and sensitivity to punishments (SP) were measured for a convenience sample of 130 women, aged 18 to 40 years, along with measures of disordered eating symptomatology and exercise dependence. Together, SR and SP significantly predicted variance in drive for thinness (21%), bulimia (17%), and obligatory exercise (7%). These relationships were partly mediated by internalization of the thin ideal, body comparison, and subjective importance of achieving one's 'ideal' body and of avoiding one's 'worst possible' body. Interestingly, body dissatisfaction partly mediated the relationships involving SP but not SR. The results suggest that an underlying sensitivity to punishments, but not rewards, can manifest as a 'fear of fatness'. Both of these motivational traits can increase the salience of self evaluations, and thus indirectly contribute to unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviours.

  16. Health Behaviour Change Support Systems: Past Research and Future Challenges

    Mettler, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of mobile devices and social technologies has opened up new possibilities for health promotion and disease prevention. By means of emotional stimuli, motivation, and persuasion health behaviour change support systems (HBCSS) aim at influencing users to improve their health and wellbeing. This article presents the results of a bibliometric analysis related to the existing HBCSS body of knowledge. A total of 51 research studies were analysed with a look at their topical and theore...

  17. "Behaviour changes in Permethrin-resistant strain of Anopheles Stephensi "

    Vatandoost H

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour studies indicated that the permethrin resistant strin of An. Stephensi was 3-fold resistant to knock-down compared with the susceptible strain. The resistant strain was however 3-fold less irritable to permethrin and less responsive than the susceptible strain to the movement of an aspirator. If reduced irritability and reduced responsiveness to catch are consequences of the changes in the nervous system, then such a form of resistance may be disadvantageous to mosquitoes in natural populations.

  18. Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take?

    Barbu, A.-D. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Griffiths, N.; Morton, G. [Ricardo-AEA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    On October 2012, the European Union adopted the Energy Efficiency Directive in reaction to the fact that EU Member States were not on track to reduce primary energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. The implementation of this directive, and other policies that have been adopted in recent years, will require a change in consumer behaviour and energy consumption practices. Within this context, and related to on-going debates on the same subject, a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report argues that correctly navigating the interface between policymaking and human behaviour is key to achieving sustained reductions in energy consumption. As such, the report provides timely and reliable information and analysis to those involved in designing policy measures to reduce energy consumption which target the end consumer. A growing body of evidence in academic literature demonstrates that there is potential for energy savings due to measures targeting behaviour. There is, however, one issue that has not been covered by previous studies, and which the EEA report directly addresses, namely the distinction between consumer behaviour and consumption practices. Most recent academic literature argues that it is the consumption practices themselves that need careful scrutiny as they tend to lock consumers into patterns that are more and more energy intensive and they involve a wide range of actors. From the energy efficiency policy design perspective, this is relevant because these actors need to be involved from the outset of the policy process. The report also argues that a whole range of changes need to take place in the way energy markets function and are regulated in order to enable the consumer to actively engage with these markets. The report however does not include a discussion on the socio-economic implications of these structural changes. During 2013, the EEA will launch a survey via social media and its own website to follow up on conclusions of the report. The aim will

  19. Managing Complexity and Change in SMEs

    Managing Complexity new and Change in SMEs Frontiers in European ResearchThe process of founding new enterprises and making them grow and prosper is a far more convoluted undertaking than it was just a few decades ago. This book explores the complexity faced by today's entrepreneurs. Institutional...... boundaries, evolutionary perspectives and the intricacies of management are the central themes in this study of entrepreneurs and SMEs in a world marked by major transitions. While mainstream research enhances our understanding of the dynamics of the entrepreneurial process, this book progresses the research...

  20. Functional coordination of muscles underlying changes in behavioural dynamics.

    Vernooij, Carlijn A; Rao, Guillaume; Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2016-06-10

    The dynamical systems approach addresses Bernstein's degrees of freedom problem by assuming that the neuro-musculo-skeletal system transiently assembles and dismantles its components into functional units (or synergies) to meet task demands. Strikingly, little is known from a dynamical point of view about the functioning of the muscular sub-system in this process. To investigate the interaction between the dynamical organisation at muscular and behavioural levels, we searched for specific signatures of a phase transition in muscular coordination when a transition is displayed at the behavioural level. Our results provide evidence that, during Fitts' task when behaviour switches to a different dynamical regime, muscular activation displays typical signatures of a phase transition; a reorganisation in muscular coordination patterns accompanied by a peak in the variability of muscle activation. This suggests that consistent changes occur in coordination processes across the different levels of description (i.e., behaviour and muscles). Specifically, in Fitts' task, target size acts as a control parameter that induces a destabilisation and a reorganisation of coordination patterns at different levels of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system.

  1. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  2. Signalling changes to individuals who show resistance to change can reduce challenging behaviour.

    Bull, Leah E; Oliver, Chris; Woodcock, Kate A

    2017-03-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with resistance to change and challenging behaviours - including temper outbursts - that ensue following changes to routines, plans or expectations (here, collectively: expectations). Here, a change signalling intervention was tested for proof of concept and potential practical effectiveness. Twelve individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome participated in researcher- and caregiver-led pairing of a distinctive visual-verbal signal with subsequent changes to expectations. Specific expectations for a planned subset of five participants were systematically observed in minimally manipulated natural environments. Nine caregivers completed a temper outburst diary during a four week baseline period and a two week signalling evaluation period. Participants demonstrated consistently less temper outburst behaviour in the systematic observations when changes imposed to expectations were signalled, compared to when changes were not signalled. Four of the nine participants whose caregivers completed the behaviour diary demonstrated reliable reductions in temper outbursts between baseline and signalling evaluation. An active control group for the present initial evaluation of the signalling strategy using evidence from caregiver behaviour diaries was outside the scope of the present pilot study. Thus, findings cannot support the clinical efficacy of the present signalling approach. Proof of concept evidence that reliable pairing of a distinctive cue with a subsequent change to expectation can reduce associated challenging behaviour is provided. Data provide additional support for the importance of specific practical steps in further evaluations of the change signalling approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of writing and erasing behaviours in phase change materials

    Hyot, B. E-mail: bhyot@cea.fr; Poupinet, L.; Gehanno, V.; Desre, P.J

    2002-09-01

    An understanding of the process involved in writing and erasing of phase-change optical recording media is vital to the development of new, and the improvement of existing, products. The present work investigates both experimental and theoretical laser-induced fast structural transformations of GeSbTe thin films. Optical and microstructural changes are correlated using both a static tester and transmission electron microscopy. In the second part of this paper we try to elucidate the physics underlying the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation under short-pulse laser excitation. Both thermal and thermodynamical behaviours must be taken into account to illustrate real processes.

  4. Analysis of writing and erasing behaviours in phase change materials

    Hyot, B.; Poupinet, L.; Gehanno, V.; Desre, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    An understanding of the process involved in writing and erasing of phase-change optical recording media is vital to the development of new, and the improvement of existing, products. The present work investigates both experimental and theoretical laser-induced fast structural transformations of GeSbTe thin films. Optical and microstructural changes are correlated using both a static tester and transmission electron microscopy. In the second part of this paper we try to elucidate the physics underlying the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation under short-pulse laser excitation. Both thermal and thermodynamical behaviours must be taken into account to illustrate real processes

  5. Inspiring Sustainable Behaviour 19 Ways to Ask for Change

    Payne, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    What is the answer to inspiring sustainable behaviour? It starts with a question - or nineteen. With this simple and inspiring guide you'll learn how to ask for persistent, pervasive, and near-costless change by uncovering our hidden quirks, judgmental biases, and apparent irrationalities.  The only change you'll need to make is how you ask.Businesses, larger or small, will soon have to cut costs and cut carbon, irrespective of the products they sell, or the services they perform. National government has structural policy and legislative needs, and local government has implementation and docum

  6. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  7. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina; Candolin, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies...... is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females...... evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection....

  8. A STUDY OF THE CHANGING CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANISED RETAILING IN LUCKNOW CITY

    Dr Zubair Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    The major factor of consumer behaviour in organised retailing is the changing buying behaviour. Various management thinkers have conducted several studies to understand the relationship of buying behaviour and organised retailing. Consumer behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. (L.G. Schiffman, L.L. Kanuk, 2005). Consumer buying behaviour ...

  9. Nudge or not: can incentives change health behaviours?

    Ries, Nola M

    2012-01-01

    The approach of "nudging" people toward healthier behaviours is currently in vogue, and user financial incentives (UFIs) are one possible nudge tool. Interesting debates arise as to the criteria UFIs must meet to qualify as a nudge. The more pressing issue, however, is to determine how UFIs can be structured and implemented to motivate and sustain health behaviour change. To date, Canadian public health strategies to promote physical activity and balanced nutrition focus mainly on information provision, with some product regulation measures and indirect financial incentives. Governments cannot afford direct UFI programs to incent all 60% of overweight and obese Canadians to reduce their body mass, but governments could consider UFIs targeted to specific risk groups where a shorter-term intervention could have long-term payoffs.

  10. Behaviour change in overweight and obese pregnancy: a decision tree to support the development of antenatal lifestyle interventions.

    Ainscough, Kate M; Lindsay, Karen L; O'Sullivan, Elizabeth J; Gibney, Eileen R; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2017-10-01

    Antenatal healthy lifestyle interventions are frequently implemented in overweight and obese pregnancy, yet there is inconsistent reporting of the behaviour-change methods and behavioural outcomes. This limits our understanding of how and why such interventions were successful or not. The current paper discusses the application of behaviour-change theories and techniques within complex lifestyle interventions in overweight and obese pregnancy. The authors propose a decision tree to help guide researchers through intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The implications for adopting behaviour-change theories and techniques, and using appropriate guidance when constructing and evaluating interventions in research and clinical practice are also discussed. To enhance the evidence base for successful behaviour-change interventions during pregnancy, adoption of behaviour-change theories and techniques, and use of published guidelines when designing lifestyle interventions are necessary. The proposed decision tree may be a useful guide for researchers working to develop effective behaviour-change interventions in clinical settings. This guide directs researchers towards key literature sources that will be important in each stage of study development.

  11. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  12. Development of a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in individual behavioural support for smoking cessation.

    Michie, Susan; Hyder, Natasha; Walia, Asha; West, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Individual behavioural support for smoking cessation is effective but little is known about the 'active ingredients'. As a first step to establishing this, it is essential to have a consistent terminology for specifying intervention content. This study aimed to develop for the first time a reliable taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used within individual behavioural support for smoking cessation. Two source documents describing recommended practice were identified and analysed by two coders into component BCTs. The resulting taxonomy of BCTs was applied to 43 treatment manuals obtained from the English Stop Smoking Services (SSSs). In the first 28 of these, pairs of coders applied the taxonomy independently and inter-coder reliability was assessed. The BCTs were also categorised by two coders according to their main function and inter-coder reliability for this was assessed. Forty-three BCTs were identified which could be classified into four functions: 1) directly addressing motivation e.g. providing rewards contingent on abstinence, 2) maximising self-regulatory capacity or skills e.g. facilitating barrier identification and problem solving, 3) promoting adjuvant activities e.g. advising on stop-smoking medication, and 4) supporting other BCTs e.g. building general rapport. Percentage agreement in identifying BCTs and of categorising BCTs into their functions ranged from 86% to 95% and discrepancies were readily resolved through discussion. It is possible to develop a reliable taxonomy of BCTs used in behavioural support for smoking cessation which can provide a starting point for investigating the association between intervention content and outcome and can form a basis for determining competences required to undertake the role of stop smoking specialist. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal behaviour of zinc(II) 5-chlorosalicylate complex compounds

    Györyová, K.; Chomič, J.; Kovářová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2005), s. 375-380 ISSN 1388-6150 Grant - others:Slovak Ministry of Education(SK) VEGA 1/2474/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : caffeine * chlorosalicylate complexes * nicotinamide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.425, year: 2005

  14. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs, however, few apps appear to apply the techniques systematically or to define the BCTs they include. Aim: We aimed a to assess the number apps that incorporate gamification to modify health behaviors, b to examine the BCT repertoire and combinations used in these apps c to consider associations with user satisfaction. Methods: English-language health apps that contain gamification techniques were identified through a systematic search of the official Apple and Google Play store and the NHS health apps library. Top rated free and paid Medical, Health & Wellness, Health & Fitness apps as defined by Apple and Google Play stores were searched. Apps were coded for BCTs according to the Michie et al. taxonomy. The taxonomy comprises 16 categories and 93 individual BCTs. BCT coding was conducted by two trained researchers (EE, JL who scored independently and then cross-checked for discrepancies. BCT numbers, user ratings and app pricing were compared. We explored the association between number of BCTs per app, user and NHS libraries’ ratings and price. We also investigated, which of the 16 BCT categories and the individual 93 BCTs and their combinations were most commonly used. Results: 1,680 Medical, Health & Wellness or Health & Fitness Apps were reviewed and seventy containing gamification techniques were identified. The mean number of BCTs used was 12.5 (range 1-24. There was no correlation between number of BCTs, customer ratings, NHS library app rating or

  15. Response of Two Mytilids to a Heatwave: The Complex Interplay of Physiology, Behaviour and Ecological Interactions.

    Celia Olabarria

    Full Text Available Different combinations of behavioural and physiological responses may play a crucial role in the ecological success of species, notably in the context of biological invasions. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis has successfully colonised the inner part of the Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain, where it co-occurs with the commercially-important mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study investigated the effect of a heatwave on the physiological and behavioural responses in monospecific or mixed aggregations of these species. In a mesocosm experiment, mussels were exposed to simulated tidal cycles and similar temperature conditions to those experienced in the field during a heat-wave that occurred in the summer of 2013, when field robo-mussels registered temperatures up to 44.5°C at low tide. The overall responses to stress differed markedly between the two species. In monospecific aggregations M. galloprovincialis was more vulnerable than X. securis to heat exposure during emersion. However, in mixed aggregations, the presence of the invader was associated with lower mortality in M. galloprovincialis. The greater sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis to heat exposure was reflected in a higher mortality level, greater induction of Hsp70 protein and higher rates of respiration and gaping activity, which were accompanied by a lower heart rate (bradycardia. The findings show that the invader enhanced the physiological performance of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the importance of species interactions in regulating responses to environmental stress. Understanding the complex interactions between ecological factors and physiological and behavioural responses of closely-related species is essential for predicting the impacts of invasions in the context of future climate change.

  16. Response of Two Mytilids to a Heatwave: The Complex Interplay of Physiology, Behaviour and Ecological Interactions.

    Olabarria, Celia; Gestoso, Ignacio; Lima, Fernando P; Vázquez, Elsa; Comeau, Luc A; Gomes, Filipa; Seabra, Rui; Babarro, José M F

    2016-01-01

    Different combinations of behavioural and physiological responses may play a crucial role in the ecological success of species, notably in the context of biological invasions. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis has successfully colonised the inner part of the Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain), where it co-occurs with the commercially-important mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study investigated the effect of a heatwave on the physiological and behavioural responses in monospecific or mixed aggregations of these species. In a mesocosm experiment, mussels were exposed to simulated tidal cycles and similar temperature conditions to those experienced in the field during a heat-wave that occurred in the summer of 2013, when field robo-mussels registered temperatures up to 44.5°C at low tide. The overall responses to stress differed markedly between the two species. In monospecific aggregations M. galloprovincialis was more vulnerable than X. securis to heat exposure during emersion. However, in mixed aggregations, the presence of the invader was associated with lower mortality in M. galloprovincialis. The greater sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis to heat exposure was reflected in a higher mortality level, greater induction of Hsp70 protein and higher rates of respiration and gaping activity, which were accompanied by a lower heart rate (bradycardia). The findings show that the invader enhanced the physiological performance of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the importance of species interactions in regulating responses to environmental stress. Understanding the complex interactions between ecological factors and physiological and behavioural responses of closely-related species is essential for predicting the impacts of invasions in the context of future climate change.

  17. Conceptualising engagement with digital behaviour change interventions: a systematic review using principles from critical interpretive synthesis.

    Perski, Olga; Blandford, Ann; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2017-06-01

    "Engagement" with digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) is considered important for their effectiveness. Evaluating engagement is therefore a priority; however, a shared understanding of how to usefully conceptualise engagement is lacking. This review aimed to synthesise literature on engagement to identify key conceptualisations and to develop an integrative conceptual framework involving potential direct and indirect influences on engagement and relationships between engagement and intervention effectiveness. Four electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect) were searched in November 2015. We identified 117 articles that met the inclusion criteria: studies employing experimental or non-experimental designs with adult participants explicitly or implicitly referring to engagement with DBCIs, digital games or technology. Data were synthesised using principles from critical interpretive synthesis. Engagement with DBCIs is conceptualised in terms of both experiential and behavioural aspects. A conceptual framework is proposed in which engagement with a DBCI is influenced by the DBCI itself (content and delivery), the context (the setting in which the DBCI is used and the population using it) and the behaviour that the DBCI is targeting. The context and "mechanisms of action" may moderate the influence of the DBCI on engagement. Engagement, in turn, moderates the influence of the DBCI on those mechanisms of action. In the research literature, engagement with DBCIs has been conceptualised in terms of both experience and behaviour and sits within a complex system involving the DBCI, the context of use, the mechanisms of action of the DBCI and the target behaviour.

  18. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in…

  19. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research

    DeCosta, Patricia Enebær Irene; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2017-01-01

    programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear...... to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating...

  20. Complex behaviour and predictability of the European dry spell regimes

    X. Lana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex spatial and temporal characteristics of European dry spell lengths, DSL, (sequences of consecutive days with rainfall amount below a certain threshold and their randomness and predictive instability are analysed from daily pluviometric series recorded at 267 rain gauges along the second half of the 20th century. DSL are obtained by considering four thresholds, R0, of 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mm/day. A proper quantification of the complexity, randomness and predictive instability of the different DSL regimes in Europe is achieved on the basis of fractal analyses and dynamic system theory, including the reconstruction theorem. First, the concept of lacunarity is applied to the series of daily rainfall, and the lacunarity curves are well fitted to Cantor and random Cantor sets. Second, the rescaled analysis reveals that randomness, persistence and anti-persistence are present on the European DSL series. Third, the complexity of the physical process governing the DSL series is quantified by the minimum number of nonlinear equations determined by the correlation dimension. And fourth, the loss of memory of the physical process, which is one of the reasons for the complex predictability, is characterized by the values of the Kolmogorov entropy, and the predictive instability is directly associated with positive Lyapunov exponents. In this way, new bases for a better prediction of DSLs in Europe, sometimes leading to drought episodes, are established. Concretely, three predictive strategies are proposed in Sect. 5. It is worth mentioning that the spatial distribution of all fractal parameters does not solely depend on latitude and longitude but also reflects the effects of orography, continental climate or vicinity to the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and Mediterranean Sea.

  1. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed.

  2. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  3. Behavioural changes experienced by contract managers while working on remote project sites

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. This research project is concerned with the behavioural changes of contract managers while working on 'remote' project sites. While working on such a project, the researcher became aware that the behaviour of certain contract managers changed over the course of the project, and that this behaviour was not the same as they demonstrated when at home or in the office environment. In many instances these behavioural changes were of a negative nature, the consequences of which often resu...

  4. Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural workbook for changing beliefs about antipsychotic polypharmacy: analysis from a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Thompson, Andrew; Sullivan, Sarah; Barley, Maddi; Moore, Laurence; Rogers, Paul; Sipos, Attila; Harrison, Glynn

    2010-06-01

    Educational workbooks have been used in psychiatry to influence patient but not clinician behaviour. Targeted education interventions to change prescribing practice in other areas of medicine have only looked at changes in prescribing and not attitudes or beliefs related to the prescribing. We aimed to examine whether clinicians' beliefs about a common prescribing issue in psychiatry (antipsychotic polypharmacy prescription) changed alongside behaviour as a result of a complex intervention. Medical and nursing staff were recruited from 19 general adult psychiatry units in the south-west of the UK as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial. A questionnaire was used to assess beliefs on the prescribing of antipsychotic polypharmacy as a secondary outcome before and after completion of a cognitive behavioural 'self-help' style workbook (one part of a complex intervention). A factor analysis suggested three dimensions of the questionnaire that corresponded to predetermined themes. The data were analysed using a random-effects regression model (adjusting for clustering) controlling for possible confounders. There was a significant change in beliefs on both of the factors: antipsychotic polypharmacy (coefficient = -0.89, P change in antipsychotic polypharmacy prescribing (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence intervals 0.21-0.90). The workbook appeared to change staff beliefs about antipsychotic polypharmacy, but achieving substantial changes in clinician behaviour may require further exploration of other factors important in complex prescribing issues.

  5. Rich complex behaviour of self-assembled nanoparticles far from equilibrium.

    Ilday, Serim; Makey, Ghaith; Akguc, Gursoy B; Yavuz, Özgün; Tokel, Onur; Pavlov, Ihor; Gülseren, Oguz; Ilday, F Ömer

    2017-04-26

    A profoundly fundamental question at the interface between physics and biology remains open: what are the minimum requirements for emergence of complex behaviour from nonliving systems? Here, we address this question and report complex behaviour of tens to thousands of colloidal nanoparticles in a system designed to be as plain as possible: the system is driven far from equilibrium by ultrafast laser pulses that create spatiotemporal temperature gradients, inducing Marangoni flow that drags particles towards aggregation; strong Brownian motion, used as source of fluctuations, opposes aggregation. Nonlinear feedback mechanisms naturally arise between flow, aggregate and Brownian motion, allowing fast external control with minimal intervention. Consequently, complex behaviour, analogous to those seen in living organisms, emerges, whereby aggregates can self-sustain, self-regulate, self-replicate, self-heal and can be transferred from one location to another, all within seconds. Aggregates can comprise only one pattern or bifurcated patterns can coexist, compete, endure or perish.

  6. [Behavioural problems and personality change related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy].

    Gahr, Maximilian; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) belongs to the group of amyloidoses that are characterized by the deposition of insoluble and tissue-damaging amyloid proteins. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is the common clinical presentation of CAA resulting from the degenerative effect of beta amyloid on the cerebral vascular system. Though CAA is rather a neurological disease psychiatric symptoms can occur and even dominate the clinical picture. A case report is presented in order to illustrate the association between CAA and psychiatric symptoms. We report the case of a 54-year-old female patient with radiologic references to a probable CAA and mild cognitive impairment who developed behavioural difficulties and personality change that necessitated a psychiatric treatment. Psychiatric symptoms were most likely due to CAA. CAA can be associated with psychiatric symptoms and hence should be considered in the treatment of elderly patients with behavioural problems or personality changes. Diagnostic neuroimaging and examination of cerebrospinal fluid is recommended. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Going beyond audit and feedback: towards behaviour-based interventions to change physician laboratory test ordering behaviour.

    Meidani, Z; Mousavi, G A; Kheirkhah, D; Benar, N; Maleki, M R; Sharifi, M; Farrokhian, A

    2017-12-01

    Studies indicate there are a variety of contributing factors affecting physician test ordering behaviour. Identifying these behaviours allows development of behaviour-based interventions. Methods Through a pilot study, the list of contributing factors in laboratory tests ordering, and the most ordered tests, were identified, and given to 50 medical students, interns, residents and paediatricians in questionnaire form. The results showed routine tests and peer or supervisor pressure as the most influential factors affecting physician ordering behaviour. An audit and feedback mechanism was selected as an appropriate intervention to improve physician ordering behaviour. The intervention was carried out at two intervals over a three-month period. Findings There was a large reduction in the number of laboratory tests ordered; from 908 before intervention to 389 and 361 after first and second intervention, respectively. There was a significant relationship between audit and feedback and the meaningful reduction of 7 out of 15 laboratory tests including complete blood count (p = 0.002), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.01), C-reactive protein (p = 0.01), venous blood gas (p = 0.016), urine analysis (p = 0.005), blood culture (p = 0.045) and stool examination (p = 0.001). Conclusion The audit and feedback intervention, even in short duration, affects physician ordering behaviour. It should be designed in terms of behaviour-based intervention and diagnosis of the contributing factors in physicians' behaviour. Further studies are required to substantiate the effectiveness of such behaviour-based intervention strategies in changing physician behaviour.

  8. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  9. Identification of behaviour change components in swallowing interventions for head and neck cancer patients: protocol for a systematic review.

    Govender, Roganie; Smith, Christina H; Taylor, Stuart A; Grey, Daphne; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-06-20

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a predictable consequence of head and neck cancer and its treatment. Loss of the ability to eat and drink normally has a devastating impact on quality of life for survivors of this type of cancer. Most rehabilitation programmes involve behavioural interventions that include swallowing exercises to help improve swallowing function. Such interventions are complex; consisting of multiple components that may influence outcomes. These interventions usually require patient adherence to recommended behaviour change advice. To date, reviews of this literature have explored whether variation in effectiveness can be attributed to the type of swallowing exercise, the use of devices to facilitate use of swallowing muscles, and the timing (before, during or after cancer treatment). This systematic review will use a behavioural science lens to examine the content of previous interventions in this field. It aims to identify (a) which behaviour change components are present, and (b) the frequency with which they occur in interventions deemed to be effective and non-effective. Clinical trials of behavioural interventions to improve swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancers will be identified via a systematic and comprehensive search of relevant electronic health databases, trial registers, systematic review databases and Web of Science. To ascertain behaviour change intervention components, we will code the content for its theory basis, intervention functions and specific behaviour change techniques, using validated tools: the Theory Coding Scheme, Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1. Study quality will be assessed for descriptive purposes only. Given the specialisation and focus of this review, a small yield of studies with heterogeneous outcome measures is anticipated. Therefore, narrative synthesis is considered more appropriate than meta-analysis. We will also compare the frequency of

  10. Behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for men with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

    Hallward, Laura; Patel, Nisha; Duncan, Lindsay R

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity interventions can improve prostate cancer survivors' health. Determining the behaviour change techniques used in physical activity interventions can help elucidate the mechanisms by which an intervention successfully changes behaviour. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors. A total of 7 databases were searched and 15 studies were retained. The studies included a mean 6.87 behaviour change techniques (range = 3-10), and similar behaviour change techniques were implemented in all studies. Consideration of how behaviour change techniques are implemented may help identify how behaviour change techniques enhance physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors.

  11. Planning, Practising and Prioritising Wellness through an Integrative Behaviour Change Plan

    Crossman, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Study objective: To describe a successful approach to teaching principles and practices of behaviour change through a behaviour change plan (BCP) initiative to improve personal health while advancing health knowledge and general education intellectual skills. Students' perspectives of obstacles, behaviours important towards goal attainment and the…

  12. Does emotional reasoning change during cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety?

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L; Starcevic, Vladan; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Dale, Erin; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2016-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. It is a key interpretative bias in cognitive models of anxiety disorders and appears to be especially evident in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, the amenability of emotional reasoning to change during treatment has not yet been investigated. We sought to determine whether emotional reasoning tendencies change during a course of routine cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Emotional reasoning tendencies were assessed in 36 individuals with a primary anxiety disorder who were seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic. Changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as emotional reasoning tendencies after 12 sessions of CBT were examined in 25 individuals for whom there was complete data. Emotional reasoning tendencies were evident at pretreatment assessment. Although anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased during CBT, only one of six emotional reasoning interpretative styles (pertaining to conclusions that one is incompetent) changed significantly during the course of therapy. Attrition rates were high and there was not enough information regarding the extent to which therapy specifically focused on addressing emotional reasoning tendencies. Individuals seeking treatment for anxiety disorders appear to engage in emotional reasoning, however routine individual CBT does not appear to result in changes in emotional reasoning tendencies.

  13. Quantum Dynamical Behaviour in Complex Systems - A Semiclassical Approach

    Ananth, Nandini [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in Chemical Dynamics is describing the behavior of complex systems accurately. Classical MD simulations have evolved to a point where calculations involving thousands of atoms are routinely carried out. Capturing coherence, tunneling and other such quantum effects for these systems, however, has proven considerably harder. Semiclassical methods such as the Initial Value Representation (SC-IVR) provide a practical way to include quantum effects while still utilizing only classical trajectory information. For smaller systems, this method has been proven to be most effective, encouraging the hope that it can be extended to deal with a large number of degrees of freedom. Several variations upon the original idea of the SCIVR have been developed to help make these larger calculations more tractable; these range from the simplest, classical limit form, the Linearized IVR (LSC-IVR) to the quantum limit form, the Exact Forward-Backward version (EFB-IVR). In this thesis a method to tune between these limits is described which allows us to choose exactly which degrees of freedom we wish to treat in a more quantum mechanical fashion and to what extent. This formulation is called the Tuning IVR (TIVR). We further describe methodology being developed to evaluate the prefactor term that appears in the IVR formalism. The regular prefactor is composed of the Monodromy matrices (jacobians of the transformation from initial to finial coordinates and momenta) which are time evolved using the Hessian. Standard MD simulations require the potential surfaces and their gradients, but very rarely is there any information on the second derivative. We would like to be able to carry out the SC-IVR calculation without this information too. With this in mind a finite difference scheme to obtain the Hessian on-the-fly is proposed. Wealso apply the IVR formalism to a few problems of current interest. A method to obtain energy eigenvalues accurately for complex

  14. Sex Behaviour Change in Response to the HIV/AIDS Threat among ...

    Sex Behaviour Change in Response to the HIV/AIDS Threat among University ... active, and prior studies have documented an appreciable knowledge of the HIV ... Design: A cross sectional descriptive survey of selfreported sexual behaviour ...

  15. Can behaviour buffer the impacts of climate change on an arid-zone ...

    Can behaviour buffer the impacts of climate change on an arid-zone bird? ... These could include reduced opportunity for foraging, breeding or territorial defence, each ... We investigated patterns of microclimate use and foraging behaviour by ...

  16. Applying theories of health behaviour and change to hearing health research: Time for a new approach.

    Coulson, Neil S; Ferguson, Melanie A; Henshaw, Helen; Heffernan, Eithne

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the application of behavioural models, such as social cognition models, to the promotion of hearing health. Despite this, there exists a well-developed body of literature that suggests such models may fail to consistently explain reliable amounts of variability in human behaviours. This paper provides a summary of this research across selected models of health-related behaviour, outlining the current state of the evidence. Recent work in the field of behaviour change is presented together with commentary on the design and reporting of behaviour change interventions. We propose that attempts to use unreliable models to explain and predict hearing health behaviours should now be replaced by work which integrates the latest in behaviour change science, such as the Behaviour Change Wheel and Theoretical Domains Framework.

  17. Analysis of behavioural changes induced by prenatal irradiation

    Bornhausen, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to detect an impairment of central nervous system functions after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. Groups of rats (Wistar) were either irradiated in-utero on the 13th day of gestation with doses of 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 or 0,90 Gy or on days 11, 13 or 16 p.c. with a dose of 0.60 Gy (Cs 137, 1.0 Gy/min). When adult all animals were confronted with a series of standardized tests of operant, instrumental behaviour in which they were required to press a lever for food reward. The contingencies of reinforcement and the data collection from 10 simultaneously operating test chambers were controlled by a microcomputer. The behavioural performance of each exposure group (n=10) and its course during the tests were expressed as percentages of reinforced lever presses/session and compared to other biological, especially weight changes. The analysis of the experimental data obtained so far indicate that the observed performance deficits depended more on the exposure date than on the exposure dose. (orig.)

  18. STUDIES CONCERNING the IMPACT of CLIMATE CHANGES on HONEYBEES BEHAVIOUR

    Monica Parvu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to clarify some aspects of the biological evolution of bee families under the influence of environmental temperature and subsequent reporting of behavioural change. The experiment was conducted in a private apiary in Giurgiu County, during three years, in May and June. The biological material was represented by 14 strong colonies. The bees were maintained in vertical hives. The biological evolution of bees was analyzed in population growth period. Bee indicators were the following: egg-laying activities of the queen bee, honey bee flight activity, gentleness of bees, swarming behaviour. It was found out that by lowering the temperature with about 3°C, the number of eggs laid decreased by 11%, the differences being significant (p ≤ 0.05. In rainy years, it has been a tendency of swarming, 41.7% of bee colonies showing this trend. The irritability of bees was significantly higher in periods of warm temperatures, this occurring in the early morning hours.

  19. Sophisticated Fowl: The Complex Behaviour and Cognitive Skills of Chickens and Red Junglefowl

    Laura Garnham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be. The realisation that domestic chickens, our most abundant production animal, are behaviourally and cognitively sophisticated should encourage an increase in general appraise and fascination towards them. In turn, this should inspire increased use of them as both research and hobby animals, as well as improvements in their unfortunately often poor welfare.

  20. Tracking changes in search behaviour at a health web site.

    Eklund, Ann-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the internet is used as a means to provide the public with official information on many different topics, including health related matters and care providers. In this work we have studied a search log from the official Swedish health web site 1177.se for patterns of search behaviour over time. To improve the analysis, we mapped the queries to UMLS semantic types and MeSH categories. Our analysis shows that, as expected, diseases and health care activities are the ones of most interest, but also a clear increased interest in geographical locations in the setting of health care providers. We also note a change over time in which kinds of diseases are of interest. Finally, we conclude that this type of analysis may be useful in studies of what health related topics matter to the public, but also for design and follow-up of public information campaigns.

  1. How behavioural science can contribute to health partnerships: the case of The Change Exchange.

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie M T; Bull, Eleanor R; Burton, Amy; Dharni, Nimarta; Gillison, Fiona; Maltinsky, Wendy; Mason, Corina; Sharma, Nisha; Armitage, Christopher J; Johnston, Marie; Byrne, Ged J; Hart, Jo K

    2017-06-12

    Health partnerships often use health professional training to change practice with the aim of improving quality of care. Interventions to change practice can learn from behavioural science and focus not only on improving the competence and capability of health professionals but also their opportunity and motivation to make changes in practice. We describe a project that used behavioural scientist volunteers to enable health partnerships to understand and use the theories, techniques and assessments of behavioural science. This paper outlines how The Change Exchange, a collective of volunteer behavioural scientists, worked with health partnerships to strengthen their projects by translating behavioural science in situ. We describe three case studies in which behavioural scientists, embedded in health partnerships in Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique, explored the behaviour change techniques used by educators, supported knowledge and skill development in behaviour change, monitored the impact of projects on psychological determinants of behaviour and made recommendations for future project developments. Challenges in the work included having time and space for behavioural science in already very busy health partnership schedules and the difficulties in using certain methods in other cultures. Future work could explore other modes of translation and further develop methods to make them more culturally applicable. Behavioural scientists could translate behavioural science which was understood and used by the health partnerships to strengthen their project work.

  2. Behaviour of the homologues of Rf and Db in complexing media

    Trubert, D.; Monroy Guzman, F.; Hussonnois, M.; Brillard, L.; Le Naour, C.; Servajean, V.; Constantinescu, O.; Constantinescu, M.; Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; Weiss, B.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the chemical behaviour of the trans-actinide elements, the chemical properties of their most probable homologues have been investigated by ion exchange methods in various complexing media. A new chromatographic method allowing the determination of distribution coefficients in the case o short-lived isotopes has been developed and successfully tested with the RACHEL device. (authors)

  3. More light on the U clan. [Uranium behaviour in complex ores

    De Waal, S.A. (Potchefstroom Univ. for C.H.E. (South Africa). Dept. of Geology)

    1983-07-01

    A thorough knowledge of the geochemistry of uranium is necessary for the exploration and beneficiation of this mineral. At present we lack knowledge of the behaviour of uranium minerals in complex ores. This article deals with the geochemistry of uranium, its group identity, uranium minerals and the extraction mineralogy.

  4. Children: a critical link for changing driving behaviour

    O' Brien, C. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    Sustainable transportation is a pressing issue, according to Transport Canada, the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, the Centre for Sustainable Transportation and several others. To meet Canada's commitment to reducing the carbon dioxide emissions by 20 per cent by 2005, reducing the number of kilometres driven seems to be the only viable solution. Improving air quality by reducing the use of cars will lessen the negative impact in children. Some of the strategies proposed include compact, mixed-use communities, user fees, increased use of public transit are combined with a requirement for greater public education and awareness. Several studies have demonstrated that increased knowledge of an issue alone does not lead to changes in behaviour. One strategy recommended is called social marketing, by fostering changes in norms, providing prompts, obtaining public commitments and the removal of barriers. Raising the profile of children in sustainable transportation makes parents more receptive to information about child-friendly transportation. Some of the impacts of cars on children are: traffic fatalities, less than 50 per cent of children now walk to school, the average physical activity guidelines for children are not met in two thirds of children, obesity, reduced independent mobility of children, emotional distress following an involvement in a traffic accident and more. Some programs such as Way to Go, Walking School Bus, and Active and Safe Routes to School have been implemented in many communities and were found to be successful and additional funding to these programs might be more efficient than conventional education programs to alter behaviour toward sustainable transportation. Get the children to influence their parents. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.

  6. Evidence-based selection of theories for designing behaviour change interventions: using methods based on theoretical construct domains to understand clinicians' blood transfusion behaviour.

    Francis, Jill J; Stockton, Charlotte; Eccles, Martin P; Johnston, Marie; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hyde, Chris; Tinmouth, Alan; Stanworth, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    Many theories of behaviour are potentially relevant to predictive and intervention studies but most studies investigate a narrow range of theories. Michie et al. (2005) agreed 12 'theoretical domains' from 33 theories that explain behaviour change. They developed a 'Theoretical Domains Interview' (TDI) for identifying relevant domains for specific clinical behaviours, but the framework has not been used for selecting theories for predictive studies. It was used here to investigate clinicians' transfusion behaviour in intensive care units (ICU). Evidence suggests that red blood cells transfusion could be reduced for some patients without reducing quality of care. (1) To identify the domains relevant to transfusion practice in ICUs and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), using the TDI. (2) To use the identified domains to select appropriate theories for a study predicting transfusion behaviour. An adapted TDI about managing a patient with borderline haemoglobin by watching and waiting instead of transfusing red blood cells was used to conduct semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with 18 intensive care consultants and neonatologists across the UK. Relevant theoretical domains were: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, behavioural regulation. Further analysis at the construct level resulted in selection of seven theoretical approaches relevant to this context: Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Control Theory, Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness and Action Planning Approaches. This study illustrated, the use of the TDI to identify relevant domains in a complex area of inpatient care. This approach is potentially valuable for selecting theories relevant to predictive studies and resulted in greater breadth of potential explanations than would be achieved if a single theoretical model had been adopted.

  7. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail...... damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose......, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks...

  8. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  9. Improving medication management in multimorbidity: development of the MultimorbiditY COllaborative Medication Review And DEcision Making (MY COMRADE) intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Sinnott, Carol; Mercer, Stewart W; Payne, Rupert A; Duerden, Martin; Bradley, Colin P; Byrne, Molly

    2015-09-24

    Multimorbidity, the presence of two or more chronic conditions, affects over 60 % of patients in primary care. Due to its association with polypharmacy, the development of interventions to optimise medication management in patients with multimorbidity is a priority. The Behaviour Change Wheel is a new approach for applying behavioural theory to intervention development. Here, we describe how we have used results from a review of previous research, original research of our own and the Behaviour Change Wheel to develop an intervention to improve medication management in multimorbidity by general practitioners (GPs), within the overarching UK Medical Research Council guidance on complex interventions. Following the steps of the Behaviour Change Wheel, we sought behaviours associated with medication management in multimorbidity by conducting a systematic review and qualitative study with GPs. From the modifiable GP behaviours identified, we selected one and conducted a focused behavioural analysis to explain why GPs were or were not engaging in this behaviour. We used the behavioural analysis to determine the intervention functions, behavioural change techniques and implementation plan most likely to effect behavioural change. We identified numerous modifiable GP behaviours in the systematic review and qualitative study, from which active medication review (rather than passive maintaining the status quo) was chosen as the target behaviour. Behavioural analysis revealed GPs' capabilities, opportunities and motivations relating to active medication review. We combined the three intervention functions deemed most likely to effect behavioural change (enablement, environmental restructuring and incentivisation) to form the MultimorbiditY COllaborative Medication Review And DEcision Making (MY COMRADE) intervention. MY COMRADE primarily involves the technique of social support: two GPs review the medications prescribed to a complex multimorbid patient together. Four other

  10. Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Patients' and practitioners' views on health behaviour change: a qualitative study.

    Elwell, Laura; Povey, Rachel; Grogan, Sarah; Allen, Candia; Prestwich, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine patients' and health professionals' perspectives on lifestyle behaviour change and to inform the development of a lifestyle behaviour change intervention to be used in primary care. Focus groups were conducted with seven patients and 13 health professionals where they were asked to discuss lifestyle behaviour change in relation to the design and development phase of a tailored lifestyle behaviour change intervention package. An inductive thematic analysis of transcripts suggested a range of issues that are relevant to the development and implementation of lifestyle change interventions such as time, lack of resources and starting interventions too late, as well as personal circumstances and the continuous effort that behaviour change requires. They were interpreted as two superordinate themes of 'internal and external influences on behaviour change' and 'behaviour change initiation and maintenance'. The results are discussed in relation to the implications they may have for researchers and health service commissioners designing interventions and practitioners implementing lifestyle change interventions in primary care. Many factors are involved in patients' and health care professionals' understanding of interventions and lifestyle behaviour change. These should be taken into consideration when designing interventions based on behaviour change theories.

  12. Aging and response conflict solution: behavioural and functional connectivity changes.

    Langner, Robert; Cieslik, Edna C; Behrwind, Simone D; Roski, Christian; Caspers, Svenja; Amunts, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-01-01

    Healthy aging has been found associated with less efficient response conflict solution, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms have remained elusive. In a two-experiment study, we first examined the behavioural consequences of this putative age-related decline for conflicts induced by spatial stimulus-response incompatibility. We then used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a large, independent sample of adults (n = 399; 18-85 years) to investigate age differences in functional connectivity between the nodes of a network previously found associated with incompatibility-induced response conflicts in the very same paradigm. As expected, overcoming interference from conflicting response tendencies took longer in older adults, even after accounting for potential mediator variables (general response speed and accuracy, motor speed, visuomotor coordination ability, and cognitive flexibility). Experiment 2 revealed selective age-related decreases in functional connectivity between bilateral anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Importantly, these age effects persisted after controlling for regional grey-matter atrophy assessed by voxel-based morphometry. Meta-analytic functional profiling using the BrainMap database showed these age-sensitive nodes to be more strongly linked to highly abstract cognition, as compared with the remaining network nodes, which were more strongly linked to action-related processing. These findings indicate changes in interregional coupling with age among task-relevant network nodes that are not specifically associated with conflict resolution per se. Rather, our behavioural and neural data jointly suggest that healthy aging is associated with difficulties in properly activating non-dominant but relevant task schemata necessary to exert efficient cognitive control over action.

  13. The Human Behaviour-Change Project: harnessing the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning for evidence synthesis and interpretation.

    Michie, Susan; Thomas, James; Johnston, Marie; Aonghusa, Pol Mac; Shawe-Taylor, John; Kelly, Michael P; Deleris, Léa A; Finnerty, Ailbhe N; Marques, Marta M; Norris, Emma; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; West, Robert

    2017-10-18

    Behaviour change is key to addressing both the challenges facing human health and wellbeing and to promoting the uptake of research findings in health policy and practice. We need to make better use of the vast amount of accumulating evidence from behaviour change intervention (BCI) evaluations and promote the uptake of that evidence into a wide range of contexts. The scale and complexity of the task of synthesising and interpreting this evidence, and increasing evidence timeliness and accessibility, will require increased computer support. The Human Behaviour-Change Project (HBCP) will use Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to (i) develop and evaluate a 'Knowledge System' that automatically extracts, synthesises and interprets findings from BCI evaluation reports to generate new insights about behaviour change and improve prediction of intervention effectiveness and (ii) allow users, such as practitioners, policy makers and researchers, to easily and efficiently query the system to get answers to variants of the question 'What works, compared with what, how well, with what exposure, with what behaviours (for how long), for whom, in what settings and why?'. The HBCP will: a) develop an ontology of BCI evaluations and their reports linking effect sizes for given target behaviours with intervention content and delivery and mechanisms of action, as moderated by exposure, populations and settings; b) develop and train an automated feature extraction system to annotate BCI evaluation reports using this ontology; c) develop and train machine learning and reasoning algorithms to use the annotated BCI evaluation reports to predict effect sizes for particular combinations of behaviours, interventions, populations and settings; d) build user and machine interfaces for interrogating and updating the knowledge base; and e) evaluate all the above in terms of performance and utility. The HBCP aims to revolutionise our ability to synthesise, interpret and deliver

  14. Changing historical flood behaviour - is there a link to landscape changes?

    Rogger, Magdalena; Kiss, Andrea; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2014-05-01

    Although large-scale changes in flood behaviour are usually related to the variability and changes of climatic conditions and atmospheric patterns, human impact clearly also played an important role in changing flood behaviour by various types of river regulations and by land use changes (vegetation cover and soil conditions). The influence of land use changes on the flood regime is, however, still poorly understood. Based on scientific literature, we present the major phases of historical landscape changes of the last 1000 years in Europe discussing possible impacts on the related flood regimes. On the one hand, we provide an overview of major landscape changes and phases of changes in Europe dividing the available evidence into four major regions (Central Europe, Mediterranean, North- and West-Europe). On the other hand, we present case studies where we discuss the potential differences in the impacts of changes in specific vegetation types or the abandonment of formerly cultivated areas (with special emphasis on hilly areas) on the flood regime. In this sense, we make a special emphasis on the LIA-MWP (Little Ice Age - Medieval Warm Period) transition (i.e. 13th-15th centuries) as well as on the period of the early industrial revolution (18th-19th centuries).

  15. Complex oscillatory behaviour in a delayed protein cross talk model with periodic forcing

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of periodic forcing on the time delay protein cross talk model behaviour. We assume periodic variation for the plasma membrane permeability. The dynamic behaviour of the system is simulated and bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters. The results show that periodic forcing can very easily give rise to complex dynamics, including a period-doubling cascade, chaos, quasi-periodic oscillating, and periodic windows. Finally, we calculate the maximal Lyapunov exponent in the regions of the parameter space where chaotic motion of delayed protein cross talk model with periodic forcing exists.

  16. Transitioning to low carbon communities-from behaviour change to systemic change: Lessons from Australia

    Moloney, Susie; Horne, Ralph E.; Fien, John

    2010-01-01

    Transitioning to low carbon communities requires an understanding of community practices and resultant emissions, as well as the technologies, infrastructures and institutions associated with and accessed by communities. Moreover, it requires an understanding of the connections between these integrated system components, its dynamics, a defined transition and potential 'levers' involved in 'transitioning'. This paper accepts the notion that 'levers' include programmes designed to achieve practice or behaviour change in households which result in less carbon intensive lifestyles, and focuses on the factors that shape human behaviour and influence householder energy consumption. Research to date by the authors and others indicates that a comprehensive socio-technical framework that considers both individual psychological factors as well as the systems, standards and norms under which individuals operate is fundamental to the development of successful strategies to shift towards low carbon communities. A database has been compiled of over one hundred local programmes aimed at realising carbon neutral communities across Australia largely through approaches to behaviour change. This paper presents the findings of an analysis of these programmes, particularly with regard to the extent to which they take account of a socio-technical framework or understanding of domestic consumption behaviours and whether they are aware of or aim to influence changing standards and expectations around consumption practices within the home. While a number of exemplary community-based programmes adopt an integrated approach to addressing both technical and behavioural dimensions in the shift to low carbon communities, it was found that most fail to take sufficient account of the systems, standards and norms shaping consumption. Conclusions include directions for policy and programme design based on the study findings.

  17. Changing the Known; Knowing the Changing: General Systems Theory Paradigms as Ways to Study Complex Change and Complex Thoughts.

    Sinnott, Jan D.

    This paper discusses the utility of a general systems theory paradigm for psychology. The paradigm can be used for conceptualizing such complex phenomena as change over time in living systems, person-society interactions, and the epistemology of multiply determined changes. Consideration is also given to applications of the approach to…

  18. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    Anne Lancaster

    2015-10-01

    The BetterPoints system is unique in it’s flexibility and ability to draw on multiple behaviour change models to create high quality interventions. Early findings from existing programmes being implemented for Local Authorities in the UK suggest that BetterPoints can demonstrate real-world behaviour change. We would like to work with academic partners to further investigate these real-world changes in behaviour and establish a robust evidence base.

  19. Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Awareness, Beliefs, Values, and Behaviours Pertinent to Climate Change

    Higde, Emrah; Oztekin, Ceren; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined Turkish pre-service science teachers' awareness, uncertainty beliefs, values, and behaviours pertinent to climate change. It aimed to determine significant predictors of climate change-related behaviours and uncertainty beliefs about the reality of climate change. A Turkish-adapted survey was administered to 1277 pre-service…

  20. Behavioural change as the core of warfighting : So now what?

    Duistermaat, M.; Vliet, A.J. van; Boor, R.A.E. van der; Daalen, A.F. van

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on understanding human behaviour by providing an insight into its underlying mechanisms, and aims to widen the view on the military possibilities for achieving mission goals. The article intends to trigger a more behaviour-oriented view on military operations: how military

  1. Smart health and innovation: facilitating health-related behaviour change.

    Redfern, J

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death globally. Smart health technology and innovation is a potential strategy for increasing reach and for facilitating health behaviour change. Despite rapid growth in the availability and affordability of technology there remains a paucity of published and robust research in the area as it relates to health. The objective of the present paper is to review and provide a snapshot of a variety of contemporary examples of smart health strategies with a focus on evidence and research as it relates to prevention with a CVD management lens. In the present analysis, five examples will be discussed and they include a physician-directed strategy, consumer directed strategies, a public health approach and a screening strategy that utilises external hardware that connects to a smartphone. In conclusion, NCD have common risk factors and all have an association with nutrition and health. Smart health and innovation is evolving rapidly and may help with diagnosis, treatment and management. While on-going research, development and knowledge is needed, the growth of technology development and utilisation offers opportunities to reach more people and achieve better health outcomes at local, national and international levels.

  2. A simple model for behaviour change in epidemics

    Brauer Fred

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People change their behaviour during an epidemic. Infectious members of a population may reduce the number of contacts they make with other people because of the physical effects of their illness and possibly because of public health announcements asking them to do so in order to decrease the number of new infections, while susceptible members of the population may reduce the number of contacts they make in order to try to avoid becoming infected. Methods We consider a simple epidemic model in which susceptible and infectious members respond to a disease outbreak by reducing contacts by different fractions and analyze the effect of such contact reductions on the size of the epidemic. We assume constant fractional reductions, without attempting to consider the way in which susceptible members might respond to information about the epidemic. Results We are able to derive upper and lower bounds for the final size of an epidemic, both for simple and staged progression models. Conclusions The responses of uninfected and infected individuals in a disease outbreak are different, and this difference affects estimates of epidemic size.

  3. Motivational and behavioural models of change: A longitudinal analysis of change among men with chronic haemophilia-related joint pain.

    Elander, J; Richardson, C; Morris, J; Robinson, G; Schofield, M B

    2017-09-01

    Motivational and behavioural models of adjustment to chronic pain make different predictions about change processes, which can be tested in longitudinal analyses. We examined changes in motivation, coping and acceptance among 78 men with chronic haemophilia-related joint pain. Using cross-lagged regression analyses of changes from baseline to 6 months as predictors of changes from 6 to 12 months, with supplementary structural equation modelling, we tested two models in which motivational changes influence behavioural changes, and one in which behavioural changes influence motivational changes. Changes in motivation to self-manage pain influenced later changes in pain coping, consistent with the motivational model of pain self-management, and also influenced later changes in activity engagement, the behavioural component of pain acceptance. Changes in activity engagement influenced later changes in pain willingness, consistent with the behavioural model of pain acceptance. Based on the findings, a combined model of changes in pain self-management and acceptance is proposed, which could guide combined interventions based on theories of motivation, coping and acceptance in chronic pain. This study adds longitudinal evidence about sequential change processes; a test of the motivational model of pain self-management; and tests of behavioural versus motivational models of pain acceptance. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  4. Analysis of health behaviour change interventions for preventing dental caries delivered in primary schools.

    Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Sibutramine-associated psychotic symptoms and zolpidem-induced complex behaviours: implications for patient safety.

    Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Cubała, Wiesław Jerzy; Nowak, Paweł; Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Katarzyna; Landowski, Jerzy; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Sibutramine is a weight loss agent recently withdrawn from the European market due to cardiovascular risk concerns. It was used for long-term obesity treatment. Zolpidem is a short acting hypnotic agent commonly used in the treatment of insomnia. A number of case reports describing psychotic reaction to sibutramine were reported in the literature. We present a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian woman who developed two psychotic episodes related to sibutramine treatment. The second psychotic episode was complicated with complex behaviours after zolpidem use due to insomnia. Sibutramine and zolpidem discontinuation resulted in rapid resolution of psychotic symptoms. This case suggests a possibility of incidence of psychotic symptoms and complex behaviour disturbances in patients prescribed sibutramine or other monoaminergic reuptake inhibitors.

  6. Public health interventions and behaviour change: reviewing the grey literature.

    Franks, H; Hardiker, N R; McGrath, M; McQuarrie, C

    2012-01-01

    This study identified and reviewed grey literature relating to factors facilitating and inhibiting effective interventions in three areas: the promotion of mental health and well-being, the improvement of food and nutrition, and interventions seeking to increase engagement in physical activity. Sourcing, reviewing and analysis of relevant grey literature. Evidence was collected from a variety of non-traditional sources. Thirty-six pieces of documentary evidence across the three areas were selected for in-depth appraisal and review. A variety of approaches, often short-term, were used both as interventions and outcome measures. Interventions tended to have common outcomes, enabling the identification of themes. These included improvements in participant well-being as well as identification of barriers to, and promoters of, success. Most interventions demonstrated some positive impact, although some did not. This was particularly the case for more objective measures of change, such as physiological measurements, particularly when used to evaluate short-term interventions. Objective health measurement as part of an intervention may act as a catalyst for future behaviour change. Time is an important factor that could either promote or impede the success of interventions for both participants and facilitators. Likewise, the importance of involving all stakeholders, including participants, when planning health promoting interventions was established as an important indicator of success. Despite its limited scope, this review suggests that interventions can be more efficient and effective. For example, larger-scale, longer-term interventions could be more efficient, whilst outcomes relating to the implementation and beyond could provide a clearer picture of effectiveness. Additionally, interventions and evaluations must be flexible, evolve in partnership with local communities, and reflect local need and context. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health

  7. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment

    Yao Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population.

  8. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment.

    Yao, Yao; Storme, Veronique; Marchal, Kathleen; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN) that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population.

  9. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment

    Yao, Yao; Storme, Veronique; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN) that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population. PMID:28028477

  10. Complex nonlinear behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    The fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle investigated in this paper can exhibit periodic solutions. These solutions bifurcate from the steady state in a Hopf bifurcation. The Hopf bifurcation encountered at the lowest value of the inlet concentration turns the steady state unstable and marks......,that the dynamic behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle is much more complex than previously reported....

  11. Training practitioners to deliver opportunistic multiple behaviour change counselling in primary care: a cluster randomised trial.

    Butler, Christopher C; Simpson, Sharon A; Hood, Kerenza; Cohen, David; Pickles, Tim; Spanou, Clio; McCambridge, Jim; Moore, Laurence; Randell, Elizabeth; Alam, M Fasihul; Kinnersley, Paul; Edwards, Adrian; Smith, Christine; Rollnick, Stephen

    2013-03-19

    To evaluate the effect of training primary care health professionals in behaviour change counselling on the proportion of patients self reporting change in four risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, exercise, and healthy eating). Cluster randomised trial with general practices as the unit of randomisation. General practices in Wales. 53 general practitioners and practice nurses from 27 general practices (one each at all but one practice) recruited 1827 patients who screened positive for at least one risky behaviour. Behaviour change counselling was developed from motivational interviewing to enable clinicians to enhance patients' motivation to change health related behaviour. Clinicians were trained using a blended learning programme called Talking Lifestyles. Proportion of patients who reported making beneficial changes in at least one of the four risky behaviours at three months. 1308 patients from 13 intervention and 1496 from 14 control practices were approached: 76% and 72% respectively agreed to participate, with 831 (84%) and 996 (92%) respectively screening eligible for an intervention. There was no effect on the primary outcome (beneficial change in behaviour) at three months (362 (44%) v 404 (41%), odds ratio 1.12 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.39)) or on biochemical or biometric measures at 12 months. More patients who had consulted with trained clinicians recalled consultation discussion about a health behaviour (724/795 (91%) v 531/966 (55%), odds ratio 12.44 (5.85 to 26.46)) and intended to change (599/831 (72%) v 491/996 (49%), odds ratio 2.88 (2.05 to 4.05)). More intervention practice patients reported making an attempt to change (328 (39%) v 317 (32%), odds ratio 1.40 (1.15 to 1.70)), a sustained behaviour change at three months (288 (35%) v 280 (28%), odds ratio 1.36 (1.11 to 1.65)), and reported slightly greater improvements in healthy eating at three and 12 months, plus improved activity at 12 months. Training cost £1597 per practice. Training primary

  12. Beyond the 'teachable moment' - A conceptual analysis of women's perinatal behaviour change.

    Olander, Ellinor K; Darwin, Zoe J; Atkinson, Lou; Smith, Debbie M; Gardner, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Midwives are increasingly expected to promote healthy behaviour to women and pregnancy is often regarded as a 'teachable moment' for health behaviour change. This view focuses on motivational aspects, when a richer analysis of behaviour change may be achieved by viewing the perinatal period through the lens of the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation Behaviour framework. This framework proposes that behaviour has three necessary determinants: capability, opportunity, and motivation. To outline a broader analysis of perinatal behaviour change than is afforded by the existing conceptualisation of the 'teachable moment' by using the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation Behaviour framework. Research suggests that the perinatal period can be viewed as a time in which capability, opportunity or motivation naturally change such that unhealthy behaviours are disrupted, and healthy behaviours may be adopted. Moving away from a sole focus on motivation, an analysis utilising the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation Behaviour framework suggests that changes in capability and opportunity may also offer opportune points for intervention, and that lack of capability or opportunity may act as barriers to behaviour change that might be expected based solely on changes in motivation. Moreover, the period spanning pregnancy and the postpartum could be seen as a series of opportune intervention moments, that is, personally meaningful episodes initiated by changes in capability, opportunity or motivation. This analysis offers new avenues for research and practice, including identifying discrete events that may trigger shifts in capability, opportunity or motivation, and whether and how interventions might promote initiation and maintenance of perinatal health behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of health-related behaviour change in parents of overweight children in England.

    Park, Min Hae; Falconer, Catherine L; Croker, Helen; Saxena, Sonia; Kessel, Anthony S; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-05-01

    Providing parents with information about their child's overweight status (feedback) could prompt them to make lifestyle changes for their children. We assessed whether parents of overweight children intend to or change behaviours following feedback, and examined predictors of these transitions. We analysed data from a cohort of parents of children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme in five areas of England, 2010-2011. Parents of overweight children (body mass index ≥91st centile) with data at one or six months after feedback were included (n=285). The outcomes of interest were intention to change health-related behaviours and positive behaviour change at follow-up. Associations between respondent characteristics and outcomes were assessed using logistic regression analysis. After feedback, 72.1% of parents reported an intention to change; 54.7% reported positive behaviour change. Intention was associated with recognition of child overweight status (OR 11.20, 95% CI 4.49, 27.93). Parents of older and non-white children were more likely to report behaviour changes than parents of younger or white children. Intention did not predict behaviour change. Parental recognition of child overweight predicts behavioural intentions. However, intentions do not necessarily translate into behaviours; interventions that aim to change intentions may have limited benefits. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Predictors of health-related behaviour change in parents of overweight children in England☆

    Park, Min Hae; Falconer, Catherine L.; Croker, Helen; Saxena, Sonia; Kessel, Anthony S.; Viner, Russell M.; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objective Providing parents with information about their child's overweight status (feedback) could prompt them to make lifestyle changes for their children. We assessed whether parents of overweight children intend to or change behaviours following feedback, and examined predictors of these transitions. Methods We analysed data from a cohort of parents of children aged 4–5 and 10–11 years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme in five areas of England, 2010–2011. Parents of overweight children (body mass index ≥ 91st centile) with data at one or six months after feedback were included (n = 285). The outcomes of interest were intention to change health-related behaviours and positive behaviour change at follow-up. Associations between respondent characteristics and outcomes were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results After feedback, 72.1% of parents reported an intention to change; 54.7% reported positive behaviour change. Intention was associated with recognition of child overweight status (OR 11.20, 95% CI 4.49, 27.93). Parents of older and non-white children were more likely to report behaviour changes than parents of younger or white children. Intention did not predict behaviour change. Conclusions Parental recognition of child overweight predicts behavioural intentions. However, intentions do not necessarily translate into behaviours; interventions that aim to change intentions may have limited benefits. PMID:24518007

  15. Frequency, clinical correlates and rating of behavioural changes in primary brain tumour patients: A preliminary investigation.

    Grahame K Simpson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PurposeFew studies have addressed the specific behavioural changes associated with primary brain tumour (PBT. This paper will report on the frequency and demographic/clinical correlates of such behaviours, and the reliability of rating such behaviours amongst people with PBT, family informants and clinicians. The association of behavioural changes and patient functional status will also be discussed.MethodsA total of 57 patients with 37 family informants were recruited from two large Australian metropolitan hospitals. Each completed three neuro-behavioural self-report measures. Patients also completed a depression symptom measure. Functional status was defined by clinician-rated Karnofsky Performance Status.ResultsPatients were on average 52 years old, a median of four months (range 1-82 post-diagnosis, with high grade (39%, low grade (22% or benign tumours (39%. Patients reported frequency rates of 7-40% across various behavioural domains including anger, inappropriate behaviour, apathy, inertia and executive impairment. The presence of epileptic seizures was associated with significantly higher levels of behavioural changes. Notably, behaviour did not correlate with tumour grade or treatment modality. There was moderate agreement between patients and relatives on the presence or absence of behavioural changes, and substantial agreement between relative and clinician ratings. Depressed patients did not generally report more changes than non-depressed patients. Increases in the relative and clinician-rated behaviour scores were significantly correlated with decreasing functional status in the patient.ConclusionsBehavioural changes were a common sequela of both benign and malignant PBT. Larger scale studies are required to confirm these results. The results suggest the importance of including behaviour in brain cancer psychosocial assessments and the need to develop interventions to treat these patients and reduce the burden of care on families.

  16. Managing complex industrial change through projects

    Perotti , Clément; Minel , Stéphanie; Benoit , Roussel; Jean , Renaud

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes some elements showing that project is an appropriate way to manage organizational change, and that an individual change occurs during these phases. We suggest that project team should manage individual change in the framework of project for three main reasons. First, being at the crossroad of strategic and operational levels, project team is in the right position in organisation to "translate" organizational change to individuals, and vice-versa. Se...

  17. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa.

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

  18. Robustness of self-organised systems to changes in behaviour: an example from real and simulated self-organised snail aggregations.

    Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A; Davies, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Group or population level self-organised systems comprise many individuals displaying group-level emergent properties. Current theory indicates that individual-level behaviours have an effect on the final group-level behaviour; that is, self-organised systems are sensitive to small changes in individual behaviour. Here we examine a self-organised behaviour in relation to environmentally-driven individual-level changes in behaviour, using both natural systems and computer simulations. We demonstrate that aggregations of intertidal snails slightly decrease in size when, owing to hotter and more desiccating conditions, individuals forage for shorter periods--a seemingly non-adaptive behaviour for the snails since aggregation reduces desiccation stress. This decrease, however, only occurs in simple experimental systems (and simulations of these systems). When studied in their natural and more complex environment, and simulations of such an environment, using the same reduced foraging time, no difference in aggregation behaviour was found between hot and cool days. These results give an indication of how robust self-organised systems are to changes in individual-level behaviour. The complexity of the natural environment and the interactions of individuals with this environment, therefore, can result in self-organised systems being more resilient to individual-level changes than previously assumed.

  19. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Chris Keyworth; Jo Hart; Chris A. Armitage

    2015-01-01

    Background Changing healthcare professional behaviour is fundamental to effective patient management. Recent systematic reviews examining healthcare professional behaviour change interventions (such as audit and feedback) suggest that technological support is likely to be crucial in helping healthcare professionals to improve patient outcomes. However we know little about the effectiveness of technological support interventions, and whether the design of technological support interventions...

  20. Onset of impaired sleep as a predictor of change in health-related behaviours

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in health-related behaviour may be a key mechanism linking impaired sleep to poor health, but evidence on this is limited. In this study, we analysed observational data to determine whether onset of impaired sleep is followed by changes in health-related behaviours. METHODS: W...

  1. Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Behavioural Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Wang, Ming-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term behaviour change in type 2 diabetic patients may provide effective glycemic control. Purpose: To investigate the key factors that promote behaviour change in diabetic subjects using the transtheoretical model. Methods: Subjects were selected by purposive sampling from type 2 diabetes outpatients. Self-administered…

  2. Is the use of ergonomic measures associated with behavioural change phases?

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the absolute number of completed behavioural change phases (ABP) and the sequentially ordered number of completed behavioural change phases (SBP) are positively associated with the use of ergonomic measures by two groups of stakeholders in

  3. Population-level impact of Zimbabwe's National Behavioural Change Programme.

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Benedikt, Clemens; Langhaug, Lisa; Copas, Andrew; Mundida, Oscar; Mugurungi, Owen; Watadzaushe, Constancia; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Tambashe, Basile O; Chidiya, Samson; Woelk, Godfrey; Cowan, Frances M

    2014-12-15

    To assess the impact of Zimbabwe's National Behavioural Change Programme (NBCP) on biological and behavioral outcomes. Representative household biobehavioral surveys of 18- to 44-year-olds were conducted in randomly selected enumeration areas in 2007 and 2011 to 2012. We examined program impact on HIV prevalence among young women, nonregular partnerships, condom use with nonregular partners, and HIV testing, distinguishing between highly exposed and low-exposed communities and individuals. We conducted (1) difference-in-differences analyses with communities as unit of analysis and (2) analyses of key outcomes by individual-level program exposure. Four thousand seven hundred seventy-six people were recruited in 2007 and 10,059 in 2011 to 2012. We found high exposure to NBCP in 2011. Prevalence of HIV and reported risky behaviors declined between 2007 and 2011. Community-level analyses showed a smaller decline in HIV prevalence among young women in highly exposed areas (11.0%-10.1%) than low-exposed areas (16.9%-10.3%, P = 0.078). Among young men, uptake of nonregular partners declined more in highly exposed areas (25%-16.8%) than low-exposed areas (21.9%-20.7%, P = 0.055) and HIV testing increased (27.2%-46.1% vs. 31.0%-34.4%, P = 0.004). Individual-level analyses showed higher reported condom use with nonregular partners among highly exposed young women (53% vs. 21% of unexposed counterparts, P = 0.037). We conducted the first impact evaluation of a NBCP and found positive effects of program exposure on key behaviors among certain gender and age groups. HIV prevalence among young women declined but could not be attributed to program exposure. These findings suggest substantial program effects regarding demand creation and justify program expansion.

  4. Communication skills for behaviour change in dietetic consultations.

    Whitehead, K; Langley-Evans, S C; Tischler, V; Swift, J A

    2009-12-01

    Both the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have recommended increased training for health professionals in communication skills. There is evidence to suggest that communication skills are important in helping people to change health-related behaviour, which is a key role for dietitians. This study investigated the views of UK dietitians about their training needs and experience in relation to communication skills in dietetic practice. In October 2007, a cross-sectional survey was mailed to all British Dietetic Association members (n = 6013). The survey gathered quantitative data and free-text comments to ascertain the level, type and effect of communication skills training received by dietitians at both the pre- and post-registration level. There were 1158 respondents; a response rate of 19.3%. Ninety-eight percent (n = 1117) rated communication skills as either very or extremely important in client consultations. Post-registration training had been undertaken by 73% (n = 904). Of these, over 90% of respondents perceived that post-registration training had led to improvements in their relationships with patients, their confidence in client interviews and their ability to cope with challenging clients. However, 248 (21.4%) felt time keeping in interviews had worsened. Lack of time for client interviews was also the most commonly identified barrier (19%, n = 216) to implementing the skills. This study has explored an important and under-researched area. Respondents strongly endorsed the importance of good communication skills and the benefits of post-registration training in this area. Some felt that good communication was time consuming but others felt that time management had improved. Further research and training is required to support the implementation of these skills into dietetic practice.

  5. A change in behaviour: getting the balance right for research and policy.

    O'Sullivan, Maureen; Ryan, Cristín; Downey, Damian G; Hughes, Carmel M

    2016-10-01

    Behaviour change interventions offer clinical pharmacists many opportunities to optimise the use of medicines. 'MINDSPACE' is a framework used by a Government-affiliated organisation in the United Kingdom to communicate an approach to changing behaviour through policy. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) organises constructs of psychological theories that are most relevant to behaviour change into 14 domains. Both frameworks offer a way of identifying what drives a change in behaviour, providing a target for an intervention. This article aims to compare and contrast MINDSPACE and the TDF, and serves to inform pharmacy practitioners about the potential strengths and weaknesses of using either framework in a clinical pharmacy context. It appears that neither framework can deliver evidence-based interventions that can be developed and implemented with the pace demanded by policy and practice-based settings. A collaborative approach would ensure timely development of acceptable behaviour change interventions that are grounded in evidence.

  6. Behavioural responses to human-induced change: Why fishing should not be ignored.

    Diaz Pauli, Beatriz; Sih, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Change in behaviour is usually the first response to human-induced environmental change and key for determining whether a species adapts to environmental change or becomes maladapted. Thus, understanding the behavioural response to human-induced changes is crucial in the interplay between ecology, evolution, conservation and management. Yet the behavioural response to fishing activities has been largely ignored. We review studies contrasting how fish behaviour affects catch by passive (e.g., long lines, angling) versus active gears (e.g., trawls, seines). We show that fishing not only targets certain behaviours, but it leads to a multitrait response including behavioural, physiological and life-history traits with population, community and ecosystem consequences. Fisheries-driven change (plastic or evolutionary) of fish behaviour and its correlated traits could impact fish populations well beyond their survival per se , affecting predation risk, foraging behaviour, dispersal, parental care, etc., and hence numerous ecological issues including population dynamics and trophic cascades . In particular, we discuss implications of behavioural responses to fishing for fisheries management and population resilience. More research on these topics, however, is needed to draw general conclusions, and we suggest fruitful directions for future studies.

  7. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour. PMID:24245778

  8. The sum of the parts: can we really reduce carbon emissions through individual behaviour change?

    Reynolds, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are increasingly being urged to 'do their bit' in the fight against climate change, with governments and pro-environmentalists insisting that the collective impact of small behaviour changes will result in a meaningful reduction in global carbon emissions. The following paper considers this debate, as well as offering personal contributions from two leading environmentalists: Dr Doug McKenzie-Mohr, environmental psychologist and author of Fostering Sustainable Behavior: Community-Based Social Marketing; and Dr Tom Crompton, change strategist for WWF and co-author of Meeting Environmental Challenges: The Role of Human Identity, who argues for the role of intrinsic value systems in achieving sustainable behaviour change. As well as considering the responsibility of the individual in mitigating climate change, the paper introduces the discipline of social marketing as an effective tool for facilitating individual behaviour change, drawing on evidence from the field to recommend the key characteristics of effective behaviour change programmes.

  9. Promoting physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a narrative review of behaviour change theories.

    Larkin, Louise; Kennedy, Norelee; Gallagher, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Despite physical activity having significant health benefits for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), current levels of physical activity in this population are suboptimal. Changing behaviour is challenging and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in this context have had varying levels of success. This review provides an overview of common behaviour change theories used in interventions to promote physical activity and their application for promoting physical activity in people with RA. A scoping, narrative review was conducted of English language literature, using the search terms "physical activity/exercise" and keywords, which are associated with behaviour change interventions. The theoretical basis of such interventions in people with RA was assessed using the "theory coding scheme". Six theories which have been used in physical activity research are discussed. Further, four studies which aimed to increase physical activity levels in people with RA are explored in detail. To date, behaviour change interventions conducted in RA populations to increase physical activity levels have not had a strong theoretical underpinning. It is proposed that an intervention utilising the theory of planned behaviour is developed with the aim of increasing physical activity in people with RA. Implications for Rehabilitation Interventions to promote physical activity in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population have failed to change participants' behaviour. A small number of studies have used behaviour change theories in the development and delivery of interventions. The theory of planned behaviour is recommended as the theoretical basis for an intervention to promote physical activity in the RA population.

  10. Changing up the system : a case study of how changes in waste management systems in Ulstein affect sorting behaviour

    Tollefsen, Irene

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate a climate that is changing in a potentially catastrophic direction due to human influences, we need to develop sound environmental policies that abate these influences. And the changes need to come from changes in human behaviour. This paper compares two economic theories of human behaviour; the rational choice theory of neoclassic economics and the institutions-as-rationality-contexts (IRC) of institutional theory. Where rational choice theory views the individual as the correct ...

  11. Ombuds’ corner: Code of Conduct and change of behaviour

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Is our Code of Conduct actually effective in influencing behaviour? Research studies suggest that codes, while necessary, are insufficient as a means of encouraging respectful behaviour among employees. Codes are only a potential means of influencing employee behaviour. For a Code of Conduct to be effective, several elements must be in place. Firstly, there needs to be communication and effective training using relevant examples to make the code real. It should be embraced by the leaders and accepted by the personnel. Finally, it should be embedded in the CERN culture and not seen as a separate entity, which requires serious discussions to raise awareness. In addition, every c...

  12. FORMATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF POLYION COMPLEXES FOR ELECTROCHROMIC DISPLAY MATERIAL

    WAN Guoxiang; WANG Bing; DENG Zhenghua; LUO Chunqiao

    1988-01-01

    Formation of intermacromolecular complexes containing viologen and electron-transfer reaction occurred on the electrode modified by the complex films were studied. Compositions and morphology of the complexes depend on the properties of polyanion and chemical environment of complexation. The analytical results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk voltammetry(RDV) indicated: (1) active sites of viologen in network of complexes transferred single electron reversibly; (2) the redox peak currents showed excellent symmetry and stability; (3) redox potentials were related to properties of polyanions, varying from -0.4 to -0.6V (vs. SCE). Electrochromic materials with different displaying colors could be obtained by changing the structure of polyviologen.

  13. Steric hindrances create a discrete linear Dy4 complex exhibiting SMM behaviour.

    Lin, Shuang-Yan; Zhao, Lang; Ke, Hongshan; Guo, Yun-Nan; Tang, Jinkui; Guo, Yang; Dou, Jianmin

    2012-03-21

    Two linear tetranuclear lanthanide complexes of general formula [Ln(4)(L)(2)(C(6)H(5)COO)(12)(MeOH)(4)], where HL = 2,6-bis((furan-2-ylmethylimino)methyl)-4-methylphenol, () and Ln(III) = Dy(III) (1) and Gd(III) (2), have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structural analysis demonstrates that two Schiff-base ligands inhibit the growth of benzoate bridged 1D chains, leading to the isolation of discrete tetranuclear complexes due to their steric hindrances. Every Ln(III) ion is coordinated by eight donor atoms in a distorted bicapped trigonal-prismatic arrangement. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements of complex 1 reveal a frequency- and temperature-dependent out-of-phase signal under zero dc field, typical of single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour with an anisotropic barrier Δ(eff) = 17.2 K.

  14. Aetiological influences on stability and change in emotional and behavioural problems across development: a systematic review.

    Hannigan, L J; Walaker, N; Waszczuk, M A; McAdams, T A; Eley, T C

    2017-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence can be chronic and are predictive of future psychiatric problems. Understanding what factors drive the development and maintenance of these problems is therefore crucial. Longitudinal behavioural genetic studies using twin, sibling or adoption data can be used to explore the developmental aetiology of stability and change in childhood and adolescent psychopathology. We present a systematic review of longitudinal, behavioural genetic analyses of emotional and behavioural problems between ages 0 to 18 years. We identified 58 studies, of which 19 examined emotional problems, 30 examined behavioural problems, and 9 examined both. In the majority of studies, stability in emotional and behavioural problems was primarily genetically influenced. Stable environmental factors were also widely found, although these typically played a smaller role. Both genetic and environmental factors were involved in change across development. We discuss the findings in the context of the wider developmental literature and make recommendations for future research.

  15. Impact of individual behaviour change on the spread of emerging infectious diseases.

    Yan, Q L; Tang, S Y; Xiao, Y N

    2018-03-15

    Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of emerging infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour changes on epidemics can be key to improving control efforts. However, how the dynamics of individual behaviour changes affects the development of emerging infectious disease is a key public health issue. To develop different formula for individual behaviour change and introduce how to embed it into a dynamic model of infectious diseases, we choose A/H1N1 and Ebola as typical examples, combined with the epidemic reported cases and media related news reports. Thus, the logistic model with the health belief model is used to determine behaviour decisions through the health belief model constructs. Furthermore, we propose 4 candidate infectious disease models without and with individual behaviour change and use approximate Bayesian computation based on sequential Monte Carlo method for model selection. The main results indicate that the classical compartment model without behaviour change and the model with average rate of behaviour change depicted by an exponential function could fit the observed data best. The results provide a new way on how to choose an infectious disease model to predict the disease prevalence trend or to evaluate the influence of intervention measures on disease control. However, sensitivity analyses indicate that the accumulated number of hospital notifications and deaths could be largely reduced as the rate of behaviour change increases. Therefore, in terms of mitigating emerging infectious diseases, both media publicity focused on how to guide people's behaviour change and positive responses of individuals are critical. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cyber security in the workplace: Understanding and \\ud promoting behaviour change

    Blythe, John

    2013-01-01

    Cyber security and the role employees play in securing information are major concerns for businesses. The aim of this research is to explore employee security behaviours and design interventions that can motivate behaviour change. Previous research has focused on exploring factors that influence information security policy compliance; however there are several limitations with this approach. Our work-to-date has explored the behaviours that constitute ‘information security’ and potential infl...

  17. Existentialism and organization behaviour : How existentialism can have a contribution to complexity theory and sense-making

    Blomme, R.J.; Bornebroek te Lintelo, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to develop a conception consisting of insights from complexity theory and additional notions from Weick’s sense-making theory and existentialism for examining organization behaviour.

  18. Culturally compelling strategies for behaviour change: a social ecology model and case study in malaria prevention.

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Clarke, Sian E; Lomas, Heather; Pinder, Margaret; Lindsay, Steve W

    2006-06-01

    Behaviour change is notoriously difficult to initiate and sustain, and the reasons why efforts to promote healthy behaviours fail are coming under increasing scrutiny. To be successful, health interventions should build on existing practices, skills and priorities, recognise the constraints on human behaviour, and either feature community mobilisation or target those most receptive to change. Furthermore, interventions should strive to be culturally compelling, not merely culturally appropriate: they must engage local communities and nestle within social and ecological landscapes. In this paper, we propose a social ecology perspective to make explicit the links between intention to change, actual behaviour change, and subsequent health impact, as relating to both theory-based models and practical strategies for triggering behaviour change. A social ecology model focuses attention on the contexts of behaviour when designing, implementing or critically evaluating interventions. As a case study, we reflect on a community-directed intervention in rural Gambia designed to reduce malaria by promoting a relatively simple and low-cost behaviour: repairing holes in mosquito bednets. In phase 1, contextual information on bednet usage, transactions and repairs (the 'social lives' of nets) was documented. In phase 2 (intervention), songs were composed and posters displayed by community members to encourage repairs, creating a sense of ownership and a compelling medium for the transmission of health messages. In phase 3 (evaluation), qualitative and quantitative data showed that household responses were particularly rapid and extensive, with significant increase in bednet repairs (psocial ecology-of behaviour practices that are the bedrock of health interventions.

  19. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence ...

    Joshua Kembo

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Terms & Conditions of ... Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young .... Communities are urged to give young people opportunities to play a role in poli-.

  20. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  1. The transtheoretical model and strategies of European fitness professionals to support clients in changing health-related behaviour: A survey study

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) is often used to understand and predict changes in health related behaviour, for example exercise behaviour and eating behaviour. Fitness professionals like personal trainers typically service and support clients in improving

  2. A Complex Interplay: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Severe Health Anxiety in Addison's Disease to Reduce Emergency Department Admissions.

    Daniels, Jo; Sheils, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Addison's disease (AD) is a rare chronic illness caused by adrenocortical insufficiency. Due to the pivotal role of the regulating hormone cortisol in AD, there is a common symptom overlap between the presentation of anxiety and adrenal crisis. Previous literature has identified the prevalence of anxiety in endocrinological disorders, however there is a paucity of research examining the complex interplay between AD and anxiety. This paper describes a single case study of a patient with severe health anxiety and co-morbid AD. The aims of the study were to establish if standard cognitive behavioural therapy for health anxiety in AD can lead to a reduction in psychological distress, and whether this approach is an effective intervention for the reduction of Emergency Department admissions. A single case design was used, with pre- and post-measures of health anxiety, general anxiety and depression. Data on Emergency Department admissions prior to and following treatment were used to assess change in this domain. Reliable and clinically significant reductions were seen across all measures, from severe to sub-clinical levels. There was a complete amelioration of Emergency Department admissions in the 12 months following completion of treatment. This preliminary study provides a sound rationale for further research into AD complicated by anxiety. Findings support the clinical utility of the cognitive behavioural therapy model for complex presentations of AD, offering a potential treatment option where anxiety is elevated and interfering with self-management and leading to high levels of health service use.

  3. System complexity and (im)possible sound changes

    Seinhorst, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    In the acquisition of phonological patterns, learners tend to considerably reduce the complexity of their input. This learning bias may also constrain the set of possible sound changes, which might be expected to contain only those changes that do not increase the complexity of the system. However,

  4. A Method for Co-Designing Theory-Based Behaviour Change Systems for Health Promotion.

    Janols, Rebecka; Lindgren, Helena

    2017-01-01

    A methodology was defined and developed for designing theory-based behaviour change systems for health promotion that can be tailored to the individual. Theories from two research fields were combined with a participatory action research methodology. Two case studies applying the methodology were conducted. During and between group sessions the participants created material and designs following the behaviour change strategy themes, which were discussed, analysed and transformed into a design of a behaviour change system. Theories in behavioural change and persuasive technology guided the data collection, data analyses, and the design of a behaviour change system. The methodology has strong emphasis on the target group's participation in the design process. The different aspects brought forward related to behaviour change strategies defined in literature on persuasive technology, and the dynamics of these are associated to needs and motivation defined in literature on behaviour change. It was concluded that the methodology aids the integration of theories into a participatory action research design process, and aids the analyses and motivations of design choices.

  5. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in developing countries: a review.

    Barnes, Brendon R

    2014-04-25

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983-2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%-98% in laboratory settings and 31%-94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1) based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2) have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies) to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  6. Health professional perspectives on lifestyle behaviour change in the paediatric hospital setting: a qualitative study.

    Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole

    2014-03-13

    Research exists examining the challenges of delivering lifestyle behaviour change initiatives in practice. However, at present much of this research has been conducted with primary care health professionals, or in acute adult hospital settings. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators associated with implementing routine lifestyle behaviour change brief advice into practice in an acute children's hospital. Thirty-three health professionals (nurses, junior doctors, allied health professionals and clinical support staff) from inpatient and outpatient departments at a UK children's hospital were interviewed about their attitudes and beliefs towards supporting lifestyle behaviour change in hospital patients and their families. Responses were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Health professionals identified a range of barriers and facilitators to supporting lifestyle behaviour change in a children's hospital. These included (1) personal experience of effectiveness, (2) constraints associated with the hospital environment, (3) appropriateness of advice delivery given the patient's condition and care pathway and (4) job role priorities, and (5) perceived benefits of the advice given. Delivery of lifestyle behaviour change advice was often seen as an educational activity, rather than a behaviour change activity. Factors underpinning the successful delivery of routine lifestyle behaviour change support must be understood if this is to be implemented effectively in paediatric acute settings. This study reveals key areas where paediatric health professionals may need further support and training to achieve successful implementation.

  7. Behaviour change counselling--how do I know if I am doing it well? The development of the Behaviour Change Counselling Scale (BCCS).

    Vallis, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to operationalize behaviour change counselling skills (motivation enhancement, behaviour modification, emotion management) that facilitate self-management support activities and evaluate the psychometric properties of an expert rater scale, the Behaviour Change Counselling Scale (BCCS). Twenty-one healthcare providers with varying levels of behaviour change counselling training interviewed a simulated patient. Videotapes were independently rated by 3 experts on 2 occasions over 6 months. Data on item/subscale characteristics, interrater and test-retest reliability, preliminary data on construct reliability, were reported. All items of the BCCS performed well with the exception of 3 that were dropped due to infrequent endorsement. Most subscales showed strong psychometric properties. Interrater and test-retest reliability coefficients were uniformly high. Competency scores improved significantly from pre- to posttraining. Behaviour change counselling skills to guide lifestyle interventions can be operationalized and assessed in a reliable and valid manner. The BCCS can be used to guide clinical training in lifestyle counselling by operationalizing the component skills and providing feedback on skill achieved. Further research is needed to establish cut scores for competency and scale construct and criterion validity. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Complexities of Constitutional Change in the Philippines

    Saunders, Cheryl; Yusingco, Michael Henry

    2018-01-01

    President Rodrigo Duterte assumed office in July 2016, His party, PDP-Laban, had campaigned under the slogan: “No to Drugs, Yes to Federalism”. Duterte thus is committed to shepherding the Philippines towards a federal form of government; an undertaking that would require an extensive overhaul of the country’s constitution. The future of constitutional change under Duterte in any event is uncertain for a series of constitutional and political reasons. Critically, some of the most pressing of ...

  9. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behaviour

    Loyd Beal III; Jacqueline M. Stavros; Matthew L. Cole

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap) is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change. Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), in which OCB...

  10. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  11. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    Ismael Velasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable development (ESD intervention that is already established as pedagogically effective when it is deployed in diverse institutional environments worldwide—the Youth as Agents of Behaviour Change program of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC. This allows an opportunity to consider variations in learning transfer due to distinctive moderating institutional features, which can now be understood in terms of varying transfer climates, levels of leadership support and opportunities to practice. Additional barriers of tokenistic consultation, lack of role clarity and perverse effects of increased distance between trainees and their colleagues on return were also seen. ESD programs intending to bridge the values-action gap could benefit from not focusing only on the training content, but pre-planning organisational support for returning trainees and including in the training ways for them to assess and plan to overcome such difficulties.

  12. Magneto and spectral behaviour of lanthanide(III) perchlorate complexes of n-isonicotinamidoanisalaldimine

    Agarwal, R.K.; Agarwal, Himanshu; Sarin, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A new series of lanthanide(III) perchlorate complexes of N-isonicotinamidoanisalaldimine (INH-SAL) with the general composition (Ln(INH-SAL) 4 )(ClO) 4 ) 3 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb or Dy) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, conductance, molecular weight, infrared and electronic spectral data. INH-SAL acts as a bidentate (N, O) chelating agents. The tentative coordination number eight has been assigned. Thermal behaviour of some representative chelates has also been investigated. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Dynamical complexity changes during two forms of meditation

    Li, Jin; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Yinhong; Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2011-06-01

    Detection of dynamical complexity changes in natural and man-made systems has deep scientific and practical meaning. We use the base-scale entropy method to analyze dynamical complexity changes for heart rate variability (HRV) series during specific traditional forms of Chinese Chi and Kundalini Yoga meditation techniques in healthy young adults. The results show that dynamical complexity decreases in meditation states for two forms of meditation. Meanwhile, we detected changes in probability distribution of m-words during meditation and explained this changes using probability distribution of sine function. The base-scale entropy method may be used on a wider range of physiologic signals.

  14. Beyond Lip Service: A Council Approach to Planning for Behaviour Change

    Collier, Grahame; Smith, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The Council of the City of Sydney--like many other councils around Australia--has embarked on a whole-of-council approach to establishing sustainable behaviours amongst its residents. In developing its "Residential Environmental Action Plan"--designed to motivate and bring about real change in resident choices and behaviours--the City…

  15. Predicting Change in Emotional and Behavioural Problems during Inpatient Treatment in Clients with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Tenneij, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about client characteristics that are related to outcome during inpatient treatment of adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) and severe behavioural problems. Method: We explored variables that were related to a change in behavioural problems in 87 individuals with mild ID during inpatient treatment in facilities…

  16. The Relationship between Acquired Impairments of Executive Function and Behaviour Change in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Adams, Dawn; Oliver, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The latter stages of dementia in individuals with Down syndrome are well documented; however, earlier cognitive and behavioural changes have only recently been described. Holland et al. suggested such early signs of dementia in this population are behavioural and are similar to those seen in frontotemporal dementia, but there is, as…

  17. Behavioural Change in Type 1 Diabetes Self-Management: Why and How?

    Wilson, Valerie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the communication process between diabetes health professionals and people intensively self-managing their type 1 diabetes influenced behavioural change. Design: Telephone interviews to provide insight into the communication process and its influence on diabetes intensive self-management behaviour. Setting:…

  18. An evaluation of the behaviour-change techniques used on Canadian cancer centre Web sites to support physical activity behaviour for breast cancer survivors.

    Sylvester, B D; Zammit, K; Fong, A J; Sabiston, C M

    2017-12-01

    Cancer centre Web sites can be a useful tool for distributing information about the benefits of physical activity for breast cancer (bca) survivors, and they hold potential for supporting health behaviour change. However, the extent to which cancer centre Web sites use evidence-based behaviour change techniques to foster physical activity behaviour among bca survivors is currently unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presentation of behaviour-change techniques on Canadian cancer centre Web sites to promote physical activity behaviour for bca survivors. All Canadian cancer centre Web sites ( n = 39) were evaluated by two raters using the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (calo-re) taxonomy of behaviour change techniques and the eEurope 2002 Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The most common behaviour change techniques used on Web sites were providing information about consequences in general (80%), suggesting goal-setting behaviour (56%), and planning social support or social change (46%). Overall, Canadian cancer centre Web sites presented an average of M = 6.31 behaviour change techniques (of 40 that were coded) to help bca survivors increase their physical activity behaviour. Evidence of quality factors ranged from 90% (sites that provided evidence of readability) to 0% (sites that provided an editorial policy). Our results provide preliminary evidence that, of 40 behaviour-change techniques that were coded, fewer than 20% were used to promote physical activity behaviour to bca survivors on cancer centre Web sites, and that the most effective techniques were inconsistently used. On cancer centre Web sites, health promotion specialists could focus on emphasizing knowledge mobilization efforts using available research into behaviour-change techniques to help bca survivors increase their physical activity.

  19. Behavioural Changes in Rats Internally Contaminated with Caesium-137

    Ramboiu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The effect of low doses of 137 Cs on the exercise performances, behavioural and learning processes in rats is analysed. The experiments were performed on albino male and female Wistar rats. The animals were divided as follows: two groups, M 1 and F 1 (males and females) internally contaminated with 490 Bq 137 Cs by milk ingestion during 34 days, groups M 2 and F 2 , internally contaminated with 283 Bq by ingestion of milk during 38 days and two control groups. The duration of forced swimming, the active avoidance reaction and the total latency time in the shuttle-box and the score of aggressive behaviour were analysed. The following results were obtained: (1) the duration of forced swimming decreased significantly in the contaminated groups as compared with controls. (2) The active avoidance reaction in the shuttle-box increased in female groups and decrease in male groups. (3) The total latency time of the same reaction was lower in animals internally contaminated with 137 Cs in the first day of learning. (4) The score of aggressive behavioural rise significantly, especially in female groups. The results can be explained by neurotoxic action of the caesium on several central neural areas including monoaminergic and endocrine mechanisms and sex dependence of caesium accumulation in the organism. (author)

  20. Changes in the acoustic environment alter the foraging and sheltering behaviour of the cichlid Amititlania nigrofasciata.

    McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic noise can affect behaviour across a wide range of species in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, behaviours might not be affected in isolation. Therefore, a more holistic approach investigating how environmental stressors, such as noise pollution, affect different behaviours in concert is necessary. Using tank-based noise exposure experiments, we tested how changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of the cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata. We found that exposure to anthropogenic noise affected a couple of behaviours: an increase in sheltering was accompanied by a decrease in foraging. Our results highlight the multiple negative effects of an environmental stressor on an individual's behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behaviour

    Loyd Beal III

    2013-09-01

    Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB, in which OCB served as an index for measuring positive organisational change. Motivation for the study: Little empirical research has investigated the application of positive organisational behaviour to government organisations undergoing organisational change. Organisations can use the study results to increase positive outcomes and reduce resistance in government organisations experiencing a holistic change intervention. Research design, approach and method: The data comprised a cross-sectional survey of 97 employees from a government organisation that provides life-cycle career management support. Employees completed the 24-item psychological capital questionnaire, the 16-item organisational citizenship behaviour scale and the 17-item resistance to change scale. Data analyses used a mixed methods approach to merge quantitative inferential statistics with qualitative thematic analysis. Main findings: The quantitative analysis yielded high levels of resistance to change that moderated the positive effect of PsyCap on organisational citizenship behaviour. The thematic analysis revealed that affective, behavioural and cognitive forms of resistance to change were prevalent. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational leaders should seek to reduce resistance and increase the resources that organisations need to effect positive organisational change. Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the growing body of knowledge about positive organisational behaviour in government organisations.

  2. Complex tasks force hand laterality and technological behaviour in naturalistically housed chimpanzees: inferences in hominin evolution.

    Mosquera, M; Geribàs, N; Bargalló, A; Llorente, M; Riba, D

    2012-01-01

    Clear hand laterality patterns in humans are widely accepted. However, humans only elicit a significant hand laterality pattern when performing complementary role differentiation (CRD) tasks. Meanwhile, hand laterality in chimpanzees is weaker and controversial. Here we have reevaluated our results on hand laterality in chimpanzees housed in naturalistic environments at Fundació Mona (Spain) and Chimfunshi Wild Orphanage (Zambia). Our results show that the difference between hand laterality in humans and chimpanzees is not as great as once thought. Furthermore, we found a link between hand laterality and task complexity and also an even more interesting connection: CRD tasks elicited not only the hand laterality but also the use of tools. This paper aims to turn attention to the importance of this threefold connection in human evolution: the link between CRD tasks, hand laterality, and tool use, which has important evolutionary implications that may explain the development of complex behaviour in early hominins.

  3. Behaviour of the recoil atom in anionic, cationic and double Co-complexes

    Di Risio, C.; Marques, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal annealing of damages caused by the (n, γ) reaction in solid phase cobalt complexes has been studied. This study is based on the annealing of cationic and anionic sites for cis-[Co(en) 2 (NO 2 ) 2 ] [CoEDTA] 3H 2 O, in comparison with the behaviour of simple complexes like cis-[Co(en) 2 (NO 2 ) 2 ] Cl and [CoEDTA] 2 Ba.4H 2 O (en: etilendiamin). Competition between the annealing and chemical descomposition processes is analyzed for different crystalline systems. The separation of the different chemical species was carried out by paper electrophoresis. Using isothermal annealing analysis data, speed constants for each reaction are obtained. (author) [es

  4. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    Aini, M.S.; Chan, S.C.; Syuhaily, O.

    2013-01-01

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  5. Can existing mobile apps support healthier food purchasing behaviour? Content analysis of nutrition content, behaviour change theory and user quality integration.

    Flaherty, Sarah-Jane; McCarthy, Mary; Collins, Alan; McAuliffe, Fionnuala

    2018-02-01

    To assess the quality of nutrition content and the integration of user quality components and behaviour change theory relevant to food purchasing behaviour in a sample of existing mobile apps. Descriptive comparative analysis of eleven mobile apps comprising an assessment of their alignment with existing evidence on nutrition, behaviour change and user quality, and their potential ability to support healthier food purchasing behaviour. Mobile apps freely available for public use in GoogePlay were assessed and scored according to agreed criteria to assess nutrition content quality and integration of behaviour change theory and user quality components. A sample of eleven mobile apps that met predefined inclusion criteria to ensure relevance and good quality. The quality of the nutrition content varied. Improvements to the accuracy and appropriateness of nutrition content are needed to ensure mobile apps support a healthy behaviour change process and are accessible to a wider population. There appears to be a narrow focus towards behaviour change with an overemphasis on behavioural outcomes and a small number of behaviour change techniques, which may limit effectiveness. A significant effort from the user was required to use the mobile apps appropriately which may negatively influence user acceptability and subsequent utilisation. Existing mobile apps may offer a potentially effective approach to supporting healthier food purchasing behaviour but improvements in mobile app design are required to maximise their potential effectiveness. Engagement of mobile app users and nutrition professionals is recommended to support effective design.

  6. Changes in learning and foraging behaviour within developing bumble bee (Bombus terrestris colonies.

    Lisa J Evans

    Full Text Available Organisation in eusocial insect colonies emerges from the decisions and actions of its individual members. In turn, these decisions and actions are influenced by the individual's behaviour (or temperament. Although there is variation in the behaviour of individuals within a colony, we know surprisingly little about how (or indeed if the types of behaviour present in a colony change over time. Here, for the first time, we assessed potential changes in the behavioural type of foragers during colony development. Using an ecologically relevant foraging task, we measured the decision speed and learning ability of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris at different stages of colony development. We determined whether individuals that forage early in the colony life cycle (the queen and early emerging workers behaved differently from workers that emerge and forage at the end of colony development. Whilst we found no overall change in the foraging behaviour of workers with colony development, there were strong differences in foraging behaviour between queens and their workers. Queens appeared to forage more cautiously than their workers and were also quicker to learn. These behaviours could allow queens to maximise their nectar collecting efficiency whilst avoiding predation. Because the foundress queen is crucial to the survival and success of a bumble bee colony, more efficient foraging behaviour in queens may have strong adaptive value.

  7. A Systematic Review of Genetic Testing and Lifestyle Behaviour Change: Are We Using High-Quality Genetic Interventions and Considering Behaviour Change Theory?

    Horne, Justine; Madill, Janet; O'Connor, Colleen; Shelley, Jacob; Gilliland, Jason

    2018-04-10

    Studying the impact of genetic testing interventions on lifestyle behaviour change has been a priority area of research in recent years. Substantial heterogeneity exists in the results and conclusions of this literature, which has yet to be explained using validated behaviour change theory and an assessment of the quality of genetic interventions. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) helps to explain key contributors to behaviour change. It has been hypothesized that personalization could be added to this theory to help predict changes in health behaviours. This systematic review provides a detailed, comprehensive identification, assessment, and summary of primary research articles pertaining to lifestyle behaviour change (nutrition, physical activity, sleep, and smoking) resulting from genetic testing interventions. The present review further aims to provide in-depth analyses of studies conducted to date within the context of the TPB and the quality of genetic interventions provided to participants while aiming to determine whether or not genetic testing facilitates changes in lifestyle habits. This review is timely in light of a recently published "call-to-action" paper, highlighting the need to incorporate the TPB into personalized healthcare behaviour change research. Three bibliographic databases, one key website, and article reference lists were searched for relevant primary research articles. The PRISMA Flow Diagram and PRISMA Checklist were used to guide the search strategy and manuscript preparation. Out of 32,783 titles retrieved, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three quality assessments were conducted and included: (1) risk of bias, (2) quality of genetic interventions, and (3) consideration of theoretical underpinnings - primarily the TPB. Risk of bias in studies was overall rated to be "fair." Consideration of the TPB was "poor," with no study making reference to this validated theory. While some studies (n = 11; 42%) made reference to other

  8. Behaviour change strategies for reducing blood pressure-related disease burden: findings from a global implementation research programme.

    Peiris, David; Thompson, Simon R; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Goudge, Jane; Gyamfi, Joyce; Kamano, Jemima Hoine; Irazola, Vilma; Johnson, Claire; Kengne, Andre P; Keat, Ng Kien; Miranda, J Jaime; Mohan, Sailesh; Mukasa, Barbara; Ng, Eleanor; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Praveen, Devarsetty; Salam, Abdul; Thorogood, Margaret; Thrift, Amanda G; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Waddy, Salina P; Webster, Jacqui; Webster, Ruth; Yeates, Karen; Yusoff, Khalid

    2015-11-09

    The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases comprises the majority of the world's public research funding agencies. It is focussed on implementation research to tackle the burden of chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries and amongst vulnerable populations in high-income countries. In its inaugural research call, 15 projects were funded, focussing on lowering blood pressure-related disease burden. In this study, we describe a reflexive mapping exercise to identify the behaviour change strategies undertaken in each of these projects. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework, each team rated the capability, opportunity and motivation of the various actors who were integral to each project (e.g. community members, non-physician health workers and doctors in projects focussed on service delivery). Teams then mapped the interventions they were implementing and determined the principal policy categories in which those interventions were operating. Guidance was provided on the use of Behaviour Change Wheel to support consistency in responses across teams. Ratings were iteratively discussed and refined at several group meetings. There was marked variation in the perceived capabilities, opportunities and motivation of the various actors who were being targeted for behaviour change strategies. Despite this variation, there was a high degree of synergy in interventions functions with most teams utilising complex interventions involving education, training, enablement, environmental restructuring and persuasion oriented strategies. Similar policy categories were also targeted across teams particularly in the areas of guidelines, communication/marketing and service provision with few teams focussing on fiscal measures, regulation and legislation. The large variation in preparedness to change behaviour amongst the principal actors across these projects suggests that the interventions themselves will be variably taken up, despite the similarity in approaches taken

  9. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    Emma Norris

    2015-09-01

    Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.

  10. Building low carbon communities in China: The role of individual’s behaviour change and engagement

    Jiang, Ping; Chen, Yihui; Xu, Bin; Dong, Wenbo; Kennedy, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Low carbon sustainability has been addressed in China’s national development strategies. This research explores individual behaviour change and engagement in building low carbon communities in China through a case study looking at the building of a low carbon campus at Fudan University, Shanghai. Individual behaviour directly influences the overall energy consumption and carbon emissions on Fudan University’s campus. Even though relevant polices have been issued for energy conservation, the energy consumption increased by 5% every year, which suggests that the “top-down” approach telling students and staff “what to do” does not work effectively. Based on a comprehensive method which includes the individual and social aspects related to the energy behaviour, the research analyses the promotion of individual engagement in building a low carbon campus through behaviour change based on four main aspects: (1) awareness raising and behaviour forming; (2) approaches to encourage behaviour change; (3) beyond the barriers and the constraints; and (4) systems and mechanisms for the long-term engagement. A low carbon management system is proposed for not only addressing management and technical solutions at the university level, but also based on the contributions from behaviour changes in establishing a low carbon campus at Fudan University at the individual level. - Highlights: • The “top-down” approach is not an effective way to building low carbon communities in China. • Individuals’ behaviour change and engagement play a key role in low carbon sustainability. • Awareness raising, proper approaches and sound mechanisms are necessary to encourage long-term behaviour changes. • An integrated management system is developed for comprehensibly establishing a low carbon campus at Fudan University

  11. A review of behaviour change theories and techniques used in group based self-management programmes for chronic low back pain and arthritis.

    Keogh, Alison; Tully, Mark A; Matthews, James; Hurley, Deirdre A

    2015-12-01

    Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines recommend applying theory within complex interventions to explain how behaviour change occurs. Guidelines endorse self-management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) and osteoarthritis (OA), but evidence for its effectiveness is weak. This literature review aimed to determine the use of behaviour change theory and techniques within randomised controlled trials of group-based self-management programmes for chronic musculoskeletal pain, specifically CLBP and OA. A two-phase search strategy of electronic databases was used to identify systematic reviews and studies relevant to this area. Articles were coded for their use of behaviour change theory, and the number of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) was identified using a 93-item taxonomy, Taxonomy (v1). 25 articles of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which only three reported having based their intervention on theory, and all used Social Cognitive Theory. A total of 33 BCTs were coded across all articles with the most commonly identified techniques being 'instruction on how to perform the behaviour', 'demonstration of the behaviour', 'behavioural practice', 'credible source', 'graded tasks' and 'body changes'. Results demonstrate that theoretically driven research within group based self-management programmes for chronic musculoskeletal pain is lacking, or is poorly reported. Future research that follows recommended guidelines regarding the use of theory in study design and reporting is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Celebrating variability and a call to limit systematisation: the example of the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy and the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Ogden, Jane

    2016-09-01

    Within any discipline there is always a degree of variability. For medicine it takes the form of Health Professional's behaviour, for education it's the style and content of the classroom, and for health psychology, it can be found in patient's behaviour, the theories used and clinical practice. Over recent years, attempts have been made to reduce this variability through the use of the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy, the COM-B and the Behaviour Change Wheel. This paper argues that although the call for better descriptions of what is done is useful for clarity and replication, this systematisation may be neither feasible nor desirable. In particular, it is suggested that the gaps inherent in the translational process from coding a protocol to behaviour will limit the effectiveness of reducing patient variability, that theory variability is necessary for the health and well-being of a discipline and that practice variability is central to the professional status of our practitioners. It is therefore argued that we should celebrate rather than remove this variability in order for our discipline to thrive and for us to remain as professionals rather than as technicians.

  13. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Chris Keyworth

    2015-10-01

    Thirteen of the 19 (68% studies using computerised decision support showed positive effects; 8 of the 12 (67% studies using reminders alone showed positive effects. One of 3 (33% studies using diagnostic/risk assessment tools showed positive effects. Only two (4% of the fifty studies identified were informed by recognised behaviour change theories in the design of the intervention, both of which showed positive effects in changing professional behaviour. O

  14. Behaviour change and associated factors among female sex workers in Kenya.

    Nyagero, Josephat; Wangila, Samuel; Kutai, Vincent; Olango, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives aimed at behaviour change of key populations such as the female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal in reducing the transmission of HIV. An 8-year implementation research to establish the predictor factors of behaviour change among FSWs in Kenya was initiated by the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) with Sida and DfID support. This cross-sectional survey interviewed 159 female sex workers (FSWs) identified through snowball procedure. The measurement of behaviour change was based on: the consistent use of condoms with both regular and non regular clients, reduced number of clients, routine checks for STIs, and involvement in alternative income generating activities. The adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval computed during binary logistic regression analysis were used to determine the behaviour change predictor factors. Most FSWs (84%) had participated in AMREF's integrated intervention programme for at least one year and 59.1% had gone through behaviour change. The adjusted odds ratio showed that the FSWs with secondary education were 2.23 times likely to change behaviour, protestants were 4.61 times, those in sex work for >4 years were 2.36 times, FSWs with good HIV prevention knowledge were 4.37 times, and those engaged in alternative income generating activities were 2.30 times more likely to change their behaviour compared to respective counterparts. Behaviour change among FSWs was possible and is associated with the level of education, religious affiliation, number of years in sex work and one's level of HIV prevention knowledge. A re-orientation on the peer education programme to focus on HIV preventive measures beyond use of condoms is emphasized.

  15. A refined taxonomy of behaviour change techniques to help people change their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours: the CALO-RE taxonomy.

    Michie, Susan; Ashford, Stefanie; Sniehotta, Falko F; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Bishop, Alex; French, David P

    2011-11-01

    Current reporting of intervention content in published research articles and protocols is generally poor, with great diversity of terminology, resulting in low replicability. This study aimed to extend the scope and improve the reliability of a 26-item taxonomy of behaviour change techniques developed by Abraham and Michie [Abraham, C. and Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27(3), 379-387.] in order to optimise the reporting and scientific study of behaviour change interventions. Three UK study centres collaborated in applying this existing taxonomy to two systematic reviews of interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating. The taxonomy was refined in iterative steps of (1) coding intervention descriptions, and assessing inter-rater reliability, (2) identifying gaps and problems across study centres and (3) refining the labels and definitions based on consensus discussions. Labels and definitions were improved for all techniques, conceptual overlap between categories was resolved, some categories were split and 14 techniques were added, resulting in a 40-item taxonomy. Inter-rater reliability, assessed on 50 published intervention descriptions, was good (kappa = 0.79). This taxonomy can be used to improve the specification of interventions in published reports, thus improving replication, implementation and evidence syntheses. This will strengthen the scientific study of behaviour change and intervention development.

  16. Linking models of human behaviour and climate alters projected climate change

    Beckage, Brian; Gross, Louis J.; Lacasse, Katherine; Carr, Eric; Metcalf, Sara S.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Howe, Peter D.; Fefferman, Nina; Franck, Travis; Zia, Asim; Kinzig, Ann; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2018-01-01

    Although not considered in climate models, perceived risk stemming from extreme climate events may induce behavioural changes that alter greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we link the C-ROADS climate model to a social model of behavioural change to examine how interactions between perceived risk and emissions behaviour influence projected climate change. Our coupled climate and social model resulted in a global temperature change ranging from 3.4-6.2 °C by 2100 compared with 4.9 °C for the C-ROADS model alone, and led to behavioural uncertainty that was of a similar magnitude to physical uncertainty (2.8 °C versus 3.5 °C). Model components with the largest influence on temperature were the functional form of response to extreme events, interaction of perceived behavioural control with perceived social norms, and behaviours leading to sustained emissions reductions. Our results suggest that policies emphasizing the appropriate attribution of extreme events to climate change and infrastructural mitigation may reduce climate change the most.

  17. Behaviour change and social blinkers? The role of sociology in trials of self-management behaviour in chronic conditions.

    Ong, Bie Nio; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Bower, Peter; Sanders, Tom; Morden, Andrew; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Richardson, Jane C; Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-02-01

    Individual-focused self-management interventions are one response to both an ageing society and the purported increase in chronic conditions. They tend to draw on psychological theories in self-management interventions, but over-reliance on these theories can reinforce a narrow focus on specified attitudinal and behavioural processes, omitting aspects of living with a chronic condition. While advances have been made in health behaviour change theory and practice, scant attention has been paid to the social, with the question of social context remaining under-theorised and under-explored empirically. This is particularly noticeable in trials of behaviour change interventions for self-management. The common sociological critique is that these ignore context and thus no explanation can be given as to why, for whom and under what circumstances a treatment works. Conversely, sociologists are criticised for offering no positive suggestions as to how context can be taken into account and for over-emphasising context with the risk of inhibiting innovation. This article provides an overview of these issues and provides examples of how context can be incorporated into the rigid method of trials of self-management for chronic conditions. We discuss modifications to both trial interventions and design that make constructive use of the concept of context. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Behavioural change in an urban smart-grid community

    Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Emmalina; Spears, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Achieving long term behavioral change is a challenging task, especially when it comes to changing energy use habits. In our research we explore the social route to behavioral change, and examine how people influence each other in urban communities. We explore the conditions under which individuals

  19. Complex Adaptive Schools: Educational Leadership and School Change

    Kershner, Brad; McQuillan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper utilizes the theoretical framework of complexity theory to compare and contrast leadership and educational change in two urban schools. Drawing on the notion of a complex adaptive system--an interdependent network of interacting elements that learns and evolves in adapting to an ever-shifting context--our case studies seek to reveal the…

  20. Changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in severe functional somatic syndromes

    Christensen, Sara Sletten; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is substantial evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy alleviates symptoms in functional somatic syndromes, the mechanisms of change are less investigated. This study examined whether changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy....... Methods We analysed additional data from a randomised controlled trial comparing completers of cognitive behavioural group therapy (46 patients) to an enhanced usual care group (66 patients). Proposed mediators (illness perceptions) and primary (physical health) and secondary (somatic symptoms and illness...... worry) outcomes were assessed by means of questionnaires at referral, baseline, end of treatment, and 10 and 16 months after randomisation. Multiple mediation analysis determined whether (1) changes in specific illness perceptions during treatment mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy...

  1. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  2. CEOS Theory: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change.

    Borland, Ron

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal-directed behaviours only triumph over contingency-generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self-regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Strategies for Developing Positive Behaviour Management. Teacher Behaviour Outcomes and Attitudes to the Change Process

    Hayes, Ben; Hindle, Sarah; Withington, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an extended action research project run in a large secondary school over an 18-month period. The work was part of a wider strategy for change within the school. The data presented here describes some of the features of the change process and reflections on its impact. A key aim was to challenge and enable teachers to modify…

  4. The effectiveness of motivational interviewing for health behaviour change in primary care settings: a systematic review.

    Morton, Katie; Beauchamp, Mark; Prothero, Anna; Joyce, Lauren; Saunders, Laura; Spencer-Bowdage, Sarah; Dancy, Bernadette; Pedlar, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centred approach to behaviour change that was originally developed in the addiction field but has increasingly been applied to public health settings with a focus on health promotion. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence base for MI interventions in primary care settings with non-clinical populations to achieve behaviour change for physical activity, dietary behaviours and/or alcohol intake. We also sought to explore the specific behaviour change techniques included in MI interventions within primary care. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles and 33 papers met inclusion criteria and were included. Approximately 50% of the included studies (n = 18) demonstrated positive effects in relation to health behaviour change. The efficacy of MI approaches is unclear given the inconsistency of MI descriptions and intervention components. Furthermore, research designs that do not isolate the effects of MI make it difficult to determine the effectiveness of such approaches. We offer a number of recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking to include MI within behaviour change interventions to help improve the quality of the research and the effectiveness of MI-based interventions within primary care settings.

  5. An automated approach towards detecting complex behaviours in deep brain oscillations.

    Mace, Michael; Yousif, Nada; Naushahi, Mohammad; Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Khondaker; Wang, Shouyan; Nandi, Dipankar; Vaidyanathan, Ravi

    2014-03-15

    Extracting event-related potentials (ERPs) from neurological rhythms is of fundamental importance in neuroscience research. Standard ERP techniques typically require the associated ERP waveform to have low variance, be shape and latency invariant and require many repeated trials. Additionally, the non-ERP part of the signal needs to be sampled from an uncorrelated Gaussian process. This limits methods of analysis to quantifying simple behaviours and movements only when multi-trial data-sets are available. We introduce a method for automatically detecting events associated with complex or large-scale behaviours, where the ERP need not conform to the aforementioned requirements. The algorithm is based on the calculation of a detection contour and adaptive threshold. These are combined using logical operations to produce a binary signal indicating the presence (or absence) of an event with the associated detection parameters tuned using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. To validate the proposed methodology, deep brain signals were recorded from implanted electrodes in patients with Parkinson's disease as they participated in a large movement-based behavioural paradigm. The experiment involved bilateral recordings of local field potentials from the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) and pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) during an orientation task. After tuning, the algorithm is able to extract events achieving training set sensitivities and specificities of [87.5 ± 6.5, 76.7 ± 12.8, 90.0 ± 4.1] and [92.6 ± 6.3, 86.0 ± 9.0, 29.8 ± 12.3] (mean ± 1 std) for the three subjects, averaged across the four neural sites. Furthermore, the methodology has the potential for utility in real-time applications as only a single-trial ERP is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  7. Development of a behaviour change communication tool for medical students: the 'Tent Pegs' booklet.

    Chisholm, Anna; Hart, Jo; Mann, Karen; Peters, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To describe the development and validation of a behaviour change communication tool for medical students. Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified within the literature and used to inform a communication tool to support medical students in discussing health-related behaviour change with patients. BCTs were organized into an accessible format for medical students (the 'Tent Pegs' booklet) and validated using discriminant content validity methods with 11 expert judges. One-sample t-tests showed that judges reliably mapped BCTs onto six of the seven Tent Pegs domains (confidence rating means ranged from 4.0 to 5.1 out of 10, all p≤0.002). Only BCTs within the 'empowering people to change' domain were not significantly different from the value zero (mean confidence rating=1.2, p>0.05); these BCTs were most frequently allocated to the 'addressing thoughts and emotions' domain instead. BCTs within the Tent Pegs booklet are reliably allocated to corresponding behaviour change domains with the exception of those within the 'empowering people to change' domain. The existing evidence-base on BCTs can be used to directly inform development of a communication tool to support medical students facilitate health behaviour change with patients. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The popularisation of Positive Psychology as a defence against behavioural complexity in research and organisations

    Frans Cilliers

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the systems psychodynamic nature of the manifesting defensive structures operating in Positive Psychology. Motivation for the study: The study investigated the popularity of Positive Psychology amongst academics, students and organisational consultants and the tendency to avoid the complexity of the relatedness between positive and negative as part of the human condition. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research by means of a Listening Post was used, consisting of six psychologists in their roles as lecturers and organisational consultants. Thematic analyses led to the formulation of various working hypotheses, integrated into a research hypothesis. Main findings: Four themes manifested – namely, the manifesting defence mechanisms, a reluctance to relinquish positive psychology as an object of hope, a need to guard against being too hasty in breaking down positive psychology and a need for a psychology that can engage us in a conversation about integrating the complexities of the human condition. Practical/managerial implications: The findings were linked to Deo Strümpfer’s work, indicating that Positive Psychology originated in early 20th century psychology, which is indeed not about simplification, but is imbedded in the complexity of various behavioural continua. Contribution/value-add: Academics, students and organisational consultants are encouraged to revisit Strümpfer’s work to ensure that this psychology is appreciated for its depth and quality.

  9. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    French Simon D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s of delivery could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be

  10. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; O'Connor, Denise A; McKenzie, Joanne E; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Schattner, Peter; Spike, Neil; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2012-04-24

    There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a

  11. Changing the Work Behaviour of Chinese Employees Using Organisational Learning

    Elsey, Barry; Leung, Johnny Sai-Kwong

    2004-01-01

    The management of workplace change takes place in many industry contexts and micro-settings using a variety of approaches, all of which are widely reported in the academic and professional literature. There is less known about workplace change management in the context of an international company employing large numbers of Mainland Chinese…

  12. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid changes in genetic architecture of behavioural syndromes following colonization of a novel environment.

    Karlsson Green, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Harris, S; Pettersson, L B; Svensson, E I

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural syndromes, that is correlated behaviours, may be a result from adaptive correlational selection, but in a new environmental setting, the trait correlation might act as an evolutionary constraint. However, knowledge about the quantitative genetic basis of behavioural syndromes, and the stability and evolvability of genetic correlations under different ecological conditions, is limited. We investigated the quantitative genetic basis of correlated behaviours in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. In some Swedish lakes, A. aquaticus has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes, presumably due to habitat-specific selection from predation. Using a common garden approach and animal model analyses, we estimated quantitative genetic parameters for behavioural traits and compared the genetic architecture between the ecotypes. We report that the genetic covariance structure of the behavioural traits has been altered in the novel ecotype, demonstrating divergence in behavioural correlations. Thus, our study confirms that genetic correlations behind behaviours can change rapidly in response to novel selective environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. The complexity of language change: The case of Ancient Hebrew ...

    This article develops a theory of language change and diffusion in the light of new developments in contemporary linguistics on the themes of language evolution and the rise of linguistic complexity. The core assumptions of this article are, first, the fact that a language inevitably changes and diffuses over time and, second, ...

  15. Co-Occurrence of Language and Behavioural Change in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    Jennifer M. Harris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of language and behavioural impairment in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD spectrum pathology. Methods: Eighty-one dementia patients with pathological confirmation of FTLD were identified. Anonymized clinical records from patients' first assessment were rated for language and behavioural features from frontotemporal dementia consensus criteria, primary progressive aphasia (PPA criteria and 1998 FTLD criteria. Results: Over 90% of patients with FTLD pathology exhibited a combination of at least one behavioural and one language feature. Changes in language, in particular, were commonly accompanied by behavioural change. Notably, the majority of patients who displayed language features characteristic of semantic variant PPA exhibited ‘early perseverative, stereotyped or compulsive/ritualistic behaviour'. Moreover, ‘executive/generation deficits with relative sparing of memory and visuospatial functions' occurred in most patients with core features of non-fluent variant PPA. Conclusion: Behavioural and language symptoms frequently co-occur in patients with FTLD pathology. Current classifications, which separate behavioural and language syndromes, do not reflect this co-occurrence.

  16. Co-Occurrence of Language and Behavioural Change in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

    Harris, Jennifer M; Jones, Matthew; Gall, Claire; Richardson, Anna M T; Neary, David; du Plessis, Daniel; Pal, Piyali; Mann, David M A; Snowden, Julie S; Thompson, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of language and behavioural impairment in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum pathology. Eighty-one dementia patients with pathological confirmation of FTLD were identified. Anonymized clinical records from patients' first assessment were rated for language and behavioural features from frontotemporal dementia consensus criteria, primary progressive aphasia (PPA) criteria and 1998 FTLD criteria. Over 90% of patients with FTLD pathology exhibited a combination of at least one behavioural and one language feature. Changes in language, in particular, were commonly accompanied by behavioural change. Notably, the majority of patients who displayed language features characteristic of semantic variant PPA exhibited 'early perseverative, stereotyped or compulsive/ritualistic behaviour'. Moreover, 'executive/generation deficits with relative sparing of memory and visuospatial functions' occurred in most patients with core features of non-fluent variant PPA. Behavioural and language symptoms frequently co-occur in patients with FTLD pathology. Current classifications, which separate behavioural and language syndromes, do not reflect this co-occurrence.

  17. Pain and behaviour changes in children following surgery.

    Power, Nina Mary; Howard, Richard F; Wade, Angie M; Franck, Linda S

    2012-10-01

    To quantify postoperative pain and problematic behaviour (PB) in children at home following day-case (same day admission and discharge) or inpatient (≥1 night in hospital) surgery, to identify factors associated with PB at 2 and 4 weeks after discharge and to determine whether pain is associated with PB after adjustment for other factors. Children scheduled for elective surgery were recruited to a descriptive study involving direct observation and self-report questionnaires. The principal outcomes were pain and PB on the 2nd post-discharge day and after the 1st, 2nd and 4th weeks. 131 parents and their children (aged 2-12years) participated in the study. 93% of children had pain and 73% exhibited PB on day 2 after discharge. The incidence of pain and PB decreased over time, but 25% of children still had pain and 32% PB at week 4. Factors associated with PB were child's previous pain experience, parent and child anxiety and parent's level of education. There was a high incidence of pain and PB persisting for several weeks after surgery in this cohort of children. Previous painful medical experiences and anxiety were important modifiable factors that require further attention from healthcare providers and researchers to potentially improve health and social outcomes for children after surgery.

  18. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    Borgstede, Chris von; Andersson, Maria; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  19. Complex formation constant and hydration number change of aqua-rare earth ions

    Kanno, H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: It is now well established that the inner-sphere hydration number of aqua-rare earth ions changes from nine to eight in the middle of the rare earth series. This hydration number change greatly affects the complex formation of rare earth ions as we observe irregular variations in most series behaviours of the complex formation constant (K) in aqueous solution systems when K being plotted against 1/r or r (r is ionic radius of rare earth ion). Furthermore, it shows very anomalous concentration dependence in the sense that nona-aqua Ln 3+ ion increases in number with increase in salt concentration in aqueous rare earth salt solution (salt chloride, perchlorate). In this report, a theoretical derivation of the formation constant (K) for the inner-sphere complex formation of rare earth ions with a monodentate ligand was made by taking account of both the hydration number change in the middle of the series and its anomalous salt concentration dependence. The series behaviour of the formation constant against 1/r (or r) is successfully explained with using the empirical finding that K varies almost linearly with 1/r (or r) in the region where only one hydration number dominates. This success is also taken as evidence that the anomalous salt concentration dependence of the hydration number change is caused by the outer-sphere complex formation of rare earth ions with the condition that nona-aqua rare earth ions form outer-sphere complexes more easily than octa-aqua ions

  20. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  1. Behavioural responses to climate change: Asymmetry of intentions and impacts

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine E.

    2009-01-01

    In seeking to determine whether climate change mitigation strategies are effective, researchers and policy-makers typically use energy consumption as an indicator. UK government data show that energy use amongst the public is rising, despite measures to encourage energy conservation. Yet, research to date has not explicitly asked which actions the public are taking with the express intention of mitigating climate change. Using Stern's classification of impact-oriented and intent-oriented beha...

  2. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research

    Cane, James E.; O'Connor, Denise; Michie, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Methods Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. Results The...

  3. Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso

    Curtis, V; Kanki, B; Cousens, S; Diallo, I; Kpozehouen, A; Sangare, M; Nikiema, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children age...

  4. Behaviour change techniques in home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Cupples, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes offering secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) advise healthy lifestyle behaviours, with the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and social support recommended. More information is needed about BCT use in home-based CR to support these programmes in practice.AIM: To identify and describe the use of BCTs in home-based CR programmes.DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomised controlled trials o...

  5. Efficient and inefficient aspects of residential energy behaviour: What are the policy instruments for change?

    Linden, Anna-Lisa [Department of Sociology, Lund University, P.O. Box 114, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail: anna-lisa.linden@soc.lu.se; Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika [Department of Environmental Strategies Research, FOI, SE-172 90 Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Bjoern [Department of Environmental Strategies Research, FOI, SE-172 90 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    The empirical part of this study is based on a survey of 600 Swedish households and a number of interviews where questions about residential energy behaviour and possible policy instruments for change were raised. The study provides insight into current behavioural patterns and gives a bottom-up perspective on the realistic perspective potentials for change and ways to achieve them. Residential energy use accounts for a fifth of the total in Northern nations and patterns of behaviour may influence levels of energy use to the same extent as choice of appliances. The study revealed those behavioural patterns that are efficient and those that need to be improved for energy conservation. Several policy instruments for change were identified in the study and they include combinations of information, economic measures, administrative measures and more user friendly technology as well as equipment with sufficient esthetic quality. Policy instruments that have fostered energy efficient behaviour in Sweden include the massive information campaigns during the oil crises in the 1970s as well as energy labelling of appliances. Still, many households are 'energy-unaware' and several energy efficient behaviours are motivated not by energy conservation concern but of a perceived lack of time. This shows that it is important to have a broad perspective in energy conservation, to evaluate trends and to use policy instruments timely to support or discourage them.

  6. Can Communicating Personalised Disease Risk Promote Healthy Behaviour Change? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    French, David P; Cameron, Elaine; Benton, Jack S; Deaton, Christi; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.

  7. Efficient and inefficient aspects of residential energy behaviour: What are the policy instruments for change?

    Linden, Anna-Lisa; Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Eriksson, Bjoern

    2006-01-01

    The empirical part of this study is based on a survey of 600 Swedish households and a number of interviews where questions about residential energy behaviour and possible policy instruments for change were raised. The study provides insight into current behavioural patterns and gives a bottom-up perspective on the realistic perspective potentials for change and ways to achieve them. Residential energy use accounts for a fifth of the total in Northern nations and patterns of behaviour may influence levels of energy use to the same extent as choice of appliances. The study revealed those behavioural patterns that are efficient and those that need to be improved for energy conservation. Several policy instruments for change were identified in the study and they include combinations of information, economic measures, administrative measures and more user friendly technology as well as equipment with sufficient esthetic quality. Policy instruments that have fostered energy efficient behaviour in Sweden include the massive information campaigns during the oil crises in the 1970s as well as energy labelling of appliances. Still, many households are 'energy-unaware' and several energy efficient behaviours are motivated not by energy conservation concern but of a perceived lack of time. This shows that it is important to have a broad perspective in energy conservation, to evaluate trends and to use policy instruments timely to support or discourage them

  8. Modelling of lane-changing behaviour integrating with merging effect before a city road bottleneck

    Lv, Wei; Song, Wei-guo; Fang, Zhi-ming; Ma, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Merging behaviour is a compulsive action in a discretionary lane-changing traffic system, especially in a system with a bottleneck. This paper aims to investigate the generic lane-changing behaviour considering the merging effect before a city road bottleneck. Thus firstly the merging behaviour is distinguished from other generic lane-changing behaviour. Combining discretionary lane-changing and compulsive merging, we developed an integrative traffic model, in which a method to calculate the lane-changing probability and the merging probability was proposed. A simulation scenario derived from real life was conducted to validate the proposed programming algorithm. Finally, a discussion on the simulation findings shows that the merging influence can be expanded and the merging behaviour can increase the probability of local traffic jamming in its affected area of the adjacent lane. The distribution of the merging distance provides fundamental insights for actual traffic management. The result of the clearance time implies the position of the incident point has a significant effect on the clearing time and it is important to ensure the end (exit) of the road is unimpeded in traffic evacuation.

  9. Electroconvulsive stimulations normalizes stress-induced changes in the glucocorticoid receptor and behaviour

    Hageman, Ida; Nielsen, Marianne; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2009-01-01

    Animal models of chronic stress, such as 21 days of 6h/daily restraint stress cause changes in neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and alter behaviour. These changes are partly mediated by the glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was threefold: (1) to study how this particular chronic ...

  10. Teacher Views on School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources and Their Change Management Behaviours

    Argon, Türkan; Dilekçi, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine school administrators' organizational power sources and change management behaviours based on Bolu central district primary and secondary school teachers' views. The study conducted with relational screening model reached 286 teachers. School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources Scale and Change Management…

  11. Genome-wide association of changes in swine feeding behaviour due to heat stress

    Background: Heat stress has a negative impact on pork production, particularly during the grow-finish phase. As temperature increases, feeding behaviour changes in order for pigs to decrease heat production. The objective of this study was to identify genetic markers associated with changes in feedi...

  12. Implic ations of climate change and deforestation on behavioural ...

    Indiscriminate forest exploitation leads to deforestation also, release of CO2 and other pollutants tampers with ozone layer which has been acting as a big umbrella against ultraviolet radiation. This paper discusses effects of climate change and deforestation on physical environment as they affect animal population, ...

  13. Consumer behaviour in district heating systems. Detecting changes

    Jonsson, G.R. [University of Iceland (Iceland). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This paper focuses on methods or measures that can be used to detect changes in the consumer behavior regarding hot water use. This is done by estimating models that describe the average daily flow using several climate variables as input variables. (orig.)

  14. From Climate Change Awareness to Energy Efficient Behaviour

    Niamir, Leila; Filatova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and predicting how climate will change, and whether and how a transition to low-carbon economies will develop over the next century is of vital importance. Nowadays there is high competition between countries to achieve a low-carbon economy. They are examining different ways e.g.

  15. Participatory arts and affective engagement with climate change: The missing link in achieving climate compatible behaviour change?

    Burke, Miriam; Ockwell, David; Whitmarsh, Lorraine

    2018-01-01

    Despite a growing number of arts based climate change interventions and the importance emphasised in the social psychology literature of achieving affective (emotional) engagement with climate change before climate compatible behaviour change is likely (exactly the kind of engagement the arts and humanities are arguably best at), to date there has been no systematic application of interpretive social science techniques to understand the ways in which these arts based interventions do, or do n...

  16. One Way Forward to Beat the Newtonian Habit with a Complexity Perspective on Organisational Change

    Josie McLean

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We face a global crisis of un-sustainability—we need to change trajectory, but have so far displayed a collective inability to do so. This article suggests that one reason for this is our entrenched approach to change, which has inappropriately applied mechanistic Newtonian assumptions to “living” systems. Applying what has been learned about the behaviour of complex adaptive systems, we develop a pragmatic model for students of sustainability, who want to facilitate profound organizational and community change towards sustainability on the ground. Our model, “one way forward”, does not purport to be the only way but one possibility, grounded in a different understanding of the nature and dynamic of change as seen through the lens of complexity. In this way, it challenges more conventional change management practices. One way forward is a model facilitating evolutionary change in a social ecology—one possible expression of a “culture of community self-design” as expressed by Banathy. Its theoretical foundations and its practical application (it is designed for practice both have their source in a systemic view and in the principles that reflect the paradigm of complexity. Four central components of this new model—envisioning, core messages (values, indicators of progress, and experimentation—are explored in more detail.

  17. Is Seeing Believing? The Process of Change During Cognitive-behavioural Therapy for Distressing Visual Hallucinations.

    Wilson, Rea; Collerton, Daniel; Freeston, Mark; Christodoulides, Thomas; Dudley, Robert

    2016-07-01

    People with psychosis often report distressing visual hallucinations (VH). In contrast to auditory hallucinations, there is little empirical evidence on effective interventions. The effectiveness of a novel-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for VH was explored using a multiple baseline single case design with four participants. Change to individual appraisals, emotional and behavioural responses to VH were measured with daily diaries kept throughout the baseline and intervention phase lasting up to 16 sessions. Maintenance of change was tracked during a follow-up period of one month. Changes in appraisals, distress and response in accordance with the theory was evident in two out of four of the cases. However, change occurred within the baseline phase that limited the conclusions that change could be attributed to CBT alone. There was some evidence of clinically significant change and reliable change for two out of four of the cases at follow-up on one of the standardized psychiatric assessments. The research reported here has theoretical and clinical implications for refinement of the model and interventions for distressing VH. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Distressing visual hallucinations (VH) are a relatively common symptom of psychosis. Visual hallucinations seem to be associated with greater impairment and disability. We have no specific treatment for VH. The appraisal of the visual experience and the behavioural response is important in maintaining the distress. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for VH at present has limited value. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Factors influencing smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan among Malay male students

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan provides an opportunistic setting for smoking cessation intervention. Smokers find it easy to cease smoking during Ramadan due to the religion, cultural and environmental influences. This study aims to determine the changes in smoking behaviour during Ramadan among Malay Muslim male students who were current smokers. Methods: This is cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the socio demographic characteristics and two main relevant religious perceptions on smoking (i.e. ‘Is smoking ‘haram’ and ‘Does smoking invalidate your fasting’. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire was used to evaluate smoking behaviour before and during Ramadan. The total FTND scores and the percentages according to FTDN items, before Ramadan and during Ramadan were compared to determine good or poor smoking behaviour changes. Results: The overall FTND scores and the percentage according to its items were significantly reduced. There were significant association between smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan and household income, nicotine dependence and perception that smoking is ‘haram’. The percentage of good smoking behaviour changes was higher among those with higher income, high nicotine dependence and those who are not aware that smoking is ‘haram’. Conclusion: There is a great potential in taking advantage of the Ramadan environment to encourage smoking cessation among Muslim smokers.

  19. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC. By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary development of behaviour from the aspect of the animal's adaption to living conditions, and ecotoxicology. In this mutual connection, the role of etology is to identify changes in animal behaviour which will serve as the first bioindicator of the presence of EDC in a certain environment, and before the occurrence of organic changes that could have lethal consequences.

  20. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research.

    Cane, James; O'Connor, Denise; Michie, Susan

    2012-04-24

    An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. There was good support for a refinement of the framework comprising 14 domains of theoretical constructs (average silhouette value 0.29): 'Knowledge', 'Skills', 'Social/Professional Role and Identity', 'Beliefs about Capabilities', 'Optimism', 'Beliefs about Consequences', 'Reinforcement', 'Intentions', 'Goals', 'Memory, Attention and Decision Processes', 'Environmental Context and Resources', 'Social Influences', 'Emotions', and 'Behavioural Regulation'. The refined Theoretical Domains Framework has a strengthened empirical base and provides a method for theoretically assessing implementation problems, as well as professional and other health-related behaviours as a basis for intervention development.

  1. Prey change behaviour with predation threat, but demographic effects vary with prey density: experiments with grasshoppers and birds.

    Belovsky, Gary E; Laws, Angela Nardoni; Slade, Jennifer B

    2011-04-01

    Increasingly, ecologists emphasize that prey frequently change behaviour in the presence of predators and these behavioural changes can reduce prey survival and reproduction as much or more than predation itself. However, the effects of behavioural changes on survival and reproduction may vary with prey density due to intraspecific competition. In field experiments, we varied grasshopper density and threat of avian predation and measured grasshopper behaviour, survival and reproduction. Grasshopper behaviour changed with the threat of predation and these behavioural changes were invariant with grasshopper density. Behavioural changes with the threat of predation decreased per capita reproduction over all grasshopper densities; whereas the behavioural changes increased survival at low grasshopper densities and then decreased survival at high densities. At low grasshopper densities, the total reproductive output of the grasshopper population remained unchanged with predation threat, but declined at higher densities. The effects of behavioural changes with predation threat varied with grasshopper density because of a trade-off between survival and reproduction as intraspecific competition increased with density. Therefore, resource availability may need to be considered when assessing how prey behavioural changes with predation threat affect population and food web dynamics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  2. CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RELATED TO THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT COMPLEXITY

    Elena DOVAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in organizations appear as a reaction to the organizational environment changes. In order to manage these changes successfully, the managers need to anticipate and design alternative strategies by preparing different options.  Nevertheless, the complexity of the global environment forces the managers to adopt strategies for their organizations that are facilitating the creation of new strategic competences and competitive advantages to face the environmental rapid changes. In this context, this paper is aiming to illustrate the main directions the change management may consider to change the organization strategies in order to harmonize them to the external environment, such as: integration versus externalization, flexible specialization and flexible organization, standardization versus adaptation, market segmentation, relationship building and maintaining and communication integration.  However, the new strategies are based on a changed attitude of the managers towards the competitive advantage that is dynamic and focused on creation rather then to operations.

  3. Dissonance-based interventions for health behaviour change: a systematic review.

    Freijy, Tanya; Kothe, Emily J

    2013-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that various health behaviours are amenable to change following the induction of cognitive dissonance. This systematic review sought to evaluate the effectiveness and methodological quality of dissonance-based health behaviour interventions and to explore identified sources of heterogeneity in intervention effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for relevant articles from inception to March 2012. Only studies targeting non-clinical health behaviour in non-clinical populations were included in the review. One author extracted data and assessed quality of evidence and a second author verified all content. Reports of 20 studies were included. A variety of health behaviours and outcome measures were addressed across studies. Most studies produced one or more significant effects on measures of behaviour, attitude or intention. Across studies, methodological risk for bias was frequently high, particularly for selection bias. Gender and self-esteem were identified as potential moderator variables. The evidence for the effectiveness of dissonance-based interventions was generally positive. The hypocrisy paradigm was found to be the most commonly applied research paradigm and was most effective at inciting change across a range of health behaviours. There was no observable link between type of target behaviour and positive outcomes. Researchers are encouraged to minimize potential for bias in future studies and explore moderators of the dissonance effect. What is already known on this subject? A recent meta-analysis indicates that dissonance-based interventions primarily based on the induced compliance paradigm are effective for eating disorder prevention (Stice, Shaw, Becker, & Rohde, 2008, Prev. Sci., 9, 114). However, it is currently unclear whether such outcomes are generalizable to interventions targeting non-clinical health behaviours such as smoking, sun protection and sexual risk taking. Other research indicates that studies based

  4. Effective behaviour change techniques in the prevention and management of childhood obesity.

    Martin, J; Chater, A; Lorencatto, F

    2013-10-01

    Rates of childhood obesity are increasing, and it is essential to identify the active components of interventions aiming to prevent and manage obesity in children. A systematic review of behaviour change interventions was conducted to find evidence of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that are most effective in changing physical activity and/or eating behaviour for the prevention or management of childhood obesity. An electronic search was conducted for randomised controlled trials published between January 1990 and December 2009. Of 4309 titles and abstracts screened, full texts of 135 articles were assessed, of which 17 published articles were included in this review. Intervention descriptions were coded according to the behaviour-specific CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. BCTs were identified and compared across obesity management (n=9) vs prevention (n=8) trials. To assess the effectiveness of individual BCTs, trials were further divided into those that were effective (defined as either a group reduction of at least 0.13 body mass index (BMI) units or a significant difference in BMI between intervention and control groups at follow-up) vs non-effective (reported no significant differences between groups). We reliably identified BCTs utilised in effective and non-effective prevention and management trials. To illustrate the relative effectiveness of each BCT, effectiveness ratios were calculated as the ratio of the number of times each BCT was a component of an intervention in an effective trial divided by the number of times they were a component of all trials. Results indicated six BCTs that may be effective components of future management interventions (provide information on the consequences of behaviour to the individual, environmental restructuring, prompt practice, prompt identification as role model/position advocate, stress management/emotional control training and general communication skills training), and one that may be effective in prevention

  5. Big Social Data Analytics of Changes in Consumer Behaviour and Opinion of a TV Broadcaster

    Hennig, Anna; Åmodt, Anne-Sofie; Hernes, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in consumer behaviour and opinions due to the transition from a public to a commercial broadcaster in the context of broadcasting international media events. By analyzing TV viewer ratings, Facebook activity and its sentiment, we aim to provide answers to how...... the transition from airing Winter Olympic Games on NRK to TV2 in Norway affected consumer behaviour and opinion.We used text classification and visual analytics methods on the business and social datasets. Our main finding is a clear link between negative sentiment and commercials. Despite positive change...

  6. Behaviour change opportunities at mother and baby checks in primary care: a qualitative investigation of the experiences of GPs.

    Talbot, Hannah; Strong, Emily; Peters, Sarah; Smith, Debbie M

    2018-04-01

    Pregnancy is widely recognised as a 'teachable moment' for healthy behaviour change and the postnatal period has been identified as the opportune time to initiate this change. In the UK, all women are offered a routine health check at 6-8 weeks postpartum with their GP. This provides a potential opportunity to facilitate long-term behaviour change discussions. To explore GPs' views and experiences of using the postnatal check as a health-related behaviour change opportunity. A qualitative, inductive study in general practice. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 18 GPs. Audiorecorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. One theme emerged from the data: the postnatal check is an unrealised opportunity to facilitate health-related behaviour change. This theme was organised into three subthemes: opportunity for health-related behaviour change; role responsibility; and patient-led versus GP-led behaviour change. Although GPs recognise the postnatal check as a potential opportunity for health-related behaviour change, it is underutilised as they do not perceive this to be the purpose of the check and are uncertain as to their role in facilitating lifestyle changes. To enable this long-term lifestyle behaviour change opportunity to be utilised more fully, further research is needed to understand women's expectations of the postnatal checks and the scope for further recommendations, guidance, and communication training around behaviour change. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  7. Study on complexation behaviour of uranium and thorium with amino acids at different temperatures in aqueous media

    Joshi, J.D.; Patel, M.R.; Patel, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The complexation behaviour of uranium and thorium with important amino acids have been studied using Irving-Rossotti titration technique at 25deg, 35deg and 45degC in inert atmosphere of nitrogen and 0.1M ionic strength using NaClO 4 . The thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS have been calculated. Results indicate that thorium (IV) is forming more stable complexes than UO 2 2+ . (author). 3 refs., 2 tab

  8. Supporting change processes in design: Complexity, prediction and reliability

    Eckert, Claudia M. [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cme26@cam.ac.uk; Keller, Rene [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rk313@cam.ac.uk; Earl, Chris [Open University, Department of Design and Innovation, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: C.F.Earl@open.ac.uk; Clarkson, P. John [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pjc10@cam.ac.uk

    2006-12-15

    Change to existing products is fundamental to design processes. New products are often designed through change or modification to existing products. Specific parts or subsystems are changed to similar ones whilst others are directly reused. Design by modification applies particularly to safety critical products where the reuse of existing working parts and subsystems can reduce cost and risk. However change is rarely a matter of just reusing or modifying parts. Changing one part can propagate through the entire design leading to costly rework or jeopardising the integrity of the whole product. This paper characterises product change based on studies in the aerospace and automotive industry and introduces tools to aid designers in understanding the potential effects of change. Two ways of supporting designers are described: probabilistic prediction of the effects of change and visualisation of change propagation through product connectivities. Change propagation has uncertainties which are amplified by the choices designers make in practice as they implement change. Change prediction and visualisation is discussed with reference to complexity in three areas of product development: the structural backcloth of connectivities in the existing product (and its processes), the descriptions of the product used in design and the actions taken to carry out changes.

  9. Origin of SMM behaviour in an asymmetric Er(III) Schiff base complex: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Das, Chinmoy; Upadhyay, Apoorva; Vaidya, Shefali; Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Shanmugam, Maheswaran

    2015-04-11

    An asymmetric erbium(III) Schiff base complex [Er(HL)2(NO3)3] was synthesized which shows SMM behaviour with an Ueff of 5.2 K. Dipolar interaction in 1 significantly reduced upon dilution which increases the barrier height to 51.5 K. Ab initio calculations were performed to shed light on the mechanism of magnetization relaxation.

  10. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-03-01

    Tail biting, resulting in outbreaks of tail damage in pigs, is a multifactorial welfare and economic problem which is usually partly prevented through tail docking. According to European Union legislation, tail docking is not allowed on a routine basis; thus there is a need for alternative preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose of developing an automatic warning system for tail damage outbreaks, with activity level showing promising results for being monitored automatically. Encouraging results have been found so far for the development of an automatic warning system; however, there is a need for further investigation and development, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Complex networks: Effect of subtle changes in nature of randomness

    Goswami, Sanchari; Biswas, Soham; Sen, Parongama

    2011-03-01

    In two different classes of network models, namely, the Watts Strogatz type and the Euclidean type, subtle changes have been introduced in the randomness. In the Watts Strogatz type network, rewiring has been done in different ways and although the qualitative results remain the same, finite differences in the exponents are observed. In the Euclidean type networks, where at least one finite phase transition occurs, two models differing in a similar way have been considered. The results show a possible shift in one of the phase transition points but no change in the values of the exponents. The WS and Euclidean type models are equivalent for extreme values of the parameters; we compare their behaviour for intermediate values.

  12. Photoluminescence and Coordination Behaviour of Lanthanide Complexes of Tris (Aminomethyl)Ethane-5-Oxine in Aqueous Solution.

    Akbar, Rifat; Baral, Minati; Kanungo, B K

    2017-01-01

    Photophysical properties of a multidentate tripodal ligand, 5,5'-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl) methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl) bis (azanediyl)bis (methylene)diquinolin-8-ol, (TAME5OX), with La 3+ and Er 3+ ions have been examined for photonics applications. The change in behavior in electronic spectra of these complexes reveals the use of TAME5OX as a sensitive optical pH based sensor to detect Ln 3+ ions whereas indication of strong green fluorescence allows simultaneous sensing within the visible region in competitive medium. The intense fluorescence intermittently gets quenched under acidic and basic conditions due to photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer from the excited 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) moiety to the metal ion. This renders these compounds the OFF-ON-OFF type of pH-dependent fluorescent sensor. The thermodynamic stability and coordination behaviour of the chelator with the said lanthanide ions have also been probed by potentiometric, UV - visible and fluorescence spectrophotometric method. TAME5OX forms protonated complex [Ln (H 4 L)] 4+ below pH ~4.0 which sequentially deprotonates through one proton process with increase of pH. The stability constants of neutral complexes have been determined to be in the range log β 110  = 32-34 and pLn in the range of 14-20, indicating TAME5OX is a good synthetic lanthanide chelator. Theoretical spectra were also calculated by ZINDO/s methodology at single excitations (CIS) level on PM7 as sparkle energy-minimized geometries.

  13. A simple coordination complex exhibiting colour change on slight ...

    Administrator

    structure analysis. In 1979, Grenthe and co-worker. reported thermochromism of bis(NN-diethylethane-. 1,2-diamine) copper(II) perchlorate on the basis of ... ture was allowed to cool when white solid KCl sepa- rated out and it was .... A simple coordination complex exhibits colour change on slight structural modification. 733.

  14. Digital Behaviour Change Interventions for Osteoarthritis - A Systematic Literature Review

    Alice Berry

    2015-10-01

    •\tTo examine how uptake and usage of digital interventions has been reported Methods: A pre-defined search was carried out using databases including: AMED, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Psycinfo, Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Articles were included if: they reported PA data; included people with OA; and if the intervention was accessed via a digital platform. Results: The database searches generated 2132 published papers. After applying selection criteria, eight studies were included in the final review. 5 out of the 8 included studies showed a statistically significant increase in self-reported levels of PA for up to 12 months. A number of outcome measures were used but were predominantly self-reported. BCTs used included: goal setting, action planning, problem solving, feedback, shaping knowledge, self-talk, and self-monitoring. Most studies (n=6 were based on social cognitive theory. A variety of methods were employed to report uptake and usage of digital interventions, making it difficult for comparisons to be made. Discussion and Conclusions: There is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of internet based interventions to increase PA in OA. Most studies rely on self-report to determine change in levels of PA; objective measurement may be beneficial. Interventions were generally based on Social Cognitive Theory; other constructs may increase effectiveness. Clearer reporting of BCTs and intervention usage is needed.

  15. Effective techniques for changing physical activity and healthy eating intentions and behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Iverson, Don; Sharma, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to review the evidence on the impact of a change in intention on behaviour and to identify (1) behaviour change techniques (BCTs) associated with changes in intention and (2) whether the same BCTs are also associated with changes in behaviour. A systematic review was conducted to identify interventions that produced a significant change in intention and assessed the impact of this change on behaviour at a subsequent time point. Each intervention was coded using a taxonomy of BCTs targeting healthy eating and physical activity. A series of meta-regression analyses were conducted to identify effective BCTs. In total, 25 reports were included. Interventions had a medium-to-large effect on intentions (d +  = 0.64) and a small-to-medium effect (d +  = 0.41) on behaviour. One BCT, 'provide information on the consequences of behaviour in general', was significantly associated with a positive change in intention. One BCT, 'relapse prevention/coping planning', was associated with a negative change in intention. No BCTs were found to have significant positive effects on behaviour. However, one BCT, 'provide feedback on performance', was found to have a significant negative effect. BCTs aligned with social cognitive theory were found to have significantly greater positive effects on intention (d +  = 0.83 vs. 0.56, p behaviour (d +  = 0.35 vs. 0.23, ns), than those aligned with the theory of planned behaviour. Although the included studies support the notion that a change in intention is associated with a change in behaviour, this review failed to produce evidence on how to facilitate behaviour change through a change in intention. Larger meta-analyses incorporating interventions targeting a broader range of behaviours may be warranted. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Prior research on the causal relationship between intention and behaviour has produced mixed findings. Further experimental research to

  16. Feeling bad about progress does not lead people want to change their health behaviour.

    Reynolds, James P; Webb, Thomas L; Benn, Yael; Chang, Betty P I; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    When do people decide to do something about problematic health behaviours? Theoretical models and pragmatic considerations suggest that people should take action when they feel bad about their progress - in other words, when they experience negative progress-related affect. However, the impact of progress-related affect on goal striving has rarely been investigated. Study 1 (N = 744) adopted a cross-sectional design and examined the extent to which measures of progress-related affect were correlated with intentions to take action. Study 2 (N = 409) investigated the impact of manipulating progress-related affect on intentions and behaviour in an experimental design. Study 1 found that, while engaging in health behaviours had the expected affective consequences (e.g. people felt bad when they were not eating healthily, exercising regularly or limiting their alcohol consumption), it was feeling good rather than bad about progress that was associated with stronger intentions. Study 2 replicated these findings. Participants induced to feel good about their eating behaviour had marginally stronger intentions to eat healthily than participants led to feel bad about their eating behaviour. The findings have implications for interventions designed to promote changes in health behaviour, as well as theoretical frameworks for understanding self-regulation.

  17. Assessing behavioural changes in ALS: cross-validation of ALS-specific measures.

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Costello, Emmet; O'Connor, Sarah; Elamin, Marwa; Burke, Tom; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-07-01

    The Beaumont Behavioural Inventory (BBI) is a behavioural proxy report for the assessment of behavioural changes in ALS. This tool has been validated against the FrSBe, a non-ALS-specific behavioural assessment, and further comparison of the BBI against a disease-specific tool was considered. This study cross-validates the BBI against the ALS-FTD-Q. Sixty ALS patients, 8% also meeting criteria for FTD, were recruited. All patients were evaluated using the BBI and the ALS-FTD-Q, completed by a carer. Correlational analysis was performed to assess construct validity. Precision, sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the BBI when compared to the ALS-FTD-Q, were obtained. The mean score of the whole sample on the BBI was 11.45 ± 13.06. ALS-FTD patients scored significantly higher than non-demented ALS patients (31.6 ± 14.64, 9.62 ± 11.38; p ALS-FTD-Q was observed (r = 0.807, p ALS-FTD-Q. Good construct validity has been further confirmed when the BBI is compared to an ALS-specific tool. Furthermore, the BBI is a more comprehensive behavioural assessment for ALS, as it measures the whole behavioural spectrum in this condition.

  18. How do Small Groups Promote Behaviour Change? An Integrative Conceptual Review of Explanatory Mechanisms.

    Borek, Aleksandra J; Abraham, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Small groups are used to promote health, well-being, and personal change by altering members' perceptions, beliefs, expectations, and behaviour patterns. An extensive cross-disciplinary literature has articulated and tested theories explaining how such groups develop, function, and facilitate change. Yet these theoretical understandings are rarely applied in the development, description, and evaluation of health-promotion, group-based, behaviour-change interventions. Medline database, library catalogues, search engines, specific journals and reference lists were searched for relevant texts. Texts were reviewed for explanatory concepts or theories describing change processes in groups, which were integrated into the developing conceptual structure. This was designed to be a parsimonious conceptual framework that could be applied to design and delivery. Five categories of interacting processes and concepts were identified and defined: (1) group development processes, (2) dynamic group processes, (3) social change processes, (4) personal change processes, and (5) group design and operating parameters. Each of these categories encompasses a variety of theorised mechanisms explaining individual change in small groups. The final conceptual model, together with the design issues and practical recommendations derived from it, provides a practical basis for linking research and theory explaining group functioning to optimal design of group-based, behaviour-change interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  19. Reporting behaviour change interventions: do the behaviour change technique taxonomy v1, and training in its use, improve the quality of intervention descriptions?

    Wood, Caroline E; Hardeman, Wendy; Johnston, Marie; Francis, Jill; Abraham, Charles; Michie, Susan

    2016-06-07

    Behaviour change interventions are likely to be reproducible only if reported clearly. We assessed whether the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 (BCTTv1), with and without training in identifying BCTs, improves the clarity and replicability of written reports of observed behaviour change interventions. Three studies assessed effects of using and training in the use of BCTTv1 on the clarity and replicability of intervention descriptions written after observing videos of smoking cessation interventions. Study 1 examined the effects of using and not using BCTTv1. Study 2 examined the effects of using BCTTv1 and training in use of BCTTv1 compared no use and no training. Study 3 employed a within-group design to assess change in descriptions written before and after training. One-hundred and 66 'writers' watched videos of behaviour change interventions and wrote descriptions of the active components delivered. In all studies, the participants' written descriptions were evaluated by (i) 12 'raters' (untrained in BCTTv1) for clarity and replicability and (ii) 12 'coders' (trained in BCTTv1) for reliability of BCT coding. Writers rated the usability and accessibility of using BCTTv1 to write descriptions. Ratings of clarity and replicability did not differ between groups in study 1 (all ps > 0.05), were poorer for trained users in study 2 (all ps < 0.01) and improved following training in study 3 (all ps < 0.05). BCT identification was more reliable from descriptions written by trained BCTTv1 users (p < 0.05; study 2) but not simple use of BCTTv1 (p = 0.93; study 1) or by writers who had written a description without BCTTv1, before training (p = 0.50; study 3). Writers reported that using BCTTv1 was difficult but 'useful', 'good' and 'desirable' and that their descriptions would be clear and replicable (all means above mid-point of the scale). Effects of training to use BCTTv1 on the quality of written reports of observed interventions

  20. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  1. Behaviour change techniques: the development and evaluation of a taxonomic method for reporting and describing behaviour change interventions (a suite of five studies involving consensus methods, randomised controlled trials and analysis of qualitative data).

    Michie, Susan; Wood, Caroline E; Johnston, Marie; Abraham, Charles; Francis, Jill J; Hardeman, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Meeting global health challenges requires effective behaviour change interventions (BCIs). This depends on advancing the science of behaviour change which, in turn, depends on accurate intervention reporting. Current reporting often lacks detail, preventing accurate replication and implementation. Recent developments have specified intervention content into behaviour change techniques (BCTs) - the 'active ingredients', for example goal-setting, self-monitoring of behaviour. BCTs are 'the smallest components compatible with retaining the postulated active ingredients, i.e. the proposed mechanisms of change. They can be used alone or in combination with other BCTs' (Michie S, Johnston M. Theories and techniques of behaviour change: developing a cumulative science of behaviour change. Health Psychol Rev 2012;6:1-6). Domain-specific taxonomies of BCTs have been developed, for example healthy eating and physical activity, smoking cessation and alcohol consumption. We need to build on these to develop an internationally shared language for specifying and developing interventions. This technology can be used for synthesising evidence, implementing effective interventions and testing theory. It has enormous potential added value for science and global health. (1) To develop a method of specifying content of BCIs in terms of component BCTs; (2) to lay a foundation for a comprehensive methodology applicable to different types of complex interventions; (3) to develop resources to support application of the taxonomy; and (4) to achieve multidisciplinary and international acceptance for future development. Four hundred participants (systematic reviewers, researchers, practitioners, policy-makers) from 12 countries engaged in investigating, designing and/or delivering BCIs. Development of the taxonomy involved a Delphi procedure, an iterative process of revisions and consultation with 41 international experts; hierarchical structure of the list was developed using inductive

  2. Effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour.

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Horng, Fen-Fang; Sung, Su-Ching

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour. The prevalence of alcohol abuse has increased over the past 10 years, and the age of initial alcohol use has decreased gradually in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence is one of the leading causes of disability and has led to increases in the incidence of crime and violence, with alcohol abuse identified as a problem in society. A quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent pre/post-testing was used. Alcohol-dependent inpatients undergoing alcohol treatment were selected from the psychiatric ward of a teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. The effectiveness of the psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour was evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire and the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. In total, 24 and 51 participants were recruited to the experimental and control groups, respectively, for the baseline survey, and 14 and 17 were in the final survey, respectively. After adjustment for baseline survey scores, the experimental group showed significantly greater increases in recognition and ambivalence relative to those observed in the control group. The results not only showed that the psychoeducational programme was effective in reinforcing addicted inpatients' motivation for changing their drinking behaviour but also provided clinical nurses with practical methods via which to enhance patient motivation. The psychoeducational programme could assist clinical nurses in helping alcohol-dependent patients to recognise the nature of their problematic drinking; increase participants' ambivalence towards their drinking behaviour, leading to the contemplation of change; and strengthen the possibility that they will change their addictive behaviour. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Predictors of changes in child behaviour following parent management training: Child, context, and therapy factors.

    Hagen, Kristine Amlund; Ogden, Terje

    2017-04-01

    This non-randomised study examined a set of predictive factors of changes in child behaviour following parent management training (PMTO). Families of 331 Norwegian girls (26%) and boys with clinic-level conduct problems participated. The children ranged in age from 3 to 12 years (M age = 8.69). Retention rate was 72.2% at post-assessment. Child-, parent- and therapy-level variables were entered as predictors of multi-informant reported change in externalising behaviour and social skills. Behavioural improvements following PMTO amounted to 1 standard deviation on parent rated and ½ standard deviation on teacher rated externalising behaviour, while social skills improvements were more modest. Results suggested that children with higher symptom scores and lower social skills score at pre-treatment were more likely to show improvements in these areas. According to both parent- and teacher-ratings, girls tended to show greater improvements in externalising behaviour and social skills following treatment and, according to parents, ADHD symptomology appeared to inhibit improvements in social skills. Finally, observed increases in parental skill encouragement, therapists' satisfaction with treatment and the number of hours spent in therapy by children were also positive and significant predictors of child outcomes. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Can We Identify the Active Ingredients of Behaviour Change Interventions for Coronary Heart Disease Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Goodwin, Laura; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Khan, Nadia; Hotopf, Matthew H; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2016-01-01

    The main behaviour change intervention available for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients is cardiac rehabilitation. There is little recognition of what the active ingredients of behavioural interventions for CHD might be. Using a behaviour change technique (BCT) framework to code existing interventions may help to identify this. The objectives of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness of CHD behaviour change interventions and how this may be explained by BCT content and structure. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases was conducted over a twelve year period (2003-2015) to identify studies which reported on behaviour change interventions for CHD patients. The content of the behaviour change interventions was coded using the Coventry Aberdeen and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy. Meta-regression analyses examined the BCT content as a predictor of mortality. Twenty two papers met the criteria for this review, reporting data on 16,766 participants. The most commonly included BCTs were providing information, and goal setting. There was a small but significant effect of the interventions on smoking (risk ratio (RR) = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97). The interventions did not reduce the risk of CHD events (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.68, 1.09), but significantly reduced the risk of mortality (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69, 0.97). Sensitivity analyses did not find that any of the BCT variables predicted mortality and the number of BCTs included in an intervention was not associated with mortality (β = -0.02, 95% CI -0.06-0.03). Behaviour change interventions for CHD patients appear to have a positive impact on a number of outcomes. Using an existing BCT taxonomy to code the interventions helped us to understand which were the most commonly used techniques, providing information and goal setting, but not the active components of these complex interventions.

  5. Design for behaviour change : Introducing five areas of application and related case studies

    Niedderer, Kristina; Clune, Stephen; Ludden, Geke; Niedderer, Kristina; Clune, Stephen; Ludden, Geke

    2017-01-01

    Part 3 of this book explores the real-world application of design for behavioural change principles and tools within five thematic areas. These five areas are as follows: • Sustainability • Health and wellbeing • Safety • Design against crime • Social design.

  6. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  7. An Investigation on Changing Behaviours of University Students Switching from Using Classical Cell Phones to Smartphones

    Arslan, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to comprehend whether there occur any changes in behaviours of university students switching from classical cell phones to smartphones. The investigation was carried out according to quantitative research method. Questionnaire was employed as data collection tool. The datum of the study was limited with the information…

  8. A match-mismatch test of a stage model of behaviour change in tobacco smoking

    Dijkstra, A; Conijn, B; De Vries, H

    Aims An innovation offered by stage models of behaviour change is that of stage-matched interventions. Match-mismatch studies are the primary test of this idea but also the primary test of the validity of stage models. This study aimed at conducting such a test among tobacco smokers using the Social

  9. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lourenco, Sofia; Laub Hansen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. 12 databases were searched systematically for experimental ...

  10. Behaviour Change Policy Agendas for "Vulnerable" Subjectivities: The Dangers of Therapeutic Governance and Its New Entrepreneurs

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Apocalyptic crisis discourses of mental health problems and psycho-emotional dysfunction are integral to behaviour change agendas across seemingly different policy arenas. Bringing these agendas together opens up new theoretical and empirical lines of enquiry about the symbioses and contradictions surrounding the human subjects they target. The…

  11. Long‐term developments in individual work behaviour: Patterns of stability and change

    Annet de Lange; Beatrice van der Heijden; René Schalk; Marc van Veldhoven

    2011-01-01

    In the current era, characterized by dynamic societal, technological, and economic changes as well as an increasing diversity in the workforce, previous approaches to individual work behaviour are being challenged (Schalk et al. 2010). Demographic trends in the working population, for example,

  12. Who's Challenging Who? Changing Attitudes towards Those Whose Behaviour Challenges

    Hutchinson, L. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Hunt, P. H.; Bowler, C. L.; Banks, M. E.; Totsika, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although staff attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disability (ID) whose behaviour challenges may be an important part of a positive support culture, very little research has focused on the development of training specifically designed to change staff attitudes. Positive contact is hypothesised to be an effective way to…

  13. Behavioural incentive interventions for health behaviour change in young people (5-18 years old): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Corepal, Rekesh; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank; Miller, Sarah J; Hunter, Ruth F

    2018-05-01

    Physical inactivity, an unhealthy diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption are key determinants of morbidity and mortality. These health behaviours often begin at a young age and track into adulthood, emphasising a need for interventions in children and young people. Previous research has demonstrated the potential effectiveness of behavioural incentive (BI) interventions in adults. However, little is known about their effectiveness in children and adolescents. Eight bibliographic databases were searched. Eligibility criteria included controlled trials using behavioural incentives (rewards provided contingent on successful performance of the target behaviour) as an intervention component for health behaviour change in children and adolescents. Intervention effects (standardised mean differences or odds ratios) were calculated and pooled by health behaviour, using a random effects model. Twenty-two studies were included (of n = 8392 identified), 19 of which were eligible for meta-analysis: physical activity (n = 8); healthier eating (n = 3); and smoking (n = 8). There was strong evidence that behavioural incentives may encourage healthier eating behaviours, some evidence that behavioural incentives were effective for encouraging physical activity behaviour, and limited evidence to support the use of behavioural incentives for smoking cessation and prevention in adolescents. Findings suggest that behavioural incentives may encourage uptake and initiation of healthy eating and physical activity in young people. However, this is a limited evidence base and a wide range of incentive designs have yet to be explored. Future research should further investigate the acceptability of these intervention approaches for young people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Disentangling the effects of a multiple behaviour change intervention for diarrhoea control in Zambia: a theory-based process evaluation.

    Greenland, Katie; Chipungu, Jenala; Chilekwa, Joyce; Chilengi, Roma; Curtis, Val

    2017-10-17

    intervention events. The intervention was not equally feasible to deliver in all settings: fewer events took place in remote rural areas, and the intervention did not adequately penetrate communities in several peri-urban sites where the population density was high, the population was slightly higher socio-economic status, recruitment was challenging, and numerous alternative sources of entertainment existed. Adaptations made by the implementers affected the fidelity of implementation of messages for all target behaviours. Incorrect messages were consequently recalled by intervention recipients. Participants were most receptive to the novel disgust and skills-based interactive demonstrations targeting exclusive breastfeeding and ORS preparation respectively. However, initial disgust elicitation was not followed by a change in associated psychological mediators, and social norms were not measurably changed. The lack of measured behaviour change was likely due to issues with both the intervention's content and its delivery. Achieving high reach and intensity in community interventions delivered in diverse settings is challenging. Achieving high fidelity is also challenging when multiple behaviours are targeted for change. Further work using improved tools is needed to explore the use of subconscious motives in behaviour change interventions. To better uncover how and why interventions achieve their measured effects, process evaluations of complex interventions should develop and employ frameworks for investigation and interpretation that are structured around the intervention's theory of change and the local context. The study was registered as part of the larger trial on 5 March 2014 with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02081521 .

  15. Behaviour Change

    Benoit, K. E.; McNally, R. J.; Rapee, R. M.; Gamble, A. L.; Wiseman, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether children and adolescents with anxiety disorders exhibit selective processing of threatening facial expressions in a pictorial version of the emotional Stroop paradigm. Participants named the colours of filters covering images of adults and children displaying either a neutral facial expression or one displaying the emotions of anger, disgust, or happiness. A delay in naming the colour of a filter implies attentional capture by the facial expressio...

  16. Mitigation of climate change impacts on raptors by behavioural adaptation: ecological buffering mechanisms

    Wichmann, Matthias C.; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Jeltsch, Florian; Grimm, Volker

    2005-07-01

    The predicted climate change causes deep concerns on the effects of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns on species viability and, in turn, on biodiversity. Models of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) provide a powerful tool to assess the risk of species extinction. However, most PVA models do not take into account the potential effects of behavioural adaptations. Organisms might adapt to new environmental situations and thereby mitigate negative effects of climate change. To demonstrate such mitigation effects, we use an existing PVA model describing a population of the tawny eagle ( Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari. This model does not include behavioural adaptations. We develop a new model by assuming that the birds enlarge their average territory size to compensate for lower amounts of precipitation. Here, we found the predicted increase in risk of extinction due to climate change to be much lower than in the original model. However, this "buffering" of climate change by behavioural adaptation is not very effective in coping with increasing interannual variances. We refer to further examples of ecological "buffering mechanisms" from the literature and argue that possible buffering mechanisms should be given due consideration when the effects of climate change on biodiversity are to be predicted.

  17. Indirect effects of human-induced environmental change on offspring production mediated by behavioural responses.

    Candolin, Ulrika; Nieminen, Anne; Nyman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes often cause behavioural alterations in animals. The consequences that these alterations in turn have for the viability of populations are, however, poorly known. We used a population of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea to investigate the consequences of behavioural responses to human-induced eutrophication for offspring production. The investigated population has been growing during the last decades, and one cause could be increased offspring production. We combined field-based surveys with laboratory-based experiments, and found that an enhanced growth of macroalgae relaxed agonistic interactions among males. This allowed more males to nest, improved hatching success, and increased the number of reproductive cycles that males completed. Thus, the behavioural responses were adaptive at the individual level and increased offspring production. However, a larger proportion of small males of low competitive ability reproduced in dense vegetation. As male size and dominance are heritable, this could influence the genetic composition of the offspring. Together with a higher number of offspring produced, this could influence natural selection and the rate of adaptation to the changing environment. Thus, behavioural responses to a rapid human-induced environmental change can influence offspring production, with potential consequences for population dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  18. Complex Nonlinearity Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G

    2008-01-01

    Complex Nonlinearity: Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals is a book about prediction & control of general nonlinear and chaotic dynamics of high-dimensional complex systems of various physical and non-physical nature and their underpinning geometro-topological change. The book starts with a textbook-like expose on nonlinear dynamics, attractors and chaos, both temporal and spatio-temporal, including modern techniques of chaos–control. Chapter 2 turns to the edge of chaos, in the form of phase transitions (equilibrium and non-equilibrium, oscillatory, fractal and noise-induced), as well as the related field of synergetics. While the natural stage for linear dynamics comprises of flat, Euclidean geometry (with the corresponding calculation tools from linear algebra and analysis), the natural stage for nonlinear dynamics is curved, Riemannian geometry (with the corresponding tools from nonlinear, tensor algebra and analysis). The extreme nonlinearity – chaos – corresponds to th...

  19. Cosimo: a cognitive simulation model of human decision making and behaviour in complex work environments

    Cacciabue, P.C.; Decortis, F.; Nordvik, J.P.; Drozdowicz, B.; Masson, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the Cognitive Simulation Model (COSIMO), currently implemented at the Ispra JRC, is described, with particular emphasis on its theoretical foundations, on its computational implementation and on a number of simulations cases of man-machine system interactions. COSIMO runs on a lisp machine and it interacts with the simulation of the physical system implemented on a Sun computer. In our case the physical system is a typical Nuclear Power Plant subsystem - the Auxiliary Feed-Water System (AFWS). One basic application is to explore human behaviour in simulated accident situations in order to identify suitable safety recommendations. To be more specific, COSIMO can be used to: - analyse how operators are likely to act given a particular context, - identify difficult problem solving situations, given problem solving resources and constraints (operator knowledge, man-machine interfaces, procedures), - identify situations that can lead to human errors and evaluate their consequences, - identify and test conditions for error recovery, - investigate the effects of changes in the man-machine system. Since the modelling of the AFWS, its control system and procedures have also been the object of a detailed description (Cacciabue et al., 1990a), the objective of this paper is the presentation of the state of the art of the COSIMO simulation

  20. Equipping providers with principles, knowledge and skills to successfully integrate behaviour change counselling into practice: a primary healthcare framework.

    Vallis, M; Lee-Baggley, D; Sampalli, T; Ryer, A; Ryan-Carson, S; Kumanan, K; Edwards, L

    2018-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare providers and healthcare systems to support productive interactions with patients that promote sustained health behaviour change in order to improve patient and population health outcomes. Behaviour change theories and interventions have been developed and evaluated in experimental contexts; however, most healthcare providers have little training, and therefore low confidence in, behaviour change counselling. Particularly important is how to integrate theory and method to support healthcare providers to engage in behaviour change counselling competently. In this article, we describe a general training model developed from theory, evidence, experience and stakeholder engagement. This model will set the stage for future evaluation research on training needed to achieve competency, sustainability of competency, as well as effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of training in supporting behaviour change. A framework to support competency based training in behaviour change counselling is described in this article. This framework is designed to be integrative, sustainable, scalable and capable of being evaluated in follow-up studies. Effective training in behaviour change counselling is critical to meet the current and future healthcare needs of patients living with, or at risk of, chronic diseases. Increasing competency in establishing change-based relationships, assessing and promoting readiness to change, implementing behaviour modification and addressing psychosocial issues will be value added to the healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Post-adolescent developmental changes in cortical complexity

    Sandu, Anca-Larisa; Izard, Edouard; Specht, Karsten; Beneventi, Harald; Lundervold, Arvid; Ystad, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Post-adolescence is known to be a period of general maturation and development in the human brain. In brain imaging, volumetric and morphologic cortical grey-matter changes can easily be assessed, but the analysis of cortical complexity seems to have been broadly neglected for this age interval. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to acquire structural brain images. The study involved 17 adolescents (mean age 14.1 ± 0.27, 11 girls) who were compared with 1...

  2. Improved confidence in performing nutrition and physical activity behaviours mediates behavioural change in young adults: Mediation results of a randomised controlled mHealth intervention.

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    The burden of weight gain disproportionally affects young adults. Understanding the underlying behavioural mechanisms of change in mHealth nutrition and physical activity interventions designed for young adults is important for enhancing and translating effective interventions. First, we hypothesised that knowledge, self-efficacy and stage-of-change for nutrition and physical activity behaviours would improve, and second, that self-efficacy changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviours mediate the behaviour changes observed in an mHealth RCT for prevention of weight gain. Young adults, aged 18-35 years at risk of weight gain (n = 250) were randomly assigned to an mHealth-program, TXT2BFiT, consisting of a three-month intensive phase and six-month maintenance phase or to a control group. Self-reported online surveys at baseline, three- and nine-months assessed nutrition and physical activity behaviours, knowledge, self-efficacy and stage-of-change. The mediating effect of self-efficacy was assessed in multiple PROCESS macro-models for three- and nine-month nutrition and physical activity behaviour change. Young adults randomised to the intervention increased and maintained knowledge of fruit requirements (P = 0.029) compared to controls. Intervention participants' fruit and takeaway behaviours improved to meet recommendations at nine months, with a greater proportion progressing to action or maintenance stage-of-change (P behaviours did not meet recommendations, thereby halting progress to action or maintenance stage-of-change. Indirect effects of improved nutrition and physical activity behaviours at three- and nine-months in the intervention group were explained by changes in self-efficacy, accounting for 8%-37% of the total effect. This provides insights into how the mHealth intervention achieved part of its effects and the importance of improving self-efficacy to facilitate improved eating and physical activity behaviours in young adults

  3. Two inhibitory control training interventions designed to improve eating behaviour and determine mechanisms of change.

    Allom, Vanessa; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Inhibitory control training has been shown to influence eating behaviour in the laboratory; however, the reliability of these effects is not yet established outside the laboratory, nor are the mechanisms responsible for change in behaviour. Two online Stop-Signal Task training interventions were conducted to address these points. In Study 1, 72 participants completed baseline and follow-up measures of inhibitory control, self-regulatory depletion, fat intake and body-mass index. Participants were randomly assigned to complete one of three Stop-Signal Tasks daily for ten days: food-specific inhibition--inhibition in response to unhealthy food stimuli only, general inhibition--inhibition was not contingent on type of stimuli, and control--no inhibition. While fat intake did not decrease, body-mass index decreased in the food-specific condition and change in this outcome was mediated by changes in vulnerability to depletion. In Study 2, the reliability and longevity of these effects were tested by replicating the intervention with a third measurement time-point. Seventy participants completed baseline, post-intervention and follow-up measures. While inhibitory control and vulnerability to depletion improved in both training conditions post-intervention, eating behaviour and body-mass index did not. Further, improvements in self-regulatory outcomes were not maintained at follow-up. It appears that while the training paradigm employed in the current studies may improve self-regulatory outcomes, it may not necessarily improve health outcomes. It is suggested that this may be due to the task parameters, and that a training paradigm that utilises a higher proportion of stop-signals may be necessary to change behaviour. In addition, improvements in self-regulation do not appear to persist over time. These findings further current conceptualisations of the nature of self-regulation and have implications for the efficacy of online interventions designed to improve eating

  4. Gamification for health promotion: systematic review of behaviour change techniques in smartphone apps.

    Edwards, E A; Lumsden, J; Rivas, C; Steed, L; Edwards, L A; Thiyagarajan, A; Sohanpal, R; Caton, H; Griffiths, C J; Munafò, M R; Taylor, S; Walton, R T

    2016-10-04

    Smartphone games that aim to alter health behaviours are common, but there is uncertainty about how to achieve this. We systematically reviewed health apps containing gaming elements analysing their embedded behaviour change techniques. Two trained researchers independently coded apps for behaviour change techniques using a standard taxonomy. We explored associations with user ratings and price. We screened the National Health Service (NHS) Health Apps Library and all top-rated medical, health and wellness and health and fitness apps (defined by Apple and Google Play stores based on revenue and downloads). We included free and paid English language apps using 'gamification' (rewards, prizes, avatars, badges, leaderboards, competitions, levelling-up or health-related challenges). We excluded apps targeting health professionals. 64 of 1680 (4%) health apps included gamification and met inclusion criteria; only 3 of these were in the NHS Library. Behaviour change categories used were: feedback and monitoring (n=60, 94% of apps), reward and threat (n=52, 81%), and goals and planning (n=52, 81%). Individual techniques were: self-monitoring of behaviour (n=55, 86%), non-specific reward (n=49, 82%), social support unspecified (n=48, 75%), non-specific incentive (n=49, 82%) and focus on past success (n=47, 73%). Median number of techniques per app was 14 (range: 5-22). Common combinations were: goal setting, self-monitoring, non-specific reward and non-specific incentive (n=35, 55%); goal setting, self-monitoring and focus on past success (n=33, 52%). There was no correlation between number of techniques and user ratings (p=0.07; r s =0.23) or price (p=0.45; r s =0.10). Few health apps currently employ gamification and there is a wide variation in the use of behaviour change techniques, which may limit potential to improve health outcomes. We found no correlation between user rating (a possible proxy for health benefits) and game content or price. Further research is

  5. Cognitive and emotional behavioural changes associated with methylphenidate treatment: a review of preclinical studies.

    Britton, Gabrielle B

    2012-02-01

    There is evidence from animal studies that repeated exposure to methylphenidate (MPH), a widely used psychostimulant for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), produces behavioural, structural and neurochemical changes that persist long after drug administration has ended. However, the translational utility of much of this work is compromised by the use of drug doses and routes of administration that produce plasma and brain MPH levels that fall outside the clinical range, i.e. experimental parameters more relevant to drug abuse than ADHD. We used PubMed to identify pre-clinical studies that employed repeated MPH administration at low doses in young rodents and examined long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and brain structure and function. A review of this work suggests that repeated MPH treatment during early development can modify a number of cognitive, behavioural and brain processes, but these are reduced when low therapeutic doses are employed. Moreover, MPH sites of action extend beyond those implicated in ADHD. Studies that combined neurobiological and behavioural approaches provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying MPH-produced effects on cognitive and behavioural processes, which may be relevant to MPH therapeutic efficacy. There is an emerging consensus that pharmacological treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders produces persistent neuroadaptations, highlighting the need for studies that assess long-term effects of early developmental pharmacotherapy. In this regard, studies that mimic clinical therapy with rodents are useful experimental approaches for defining the behavioural and neural plasticity associated with stimulant therapy in paediatric populations.

  6. [Interpreting change scores of the Behavioural Rating Scale for Geriatric Inpatients (GIP)].

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2013-09-01

    The Behavioural Rating Scale for Geriatric Inpatients (GIP) consists of fourteen, Rasch modelled subscales, each measuring different aspects of behavioural, cognitive and affective disturbances in elderly patients. Four additional measures are derived from the GIP: care dependency, apathy, cognition and affect. The objective of the study was to determine the reproducibility of the 18 measures. A convenience sample of 56 patients in psychogeriatric day care was assessed twice by the same observer (a professional caregiver). The median time interval between rating occasions was 45 days (interquartile range 34-58 days). Reproducibility was determined by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC agreement) for test-retest reliability. The minimal detectable difference (MDD) was calculated based on the standard error of measurement (SEM agreement). Test-retest reliability expressed by the ICCs varied from 0.57 (incoherent behaviour) to 0.93 (anxious behaviour). Standard errors of measurement varied from 0.28 (anxious behaviour) to 1.63 (care dependency). The results show how the GIP can be applied when interpreting individual change in psychogeriatric day care participants.

  7. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  8. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards culture change in the operating theatre: embedding a complex educational intervention to improve teamwork climate.

    Bleakley, Alan; Allard, Jon; Hobbs, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Changing teamwork climate in healthcare through a collective shift in attitudes and values may be a necessary precursor to establishing a positive teamwork culture, where innovations can be more readily embedded and sustained. A complex educational intervention was initiated across an entire UK Trust's surgical provision, and then sustained. Attitudes towards teamwork were measured longitudinally to examine if the intervention produced sustainable results. The research aimed to test whether sustaining a complex education intervention to improve teamwork would result in an incremental, longitudinal improvement in attitudes and values towards teamwork. The intervention's larger aim is to progress the historical default position of multi-professional work to authentic inter-professional teamwork, as a positive values climate translates in time into behavioural change defining a safety culture. Attitudes were measured at three points across all surgical team personnel over a period of 4 years, using a validated Safety Attitudes Questionnaire with a focus on the 'teamwork climate' domain. Pre- and post-intervention 'teamwork climate' scores were compared to give a longitudinal measure as a test of sustainability. Mean 'teamwork climate' scores improved incrementally and significantly following the series of educational interventions, showing that practitioners' valuing of teamwork activity can be improved and sustained. Longitudinal positive change in attitudes and values towards teamwork can be sustained, suggesting that a deliberate, designed complex intervention can shape a safety climate as a necessary prerequisite for the establishment of a sustainable safety culture.

  10. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Developmental changes of morphology in the basolateral complex of the rabbit amygdala.

    Jagalska-Majewska, Hanna; Luczyńska, Anna; Wójcik, Sławomir; Dziewiatkowski, Jerzy; Kurlapska, Renata; Moryś, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to follow topographical and morphological changes in the development of the amygdaloid basolateral complex (BLC) in the rabbit. The material consists of 35 brains of New Zealand rabbits of both sexes, divided into 7 age groups (P2-P90). In cresyl violet preparations BLC is already well visible on P2 and is composed of the lateral (divided into dorsolateral and ventromedial divisions), basolateral and homogenous basomedial nuclei. On about the 7th postnatal day it is possible to divide the basomedial nucleus (BM) into dorsal (Bmd) and ventral (BMv) divisions. The topography and subdivisions set on P7 are maintained in further periods of life. The morphology of neurons (shape, dendrites, staining) changes significantly until P21 in all BLC nuclei. Our results indicate that BLC achieves morphological maturity relatively late, which is probably connected with a long creation of emotional memory and regulation of emotional behaviour.

  12. Malaria control in rural Malawi: implementing peer health education for behaviour change.

    Malenga, Tumaini; Kabaghe, Alinune Nathanael; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kadama, Asante; McCann, Robert S; Phiri, Kamija Samuel; van Vugt, Michèle; van den Berg, Henk

    2017-11-20

    Interventions to reduce malaria burden are effective if communities use them appropriately and consistently. Several tools have been suggested to promote uptake and use of malaria control interventions. Community workshops on malaria, using the 'Health Animator' approach, are a potential behaviour change strategy for malaria control. The strategy aims to influence a change in mind-set of vulnerable populations to encourage self-reliance, using community volunteers known as Health Animators. The aim of the paper is to describe the process of implementing community workshops on malaria by Health Animators to improve uptake and use of malaria control interventions in rural Malawi. This is a descriptive study reporting feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness and fidelity of using Health Animator-led community workshops for malaria control. Quantitative data were collected from self-reporting and researcher evaluation forms. Qualitative assessments were done with Health Animators, using three focus groups (October-December 2015) and seven in-depth interviews (October 2016-February 2017). Seventy seven health Animators were trained from 62 villages. A total of 2704 workshops were conducted, with consistent attendance from January 2015 to June 2017, representing 10-17% of the population. Attendance was affected by social responsibilities and activities, relationship of the village leaders and their community and involvement of Community Health Workers. Active discussion and participation were reported as main strengths of the workshops. Health Animators personally benefited from the mind-set change and were proactive peer influencers in the community. Although the information was comprehended and accepted, availability of adequate health services was a challenge for maintenance of behaviour change. Community workshops on malaria are a potential tool for influencing a positive change in behaviour towards malaria, and applicable for other health problems in rural

  13. How Random Is Social Behaviour? Disentangling Social Complexity through the Study of a Wild House Mouse Population

    Perony, Nicolas; Tessone, Claudio J.; König, Barbara; Schweitzer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Out of all the complex phenomena displayed in the behaviour of animal groups, many are thought to be emergent properties of rather simple decisions at the individual level. Some of these phenomena may also be explained by random processes only. Here we investigate to what extent the interaction dynamics of a population of wild house mice (Mus domesticus) in their natural environment can be explained by a simple stochastic model. We first introduce the notion of perceptual landscape, a novel tool used here to describe the utilisation of space by the mouse colony based on the sampling of individuals in discrete locations. We then implement the behavioural assumptions of the perceptual landscape in a multi-agent simulation to verify their accuracy in the reproduction of observed social patterns. We find that many high-level features – with the exception of territoriality – of our behavioural dataset can be accounted for at the population level through the use of this simplified representation. Our findings underline the potential importance of random factors in the apparent complexity of the mice's social structure. These results resonate in the general context of adaptive behaviour versus elementary environmental interactions. PMID:23209394

  14. Health-related quality of life and stages of behavioural change for exercise in overweight/obese individuals.

    Romain, A J; Bernard, P; Attalin, V; Gernigon, C; Ninot, G; Avignon, A

    2012-10-01

    Stages of change in exercise behaviour have been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight/obese adults. However, studies examining this relationship have not used questionnaires specifically designed for such a population. The present study assessed the impact of stages of change (SOC) for exercise, using the transtheoretical model, on the HRQoL, using the quality of life, obesity and dietetics (QOLOD) scale, an obesity-specific QoL questionnaire. Our hypothesis was that the more people are in the advanced stages of behavioural change, the better their HRQoL. A total of 214 consecutive obese individuals (148 women/66 men, mean age 47.4 ± 14.0 years, BMI 37.2 ± 8.4 kg/m2) were included in the cross-sectional study, and all completed SOC and QOLOD questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) established significant effects on the overall composite of the five dimensions of the QOLOD (P food (P = 0.13) or on the dieting experience (P = 0.13), two dimensions evaluating attitudes toward food. In obese/overweight individuals, the HRQoL varies with the SOC, with those in the more advanced behavioural stages reporting better HRQoL. However, dimensions related to food showed no differences according to SOC, confirming the complexity of the relationship between exercise and nutrition, and the need for further studies to acquire a more complete understanding of their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. One-to-one dietary interventions undertaken in a dental setting to change dietary behaviour.

    Harris, Rebecca; Gamboa, Ana; Dailey, Yvonne; Ashcroft, Angela

    2012-03-14

    The dental care setting is an appropriate place to deliver dietary assessment and advice as part of patient management. However, we do not know whether this is effective in changing dietary behaviour. To assess the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions for all ages carried out in a dental care setting in changing dietary behaviour. The effectiveness of these interventions in the subsequent changing of oral and general health is also assessed. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 24 January 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 24 January 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 24 January 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1982 to 24 January 2012), PsycINFO via OVID (1967 to 24 January 2012), and Web of Science (1945 to 12 April 2011). We also undertook an electronic search of key conference proceedings (IADR and ORCA between 2000 and 13 July 2011). Reference lists of relevant articles, thesis publications (Dissertations Abstracts Online 1861 to 2011) were searched. The authors of eligible trials were contacted to identify any unpublished work. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions delivered in a dental care setting. Abstract screening, eligibility screening and data extraction decisions were all carried out independently and in duplicate by two review authors. Consensus between the two opinions was achieved by discussion, or involvement of a third review author. Five studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Two of these were multi-intervention studies where the dietary intervention was one component of a wider programme of prevention, but where data on dietary behaviour change were reported. One of the single intervention studies was concerned with dental caries prevention. The other two concerned general health outcomes. There were no studies

  16. Age-Related Changes in Electroencephalographic Signal Complexity

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Marzetti, Laura; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Tecchio, Franca; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The study of active and healthy aging is a primary focus for social and neuroscientific communities. Here, we move a step forward in assessing electrophysiological neuronal activity changes in the brain with healthy aging. To this end, electroencephalographic (EEG) resting state activity was acquired in 40 healthy subjects (age 16–85). We evaluated Fractal Dimension (FD) according to the Higuchi algorithm, a measure which quantifies the presence of statistical similarity at different scales in temporal fluctuations of EEG signals. Our results showed that FD increases from age twenty to age fifty and then decreases. The curve that best fits the changes in FD values across age over the whole sample is a parabola, with the vertex located around age fifty. Moreover, FD changes are site specific, with interhemispheric FD asymmetry being pronounced in elderly individuals in the frontal and central regions. The present results indicate that fractal dimension well describes the modulations of brain activity with age. Since fractal dimension has been proposed to be related to the complexity of the signal dynamics, our data demonstrate that the complexity of neuronal electric activity changes across the life span of an individual, with a steady increase during young adulthood and a decrease in the elderly population. PMID:26536036

  17. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  18. Can microgeneration catalyse behaviour change in the domestic energy sector in the UK?

    Bergman, Noam (Univ. of Oxford, Environmental Change Inst., Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    Domestic energy use accounts for more than a quarter of CO{sub 2} emissions in the UK. Traditional approaches to energy reduction look at direct emissions savings, and recommend insulation and efficiency as more cost-effective than microgeneration. However, microgeneration has indirect, 'soft' benefits and could play a significant role in emissions reduction. Current uptake of microgeneration in the UK is low, with various barriers economic, technical, cultural, behavioural and institutional both to uptake and to maximising energy and emissions savings once installed. Subsidies and spreading information alone do not guarantee maximising uptake, and even if successful, this is not enough to maximise savings. The industry focuses on maximising sales, with no incentives to ensure best installations and use; householders do not have access to the best information and user behaviour does not maximise energy and emission savings. This is related to a broader state of socio-technical 'lock-in' in domestic energy use there's a lack of connection between personal behaviour and energy consumption, let alone global climate change; energy use in the home is rising faster than energy saving measures are implemented. This suggests that a major cultural-behavioural shift is needed to reduce energy/emissions in the home. Transition theory and strategic niche management provide insights into possible systemic change, and a suitable framework for future policies, such as supporting a variety of radically innovative niches, both technological and social. Microgeneration, properly employed, has the potential to play a part in such a transition, by increasing awareness and energy literacy and empowering people to seriously engage in energy debates as producers, as well as consumers, of energy. This deeper understanding and heightened responsibility are crucial in a shift toward bottom-up emissions-reducing behaviour change and better acceptance of top

  19. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health.To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change.We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research.We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity.The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of generating reliable causal inferences regarding intervention

  20. Behaviour Change in the UK Climate Debate: An Assessment of Responsibility, Agency and Political Dimensions

    Shane Fudge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the politics around the role of agency in the UK climate change debate. Government interventions on the demand side of consumption have increasingly involved attempts to obtain greater traction with the values, attitudes and beliefs of citizens in relation to climate change and also in terms of influencing consumer behaviour at an individual level. With figures showing that approximately 40% of the UK’s carbon emissions are attributable to household and transport behaviour, policy initiatives have progressively focused on the facilitation of “sustainable behaviours”. Evidence suggests however, that mobilisation of pro-environmental attitudes in addressing the perceived “value-action gap” has so far had limited success. Research in this field suggests that there is a more significant and nuanced “gap” between context and behaviour; a relationship that perhaps provides a more adroit reflection of reasons why people do not necessarily react in the way that policy-makers anticipate. Tracing the development of the UK Government’s behaviour change agenda over the last decade, we posit that a core reason for the limitations of this programme relates to an excessively narrow focus on the individual. This has served to obscure some of the wider political and economic aspects of the debate in favour of a more simplified discussion. The second part of the paper reports findings from a series of focus groups exploring some of the wider political views that people hold around household energy habits, purchase and use of domestic appliances, and transport behaviour-and discusses these insights in relation to the literature on the agenda’s apparent limitations. The paper concludes by considering whether the aims of the Big Society approach (recently established by the UK’s Coalition Government hold the potential to engage more directly with some of these issues or whether they merely constitute a “repackaging” of the

  1. Development and validation of the ACSI : measuring students' science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of

  2. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Lu?s; Davids, Keith; Ara?jo, Duarte; Garganta, J?lio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data ...

  3. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  4. Systematic review of behaviour change techniques to promote participation in physical activity among people with dementia.

    Nyman, Samuel R; Adamczewska, Natalia; Howlett, Neil

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD). PsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000-01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and BCTs were coded using Michie et al., 2013, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81. taxonomy. Intervention findings were narratively synthesized as either 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising', and BCTs were judged as having potential promise if they featured in at least twice as many very/quite promising than non-promising interventions (as per Gardner et al., 2016, Health Psychology Review, 10, 89). Nineteen articles from nine trials reported physical activity findings on behavioural outcomes (two very promising, one quite promising, and two non-promising) or intervention adherence (one quite promising and four non-promising). Thirteen BCTs were used across the interventions. While no BCT had potential promise to increase intervention adherence, three BCTs had potential promise for improving physical activity behaviour outcomes: goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source. Three BCTs have potential promise for use in future interventions to increase physical activity among PWD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While physical activity is a key lifestyle factor to enhance and maintain health and wellbeing amongst the general population, adults rarely participate in sufficient levels to obtain these benefits. Systematic reviews suggest that

  5. Policy interventions implemented through sporting organisations for promoting healthy behaviour change.

    Priest, Naomi; Armstrong, Rebecca; Doyle, Jodie; Waters, Elizabeth

    2008-07-16

    Sporting organisations provide an important setting for health promotion strategies that involve policies, communication of healthy messages and creation of health promoting environments. The introduction of policy interventions within sporting organisations is one strategy to target high risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption, excess sun exposure, unhealthy eating and discrimination. To update a review of all controlled studies evaluating policy interventions organised through sporting settings to increase healthy behaviour (related to smoking, alcohol, healthy eating, sun protection, discrimination, safety and access). We updated the original (2004) searches in May 2007. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2007); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations (2004 to Week 3 April 2007); EMBASE (2004 to Week 17 2007); PsyclNFO (2004 to April Week 1 2007); CINAHL (2004 to Week 1 May 2007); SPORTDiscus (2004 to April 2007); Sociological Abstracts (2004 to 2007); Dissertation Abstracts (2004 to May 2007), ERIC (2000 to 2007), freely available online health promotion and sports-related databases hosted by leading agencies, and the internet using sport and policy-related key words. Controlled studies evaluating any policy intervention implemented through sporting organisations to instigate and/or sustain healthy behaviour change, intention to change behaviour, or changes in attitudes, knowledge or awareness of healthy behaviour, in people of all ages. Policies must address any of the following: smoking, alcohol, healthy eating, sun protection, access for disadvantaged groups, physical safety (not including injuries), and social and emotional health (e.g. anti-vilification, anti-discrimination). Uncontrolled studies which met the other inclusion criteria were to be reported in an annex to the review. We assessed whether identified citations met the inclusion criteria

  6. Population size does not explain past changes in cultural complexity.

    Vaesen, Krist; Collard, Mark; Cosgrove, Richard; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-04-19

    Demography is increasingly being invoked to account for features of the archaeological record, such as the technological conservatism of the Lower and Middle Pleistocene, the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition, and cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania. Such explanations are commonly justified in relation to population dynamic models developed by Henrich [Henrich J (2004)Am Antiq69:197-214] and Powell et al. [Powell A, et al. (2009)Science324(5932):1298-1301], which appear to demonstrate that population size is the crucial determinant of cultural complexity. Here, we show that these models fail in two important respects. First, they only support a relationship between demography and culture in implausible conditions. Second, their predictions conflict with the available archaeological and ethnographic evidence. We conclude that new theoretical and empirical research is required to identify the factors that drove the changes in cultural complexity that are documented by the archaeological record.

  7. Formation of lactoferrin/sodium caseinate complexes and their adsorption behaviour at the air/water interface.

    Li, Quanyang; Zhao, Zhengtao

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the complexation behaviour between lactoferrin (Lf) and sodium caseinate (NaCas) before and after heat treatment. The results showed that heating facilitated their interaction and different complexes were formed at different Lf/NaCas ratios. The presence of low concentrations of NaCas resulted in the rapid precipitation of Lf, while no precipitation was observed at the NaCas concentrations higher than Lf/NaCas ratio of 2:1. The formed complexes at the ratio of 2:1 have an average diameter of 194±9.0nm and they exhibited a great capacity in lowering the air/water interfacial tension. Further increase of NaCas concentration to ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 resulted in the formation of smaller complexes with average diameters of 60±2.5nm. The complexes formed at these two ratios showed similar adsorption behaviour at the air/water interface and they exhibited lower capacity in decreasing the interfacial tension than the ratio of 2:1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. iFlit: an ambient display to induce cognitive dissonance and behaviour change

    R. Maimone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore how persuasive ambient displays could induce cognitive dissonance to promote positive behaviour change among graduate students. We developed iFlit –an interactive and collective ambient display that enables a group of students to reflect on their burnout level, and sleeping and activity habits. iFlit shows a garden with birds representing students monitored behaviour. Birds move according to users’ activity level, and the garden’s background changes according to each user’s sleeping habits. Users match peers perceived burnout, and sleep and activity habits to induce cognitive dissonance. We argue such displays are more efficient than personal devices to empower individuals’ self-reflection due their capabilities for enabling a playful interaction with their personal data.

  9. Chronic exposure to low-levels of lead in the rat: biochemical and behavioural changes

    Rossouw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of lead in the environment is a cause of continuing toxicology concern and there have been numerous human and animal studies to examine more thoroughly the possible consequences of exposure to this ecotoxicant. Because lead is highly toxic to the developing central nervous system, increasing concern over the rise in the lead content in the environment has been expressed. These concerns seem appropriate since more recent clinical studies have shown that prolonged exposure of children to so called 'subclinical' concentrations of lead may be associated with behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Moreover, animal studies have shown that chronic perinatal low-level lead exposure elicits alterations in both learned and spontaneous behavioural patterns in the absence of typical outward signs of lead-induced neurological toxicity. No study however could relate behavioural changes to specific alterations in neurochemisty. The aim of this study was therefore to expose rats, in different stages of their development, to low-levels of lead in order to induce behavioural disorders and correlate latter with possible neurochemical changes. In accordance with the general aims of the study, the structuring of the thesis is as follows: (a) a discussion of the neurotransmitters in the brain in order to describe the different systems which have been investigated; (b) a review of appropriate literature regarding the kinetics, toxodynamics and neurotoxicity of lead and (c) a summary of the methods employed in the study. The following results are presented: (d) the effects of lead treatment on physical development of the rats; (e) the induction of behavioural supersensitivity and (f) the effects lead has on central receptors

  10. Sociodemographic, behavioural and health factors associated with changes in older adults' TV viewing over 2 years.

    Gardner, Benjamin; Iliffe, Steve; Fox, Kenneth R; Jefferis, Barbara J; Hamer, Mark

    2014-08-15

    Of all age groups, older adults spend the most time watching TV, which is one of the most common sedentary behaviours. Such sedentary activity in older adulthood is thought to risk deterioration of physical and mental functioning, health and wellbeing. Identifying the characteristics of older adults whose TV viewing increases over time may help to target sedentary behaviour reduction interventions to those in most urgent need. Yet, studies of the factors associated with TV viewing have predominantly been cross-sectional. This study used a prospective design to describe changes in TV viewing over a two-year follow-up period, and to model socio-demographic, behavioural and health factors associated with observed changes in viewing time. A two-year follow-up of 6,090 male and female older adults (mean age 64.9 ± 8.9 years) was conducted in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a cohort of community dwelling older adults. TV viewing time was self-reported at baseline and at follow-up. The sample was categorised according to baseline TV viewing duration (TV viewing time between baseline and follow-up. Mean self-reported TV viewing time increased from 5.32 ± 4.08 hrs/d at baseline to 5.53 ± 4.19 hrs/d at follow-up (p TV viewing (23% of all participants by 60 minutes or more), 41% decreased their viewing, and 10% reported no change in viewing duration. Increases in TV viewing at follow-up were associated with lower socioeconomic status, presence of depressive symptoms, higher BMI, physical inactivity, and being a smoker at baseline. Findings call for the development of effective behaviour change interventions to counter increases in inactive TV viewing among older adults, and point to subgroups who may need to be prioritised for such interventions.

  11. Estimating the environmental impact of home energy visits and extent of behaviour change

    Revell, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the environmental impact of a home energy visit programme, known as RE:NEW, that was delivered in London, in the United Kingdom. These home energy visits intended to encourage reductions in household carbon emissions and water consumption through the installation of small energy saving measures (such as radiator panels, in-home energy displays and low-flow shower heads), further significant energy saving measures (loft and cavity wall insulation) and behaviour change advice. The environmental impact of the programme was estimated in terms of carbon emissions abated and on average, for each household in the study, a visit led to an average carbon abatement of 146 kgCO 2 . The majority of this was achieved through the installation of small energy saving measures. The impact of the visits on the installation of significant measures was negligible, as was the impact on behaviour change. Therefore, these visits did not overcome the barriers required to generate behaviour change or the barriers to the installation of more significant energy saving measures. Given this, a number of recommendations are proposed in this paper, which could increase the efficacy of these home energy visits. - Highlights: • The environmental impact of the RE:NEW home energy visit programme is estimated. • Visits do not generate significant pro-environmental behaviour change. • Visits do not overcome the barriers to the installation loft and wall insulation. • Small energy saving measures yield carbon savings of 145 kgCO 2 /year. • The average carbon abatement per household was estimated to be 146 kgCO 2 /year

  12. Use of Persuasive Technology to Change End-Users- IT Security Aware Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    Ai Cheo Yeo; Md. Mahbubur Rahim; Yin Ying Ren

    2008-01-01

    Persuasive technology has been applied in marketing, health, environmental conservation, safety and other domains and is found to be quite effective in changing people-s attitude and behaviours. This research extends the application domains of persuasive technology to information security awareness and uses a theory-driven approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based program developed based on the principles of persuasive technology to improve the information sec...

  13. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically for ex...... in the topic of choice architecture and nudging has increased the scientific output since the last review. There is a clear limitation in the lack of a clear definitions and theoretical foundation....

  14. A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care

    Gemma Heath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process.

  15. Can fMRI help optimise lifestyle behaviour change feedback from wearable technologies?

    Maxine Whelan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs place severe financial strain on global health resources. Diabetes mellitus, the second most prevalent NCD, has been attributed to 8.4% of deaths worldwide for adults aged 20-79 years (International Diabetes Federation, 2013 with physical inactivity attributable to 7% of cases (Lee et al., 2012. The recent surge in commercially available wearable technology has begun to allow individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and sedentary behaviour as well as the physiological response to these behaviours (e.g., health markers such as glucose levels. Equipped with feedback obtained from such wearables, individuals are better able to understand the relationship between the lifestyle behaviours they take (e.g. going for a walk after dinner and health consequences (e.g. less glucose excursions (area under the curve. However, in order to achieve true behaviour change, the feedback must be optimised. Innovative communications research suggest that health messages (and in our case feedback that activates brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (Falk, Berkman, Mann, Harrison & Lieberman, 2010 can predict and are associated with successful behaviour change. Fortunately, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI can map this neural activity whilst individuals receive various forms of personalised feedback. Such insight into the optimisation of feedback can improve the design and delivery of future behaviour change interventions. Aim Examine neural activity in response to personalised feedback in order to identify health messages most potent for behaviour change. Methods A mixed gender sample of 30 adults (aged 30-65 years will be recruited through campus advertisements at Loughborough University, UK. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using waist-worn ActiGraph GT3x-BT accelerometer (100Hz and LUMO posture sensor (30Hz, respectively. Both devices will be removed for sleep

  16. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  17. Impact of faculty development programs for positive behavioural changes among teachers: a case study

    Shuh Shing Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Faculty development (FD is essential to prepare faculty members to become effective teachers to meet the challenges in medical education. Despite the growth of FD programmes, most evaluations were often conducted using short questionnaires to assess participants’ satisfaction immediately after they attended a programme. Consequently, there were calls for more rigorous evaluations based on observed changes in participants’ behaviours. Hence, this study aims to explore how the FD workshops run by the Centre for Medical Education, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore have impacted behavioural changes in the educators. Methods We followed up with the educators at least half a year after they have attended the workshops. With limited literature as reference, we initiated a small-scale case-study research design involving semi-structured interviews with six educators which was triangulated with three focus group discussions with their students. This allowed us to explore behavioural changes among the educators as well as evaluate the feasibility of this research methodology. Results We identified three emerging categories among the educators: ignorance to awareness, from intuition to confirmation and expansion, and from individualism to community of practice. Conclusion Although FD have placed much emphasis on teaching and learning approaches, we found that the teacher-student interaction or human character components (passionate, willing to sacrifice, are open to feedback in becoming a good educator are lacking in our FD workshops.

  18. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Sarang Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  19. Low-carbon communities as a context for individual behavioural change

    Heiskanen, Eva; Johnson, Mikael; Robinson, Simon; Vadovics, Edina; Saastamoinen, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Previous attempts to change energy-related behaviour were targeted at individuals as consumers of energy. Recent literature has suggested that more focus should be placed on the community level and that energy users should be engaged in the role of citizens, and not only that of consumers. This article analyses different types of emerging low-carbon communities as a context for individual behavioural change. The focus is on how these communities offer solutions to problems in previous attempts to change individual behaviour. These problems include social dilemmas, social conventions, socio-technical infrastructures and the helplessness of individuals. Different community types are examined, including geographical communities as well as sector-based, interest-based and smart mob communities. Through four case studies representing each of these community types, we examine how different communities reframe problems on the individual level to reduce carbon emissions. On the basis of an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of various community solutions, implications are drawn for further research and for the design and support of low-carbon communities.

  20. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The evaluation of behavioural changes in brain-injured patients: SOFMER recommendations for clinical practice.

    Prouteau, A; Stéfan, A; Wiart, L; Mazaux, J M

    2016-02-01

    Behavioural changes are the main cause of difficulties in interpersonal relationships and social integration among traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. The Société française de médecine physique et réadaptation (SOFMER) decided to develop recommendations for the treatment and care provision for these problem under the auspices of the French health authority, the Haute Autorité de la santé (HAS). Assessment of behaviour is essential to describe, understand and define situations, assess any change and suggest lines for intervention. The relationship of these behavioural changes with the brain lesion is likewise of crucial importance in legal and forensic expertise. Using a literature review and expert opinions, the aim was to define the optimal conditions for the collection of data on behavioural changes in individuals having sustained brain trauma, to identify the situations in which they arise, to review the instruments available, and to suggest lines of intervention. A literature search identified 981 articles, among which 122 on the target subject were selected and analysed in detail and confronted with the experience of professionals and user representatives. A first draft of the recommendations was produced by the working group, and then submitted to a review group for opinions and complements. The literature on this subject is heterogeneous, and presents low levels of evidence. No article enabled the development of recommendations above the "expert opinion" level. After prior clarification of the aims of the evaluation, it is recommended first to carefully describe the changes in behaviour, from patient and third-person narratives, and where possible from direct observations. The information enabling the description of the phenomena occurring should be collected by different individuals (multi-source evaluation): the patient, his or her close circle, and professionals with different training backgrounds (multidisciplinary evaluation). The analysis of

  2. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework.

    Francis, Jill J; O'Connor, Denise; Curran, Janet

    2012-04-24

    Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series.In a brief review to assess the extent of TDF-based research, we identified 133 papers that cite the framework. Of these, 17 used the TDF as the basis for empirical studies to explore health professionals' behaviour. The identified papers provide evidence of the impact of the TDF on implementation research. Two major strengths of the framework are its theoretical coverage and its capacity to elicit beliefs that could signify key mediators of behaviour change. The TDF provides a useful conceptual basis for assessing implementation problems, designing interventions to enhance healthcare practice, and understanding behaviour-change processes. We discuss limitations and research challenges and introduce papers in this series.

  4. A clinical reasoning model focused on clients' behaviour change with reference to physiotherapists: its multiphase development and validation.

    Elvén, Maria; Hochwälder, Jacek; Dean, Elizabeth; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-05-01

    A biopsychosocial approach and behaviour change strategies have long been proposed to serve as a basis for addressing current multifaceted health problems. This emphasis has implications for clinical reasoning of health professionals. This study's aim was to develop and validate a conceptual model to guide physiotherapists' clinical reasoning focused on clients' behaviour change. Phase 1 consisted of the exploration of existing research and the research team's experiences and knowledge. Phases 2a and 2b consisted of validation and refinement of the model based on input from physiotherapy students in two focus groups (n = 5 per group) and from experts in behavioural medicine (n = 9). Phase 1 generated theoretical and evidence bases for the first version of a model. Phases 2a and 2b established the validity and value of the model. The final model described clinical reasoning focused on clients' behaviour change as a cognitive, reflective, collaborative and iterative process with multiple interrelated levels that included input from the client and physiotherapist, a functional behavioural analysis of the activity-related target behaviour and the selection of strategies for behaviour change. This unique model, theory- and evidence-informed, has been developed to help physiotherapists to apply clinical reasoning systematically in the process of behaviour change with their clients.

  5. Effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on acoustic change complex

    Hemanth N. Shetty

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on the latency and amplitude of acoustic change complex (ACC. ACC is a multiple overlapping P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting acoustic changes across the entire stimulus. Fifteen males and 15 females, in the age range of 18 to 25 (mean=21.67 years, having normal hearing participated in the study. The ACC was recorded using the vertical montage. The naturally produced stimuli /sa/ and /si/ were presented through the insert earphone/loud speaker to record the ACC. The ACC obtained from different stimuli presented through different transducers from male/female participants were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Dependent t-test and independent t-test were performed when indicated. There was a significant difference in latency of 2N1 at the transition, with latency for /sa/ being earlier; but not at the onset portions of ACC. There was no significant difference in amplitude of ACC between the stimuli. Among the transducers, there was no significant difference in latency and amplitude of ACC, for both /sa/ and /si/ stimuli. Female participants showed earlier latency for 2N1 and larger amplitude of N1 and 2P2 than male participants, which was significant. ACC provides important insight in detecting the subtle spectral changes in each stimulus. Among the transducers, no difference in ACC was noted as the spectra of stimuli delivered were within the frequency response of the transducers. The earlier 2N1 latency and larger N1 and 2P2 amplitudes noticed in female participants could be due to smaller head circumference. The findings of this study will be useful in determining the capacity of the auditory pathway in detecting subtle spectral changes in the stimulus at the level of the auditory cortex.

  6. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  7. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    van Beest, Floris M; Milner, Jos M

    2013-01-01

    Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance are likely contributory factors. Climate-related effects on animal

  8. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Marijke Veenstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  9. Post-adolescent developmental changes in cortical complexity.

    Sandu, Anca-Larisa; Izard, Edouard; Specht, Karsten; Beneventi, Harald; Lundervold, Arvid; Ystad, Martin

    2014-11-27

    Post-adolescence is known to be a period of general maturation and development in the human brain. In brain imaging, volumetric and morphologic cortical grey-matter changes can easily be assessed, but the analysis of cortical complexity seems to have been broadly neglected for this age interval. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to acquire structural brain images. The study involved 17 adolescents (mean age 14.1 ± 0.27, 11 girls) who were compared with 14 young adults (mean age 24.24 ± 2.76, 7 women) for measures of brain complexity (fractal dimension--FD), grey matter (GM) volume and surface-area of cortical ribbon. FD was calculated using box-counting and Minkowski-Bouligand methods; FD and GM volume were measured for the whole brain, each hemisphere and lobes: frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal. The results show that the adults have a lower cortical complexity than the adolescents, which was significant for whole brain, left and right hemisphere, frontal and parietal lobes for both genders; and only for males in left temporal lobe. The GM volume was smaller in men than in boys for almost all measurements, and smaller in women than in girls just for right parietal lobe. A significant Pearson correlation was found between FD and GM volume for whole brain and each hemisphere in both genders. The decrease of the GM surface-area was significant in post-adolescence for males, not for females. During post-adolescence there are common changes in cortical complexity in the same regions for both genders, but there are also gender specific changes in some cortical areas. The sex differences from different cortical measurements (FD, GM volume and surface-area of cortical ribbon) could suggest a maturation delay in specific brain regions for each gender in relation to the other and might be explained through the functional role of the corresponding regions reflected in gender difference of developed abilities.

  10. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    are singled out as especially important: consumer understanding, relationship management, and new product development. The development of market-related competencies aimed at exploiting trends in consumer behaviour and retailing will also entail changing forms of cooperation among members of the value chain......This paper analyses the changing competence requirements which members of the food chain face in their pursuit of competitive advantage. Two groups of trends serve as point of departure: more dynamic and heterogeneous consumer demands, which can be analysed in terms of consumer demands for sensory......, which favour both new ways of adding value but also new ways of matching consumer heterogeneity with heterogeneity in agricultural raw materials....

  11. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    are singled out as especially important: consumer understanding, relationship management, and new product development. The development of market-related competencies aimed at exploiting trends in consumer behaviour and retailing will also entail changing forms of cooperation among members of the value chain......This paper analyses the changing competence requirements which members of the food chain face in their pursuit of competitive advantage. Two groups of trends serve as point of departure: more dynamic and heterogeneous consumer demands, which can be analysed in terms of consumer demands for sensory......, which favour both new ways of adding value but also new ways of matching consumer heterogeneity with heterogeneity in agricultural raw materials....

  12. Causal pathways linking environmental change with health behaviour change: Natural experimental study of new transport infrastructure and cycling to work.

    Prins, R G; Panter, J; Heinen, E; Griffin, S J; Ogilvie, D B

    2016-06-01

    Mechanisms linking changes to the environment with changes in physical activity are poorly understood. Insights into mechanisms of interventions can help strengthen causal attribution and improve understanding of divergent response patterns. We examined the causal pathways linking exposure to new transport infrastructure with changes in cycling to work. We used baseline (2009) and follow-up (2012) data (N=469) from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge natural experimental study (Cambridge, UK). Exposure to new infrastructure in the form of the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway was defined using residential proximity. Mediators studied were changes in perceptions of the route to work, theory of planned behaviour constructs and self-reported use of the new infrastructure. Outcomes were modelled as an increase, decrease or no change in weekly cycle commuting time. We used regression analyses to identify combinations of mediators forming potential pathways between exposure and outcome. We then tested these pathways in a path model and stratified analyses by baseline level of active commuting. We identified changes in perceptions of the route to work, and use of the cycle path, as potential mediators. Of these potential mediators, only use of the path significantly explained (85%) the effect of the infrastructure in increasing cycling. Path use also explained a decrease in cycling among more active commuters. The findings strengthen the causal argument that changing the environment led to changes in health-related behaviour via use of the new infrastructure, but also show how some commuters may have spent less time cycling as a result. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. New insights into the complex photoluminescence behaviour of titanium white pigments

    van Driel, B.A.; Artesani, A.; van den Berg, Klaas Jan; Dik, J.; Mosca, S.; Rossenaar, B.; Hoekstra, J.; Davies, A.; Nevin, A.; Valentini, G.; Comelli, D.

    2018-01-01

    This work reports the analysis of the time-resolved photoluminescence behaviour on the nanosecond and microsecond time scale of fourteen historical and contemporary titanium white pigments. The pigments were produced with different production methods and post-production treatments, giving rise to

  14. .i.Aspergillus viridinutans./i. complex: polyphasic taxonomy, mating behaviour and antifungal susceptibility testing

    Dudová, Z.; Hubka, V.; Svobodová, L.; Hamal, P.; Nováková, Alena; Matsuzawa, T.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 3 (2013), s. 162-163 ISSN 0933-7407. [Trends in Medical Mycology /6./. 11.10.2013-14.10.2013, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus viridinutans * polyphasic taxonomy * mating behaviour * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Changes in male sexual behaviour in response to the AIDS epidemic: evidence from a cohort study in urban Tanzania

    Ng'weshemi, J. Z.; Boerma, J. T.; Pool, R.; Barongo, L.; Senkoro, K.; Maswe, M.; Isingo, R.; Schapink, D.; Nnko, S.; Borgdorff, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    To examine changes in sexual behaviour among men in urban Tanzania. An observational cohort study among factory workers during 1991-1994. Data from five follow-up visits with structured questionnaire-guided interviews and biomedical data were analysed to examine trends in sexual behaviour and

  16. Development of a Tool to Stage Households' Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India.

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Thankappan, K R; Sarma, P S; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach's Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach's Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay community

  17. Development of a Tool to Stage Households’ Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari; Thankappan, K. R.; Sarma, P. S.; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach’s Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay

  18. Investigations on the elution behaviour of TOPO complexes of uranium and thorium using supercritical fluid chromatography

    Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    In summary uranium and thorium could be separated by supercritical fluid chromatography technique as their TOPO complexes. The elution profiles with pre-complexation of the metal nitrate indicate a better separation than the in-situ complexation. The technique can also be employed for the assay of uranium and thorium at low levels

  19. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits.

  20. Multifactor investigation of relative postirradiation changes in various types of behavioural reactions in rats

    Davydov, B.I.; Tikhonchuk, V.S.; Karpov, V.N.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1989-01-01

    The use of the methods of multifactor, orthogonal and composition planning in studying the behavioural disturbances in rats after γ-irradiation with doses of 0.258 to 1.29 C/kg and the application of the proposed method of discrimination of effects by empirical models permitted to establish the informative and adequate dependences of the probability of these disturbances on dose of nonuniform irradiation and the degree of strengthening of the conditioned reflex. Within the range of the studied factors both the value of the dose of whole-body irradiation and the degree of strengthening of the conditioned reflex significantly affected the probability of fulfilling the task by the animals the significance of the radiation dose being several times higher. The effects of the interaction of the two factors, that is, irradiation and the radiation affection, were insignificant in changing the behavioural reactions under study

  1. Impaired affective and cognitive theory of mind and behavioural change in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    van der Hulst, Egberdina-Józefa; Bak, Thomas H; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-11-01

    Executive and behavioural changes are well-recognised in classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), indicating a subclinical behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in some patients. Social cognitive deficits in ALS have been recently described and an impairment was identified on a simple Theory of Mind (ToM) test, which assesses the judgement of the preference of another through direction of eye gaze. The present study further delineated this deficit, by distinguishing between Affective and Cognitive subcomponents, and determining the relationship to behavioural change, levels of empathy and self-awareness. The Cognitive-Affective Judgement of Preference Test was administered to 33 patients with ALS and 26 controls. Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and detailed behavioural assessment, with measures of empathy and awareness, were included. Patients with ALS showed a significant impairment in Affective ToM only when compared with healthy controls, with a deficit in 36% of patients; 12% showed an isolated Affective ToM deficit while 24% showed more generic ToM dysfunction. A Cognitive ToM deficit was found in 27% of patients, with 3% showing an isolated Cognitive ToM deficit. The patients with ALS showed reduced empathy (Fantasy scale) and increased behavioural dysfunction with high levels of apathy. In addition, patients with either an Affective and/or Cognitive ToM deficit exhibited poor self-awareness of their performance and abnormalities on verbal fluency, while those with an Affective ToM deficit also displayed higher levels of apathy and a naming deficit. Dysfunctional ToM is a prominent feature of the cognitive profile of ALS. This specific difficulty in identifying and distinguishing the feelings and thoughts of another from a self-perspective may underpin the social behavioural abnormalities present in some patients with ALS, manifest as apathy and loss of awareness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  2. Could sustainable transport policies lead to behavioural change? - A user's point of view

    Polain, Celine; Lannoy, Pierre [Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Implementing sustainable transport policies can among others be achieved by encouraging shifts from car to public transport. Several cities have therefore carried out free public transport experiences, especially in Belgium. The federal research on which we will base our account is intended to assess the (expected) results of a free transit policy on a focus group: students from higher institutions located in Brussels. Dutch speaking students can indeed benefit from free season tickets within Brussels whereas French speaking students do not have this opportunity. Through this natural laboratory situation, we wish to analyse from a sociological perspective, by means of qualitative and comprehensive methods, the cognitive logics guiding mobility behaviours of students and particularly, the reasons why free public transport could or not change their behaviours. Our account is divided into four parts, which will analyse: The context, the objectives and techniques of the survey, The role of environmental concerns in users' talks, The role of price concerns in students' arguments, Users' global assessment of a 'free transit policy' and their behavioural (expected) changes. Sociological types emerging from the different lines of arguments used will be described. Transport experts generally consider the second and third topics analysed as essential components of any efficient free public transport policy. We will however show that few students regard these as crucial when reasoning about mobility behaviours. More practical factors are referred to. The last point will present a 'mixed' assessment of this kind of policy, mentioning some unexpected arguments.

  3. Diffuse traumatic axonal injury in mice induces complex behavioural alterations that are normalized by neutralization of interleukin-1β.

    Ekmark-Lewén, Sara; Flygt, Johanna; Fridgeirsdottir, Gudrun A; Kiwanuka, Olivia; Hånell, Anders; Meyerson, Bengt J; Mir, Anis K; Gram, Hermann; Lewén, Anders; Clausen, Fredrik; Hillered, Lars; Marklund, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    Widespread traumatic axonal injury (TAI) results in brain network dysfunction, which commonly leads to persisting cognitive and behavioural impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI induces a complex neuroinflammatory response, frequently located at sites of axonal pathology. The role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β has not been established in TAI. An IL-1β-neutralizing or a control antibody was administered intraperitoneally at 30 min following central fluid percussion injury (cFPI), a mouse model of widespread TAI. Mice subjected to moderate cFPI (n = 41) were compared with sham-injured controls (n = 20) and untreated, naive mice (n = 9). The anti-IL-1β antibody reached the target brain regions in adequate therapeutic concentrations (up to ~30 μg/brain tissue) at 24 h post-injury in both cFPI (n = 5) and sham-injured (n = 3) mice, with lower concentrations at 72 h post-injury (up to ~18 μg/g brain tissue in three cFPI mice). Functional outcome was analysed with the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test at 2 and 9 days post-injury, and the Morris water maze (MWM) at 14-21 days post-injury. Following TAI, the IL-1β-neutralizing antibody resulted in an improved behavioural outcome, including normalized behavioural profiles in the MCSF test. The performance in the MWM probe (memory) trial was improved, although not in the learning trials. The IL-1β-neutralizing treatment did not influence cerebral ventricle size or the number of microglia/macrophages. These findings support the hypothesis that IL-1β is an important contributor to the processes causing complex cognitive and behavioural disturbances following TAI. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Empowering people to change occupational behaviours to address critical global issues.

    Ikiugu, Moses N; Westerfield, Madeline A; Lien, Jamie M; Theisen, Emily R; Cerny, Shana L; Nissen, Ranelle M

    2015-06-01

    The greatest threat to human well-being in this century is climate change and related global issues. We examined the effectiveness of the Modified Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy model as a framework for facilitating occupational behaviour change to address climate change and related issues. Eleven individuals participated in this mixed-methods single-subject-design study. Data were gathered using the Modified Assessment and Intervention Instrument for Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy and Daily Occupational Inventories. Quantitative data were analyzed using two- and three-standard deviation band methods. Qualitative data were analyzed using heuristic phenomenological procedures. Occupational performance changed for five participants. Participants' feelings shifted from frustration and helplessness to empowerment and a desire for action. They felt empowered to find occupation-based solutions to the global issues. Occupation-based interventions that increase personal awareness of the connection between occupational performance and global issues could empower people to be agents for action to ameliorate the issues.

  5. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  6. Consequences of genetic change in farm animals on food intake and feeding behaviour.

    Emmans, G; Kyriazakis, I

    2001-02-01

    Selection in commercial populations on aspects of output, such as for growth rate in poultry. against fatness and for growth rate in pigs, and for milk yield in cows, has had very barge effects on such outputs over the past 50 years. Partly because of the cost of recording intake, there has been little or no selection for food intake or feeding behaviour. In order to predict the effects of such past, and future, selection on intake it is necessary to have some suitable theoretical framework. Intake needs to be predicted in order to make rational feeding and environmental decisions. The idea that an animal will eat 'to meet its requirements' has proved useful and continues to be fruitful. An important part of the idea is that the animal (genotype) can be described in a way that is sufficient for the accurate prediction of its outputs over time. Such descriptions can be combined with a set of nutritional constants to calculate requirements. There appears to have been no change in the nutritional constants under selection for output. Under such selection it is simplest to assume that changes in intake follow from the changes in output rates, so that intake changes become entirely predictable. It is suggested that other ways that have been proposed for predicting intake cannot be successful in predicting the effects of selection. Feeding behaviour is seen as being the means that the animal uses to attain its intake rather than being the means by which that intake can be predicted. Thus, the organisation of feeding behaviour can be used to predict neither intake nor the effects of selection on it.

  7. Motivational Interview Method Based on Transtheoretical Model of Health Behaviour Change in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Alime Selcuk Tosun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Precautions taken in early stages of diabetes mellitus are more beneficial in terms of quality of life. The risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been shown to be reduced at rates up to 58% or its emergence may be delayed with healthy lifestyle changes in different studies. Transtheoretical model and motivational interview method are especially used to increase the adaptation of individuals to disease management and to change behaviours about diabetes mellitus for decreasing or preventing the harmful effects of diabetes mellitus in studies conducted with individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions using motivational interview method based on transtheoretical model demonstrated that a general improvement in glycaemic control and in physical activity level can be achieved and significant progress has been made during the stage of change. Motivational interview method based on transtheoretical model is an easy and efficient counselling method to reach behavioural change. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 32-41

  8. Do behavioural health intentions engender health behaviour change? A study on the moderating role of self-affirmation on actual fruit intake versus vegetable intake

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    Objectives. The purpose of this persuasion research was to show that self-affirmation (SA) increases intentions in the advocated direction and that these intentions predict actual health behaviour change. That is, these intentions not only serve the function of short-term relief of the threat caused

  9. Children with medical complexity: the change in the pediatric epidemiology

    Rino Agostiniani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, epidemiological landscape of pediatric illness is changed; we are facing a progressive raising of the number of children affected by chronic illness (children with special health care needs [CSHCN], mainly due to the amelioration in surviving and in care. These patients have become the majority of the inpatients in some specialist hospitals, like the Meyer Children’s Hospital (Florence, Italy, in 2012. One important group of CSHCN is represented by the children who are most medically fragile and have the most intensive health care needs (children with medical complexity [CMC]. In these patients, the complexity of the pathological framework frequently results in a plenty of visits and tests, with high risk of redundant and expensive cares. They also need outside support networks such as advocacy and accommodations at school, at home, in social life. The CMC needs specific skill and new strategies that could involve pediatricians in hospital as in home care. The professional competencies are ready but a clear and shared strategy is lacking. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  10. Comparison of two school-based programmes for health behaviour change: the Belo Horizonte Heart Study randomized trial.

    Ribeiro, Robespierre Q C; Alves, Luciana

    2014-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of two school-based programmes to promote students' willingness to engage in lifestyle changes related to eating habits and physical activity behaviours. Elementary school-based health promotion intervention, designed as a multicomponent experimental study, based on a behavioural epidemiological model. Nine intervention and eight comparative public and private elementary schools. The goal was to determine the impact on the longitudinally assessed outcomes of two programmes that addressed healthy nutrition and active living in a cohort of 2038 children. The evaluations used pre-intervention and follow-up student surveys that were based on the Transtheoretical Model of the stages of behaviour change. In the intervention group, there were significant (P motivated teachers. The comparison group did not show significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention times for any of the stages of behaviour. The intervention programme encouraged the students to make healthy lifestyle choices related to eating habits and physical activity behaviours.

  11. Evolution of the additive genetic variance–covariance matrix under continuous directional selection on a complex behavioural phenotype

    Careau, Vincent; Wolak, Matthew E.; Carter, Patrick A.; Garland, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Given the pace at which human-induced environmental changes occur, a pressing challenge is to determine the speed with which selection can drive evolutionary change. A key determinant of adaptive response to multivariate phenotypic selection is the additive genetic variance–covariance matrix (G). Yet knowledge of G in a population experiencing new or altered selection is not sufficient to predict selection response because G itself evolves in ways that are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated changes in G when closely related behavioural traits experience continuous directional selection. We applied the genetic covariance tensor approach to a large dataset (n = 17 328 individuals) from a replicated, 31-generation artificial selection experiment that bred mice for voluntary wheel running on days 5 and 6 of a 6-day test. Selection on this subset of G induced proportional changes across the matrix for all 6 days of running behaviour within the first four generations. The changes in G induced by selection resulted in a fourfold slower-than-predicted rate of response to selection. Thus, selection exacerbated constraints within G and limited future adaptive response, a phenomenon that could have profound consequences for populations facing rapid environmental change. PMID:26582016

  12. Evolution of the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix under continuous directional selection on a complex behavioural phenotype.

    Careau, Vincent; Wolak, Matthew E; Carter, Patrick A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-11-22

    Given the pace at which human-induced environmental changes occur, a pressing challenge is to determine the speed with which selection can drive evolutionary change. A key determinant of adaptive response to multivariate phenotypic selection is the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix ( G: ). Yet knowledge of G: in a population experiencing new or altered selection is not sufficient to predict selection response because G: itself evolves in ways that are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated changes in G: when closely related behavioural traits experience continuous directional selection. We applied the genetic covariance tensor approach to a large dataset (n = 17 328 individuals) from a replicated, 31-generation artificial selection experiment that bred mice for voluntary wheel running on days 5 and 6 of a 6-day test. Selection on this subset of G: induced proportional changes across the matrix for all 6 days of running behaviour within the first four generations. The changes in G: induced by selection resulted in a fourfold slower-than-predicted rate of response to selection. Thus, selection exacerbated constraints within G: and limited future adaptive response, a phenomenon that could have profound consequences for populations facing rapid environmental change. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    Deng, Y. F.; Cui, Y. J.; Tang, A. M.; Nguyen, X. P.; Li, X. L.; Van Geet, M.

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific oedometer cells were used allowing “flushing” the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96.

  14. Associations between sexual behaviour change in young people and decline in HIV prevalence in Zambia

    Siziya Seter

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that HIV prevalence amongst young Zambians has declined recently, especially in higher-education groups. We studied trends in key sexual behaviour indicators among 15–24 year-olds from 1995 to 2003, including the associations between sexual behaviour change and education. Methods The data stem from a series of three population-based surveys conducted in 1995 (n = 1720, 1999 (n = 1946 and 2003 (n = 2637. Logistic regression and Extended Mantel Haenszel Chi Square for linear trends were used to compare the three surveys. Results Men and lower-education groups reported more than one sexual partner in the year immediately prior to the survey more frequently than did women and higher-education groups (p Conclusion High risk behaviours clearly decreased, especially in higher-educated and urban groups, and there is a probable association here with the decline in HIV prevalence in the study population. Fewer sexual partners and condom use were among the core factors involved for both sexes; and for women a further factor was delayed child-bearing.

  15. Variation in depth of whitetip reef sharks: does provisioning ecotourism change their behaviour?

    Fitzpatrick, Richard; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Barnett, Adam

    2011-09-01

    In the dive tourism industry, shark provisioning has become increasingly popular in many places around the world. It is therefore important to determine the impacts that provisioning may have on shark behaviour. In this study, eight adult whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus were tagged with time-depth recorders at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, Australia. Tags collected time and depth data every 30 s. The absolute change in depth over 5-min blocks was considered as a proxy for vertical activity level. Daily variations in vertical activity levels were analysed to determine the effects of time of day on whitetip reef shark behaviour. This was done for days when dive boats were absent from the area, and for days when dive boats were present, conducting shark provisioning. Vertical activity levels varied between day and night, and with the presence of boats. In natural conditions (no boats present), sharks remained at more constant depths during the day, while at night animals continuously moved up and down the water column, showing that whitetip reef sharks are nocturnally active. When boats were present, however, there were also long periods of vertical activity during the day. If resting periods during the day are important for energy budgets, then shark provisioning may affect their health. So, if this behaviour alteration occurs frequently, e.g., daily, this has the potential to have significant negative effects on the animals' metabolic rates, net energy gain and overall health, reproduction and fitness.

  16. Phase behaviour and structure of stable complexes of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes

    Mengarelli, V.; Auvray, L.; Zeghal, M.

    2009-03-01

    We study the formation and structure of stable electrostatic complexes between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, a long polymethacrylic acid and a shorter polyethylenimine, at low pH, where the polyacid is weakly charged. We explore the phase diagram as a function of the charge and concentration ratio of the constituents. In agreement with theory, turbidity and ζ potential measurements show two distinct regimes of weak and strong complexation, which appear successively as the pH is increased and are separated by a well-defined limit. Weak complexes observed by neutron scattering and contrast matching have an open, non-compact structure, while strong complexes are condensed.

  17. Evaluating mobile phone applications for health behaviour change: A systematic review.

    McKay, Fiona H; Cheng, Christina; Wright, Annemarie; Shill, Jane; Stephens, Hugh; Uccellini, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Increasing smartphones access has allowed for increasing development and use of smart phone applications (apps). Mobile health interventions have previously relied on voice or text-based short message services (SMS), however, the increasing availability and ease of use of apps has allowed for significant growth of smartphone apps that can be used for health behaviour change. This review considers the current body of knowledge relating to the evaluation of apps for health behaviour change. The aim of this review is to investigate approaches to the evaluation of health apps to identify any current best practice approaches. Method A systematic review was conducted. Data were collected and analysed in September 2016. Thirty-eight articles were identified and have been included in this review. Results Articles were published between 2011- 2016, and 36 were reviews or evaluations of apps related to one or more health conditions, the remaining two reported on an investigation of the usability of health apps. Studies investigated apps relating to the following areas: alcohol, asthma, breastfeeding, cancer, depression, diabetes, general health and fitness, headaches, heart disease, HIV, hypertension, iron deficiency/anaemia, low vision, mindfulness, obesity, pain, physical activity, smoking, weight management and women's health. Conclusion In order to harness the potential of mobile health apps for behaviour change and health, we need better ways to assess the quality and effectiveness of apps. This review is unable to suggest a single best practice approach to evaluate mobile health apps. Few measures identified in this review included sufficient information or evaluation, leading to potentially incomplete and inaccurate information for consumers seeking the best app for their situation. This is further complicated by a lack of regulation in health promotion generally.

  18. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  19. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  20. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study

    Emma L. Giles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI. Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. Methods We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Results Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential ‘gaming’, and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI – including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for ‘gaming the system’. Secondly, a tension between participants’ own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants’ personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that

  1. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study.

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-09-15

    Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI). Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential 'gaming', and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI - including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for 'gaming the system'. Secondly, a tension between participants' own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants' personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that they could be a valuable behaviour change tool. There are aspects of

  2. A guide to using the Theoretical Domains Framework of behaviour change to investigate implementation problems.

    Atkins, Lou; Francis, Jill; Islam, Rafat; O'Connor, Denise; Patey, Andrea; Ivers, Noah; Foy, Robbie; Duncan, Eilidh M; Colquhoun, Heather; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Lawton, Rebecca; Michie, Susan

    2017-06-21

    Implementing new practices requires changes in the behaviour of relevant actors, and this is facilitated by understanding of the determinants of current and desired behaviours. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed by a collaboration of behavioural scientists and implementation researchers who identified theories relevant to implementation and grouped constructs from these theories into domains. The collaboration aimed to provide a comprehensive, theory-informed approach to identify determinants of behaviour. The first version was published in 2005, and a subsequent version following a validation exercise was published in 2012. This guide offers practical guidance for those who wish to apply the TDF to assess implementation problems and support intervention design. It presents a brief rationale for using a theoretical approach to investigate and address implementation problems, summarises the TDF and its development, and describes how to apply the TDF to achieve implementation objectives. Examples from the implementation research literature are presented to illustrate relevant methods and practical considerations. Researchers from Canada, the UK and Australia attended a 3-day meeting in December 2012 to build an international collaboration among researchers and decision-makers interested in the advancing use of the TDF. The participants were experienced in using the TDF to assess implementation problems, design interventions, and/or understand change processes. This guide is an output of the meeting and also draws on the authors' collective experience. Examples from the implementation research literature judged by authors to be representative of specific applications of the TDF are included in this guide. We explain and illustrate methods, with a focus on qualitative approaches, for selecting and specifying target behaviours key to implementation, selecting the study design, deciding the sampling strategy, developing study materials, collecting and

  3. A delicate web: household changes in health behaviour enabled by microcredit in Burkina Faso.

    Hennink, Monique; McFarland, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Providing microcredit to women in developing countries has long been highlighted as a simple and effective strategy for poverty reduction and health improvement. However, little is known about how microcredit enables changes in health behaviour. This knowledge is critical to further strengthen microcredit initiatives. This qualitative study, conducted in Burkina Faso, shows how microcredit can not only facilitate savings and investment strategies, but also lead to changes in household decision-making, enabling women to initiate health prevention, seek health treatment and manage health emergencies. Some changes led to increased household burdens for women that impeded health gains, such as administrative loan delays by the microcredit institution and reduced household contributions by the husband. Furthermore, the study highlighted the fragile nature of health gains, which may be eroded due to economic shocks on a household, such as crop failure, drought or illness.

  4. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers' lane changing behaviour.

    Ruth Madigan

    Full Text Available Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers' behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers' lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD and conditionally automated driving (CAD. In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers' acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers' vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving.

  5. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers' lane changing behaviour.

    Madigan, Ruth; Louw, Tyron; Merat, Natasha

    2018-01-01

    Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers' behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers' lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD) and conditionally automated driving (CAD). In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers' acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers' vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving.

  6. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers’ lane changing behaviour

    Louw, Tyron; Merat, Natasha

    2018-01-01

    Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers’ behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers’ lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD) and conditionally automated driving (CAD). In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers’ acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers’ vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving. PMID:29466402

  7. Taking part in 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour' and positive changes for parents.

    Appleton, Rebecca; Douglas, Hazel; Rheeston, Mary

    2016-02-01

    ABSTRACT The Solihull Approach's Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) is a 10-session group for parents run by facilitators in their local area. Previous studies have shown that parents enjoy taking part in the group, and that UYCB can reduce problematic behaviours in children. Building on this research, the present study evaluated whether UYCB programmes run more recently in the UK were rated as positively by parents, and what positive changes were reported by parents. Both quantitative and qualitative data was analysed from 105 parents who took part in 18 different UYCB groups between 2012 and 2015. The results of this analysis showed that 90 per cent of parents found the group a great place to relax and share experiences, 93 per cent rated the group as 'great' for helping them understand their child, and 92 per cent gave a 'great' rating for helping them identify changes. In addition to this, content analysis showed that 47 per cent of parents reported having a better relationship with their child after taking part, 42 per cent said they were more confident, and importantly six per cent reported a significant positive change in their lives generally as a direct result of UYCB.

  8. Behaviour change interventions for the management of Raynaud's phenomenon: a systematic review protocol.

    Daniels, Jo; Pauling, John D; Eccelston, Christopher

    2017-08-04

    Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) describes excessive peripheral vasospasm to cold exposure and/or emotional stress. RP episodes are associated with digital colour changes, pain and reduced quality of life. Pharmacological interventions are of low to moderate efficacy and often result in adverse effects such as facial flushing and headaches. Recommended lifestyle and behavioural interventions have not been evaluated. The objectives of the proposed systematic review are to assess the comparative safety and efficacy of behaviour change interventions for RP and identify what we can learn to inform future interventions. Studies eligible for inclusion include randomised controlled trials testing behaviour change interventions with a control comparator. A comprehensive search strategy will include peer review and grey literature up until 30 April 2017. Search databases will include Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Cochrane. Initial sifting, eligibility, data extraction, risk of bias and quality assessment will be subject to review by two independent reviewers with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Risk of bias assessment will be performed using Cochrane risk of a bias assessment tool with quality of evidence assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation(GRADE). A meta-analysis will be performed if there are sufficient data. Two subgroup analyses are planned: primary versus secondary RP outcomes; comparison of theoretically informed interventions with pragmatic interventions. This review does not require ethical approval as it will summarise published studies with non-identifiable data. This protocol complies with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed articles and reported according to PRISMA. This review will make a significant contribution to the management of RP where no review of behaviour-change interventions currently exist

  9. Navigating the Complexities of Undergraduate Medical Curriculum Change: Change Leaders' Perspectives.

    Velthuis, Floor; Varpio, Lara; Helmich, Esther; Dekker, Hanke; Jaarsma, A Debbie C

    2018-02-06

    Changing an undergraduate medical curriculum is a recurring, high-stakes undertaking at medical schools. This study aimed to explore how people leading major curriculum changes conceived of the process of enacting change and the strategies they relied on to succeed in their efforts. The first author individually interviewed nine leaders who were leading or had led the most recent undergraduate curriculum change in one of the eight medical schools in the Netherlands. Interviews were between December 2015 and April 2016, using a semi-structured interview format. Data analysis occurred concurrently with data collection, with themes being constructed inductively from the data. Leaders conceived of curriculum change as a dynamic, complex process. They described three major challenges they had to deal with while navigating this process: the large number of stakeholders championing a multitude of perspectives, dealing with resistance, and steering the change process. Additionally, strategies for addressing these challenges were described. The authors identified an underlying principle informing the work of these leaders: being and remaining aware of emerging situations, and carefully constructing strategies for ensuring the intended outcomes were reached and contributed to the progress of the change process. This empirical, descriptive study enriches the understanding of how institutional leaders navigate the complexities of major medical curriculum changes. The insights serve as a foundation for training and coaching future change leaders. To broaden the understanding of curriculum change processes, future studies could investigate the processes through alternative stakeholder perspectives.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not

  10. Simple reactions to nearby neighbours and complex social behaviour in primates

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte; Menzel, Randolf; Fischer, Julia

    Compared to many other animal taxa, the social behavior of primates is generally regarded to be more complex in its patterns and underlying cognition. This complexity has often been overestimated, because the same patterns of social behavior are found in taxa that are supposed to be cognitively less

  11. Can teams benefit from using a mindful infrastructure when defensive behaviour threatens complex innovation projects?

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.; Vroome, E.M.M. de

    2016-01-01

    Projects are often doomed to fail. An explorative case study which carried out team-based complex innovation projects in a research and technology organisation suggests three main results. 1] Project team leaders experienced that the complexity involved in the various aspects of team functioning,

  12. Spectral and thermal behaviours of rare earth element complexes with 3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid

    JANUSZ CHRUŚCIEL

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the formation of rare earth element 3,5-dimethytoxybenzoates were studied and their quantitative composition and solubilities in water at 293 K were determined. The complexes are anhydrous or hydrated salts and their solubilities are of the orders of 10-5 – 10-4 mol dm-3. Their FTIR, FIR and X-ray spectra were recorded. The compounds were also characterized by thermogravimetric studies in air and nitrogen atmospheres and by magnetic measurements. All complexes are crystalline compounds. The carboxylate group in these complexes is a bidentate, chelating ligand. On heating in air to 1173 K, the 3,5-dimethoxybenzoates of rare earth elements decompose in various ways. The hydrated complexes first dehydrate to form anhydrous salts which then decompose in air to the oxides of the respective metals while in nitrogen to mixtures of carbon and oxides of the respective metals. The complexes are more stable in air than in nitrogen.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behaviour of cadmium (II) complexes of photosubstituted octacyano-molybdate(IV) and -tungstate(IV) with ethylenediamine

    Ali, S.I.; Majid, Kowsar

    1998-01-01

    Photosubstituted ethylenediamine complexes of M(CN) 8 4- [where M =Mo(IV) or W(IV)] with cadmium (II) chloride have been synthesized and characterized by infrared (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both Mo(IV) and W(IV) show similar stoichiometric as well as thermal decomposition behaviour. The assigned general formula is Cd[M(CN) 3 (OH)(C 2 H 8 N 2 ) 2 ](C 2 H 8 N 2 ) Cl 2 XH 2 O [where M = Mo(IV) for which X = 1(I) and M = W(IV) for which X = 2 (II)]. The presence of CN - , OH - and C 2 H 8 N 2 has been shown by observed characteristic IR peaks. The extra absorption bands appearing in complex (II) are due to librational modes of water which show the formation of hydrogen bonding, which is also supported by TG analysis. The loss of these absorption bands rules out this type of bonding in (I). Both the complexes decompose in three steps up to 650 degC after which there is no change. DSC of the complexes also shows three transitions, two exothermic and one endothermic. On the basis of TG and DSC thermograms, mechanism for the decomposition of each step has been shown. Kinetic parameters like activation energy (E a ), frequency factor (A) and entropy of activation (ΔS) have been calculated using different integral methods. (author)

  14. Towards changing healthcare workers' behaviour: a qualitative study exploring non-compliance through appraisals of infection prevention and control practices.

    Shah, N; Castro-Sánchez, E; Charani, E; Drumright, L N; Holmes, A H

    2015-06-01

    Improving behaviour in infection prevention and control (IPC) practice remains a challenge, and understanding the determinants of healthcare workers' (HCWs) behaviour is fundamental to develop effective and sustained behaviour change interventions. To identify behaviours of HCWs that facilitated non-compliance with IPC practices, focusing on how appraisals of IPC duties and social and environmental circumstances shaped and influenced non-compliant behaviour. This study aimed to: (1) identify how HCWs rationalized their own behaviour and the behaviour of others; (2) highlight challenging areas of IPC compliance; and (3) describe the context of the working environment that may explain inconsistencies in IPC practices. Clinical staff at a National Health Service hospital group in London, UK were interviewed between December 2010 and July 2011 using qualitative methods. Responses were analysed using a thematic framework. Three ways in which HCWs appraised their behaviour were identified through accounts of IPC policies and practices: (1) attribution of responsibilities, with ambiguity about responsibility for certain IPC practices; (2) prioritization and risk appraisal, which demonstrated a divergence in values attached to some IPC policies and practices; and (3) hierarchy of influence highlighted that traditional clinical roles challenged work relationships. Overall, behaviours are not entirely independent of policy rules, but often an amalgamation of local normative practices, individual preferences and a degree of professional isolation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics.

    Rogers, Stephen M; Cullen, Darron A; Anstey, Michael L; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  16. Approximating optimal behavioural strategies down to rules-of-thumb: energy reserve changes in pairs of social foragers.

    Sean A Rands

    Full Text Available Functional explanations of behaviour often propose optimal strategies for organisms to follow. These 'best' strategies could be difficult to perform given biological constraints such as neural architecture and physiological constraints. Instead, simple heuristics or 'rules-of-thumb' that approximate these optimal strategies may instead be performed. From a modelling perspective, rules-of-thumb are also useful tools for considering how group behaviour is shaped by the behaviours of individuals. Using simple rules-of-thumb reduces the complexity of these models, but care needs to be taken to use rules that are biologically relevant. Here, we investigate the similarity between the outputs of a two-player dynamic foraging game (which generated optimal but complex solutions and a computational simulation of the behaviours of the two members of a foraging pair, who instead followed a rule-of-thumb approximation of the game's output. The original game generated complex results, and we demonstrate here that the simulations following the much-simplified rules-of-thumb also generate complex results, suggesting that the rule-of-thumb was sufficient to make some of the model outcomes unpredictable. There was some agreement between both modelling techniques, but some differences arose - particularly when pair members were not identical in how they gained and lost energy. We argue that exploring how rules-of-thumb perform in comparison to their optimal counterparts is an important exercise for biologically validating the output of agent-based models of group behaviour.

  17. Approximating optimal behavioural strategies down to rules-of-thumb: energy reserve changes in pairs of social foragers.

    Rands, Sean A

    2011-01-01

    Functional explanations of behaviour often propose optimal strategies for organisms to follow. These 'best' strategies could be difficult to perform given biological constraints such as neural architecture and physiological constraints. Instead, simple heuristics or 'rules-of-thumb' that approximate these optimal strategies may instead be performed. From a modelling perspective, rules-of-thumb are also useful tools for considering how group behaviour is shaped by the behaviours of individuals. Using simple rules-of-thumb reduces the complexity of these models, but care needs to be taken to use rules that are biologically relevant. Here, we investigate the similarity between the outputs of a two-player dynamic foraging game (which generated optimal but complex solutions) and a computational simulation of the behaviours of the two members of a foraging pair, who instead followed a rule-of-thumb approximation of the game's output. The original game generated complex results, and we demonstrate here that the simulations following the much-simplified rules-of-thumb also generate complex results, suggesting that the rule-of-thumb was sufficient to make some of the model outcomes unpredictable. There was some agreement between both modelling techniques, but some differences arose - particularly when pair members were not identical in how they gained and lost energy. We argue that exploring how rules-of-thumb perform in comparison to their optimal counterparts is an important exercise for biologically validating the output of agent-based models of group behaviour.

  18. The effectiveness of mobile-health behaviour change interventions for cardiovascular disease self-management: A systematic review.

    Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    Mobile wireless devices (mHealth) have been used to deliver cardiovascular disease self-management interventions to educate and support patients in making healthy lifestyle changes. This systematic review aimed to determine the effectiveness of mHealth interventions on behavioural lifestyle changes and medication adherence for cardiovascular disease self-management. A comprehensive literature search was conducted from inception through to 3 March 2015 using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Eligible studies used an experimental trial design to determine the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention to change lifestyle behaviours in any cardiovascular disease population. Data extracted included intervention and comparison group characteristics with a specific focus on the use of behaviour change techniques. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. All interventions were delivered in part by mobile phone text messaging. Three studies were effective at improving adherence to medication and two studies increased physical activity behaviour. No effects were observed on dietary behaviour or smoking cessation, measured in one study each. Simple text messaging interventions appeared to be most effective; however, no clear relationships were found between study findings and intervention dose, duration or behaviour change techniques targeted. Our review found mHealth has the potential to change lifestyle behaviour. Results are still limited to a small number of trials, inconsistent outcome measures and ineffective reporting of intervention characteristics. Large scale, longitudinal studies are now warranted to gain a clear understanding of the effects of mHealth on behaviour change in the cardiovascular disease population. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  19. Ground-based remote sensing observation of the complex behaviour of the Marseille boundary layer during ESCOMPTE

    Delbarre, H.; Augustin, P.; Saïd, F.; Campistron, B.; Bénech, B.; Lohou, F.; Puygrenier, V.; Moppert, C.; Cousin, F.; Fréville, P.; Fréjafon, E.

    2005-03-01

    Ground-based remote sensing systems have been used during the ESCOMPTE campaign, to continuously characterize the boundary-layer behaviour through many atmospheric parameters (wind, extinction and ozone concentration distribution, reflectivity, turbulence). This analysis is focused on the comparison of the atmospheric stratification retrieved from a UV angular ozone lidar, an Ultra High Frequency wind profiler and a sodar, above the area of Marseille, on June 26th 2001 (Intensive Observation Period 2b). The atmospheric stratification is shown to be very complex including two superimposed sea breezes, with an important contribution of advection. The temporal and spatial evolution of the stratification observed by the UV lidar and by the UHF radar are in good agreement although the origin of the echoes of these systems is quite different. The complexity of the dynamic situation has only partially been retrieved by a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model used with a 3 km resolution.

  20. Consumer accounts of favourable dietary behaviour change and comparison with official dietary guidelines.

    Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Vidal, Leticia; Machín, Leandro; Moratorio, Ximena; Bandeira, Elisa; Curutchet, María Rosa; Bove, Isabel; Giménez, Ana

    2018-07-01

    The current study aimed to assess Uruguayan consumers' accounts of their own need to change their dietary patterns, their intended changes and the barriers related to doing so, and to compare the intentions and barriers with the recommendations of the national dietary guidelines. An online survey with 2381 Uruguayan employed adults, aged between 18 and 65 years, 65 % females, was conducted. Participants had to answer two open-ended questions related to changes they could make in the foods they eat and/or the way in which they eat to improve the quality of their diet and the reasons why they had not implemented those changes yet. Content analysis using inductive coding by two researchers was used to analyse the responses. Consumers mainly intended to change consumption of types of foods, particularly eating more fruits, vegetables and legumes and consuming less flour, but also intended to alter their eating patterns. Lack of time and the fact that healthy foods are perceived as being more expensive than unhealthy foods were major barriers to behaviour change. Some of the recommendations of the dietary guidelines, particularly those related to enjoying cooking and meals and engaging in it as a social activity, were not represented in consumer accounts. Accompanying policies to the dietary guidelines need to underline the importance of changes in dietary patterns, including greater enjoyment and sharing food preparation and meals in the company with others, address misconceptions about flour, and provide concrete, consumer-derived recommendations on how to enact the guidelines.

  1. Costs of colour change in fish: food intake and behavioural decisions.

    Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Gladman, Nicholas W; Corless, Hannah F; Morrell, Lesley J

    2013-07-15

    Many animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, fish and cephalopods, have the ability to change their body colour, for functions including thermoregulation, signalling and predator avoidance. Many fish plastically darken their body colouration in response to dark visual backgrounds, and this functions to reduce predation risk. Here, we tested the hypotheses that colour change in fish (1) carries with it an energetic cost and (2) affects subsequent shoal and habitat choice decisions. We demonstrate that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) change colour in response to dark and light visual backgrounds, and that doing so carries an energetic cost in terms of food consumption. By increasing food intake, however, guppies are able to maintain growth rates and meet the energetic costs of changing colour. Following colour change, fish preferentially choose habitats and shoals that match their own body colouration, and maximise crypsis, thus avoiding the need for further colour change but also potentially paying an opportunity cost associated with restriction to particular habitats and social associates. Thus, colour change to match the background is complemented by behavioural strategies, which should act to maximise fitness in variable environments.

  2. Scavengers on the move: behavioural changes in foraging search patterns during the annual cycle.

    Pascual López-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal foraging theory predicts that animals will tend to maximize foraging success by optimizing search strategies. However, how organisms detect sparsely distributed food resources remains an open question. When targets are sparse and unpredictably distributed, a Lévy strategy should maximize foraging success. By contrast, when resources are abundant and regularly distributed, simple brownian random movement should be sufficient. Although very different groups of organisms exhibit Lévy motion, the shift from a Lévy to a brownian search strategy has been suggested to depend on internal and external factors such as sex, prey density, or environmental context. However, animal response at the individual level has received little attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used GPS satellite-telemetry data of Egyptian vultures Neophron percnopterus to examine movement patterns at the individual level during consecutive years, with particular interest in the variations in foraging search patterns during the different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. breeding vs. non-breeding. Our results show that vultures followed a brownian search strategy in their wintering sojourn in Africa, whereas they exhibited a more complex foraging search pattern at breeding grounds in Europe, including Lévy motion. Interestingly, our results showed that individuals shifted between search strategies within the same period of the annual cycle in successive years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results could be primarily explained by the different environmental conditions in which foraging activities occur. However, the high degree of behavioural flexibility exhibited during the breeding period in contrast to the non-breeding period is challenging, suggesting that not only environmental conditions explain individuals' behaviour but also individuals' cognitive abilities (e.g., memory effects could play an important role. Our results support the growing

  3. Anodic behaviour of iron electrode in complexing media for a application in coulometric analysis

    Kostromin, A.I.; Makarova, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    Anodic behaviour is studied of the iron electrode in phosphate solutions (pH 4.88-8.40) in the presence of 0.01 M complexone 3 and in the alcaline environment of triethanolamine with the addition of potassium chloride. The product of anodic dissolution will be iron (2). The d.c. electrogenerated iron (2) was used for the coulometric determination of copper (2), silver (1), VO 2+ , UO 2 2+ in artificial solutions, and also for the determination of silver in motion picture and photographic films of various types

  4. Studies on polymer electrolyte poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with ionic liquid: Effect of complexation on thermal stability, conductivity and relaxation behaviour

    Saroj, A.L. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Singh, R.K., E-mail: rksingh_17@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Chandra, S. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVP + IL based polymer electrolyte films have been prepared and studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complexation/interaction of PVP with IL has been confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conductivity and relaxation frequency increases with increasing IL content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two relaxation peaks for complexed and uncomplexed PVP with IL have been observed. - Abstract: Polymer electrolyte films of PVP + x wt% ionic liquid (IL) (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM][BF{sub 4}]) for x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 wt% have been prepared using solution cast technique. These films were characterized by TGA, DSC, FT-IR and ac impedance spectroscopy techniques. From XRD studies it is found that the inclusion of IL increases the amorphocity of polymeric membranes. DSC thermograms show that the glass transition (T{sub g}) and melting temperatures (T{sub m}) of PVP shift upon complexation with IL. FT-IR analysis shows the complexation of PVP with IL. Thermogravimetric studies show that PVP decomposes in a single step while PVP/IL membranes exhibit two step decomposition; lower value of decomposition temperature corresponds to the decomposition of PVP/IL complex while the higher decomposition temperature has been attributed to the decomposition of PVP. The decomposition temperature of PVP/IL complex decreases with the increasing amount of IL in the PVP membrane. Temperature dependence of conductivity and dielectric relaxation frequencies have also been studied for PVP and PVP/IL membranes. Both show thermally activated Arrhenius behaviour.

  5. Untapped aspects of mass media campaigns for changing health behaviour towards non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh.

    Tabassum, Reshman; Froeschl, Guenter; Cruz, Jonas P; Colet, Paolo C; Dey, Sukhen; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2018-01-18

    In recent years, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become epidemic in Bangladesh. Behaviour changing interventions are key to prevention and management of NCDs. A great majority of people in Bangladesh have low health literacy, are less receptive to health information, and are unlikely to embrace positive health behaviours. Mass media campaigns can play a pivotal role in changing health behaviours of the population. This review pinpoints the role of mass media campaigns for NCDs and the challenges along it, whilst stressing on NCD preventive programmes (with the examples from different countries) to change health behaviours in Bangladesh. Future research should underpin the use of innovative technologies and mobile phones, which might be a prospective option for NCD prevention and management in Bangladesh.

  6. Introduced mammalian predators induce behavioural changes in parental care in an endemic New Zealand bird.

    Melanie Massaro

    Full Text Available The introduction of predatory mammals to oceanic islands has led to the extinction of many endemic birds. Although introduced predators should favour changes that reduce predation risk in surviving bird species, the ability of island birds to respond to such novel changes remains unstudied. We tested whether novel predation risk imposed by introduced mammalian predators has altered the parental behaviour of the endemic New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura. We examined parental behaviour of bellbirds at three woodland sites in New Zealand that differed in predation risk: 1 a mainland site with exotic predators present (high predation risk, 2 a mainland site with exotic predators experimentally removed (low risk recently and, 3 an off-shore island where exotic predators were never introduced (low risk always. We also compared parental behaviour of bellbirds with two closely related Tasmanian honeyeaters (Phylidonyris spp. that evolved with native nest predators (high risk always. Increased nest predation risk has been postulated to favour reduced parental activity, and we tested whether island bellbirds responded to variation in predation risk. We found that females spent more time on the nest per incubating bout with increased risk of predation, a strategy that minimised activity at the nest during incubation. Parental activity during the nestling period, measured as number of feeding visits/hr, also decreased with increasing nest predation risk across sites, and was lowest among the honeyeaters in Tasmania that evolved with native predators. These results demonstrate that some island birds are able to respond to increased risk of predation by novel predators in ways that appear adaptive. We suggest that conservation efforts may be more effective if they take advantage of the ability of island birds to respond to novel predators, especially when the elimination of exotic predators is not possible.

  7. Reducing Change Management Complexity: Aligning Change Recipient Sensemaking to Change Agent Sensegiving

    Kumar; Payal; Singhal, Manish

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of change in an organisation through culture can elicit a wide array of reactions from organisational members, spanning from acceptance to resistance. Drawing on Hatch's cultural dynamics model and on Wegner's social theory of learning, this paper dwells on an underdeveloped area in the extant literature, namely understanding change…

  8. Cs-137 behaviour in landscape-geochemical structures of barrier complexes

    Strakh, L.I.; Ivashkevich, I.I.; Adamovich, A.A.; Zarubin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Cs-137 distribution and cumulation accrues more actively in a marsh ecological systems of barrier complexes. The physical chemical and biogeochemical barriers influence on different way on these processes

  9. Complex systems approach to fire dynamics and climate change impacts

    Pueyo, S.

    2012-04-01

    I present some recent advances in complex systems theory as a contribution to understanding fire regimes and forecasting their response to a changing climate, qualitatively and quantitatively. In many regions of the world, fire sizes have been found to follow, approximately, a power-law frequency distribution. As noted by several authors, this distribution also arises in the "forest fire" model used by physicists to study mechanisms that give rise to scale invariance (the power law is a scale-invariant distribution). However, this model does not give and does not pretend to give a realistic description of fire dynamics. For example, it gives no role to weather and climate. Pueyo (2007) developed a variant of the "forest fire" model that is also simple but attempts to be more realistic. It also results into a power law, but the parameters of this distribution change through time as a function of weather and climate. Pueyo (2007) observed similar patterns of response to weather in data from boreal forest fires, and used the fitted response functions to forecast fire size distributions in a possible climate change scenario, including the upper extreme of the distribution. For some parameter values, the model in Pueyo (2007) displays a qualitatively different behavior, consisting of simple percolation. In this case, fire is virtually absent, but megafires sweep through the ecosystem a soon as environmental forcings exceed a critical threshold. Evidence gathered by Pueyo et al. (2010) suggests that this is realistic for tropical rainforests (specifically, well-conserved upland rainforests). Some climate models suggest that major tropical rainforest regions are going to become hotter and drier if climate change goes ahead unchecked, which could cause such abrupt shifts. Not all fire regimes are well described by this model. Using data from a tropical savanna region, Pueyo et al. (2010) found that the dynamics in this area do not match its assumptions, even though fire

  10. Chemical behaviour of plutonium in natural, aquatic systems: Hydrolysis, carbonate complexation and redox reactions

    Lierse, C.

    1985-01-01

    In order to clear up the geochemical behaviour of plutonium and its migration mechanisms in groundwater, hydrolysis, redox behaviour, compound formation in carbonate solutions and colloid formation were examined in groundwater conditions, i.e. at pH values between 5 and 8 and at redox potentials of between -300 and +700 mV. Solubility measurements, spectroscopic processes (UV, VIS, IR spectroscopy and laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy) and electrochemical processes (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse polarography) are used as methods of investigation. The hydrolysis constants of Pu IV and Pu VI and the solubility product of Pu (OH) 4 were determined and hydrolysis products of divalent and trivalent type are described. From solubility experiments, the stability constants for Pu (IV) carbonate compounds and the solubility product for the carbonate system of stable bodies of Pu (OH) 2 CO 3 were calculated. Using absorption spectroscopy, the disproportionate kinetics of Pu (V) in carbonate was determined at various pH values. A slow, but continuous, reduction in Pu (VI) was found in carbonate solution, which was derived from radiolytic effects. The speed of this auto-reduction was determined, depending on various experimental parameters. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Behaviours of trinitratonitrosyl complexes of ruthenium in dilute nitric acid solutions

    Sugimoto, S [Radia Industry Co. Ltd., Takasaki (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the protolysis and condensation processes of the Ru complexes in relation to the concentration of nitric acid. The compositions of the dissociated and undissociated complexes were determined by the extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) and absorption spectroscopy in order to follow the rather rapid protolysis reaction of the complexes. The test solutions were prepared by dissolving the freshly obtained complexes into 0.50 - 0.001 M nitric acid solutions. The amounts of the undissociated complexes were determined at different elapses of time in the test solutions. The protolysis became significant when the concentration was below 0.15 M, and the dissociation rate suddenly increased at this concentration. At the concentrations above 0.2 M, the absorption peak of the complexes at 480 nm survived even after 144 hours. But below 0.15 M, the formation of dissociation products by protolysis was observed after the disappearance of the absorption peak. The amount of dissociation products rapidly increased after the preparation of the test solution as the concentration decreased below 0.15 M.

  12. Effect of temperature on volume change behaviour of statically compacted kaolin clay

    Ileme Ogechi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several soils are subjected to high temperature due to the environment where they are located or activities around them. For instance, upper layer of soils in tropical regions, soils around geothermal structures, clay barriers around nuclear waste repository systems. Numerous studies have pointed out that high temperature affects the hydro-mechanical properties of soils. Notwithstanding already existing studies, the influence of temperature on soils is still a challenge, as most of these studies are soil specific and cannot be inferred as the behaviour of all soils. This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of temperature on the volume change behaviour of statically compacted kaolin clay. Compacted samples were tested at varying temperatures using a suction controlled oedometer cell. The influence of temperature on the magnitude of volumetric strain occurring during mechanical and thermal loading was investigated. The study showed that an increase in temperature increased the magnitude of volumetric strain of the soil on loading. Additionally, the results presented in the light of LC curve showed that an increase in temperature resulted in the contraction and a change in the position of the LC curve.

  13. No change in subordinate butterflyfish diets following removal of behaviourally dominant species

    Blowes, Shane A.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Connolly, Sean R.

    2017-03-01

    Direct interference interactions between species are often mediated by aggression and related to resource use. Interference interactions are frequently asymmetric, whereby one species wins the majority of interactions; however, the effect of this asymmetry on the diet of subordinate species has not received the same attention as the impact of interference on habitat use. Here we experimentally evaluated whether release from asymmetric interference led to increased use of a preferred dietary resource by subordinate species, using coral-feeding butterflyfishes as a model system. Following experimental removal of the behaviourally dominant species, we found no change in diet breadth or foraging on the preferred resource by subordinate species. Our results suggest that release from asymmetric interspecific interference does not necessarily result in changes to subordinate species' diets, at least not over the course of our study. Rather, consistently asymmetric interactions may contribute to behavioural conditioning of subordinate species, meaning that even in the absence of dominants, subordinate individuals maintain established feeding patterns. Additionally, our results suggest that antagonistic interactions between butterflyfishes may have contributed to niche partitioning and conservatism over evolutionary time scales.

  14. Accelerated behavioural development changes fine-scale search behaviour and spatial memory in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Perry, Clint J; Cheng, Ken; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Normally, worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) begin foraging when more than 2 weeks old as adults, but if individual bees or the colony is stressed, bees often begin foraging precociously. Here, we examined whether bees that accelerated their behavioural development to begin foraging precociously differed from normal-aged foragers in cognitive performance. We used a social manipulation to generate precocious foragers from small experimental colonies and tested their performance in a free-flight visual reversal learning task, and a test of spatial memory. To assess spatial memory, bees were trained to learn the location of a small sucrose feeder within an array of three landmarks. In tests, the feeder and one landmark were removed and the search behaviour of the bees was recorded. Performance of precocious and normal-aged foragers did not differ in a visual reversal learning task, but the two groups showed a clear difference in spatial memory. Flight behaviour suggested normal-aged foragers were better able to infer the position of the removed landmark and feeder relative to the remaining landmarks than precocious foragers. Previous studies have documented the cognitive decline of old foragers, but this is the first suggestion of a cognitive deficit in young foragers. These data imply that worker honey bees continue their cognitive development during the adult stage. These findings may also help to explain why precocious foragers perform quite poorly as foragers and have a higher than normal loss rate. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Changes in Weight, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity during the School Year and Summer Vacation

    Chiaki Tanaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB and physical activity (PA during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline. SB and PA were measured using triaxial accelerometry that discriminated between ambulatory and non-ambulatory PA, screen time measured by questionnaire during the school-term was evaluated in May and the summer vacation, and relative body weight measured in May and just after the end of summer vacation. Results: There were no significant relationships between changes in SB or PA and changes in body weight. However, higher relative body weight at baseline was associated with decreased non-ambulatory moderate PA (p = 0.049, but this association was slightly diminished after adjusting for change in SB (p = 0.056. Longer screen time at baseline was also associated with increased relative body weight (p = 0.033. Conclusions: The present study revealed that body weight might be particularly influential on non-ambulatory moderate PA while SB, PA or changes in these variables did not predict changes in body weight. Moreover, screen time during the school year is a predictor of change in relative body weight during the subsequent summer vacation.

  16. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  17. Behavioural changes, sharing behaviour and psychological responses after receiving direct-to-consumer genetic test results: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Stewart, Kelly F J; Wesselius, Anke; Schreurs, Maartje A C; Schols, Annemie M W J; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2018-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GTs) could stimulate health behaviour change. However, genetic testing may also lead to anxiety and distress or unnecessarily burden the health care system. The aim is to review and meta-analyse the effects of DTC-GT on (1) behaviour change, (2) psychological response and (3) medical consumption. A systematic literature search was performed in three databases, using "direct-to-consumer genetic testing" as a key search term. Random effects meta-analyses were performed when at least two comparable outcomes were available. After selection, 19 articles were included involving 11 unique studies. Seven studies involved actual consumers who paid the retail price, whereas four included participants who received free genetic testing as part of a research trial (non-actual consumers). In meta-analysis, 23% had a positive lifestyle change. More specifically, improved dietary and exercise practices were both reported by 12%, whereas 19% quit smoking. Seven percent of participants had subsequent preventive checks. Thirty-three percent shared their results with any health care professional and 50% with family and/or friends. Sub-analyses show that behaviour change was more prevalent among non-actual consumers, whereas sharing was more prevalent among actual consumers. Results on psychological responses showed that anxiety, distress and worry were low or absent and that the effect faded with time. DTC-GT has potential to be effective as a health intervention, but the right audience needs to be addressed with tailored follow-up. Research is needed to identify consumers who do and do not change behaviour or experience adverse psychological responses.

  18. Visual social network analysis: effective approach to model complex human social, behaviour & culture.

    Ahram, Tareq Z; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    The advent and adoption of internet-based social networking has significantly altered our daily lives. The educational community has taken notice of the positive aspects of social networking such as creation of blogs and to support groups of system designers going through the same challenges and difficulties. This paper introduces a social networking framework for collaborative education, design and modeling of the next generation of smarter products and services. Human behaviour modeling in social networking application aims to ensure that human considerations for learners and designers have a prominent place in the integrated design and development of sustainable, smarter products throughout the total system lifecycle. Social networks blend self-directed learning and prescribed, existing information. The self-directed element creates interest within a learner and the ability to access existing information facilitates its transfer, and eventual retention of knowledge acquired.

  19. A cognitive model of human behaviour for simulating operators of complex plants

    Cacciabue, P.C.; Mancini, G.; Bersini, U.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the need of a 'deterministic' representation of the operator's reasoning and sensory-motor behaviour in order to approach correctly the overall problem of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI). Such type of modelling represents a fundamental complement to the merely probabilistic quantification of operator performances for safety as well as for design purposes. A cognitive model, formally based on a hierarchical goal-oriented approach and driven by fuzzy logic methodology, is then presented and briefly discussed, including the psychological criteria by which the content of operators' knowledge is exploited for instantiation of strategies during emergencies. Finally the potential applications of such methodology are reviewed identifying limits and advantages in comparison to more classical and mechanicistic approaches. (author)

  20. Case Study: Using Contemporary Behaviour Change Science to Design and Implement an Effective Nutritional Intervention within Professional Rugby League.

    Costello, Nessan; McKenna, Jim; Sutton, Louise; Deighton, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2018-01-18

    Designing and implementing successful dietary intervention is integral to the role of sport nutrition professionals as they attempt to positively change the dietary behaviour of athletes. High-performance sport is a time-pressured environment where immediate results can often supersede pursuit of the most effective evidence-based practice. However, efficacious dietary intervention necessitates comprehensive, systematic and theoretical behavioural design and implementation if the habitual dietary behaviours of athletes are to be positively changed. Therefore, this case study demonstrates how the Behaviour Change Wheel was used to design and implement an effective nutritional intervention within professional rugby league. The eight-step intervention targeted athlete consumption of a high quality dietary intake of 25.1 MJ each day, to achieve an overall body mass increase of 5 kg across a twelve-week intervention period. The Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour model and APEASE criteria were used to identify population-specific intervention functions, policy categories, behaviour change techniques and modes of intervention delivery. The resulting intervention was successful, increasing the average daily energy intake of the athlete to 24.5 MJ, which corresponded in a 6.2 kg body mass gain. Despite consuming 0.6 MJ less per day than targeted, secondary outcome measures of diet quality, strength, body composition and immune function all substantially improved, supporting a sufficient energy intake and the overall efficacy of a behavioural approach. Ultimately, the Behaviour Change Wheel provides sport nutrition professionals with an effective and practical step-wise method via which to design and implement effective nutritional interventions for use within high-performance sport.

  1. Mirror box therapy added to cognitive behavioural therapy in three chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I patients : a pilot study

    Tichelaar, Y. I. G. Vladimir; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Keizer, Doeke; van Wilgen, C. Paul

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I is a disorder of the extremities with disability and pain as the most prominent features. This paper describes the results of cognitive behavioural therapy combined with mirror box therapy in three patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I.

  2. Behaviour Change Techniques embedded in health and lifestyle apps: coding and analysis.

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence showing that commercially available health and lifestyle apps can be used as co-adjuvants to clinical interventions and for the prevention of chronic and non-communicable diseases. This can be particularly significant to support and improve wellbeing of young people given their familiarity with these resources. However it is important to understand the content and consistency of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT’s embedded in the apps to maximise their potential benefits. Objectives This study explores the BCT content of a selected list of health and lifestyle tracking apps in three behavioural dimensions: physical activity, sleep and diet. We identified BCT commonalities within and between categories to detect the most frequently used and arguably more effective techniques in the context of wellbeing and promotion of health behaviours. Methods Apps were selected by using keywords and by reviewing the “health and fitness” category of GooglePlay (477 apps. The selection criteria included free apps (even if they also offered paid versions and being common to GooglePlay and AppStore. A background review of each app was also completed. Selected apps were classified according to user ratings in GooglePlay (apps with less that 4+ star ratings were disregarded. The top ten apps in each category were selected, making it a total of 30 for the analysis. Three coders used the apps for two months and were trained to use a comprehensive 93 items taxonomy (BCTv1 to complete the analysis. Results Strong BCT similarities were found across all three categories, suggesting a consistent basic content composition. Out of all 93 BCTS’s 8 were identified as being present in at least 50% of the apps. 6 of these BCT’s are concentrated in categories “1. Goals and Planning” and “2. Feedback and Monitoring”. BCT “Social support (unspecified” was coded for in 63% of the apps, as it was present through different features in

  3. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences

    Virginia MacNeill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants’ experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Methods Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants’ relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. Conclusion These

  4. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences.

    MacNeill, Virginia; Foley, Marian; Quirk, Alan; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-01-29

    The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants' experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption) and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants' relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. These participants described no dramatic impacts attributable to taking part in

  5. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; Bauld, Linda; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat; Dombrowski, Stephan; MacLennan, Graeme; Rothnie, Kieran; Stewart, Fiona; Farrar, Shelley; Yi, Deokhee; Hislop, Jenni; Ludbrook, Anne; Campbell, Marion; Moran, Victoria Hall; Sniehotta, Falko; Tappin, David

    2014-01-01

    Financial (positive or negative) and non-financial incentives or rewards are increasingly used in attempts to influence health behaviours. While unintended consequences of incentive provision are discussed in the literature, evidence syntheses did not identify any primary research with the aim of investigating unintended consequences of incentive interventions for lifestyle behaviour change. Our objective was to investigate perceived positive and negative unintended consequences of incentive provision for a shortlist of seven promising incentive strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods approach included involving two service-user mother and baby groups from disadvantaged areas with experience of the target behaviours as study co-investigators. Systematic reviews informed the shortlist of incentive strategies. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and a web-based survey of health professionals asked open questions on positive and negative consequences of incentives. The participants from three UK regions were a diverse sample with and without direct experience of incentive interventions: 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners/family members; 53 service providers; 24 experts/decision makers and interactive discussions with 63 conference attendees. Maternity and early years health professionals (n = 497) including doctors, midwives, health visitors, public health and related staff participated in the survey. Qualitative analysis identified ethical, political, cultural, social and psychological implications of incentive delivery at population and individual levels. Four key themes emerged: how incentives can address or create inequalities; enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and wellbeing; have a positive or negative effect on relationships with others within personal networks or health providers; and can impact on health systems and resources by raising awareness and directing service delivery

  6. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Gill Thomson

    Full Text Available Financial (positive or negative and non-financial incentives or rewards are increasingly used in attempts to influence health behaviours. While unintended consequences of incentive provision are discussed in the literature, evidence syntheses did not identify any primary research with the aim of investigating unintended consequences of incentive interventions for lifestyle behaviour change. Our objective was to investigate perceived positive and negative unintended consequences of incentive provision for a shortlist of seven promising incentive strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods approach included involving two service-user mother and baby groups from disadvantaged areas with experience of the target behaviours as study co-investigators. Systematic reviews informed the shortlist of incentive strategies. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and a web-based survey of health professionals asked open questions on positive and negative consequences of incentives. The participants from three UK regions were a diverse sample with and without direct experience of incentive interventions: 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners/family members; 53 service providers; 24 experts/decision makers and interactive discussions with 63 conference attendees. Maternity and early years health professionals (n = 497 including doctors, midwives, health visitors, public health and related staff participated in the survey. Qualitative analysis identified ethical, political, cultural, social and psychological implications of incentive delivery at population and individual levels. Four key themes emerged: how incentives can address or create inequalities; enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and wellbeing; have a positive or negative effect on relationships with others within personal networks or health providers; and can impact on health systems and resources by raising awareness and directing

  7. From sexual attraction to maternal aggression: when pheromones change their behavioural significance.

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L; Ayala, Guillermo; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-Garcia, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". This paper reviews the role of chemosignals in the socio-sexual interactions of female mice, and reports two experiments testing the role of pup-derived chemosignals and the male sexual pheromone darcin in inducing and promoting maternal aggression. Female mice are attracted to urine-borne male pheromones. Volatile and non-volatile urine fractions have been proposed to contain olfactory and vomeronasal pheromones. In particular, the male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) MUP20, darcin, has been shown to be rewarding and attractive to females. Non-urinary male chemosignals, such as the lacrimal protein ESP1, promote lordosis in female mice, but its attractive properties are still to be tested. There is evidence indicating that ESP1 and MUPs are detected by vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2R). When a female mouse becomes pregnant, she undergoes dramatic changes in her physiology and behaviour. She builds a nest for her pups and takes care of them. Dams also defend the nest against conspecific intruders, attacking especially gonadally intact males. Maternal behaviour is dependent on a functional olfactory system, thus suggesting a role of chemosignals in the development of maternal behaviour. Our first experiment demonstrates, however, that pup chemosignals are not sufficient to induce maternal aggression in virgin females. In addition, it is known that vomeronasal stimuli are needed for maternal aggression. Since MUPs (and other molecules) are able to promote intermale aggression, in our second experiment we test if the attractive MUP darcin also promotes attacks on castrated male intruders by lactating dams. Our findings demonstrate that the same chemosignal, darcin, promotes attraction or aggression according to female reproductive state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of behaviour of Ni(III) macrocyclic complexes in acidic ...

    The Cu(II) ion-catalysed kinetics of oxidation of H2O2 by [NiIIIL] [where L ... The rate of the reaction of both complexes with hydrogen peroxide shows contrasting ... enhanced kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. The redox chemistry of synthetic poly-aza macrocycles explores the properties of nickel containing enzymes.1.

  9. Behaviour of intrinsically disordered proteins in protein-protein complexes with an emphasis on fuzziness

    Olsen, Johan Gotthardt; Teilum, Kaare; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2017-01-01

    in their malleability, which enables them to bind several different partners with high specificity. In addition, their interactions with other macromolecules can be regulated by a variable amount of chemically diverse post-translational modifications. Four kinetically and energetically different types of complexes...

  10. Rock mass condition, behaviour and seismicity in mines of the Bushveld igneous complex.

    Haile, AT

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This project report gives an overall view of the rock mass environment of the Bushveld complex and influence on the mine design practices. The main focus of the project was to survey the currently available data and conduct further analysis in order...

  11. The process of cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: which changes in perpetuating cognitions and behaviour are related to a reduction in fatigue?

    Heins, Marianne J; Knoop, Hans; Burk, William J; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can significantly reduce fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but little is known about the process of change taking place during CBT. Based on a recent treatment model (Wiborg et al. J Psych Res 2012), we examined how (changes in) cognitions and behaviour are related to the decrease in fatigue. We included 183 patients meeting the US Centers for Disease Control criteria for CFS, aged 18 to 65 years, starting CBT. We measured fatigue and possible process variables before treatment; after 6, 12 and 18 weeks; and after treatment. Possible process variables were sense of control over fatigue, focusing on symptoms, self-reported physical functioning, perceived physical activity and objective (actigraphic) physical activity. We built multiple regression models, explaining levels of fatigue during therapy by (changes in) proposed process variables. We observed large individual variation in the patterns of change in fatigue and process variables during CBT for CFS. Increases in the sense of control over fatigue, perceived activity and self-reported physical functioning, and decreases in focusing on symptoms explained 20 to 46% of the variance in fatigue. An increase in objective activity was not a process variable. A change in cognitive factors seems to be related to the decrease in fatigue during CBT for CFS. The pattern of change varies considerably between patients, but changes in process variables and fatigue occur mostly in the same period. © 2013.

  12. Change Factors in the Process of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Schwartz, C; Hilbert, S; Schubert, C; Schlegl, S; Freyer, T; Löwe, B; Osen, B; Voderholzer, U

    2017-05-01

    While there is a plethora of evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), studies on change factors of the therapeutic process that account for this success are scarce. In the present study, 155 participants with primary OCD were investigated during CBT inpatient treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-SR served as a measure of symptom severity. In addition, the following process change factors were measured: therapeutic relationship, experience of self-esteem during therapy, experience of mastery, problem actualization and clarification. All variables were assessed on a weekly basis for seven weeks. Linear mixed growth curve analyses were conducted to model the decrease of symptoms over time and to analyse whether the change factors predicted symptom reduction. The analyses revealed a linear decrease of symptoms with high inter-individual variation. Results further showed that increase in self-esteem and mastery experiences as well as the initial score on mastery experience and clarification predicted decrease on the Y-BOCS. We conclude that CBT therapists should focus on clarification in the very first sessions, and try to boost self-esteem and self-efficacy, which is related to mastery, throughout the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Increase in mastery and self-esteem experiences are associated with symptom decrease in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Initial score of mastery experiences and problem clarification predict symptom decrease in OCD during CBT. CBT therapists should focus on problem clarification in the very first sessions and try to boost self-esteem and self-efficacy throughout the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Putting foucault to work on the environment: Exploring pro-environmental behaviour change as a form of discipline

    Hargreaves, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Calls for pro-environmental behaviour change among individuals have become commonplace within the ecological modernist framework. To date, research on pro-environmental behaviour has tended to emphasise either the more or less rational decision-making processes undertaken by individuals, or the ways in which broader social discourses and practices enable or constrain pro-environmental action. As far as politics enters into these discussions, it is normally with respect to how responsibility f...

  14. A qualitative synthesis of trials promoting physical activity behaviour change among post-treatment breast cancer survivors.

    Short, Camille E; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2013-12-01

    Health outcome trials have provided strong evidence that participating in regular physical activity can improve the quality of life and health of post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Focus is now needed on how to promote changes in physical activity behaviour among this group. This systematic review examines the efficacy of behavioural interventions for promoting physical activity among post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Behavioural intervention studies published up until July 2012 were identified through a systematic search of two databases: MEDLINE and CINAHL, and by searching reference lists of relevant publications and scanning citation libraries of project staff. Eight out of the ten identified studies reported positive intervention effects on aerobic physical activity behaviour, ranging from during the intervention period to 6 months post-intervention. Only two studies reported intervention effect sizes. The identification of factors related to efficacy was not possible because of the limited number and heterogeneity of studies included, as well as the lack of effect sizes reported. Nonetheless, an examination of the eight studies that did yield significant intervention effects suggests that 12-week interventions employing behaviour change techniques (e.g., self-monitoring and goal setting) derived from a variety of theories and delivered in a variety of settings (i.e., one-on-one, group or home) can be effective at changing the aerobic physical activity behaviour of breast cancer survivors in the mid- to long terms. Behavioural interventions do hold promise for effectively changing physical activity behaviour among breast cancer survivors. However, future research is needed to address the lack of studies exploring long-term intervention effects, mediators of intervention effects and interventions promoting resistance-training activity, and to address issues impacting on validity, such as the limited use of objective physical activity measures and

  15. Change of attitude and behaviour of the West-German population after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Anders, H.J.; Rosenbauer, J.; Matiaske, B.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the West-German population has shown to be much more aware of the hazards emanating from environmental pollution and chemical or radioactive contamination of food. It could be observed that, on the whole, consumption of important basic food has been reduced, so that the population's supply with various, significant nutrients is expected to deteriorate. The nutrients to be mentioned in this context are primarily calcium, riboflavin, folic acid, and ascorbic acid. Investigations over the period May to July 1986 show that the reactor accident's impact on the food consumption behaviour subsides only slowly, and it remains to be seen to what extent changes and fluctuations in the population's nutritional behaviour will have to be taken as 'normal'. Hence some sort of nutritional deficiency can be expected among certain groups of the population, either temporarily or over a prolonged period. A National Survey of Food Consumption currently in preparation will yield more detailed insight into the whole process. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Environmental change during postnatal development alters behaviour, cognitions and neurogenesis of mice.

    Iso, Hiroyuki; Simoda, Shigero; Matsuyama, Tomohiro

    2007-04-16

    Four groups of male C57BL/6 mice were reared differing combinations of the two environments from 3 to 11 weeks after birth. At 12 and 13 weeks they were assessed by measures of behaviour and learning: open-field activity, auditory startle reflex and prepulse inhibition, water maze learning, and passive avoidance. Another four groups of mice reared under these varying conditions were examined for generation of neurons in hippocampus and cerebral cortex using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) at 12 weeks. Enriched (EE) and impoverished (PP) groups were housed in their respective environment for 8 weeks, enriched-impoverished (EP) and impoverished-enriched (PE) mice respectively were reared for 6 weeks in the first-mentioned environment and then for 2 weeks in the second. PP and EP mice showed hyperactivity, greater startle amplitude and significantly slower learning in a water maze than EE or PE animals, and also showed a memory deficit in a probe test, avoidance performance did not differ. Neural generation was greater in the EE and PE than PP and EP groups, especially in the hippocampus. These results suggest that environmental change critically affects behavioural and anatomic brain development, even if brief. In these mice, the effect of unfavourable early experience could be reversed by a later short of favourable experience.

  17. Characterising an implementation intervention in terms of behaviour change techniques and theory: the 'Sepsis Six' clinical care bundle.

    Steinmo, Siri; Fuller, Christopher; Stone, Sheldon P; Michie, Susan

    2015-08-08

    Sepsis is a major cause of death from infection, with a mortality rate of 36 %. This can be halved by implementing the 'Sepsis Six' evidence-based care bundle within 1 h of presentation. A UK audit has shown that median implementation rates are 27-47 % and interventions to improve this have demonstrated minimal effects. In order to develop more effective implementation interventions, it is helpful to obtain detailed characterisations of current interventions and to draw on behavioural theory to identify mechanisms of change. The aim of this study was to illustrate this process by using the Behaviour Change Wheel; Behaviour Change Technique (BCT) Taxonomy; Capability, Opportunity, Motivation model of behaviour; and Theoretical Domains Framework to characterise the content and theoretical mechanisms of action of an existing intervention to implement Sepsis Six. Data came from documentary, interview and observational analyses of intervention delivery in several wards of a UK hospital. A broad description of the intervention was created using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication framework. Content was specified in terms of (i) component BCTs using the BCT Taxonomy and (ii) intervention functions using the Behaviour Change Wheel. Mechanisms of action were specified using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation model and the Theoretical Domains Framework. The intervention consisted of 19 BCTs, with eight identified using all three data sources. The BCTs were delivered via seven functions of the Behaviour Change Wheel, with four ('education', 'enablement', 'training' and 'environmental restructuring') supported by the three data sources. The most frequent mechanisms of action were reflective motivation (especially 'beliefs about consequences' and 'beliefs about capabilities') and psychological capability (especially 'knowledge'). The intervention consisted of a wide range of BCTs targeting a wide range of mechanisms of action. This study

  18. Changes in Methodology for Assessing Performance of Research Organisations and Influence of Such Changes on Researchers' Behaviour

    Luboš Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing quality of research results on an international scale is a basis for evaluating the level of scientific activities pursued in research organisations. In the past 15 years, significant changes have occurred in the Czech Republic in research management and, in particular, the methodology of assessing research results. The methodology of assessment and its modifications should always be focused on increasing quality of research results; the rules of assessment have their effects on researchers' behaviour. This paper studies a question of whether the changes applied to the methodology of assessing research results in the Czech Republic have supported higher quality research results, i.e., results published in high-quality international journals. The authors have developed their own statistical test to measure significance of such changes, as well as other statistical tests of hypotheses. The main source is represented by the results of assessing public universities in the Czech Republic according to "Methodology for assessing results of research organisations" in 2010 and 2013. Our tests have not proven any statistically significant differences in the numbers of papers published in the journals monitored in the Web of Science and Scopus databases.

  19. Engagement of stakeholders in the development of a Theory of Change for handwashing and sanitation behaviour change.

    De Buck, Emmy; Hannes, Karin; Cargo, Margaret; Van Remoortel, Hans; Vande Veegaete, Axel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Govender, Thashlin; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Young, Taryn

    2018-02-01

    A Theory of Change (ToC) is an approach to map programmes aimed at inducing change in a specific context, with the goal of increasing their impact. We applied this approach to the specific case of handwashing and sanitation practices in low- and middle-income countries and developed a ToC as part of a systematic review exercise. Different existing sources of information were used to inform the initial draft of the ToC. In addition, stakeholder involvement occurred and peer review took place. Our stakeholders included methodological (ToC/quantitative and qualitative research) and content experts (WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene)/behaviour change), as well as end-users/practitioners, policy-makers and donors. In conclusion, the development of a ToC, and the involvement of stakeholders in its development, was critical in terms of understanding the context in which the promotional programmes are being implemented. We recommend ToC developers to work with stakeholders to create a ToC relevant for practice.

  20. A simulated avalanche search and rescue mission induces temporary physiological and behavioural changes in military dogs.

    Diverio, Silvana; Barbato, Olimpia; Cavallina, Roberta; Guelfi, Gabriella; Iaboni, Martina; Zasso, Renato; Di Mari, Walter; Santoro, Michele Matteo; Knowles, Toby G

    2016-09-01

    Saving human lives is of paramount importance in avalanche rescue missions. Avalanche military dogs represent an invaluable resource in these operations. However, their performance can be influenced by several environmental, social and transport challenges. If too severe, these are likely to activate a range of responses to stress, which might put at risk the dogs' welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological and behavioural responses of a group of military dogs to a Simulated Avalanche Search and Rescue mission (SASR). Seventeen avalanche dogs from the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza (SAGF dogs) were monitored during a simulated search for a buried operator in an artificial avalanche area (SASR). Heart rate (HR), body temperature (RBT) and blood samples were collected at rest the day before the trial (T0), immediately after helicopter transport at the onset of the SASR (T1), after the discovery of the buried operator (T2) and 2h later (T3). Heart rate (HR), rectal body temperature (RBT), cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. During the search mission the behaviour of each SAGF dog was measured by focal animal sampling and qualitatively assessed by its handler and two observers. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated. Snow and environmental variables were also measured. All dogs successfully completed their search for the buried, simulated victim within 10min. The SASR was shown to exert significant increases on RBT, NEFA and cortisol (Pdog's search mission ability was found only for motivation, signalling behaviour, signs of stress and possessive reward playing. More time signalling was related to shorter search time. In conclusion, despite extreme environmental and training conditions only temporary physiological and behavioural changes were recorded in the avalanche dogs. Their excellent performance in successful simulated SASR

  1. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2289 employees who voluntarily participated in a HRA program at seven Dutch worksites between 2007 and 2009. The HRA included a web-based questionnaire, biometric measurements, laboratory evaluation, and tailored feedback. The survey questionnaire assessed initial self-reported health-behaviour change and satisfaction with the web-based HRA, and was e-mailed four weeks after employees completed the HRA. Results Response was received from 638 (28% employees. Of all, 86% rated the program as positive, 74% recommended it to others, and 58% reported to have initiated overall health-behaviour change. Compared with employees at low CVD risk, those at high risk more often reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.52-7.45. Obese employees more frequently reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.72-6.54 and improved diet (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.50-7.60. Being satisfied with the HRA program in general was associated with more frequent self-reported initiation of overall health-behaviour change (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.73-4.44, increased physical activity (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.39, and improved diet (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.61-5.17. Conclusions More than half of the employees who voluntarily participated in a web-based HRA with tailored feedback, reported to have initiated health-behaviour change. Self-reported initiation of health-behaviour change was more frequent among those at high CVD risk and BMI levels. In

  2. Neural and behavioural changes in male periadolescent mice after prolonged nicotine-MDMA treatment.

    Adeniyi, Philip A; Ishola, Azeez O; Laoye, Babafemi J; Olatunji, Babawale P; Bankole, Oluwamolakun O; Shallie, Philemon D; Ogundele, Olalekan M

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between MDMA and Nicotine affects multiple brain centres and neurotransmitter systems (serotonin, dopamine and glutamate) involved in motor coordination and cognition. In this study, we have elucidated the effect of prolonged (10 days) MDMA, Nicotine and a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment on motor-cognitive neural functions. In addition, we have shown the correlation between the observed behavioural change and neural structural changes induced by these treatments in BALB/c mice. We observed that MDMA (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) induced a decline in motor function, while Nicotine (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) improved motor function in male periadolescent mice. In combined treatment, Nicotine reduced the motor function decline observed in MDMA treatment, thus no significant change in motor function for the combined treatment versus the control. Nicotine or MDMA treatment reduced memory function and altered hippocampal structure. Similarly, a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment reduced memory function when compared with the control. Ultimately, the metabolic and structural changes in these neural systems were seen to vary for the various forms of treatment. It is noteworthy to mention that a combined treatment increased the rate of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue.

  3. Changes in the self during cognitive behavioural therapy for social anxiety disorder: A systematic review.

    Gregory, Bree; Peters, Lorna

    2017-03-01

    A consistent feature across cognitive-behavioural models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the central role of the self in the emergence and maintenance of the disorder. The strong emphasis placed on the self in these models and related empirical research has also been reflected in evidence-based treatments for the disorder. This systematic review provides an overview of the empirical literature investigating the role of self-related constructs (e.g., self-beliefs, self-images, self-focused attention) proposed in cognitive models of SAD, before examining how these constructs are modified during and following CBT for SAD. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Guided by Stopa's (2009a, b) model of self, most studies examined change in self-related content, followed by change in self-related processing. No study examined change in self-structure. Pre- to post-treatment reductions were observed in self-related thoughts and beliefs, self-esteem, self-schema, self-focused attention, and self-evaluation. Change in self-related constructs predicted and/or mediated social anxiety reduction, however relatively few studies examined this. Papers were limited by small sample sizes, failure to control for depression symptoms, lack of waitlist, and some measurement concerns. Future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Equipping community pharmacy workers as agents for health behaviour change: developing and testing a theory-based smoking cessation intervention.

    Steed, Liz; Sohanpal, Ratna; James, Wai-Yee; Rivas, Carol; Jumbe, Sandra; Chater, Angel; Todd, Adam; Edwards, Elizabeth; Macneil, Virginia; Macfarlane, Fraser; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2017-08-11

    To develop a complex intervention for community pharmacy staff to promote uptake of smoking cessation services and to increase quit rates. Following the Medical Research Council framework, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop, pilot and then refine the intervention. Phase I : We used information from qualitative studies in pharmacies, systematic literature reviews and the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour framework to inform design of the initial version of the intervention. Phase II : We then tested the acceptability of this intervention with smoking cessation advisers and assessed fidelity using actors who visited pharmacies posing as smokers, in a pilot study. Phase III : We reviewed the content and associated theory underpinning our intervention, taking account of the results of the earlier studies and a realist analysis of published literature. We then confirmed a logic model describing the intended operation of the intervention and used this model to refine the intervention and associated materials. Eight community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. 12 Stop Smoking Advisers. Two, 150 min, skills-based training sessions focused on communication and behaviour change skills with between session practice. The pilot study confirmed acceptability of the intervention and showed preliminary evidence of benefit; however, organisational barriers tended to limit effective operation. The pilot data and realist review pointed to additional use of Diffusion of Innovations Theory to seat the intervention in the wider organisational context. We have developed and refined an intervention to promote smoking cessation services in community pharmacies, which we now plan to evaluate in a randomised controlled trial. UKCRN ID 18446, Pilot. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric behaviour of copper complexes of some heterocyclic azo compounds.

    Farias, P A; Ferreira, S L; Ohara, A K; Bastos, M B; Goulart, M S

    1992-10-01

    Controlled adsorptive accumulation of copper complexed with TAN, TAC, TAR and TAM (heterocyclic azo-compounds) on a static mercury drop electrode provides the basis for the direct stripping measurement of this element in the nanomolar concentration level. The ligand TAN exhibited great sensitivity and better separation of the peak current of the ligand in relation to the complex. The reduction current of adsorbed complex ions of copper is measured by linear scan cathodic stripping voltammetry, preceded by a period of accumulation of a few minutes. The peak potential is at approximately -0.37 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Optimal experimental parameters were found to be a TAN concentration of 1 x 10(-5)M, an accumulation potential of -0.22 V, and a solution pH of 3.7 (acetate buffer). The detection limit is 0.8nM after a 5-min accumulation with a stirred solution, and the response is linear up to 50 mug/l. Many common cations and anions do not interfere in the determination of copper. The interference of titanium is eliminated by addition of fluoride ion. Results are reported for a fresh water sample.

  6. Mass spectrometric studies of the complexing behaviour of actinide ions in solution

    Steppert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As the long-term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel is governed by Plutonium and the Minor Actinides, these elements are focussed on for investigations in the framework of safety assessment for nuclear waste repositories. To shed more light on the selectivity of the partitioning ligands BTP and BTBP towards the extraction of trivalent actinides, the complexes these ligands form with lanthanides in octanolic solution were characterized. The differences in the extraction efficiencies among the different lanthanides were traced back to the varying preferential formation of Ln(BTP)3 complexes, depending on the ionic radius of the lanthanides. Additionally it was shown that depending on the sterical demand of BTBP ligands nitrate anions coordinate in the first coordination shell of Eu(BTBP)2-complexes. As the behavior of Plutonium under geochemical conditions is of particular interest for the safety assessment of potential nuclear waste repositories, the second part of the thesis focuses on the hydrolysis and colloid formation behavior of aqueous Plutonium solutions. The solution species of Zirconium(IV) as analogue for Plutonium(IV) as well as of Uranium(VI) and Plutonium(VI) were characterized and quantified by means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Moreover the colloid-induced reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) and the subsequent formation of colloidal species was investigated. [de

  7. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  8. Radiation damages to cell membranes of dogs and rats quantitatively estimated by changes in sedimentation behaviour of erythrocytes

    Mikhajlov, V.F.; Potemkin, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    It was shown that injury to plasma membranes leads to a change in the sedimentation behaviour of erythrocytes: the maximum effect is produced when a protein component of the membrane is affected. The same dose dependent character of the change in erythrocyte sedimentation in urografine are observed during the first 24 h after γ-irradiation of rats and dogs

  9. What Makes a Mobile App Successful in Supporting Health Behaviour Change?

    Fitzgerald, Martin; McClelland, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Health promotion apps designed to support and reinforce health behaviours or to reduce risk behaviours are the most commonly downloaded apps. Such technologies have the potential to reach and deliver health care to new populations. But the extent to which they are successful in enabling the adoption of new and desired behaviours can…

  10. Changes in Time-Related Academic Behaviour Are Associated with Contextual Motivational Shifts

    Strunk, Kamden K.; Lane, Forrest C.; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2018-01-01

    Research in the field of time-related academic behaviour (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) has traditionally been focused on more stable factors, such as personality. Recent research suggests there may be a motivational component to these behaviours. The present study examines whether time-related academic behaviour is stable across…

  11. Can Brief Workshop Interventions Change Care Staff Understanding of Challenging Behaviours?

    Dowey, Alan; Toogood, Sandy; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Background: The working culture surrounding challenging behaviour may have a strong effect on staff behaviour. As a first step to influencing staff talk about challenging behaviour, the aim of the present study was to explore whether a 1-day training workshop could have an effect on staff causal explanations. Methods: Fifty-four front line staff,…

  12. The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings

    2013-01-01

    Background Promotion and provision of low-cost technologies that enable improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are seen as viable solutions for reducing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to enteric illnesses in low-income countries. A number of theoretical models, explanatory frameworks, and decision-making models have emerged which attempt to guide behaviour change interventions related to WASH. The design and evaluation of such interventions would benefit from a synthesis of this body of theory informing WASH behaviour change and maintenance. Methods We completed a systematic review of existing models and frameworks through a search of related articles available in PubMed and in the grey literature. Information on the organization of behavioural determinants was extracted from the references that fulfilled the selection criteria and synthesized. Results from this synthesis were combined with other relevant literature, and from feedback through concurrent formative and pilot research conducted in the context of two cluster-randomized trials on the efficacy of WASH behaviour change interventions to inform the development of a framework to guide the development and evaluation of WASH interventions: the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IBM-WASH). Results We identified 15 WASH-specific theoretical models, behaviour change frameworks, or programmatic models, of which 9 addressed our review questions. Existing models under-represented the potential role of technology in influencing behavioural outcomes, focused on individual-level behavioural determinants, and had largely ignored the role of the physical and natural environment. IBM-WASH attempts to correct this by acknowledging three dimensions (Contextual Factors, Psychosocial Factors, and Technology Factors) that operate on five-levels (structural, community, household, individual, and habitual). Conclusions A number of WASH-specific models and frameworks

  13. The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings.

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-10-26

    Promotion and provision of low-cost technologies that enable improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are seen as viable solutions for reducing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to enteric illnesses in low-income countries. A number of theoretical models, explanatory frameworks, and decision-making models have emerged which attempt to guide behaviour change interventions related to WASH. The design and evaluation of such interventions would benefit from a synthesis of this body of theory informing WASH behaviour change and maintenance. We completed a systematic review of existing models and frameworks through a search of related articles available in PubMed and in the grey literature. Information on the organization of behavioural determinants was extracted from the references that fulfilled the selection criteria and synthesized. Results from this synthesis were combined with other relevant literature, and from feedback through concurrent formative and pilot research conducted in the context of two cluster-randomized trials on the efficacy of WASH behaviour change interventions to inform the development of a framework to guide the development and evaluation of WASH interventions: the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IBM-WASH). We identified 15 WASH-specific theoretical models, behaviour change frameworks, or programmatic models, of which 9 addressed our review questions. Existing models under-represented the potential role of technology in influencing behavioural outcomes, focused on individual-level behavioural determinants, and had largely ignored the role of the physical and natural environment. IBM-WASH attempts to correct this by acknowledging three dimensions (Contextual Factors, Psychosocial Factors, and Technology Factors) that operate on five-levels (structural, community, household, individual, and habitual). A number of WASH-specific models and frameworks exist, yet with some limitations. The IBM

  14. Household behaviour crowds out support for climate change policy when sufficient progress is perceived

    Werfel, Seth H.

    2017-07-01

    Household actions and government policies are both necessary to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, household behaviour may crowd out public support for government action by creating the perception of sufficient progress. Here we demonstrate this crowding-out effect in public opinion using survey experiments with more than 14,000 participants in Japan. Subjects who were randomly assigned to report their energy-saving actions following the shutdown of the Fukushima power plant were less likely to support a tax increase on carbon emissions. Treatment effects were larger for subjects who had completed more actions. Further evidence suggests that the crowding-out effect may have been driven by an increase in the perceived importance of individual actions relative to government regulation and a decrease in the perceived issue importance of energy and environmental sustainability.

  15. Effect of implementation intentions to change behaviour: moderation by intention stability.

    Godin, Gaston; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Amireault, Steve; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia B J; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Pérusse, Louis

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of implementation intentions on leisure-time physical activity, taking into account the stability of intention. At baseline (T0), 349 participants completed a psychosocial questionnaire and were randomly assigned to implementation intention or control condition. Three months after baseline assessment (T1), participants in the experimental group were asked to plan where, when, and how they