WorldWideScience

Sample records for complete testing environment

  1. TestComplete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Alpaev, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    A practical cookbook, with a perfect package of simple, medium, and advanced recipes targeted at basic programmers as well as expert software testers, who will learn to create, manage, and run automated tests. It is packed with problem-solving recipes that are supported by simple examples.If you are a software tester or a programmer who is involved with testing automation using TestComplete, this book is ideal for you! You will be introduced to the very basics of using the tool, as well as polish any previously gained knowledge in using the tool. If you are already aware of programming basics,

  2. Slant hole completion test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    One of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategies and Objectives in the Natural Gas Program is to conduct activities to transfer technology from R&D programs to potential users. The Slant Hole Completion Test has achieved exactly this objective. The Slant Hole site is essentially the same as the Multiwell site and is located in the southeastern portion of the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. The Piceance Basin is typical of the Western low permeability basins that contain thick sequences of sands, silts and coals deposited during the Cretaceous period. These sequences contain vast amounts of natural gas but have proven to be resistant to commercial production because of the low permeability of the host rocks. Using the knowledge gained from the DOE`s earlier Multiwell experiment, the SHCT-1 was drilled to demonstrate that by intersecting the natural fractures found in these ``tight rocks,`` commercial gas production can be obtained.

  3. Slant Hole Completion Test, Cozzette and Paludal production testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.L.; Malinowsky, M.S.

    1993-12-31

    The Slant Hole Completion Test has been successful in providing good technology transfer to the oil and gas industry. The gas-producing rate from the Cozzette horizontal open-hole interval was significantly greater than from offset vertical wells. The source of water production from the Cozzette is not presently understood. Diagnosis of the water production mechanism is vital to economic exploitation of the Cozzette gas resource using horizontal well technology. Stimulation in a high-angle cased and cemented wellbore, such as the Paludal 2, 3 and 4 intervals in SHCT No. 1, is more difficult because of high near-wellbore stress that results in higher treating pressures. Low gas production potential following the Paludal 2, 3 and 4 stimulation may result from damage to the natural fracture system resulting from casing cementing operations. Comparison of gas production rates in SHCT No. 1 and MWX No. 1 following similar stimulations in the Paludal 3 and 4 intervals, indicate there is no advantage to a hydraulic fracture treatment in a slant wellbore when compared to a vertical wellbore.

  4. Testing Applications in MANET Environments through Emulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Manzoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network solution testing is typically done using simulation. The simulated code is generally a simplified version of the real code, and thus code porting to actual operating systems lacks a strong validation. In this work we present Castadiva, a test-bed architecture that allows validating software solutions for real ad hoc network environments using low-cost, off-the-shelf devices and open source software. Castadiva is also compatible with the ns-2 simulator, allowing a combined and more complete evaluation. In this work we present our tool and the results obtained when evaluating videocalls in different scenarios, both static and dynamic.

  5. An Evaluation of "Dialogue Completion" in English Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵阳

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of "dialogue completion" item in the language testing,this article explores three contradictions by analyzing aspects of its characters,content,validity and reliability.The finding is that "dialogue completion" patten has unpredicted answer and should be avoided in the testing as much as possible.

  6. LHC Magnet Tests Operational Techniques and Empowerment for Successful Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V; Priestnall, K; Pirotte, F; Veyrunes, E; Ali, N; Awale, P; Bahuguna, S; Bhunia, U; Chauhan, V; Dixit, M; Gore, J; John, J; Kandaswamy, E; Kasbekar, A; Kashyap, P; Kasliwal, A; Kulkarni, C; Laddha, A; Malhotra, S; Mascarenhas, M; Mishra, J; Motiwala, P; Nair, K; Narayanan, R; Padmakumar, S; Pagare, A; Peruppayikkad, D; Raghunathan, S; Rao, S; Roy, D; Sharma, S; Shimjith, S; Singh, S; Sonnis, S; Sridhar, S; Surendran, P; Tikaria, A

    2007-01-01

    The LHC magnet tests operation team developed various innovative techniques, particularly since early 2004, to complete the superconductor magnet tests by Feb. 2007. Overall and cryogenic priority handling, rapid on-bench thermal cycling, rule-based goodness evaluation on round-the-clock basis, multiple, mashed web systems are some of these techniques applied with rigour for successful tests completion in time. This paper highlights these operation empowerment tools which had a pivotal role for success. A priority handling method was put in place to enable maximum throughput from twelve test benches, having many different constraints. For the cryogenics infrastructure, it implied judicious allocation of limited resources to the benches. Rapid On-Bench Thermal Cycle was a key strategy to accelerate magnets tests throughput, saving time and simplifying logistics. First level magnet appraisal was developed for 24 hr decision making so as to prepare a magnet further for LHC or keep it on standby. Web based system...

  7. 47 CFR 2.1503 - Test environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test environment. 2.1503 Section 2.1503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL... Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) General § 2.1503 Test environment. (a) Measurement sites. Radiated emission tests...

  8. Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE), an innovative technology that will...

  9. TQM in a test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Gary D.; King, Elizabeth A.; Oleson, Keith

    1992-11-01

    In response to the changing aerospace economic climate, Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (MMAG) has adopted a Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy to maintain a competitive edge. TQM emphasizes continuous improvement of processes, motivation to improve from within, cross-functional involvement, people empowerment, customer satisfaction, and modern process control techniques. The four major initiatives of TQM are Product Excellence, Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II), People Empowerment, and Subcontract Management. The Defense Space and Communications (DS&C) Test Lab's definition and implementation of the MRP II and people empowerment initiatives within TQM are discussed. The application of MRP II to environmental test planning and operations processes required a new and innovative approach. In an 18 month span, the test labs implemented MRP II and people empowerment and achieved a Class 'A' operational status. This resulted in numerous benefits, both tangible and intangible, including significant cost savings and improved quality of life. A detailed description of the implementation process and results are addressed.

  10. Compact Fuel Element Environment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  11. Drilling and Completion of the Urach III HDR Test Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, U.; Ernst, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The hot dry rock (HDR) test well, urach III, was drilled and completed in 1979. The borehole is located in Southwest Germany in the geothermal anomaly of Urach. The purpose of project Urach was to study drilling and completion problems of HDR wells and to provide a test site for a HDR research program. The Urach III borehole was drilled to a total depth of 3,334 meters (10,939 feet), penetrating 1,700 meters (5,578 feet) into the granitic basement. Extensive coring was required to provide samples for geophysical and geochemical studies. Positive displacement downhole motors were used for coring and normal drilling operations. It was found that these motors in combination with the proper bits gave better results than conventional rotary drilling. Loss of circulation was encountered not only in sedimentary rocks but also in the granite. After drilling and completion of the borehole, a number of hydraulic fracturing experiments were performed in the open hole as well as in the cased section of Urach III. A circulation loop was established by using the single-borehole concept. It is not yet clear whether new fractures have actually been generated or preexisting joints and fissures have been reactivated. Evaluation of the results of this first step is almost completed and the planning of Phase II of the Urach project is under way.

  12. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry.

  13. Digital Audio Radio Broadcast Systems Laboratory Testing Nearly Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the completion of phase one of the digital audio radio (DAR) testing conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. This satellite, satellite/terrestrial, and terrestrial digital technology will open up new audio broadcasting opportunities both domestically and worldwide. It will significantly improve the current quality of amplitude-modulated/frequency-modulated (AM/FM) radio with a new digitally modulated radio signal and will introduce true compact-disc-quality (CD-quality) sound for the first time. Lewis is hosting the laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes. Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes each, making a total of nine systems being tested. The nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on-channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent-channel (IBAC), and new bands. The laboratory testing was conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. Subjective assessments of the audio recordings for each of the nine systems was conducted by the Communications Research Center in Ottawa, Canada, under contract to the Electronic Industries Association. The Communications Research Center has the only CCIR-qualified (Consultative Committee for International Radio) audio testing facility in North America. The main goals of the U.S. testing process are to (1) provide technical data to the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) so that it can establish a standard for digital audio receivers and transmitters and (2) provide the receiver and transmitter industries with the proper standards upon which to build their equipment. In addition, the data will be forwarded to the International Telecommunications Union to help in the establishment of international standards for digital audio receivers and transmitters, thus allowing U.S. manufacturers to compete in the

  14. Ultrasonographic test for complete anterior cruciate ligament injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Grzelak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although ultrasound (US has a wide range of applications in orthopedic diagnostics, sonographic evaluation of traumatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL insufficiency is still inadequate. There is a growing need for diagnostic tests that allow for simple and reliable assessment of ACL instability. This investigation aims to evaluate feasibility of sonographic technique for diagnosing complete ACL insufficiency. Materials and Methods: Eighty three consecutive patients suspected of ACL injury were examined with sonographic, dynamic test of anterior instability. The translation of the intercondylar eminence against the patellar tendon was measured in the injured and opposite (injured knee. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all patients. Forty-seven of them underwent a further arthroscopy. Five patients have been examined for the 2 nd time to evaluate interclass and intraclass agreement and bias. Results: Complete ACL insufficiency has been confirmed in 37 patients. In those individuals, the total anterior knee translation and the difference between two joints (side-to-side difference were significantly increased (8.67 mm standard deviation [SD] 2.65 mm in the affected knee versus 2.88 mm SD 1.26 mm in uninjured joint; P < 0.001. Based on a threshold of 2.0 mm for the side-to-side difference and 5.0 mm for the absolute translation, the sonographic test was found to have a sensitivity and specificity of 91.9% and 95.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The present technique supports the clinician with additional fast and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can facilitate the evaluation of anterior knee instability.

  15. Completion of NDCX-II Facility and Initial Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Joe; Arbelaez, Diego; Greenway, Wayne; Jung, Jin-Young; Lidia, Steve; Lipton, Thomas; Roy, Prabir; Seidl, Peter; Takakuwa, Jeff; Waldron, William; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David; Sharp, William; Gilson, Erik

    2011-10-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) will generate ion beam pulses for studies of Warm Dense Matter and heavy-ion-driven Inertial Fusion Energy. The machine will accelerate 20-50 nC of Li+ to 1.2-3 MeV energy, starting from a 10.9-cm alumino-silicate ion source. At the end of the accelerator the ions are focused to a mm spot size on a thin foil (planar) target; and the pulse length compressed to sub-ns during beam transport in a neutralizing plasma. While using solenoids for beam focusing, the acceleration and compression will be done by special voltage waveforms along the induction linac. The construction project started in July 2009 and will be complete by March 2012, or earlier. Progress on construction, component and initial beam tests will be reported. Work supported by DOE-OFES.

  16. First Test of Fan Active Noise Control (ANC) Completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of ultrahigh-bypass engines, the space available for passive acoustic treatment is becoming more limited, whereas noise regulations are becoming more stringent. Active noise control (ANC) holds promise as a solution to this problem. It uses secondary (added) noise sources to reduce or eliminate the offending noise radiation. The first active noise control test on the low-speed fan test bed was a General Electric Company system designed to control either the exhaust or inlet fan tone. This system consists of a "ring source," an induct array of error microphones, and a control computer. Fan tone noise propagates in a duct in the form of spinning waves. These waves are detected by the microphone array, and the computer identifies their spinning structure. The computer then controls the "ring source" to generate waves that have the same spinning structure and amplitude, but 180 out of phase with the fan noise. This computer generated tone cancels the fan tone before it radiates from the duct and is heard in the far field. The "ring source" used in these tests is a cylindrical array of 16 flat-plate acoustic radiators that are driven by thin piezoceramic sheets bonded to their back surfaces. The resulting source can produce spinning waves up to mode 7 at levels high enough to cancel the fan tone. The control software is flexible enough to work on spinning mode orders from -6 to 6. In this test, the fan was configured to produce a tone of order 6. The complete modal (spinning and radial) structure of the tones was measured with two builtin sets of rotating microphone rakes. These rakes provide a measurement of the system performance independent from the control system error microphones. In addition, the far-field noise was measured with a semicircular array of 28 microphones. This test represents the first in a series of tests that demonstrate different active noise control concepts, each on a progressively more complicated modal structure. The tests are

  17. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  18. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  19. Aristotle's 'completeness test' as Heuristics for an Account of Dynamicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibt, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    (s) must be to locate suitable linguistic data that can represent the conceptual content to be modelled by an ontological domain theory. I try to show that Aristotle’s so-called ‘completeness test’ in Metaphysics Theta. 6, and the discussion of this passage in Aristotle scholarship, offers some useful...

  20. Complete Non-Radioactive Operability Tests for Cladding Hull Chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jared A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hylton, Tom D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brunson, Ronald Ray [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunt, Rodney Dale [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradley, Eric Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Non-radioactive operability tests were made to test the metal chlorination reactor and condenser and their accessories using batch chlorinations of non-radioactive cladding samples and to identify optimum operating practices and components that need further modifications prior to installation of the equipment into the hot cell for tests on actual used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding. The operability tests included (1) modifications to provide the desired heating and reactor temperature profile; and (2) three batch chlorination tests using, respectively, 100, 250, and 500 g of cladding. During the batch chlorinations, metal corrosion of the equipment was assessed, pressurization of the gas inlet was examined and the best method for maintaining solid salt product transfer through the condenser was determined. Also, additional accessing equipment for collection of residual ash and positioning of the unit within the hot cell were identified, designed, and are being fabricated.

  1. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Citrobacter freundii Plasmid Carrying KPC-2 in a Unique Genetic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yancheng; Imirzalioglu, Can; Hain, Torsten; Kaase, Martin; Gatermann, Soeren; Exner, Martin; Mielke, Martin; Hauri, Anja; Dragneva, Yolanta; Bill, Rita; Wendt, Constanze; Wirtz, Angela; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2014-01-01

    The complete and annotated nucleotide sequence of a 54,036-bp plasmid harboring a blaKPC-2 gene that is clonally present in Citrobacter isolates from different species is presented. The plasmid belongs to incompatibility group N (IncN) and harbors the class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in a unique genetic environment. PMID:25395635

  2. Short Circuit Tests First Step of LHC Hardware Commissioning Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Soto, E; Bordry, Frederick; Casas Lino, M P; Coelingh, G J; Cumer, G; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Guillaume, J C; Inigo-Golfin, J; Montabonnet, V; Nisbet, D; Pojer, M; Principe, R; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Thiesen, H; Vergara-Fernández, A; Zerlauth, M; Castaneda Serra, A; Romera Ramirez, I

    2008-01-01

    For the two counter rotating beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) about 8000 magnets (main dipole and quadrupole magnets, corrector magnets, separation dipoles, matching section quadrupoles etc.) are powered in about 1500 superconducting electrical circuits. The magnets are powered by power converters that have been designed for the LHC with a current between 60 and 13000A. Between October 2005 and September 2007 the so-called Short Circuit Tests were carried-out in 15 underground zones where the power converters of the superconducting circuits are placed. The tests aimed to qualify the normal conducting equipments of the circuits such as power converters and normal conducting high current cables. The correct operation of interlock and energy extraction systems was validated. The infrastructure systems including AC distribution, water and air cooling and the control systems was also commissioned. In this paper the results of the two year test campaign are summarized with particular attention to problems e...

  3. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Completed and Documented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2003-01-01

    The specially organized session offered an international forum to disseminate the results from a year long test that was conducted in 1999 in NASA Glenn Research Center s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel on a 22-in. scale-model turbofan bypass stage, which was designed to be representative of current aircraft engine technology. The test was a cooperative effort involving Glenn, the NASA Langley Research Center, GE Aircraft Engines, and the Boeing Company. The principal objective of the project was to study the source mechanisms of noise in a modern high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine through detailed aerodynamic and acoustic measurements.

  4. Astronauts Scott Carpenter and Walter Schirra completes water egress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Project Mercury Astronauts M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 7, prepares to go through a water egress test. Astronaut Walter M. Schirra (back to camera), the backup MA-7 pilot is also present. Carpenter and Schirra are in the Mercury pressure suit, without the helmet. Behind them is an inflated life raft.

  5. Open Book Testing in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakes, Glenda C.

    2008-01-01

    One continuing concern associated with online courses is assessment of student performance. One option for online assessment is the use of open book tests. This study investigated the impact of training in open book test-taking strategies on student test performance in online, timed, unproctored, open book tests. When the tutorial was required…

  6. 42 CFR 84.20 - Examination, inspection, and testing of complete respirator assemblies; fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator assemblies; fees. 84.20 Section 84.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Fees § 84.20 Examination, inspection, and testing of complete respirator... examination, inspection and testing of complete respirator assemblies: Self-contained breathing...

  7. A Java program to test homogeneity of samples and examine sampling completeness

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A Java program to test the homogeneity of samples and examine sampling completeness was presented in this study. The program was based on the model of Coleman et al. (1982) for random placement hypothesis and the algorithm of Zhang et al. (1999). The program was used to test samples' homogeneity and examine sampling completeness for four arthropod sampling data sets.

  8. Realization of Reconfigurable Virtual Environments for Virtual Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Yan Wu; Zheng-Xu Zhao

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of reconfigurable virtual environments (VEs) for virtual testing. It proposes a hybrid design approach that is derived from a so-called integration and composition of the reconfiguration strategy. The designing process has thus evolved from binding virtual objects using reconfiguration rules within the context of virtual testing scenarios. Therefore reconfigurable virtual environments are established with improved flexibility and scalability, tailored to a wide range of virtual testing applications. Those virtual environments integrate virtual testing scenarios, data acquisition, databases, rule mapping and application interfaces, which yield modular testing functions and an open-ended system architecture with a set of extensible interface tools to realize data exchange within reconfigurable VEs.This enables virtual testing scenarios to be reconfigured interactively based on real time data and communication between virtual environments and real environments. A virtual testing application has been implemented using reconfigurable VEs.

  9. A Complete Critical Path Algorithm for Test Generation of Combinational Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周权; 魏道政

    1991-01-01

    It is known that critical path test generation method is not a complete algorithm for combinational circuits with reconvergent-fanout.In order to made it a complete algorithm,we put forward a reconvergent-fanoutoriented technique,the principal critical path algorithm,propagating the critical value back to primary inputs along a single path,the principal critical path,and allowing multiple path sensitization if needed.Relationship among test patterns is also discussed to accelerate test generation.

  10. Multispectral optical telescope alignment testing for a cryogenic space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newswander, Trent; Hooser, Preston; Champagne, James

    2016-09-01

    Multispectral space telescopes with visible to long wave infrared spectral bands provide difficult alignment challenges. The visible channels require precision in alignment and stability to provide good image quality in short wavelengths. This is most often accomplished by choosing materials with near zero thermal expansion glass or ceramic mirrors metered with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) that are designed to have a matching thermal expansion. The IR channels are less sensitive to alignment but they often require cryogenic cooling for improved sensitivity with the reduced radiometric background. Finding efficient solutions to this difficult problem of maintaining good visible image quality at cryogenic temperatures has been explored with the building and testing of a telescope simulator. The telescope simulator is an onaxis ZERODUR® mirror, CFRP metered set of optics. Testing has been completed to accurately measure telescope optical element alignment and mirror figure changes in a cryogenic space simulated environment. Measured alignment error and mirror figure error test results are reported with a discussion of their impact on system optical performance.

  11. Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

  12. Methodology Investigation Characterization of Test Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    the Chagres River at the east end of the area and near the mouth of the Frijoles River in the western portion. Unit 2-Tilted, coarse-grained bedded...sedimentary rock-shale, sandstone, and mudstones forming rolling lowlands-the low area in the Frijoles River Basin is formed on these softer sediments...forms the Rio Frijoles Basin, and the western and southern flanks of the KV unit along the western edge of the test area. This unit also comprises

  13. Flightline Thermal Environment Testing of F-111 Transparencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    FLIGHTLINE THERMAL TEST 3 1. Test Specimens 3 2. Test Set-Up 4 3. Test Instrumentation 5 4. Test Conditions and Procedures 5 S. Test Results 6 a...Flightline Thermal Test Transparencies 3 2 Bird Impact Test Summary: Flightline Thermal Panels 14 A-1 Bird Impact Test Summary: Cannon AFB Panels 39 Ill.v"o...of the transparencies is also discussed. 2 AAFWAL-TR-83-3062 SECTION II FLIGHTLINE THERMAL TEST The objectives of the flightline thermal environment

  14. Complete Model-Based Equivalence Class Testing for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Huang, Wen-ling

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new test model written in SysML and an associated blackbox test suite for the Ceiling Speed Monitor (CSM) of the European Train Control System (ETCS). The model is publicly available and intended to serve as a novel benchmark for investigating new testing theories......_nite cardinality of the input domains { is capable to produce _nite test suites that are complete (i.e. sound and exhaustive) for a given fault model. In this paper, an overview of the model and the equivalence class testing strategy is given, and tool-based evaluation results are presented. For the technical...... and comparing the capabilities of modelbased test automation tools. The CSM application inputs velocity values from a domain which could not be completely enumerated for test purposes with reasonable e_ort. We therefore apply a novel method for equivalence class testing that { despite the conceptually in...

  15. Paternity testing in a PBL environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class activities: in relation to a fictitious newborn found on the Campus, students design a PCR based protocol to determine their own genotype for two markers. Pooled class genotypes serve to calculate allelic frequencies and to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Individual results are also evaluated for possible paternity. The goals of the activity and how each step in the process relates to learning outcomes are presented. Classroom discussions, group discussions, tutorial sessions, wiki sites, laboratory activities, and individual reports sum up the situations, in which the students' process of learning and learning outcomes can be evaluated.

  16. Generating Complete and Finite Test Suite for ioco: Is It Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilso Simao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing from Input/Output Transition Systems has been intensely investigated. The conformance between the implementation and the specification is often determined by the so-called ioco-relation. However, generating tests for ioco is usually hindered by the problem of conflicts between inputs and outputs. Moreover, the generation is mainly based on nondeterministic methods, which may deliver complete test suites but require an unbounded number of executions. In this paper, we investigate whether it is possible to construct a finite test suite which is complete in a predefined fault domain for the classical ioco relation even in the presence of input/output conflicts. We demonstrate that it is possible under certain assumptions about the specification and implementation, by proposing a method for complete test generation, based on a traditional method developed for FSM.

  17. G. M. Koelemay well No. 1, Jefferson County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing: testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The acquisition, completion, and testing of a geopressured-geothermal well are described. The following are covered: geology; petrophysics; re-entry and completion operations - test well; drilling and completion operations - disposal well; test objectives; surface testing facilities; pre-test operations; test sequence; test results and analysis; and return of wells and location to operator. (MHR)

  18. "Ducks" and "Parrots": Elaboration, Duplication and Duplicity in a Cartoon Discourse Completion Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Bom; Kellogg, David

    2002-01-01

    Interviews, questionnaires and tests may fail as evaluations of pragmatic competence in a foreign language because they cannot reproduce contexts in sufficient detail and/or because they cannot constrain discourse options without contaminating the learner response. In this study a cartoon Discourse Completion Test (DCT) prompt was used, providing…

  19. Exploration Flight Test 1 Afterbody Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam; Lessard, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle included roughly 100 near surface thermocouples on the after body of the vehicle. The temperature traces at each of these instruments have been used to perform inverse environment reconstruction to determine the aerothermal environment experienced during re-entry of the vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the reconstructed environments and identifies critical aspects of the environment. These critical aspects include transition and reaction control system jet influence. A blind test of the process and reconstruction tool was also performed to build confidence in the reconstructed environments. Finally, an uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed to identify the impact of each of the uncertainties on the reconstructed environments.

  20. Testing the Dissipative Type of a Qubit Interacting with Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾浩生; 匡乐满; 高克林

    2003-01-01

    We propose a method to test the correctness of the coupling model of a qubit interacting with environment and to determine the type of dissipation. The environment is modelled by a bath of oscillators with infinite degrees of freedom and the qubit-bath coupling is chosen to be a general dissipation-decoherence form. The proposed method can be realized in current experiments.

  1. Creation of a Test Bed Environment for Core Java Applications using White Box Testing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya R. L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Test Bed Environment allows for rigorous, transparent, and replicable testing of scientific theories. However, in software development these test beds can be specified hardware and software environment for the application under test. Though the existing open source test bed environments in Integrated Development Environment (IDEs are capable of supporting the development of Java application types, test reports are generated by third party developers. They do not enhance the utility and the performance of the system constructed. Our proposed system, we have created a customized test bed environment for core java application programs used to generate the test case report using generated control flow graph. This can be obtained by developing a new mini compiler with additional features.

  2. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Grisham, Michael Paul; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-22

    Test environments and classification of regional ecological zones into mega environments are the two key components in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to provide the theoretical basis for test environment evaluation and ecological zone division for sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analysed using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and heritability adjusted-genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot. The results showed that among the interactive factors, the GE interaction had the greatest impact, while the genotype and year interaction showed the lowest impact. Kaiyuan, Lincang and Baoshan of Yunnan, Zhangzhou and Fuzhou of Fujian, and Hechi, Liuzhou and Chongzuo of Guangxi, and Lingao of Hainan were ideal test environments with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability, whereas Baise of Guangxi was not. Based on HA-GGE biplot analysis, there are three ecological sugarcane production zones in China, the Southern China Inland Zone, the Southwestern Plateau Zone, and the Southern Coastal Zone. The HA-GGE biplot analysis here presents the ideal test environments and also identifies the mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

  3. MEMS-based gradiometer for the complete characterization of Martian magnetic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Jose Luis; Ciudad, David; McHenry, Michael E.; Aroca, Claudio; Díaz-Michelena, Marina

    2013-04-01

    The in-situ determination of the Martian magnetic field is one of the most important and ambitious objectives in Mars exploration, because its implications in paleomagnetism, tectonics and mineral determination. To place sensors on Mars is a complicated task, due to the extreme conditions of the planet surface and also because of the relative low budget devoted to this kind of instrument: low power, mass, volume and the need to operate in a magnetically noise environment. A complete and accurate measurement of the magnetic environment includes the determination of both magnitude and gradient of the magnetic field (B). There are many developments of magnetometers with the characteristics mentioned before [2], but the question about gradient is not that well solved and most gradient sensors are based on a couple of magnetometers separated a certain distance [2, 3]. The aim of this abstract is to introduce a new MEMS based robust gradiometer for the point measurement of the field gradient with the ultimate goal to perform in situ measurement on Mars and shed some light in the magnetic anomalies explanation of the Red Planet. Since in some conditions ?ׯB = 0, we assume knowing six of the nine components is sufficient to reconstruct entirely the magnetic field gradient. The device proposed consists of a set of six cantilevers to measure these six components (with resolution in the order of 1 nT/mm) combined either with another miniaturized and more accurate magnetometer (with resolution below the nT) for the measurement of the field vector. Every component system consists of a cantilever with an appropriate geometry, an excitation coil and a mechanism to generate a field gradient. The cantilevers are made of piezoelectric material (bimorph, with two piezoelectric layers) covered by a soft ferromagnetic material (of Iron-Nickel base). Is explained below the working principle for one component. When the excitation system generates an alternating magnetic field (enough

  4. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  5. A Complete Characterization of Potential Compensation Tests of Hicksian Welfare Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Keenan; Arthur Snow

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present complete characterizations of the compensation tests for potential Pareto superiority proposed by Kaldor, Hicks, and Samuelson in terms of the aggregate Hicksian measures of income compensation, including compensating and equivalent variations. The key to obtaining these characterizations lies in recognizing that each potential compensation test entails a search over possible outcomes, rather than a comparison of only the new and original outcomes, as with s...

  6. Field tests of the first complete solar heating successfully finished; Feldtests erster Solarkomplettheizung erfolgreich abgeschlossen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranich, Kerstin [Westfa, Hagen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the field tests of a new complete solar heating system could successfully be finished. The heating system obtains a primary energy saving of up to 60 % by means of a covering degree of 85 % by renewable energy sources. The effective combination of new hybrid solar heat collectors, a heat pump, a combination buffer memory and an ice latent heat storage finished the test phase and comes to the market in a few weeks.

  7. 42 CFR 84.1102 - Examination, inspection and testing of complete respirator assemblies; fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator assemblies; fees. 84.1102 Section 84.1102 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1102 Examination, inspection and testing of complete respirator assemblies; fees. The following fees shall be charged by the Institute for the...

  8. Testing axion physics in a Josephson junction environment

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We suggest that experiments based on Josephson junctions, SQUIDS, and coupled Josephson qubits can be used to construct a resonant environment for dark matter axions. We propose experimental setups in which axionic interaction strengths in a Josephson junction environment can be tested, similar in nature to recent experiments that test for quantum entanglement of two coupled Josephson qubits. We point out that the parameter values relevant for early-universe axion cosmology are accessible with present day's achievements in nanotechnology. We work out how typical dark matter and dark energy signals would look like in a novel detector that exploits this effect.

  9. A Complete Automation of Unit Testing for JavaScript Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alshraideh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Program testing is expensive and labor intensive, often consuming more than half of the total development costs, and yet it is frequently not done well and the results are not always satisfactory. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic test data generation tool that aims to completely automate unit testing of JavaScript functions. The methodology: In order to use the proposed tool, the tester annotates the files that contain the class to be tested. Moreover, the tester must specify the test data coverage criterion to be used, either branch coverage or mutation analysis. However, the tool is then integrated into the JavaScript compiler and test generation is invoked by a command line option. Also, the code to be tested is parsed into an abstract syntax tree from which the test tool generates a program dependency graph for the function under test. However, if mutation analysis coverage is required, the abstract syntax tree for a meta-mutant program is also generated. To provide guidance for the test data search, the function under test instrumented in accordance with the coverage criterion. Branch predicate expressions are always instrumented, in the case of mutation coverage, mutated statements are also instrumented. Compilation then continues from the modified abstract syntax tree to generate instrumented executables that were loaded into the test data search module. Results: The experiment done in our study by using the proposed tool for branch coverage shows that the most effective result for string equality was obtained using the edit distance fitness function, while no significant difference was found in the fitness function for string ordering. Through exhaustive mulation coverage 8% are found to be equivalent. Conclusion: By having a complete automation it reduces the cost of software testing dramatically and also facilitates continuous testing. It is reported that at least 50% of the total software

  10. Milestone Report - M4FT-14OR0312022 - Co-absorption studies - Design system complete/test plan complete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this test plan is to describe research that will determine the effectiveness of silver mordenite and molecular sieve beds to remove iodine and water (tritium) from off-gas streams arising from used nuclear fuel recycling processes, and to demonstrate that the iodine and water can be recovered separately from one another.

  11. Computational Pollutant Environment Assessment from Propulsion-System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; McConnaughey, Paul; Chen, Yen-Sen; Warsi, Saif

    1996-01-01

    An asymptotic plume growth method based on a time-accurate three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics formulation has been developed to assess the exhaust-plume pollutant environment from a simulated RD-170 engine hot-fire test on the F1 Test Stand at Marshall Space Flight Center. Researchers have long known that rocket-engine hot firing has the potential for forming thermal nitric oxides, as well as producing carbon monoxide when hydrocarbon fuels are used. Because of the complex physics involved, most attempts to predict the pollutant emissions from ground-based engine testing have used simplified methods, which may grossly underpredict and/or overpredict the pollutant formations in a test environment. The objective of this work has been to develop a computational fluid dynamics-based methodology that replicates the underlying test-stand flow physics to accurately and efficiently assess pollutant emissions from ground-based rocket-engine testing. A nominal RD-170 engine hot-fire test was computed, and pertinent test-stand flow physics was captured. The predicted total emission rates compared reasonably well with those of the existing hydrocarbon engine hot-firing test data.

  12. Different involuntary mechanisms underlie priming and LOP effects in stem completion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Terrence M

    2004-09-01

    The role of intentional retrieval, involuntary conscious memory, and lexical processing in priming and levels-of-processing (LOP) effects in stem completion tests was investigated in three experiments. First, Experiment 1 provided strong evidence against the intentional retrieval hypothesis for the implicit LOP effects. LOP effects in the explicit test were dependent on intertrial interval at test, whereas LOP effects in the implicit test were not. Second, support was provided for the involuntary conscious memory hypothesis. Implicit memory (priming) was associated with awareness in all three experiments and the implicit LOP effect was associated with awareness in two of the three experiments. Third, it was concluded that lexical processing per se played a limited role in both priming and implicit LOP effects. Although priming was sensitive to normative rates of production in Experiment 1 and the number of solutions in all three experiments, it was insensitive to frequency manipulations. The LOP effect was insensitive to number of solutions, normative rates of production, and frequency manipulations. In addition, LOP and priming effects were uncorrelated in the implicit memory tests. It was concluded that production processes (e.g., Gabrieli et al., 1999), rather than lexical processes, played a crucial role in stem completion priming. In contrast, the LOP effect was attributed to the involuntary interaction of episodic and perceptual memory.

  13. Benchmark Calibration Tests Completed for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Life Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Halford, Gary R.; Bowman, Randy R.

    2005-01-01

    A major phase of benchmark testing has been completed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/), where a critical component of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is undergoing extensive experimentation to aid the development of an analytical life-prediction methodology. Two special-purpose test rigs subjected SRG heater-head pressure-vessel test articles to accelerated creep conditions, using the standard design temperatures to stay within the wall material s operating creep-response regime, but increasing wall stresses up to 7 times over the design point. This resulted in well-controlled "ballooning" of the heater-head hot end. The test plan was developed to provide critical input to analytical parameters in a reasonable period of time.

  14. Enhanced ground-based vibration testing for aerodynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daborn, P. M.; Ind, P. R.; Ewins, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Typical methods of replicating aerodynamic environments in the laboratory are generally poor. A structure which flies "freely" in its normal operating environment, excited over its entire external surface by aerodynamic forces and in all directions simultaneously, is then subjected to a vibration test in the laboratory whilst rigidly attached to a high impedance shaker and excited by forces applied through a few attachment points and in one direction only. The two environments could hardly be more different. The majority of vibration testing is carried out at commercial establishments and it is understandable that little has been published which demonstrates the limitations with the status quo. The primary objective of this research is to do just that with a view to identifying significant improvements in vibration testing in light of modern technology. In this paper, case studies are presented which highlight some of the limitations with typical vibration tests showing that they can lead to significant overtests, sometimes by many orders of magnitude, with the level of overtest varying considerably across a wide range of frequencies. This research shows that substantial benefits can be gained by "freely" suspending the structure in the laboratory and exciting it with a relatively small number of electrodynamic shakers using Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) control technology. The shaker configuration can be designed to excite the modes within the bandwidth utilising the inherent amplification of the resonances to achieve the desired response levels. This free-free MIMO vibration test approach is shown to result in substantial benefits that include extremely good replication of the aerodynamic environment and significant savings in time as all axes are excited simultaneously instead of the sequential X, Y and Z testing required with traditional vibration tests. In addition, substantial cost savings can be achieved by replacing some expensive large shaker systems

  15. Subsurface Completion Report for Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echelard, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, in 1965, 1969, and 1971. The effects of the Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin tests on the environment were extensively investigated during and following the detonations, and the area continues to be monitored today. This report is intended to document the basis for the Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin (hereafter referred to as ''Amchitka Site'') subsurface completion recommendation of No Further Remedial Action Planned with Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance, and define the long-term surveillance and maintenance strategy for the subsurface. A number of factors were considered in evaluating and selecting this recommendation for the Amchitka Site. Historical studies and monitoring data, ongoing monitoring data, the results of groundwater modeling, and the results of an independent stakeholder-guided scientific investigation were also considered in deciding the completion action. Water sampling during and following the testing showed no indication that radionuclides were released to the near surface, or marine environment with the exception of tritium, krypton-85, and iodine-131 found in the immediate vicinity of Long Shot surface ground zero. One year after Long Shot, only tritium was detectable (Merritt and Fuller, 1977). These tritium levels, which were routinely monitored and have continued to decline since the test, are above background levels but well below the current safe drinking water standard. There are currently no feasible means to contain or remove radionuclides in or around the test cavities beneath the sites. Surface remediation was conducted in 2001. Eleven drilling mud pits associated with the Long Shot, Milrow and Cannikin sites were remediated. Ten pits were remediated by stabilizing the contaminants and constructing an impermeable cap over each pit. One pit was remediated by removing all of the contaminated mud

  16. Subsurface Completion Report for Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echelard, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, in 1965, 1969, and 1971. The effects of the Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin tests on the environment were extensively investigated during and following the detonations, and the area continues to be monitored today. This report is intended to document the basis for the Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin (hereafter referred to as ''Amchitka Site'') subsurface completion recommendation of No Further Remedial Action Planned with Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance, and define the long-term surveillance and maintenance strategy for the subsurface. A number of factors were considered in evaluating and selecting this recommendation for the Amchitka Site. Historical studies and monitoring data, ongoing monitoring data, the results of groundwater modeling, and the results of an independent stakeholder-guided scientific investigation were also considered in deciding the completion action. Water sampling during and following the testing showed no indication that radionuclides were released to the near surface, or marine environment with the exception of tritium, krypton-85, and iodine-131 found in the immediate vicinity of Long Shot surface ground zero. One year after Long Shot, only tritium was detectable (Merritt and Fuller, 1977). These tritium levels, which were routinely monitored and have continued to decline since the test, are above background levels but well below the current safe drinking water standard. There are currently no feasible means to contain or remove radionuclides in or around the test cavities beneath the sites. Surface remediation was conducted in 2001. Eleven drilling mud pits associated with the Long Shot, Milrow and Cannikin sites were remediated. Ten pits were remediated by stabilizing the contaminants and constructing an impermeable cap over each pit. One pit was remediated by removing all of the contaminated mud

  17. Tests of pattern separation and pattern completion in humans-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kathy Y; Gould, Rebecca L; Coulson, Mark C; Ward, Emma V; Howard, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    To systematically review the characteristics, validity and outcome measures of tasks that have been described in the literature as assessing pattern separation and pattern completion in humans. Electronic databases were searched for articles. Parameters for task validity were obtained from two reviews that described optimal task design factors to evaluate pattern separation and pattern completion processes. These were that pattern separation should be tested during an encoding task using abstract, never-before-seen visual stimuli, and pattern completion during a retrieval task using partial cues; parametric alteration of the degree of interference of stimuli or degradation of cues should be used to generate a corresponding gradient in behavioral output; studies should explicitly identify the specific memory domain under investigation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, spatial, affect, response, or language) and account for the contribution of other potential attributes involved in performance of the task. A systematic, qualitative assessment of validity in relation to these parameters was performed, along with a review of general validity and task outcome measures. Sixty-two studies were included. The majority of studies investigated pattern separation and most tasks were performed on young, healthy adults. Pattern separation and pattern completion were most frequently tested during a retrieval task using familiar or recognizable visual stimuli and cues. Not all studies parametrically altered the degree of stimulus interference or cue degradation, or controlled for potential confounding factors. This review found evidence that some of the parameters for task validity have been followed in some human studies of pattern separation and pattern completion, but no study was judged to have adequately met all the parameters for task validity. The contribution of these parameters and other task design factors towards an optimal behavioral paradigm is discussed and

  18. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  19. [Assimilation test of Malassezia furfur isolated from the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, R; Nishimura, K; Kamei, K; Murayama, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The lipophilic yeasts Malassezia species are the causative agents of tinea versicolor and known also to be a member of normal skin flora. They are commonly isolated from the skin of humans and animals, but not from the environment. This is the first report of the isolation of Malassezia sp. from the environment (a hospital floor). The results of assimilation tests of lipids and karyotyping showed that these isolates were M. furfur. They assimilated not only lipids including floor wax and car wax but also some ointments (except antifungal agents) used clinically. The results suggest that we need to take care when using such ointments to treat skin diseases.

  20. EPR/PTFE dosimetry for test reactor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehar, D.W.; Griffin, P.J.; Quirk, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with materials such as alanine is well established as a technique for measurement of ionizing radiation absorbed dose in photon and electron fields such as Co-60, high-energy bremsstrahlung and electron-beam fields [1]. In fact, EPR/Alanine dosimetry has become a routine transfer standard for national standards bodies such as NIST and NPL. In 1992 the Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia National Laboratories implemented EPR/Alanine capabilities for use in routine and calibration activities at its Co-60 and pulsed-power facilities. At that time it also investigated the usefulness of the system for measurement of absorbed dose in the mixed neutron/photon environments of reactors such as the Sandia Pulsed Reactor and the Annular Core Research Reactor used for hardness testing of electronics. The RML concluded that the neutron response of alanine was a sufficiently high fraction of the overall dosimeter response that the resulting uncertainties in the photon dose would be unacceptably large for silicon-device testing. However, it also suggested that non-hydrogenous materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) would exhibit smaller neutron response and might be useful in mixed environments. Preliminary research with PTFE in photon environments indicated considerable promise, but further development was not pursued at that time. Because of renewed interest in absorbed dose measurements that could better define the individual contributions of photon and neutron components to the overall dose delivered to a test object, the RML has re-initiated the development of an EPR/PTFE dosimetry system. This effort consists of three stages: 1) Identification of PTFE materials that may be suitable for dosimetry applications. It was speculated that the inconsistency of EPR signatures in the earlier samples may have been due to variability in PTFE manufacturing processes. 2) Characterization of dosimetry in

  1. Natural Environment Corrosion Testing at the Kennedy Space Center Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of how NASA has been conducting corrosion testing in the Natural Marine Environment at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S. The following questions will be addressed: What factors should be considered when selecting and constructing a test site? What are the attributes of a good test site? Is more severe always better? What environmental parameters should be monitored? How frequently? What factors should be considered when designing test specimens? Are current test standards sufficient? How do diurnal, annual and other fluctuations in corrosivity influence tests? How are test results interpreted? Can they be quantified?

  2. The Performance test of Mechanical Sodium Pump with Water Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Bock Seong; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Yoon Sang [SAM JIN Industrial Co. LTD., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As contrasted with PWR(Pressurized light Water Reactor) using water as a coolant, sodium is used as a coolant in SFR because of its low melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, the high boiling temperature allowing the reactors to operate at ambient pressure, and low neutron absorption cross section which is required to achieve a high neutron flux. But, sodium is violently reactive with water or oxygen like the other alkali metal. So Very strict requirements are demanded to design and fabricate of sodium experimental facilities. Furthermore, performance testing in high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming and need an extra precautions because operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities are very difficult. The present paper describes performance test results of mechanical sodium pump with water which has been performed with some design changes using water test facility in SAM JIN Industrial Co. To compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump were performed using vender's experimental facility for mechanical sodium pump. To accommodate non-uniform thermal expansion and to secure the operability and the safety, the gap size of some parts of original model pump was modified. Performance tests of modified mechanical sodium pump with water were successfully performed. Water is therefore often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Normal practice to thoroughly test a design or component before applied or installed in reactor is important to ensure the safety and operability in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the PHTS pump of DSFR (600 MWe Demonstraion SFR), the performance tests of the model pump such as performance

  3. A Complete Physics-Based Channel Parameter Simulation for Wave Propagation in a Forest Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    This convergence test indicates that a moderate number of scatterers (about 200) is sufficient for accurate characterization of field variance. The...H-OP -HOP -HO 00) HtP . 42 ON .4 -H- H v0 1,4 000 00 00 4-4,- 01 0)1 0a Z0 04J) ’ 4-4’-~4( to OP𔃺 P. P4-’ v ’ -o W P. t4. t 0) .4 o 0dH) - CO OH -1

  4. The intra-operative radius joystick test to diagnose complete disruption of the interosseous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubeyrand, M; Ciais, G; Wassermann, V; Kalouche, I; Biau, D; Dumontier, C; Gagey, O

    2011-10-01

    Disruption of the interosseous membrane is easily missed in patients with Essex-Lopresti syndrome. None of the imaging techniques available for diagnosing disruption of the interosseous membrane are completely dependable. We undertook an investigation to identify whether a simple intra-operative test could be used to diagnose disruption of the interosseous membrane during surgery for fracture of the radial head and to see if the test was reproducible. We studied 20 cadaveric forearms after excision of the radial head, ten with and ten without disruption of the interosseous membrane. On each forearm, we performed the radius joystick test: moderate lateral traction was applied to the radial neck with the forearm in maximal pronation, to look for lateral displacement of the proximal radius indicating that the interosseous membrane had been disrupted. Each of six surgeons (three junior and three senior) performed the test on two consecutive days. Intra-observer agreement was 77% (95% confidence interval (CI) 67 to 85) and interobserver agreement was 97% (95% CI 92 to 100). Sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 97 to 100), specificity 88% (95% CI 81 to 93), positive predictive value 90% (95% CI 83 to 94), and negative predictive value 100%). This cadaveric study suggests that the radius joystick test may be useful for detecting disruption of the interosseous membrane in patients undergoing open surgery for fracture of the radial head and is reproducible. A confirmatory study in vivo is now required.

  5. Bacterial and enzymatic bioassays for toxicity testing in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitton, G.; Koopman, B. (Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Microbioassays using bacteria or enzymes are increasingly applied to measure chemical toxicity in the environment. Attractive features of these assays may include low cost, rapid response to toxicants, high sample throughput, modest laboratory equipment and space requirements, low sample volume, portability, and reproducible responses. Enzymatic tests rely on measurement of either enzyme activity or enzyme biosynthesis. Dehydrogenases are the enzymes most used in toxicity testing. Assay of dehydrogenase activity is conveniently carried out using oxidoreduction dyes such as tetrazolium salts. Other enzyme activity tests utilize ATPases, esterases, phosphatases, urease, luciferase, beta-galactosidase, protease, amylase, or beta-glucosidase. Recently, the inhibition of enzyme (beta-galactosidase, tryptophanase, alpha-glucosidase) biosynthesis has been explored as a basis for toxicity testing. Enzyme biosynthesis was found to be generally more sensitive to organic chemicals than enzyme activity.107 references.

  6. Design and Test of Drilling and Completion Experimental System with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yu-Kun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical Carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 has many excellent properties, such as high rock-breaking efficiency, strong dissolved performance and good displacement efficiency. It is a high-efficiency fluid to exploit coal-bed methane, shale gas, heavy oil, low permeability reservoirs and other unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Using SC-CO2 jet to break formation rock assisted the drill bit can get several times the penetration rate of conventional drilling and effectively enhance the oil recovery while achieving an initiative reduction of greenhouse gas by storing the CO2 underground in the proper unconventional reservoirs. The functions and process of drilling and completion experimental system are designed based on the SC-CO2 fluid properties and the actual operation conditions. Tests find that the remote control of the system is reliable, pressurization process is steady, sealing and operating performances are excellent. The system can effectively simulate the actual drilling and completion process with SC-CO2. The rock-breaking performance of SC-CO2 is much better than high pressure water jet which verifies the application superiority of SC-CO2 in rock-breaking drilling. The research lays basis for the development of SC-CO2 drilling and completion technology.

  7. Bacterial and enzymatic bioassays for toxicity testing in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, G; Koopman, B

    1992-01-01

    Microbioassays using bacteria or enzymes are increasingly applied to measure chemical toxicity in the environment. Attractive features of these assays may include low cost, rapid response to toxicants, high sample throughput, modest laboratory equipment and space requirements, low sample volume, portability, and reproducible responses. Enzymatic tests rely on measurement of either enzyme activity or enzyme biosynthesis. Dehydrogenases are the enzymes most used in toxicity testing. Assay of dehydrogenase activity is conveniently carried out using oxidoreduction dyes such as tetrazolium salts. Other enzyme activity tests utilize ATPases, esterases, phosphatases, urease, luciferase, beta-galactosidase, protease, amylase, or beta-glucosidase. Recently, the inhibition of enzyme (beta-galactosidase, tryptophanase, alpha-glucosidase) biosynthesis has been explored as a basis for toxicity testing. Enzyme biosynthesis was found to be generally more sensitive to organic chemicals than enzyme activity. Bacterial toxicity tests are based on bioluminescence, motility, growth, viability, ATP, oxygen uptake, nitrification, or heat production. An important aspect of bacterial tests is the permeability of cells to environmental toxicants, particularly organic chemicals of hydrophobic nature. Physical, chemical, and genetic alterations of the outer membrane of E. coli have been found to affect test sensitivity to organic toxicants. Several microbioassays are now commercially available. The names of the assays and their basis are: Microtox (bioluminescence), Polytox (respiration), ECHA Biocide Monitor (dehydrogenase activity), Toxi-Chromotest (enzyme biosynthesis), and MetPAD (enzyme activity). An important feature common to these tests is the provision of standardized cultures of bacteria in freeze-dried form. Two of the more recent applications of microbioassays are in sediment toxicity testing and toxicity reduction evaluation. Sediment pore water may be assayed directly or

  8. In-Situ Micromechanical Testing in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinacci, Amanda Sofia

    In order to design engineering applications that can withstand extreme environments, we must first understand the underlying deformation mechanisms that can hinder material performance. It is not enough to characterize the mechanical properties alone, we must also characterize the microstructural changes as well so that we can understand the origin of material degradation. This dissertation focuses on two different extreme environments. The first environment is the cryogenic environment, where we focus on the deformation behavior of solder below the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The second environment is the irradiated environment, where we focus on the effects that ion beam irradiation has on both the mechanical properties and microstructure of 304 stainless steel. Both classes of materials and testing environments utilize novel in situ micromechanical testing techniques inside a scanning electron microscope which enhances our ability to link the observed deformation behavior with its associated mechanical response. Characterizing plasticity mechanisms below the DBTT is traditionally difficult to accomplish in a systematic fashion. Here, we use a new experimental setup to perform in situ cryogenic mechanical testing of pure Sn micropillars at room temperature and at -142 °C. Subsequent electron microscopy characterization of the micropillars shows a clear difference in the deformation mechanisms at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, the Sn micropillars deformed through dislocation plasticity while at -142 °C they exhibited both higher strength and deformation twinning. Two different orientations were tested, a symmetric (100) orientation and a non-symmetric (45¯1) orientation. The deformation mechanisms were found to be the same for both orientations. This approach was also extended to a more complex solder alloy that is commonly used in industry, Sn96. In the case of the solder alloy more complex geometries

  9. Completion of an Online Library Module Improves Engineering Student Performance on Information Literacy Skills Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Scott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Zhang, Q., Goodman, M., & Xie, S. (2015. Integrating library instruction into the Course Management System for a first-year engineering class: An evidence-based study measuring the effectiveness of blended learning on students’ information literacy levels. College & Research Libraries, 76(7, 934-958. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.934 Objective – To assess the efficacy of an online library module and of blended learning methods on students’ information literacy skills. Design – Multi-modal, pre- and posttests, survey questionnaire, and focus groups. Setting – Public research university in London, Ontario, Canada. Subjects – First-year engineering students. Methods – Of 413 students enrolled in Engineering Science (ES 1050, 252 volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to complete the online module, a pretest, a posttest, an online follow-up survey, and to take part in a focus group. Researchers generated a pretest and a posttest, each comprised of 15 questions:; multiple choice, true or false, and matching questions which tested students’ general and engineering-specific information literacy skills. The pretest and posttest had different, but similarly challenging, questions to ensure that students involved in the study would not have an advantage over those who had opted out. While all components of the study were voluntary, the posttest was a graded course assignment. In-person tutorials were offered on 4 occasions, with only 15 students participating. Both tutorial and module content were designed to cover all questions and competencies tested in the pretest and the posttest, including Boolean operators, peer review, identifying plagiarism, engineering standards, engineering handbooks, search strategies, patents, article citations, identifying reliable sources, and how to read journal articles. The posttest survey was delivered in the CMS immediately after the posttest was completed. It

  10. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon S.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry (e.g. blocking diodes). Key elements of the space environment which must be accounted for in a PV system design include: Solar Photon Radiation, Charged Particle Radiation, Plasma, and Thermal Cycling. While solar photon radiation is central to generating power in PV systems, the complete spectrum includes short wavelength ultraviolet components, which photo-ionize materials, as well as long wavelength infrared which heat materials. High energy electron radiation has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the output power of III-V type PV cells; and proton radiation damages material surfaces - often impacting coverglasses and antireflective coatings. Plasma environments influence electrostatic charging of PV array materials, and must be understood to ensure that long duration arcs do not form and potentially destroy PV cells. Thermal cycling impacts all components on a PV array by inducing stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction. Given such demanding environments, and the complexity of structures and materials that form a PV array system, mission success can only be ensured through realistic testing in the laboratory. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a broad space environment test capability to allow PV array designers and manufacturers to verify their system's integrity and avoid costly on-orbit failures. The Marshall Space Flight Center test capabilities are available to government, commercial, and university customers. Test solutions are tailored to meet the customer's needs, and can include performance assessments, such as flash testing in the case of PV cells.

  11. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  12. Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.; Duncan, Courtney B.

    2013-01-01

    This software demonstrates use of the JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Operating Environment (OE), tests APIs (application programming interfaces) presented by JPL STRS OE, and allows for basic testing of the underlying hardware platform. This software uses the JPL STRS Operating Environment ["JPL Space Tele com - munications Rad io System Operating Environment,"(NPO-4776) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 2013), p. 47] to interact with the JPL-SDR Software Defined Radio developed for the CoNNeCT (COmmunications, Navigation, and Networking rEconfigurable Testbed) Project as part of the SCaN Testbed installed on the International Space Station (ISS). These are the first applications that are compliant with the new NASA STRS Architecture Standard. Several example waveform applications are provided to demonstrate use of the JPL STRS OE for the JPL-SDR platform used for the CoNNeCT Project. The waveforms provide a simple digitizer and playback capability for the SBand RF slice, and a simple digitizer for the GPS slice [CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module, (NPO-47764) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 36, No. 3 (March 2012), p. 36]. These waveforms may be used for hardware test, as well as for on-orbit or laboratory checkout. Additional example waveforms implement SpaceWire and timer modules, which can be used for time transfer and demonstration of communication between the two Xilinx FPGAs in the JPLSDR. The waveforms are also compatible with ground-based use of the JPL STRS OE on radio breadboards and Linux.

  13. Development of phased array ultrasonic testing in lieu of radiography for testing complete joint penetration (CJP) welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldipur, P.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-04-01

    The past decade has seen new, emerging innovation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT). Specifically, multiple manufacturers have produced Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) systems. The PAUT systems embed a matrix of multiple (some up to 128) single transducers into one probe used for scanning elastic materials. Simultaneously exciting multiple transducers offers distinct advantages; depending on the sequencing of transducer excitation, the ultrasonic beam could be steered within the material and multiple beams help develop extra dimensional data to assist with visualization of possible flaws including the discontinuity size, shape and location. Unfortunately, there has not been broad acceptance of PAUT in the bridge fabrication industry because it is currently not a recognized inspection technology in AWS D1.5. One situation in which the technology would excel would be inspection of Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) butt welds. Currently, AWS D1.5 required CJP welds subjected to tensile or reversal stresses only be inspected by Radiographic Testing (RT). However, discontinuities normally seen by RT can also be seen with PAUT. Until specification language is adopted into D1.5, there will continue to be hesitancy to use PAUT for the inspection of CJP butt welds. Developmental work must first be performed to develop the acceptance criteria and the specification language. The developmental work from the inspections carried out on butt-weld specimens and transition butt-weld specimens are presented in this paper. Specific scan plans were developed using the ES-Beam simulation software for each of the test specimens. In depth analysis of PAUT data obtained to determine exact location and sizing information of the defects was performed. The results also present the comparison of results from PAUT to those obtained using conventional UT and radiography.

  14. Godchaux Well No. 1, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana: completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The Godchaux Well No. 1 was originally drilled too a total depth of 16,000 feet in January, 1981 by C and K Petroleum, Inc. and was temporarily abandoned. The well was re-entered by Eaton on 6 August 1981 in an effort to clean out the original open hole below the 7-5/8 inch liner and test a section of the Planulina sand at a depth ranging from 15,584 to 15,692 feet. The reservoir pressure was estimated to be 14,480 psi, and the temperature of the formation water was expected to be 298/sup 0/F. The water salinity was predicted to be 70,000 ppM. The well was expected to produce up to 20,000 BWPD, was a gas content of 44 SCF per barrel. An optional test of a zone from 14,905 to 15,006 feet was also proposed in the detailed completion prognosis, which preceded the attempted test. In the process of drilling the cement plug set by the original operators, the drill string became side-tracked from the original hole. While drilling at 14,510 feet a severe loss of circulation of drilling fluid occurred through a hole in the intermediate casing. The reduction in hydrostatic head resulting from lost circulation caused the open hole to close around and stick the drill string. Efforts to repair the intermediate casing and return to normal operations were estimated to be prohibitively expensive in view of the expected poor probability of success; accordingly, the decision to plug and abandon was carried out on September 12, 1981.

  15. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    texting shorthand phrases and complicated replies); they did not want messages that contain bad news or test results. They wanted the ability to choose alternative options such as email or phone calls. Conclusions Older adults are receptive to receiving cancer screening text messages from health care providers. Sharing sample messages with patients may increase acceptance of this tool in the clinic setting. Supportive tailored text messaging reminders could enhance uptake of colorectal cancer screening by enhancing patient self-efficacy and providing cues to action to complete colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing. PMID:26537553

  16. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames.1,2 Conventional storable propellants produce average specific impulse. Nuclear thermal rockets capable of producing high specific impulse are proposed. Nuclear thermal rockets employ heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K), and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited.3 The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. The purpose of the testing is to obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials, as-fabricated, and determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures. The fission process of the planned fissile material and the resulting heating performance is well known and does not therefore require that active fissile material be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  17. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

  18. Development of an underwater spin facility for combined environment testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.P.; Nusser, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the US Government, Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrumentation system to monitor the conditions along an underwater, rotating drive shaft. It was desired to study the structural integrity and signal acquisition capabilities of the Shaft Instrumentation System (SIS) in an environment which closely simulates the actual deployment conditions. In this manner, the SIS response to ill-defined conditions, such as flow field turbulence or temperature fluctuations, could be determined. An Underwater Spin Facility was developed in order to verify the operation of the instrumentation and telemetric data acquisition system in a combined environment of external pressure, transient axial loads and centrifugal force. The main components of the Underwater Spin Facility are a large, five foot diameter pressure vessel, a dynamically sealed shaft, a drive train assembly and a shaker table interface which is used to apply the axial loads. This paper presents a detailed description of the design of the Underwater Spin Facility. It also discusses the SIS certification test program in order to demonstrate the successful performance of the Underwater Spin Facility. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Reliability Testing Procedure for MEMS IMUs Applied to Vibrating Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Somà

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology applied to navigation systems is rapidly increasing, but currently, there is a lack of knowledge about the reliability of this typology of devices, representing a serious limitation to their use in aerospace vehicles and other fields with medium and high requirements. In this paper, a reliability testing procedure for inertial sensors and inertial measurement units (IMU based on MEMS for applications in vibrating environments is presented. The sensing performances were evaluated in terms of signal accuracy, systematic errors, and accidental errors; the actual working conditions were simulated by means of an accelerated dynamic excitation. A commercial MEMS-based IMU was analyzed to validate the proposed procedure. The main weaknesses of the system have been localized by providing important information about the relationship between the reliability levels of the system and individual components.

  20. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the

  1. MissMech: An R Package for Testing Homoscedasticity, Multivariate Normality, and Missing Completely at Random (MCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Jamshidian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are often faced with analyzing data sets that are not complete. To prop- erly analyze such data sets requires the knowledge of the missing data mechanism. If data are missing completely at random (MCAR, then many missing data analysis techniques lead to valid inference. Thus, tests of MCAR are desirable. The package MissMech implements two tests developed by Jamshidian and Jalal (2010 for this purpose. These tests can be run using a function called TestMCARNormality. One of the tests is valid if data are normally distributed, and another test does not require any distributional assumptions for the data. In addition to testing MCAR, in some special cases, the function TestMCARNormality is also able to test whether data have a multivariate normal distribution. As a bonus, the functions in MissMech can also be used for the following additional tasks: (i test of homoscedasticity for several groups when data are completely observed, (ii perform the k-sample test of Anderson-Darling to determine whether k groups of univariate data come from the same distribution, (iii impute incomplete data sets using two methods, one where normality is assumed and one where no specific distributional assumptions are made, (iv obtain normal-theory maximum likelihood estimates for mean and covariance matrix when data are incomplete, along with their standard errors, and finally (v perform the Neymans test of uniformity. All of these features are explained in the paper, including examples.

  2. A HERITABILITY-ADJUSTED GGE BIPLOT FOR TEST ENVIRONMENT EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple environment crop variety trials can be informatively analyzed as a multivariate data set in which genotype (G) main effects are not separated from genotype-by-environment (GE) interactions, referred to as GGE data. GGE biplot analysis of genotype-by-environment data includes three aspects: ...

  3. AN AUTOMATIC TEST ENVIRONMENT FOR MICROELECTRONICS EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sandoval-Ibarra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic test environment (ATE based on a PSoC has been developed to perform electricalcharacterization of integrated circuits (ICs. The ICs are designed for academic and research purposesas part of the Electronic Design graduate program at CINVESTAV-Guadalajara Unit; these ICs aremanufactured in standard N-well, 5-V, 1.5μm/0.5μm CMOS technologies. The ATE offers programmablecapabilities to develop master-slave architectures, memory for data storage, functions generator tostimulate circuits and systems, current/voltage sources for several purposes, current-voltagemeasurements, and ports to download experimental data to a PC. To date, several ICs have been testedwith the help of the ATE. In this paper, however, examples based on MOS Transistors only arepresented in order to describe the ATE performance and also to show how experimental data of thedevices under characterization were validated through SPICE simulations, experimental data given bymanufacturers, and using commercial equipment as well.

  4. Completion of Flow Interruption Capability Test Stand for Functional Qualification Test of Valves Used in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Dao-xi; QI; Xiao-guang; ZHAI; Wei-ming; YANG; Bing; ZHOU; Ping

    2013-01-01

    The flow interruption capability test of valve is used for researching the capability of the valves used in nuclear power plants emergently shut off the flow,when the reactor loop is in emergency situations,especially in the design basis accident conditions.This test is one of the most difficult tests in the functional

  5. Influence of prior austenite grain size on the critical strain for completion of DEFT through hot compression test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A low carbon steel was used to determine the critical strain εc for completion of deformation enhanced ferrite transformation (DEFT) through a series of hot compression tests.In addition, the influence of prior austenite grain size (PAGS) on the critical strain was systematically investigated.Experimental results showed that the critical strain is affected by PAGS.When γ→α transformation completes, the smaller the PAGS is, the smaller the critical strain is.The ferrite grains obtained through DEFT can be refined to about 3 μm when the DEFT is completed.

  6. False Memories Lack Perceptual Detail: Evidence from Implicit Word-Stem Completion and Perceptual Identification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, J.L.; Starns, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We used implicit measures of memory to ascertain whether false memories for critical nonpresented items in the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) contain structural and perceptual detail. In Experiment 1, we manipulated presentation modality in a visual word-stem-completion task. Critical item priming was significant and…

  7. Complete Bouguer gravity map of the Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, D.L.; Harris, R.N.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.

    1987-12-31

    About 15,000 gravity stations were used to create the gravity map. Gravity studies at the Nevada Test Site were undertaken to help locate geologically favorable areas for underground nuclear tests and to help characterize potential high-level nuclear waste storage sites. 48 refs. (TEM)

  8. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Chris [ORNL; Yatsandra, Oyola [ORNL; Mayes, Richard [ORNL; none,; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Li-Jung, Kuo [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL; Sadananda, Das [ORNL

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  9. Brick Paving Systems in Expeditionary Environments: Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) tests were conducted on each test item as an alternative strength measurement to the in situ CBR tests conducted on the...many passes of the C-17 load before failure. Between 20 and 40 passes, the majority of the bricks in the wheel path began to break or shatter . Figures...American Society for Testing and Materials. 2003. Standard test method for use of the dynamic cone penetrometer in shallow pavement applications

  10. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  11. Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2, Livingston Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2, approximately 23 miles east of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, is the eighth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the DOE Wells of Opportunity program. The well was tested through the annulus between 7-inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. Two flow tests and one reservoir pressure buildup test were conducted on the lower zone during a 13-day period. A total of 12,489 barrels of water was produced. The highest flow rate achieved was about 3887 BWPD. One flow test followed by a buildup period was conducted on the combined upper and lower zones during a 3-day period. A total of 4739 barrels of water was produced. The highest flow rate achieved was about 3000 BWPD. The gas/water ratio measured during testing was about 32.0 SCF/BBL for the lower zone. The extrapolated latoratory data indicates that the solubility of the gas is 55.7 SCF/BBL. It appears that the reservoir brine is considerably undersaturated. The methane content of the flare line gas averaged 71.0 mole percent. Crown Zellerbach Company carefully studied the commercial feasibility of using the well to produce energy for a wood-drying facility and decided against the project.

  12. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge st...

  13. The Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI): An observational instrument for pretesting self-completion questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hak (Tony); K. van der Veer; H.A.M. Jansen (Harrie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI) is an instrument for pretesting a self-completion questionnaire by observing actual instances of interaction between the instrument and respondents (the response process). Because this process mainly consists of cognitive processing (‘thinking’) and i

  14. Prairie Canal Well No. 1, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. Volume 1. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The Prairie Canal Company, Inc. Well No. 1, approximately 8 miles south of the city of Lake Charles, Louisiana, was tested through the annulus between 5-1/2 inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. The interval tested was from 14,782 to 14,820 feet. The geological section was the Hackberry Sand, a member of the Oligocene Frio formation. Produced water was injected into a disposal well which was perforated in several Miocene Sands from 3070 to 4600 feet. Original plans were to test a section of the Hackberry sand from 14,976 to 15,024 feet. This primary zone, however, produced a large amount of sand, shale, gravel, and rocks during early flow periods and was abandoned in favor of the secondary zone. Four pressure drawdown flow tests and three pressure buildup tests were conducted during a 12-day period. A total of 36,505 barrels of water was produced. The highest sustained flow rate was approximately 7100 BWPD. The gas-to-water ratio, measured during testing, ranged from 41 to 50 SCF/BBL. There is disagreement as to the saturation value of the reservoir brine, which may be between 43.3 and 49.7 SCF/BBL. The methane content of the flare line gas averaged 88.4 mole percent. The CO/sub 2/ content averaged 8.4 mole percent. Measured values of H/sub 2/S in the gas were between 12 and 24 ppM.

  15. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Problems Completing Software Testing May Hinder Delivery of Expected Warfighting Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    ship—specifically the USS WASP. As of December 2013, the program had accomplished 49 percent of its total expected flight science test points for this...Honorable Richard Durbin Chairman The Honorable Thad Cochran Ranking Member Subcommittee on Defense Committee on Appropriations United States

  16. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  17. Testing take-the-best in new and changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Blanco, Gabrielle; Bo, Nikole

    2017-08-01

    Take-the-best is a decision-making strategy that chooses between alternatives, by searching the cues representing the alternatives in order of cue validity, and choosing the alternative with the first discriminating cue. Theoretical support for take-the-best comes from the "fast and frugal" approach to modeling cognition, which assumes decision-making strategies need to be fast to cope with a competitive world, and be simple to be robust to uncertainty and environmental change. We contribute to the empirical evaluation of take-the-best in two ways. First, we generate four new environments-involving bridge lengths, hamburger prices, theme park attendances, and US university rankings-supplementing the relatively limited number of naturally cue-based environments previously considered. We find that take-the-best is as accurate as rival decision strategies that use all of the available cues. Secondly, we develop 19 new data sets characterizing the change in cities and their populations in four countries. We find that take-the-best maintains its accuracy and limited search as the environments change, even if cue validities learned in one environment are used to make decisions in another. Once again, we find that take-the-best is as accurate as rival strategies that use all of the cues. We conclude that these new evaluations support the theoretical claims of the accuracy, frugality, and robustness for take-the-best, and that the new data sets provide a valuable resource for the more general study of the relationship between effective decision-making strategies and the environments in which they operate.

  18. Comparison of Development Test and Evaluation and Overall Program Estimate at Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    patterns seen in various fields of study ( Karsch , 1974; Watkins, 1982; Winsor, 1932). Subsequently, the relationship of growth curves to DoD...program budget outlay and expenditure patterns was tested and validated ( Karsch , 1974; Unger, 2001; Trahan, 2009). In these studies, a regression model...Models The S-Shape curve can be accurately modeled and applied to program budget data using a variety of different growth equations ( Karsch , 1974

  19. Testing Differential Holistic Processing Within a Face: No Evidence of Asymmetry from the Complete Composite Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyi, Gary C.-W.; Wang, Chao-Chih

    2016-01-01

    The composite face task is one of the most popular research paradigms for measuring holistic processing of upright faces. The exact mechanism underlying holistic processing remains elusive and controversial, and some studies have suggested that holistic processing may not be evenly distributed, in that the top-half of a face might induce stronger holistic processing than its bottom-half counterpart. In two experiments, we further examined the possibility of asymmetric holistic processing. Prior to Experiment 1, we confirmed that perceptual discriminability was equated between top and bottom face halves; we found no differences in performance between top and bottom face halves when they were presented individually. Then, in Experiment 1, using the composite face task with the complete design to reduce response bias, we failed to obtain evidence that would support the notion of asymmetric holistic processing between top and bottom face halves. To further reduce performance variability and to remove lingering holistic effects observed in the misaligned condition in Experiment 1, we doubled the number of trials and increased misalignment between top and bottom face halves to make misalignment more salient in Experiment 2. Even with these additional manipulations, we were unable to find evidence indicative of asymmetric holistic processing. Taken together, these findings suggest that holistic processing is distributed homogenously within an upright face.

  20. Testing Differential Holistic Processing Within a Face: No Evidence of Asymmetry from the Complete Composite Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C.-W. Shyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The composite face task is one of the most popular research paradigms for measuring holistic processing of upright faces. The exact mechanism underlying holistic processing remains elusive and controversial, and some studies have suggested that holistic processing may not be evenly distributed, in that the top-half of a face might induce stronger holistic processing than its bottom-half counterpart. In two experiments, we further examined the possibility of asymmetric holistic processing. Prior to Experiment 1, we confirmed that perceptual discriminability was equated between top and bottom face halves; we found no differences in performance between top and bottom face halves when they were presented individually. Then, in Experiment 1, using the composite face task with the complete design to reduce response bias, we failed to obtain evidence that would support the notion of asymmetric holistic processing between top and bottom face halves. To further reduce performance variability and to remove lingering holistic effects observed in the misaligned condition in Experiment 1, we doubled the number of trials and increased misalignment between top and bottom face halves to make misalignment more salient in Experiment 2. Even with these additional manipulations, we were unable to find evidence indicative of asymmetric holistic processing. Taken together, these findings suggest that holistic processing is distributed homogenously within an upright face.

  1. COMPENDIUM OF COMPLETED TESTING IN SUPPORT OF ROTARY MICROFILTRATION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ

    2011-05-24

    This report presents a chronological summary of previous technology development efforts concerning the rotary microfiltration (RMF) unit from SpinTek{trademark}. Rotary microfiltration has been developed for high radiation application over the last decades as one of the optional filtration techniques for supplemental treatment. Supplemental treatment includes a near- or in-tank solids separation and subsequent cesium removal unit, followed by an immobilization technique; this includes options such as steam reforming, bulk vitrification or cast stone (grout). The main difference between RMF and standard cross flow filtration (CFF) is the disconnection of filtrate flux from feed velocity; i.e., filtrate flux is only dependent on transmembrane pressure, filter fouling and temperature. These efforts have been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Cleanup Technologies since the 1990s by their Environmental Management Program (currently EM-31). In order to appropriately address future testing needs, a compilation of the relevant previous testing reports was essential. This compendium does not intend to cover all of the presentations/reports that were produced over the last decades but focuses on those of relevance for developing an RMF unit fit for deployment at the Hanford site. The report is split into three parts: (1) an introductory overview, (2) Figure 1 graphically covering the main development steps and its key players and (3) a more detailed table of the citations and brief descriptions of results and recommendations.

  2. Factors associated with completion of bowel cancer screening and the potential effects of simplifying the screening test algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Benjamin; Whyte, Sophie; Seaman, Helen E; Snowball, Julia; Halloran, Stephen P; Butler, Piers; Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Chilcott, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary colorectal cancer screening test in England is a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) interprets tests on six samples on up to three test kits to determine a definitive positive or negative result. However, the test algorithm fails to achieve a definitive result for a significant number of participants because they do not comply with the programme requirements. This study identifies factors associated with failed compliance and modifications to the screening algorithm that will improve the clinical effectiveness of the screening programme. Methods: The BCSP Southern Hub data for screening episodes started in 2006–2012 were analysed for participants aged 60–69 years. The variables included age, sex, level of deprivation, gFOBt results and clinical outcome. Results: The data set included 1 409 335 screening episodes; 95.08% of participants had a definitively normal result on kit 1 (no positive spots). Among participants asked to complete a second or third gFOBt, 5.10% and 4.65%, respectively, failed to return a valid kit. Among participants referred for follow up, 13.80% did not comply. Older age was associated with compliance at repeat testing, but non-compliance at follow up. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with non-compliance at repeat testing and follow up. Modelling a reduction in the threshold for immediate referral led to a small increase in completion of the screening pathway. Conclusions: Reducing the number of positive spots required on the first gFOBt kit for referral for follow-up and targeted measures to improve compliance with follow-up may improve completion of the screening pathway. PMID:26766733

  3. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A geopressured-geothermal test of Martin Exploration Company's Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2 will be conducted in the Tuscaloosa Trend. The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 1 will be converted to a saltwater disposal well for disposal of produced brine. The well is located in the Satsuma Area, Livingston parish, Louisiana. Eaton proposes to test the Tuscaloosa by perforating the 7 inch casing from 16,718 feet to 16,754 feet. The reservoir pressure at an intermediate formation depth of 16,736 feet is anticipated to be 12,010 psi and the temperature is anticipated to be 297 F. Calculated water salinity is 16,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce a maximum of 16,000 barrels of water a day with a gas content of 51 SCF/bbl. Eaton will re-enter the test well, clean out to 17,000 feet, run production casing and complete the well. The disposal well will be re-entered and completed in the 9-5/8 inch casing for disposal of produced brine. Testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton annular flow WOO tests. An optional test from 16,462 feet to 16,490 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous tests will be utilized on this test. The equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. Weatherly Engineering will operate the test equipment. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Mr. Don Clark will handle sampling, testing and reservoir engineering evaluation, respectively. wireline work required will be awarded on basis of bid evaluation. At the conclusion of the test period, the D.O.E. owned test equipment will be removed from the test site, the test and disposal wells plugged and abandoned and the sites restored to the satisfaction of all parties.

  4. Preparation of Morpheus Vehicle for Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Armando

    2016-01-01

    The main objective for this summer 2016 tour was to prepare the Morpheus vehicle for its upcoming test inside Plum Brook's vacuum chamber at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center. My contributions towards this project were mostly analytical in nature, providing numerical models to validate test data, generating computer aided analyses for the structure support of the vehicle's engine, and designing a vacuum can that is to protect the high speed camera used during testing. Furthermore, I was also tasked with designing a tank toroidal spray bar system.

  5. On random field Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Michael A; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we propose generating CAPTCHAs through random field simulation and give a novel, effective and efficient algorithm to do so. Indeed, we demonstrate that sufficient information about word tests for easy human recognition is contained in the site marginal probabilities and the site-to-nearby-site covariances and that these quantities can be embedded directly into certain conditional probabilities, designed for effective simulation. The CAPTCHAs are then partial random realizations of the random CAPTCHA word. We start with an initial random field (e.g., randomly scattered letter pieces) and use Gibbs resampling to re-simulate portions of the field repeatedly using these conditional probabilities until the word becomes human-readable. The residual randomness from the initial random field together with the random implementation of the CAPTCHA word provide significant resistance to attack. This results in a CAPTCHA, which is unrecognizable to modern optical character recognition but is recognized about 95% of the time in a human readability study.

  6. A generic usability test environment for webbased services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Er is een softwaretool ontwikkeld voor het uitvoeren van gebruikerstesten van Internetdiensten. De tool kan worden gebruikt om een test op te zetten, uit te voeren en alle gegenereerde data vast te leggen.

  7. Mastering wireless penetration testing for highly secured environments

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for security professionals who want to enhance their wireless penetration testing skills and knowledge. Since this book covers advanced techniques, you will need some previous experience in computer security and networking.

  8. Thermal Testing of Woven TPS Materials in Extreme Entry Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G.; Stackpoole, M.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs future robotic missions to Venus and outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of current mid density ablators (PICA or Avcoat). Therefore mission planners assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heatshield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic (CP) is a robust TPS however its high density and thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, high heat fluxes, high pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program in NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System to meet the needs of NASAs most challenging entry missions. The high entry conditions pose certification challenges in existing ground based test facilities. Recent updates to NASAs IHF and AEDCs H3 high temperature arcjet test facilities enable higher heatflux (2000 Wcm2) and high pressure (5 atm) testing of TPS. Some recent thermal tests of woven TPS will be discussed in this paper. These upgrades have provided a way to test higher entry conditions of potential outer planet and Venus missions and provided a baseline against carbon phenolic material. The results of these tests have given preliminary insight to sample configuration and physical recession profile characteristics.

  9. Testing of a Complete Training Model for Chest Tube Insertion in Traumatic Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Aiham; Breque, Cyril; Léger, Alexandre; Scépi, Michel; Oriot, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Chest tube insertion is a frequent procedure in cases of traumatic pneumothorax, but severe complications can occur if not well performed. Although simulation-based training in chest tube insertion has improved performance, an affordable and realistic model for surgical insertion of a chest tube is lacking. The objective was to design a model for surgical chest tube insertion that would be realistic, affordable, and transportable and that would reflect all extrathoracic and intrathoracic steps of the procedure. The model was a task trainer designed by 4 experts in our simulation laboratory combining plastic, electronic, and biologic material. The cost of supplies needed for construction was evaluated. The model was used and tested over 30 months on 56 participants, of whom 44 were surveyed regarding the realism of the model. The model involved a half chest wall (lamb) on a plastic box, connected to a webcam facilitating assessment of the extrathoracic and intrathoracic steps of the procedure, for a cost of €60. Chest tubes, water seal package, and sterile instruments costed €200. All anatomic structures were represented during surgical insertion of chest tube. The demonstration contributed to teaching small groups of up to 8 participants and was reproducible over 30 months of diversely located courses. Anatomic correlation, realism, and learning experience were highly rated by users. This model for surgical chest tube insertion in traumatic pneumothorax was found to be realistic, affordable, and transportable. Furthermore, it allowed comprehensive assessment of the extrathoracic and intrathoracic procedural steps.

  10. Complete Initial Scoping Tests on the Incorporation of Novel Loaded Iodine Getters into GCM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garino, Terry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Croes, Kenneth James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-18

    This study encompasses initial scoping tests on the incorporation of a novel iodine loaded getter material into the Sandia developed low temperature sintering glass ceramic material (GCM) waste form. In particular, we studied the PNNL Ag-I-Aerogel. Optical microscopy indicates inhomogenous samples based on particle sizes and variations in color (AgI vs Ag/AgO on silica). TGA/MS data when heated in air indicates loss of iodine and organics (CO2) between 250-450°C a total of ~15wt% loss, with additional / small iodine loss when during 550°C hold for 1 hr. TGA/MS data when heated in N2 indicates less organic and slightly less iodine loss below 550°C, with no loss of iodine in 550°C 1 hour hold. Furthermore, a substantial mass loss of sulfur containing compounds is observed (m/e of 34 and 36) between 150 – 550°C in both air and N2 sintering atmospheres. In an effort to capture iodine lost to volatilization during heating (at temps below glass sintering temperature of 550°C), we added 5 wt% Ag flake to the AgIaerogel. Resulting data indicates the iodine is retained with the addition of the Ag flake, resulting in only a small iodine loss (< 1wt%) at ~350°C. No method of curtailing loss of sulfur containing compounds due to heating was successful in this scoping study.

  11. Human-Robot Interaction Reconfigurable Test Environment: Optimizing the Human Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human-Robot Interaction Reconfigurable Test Environment (HRI-RTE) integrates a grid-based, reconfigurable test arena and an operator workstation with...

  12. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning...: General notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces modifications to the National Customs Automation Program...) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated Commercial Environment...

  13. Awareness and Practice of Complete Hepatitis B Vaccination and Anti-HBs Testing in Vaccinated Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna G. Sajjan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is a serious and common infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Health Care Workers (HCW are at an increased risk of occupational exposure to HBV and the incidence is 2-4 times higher than in the general population. Despite potential risks, awareness and vaccine compliance is poor among the HCWs. Aim: To assess the awareness of complete Hepatitis B vaccination, anti-HBs testing & protective titres and determine the anti HBs titres amongst vaccinated HCWs. Material & Methods: A total of 500 Health care workers of both sexes in the age group from 20- 60 years vaccinated against Hepatitis B were tested for anti-HBs titres by quantitative ELISA. Results: The rate of complete immunization was 81.4% in doctors, 63.3% in nursing staff and 90% in the technical staff. Amongst the 500 participants, 70.8% had received all the doses and 29.2% incomplete doses of the vaccine. Titres of ≥ 10 mIU/ml were demonstrated in 84.4% of HCWs who received all the doses and in 65.7% those who defaulted. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate lack of awareness about complete HB vaccination and the importance of post vaccination testing in HCWs.

  14. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T. [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  15. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  16. High temperature erosion testing in a gasifier environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczak, Joseph H.; Rawers, James C.; Adler, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of materials with the ability to operate in adverse conditions while resisting the effects of erosion and corrosion is essential to the future success of high efficiency power plants. Many next generation coal power plants are envisioned as combined cycle, with gasifiers used to produce both steam and syngas. The gasifier sections of these plants require materials of construction that are resistant to the effects of erosion from silica found in the gas streams and corrosion caused by a reducing atmosphere that may contain sulfur and chloride compounds. The Albany Research Center has developed a test apparatus designed to test the erosion-resistance of candidate materials under a range of environmental conditions, including those found in gasifiers. This Hostile Atmosphere Erosion Wear test apparatus (HAET) has been used to evaluate a group of high alloy candidate materials such as iron aluminide and Haynes HR 160, and compare them to a conventional 310 stainless steel. Erosion tests were conducted using 270μm silica abrasive, a typical impact velocities of 20 m/sec at temperatures up to 700°C in an atmosphere simulating gasifier conditions. The effects of erosion under these conditions on the surface scales that form are described. The total loss rate, loss rates due to erosion and corrosion for the test materials are compared.

  17. On the influence of intelligence in (social) intelligence testing environments

    CERN Document Server

    Insa-Cabrera, Javier; Hernandez-Orallo, Jose

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of including agents of different degrees of intelligence in a multiagent system. The goal is to better understand how we can develop intelligence tests that can evaluate social intelligence. We analyse several reinforcement algorithms in several contexts of cooperation and competition. Our experimental setting is inspired by the recently developed Darwin-Wallace distribution.

  18. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  19. GEM detectors development for radiation environment: neutron tests and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Maryna; Jednoróg, Sławomir; Malinowski, Karol; Czarski, Tomasz; Ziółkowski, Adam; Bieńkowska, Barbara; Prokopowicz, Rafał; Łaszyńska, Ewa; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Zabołotny, Wojciech; Wojeński, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Rafał D.; Linczuk, Paweł; Potrykus, Paweł; Bajdel, Barcel

    2016-09-01

    One of the requests from the ongoing ITER-Like Wall Project is to have diagnostics for Soft X-Ray (SXR) monitoring in tokamak. Such diagnostics should be focused on tungsten emission measurements, as an increased attention is currently paid to tungsten due to a fact that it became a main candidate for the plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactor. In addition, such diagnostics should be able to withstand harsh radiation environment at tokamak during its operation. The presented work is related to the development of such diagnostics based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. More specifically, an influence of neutron radiation on performance of the GEM detectors is studied both experimentally and through computer simulations. The neutron induced radioactivity (after neutron source exposure) was found to be not pronounced comparing to an impact of other secondary neutron reaction products (during the exposure).

  20. NASA's Controlled Environment Agriculture Testing for Space Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and other space agencies have an interest in using plants for human life support in space. The plants could provide food and O2 for the humans, while removing CO2 and helping purify wastewater. Studies to date have shown that a wide range of crops can be grown in controlled environment conditions envisioned for space. Light is a critical factor both for crop productivity and system power costs, and recent improvements in LEDs make them a preferred lighting option for space. Because space systems would be tightly closed, issues such as ethylene build-up and management must be considered. Ultimately, the costs and reliability of biological life support options must be compared with more conventional life support approaches. Findings to date suggest that about 20-25 sq. meters of crops could supply the O2 for one human, while about 50 sq. meters would be required for food (dietary calories).

  1. Design and Testing of Electronic Devices for Harsh Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nico, Costantino

    This thesis reports an overview and the main results of the research activity carried out within the PhD programme in Information Engineering of the University of Pisa (2010-2012). The research activity has been focused on different fields, including Automotive and High Energy Physics experiments, according to a common denominator: the development of electroni c devices and systems operating in harsh environments. There are many applications that forc e the adoption of design methodologies and strategies focused on this type of envir onments: military, biom edical, automotive, industrial and space. The development of solutions fulfilling specific operational requirements, therefore represents an interesting field of research. The first research activity has been framed within the ATHENIS project, funded by the CORDIS Commission of the European Community, and aiming at the development of a System-on-Chip, a r egulator for alternators employed on vehicles, presenting both configurability an d t...

  2. A Model of Cloud Based Application Environment for Software Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Vengattaraman, T; Baskaran, R

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging platform of service computing designed for swift and dynamic delivery of assured computing resources. Cloud computing provide Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) for guaranteed uptime availability for enabling convenient and on-demand network access to the distributed and shared computing resources. Though the cloud computing paradigm holds its potential status in the field of distributed computing, cloud platforms are not yet to the attention of majority of the researchers and practitioners. More specifically, still the researchers and practitioners community has fragmented and imperfect knowledge on cloud computing principles and techniques. In this context, one of the primary motivations of the work presented in this paper is to reveal the versatile merits of cloud computing paradigm and hence the objective of this work is defined to bring out the remarkable significances of cloud computing paradigm through an application environment. In this work, a cloud computing model for sof...

  3. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a thermophilic sporeformer associated with a dairy-processing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M.P.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.; Kort, R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a Thermophilic Sporeformer Associated with a Dairy-Processing Environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M.P.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.; Kort, R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb.

  5. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a thermophilic sporeformer associated with a dairy-processing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M.P.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.; Kort, R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb. ©

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Pontibacter akesuensis Strain AKS 1T, Which Exhibits Robust Nutrient Metabolism in Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; He, Kaiyong; Jiang, Yongzhong; Shen, Jiate

    2016-01-01

    Pontibacter akesuensis strain AKS 1T was found in Akesu, Xinjiang Province, China, and exhibits the extraordinary ability to metabolize various substrates and is resistant to solar radiation. To gain insight into the bacterial genetic determinants for this adaptability, we report the complete genome sequence of strain AKS 1T.

  7. Geodetic antenna calibration test in the Antarctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grejner-Brzezinska, A.; Vazquez, E.; Hothem, L.

    2006-01-01

    TransAntarctic Mountain DEFormation (TAMDEF) Monitoring Network is the NSF-sponsored OSU and USGS project, aimed at measuring crustal motion in the Transantarctic Mountains of Victoria Land using GPS carrier phase measurements. Station monumentation, antenna mounts, antenna types, and data processing strategies were optimized to achieve mm-level estimates for the rates of motion. These data contributes also to regional Antarctic frame definition. Significant amount of data collected over several years allow the investigation of unique aspects of GPS geodesy in Antarctica, to determine how the error spectrum compares to the mid-latitude regions, and to identify the optimum measurement and data processing schemes for Antarctic conditions, in order to test the predicted rates of motion (mm-level w.r.t. time). The data collection for the TAMDEF project was initiated in 1996. The primary antenna used has been the Ashtech L1/L2 Dorne Margolin (D/M) choke ring. A few occupations involved the use of a Trimble D/M choke ring. The data were processed using the antenna calibration data available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). The recent developments in new antenna designs that are lighter in weight and lower in cost are being considered as a possible alternative to the bulkier and more expensive D/M choke ring design. In November 2003, in situ testing of three alternative models of L1/L2 antennas was conducted at a site located in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica (S77.87, E166.56). The antenna models used in this test were: Ashtech D/M choke ring, Trimble D/M choke ring, Trimble Zephyr, and the NovAtel GPS-702. Two stations, spaced within 30 meters, were used in the test. Both had the characteristics similar to the stations of the TAMDEF network, i.e., the UNAVCO fixed-height, force-centered level mounts with a constant antenna offset were used, ensuring extreme stability of the antenna/ mount/pin set up. During each of the four 3-day test data collection

  8. Phase Retrieval Algorithm for Form Testing Metrology in Production Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Stuerwald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Form testing interferometry permits a fast, non-tactile and full- field quantitative phase imaging of components in ultra precise manufacturing. To reduce the influence of vibrations under manufacturing conditions, it is most common to use the FT- based spatial carrier phase measurement technique (SCPM which requires only a single interferogram recording. The utilization of a generalized, relatively new spatial phase-shifting method operating in the position space opens up prospects for reduced phase noise and less reconstruction errors of the calculated phase-map under production conditions. Therefore this phase-shifting technique is investigated for applicability in machine integrated interferometric form testing of optical lenses. A characterization of the algorithm and a comparison with the commonly used FT-based algorithm is performed. As a reference, measurements are carried out with a coordinate measuring machine with nanometre accuracy.

  9. Testing to evaluate synergistic effects from LOCA environments. Test IX. Simultaneous mode; cables, splice assemblies, and electrical insulation samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome, F.V.

    1978-04-01

    This test was conducted to complement Test VIII which was a sequential test of cables, cable splices, and insulation samples. In this test, the generic LOCA environments (radiation, temperature, pressure, chemical spray) were simulated and simultaneously applied to the test items. There were no failures of any assemblies and all were able to function at rated current and voltage throughout the entire test. An additional parameter, dissipation factor, was monitored in this test and when used in conjunction with capacitance, provided a better indication of insulation degradation.

  10. Corrosion and Deterioration Testing in the Humid Tropic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Isthmus. TRTC has control over three exposure sites (Table D-2). Two of them ( Cerro Tigre and Horoko) are considered forest exposure sites located...on duty 24 hours a day. TABLE D-2. EXPOSURE SITES ON THE PACIFIC SIDE OF PANAMA EXPOSURE SITE LATITUDE LONGITUDE Cerro Tigre 9° 3󈧻.01"N 79...37󈧯.70"W Horoko 8°57󈧷.98"N 79°36󈧜.23"W Corozal 8°59𔄀.73"N 79°34𔄂.59"W a. The test area in Cerro Tigre has a variety of exposure sites

  11. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  12. Testing piezoelectric sensors in a nuclear reactor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Brian T.; Suprock, Andy; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    Several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), are investigating new fuels, materials, and inspection paradigms for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials during irradiation. In DOE-NE's FCRD program, ultrasonic based technology was identified as a key approach that should be pursued to obtain the high-fidelity, high-accuracy data required to characterize the behavior and performance of new candidate fuels and structural materials during irradiation testing. The radiation, high temperatures, and pressure can limit the available tools and characterization methods. In this work piezoelectric transducers capable of making these measurements are developed. Specifically, three piezoelectric sensors (Bismuth Titanate, Aluminum Nitride, and Zinc Oxide) are tested in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research reactor to a fast neutron fluence of 8.65×1020 nf/cm2. It is demonstrated that Bismuth Titanate is capable of transduction up to 5 × 1020 nf/cm2, Zinc Oxide is capable of transduction up to at least 6.27 × 1020 nf/cm2, and Aluminum Nitride is capable of transduction up to at least 8.65 × 1020 nf/cm2.

  13. Testing a Model of Work Performance in an Academic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Charles Tatum

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, people both work and study. The intersection between organizational and educational research suggests that a common model should apply to both academic and job performance. The purpose of this study was to apply a model of work and job performance (based on general expectancy theory to a classroom setting, and test the predicted relationships using a causal/path model methodology. The findings revealed that motivation and ability predicted student expectations and self-efficacy, and that expectations and efficacy predicted class performance. Limitations, implications, and future research directions are discussed. This study showed how the research in industrial and organizational psychology is relevant to education. It was concluded that greater effort should be made to integrate knowledge across a wider set of domains.

  14. On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    To provide a complete local monitoring of the state of an unsaturated soil sample during triaxial testing, a local water content measurement device was adapted to a triaxial device comprising the measurement of local displacements (Hall effect transducers) and suction (High capacity transducer). Water content was locally monitored by means of a resistivity probe. The water content/resistivity calibration curves of an intact natural unsaturated loess from Northern France extracted by block sampling at two depths (1 and 3.3 m) were carefully determined, showing good accuracy and repeatability. The validity of two models giving the resistivity of unsaturated soils with respect to their water content was examined.

  15. Radiation Tests on the Complete System of the Instrumentation of the LHC Cryogenics at the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gousiou, E; Casas Cubillos, J; de la Gama Serrano, J

    2009-01-01

    There are more than 6000 electronic cards for the instrumentation of the LHC cryogenics, housed in crates and distributed around the 27 km tunnel. Cards and crates will be exposed to a complex radiation field during the 10 years of LHC operation. Rad-tol COTS and rad-hard ASIC have been selected and individually qualified during the design phase of the cards. The test setup and the acquired data presented in this paper target the qualitative assessment of the compliance with the LHC radiation environment of an assembled system. It is carried out at the CNGS test facility which provides exposure to LHC-like radiation field.

  16. NAVTOLAND Microwave Scanning Beam Tests at NOSC. Three Landing Guidance Systems Tested in a Specular Multipath Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Technology Department ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Kenneth Sliegus and Wayland Carlson for their participation in the tests. L 𔄃 i...guidance system concepts in a specular multipath environment for application to vertical takeoff and landing systems aboard small ships. Specifically...tested is, show\

  17. Towards Intelligence and Flexibility of Learning and Knowledge Testing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerijus AUKSTAKALNIS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed goal oriented knowledge acquisition and assessment are based on the flexible educational model and allows to implement an adaptive control of the enhanced learning process according to the requirements of student's knowledge level, his state of cognition and subject learning history. The enhanced learner knowledge model specifies how the cognition state of the user will be achieved step by step. The use case actions definition is a starting point of the specification, which depends on different levels of learning scenarios and user cognition sub goals. The use case actions specification is used as a basis to set the requirements for service software specification and attributes of learning objects respectively. The paper presents the enhanced architecture of the student self-evaluation and on-line assessment system TestTool. The system is explored as an assessment engine capable of supporting and improving the individualized intelligent goal oriented self-instructional and simulation based mode of learning, grounded on the GRID distributed service architecture.

  18. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report P. R. Girouard Well No. 1, Lafayette Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The P.R. Girouard No. 1 Well, located approximately 10 miles southeast of Lafayette, Louisiana, was the fourth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the Wells of Opportunity program. The well was tested through 3-1/2 inch tubing set on a packer at 14,570 feet without major problems. The geological section tested was the Oligocene Marginulina Texana No. 1 sand of upper Frio age. The interval tested was from 14,744 to 14,819 feet. Produced water was piped down a disposal well perforated from 2870 to 3000 feet in a Miocene saltwater sand. Four flow tests were conducted for sustained production rates of approximately 4000 BWPD to approximately 15,000 BWPD. The highest achieved, during a fifth short test, was 18,460 BWPD. The test equipment was capable of handling higher rates. The gas-to-water ratio was relatively uniform at approximately 40 SCF/bbl. The heating value of the gas is 970 Btu/SCF. The reservoir tests show that is is doubtful that this well would sustain production rates over 10,000 BWPD for any lengthy period from the sand zone in which it was completed. This limited flow capacity is due to the well's poor location in the reservoir and is not a result of any production deficiencies of the Marginulina Texana sand.

  19. Qualification of the radiation environment in the TCC2 experimental test area.

    CERN Document Server

    Fynbo, C A

    2000-01-01

    This report qualifies the radiation environment to be found in the area behind the beam dump in the TCC2 experimental hall where tests are being performed on the radiation hardness and sensitivity to Single Event Upsets of electronics to be installed near the LHC machine. A comparison is made with the radiation environment expected for the LHC, and we conclude that the environment found in the test area matches that of LHC such that tests performed here will provide a valid simulation of electronics performance under LHC running conditions.

  20. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godchaux, Frank A.

    1981-06-01

    This book is a detailed prognosis covering the acquisition, completion, drilling, testing and abandonment of the Frank A. Godchaux, III, Well No. 1 under the Wells of Opportunity Program. The well is located approximately 12 miles southeast of the city of Abbeville, Louisiana. Eaton Operating Company proposes to test a section of the Planulina sand at a depth ranging from 15,584 to 15,692 feet. The reservoir pressure is estimated to be 14,480 psi and the temperature of the formation water is expected to be 298 F. The water salinity is calculated to be 75,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce 20,000 barrels of water per day with a gas content of 44 standard cubic feet pre barrel. The well was acquired from C and K Petroleu, Inc. on March 20, 1981. C and K abandoned the well at a total depth of 16,000 feet. The well has a 7-5/8 inches liner set at 13,387 feet. Eaton proposes to set 5-1/2 inch casing at 16,000 feet and produce the well through the casing using a 2-3/8 inch tubing string for wireline protection and for pressure control. A 4,600 foot saltwater disposal well will be drilled on the site and testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton tests. The total estimated cost to perform the work is $2,959,000. An optional test from 14,905 to 15,006 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous Eaton WOO tests will be utilized on this test. This equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. The Institute of Gas Technology and Mr. Don Clark will handle the sampling and testing and reservoir evaluation, respectively, as on the previous Eaton tests.

  1. The complete genome sequence of Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34, a master survivalist in harsh and anthropogenic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Janssen

    Full Text Available Many bacteria in the environment have adapted to the presence of toxic heavy metals. Over the last 30 years, this heavy metal tolerance was the subject of extensive research. The bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34, originally isolated by us in 1976 from a metal processing factory, is considered a major model organism in this field because it withstands milli-molar range concentrations of over 20 different heavy metal ions. This tolerance is mostly achieved by rapid ion efflux but also by metal-complexation and -reduction. We present here the full genome sequence of strain CH34 and the manual annotation of all its genes. The genome of C. metallidurans CH34 is composed of two large circular chromosomes CHR1 and CHR2 of, respectively, 3,928,089 bp and 2,580,084 bp, and two megaplasmids pMOL28 and pMOL30 of, respectively, 171,459 bp and 233,720 bp in size. At least 25 loci for heavy-metal resistance (HMR are distributed over the four replicons. Approximately 67% of the 6,717 coding sequences (CDSs present in the CH34 genome could be assigned a putative function, and 9.1% (611 genes appear to be unique to this strain. One out of five proteins is associated with either transport or transcription while the relay of environmental stimuli is governed by more than 600 signal transduction systems. The CH34 genome is most similar to the genomes of other Cupriavidus strains by correspondence between the respective CHR1 replicons but also displays similarity to the genomes of more distantly related species as a result of gene transfer and through the presence of large genomic islands. The presence of at least 57 IS elements and 19 transposons and the ability to take in and express foreign genes indicates a very dynamic and complex genome shaped by evolutionary forces. The genome data show that C. metallidurans CH34 is particularly well equipped to live in extreme conditions and anthropogenic environments that are rich in metals.

  2. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivask, Angela; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kapruwan, Pankaj; Stone, Vicki; Yin, Hong; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Lombi, Enzo

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles.

  3. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  4. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  5. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  6. Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low permeability environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doe, T.W.; Schwarz, W.J. (eds.)

    1981-03-01

    The testing of low permeability rocks is common to waste disposal, fossil energy resource development, underground excavation, and geothermal energy development. This document includes twenty-six papers and abstracts, divided into the following sessions: opening session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 of the 16 papers; the remaining paper has been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  7. Integrated test environment for a part of the LHCb calorimeter - TWEPP09

    CERN Document Server

    Abellan, C; Gaspar de Valenzuela, A; RieraBaburés, J; Gascón, D; Picatoste, E; Comerma, A; VilasísCardona, X

    2009-01-01

    An integrated test environment for the data acquisition electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) from the calorimeter of the LHCb experiment is presented. It allows to test separately every single board or to perform global system tests, while being able to emulate every part of the system and debug it. This environment is foreseen to test the production of spare electronic boards and help the maintenance of the SPD electronics along the life of the detector. The heart of the system is an Altera Stratix II FPGA while the main board can be controlled over USB, Ethernet or WiFi.

  8. ICTSSE:An Object—Oriented IC Test Software Supporting Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙育宁; 王晓明; 等

    1995-01-01

    An IC test software supporting environment-ICTSSE,which supports the migration and simulation of test pattern programs on heterogeneous ATEs,is presented.ICTSSE is a subsystem of Test Development System (TeDS).It has the capabilities of verifying the IC's stimulus/response vectors and associated timing resources against the target ATE.The general data interchange format,which is the center of the TeDS,is built for test pattern migration.

  9. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  10. Data from complete mtDNA sequencing of Tunisian centenarians: testing haplogroup association and the "golden mean" to longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marta D; Cherni, Lotfi; Fernandes, Verónica; Freitas, Fernando; Ammar El Gaaied, Amel Ben; Pereira, Luísa

    2009-04-01

    Since the mitochondrial theory of ageing was proposed, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity has been largely studied in old people, however complete genomes are still rare, being limited to Japanese and UK/US samples. In this work, we evaluated possible longevity associated polymorphisms/haplogroups in an African population, from Tunisia, by performing complete mtDNA sequencing. This population has a mixed Eurasian/sub-Saharan mtDNA gene pool, which could potentially facilitate the evaluation of association for sub-Saharan lineages. Sub-Saharan haplogroups were shown to be significantly less represented in centenarians (9.5%) than in controls (54.5%), but it is not possible to rule out an influence of population structure, which is high in these populations. No recurrent polymorphism were more frequent in centenarians than in controls, and although the Tunisian centenarians presented less synonymous and replacement polymorphisms than controls, this difference was not statistically significant. So far, it does not seem that centenarians have significantly less mildly deleterious substitutions, not only in Tunisia but also in Japanese and UK/US samples, as tested here, not favouring a "golden mean" to longevity.

  11. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of Hardy HW{number_sign}1 well, Putnam County, West Virginia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, logging, casing, completing, stimulating and testing the Hardy HW No. l well located in Union District, Putnam County, West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation. The well was spudded on November 29, 1989 and was completed at a total measured depth of 6406 feet on December 29, 1989. The well was drilled on an average azimuth of 335 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2618 feet. Approximately 1035 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2212 feet of the well had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Four zones were stimulated during three stimulation operations (Zones 3 and 4 were stimulated together). Zone 1 stimulation was a successful foam frac while the stimulations on Zones 2, 3-4 were Partially successful. Initial gas production rates were 4.5 times greater than the natural production rate. After 21 months, gas produced from the BDM/Cabot well has declined at a rate about one-half that of a conventional vertical well in the area. This horizontal well is projected to produce 475 million cubic feet of gas over a 30-year period.

  12. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of Hardy HW[number sign]1 well, Putnam County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, logging, casing, completing, stimulating and testing the Hardy HW No. l well located in Union District, Putnam County, West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation. The well was spudded on November 29, 1989 and was completed at a total measured depth of 6406 feet on December 29, 1989. The well was drilled on an average azimuth of 335 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2618 feet. Approximately 1035 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2212 feet of the well had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Four zones were stimulated during three stimulation operations (Zones 3 and 4 were stimulated together). Zone 1 stimulation was a successful foam frac while the stimulations on Zones 2, 3-4 were Partially successful. Initial gas production rates were 4.5 times greater than the natural production rate. After 21 months, gas produced from the BDM/Cabot well has declined at a rate about one-half that of a conventional vertical well in the area. This horizontal well is projected to produce 475 million cubic feet of gas over a 30-year period.

  13. The Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI: An observation-based method for pretesting self-completion questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI is a method for pretesting a self-completion questionnaire by first observing actual instances of interaction between the instrument and respondents (the response process before exploring the reasons for this behavior. The TSTI consists of the following three steps: 1. (Respondent-driven observation of response behavior. 2. (Interviewer-driven follow-up probing aimed at remedying gaps in observational data. 3. (Interviewer-driven debriefing aimed at eliciting experiences and opinions. We describe the aims and the techniques of these three steps, and then discuss pilot studies in which we tested the feasibility and the productivity of the TSTI by applying it in testing three rather different types of questionnaires. In the first study, the quality of a set of questions about alcohol consumption was assessed. The TSTI proved to be productive in identifying problems that resulted from a mismatch between the ‘theory’ underlying the questions on the one hand, and features of a respondent’s actual behavior and biography on the other hand. In the second pilot study, Dutch and Norwegian versions of an attitude scale, the 20-item Illegal Aliens Scale, were tested. The TSTI appeared to be productive in identifying problems that resulted from different ‘response strategies’. In the third pilot, a two-year longitudinal study, the TSTI appeared to be an effective method for documenting processes of ‘response shift’ in repeated measurements of health-related Quality of Life (QoL.

  14. The Virtual Employment Test Bed: An Immersive Synthetic Environment Allows Engineers to Test and Evaluate Material Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-03

    synthetic environment allows engineers to test and evaluate material solutions Robert DeMarco, MSBME; Gordon Cooke, MEME ; John Riedener, MSSE...ROBERT DEMARCO, MSBME, is a Project Lead Engineer and Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the

  15. Estimation and tests of haplotype-environment interaction when linkage phase is ambiguous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lake, SL; Lyon, H; Tantisira, K; Silverman, EK; Weiss, ST; Laird, NM; Schaid, DJ

    2003-01-01

    In the study of complex traits, the utility of linkage analysis and single marker association tests can be limited for researchers attempting to elucidate the complex interplay between a gene and environmental covariates. For these purposes, tests of gene-environment interactions are needed. In addi

  16. New grid based test bed environment for carrying out ad-hoc networking experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available and the third is to do analysis on a real test bed network which has implemented the ad-hoc networking protocol. This paper concerns the third option. Most researchers who have done work on test bed environments have used either indoor Wifi inter-office links...

  17. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole TAN-2271 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole TAN-2272 was partially cored between 210 and 282 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) then drilled and constructed as a monitor well. Boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 are separated by about 63 ft and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geologic, geophysical, and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 required 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to total depths of 282 and 287 ft BLS, respectively. Depth to water is measured near 228 ft BLS in both boreholes. Following construction and data collection, temporary submersible pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.Borehole TAN-2271 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 33 ft BLS) to a depth of 284 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2271 was better than 98 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 33 to 211ft BLS primarily consists of two massive basalt flows that are about 78 and 50 ft in thickness and three sediment layers near 122, 197, and 201 ft BLS. Between 211 and 284 ft BLS, geophysical data and core material suggest a high occurrence of fractured and vesicular basalt. For the section of aquifer tested, there are two primary fractured aquifer intervals: the first between 235 and

  18. Determination of Test Sequence for Intrusive Measurement of VTQoS in Environment Offixed Telecommunication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pocta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes simulations of test sequences transmission for intrusive measurement of VTQoS inenvironment of fixed telecommunication network. The aim of simulations was a detection on the influence of this environment on the quality of transmission sequences. Evaluation the generated sequences was based on the calculation of mean square measure and correlation coefficient. These measures were used as a criterion for suitable test sequences selection. Reconsideration of a convenience of the given test sequence, which is composed from simple signals, on intrusive measurement of VTQoS in the environment of fixed telecommunication networks is the aim of this paper.

  19. Effects of strain rate, test temperature and test environment on tensile properties of vandium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Eatherly, W.S.; Gibson, L.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Tensile testing was carried out on SS-3 tensile specimens punched from 0.762-mm-thick sheets of the large heat of V-4Cr-4Ti and small heats of V-3Cr-3Ti and V-6Cr-6Ti. The tensile specimens were annealed at 1000{degrees} for 2 h to obtain a fully recrystallized, fine grain microstructure with a grain size in the range of 10-19 {mu}m. Room temperature tests at strain rates ranging from 10{sup {minus}3} to 5 x 10{sup {minus}1}/s were carried out in air; elevated temperature testing up to 700{degrees}C was conducted in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup {minus}5} torr (<10{sup {minus}3} Pa). To study the effect of atomic hydrogen on ductility, tensile tests were conducted at room temperature in an ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) with a hydrogen leak system.

  20. The Testing Environment of RSE%浅谈RSE测试环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董思乔; 石庆琳

    2015-01-01

    The test field, test equipment and utility of test equipment in RSE testing environment are introduced. requirement distance of testing is given. harmonic distortion and the way of compensate are analyzed. the measuring principle and uncertainty of testing environment are discussed.%本文介绍了RSE测试场地,测试设备,以及各种设备在测试过程中的作用,给出了测试距离要求,分析了链路中的谐波失真以及补偿方法,对测试原理以及测试环境中的不确定度进行了讨论。

  1. Corrosion testing of type 304L stainless steel in tuff groundwater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, R.E.; Pitman, S.G.; Haberman, J.H.

    1987-11-01

    The stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of Type 304L stainless steel (SS) to elevated temperatures in tuff rock and tuff groundwater environments was determined under irradiated and nonirradiated conditions using U-bend specimens and slow-strain-rate tests. The steel was tested both in the solution-annealed condition and after sensitization heat treatments. The material was found to be susceptible to SCC in both the solution-annealed and solution-annealed-and-sensitized conditions when exposed to an irradiated crushed tuff rock environment containing air and water vapor at 90{sup 0}C. A similar exposure at 50{sup 0}C did not result in failure after a 25-month test duration. Specimens of sensitized 304 SS conditioned with a variety of sensitization heat treatments resisted failure during a test of 1-year duration in which a nonirradiated environment of tuff rock and groundwater held at 200{sup 0}C was allowed to boil to dryness on a cyclical basis. All specimens of sensitized 304 SS exposed to this environment failed. Slow-strain-rate studies were performed on 304L, 304, and 316L SS specimens. The 304L SS was tested in J-13 well water at 150{sup 0}C, and the 316L SS at 95{sup 0}C. Neither material showed evidence of SCC in these tests. Sensitized 304 SS did exhibit SCC in J-13 well water in tests conducted at 150{sup 0}C. 12 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole TAN-2271 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole TAN-2272 was partially cored between 210 and 282 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) then drilled and constructed as a monitor well. Boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 are separated by about 63 ft and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geologic, geophysical, and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 required 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to total depths of 282 and 287 ft BLS, respectively. Depth to water is measured near 228 ft BLS in both boreholes. Following construction and data collection, temporary submersible pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.Borehole TAN-2271 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 33 ft BLS) to a depth of 284 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2271 was better than 98 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 33 to 211ft BLS primarily consists of two massive basalt flows that are about 78 and 50 ft in thickness and three sediment layers near 122, 197, and 201 ft BLS. Between 211 and 284 ft BLS, geophysical data and core material suggest a high occurrence of fractured and vesicular basalt. For the section of aquifer tested, there are two primary fractured aquifer intervals: the first between 235 and

  3. Development of a photovoltaic module qualification test based on combined-environment accelerated stress data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, S. E.; Royal, E.; Anderson, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a qualification test to screen photovoltaic modules for utilization on marine aids to navigation. The test is based on a combined-environment of hot and cold saltwater immersion and air pressurization. The test has demonstrated a very high acceleration factor and excellent correlation of electrical failures with modules in a concurrent real-time marine exposure.

  4. A new test environment for the SOFIA secondary mirror assembly to reduce the required time for in-flight testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammen, Yannick; Reinacher, Andreas; Brewster, Rick; Greiner, Benjamin; Graf, Friederike; Krabbe, Alfred

    2016-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) reached its full operational capability in 2014 and takes off from the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center to explore the universe about three times a week. Maximizing the program's scientific output naturally leaves very little flight time for implementation and test of improved soft- and hardware. Consequently, it is very important to have a comparable test environment and infrastructure to perform troubleshooting, verifications and improvements on ground without interfering with science missions. SOFIA's Secondary Mirror Mechanism is one of the most complex systems of the observatory. In 2012 a first simple laboratory mockup of the mechanism was built to perform basic controller tests in the lower frequency band of up to 50Hz. This was a first step to relocate required engineering tests from the active observatory into the laboratory. However, to test and include accurate filters and damping methods as well as to evaluate hardware modifications a more precise mockup is required that represents the system characteristics over a much larger frequency range. Therefore the mockup has been improved in several steps to a full test environment representing the system dynamics with high accuracy. This new ground equipment allows moving almost the entire secondary mirror test activities away from the observatory. As fast actuator in the optical path, the SMM also plays a major role in SOFIA's pointing stabilization concept. To increase the steering bandwidth, hardware changes are required that ultimately need to be evaluated using the telescope optics. One interesting concept presented in this contribution is the in- stallation of piezo stack actuators between the mirror and the chopping mechanism. First successful baseline tests are presented. An outlook is given about upcoming performance tests of the actively controlled piezo stage with local metrology and optical feedback. To minimize the impact on

  5. The plastid genome of Najas flexilis: adaptation to submersed environments is accompanied by the complete loss of the NDH complex in an aquatic angiosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L Peredo

    Full Text Available The re-colonization of aquatic habitats by angiosperms has presented a difficult challenge to plants whose long evolutionary history primarily reflects adaptations to terrestrial conditions. Many aquatics must complete vital stages of their life cycle on the water surface by means of floating or emergent leaves and flowers. Only a few species, mainly within the order Alismatales, are able to complete all aspects of their life cycle including pollination, entirely underwater. Water-pollinated Alismatales include seagrasses and water nymphs (Najas, the latter being the only freshwater genus in the family Hydrocharitaceae with subsurface water-pollination. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the plastid genome of Najas flexilis. The plastid genome of N. flexilis is a circular AT-rich DNA molecule of 156 kb, which displays a quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats (IR separating the large single copy (LSC from the small single copy (SSC regions. In N. flexilis, as in other Alismatales, the rps19 and trnH genes are localized in the LSC region instead of within the IR regions as in other monocots. However, the N. flexilis plastid genome presents some anomalous modifications. The size of the SSC region is only one third of that reported for closely related species. The number of genes in the plastid is considerably less. Both features are due to loss of the eleven ndh genes in the Najas flexilis plastid. In angiosperms, the absence of ndh genes has been related mainly to the loss of photosynthetic function in parasitic plants. The ndh genes encode the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, believed essential in terrestrial environments, where it increases photosynthetic efficiency in variable light intensities. The modified structure of the N. flexilis plastid genome suggests that adaptation to submersed environments, where light is scarce, has involved the loss of the NDH complex in at least some photosynthetic angiosperms.

  6. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 140 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole USGS 141 was drilled and constructed as a monitor well without coring. Boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 are separated by about 375 feet (ft) and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geophysical and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 required 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel well screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed about 50 ft into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, between 496 and 546 ft below land surface (BLS) at both sites. Following construction and data collection, dedicated pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Borehole USGS 140 was cored continuously, starting from land surface to a depth of 543 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole USGS 140 was about 98 and 65 percent, respectively. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, about 32 basalt flows and 4 sediment layers were collected from borehole USGS 140 between 34 and 543 ft BLS. Basalt texture for borehole USGS 140 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic; rubble zones and flow mold structure also were described in recovered core material. Sediment layers, starting near 163 ft BLS, generally were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay; however, between 223 and 228 ft BLS, silt

  7. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completions prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Clovis A.

    1980-04-03

    This prospective well of opportunity was originally drilled and completed as a gas producer by Wrightsman Investment Company in early 1973. The original and present producing interval was from 15,216 to 15,238 feet. IMC Exploration Company, Inc. acquired the property from Wrightsman and is the present owner operator. The well is presently shut in s a non-economic producer and IMC proposed to perform plug and abandonment operations in April, 1980. This well has a good geopressured-geothermal water sand behind the 5-1/2 inch casing that has 94 feet of net sand thickness. Pursuant to DOE/NVO authorization of March 11,1980, Eaton negotiated an option agreement with IMC whereby IMC would delay their abandonment operations for a period of 90 days to permit DOE to evaluate the well for geopressure-geothermal testing. The IMC-Eaton option agreements provide that IMG will delay plugging the well until June 15, 1980. If Eaton exercises its option to acquire the well, IMC will sell the well bore, and an adjacent salt water disposal well, to Eaton for the sole consideration of Eaton assuming the obligation to plug and abandon the wells in accordance with lease and regulatory requirements. If Eaton does not exercise its option, then Eaton will pay IMC $95,000 cash and IMC will proceed with plugging and abandonment at the termination of the option period.

  8. Pre-discharge exercise test for evaluation of patients with complete or incomplete revascularization following primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a DANAMI-2 sub-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, N.; Clemmensen, P.; Grande, P.

    2008-01-01

    with complete revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise capacity was prognostic of reinfarction and/or death in patients with incomplete revascularization, but not in completely revascularized patients. ST segment depression alone did not predict residual coronary stenosis or dismal prognosis Udgivelsesdato......OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether the completeness of revascularization impacts on the prognostic value of an exercise test after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The DANAMI-2 trial included patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction randomized to primary PCI...

  9. Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2011-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

  10. Effect of Test Environment on Lifetime of Two Vacuum Lubricants Determined by Spiral Orbit Tribometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    The destruction rates of a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant, Krytox 143AC, subjected to rolling contact with 440C steel in a spiral orbit tribometer at room temperature have been evaluated as a function of test environment. The rates in ultrahigh vacuum, 0.213 kPa (1.6 torr) oxygen and one atmosphere of dry nitrogen were about the same. Water vapor in the test environment-a few ppm in one atmosphere of nitrogen-reduced the destruction rate by up to an order of magnitude. A similar effect of water vapor was found for the destruction rate of Pennzane 2001A, an unformulated multiply alkylated cyclopentane (MAC) hydrocarbon oil.

  11. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  12. Interoperable Solution for Test Execution in Various I&T Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young H.; Bareh, Magdy S.

    2006-01-01

    When there is spacecraft collaboration between several industry partners, there is an inherent difference in integration and test (I&T) methodologies, which creates a challenge for verifying flight systems during the development phase. To converge the differing I&T methodologies, considerations were required for multiple project areas such as Flight System Testbed (FST), Assembly, Test, and Launch Operations (ATLO), and Spacecraft Simulator environments. This paper details the challenges and approaches of the JPL's effort in engineering a solution to testing the flight system with the Mission Operations Ground System while maintaining the comparability with testing methods of the industry partners.

  13. Development of a simulation environment to test space missions COTS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, S.; Knoll, A.; Melanson, P.; Tafazoli, M.

    2002-07-01

    The Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Software and Ground Segment Section (SGS) has the mandate to develop innovative emerging software and on-board satellite and ground segment computer technologies. To that end, there is an ongoing development of a simulation environment to test COTS (Commercial-Of-The-Shelf) technologies. There are severe cost constraints in all aspects of many space missions due to the limited return on investment and scarce commercialization opportunities that come with many science missions. There is an opportunity to explore the innovative implementation of COTS technologies to reduce the mission cost and maximize performance available from COTS components. However, using COTS technologies in the space environment has ist constraints and therefore designing a spacecraft mission has to involve some new techniques that allow implementation of these components and minimize the risk of failure. The goal of our project is to develop a simulation environment, itself using COTS components, and then to allow the seamless integration of various components to test spacecraft mission concepts. For example, one of the aspects of using COTS processors in space is to protect them from the radiation environment. The current state of the simulation tests an innovative software EDAC (Error Detection and Correction) package and a redundant processor configuration to investigate protection against the effects of radiation and other failures on a generic mission. It also includes the capability to test formation-flying concepts that have the potential to revolutionize cost reduction efforts for space missions and to enable new space applications. This paper describes the simulation environment in detail and illustrates some of the technologies being tested for possible future space missions. The paper concludes with a look at the future development of the simulation environment and possible benefits of its use as well as the lessons learned to date.

  14. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds.

  15. Development and Testing of Mechanism Technology for Space Exploration in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Tony R.; Levanas, Greg; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. have partnered to develop and test actuator hardware that will survive the stringent environment of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators have been built and tested in a unique low temperature test bed with motor interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Several years of work have resulted in specialized electro-mechanical hardware to survive extreme space exploration environments, a test program that verifies and finds limitations of the designs at extreme temperatures, and a growing knowledge base that can be leveraged by future space exploration missions.

  16. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  17. Degradation of Solar Array Components in a Combined UV/VUV High Temperature Test Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nömayr Christel

    2017-01-01

    A design verification test under UV/VUV conditions of sun exposed materials and technologies on component level is presented which forms part of the overall verification and qualification of the solar array design of the MTM and MPO. The test concentrates on the self-contamination aspects and the resulting performance losses of the solar array under high intensity and elevated temperature environment representative for the photovoltaic assembly (PVA.

  18. [Biomechanical test study of rat femurs growing under different stress environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxi; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shouju; Li, Jingnian; Sun, Xiaojiang

    2005-06-01

    By creating two kinds of stress environment in the same animal model, we performed a three-point bending test and a compressing test on the rat femurs growing under different stress conditions to characterize the effect of stress on bone mechanical properties. The right hindlimbs were subjected to sciatic nerve resection to become cripple and were used as unloading group; the left hindlimbs bore excess load and made up the overloading group; the normal rats were used as control group. The animals were encouraged to exercise for half an hour everyday in the morning, noon and evening. The experiment observation finished in four weeks. The biomechanical parameters of femur diaphyses were measured. The experiment results showed that stress environment may change several mechanical parameters of rat femurs. This study indicated that bone tissues can adapt to its stress environment by changing its mechanical properties. The experimental model in this article is practical and reliable.

  19. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to MTR environment measurements. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to Material Testing Reactor environment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J.Y. [University Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    The development of advanced instrumentation for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor constitutes a main goal for the improvement of the nuclear fuel behavior knowledge. An acoustic method for fission gas release detection was tested with success during a first experiment called REMORA 3 in 2010 and 2011, and the results were used to differentiate helium and fission gas release kinetics under transient operating conditions. This experiment was lead at OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay, France). The maximal temperature on the sensor during the irradiation was about 150 deg. C. In this paper we present a thick film transducer produce by screen printing process. The screen printing of piezoelectric offers a wide range of possible applications for the development of acoustic sensors and piezoelectric structure for measurements in high temperature environment. We firstly produced a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based paste composed of Pz27 powder from Ferroperm, CF7575 glass, and organic solvent ESL 400. Likewise a Bismuth Titanate based paste synthesized in our laboratory was produced. With these inks we produced thick film up to 130 μm by screen printing process. Material properties characterizations of these thick-film resonators are essential for device design and applications. The piezoelectric coefficients d33 and pyro-electric P(T) coefficient are investigated. The highest P(T) and d33 are respectively 80 μC.m{sup -2}.K{sup -1} and 130 μC.N{sup -1} for the PZT transducer -which validates the fabrication process-. In view of the development of this transducer oriented for high temperature and irradiation environment, we investigated the electrical properties of the transducers for different ranges of frequencies and temperature - from 20 Hz up to 40 MHz between 30 and 400 deg. C. We highlight the evolution of the impedance response and piezoelectric parameters of screen printed piezoelectric structures on alumina. Shortly an irradiation will be realized in

  20. Sequential tests for gene–environment interactions in matched case–control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tweel, I. van der; Schipper, M.E.I.

    2004-01-01

    The sample size necessary to detect a significant gene × environment interaction in an observational study can be large. For reasons of cost-effectiveness and efficient use of available biological samples we investigated the properties of sequential designs in matched case–control studies to test fo

  1. 在线学习环境中课程完成原因探析%Exploring Reasons for Course Completion in Online Learning Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尔文·史蒙纳特·Q·阿利普; 玛丽亚·安娜·T·昆伯

    2009-01-01

    很多提供在线课程的教育机构所面临的一大挑战就是开发能够提高学生动机的教学策略,从而提高课程和项目的完成率.本研究利用Eastmond(1994)开发的"基于计算机会议的成人远程学习框架"(Adult Distance Study through Computer Conferencing,简称ADSCC),探讨了学习者的准备情况、在线特征、与计算机媒介传播(Computer Mediated Communication,tuj tq CMC)相关的学习方法等因素是否会影响虚拟学习环境中学生自备课程完成情况.研究结果表明,以上因素与课程完成情况有着显著的正相关.同时研究还发现,自我动机、对技术的信任,以及技术的易用等是在线学习环境中课程完成的主要原因.%One major challenge faced by educational institutions offering online courses is the development of teaching strategies that will increase student motivation, which can consequently increase rate of course and program completion.Using the Adult Distance Study through Computer Conferencing (ADSCC) Framework developed by Eastmond (1994), this study determines whether such factors as learner readiness, online features, and computer mediated communication (CMC) -related learning approaches can contribute to student course eompletion in a virtual learning environment.Results show that these factors had significant, positive relationship with course completion.Specifically, self-motivation, belief in technology, and case in actual use of technology have been found to be the main reasons for course completion in online learning environment.

  2. Test-retest reliability of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Margareta; Blomberg, Karin; Holmefur, Marie

    2015-07-01

    The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) scale evaluates the student nurses' perception of the learning environment and supervision within the clinical placement. It has never been tested in a replication study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the CLES + T scale. The CLES + T scale was administered twice to a group of 42 student nurses, with a one-week interval. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculations of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and weighted Kappa coefficients. Standard Error of Measurements (SEM) and Smallest Detectable Difference (SDD) determined the precision of individual scores. Bland-Altman plots were created for analyses of systematic differences between the test occasions. The results of the study showed that the stability over time was good to excellent (ICC 0.88-0.96) in the sub-dimensions "Supervisory relationship", "Pedagogical atmosphere on the ward" and "Role of the nurse teacher". Measurements of "Premises of nursing on the ward" and "Leadership style of the manager" had lower but still acceptable stability (ICC 0.70-0.75). No systematic differences occurred between the test occasions. This study supports the usefulness of the CLES + T scale as a reliable measure of the student nurses' perception of the learning environment within the clinical placement at a hospital.

  3. Dealing with dissonance: responding to an incongruent test result in a new media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily K

    2011-11-01

    In a new media environment replete with opportunities to test and express political identity, this study examines how people respond when confronted with a political test result that contradicts their partisan affiliation. An incongruent test result should produce motivated processing, but only when individuals do not dismiss the incongruent result will they experience dissonance and alter their social identification. Using a series of experiments, the results of this study supported these hypotheses. Implications of these findings for political psychology and message response are discussed.

  4. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle; Seaford, Mark; Dufrene, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    NASA MSFC and CUBRC designed and developed a 2% scale SLS propulsive wind tunnel test program to investigate base flow effects during flight from lift-off to MECO. This type of test program has not been conducted in 40+ years during the NASA Shuttle Program. Dufrene et al paper described the operation, instrumentation type and layout, facility and propulsion performance, test matrix and conditions and some raw results. This paper will focus on the SLS base flow physics and the generation and results of the design environments being used to design the thermal protection system.

  5. Presence in a Three-Dimensional Test Environment: Benefit or Threat to Market Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Berneburg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In market research, the adoption of interactive virtual reality-techniques could be expected to contain many advantages: artificial lab environments could be designed in a more realistic manner and the consideration of “time to the market”-factors could be improved. On the other hand, with an increasing degree of presence and the notional attendance in a simulated test environment, the market research task could fall prey to the tensing virtual reality adventure.In the following study a 3D-technique is empirically tested for its usability in market research. It will be shown that the interactive 3D-simulation is not biased by the immersion it generates and provides considerably better test results than 2D-stimuli do.

  6. Thermal-environment testing of a 30-cm engineering model thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental test program was carried out to document all 30-cm electron bombardment Hg ion bombardment thruster functions and characteristics over the thermal environment of several proposed missions. An engineering model thruster was placed in a thermal test facility equipped with -196 C walls and solar simulation. The thruster was cold soaked and exposed to simulated eclipses lasting in duration from 17 to 72 minutes. The thruster was operated at quarter, to full beam power in various thermal configurations which simulated multiple thruster operation, and was also exposed to 1 and 2 suns solar simulation. Thruster control characteristics and constraints; performance, including thrust magnitude and direction; and structural integrity were evaluated over the range of thermal environments tested.

  7. Complete Phase I Tests As Described in the Multi-lab Test Plan for the Evaluation of CH3I Adsorption on AgZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Jubin, R. T. [ORNL

    2014-09-30

    Silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) has been identified as a potential sorbent for iodine present in the off-gas streams of a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In such a facility, both elemental and organic forms of iodine are released from the dissolver in gaseous form. These species of iodine must be captured with high efficiency for a facility to avoid radioactive iodine release above regulatory limits in the gaseous effluent of the plant. Studies completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) examined the adsorption of organic iodine in the form of CH3I by AgZ. Upon breakthrough of the feed gas through the sorbent bed, elemental iodine was observed in the effluent stream, despite the fact that the only source of iodine in the system was the CH3I in the feed gas.1 This behavior does not appear to have been reported previously nor has it been independently confirmed. Thus, as a result of these prior studies, multiple knowledge gaps relating to the adsorption of CH3I by AgZ were identified, and a multi-lab test plan, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), INL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories, was formulated to address each in a systematic way.2 For this report, the scope of work for ORNL was further narrowed to three thin-bed experiments that would characterize CH3I adsorption onto AgZ in the presence of water, NO, and NO2. Completion of these three-thin bed experiments demonstrated that organic iodine in the form of CH3I was adsorbed by reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z) to a 50% higher loading than that of I2 when adsorbed from a dry air stream. Adsorption curves suggest different adsorption mechanisms for I2 and CH3I. In the presence of NO and NO2 gas, the loading of CH3I onto Ag0Z is suppressed and may be reversible. Further, the presence of NO and NO2 gas appears to oxidize CH3I to I2; this is indicated by an adsorption curve similar to that of I2 on Ag0Z. Finally, the loss of organic iodine loading

  8. Venting of a Water/Inhibited Propylene Glycol Mixture in a Vacuum Environment-Characterization and Representative Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    A planned use of the Orion space vehicle involves its residence at the International Space Station for six months at a time. One concept of operations involves temporarily venting portions of the idle Orion active thermal control system (ATCS) during the docked phase, preventing freezing. The venting would have to be reasonably complete with few, if any, completely filled pockets of frozen liquid. Even if pockets of frozen liquid did not damage the hardware during the freezing process, they could prevent the system from filling completely prior to its reactivation. The venting of single component systems in a space environment has been performed numerous times and is well understood. Local nucleation occurs at warm, relatively massive parts of the system, which creates vapor and forces the bulk liquid out of the system. The remnants of the liquid will freeze, then evaporate over time through local heating. Because the Orion ATCS working fluid is a 50/50 mixture of water and inhibited propylene glycol, its boiling behavior was expected to differ from that of a pure fluid. It was thought that the relatively high vapor pressure water might evaporate preferentially, leaving behind a mixture enriched with the low vapor pressure propylene glycol, which would be vaporization ]resistant. Owing to this concern, a test was developed to compare the evaporation behavior of pure water, a 50/50 mixture of water and inhibited propylene glycol, and inhibited propylene glycol. The test was performed using room temperature fluids in an instrumented thin walled stainless steel vertical tube. The 1 in x 0.035 in wall tube was instrumented with surface thermocouples and encased in closed cell polyurethane foam. Reticulated polyurethane foam was placed inside the tube to reduce the convection currents. A vacuum system connected to the top of the tube set the pressure boundary condition. Tests were run for the three fluids at back pressures ranging from 1 to 18 torr. During each test

  9. The effects of experimenter gender on state social physique anxiety and strength in a testing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Gabriel, David A

    2011-02-01

    Social influences can impact self-presentational concerns such as social physique anxiety (SPA), concerns over one's body being evaluated by others. In addition, social influences may also impact performance on a physical test. In a physical testing environment, one social factor that influences SPA and which may also influence the outcomes of a physical test is experimenter gender. The present study examined the influence of experimenter gender on SPA and actual muscle strength in an experimental testing environment. Male (n = 50) and female (n = 50) university students were randomly assigned to either a male or female experimenter. Before strength testing, state SPA (SPA-S) was assessed. Actual strength was represented by the score obtained during the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) test. Two 2 × 2 (participant gender × gender of the experimenter) analyses of variance were conducted with SPA-S and strength as the dependent variables. For SPA-S, a significant main effect was found only for participant gender (F(1,95) = 14.08, p < 0.01, η² = 0.13), with women scoring significantly higher than men. For MVC, there was a significant effect for participant gender (F(1,96) = 48.08, p < 0.001, η² = 0.33), with men, as expected, having significantly higher strength values than women. Although the gender of the experimenter did not influence SPA-S or muscle strength, other forms of anxiety (e.g., fitness anxiety) may be relevant in this setting. Future research should also investigate other factors in the testing environment (e.g., type of task) that may be more influential on psychological or performance outcomes.

  10. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  11. Effects of Interspersing Rates on Students Performance on and Preferences for Mathematics Assignments: Testing the Discrete Task Completion Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Gary L.; Erkfritz, Karyn N.

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigated the discreet task completion hypothesis presented by C. H. Skinner (2002) by investigating how the rate of interspersing affects performance on and preferences for academic assignments. Specifically, 70 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students were presented with four assignment pairs of multiplication problems.…

  12. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire measuring perceptions of neighborhood food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Barnes, Timothy L; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D

    2013-05-01

    There is a lack of validated and reliable instruments on perception of the food environment, in particular for rural environments. We estimated the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire assessing perceptions of the food environment. A total of 101 primary food shoppers in South Carolina were interviewed by phone to assess their perceptions of the food environment and presence of different food outlet types in their neighborhood. The survey was repeated approximately one month after the initial administration. The intra-class correlation (ICC) and Phi coefficient are reported as measures of reliability. The majority of questions on perceptions of the neighborhood food environment appear highly reliable (ICCs range from 0.55 to 0.71), including the 3-item scale on healthy food availability (ICC 0.71). Compared to participants in rural areas, those in urban areas demonstrated better reliability for questions on opportunities to purchase fast food and perceived presence of a supercenter. More research is needed to evaluate potential rural-urban differences in reliability.

  13. The impact of Nursing Rounds on the practice environment and nurse satisfaction in intensive care: pre-test post-test comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Leanne M; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Clayton, Samantha; Dalais, Christine; Gardner, Glenn

    2011-08-01

    Factors previously shown to influence patient care include effective decision making, team work, evidence based practice, staffing and job satisfaction. Clinical rounds have the potential to optimise these factors and impact on patient outcomes, but use of this strategy by intensive care nurses has not been reported. To determine the effect of implementing Nursing Rounds in the intensive care environment on patient care planning and nurses' perceptions of the practice environment and work satisfaction. Pre-test post-test 2 group comparative design. Two intensive care units in tertiary teaching hospitals in Australia. A convenience sample of registered nurses (n=244) working full time or part time in the participating intensive care units. Nurses in participating intensive care units were asked to complete the Practice Environment Scale-Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) and the Nursing Worklife Satisfaction Scale (NWSS) prior to and after a 12 month period during which regular Nursing Rounds were conducted in the intervention unit. Issues raised during Nursing Rounds were described and categorised. The characteristics of the sample and scale scores were summarised with differences between pre and post scores analysed using t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. Independent predictors of the PES-NWI were determined using multivariate linear regression. Nursing Rounds resulted in 577 changes being initiated for 171 patients reviewed; these changes related to the physical, psychological--individual, psychological--family, or professional practice aspects of care. Total PES-NWI and NWSS scores were similar before and after the study period in both participating units. The NWSS sub-scale of interaction between nurses improved in the intervention unit during the study period (pre--4.85±0.93; post--5.36±0.89, p=0.002) with no significant increase in the control group. Factors independently related to higher PES-NWI included

  14. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology: Results from Acreage and Integrated Seams Arcjet Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2016-01-01

    This invited talk will give a brief overview of the integrated heat-shield system design that requires seams and the extreme environment conditions that HEEET should be demonstrated to be capable of thermal performance without fail. We have tested HEEET across many different facilities and at conditions that are extreme. The presentation will highlight the performance of both the acreage as well as integrated seam at these conditions. The Invite talks are 10 min and hence this presentation will be short.

  15. Testing Technology Transfer Hypotheses in GIS Environments Using a Case Study Approach (93-8)

    OpenAIRE

    Onsrud, Harlan J.; Jeffrey K. Pinto; Azad, Bijan

    1993-01-01

    In late 1990 and early 1991, a methodological framework was developed for testing technology transfer hypotheses within GIS operational environments. The paper reporting this work was titled "Case Study Research Methods for Geographic Information Systems" (Onsrud, Pinto, and Azad 1992). This report gathers together (1) the original foundation paper used as the basis for the case study research project, (2) the call for participation that includes a listing of the thirty hypotheses for which "...

  16. Orion Exploration Flight Test Reaction Control System Jet Interaction Heating Environment from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re-­-entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.

  17. Long term creep tests on timber beams in heated and non-heated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, S.; Kortesmaa, M.; Ranta-Maunus, A. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Materials and Products

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this research investigation was to study the long term effect of creep on different wood materials under natural environmental conditions. The tests were initiated in the summer of 1992 and the results collected until the end of 1995 are reported here. The experiments on sawn timber of pine and spruce, glulam, Kerto-LVL and I-profile with hard board web structural size members were carried out in a sheltered environment, where the changes in moisture and temperature of the surrounding followed the natural climatic conditions of Southern Finland. In addition, separate tests on eight glulam beams were carried out in a heated room environment. The experiments were carried out at low load levels (2-7 MPa). The surface of few groups of specimens were treated with alkyd and emulsion paint, some were creosoted and salt impregnated, while few samples had no treatment. The creep test data of all specimens were analysed systematically to obtain creep curves. The data showed significant variation in creep among wood materials with different treatments. Creep of glulam was same in heated and non-heated environment. (orig.) (3 refs.)

  18. Combustor and Vane Features and Components Tested in a Gas Turbine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roinson, R. Craig; Verrilli, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) as combustor liners and turbine vanes provides the potential of improving next-generation turbine engine performance, through lower emissions and higher cycle efficiency, relative to today s use of superalloy hot-section components. For example, the introduction of film-cooling air in metal combustor liners has led to higher levels of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from the combustion process. An environmental barrier coated (EBC) siliconcarbide- fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite is a new material system that can operate at higher temperatures, significantly reducing the film-cooling requirements and enabling lower NOx production. Evaluating components and subcomponents fabricated from these advanced CMCs under gas turbine conditions is paramount to demonstrating that the material system can perform as required in the complex thermal stress and environmentally aggressive engine environment. To date, only limited testing has been conducted on CMC combustor and turbine concepts and subelements of this type throughout the industry. As part of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, the High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) at the NASA Glenn Research Center was selected to demonstrate coupon, subcomponent feature, and component testing because it can economically provide the temperatures, pressures, velocities, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environments. The results have proven the HPBR to be a highly versatile test rig amenable to multiple test specimen configurations essential to coupon and component testing.

  19. A Brief Historical Survey of Rocket Testing Induced Acoustic Environments at NASA SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted of all the various rocket test programs that have been performed since the establishment of NASA Stennis Space Center. The relevant information from each of these programs were compiled and used to quantify the theoretical noise source levels using the NASA approved methodology for computing "acoustic loads generated by a propulsion system" (NASA SP ]8072). This methodology, which is outlined in Reference 1, has been verified as a reliable means of determining the noise source characteristics of rocket engines. This information is being provided to establish reference environments for new government/business residents to ascertain whether or not their activities will generate acoustic environments that are more "encroaching" in the NASA Fee Area. In this report, the designation of sound power level refers to the acoustic power of the rocket engine at the engine itself. This is in contrast to the sound pressure level associated with the propagation of the acoustic energy in the surrounding air. The first part of the survey documents the "at source" sound power levels and their dominant frequency bands for the range of engines tested at Stennis. The second part of the survey discusses how the acoustic energy levels will propagate non ]uniformly from the test stands. To demonstrate this, representative acoustic sound pressure mappings in the NASA Stennis Fee Area were computed for typical engine tests on the B ]1 and E ]1 test stands.

  20. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  1. Testing bird response to roads on a rural environment: A case study from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Jerzak, Leszek; Pruscini, Fabio; Santolini, Riccardo; Benedetti, Yanina; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The construction of roads is currently well spread in many parts of our world and impacts strongly on wildlife distribution. Some bird species avoid, while other prefer to be in the vicinity of these human structures. However, studies on roads effects on birds, in terms of strength or direction of these effects, are scarce. Therefore, in a study carried out in Central Italy we tested the responses of different bird species to roads at a local spatial scale, using generalized linear models (GLM). Analysis were conducted on a large dataset (more than 1400 sampled sites, mainly on rural environments). Both positive and negative effects of roads on birds were found for bird species of close or semi-close environments, while the negative effects of roads were negligible for bird species of open and semi-open environments. This fact suggest that roads can be a source of "functional heterogeneity" on semi-open environments, providing marginal habitats, hedgerows and residual vegetation typical of roadsides, offering breeding and feeding habitat for some bird species. The proposed methodology provide a useful explorative tool, in order to develop conservation policies to preserve the biodiversity, mainly in rural landscapes. The outputs of GLM can be used as inputs in ecological planning: direction and strength of the effects of roads on bird species are adequate to estimate the response of bird community, up front to the presence of new structures, or identifying which of them should be mitigated to reduce negative effects on the biodiversity.

  2. Amplitude Test for Input Devices for System Control in Immersive Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Thornemann Hansen, Nina; Hald, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the amplitudes best suited to compare four input devices are examined in the context of a pointer-based system control interface for immersive virtual environments. The interfaces are based on a pen and tablet, a touch tablet, hand-tracking using Kinect and a Wii Nunchuk analog sti...... menu using each combination of amplitude and interface. The amplitudes to be used for future experiments were found. Also, the movement times for the interfaces do not fit the predictions of Fitts' law.......In this study, the amplitudes best suited to compare four input devices are examined in the context of a pointer-based system control interface for immersive virtual environments. The interfaces are based on a pen and tablet, a touch tablet, hand-tracking using Kinect and a Wii Nunchuk analog stick....... This is done as a preliminary study in order to be able to compare the interfaces with the goal of evaluating them in the context of using virtual environments in a class lecture. Five amplitudes are tested for each of the four interfaces by having test participants mark menu elements in an eight-part radial...

  3. Fatigue test of carbon epoxy composite high pressure hydrogen storage vessel under hydrogen environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-xiang ZHENG; Liang WANG; Rong LI; Zong-xin WEI; Wei-wei ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    A significant temperature raise within hydrogen vehicle cylinder during the fast filling process will be observed,while the strength and fatigue life of the cylinder will dramatically decrease at high temperature.In order to evaluate the strength and fatigue of composite hydrogen storage vessel,a 70-MPa fatigue test system using hydrogen medium was set up.Experimental study on the fatigue of composite hydrogen storage vessels under real hydrogen environment was performed.The experimental results show that the ultimate strength and fatigue life both decreased obviously compared with the values under hydraulic fatigue test.Furthermore,fatigue property,failure behavior,and safe hydrogen charging/discharging working mode of onboard hydrogen storage vessels were obtained through the fatigue tests.

  4. SSE software test management STM capability: Using STM in the Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Victor E.; Long, D.; Hartenstein, Ray; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1992-01-01

    This report is one of a series discussing configuration management (CM) topics for Space Station ground systems software development. It provides a description of the Software Support Environment (SSE)-developed Software Test Management (STM) capability, and discusses the possible use of this capability for management of developed software during testing performed on target platforms. This is intended to supplement the formal documentation of STM provided by the SEE Project. How STM can be used to integrate contractor CM and formal CM for software before delivery to operations is described. STM provides a level of control that is flexible enough to support integration and debugging, but sufficiently rigorous to insure the integrity of the testing process.

  5. Gray QB-sing-faced version 2 (SF2) open environment test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Immel, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Bobbitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Negron, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This report details the design upgrades incorporated into the new version of the GrayQbTM SF2 device and the characterization testing of this upgraded device. Results from controlled characterization testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) R&D Engineering Imaging and Radiation Lab (IRL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) is presented, as well as results from the open environment field testing performed in the E-Area Low Level Waste Storage Area. Resultant images presented in this report were generated using the SRNL developed Radiation Analyzer (RAzerTM) software program which overlays the radiation contour images onto the visual image of the location being surveyed.

  6. EFFECT OF TESTING ENVIRONMENT ON FRACTURING BEHAVIOR OF Fe3Si BASED ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H. Peng; G.L. Chen

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of Fe3Si based alloy with B2 structure was studied by tensionand fracture toughness test in various testing media. The fracture strength σb ofFe3Si alloy decreased in the following order: oxygen, air and hydrogen respectively.The fracture toughness in different testing environment showed that KiC in oxygenis 11.5±0.3MPa. m1/2, and is 8.6±0.4MPa. m1/2 in distilled water. The reductionof fracture toughness is contributed to the environmental reaction of Si with water.Addition of Al element in Fe3Si is not beneficial to improve the intrinsic ductility ofFe-14Si-3Al alloy. The scattering phenomenon of fracture strength was found, andexplained by fracture mechanics. It was found by means of SEM that the fracture modechanged from transgranular in oxygen to intergranular in hydrogen gas and distilledwater.

  7. Using pathology-specific laboratory profiles in Clinical Pathology to reduce inappropriate test requesting: two completed audit cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baricchi Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews have shown that, although well prepared, the Consensus Guidelines have failed to change clinical practice. In the healthcare district of Castelnovo né Monti (Reggio Emilia, Italy, it became necessary for the GPs and Clinical Pathologists to work together to jointly define laboratory profiles. Methods Observational study with two cycles of retrospective audit on test request forms, in a primary care setting. Objectives of the study were to develop pathology-specific laboratory profiles and to increase the number of provisional diagnoses on laboratory test request forms. A Multiprofessional Multidisciplinary Inter-hospital Work Team developed pathology-specific laboratory profiles for more effective test requesting. After 8 training sessions that used a combined strategy with multifaceted interventions, the 23 General Practitioners (GPs in the trial district (Castelnovo nè Monti tested the profiles; the 21 GPs in the Puianello district were the control group; all GPs in both districts participated in the trial. All laboratory tests for both healthcare districts are performed at the Laboratory located in the trial district. A baseline and a 1-year audit were performed in both districts on the GPs’ request forms. Results Seven pathology-specific laboratory profiles for outpatients were developed. In the year after the first audit cycle: 1 the number of tests requested in the trial district was distinctly lower than that in the previous year, with a decrease of about 5% (p  Conclusions The first audit cycle showed a significant decrease in the number of tests ordered only in the trial district. The combined strategy used in this study improved the prescriptive compliance of most of the GPs involved. The presence of the clinical pathologist is seen as an added value.

  8. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of BDM/CNGD Well 3997, Lee District, Calhoun County, West Virginia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, casing, completing, and stimulating the Hunter Bennett No. 3997 well located in Lee District, Calhoun County West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with CNG Development Company. The well was spudded on November 9, 1990, and drilling was completed on December 14, 1990. The well was drilled on an average asmuth of 312 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2459 feet. The well was turned to a 90 degree inclination from the vertical over a measured course length of 1216 feet. Approximately 1381 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2179 feet had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Each zone is a little more than 300 feet long. The well was stimulated with nitrogen gas in zones one and two. Early production results are encouraging. The BDM/CNGD horizontal well averaged 147 mcfd of gas over the first week of production and, in week five, began to produce oil at a rate of about 2 bbl/day.

  9. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of BDM/CNGD Well 3997, Lee District, Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, casing, completing, and stimulating the Hunter Bennett No. 3997 well located in Lee District, Calhoun County West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with CNG Development Company. The well was spudded on November 9, 1990, and drilling was completed on December 14, 1990. The well was drilled on an average asmuth of 312 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2459 feet. The well was turned to a 90 degree inclination from the vertical over a measured course length of 1216 feet. Approximately 1381 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2179 feet had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Each zone is a little more than 300 feet long. The well was stimulated with nitrogen gas in zones one and two. Early production results are encouraging. The BDM/CNGD horizontal well averaged 147 mcfd of gas over the first week of production and, in week five, began to produce oil at a rate of about 2 bbl/day.

  10. The use of existing denture-satisfaction ratings for a diagnostic test to indicate prognosis with newly delivered complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yasuhiko; Matsumaru, Yuichi; Kanno, Kyoko; Kawase, Mitsuaki; Kawase, Mitsuo; Shu, Kazuyoshi; Izawa, Takeshi; Gunji, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Kihei

    2009-10-01

    The study investigated the relation between subjective satisfaction ratings of existing dentures and outcomes of newly delivered dentures, and the ability of the diagnostic test, using existing ratings, to indicate prognosis with newly delivered dentures. Consecutive 165 edentulous patients were recruited from November 2001 to August 2006 at a university-affiliated hospital. Dentures were fabricated with an acrylic base with full-balanced occlusion using hard resin artificial teeth by multiple prosthodontists. At the baseline and 3-month after delivery, patients rate their overall, maxillary, and mandibular satisfaction for existing and replaced dentures on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The association between baseline ratings and newly delivered dentures was analyzed by regression analysis. The test's performance was measured by constructing a two-by-two table; patients with the following cutoff values on the VAS (overall: dentures. Relative validity of the diagnostic tests was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Mandibular dentures showed a significant association between baseline and new dentures (coefficient=0.27, p=0.01). Results of test measures for overall, maxillary, and mandibular existing dentures were 71%, 38%, and 87% (sensitivity); 62%, 66%, and 49% (specificity); and 1.1, 1.9, and 1.7 (positive likelihood), and 0.5, 1.0, and 0.2 (negative likelihood). Test performance indicates that the negative (satisfied) result for mandibular existing dentures may be useful to rule out the unsatisfied patients with new mandibular dentures.

  11. S-2 stage 1/25 scale model base region thermal environment test. Volume 1: Test results, comparison with theory and flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadunas, J. A.; French, E. P.; Sexton, H.

    1973-01-01

    A 1/25 scale model S-2 stage base region thermal environment test is presented. Analytical results are included which reflect the effect of engine operating conditions, model scale, turbo-pump exhaust gas injection on base region thermal environment. Comparisons are made between full scale flight data, model test data, and analytical results. The report is prepared in two volumes. The description of analytical predictions and comparisons with flight data are presented. Tabulation of the test data is provided.

  12. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  13. LiveView3D: Real Time Data Visualization for the Aerospace Testing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses LiveView3D, a software package and associated data visualization system for use in the aerospace testing environment. The LiveView3D system allows researchers to graphically view data from numerous wind tunnel instruments in real time in an interactive virtual environment. The graphical nature of the LiveView3D display provides researchers with an intuitive view of the measurement data, making it easier to interpret the aerodynamic phenomenon under investigation. LiveView3D has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center and has been applied in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). This paper discusses the capabilities of the LiveView3D system, provides example results from its application in the UPWT, and outlines features planned for future implementation.

  14. Methodological issues in product evaluation: the influence of testing environment and task scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Sonderegger, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the utility of two commonly used approaches in the evaluation of interactive consumer products: lab-based testing and single task scenarios. These are compared to two more complex and resource-demanding approaches (field-based testing and dual task scenarios) with regard to the test results they produce. An experiment with N = 80 users was carried out, employing a 2 (laboratory vs. field) by 2 (single task vs. dual task scenario) by 2 (on-product information: present vs. absent) between-subjects design. On-product information (advising users to save water and electricity during kettle usage) represented the intervention, of which the effects on user behaviour were compared under the different experimental conditions. The main finding was that the impact of on-product information on user behaviour was strongest in the lab-based testing environment using a single task scenario (i.e., most economical testing condition), compared to the three other experimental conditions. The work found similar effects for self-report measures. The findings of the study point to the risk that the effects of system redesign on user behaviour may be overestimated if low-fidelity testing approaches are employed. The relevance of these findings for other application areas is also discussed (e.g., design of warnings).

  15. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  16. Effects of Concept Map Extraction and a Test-Based Diagnostic Environment on Learning Achievement and Learners' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Liew, Keng-Hou; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Computerised testing and diagnostics are critical challenges within an e-learning environment, where the learners can assess their learning performance through tests. However, a test result based on only a single score is insufficient information to provide a full picture of learning performance. In addition, because test results implicitly…

  17. Electromagnetic environments in roadways of underground coal mines and a novel testing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic environment of laneways in underground coal mines is an important area for the design of new electronic products,as well as a fundamental space for mine monitoring,surveillance,communications and control systems.An investigation of electromagnetic interference in coal mines is essential for the enhancement of performances of these systems.In this study,a new field method is provided in which radiated emission tests in coal mine laneways have been carried out.We conclude that:1) the wirin...

  18. Three Applications of Automated Test Assembly within a User-Friendly Modeling Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Cor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While linear programming is a common tool in business and industry, there have not been many applications in educational assessment and only a handful of individuals have been actively involved in conducting psychometric research in this area. Perhaps this is due, at least in part, to the complexity of existing software packages. This article presents three applications of linear programming to automate test assembly using an add-in to Microsoft Excel 2007. These increasingly complex examples permit the reader to readily see and manipulate the programming objectives and constraints within a familiar modeling environment. A spreadsheet used in this demonstration is available for downloading.

  19. A CAMAC and FASTBUS engineering test environment supported by a MicroVAX/MicroVMS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logg, C.A.

    1987-10-01

    A flexible, multiuser engineering test environment has been established for the engineers in SLAC's Electronic Instrumentation Engineering group. The system hardware includes a standard MicroVAX II and MicroVAX I with multiple CAMAC, FASTBUS, and GPIB instrumentation buses. The system software components include MicroVMS licenses with DECNET/SLACNET, FORTRAN, PASCAL, FORTH, and a versatile graphical display package. In addition, there are several software utilities available to facilitate FASTBUS and CAMAC prototype hardware debugging. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    in turn influences individual workers understanding of their job function. These two mechanisms are reinforcing each other and lead to better performance, lower employee turnover and sick days compared to the other customer centers. The model is then tested statistically and verified....... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...

  1. Method, apparatus and system for managing queue operations of a test bench environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Farrell Lynn

    2016-07-19

    Techniques and mechanisms for performing dequeue operations for agents of a test bench environment. In an embodiment, a first group of agents are each allocated a respective ripe reservation and a second set of agents are each allocated a respective unripe reservation. Over time, queue management logic allocates respective reservations to agents and variously changes one or more such reservations from unripe to ripe. In another embodiment, an order of servicing agents allocated unripe reservations is based on relative priorities of the unripe reservations with respect to one another. An order of servicing agents allocated ripe reservations is on a first come, first served basis.

  2. Accelerated IGA/SCC testing of Alloy 600 in contaminated PWR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglin, B.P.; Sarver, J.M. [Babcock & Wilcox R& D Division, Alliance, OH (United States); Aoki, K. [NFI, Osaka (Japan); Koch, D.W. [Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Takamatsu, H. [Kansai Electric, Osaka (Japan)

    1992-12-31

    An accelerated corrosion test (360{degrees}C for 2000 hrs) was performed on C-ring specimens machined from one heat of Alloy 600 tubing in the mill-annealed condition. The specimens were exposed to secondary-side pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) solutions contaminated with lead, sulfur, silicon, and a combination of these contaminants. Where possible, MULTEQ calculations were performed to determine the chemical concentrations so that a constant elevated-temperature pH of 4.5 was achieved. This test was designed to examine the ability of these contaminants to cause intergranular attack and/or stress corrosion in stressed Alloy 600 tubing. The results from this test demonstrated that under the test conditions used, lead-contaminated PWR secondary water induces and propagates intergranular attack (IGA) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Alloy 600. Attack was intergranular; the degree of attack did not vary in the liquid or vapor portions of the test environments. Although attack was more severe at higher stresses, significant attack was observed in samples stressed to the typical operating stress. Solutions of only sulfur and only silicon displayed no initiation or propagation of either IGA or SCC. However, the solution containing all three contaminants caused attack with identical morphology to that observed in the lead-contaminated solution.

  3. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ADAMS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS. The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains on-board satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC Weather Office for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE. The goal of the GEMSTONE project was to build and field-test a small system of prototype probes in the Earth’s atmosphere. This paper summarizes the 9-month GEMSTONE project (Sep 2006 – May 2007 including probe and system engineering as well as experiment design and data analysis from laboratory and field tests. These tests revealed issues with reliability, sensor accuracy, electronics miniaturization, and sub-system optimization. Nevertheless, the success of the third and final free flight test provides a solid foundation to move forward in follow on projects addressing these issues as highlighted in the technology roadmap for future GEMS development.

  4. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Saldana well No. 2, Zapata County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-07

    The Saldana Well No. 2, approximately 35 miles Southeast of the city of Laredo, Texas, was the sixth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the DOE Wells of Opportunity Program. The well was tested through the annulus between 7-inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. The interval tested was from 9745 to 9820 feet. The geological section was the 1st Hinnant Sand, an upper member of the Wilcox Group. Produced water was injected into the Saldana Well No. 1, which was also acquired from Riddle Oil Company and converted to a disposal well. A Miocene salt water sand was perforated from 3005 to 3100 feet for disposal. One pressure drawdown flow test and one pressure buildup test were conducted during a 10-day period. A total of 9328 barrels of water was produced. The highest sustained flow rate was 1950 BWPD.

  5. Test environments for the GRACE follow-on laser ranging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görth, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Gohlke, M.; Rasch, S.; Abich, K.; Braxmaier, C.; Heinzel, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the year 2017 a follow-on mission to the very successful joint German/US mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) will be launched. As of this day the two GRACE satellites have successfully been mapping the spatial and temporal varitations of the gravitational field of the Earth by satellite-to-satellite tracking for over a decade. The main science instrument on GRACE and its successor mission GRACE Follow-On which is used to measure the inter-satellite distance changes is a microwave link sensor. However, an additional instrument, the laser ranging interferometer (LRI), will be implemented into the architecture of the GRACE Follow-On satellites as a technology demonstrator. In this paper we will give a brief overview of a fiber-based test environment which is currently used during the assembly, integration and test of the LRI flight hardware.

  6. Psychometric Testing of the Greek Version of the Clinical Learning Environment-Teacher (CLES+T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Dimitriadou, Maria; Tsangari, Haritini

    2016-01-01

    Clinical practice is an important part of nursing education, and robust instruments are required to evaluate the effectiveness of the hospital setting as a learning environment. The study aim is the psychometric test of the Clinical Learning Environment+Teacher (CLES+T) scale-Greek version.: 463 students practicing in acute care hospitals participated in the study. The reliability of the instrument was estimated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. The construct validity was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Varimax rotation. Convergent validity was examined by measuring the bivariate correlations between the scale/subscales. Content, validity and semantic equivalence were examined through reviews by a panel of experts. The total scale showed high internal consistency (α=0.95). EFA was identical to the original scale, had eigen values larger than one and explained a total of 67.4% of the variance. The factor with the highest eigen value and the largest percentage of variance explained was “supervisory relationship”, with an original eigenvalue of 13.1 (6.8 after Varimax rotation) and an explanation of around 38% of the variance (or 20% after rotation). Convergent validity was examined by measuring the bivariate correlations between the scale and a question that measured the general satisfaction. The Greek version of the CLES+T is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to examine students’ perceptions of the clinical learning environment. PMID:26652075

  7. ITE:IP电话测试环境%ITE:AN ENVIRONMENT FOR TESTING IP PHONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钶; 谢忠诚; 鞠九滨

    2001-01-01

    In developing an IP phone, the testing of its functions,performance, and interoperability is essential. Speech quality, number of users supported and interoperability of various IP phone systems operated in the same environment may be different. Unfortunately, there isn't a standard method to evaluate different IP phone systems yet. The details of an environment for testing IP phones (ITE) developed and its applications are described in this paper.%IP电话开发过程中,对开发的IP电话系统的功能、性能和互通性等的测试是不可缺少的环节.在同一应用环境中的不同IP电话的话音质量、支持的用户规模和互通性等各方面可能是不同的.目前还没有一个标准的方法对各种IP电话系统作出评价.介绍了研制的一个IP电话测试环境ITE的实现细节和初步的应用情况.

  8. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  9. Testing a Scandinavian Biodiversity Assessment Tool in an African Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Antje; Kyläkorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt; Schneeweiss, Rainer

    2008-10-01

    Life cycle assessment-based environmental product declarations (EPDs) require the inclusion of biodiversity impacts across the entire supply chain. The objective of this study is to test the applicability of a Scandinavian biodiversity assessment tool, developed specifically for use with EPD applications, in an African desert environment, linking the industry types power generation and mining. For this purpose, a GIS-based spatial analysis tool—the biotope method—was adapted to a framework approach which allowed the selection of more suitable, site-specific biodiversity indicators. The biotope method provides a step-by-step process of defining system boundaries, mapping biotopes, categorizing biotopes based on site-specific indicators, and evaluating change in biotope status “before” and “after” the impact. The development of site-specific indicators was piloted in this study and determined by the affected ecosystem and the status of knowledge on biodiversity in this geographic area. Thus plants were used as indicators for biodiversity, and red-list status and endemism constituted the prime criteria for conservation value of plants. This in turn represented the key criterion for classifying biotopes. The tested biodiversity assessment tool has potential for application in different environments and operational settings but leaves room for improvement by including secondary impacts in the assessment and using a wider range of taxa for indicators of biodiversity.

  10. Corrosion Testing of Ni Alloy HVOF Coatings in High Temperature Environments for Biomass Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Harvey, M. D. F.

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the corrosion behavior of Ni alloy coatings deposited by high velocity oxyfuel spraying, and representative boiler substrate alloys in simulated high temperature biomass combustion conditions. Four commercially available oxidation resistant Ni alloy coating materials were selected: NiCrBSiFe, alloy 718, alloy 625, and alloy C-276. These were sprayed onto P91 substrates using a JP5000 spray system. The corrosion performance of the coatings varied when tested at ~525, 625, and 725 °C in K2SO4-KCl mixture and gaseous HCl-H2O-O2 containing environments. Alloy 625, NiCrBSiFe, and alloy 718 coatings performed better than alloy C-276 coating at 725 °C, which had very little corrosion resistance resulting in degradation similar to uncoated P91. Alloy 625 coatings provided good protection from corrosion at 725 °C, with the performance being comparable to wrought alloy 625, with significantly less attack of the substrate than uncoated P91. Alloy 625 performs best of these coating materials, with an overall ranking at 725 °C as follows: alloy 625 > NiCrBSiFe > alloy 718 ≫ alloy C-276. Although alloy C-276 coatings performed poorly in the corrosion test environment at 725 °C, at lower temperatures (i.e., below the eutectic temperature of the salt mixture) it outperformed the other coating types studied.

  11. In situ Shear Tests of Soil Samples with Grass Roots in Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Comino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The presence of vegetation increases the soil burden stability along slopes and reduces soil erosion. Its contribution is due to mechanical (reinforcing soil shear resistance and hydrologic controls on streambank and superficial landslides. This study presented the results carried out from experimental in situ test focused to study the increased shear resistance of soil blocks due to root-reinforcement. A shear apparatus was set up in order to realize the measure. Approach: In this research the researchers tested the capacity root reinforcement of Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis (Poaceae families, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratensis and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae families grass species widespread in the Alpine environment. Results: In situ shear tests results revealed that grass roots fail progressively and their tendency were to slip, without failing. Shear-strengths calculated for root-reinforced soil with Fabaceae, yielded values between 19 and 166% higher than directly measured shear-strengths in soil with no roots. The shear displacement had an increase included between 493 and 1.900%. The shear time was always superior. The clod with roots, after the trials, were always packed together. Conclusion: These data were lower than those obtained with Poaceae tests (from 50-318%, but the two grass families were functional for a grass mix useful in technical seeding.

  12. An Assessment of the January 2007 Chinese ASAT Test on the LEO Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talent, D.

    Over the past several decades there has been increasing concern regarding the growth of the orbital debris population in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Even under the best of circumstances the debris population may be expected to increase under conditions of ambient use by the space-faring nations of the world. It is easy to see that such a situation will obtain since the operational lifetimes of most on-orbit systems are typically less than a decade, while their orbital lifetimes may be many decades to hundreds of years or more. Historically, very little has been done regarding the removal of defunct orbital systems. Making matters worse, there have been many cases of spontaneous explosion of derelict upper stages on orbit. In such an event, a single large "hazard to navigation" becomes hundreds to thousands of pieces of orbiting shrapnel. As the numbers of debris objects increases, for whatever reason, so does the threat of collision with high-value operational assets. Thus, given the importance of minimizing orbital debris in LEO, it is obvious that any nation conducting anti-satellite (ASAT) tests should do so in a responsible fashion - minimizing the long-term deposition of large numbers of orbital debris objects at operational LEO altitudes. It is the thesis of this paper that the January 2007 ASAT test conducted by the Chinese government was particularly careless in this regard. In support of this statement, Oceanit's LEO environment model, PODEM (patented in 2004), was employed. The Chinese ASAT test was conducted successfully at an altitude of about 850 km producing large numbers of debris objects. Results, based on an approximation to this recent event, utilizing the PODEM model, suggest that meter-size debris pieces may remain in the LEO environment for hundreds of years. By contrast, debris ranging in size from one to several centimeters may be expected to drift down, due to drag, through lower LEO altitudes producing a transient spike in hazard

  13. A sentence completion procedure as an alternative to the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing overgeneral memory in non-clinical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk; Williams, J Mark G; Eelen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for depression (Williams et al., 2007) or depressive reactivity to stressful life-events (e.g., Gibbs & Rude, 2004). Traditionally, a cue word procedure known as the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) is used to assess OGM. Although frequently and validly used in clinical populations, there is evidence suggesting that the AMT is insufficiently sensitive to measure OGM in non-clinical groups. Study 1 evaluated the usefulness of a sentence completion method to assess OGM in non-clinical groups, as an alternative to the AMT. Participants were 197 students who completed the AMT, the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT), a depression measure, and visual analogue scales assessing ruminative thinking. Results showed that the mean proportion of overgeneral responses was markedly higher for the SCEPT than for the standard AMT. Also, overgeneral responding on the SCEPT was positively associated to depression scores and depressive rumination scores, whereas overgeneral responding on the AMT was not. Results suggest that the SCEPT, relative to the AMT, is a more sensitive instrument to measure OGM, at least in non-clinical populations. Study 2 further showed that this enhanced sensitivity is most likely due to the omission of the instruction to be specific rather than to the SCEPT's sentence completion format (as opposed to free recall to cue words).

  14. Morphological observation of embryoid bodies completes the in vitro evaluation of nanomaterial embryotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test (EST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Sara; Dakou, Eleni; Yadav, Ajay; Thomassen, Leen C J; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Leyns, Luc

    2015-10-01

    The wide and frequent use of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) raises serious concerns about their safety for human health. Our aim is to evaluate the embryotoxic potential of silver, uncoated and coated zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and silica NMs through the embryonic stem cell test (EST). EST is a validated in vitro assay that permits classification of chemicals into three classes (non, weakly or strongly embryotoxic). Because of the peculiar physico-chemical characteristics of NMs, we first adapted and simplified the differentiation protocol. To verify the efficiency of this adapted protocol we screened 3 well-characterized chemicals (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea and saccharin). Next, we assessed the embryotoxic potential of NMs. Our data showed that silver NM is classified as a strong embryotoxic compound, while coated and uncoated zinc oxide, titanium and silica NMs as weak embryotoxic compounds. In addition, we observed daily the formation and growth of embryoid bodies (EBs). We showed that multiple EBs formed in each well starting from 50 μg/ml of SiO2 while EB formation was inhibited starting from 20 μg/ml of ZnO NMs. This has never been reported with chemicals and could pose a risk of wrongly evaluating the NMs embryotoxic potential. For NMs, morphological observation of EBs can provide valuable information on early differentiation effects. Finally, we suggest that the prediction model should be revised for the assessment of NMs embryotoxicity.

  15. QUEST/Ada (Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada): The development of a prgram analysis environment for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of research and development efforts are described for Task one, Phase two of a general project entitled The Development of a Program Analysis Environment for Ada. The scope of this task includes the design and development of a prototype system for testing Ada software modules at the unit level. The system is called Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada (QUEST/Ada). The prototype for condition coverage provides a platform that implements expert system interaction with program testing. The expert system can modify data in the instrument source code in order to achieve coverage goals. Given this initial prototype, it is possible to evaluate the rule base in order to develop improved rules for test case generation. The goals of Phase two are the following: (1) to continue to develop and improve the current user interface to support the other goals of this research effort (i.e., those related to improved testing efficiency and increased code reliable); (2) to develop and empirically evaluate a succession of alternative rule bases for the test case generator such that the expert system achieves coverage in a more efficient manner; and (3) to extend the concepts of the current test environment to address the issues of Ada concurrency.

  16. First functionality tests of a 64 × 64 pixel DSSC sensor module connected to the complete ladder readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, M.; Hansen, K.; Kalavakuru, P.; Kirchgessner, M.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.; Reckleben, C.; Turcato, M.

    2017-03-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide every 0.1 s a train of 2700 spatially coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses at 4.5 MHz repetition rate. The Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument and the Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering instrument (SCS) operate with soft X-rays between 0.5 keV-6 keV. The DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector is being developed to meet the requirements set by these two XFEL.EU instruments. The DSSC imager is a 1 mega-pixel camera able to store up to 800 single-pulse images per train. The so-called ladder is the basic unit of the DSSC detector. It is the single unit out of sixteen identical-units composing the DSSC-megapixel camera, containing all representative electronic components of the full-size system and allows testing the full electronic chain. Each DSSC ladder has a focal plane sensor with 128× 512 pixels. The read-out ASIC provides full-parallel readout of the sensor pixels. Every read-out channel contains an amplifier and an analog filter, an up-to 9 bit ADC and the digital memory. The ASIC amplifier have a double front-end to allow one to use either DEPFET sensors or Mini-SDD sensors. In the first case, the signal compression is a characteristic intrinsic of the sensor; in the second case, the compression is implemented at the first amplification stage. The goal of signal compression is to meet the requirement of single-photon detection capability and wide dynamic range. We present the first results of measurements obtained using a 64× 64 pixel DEPFET sensor attached to the full final electronic and data-acquisition chain.

  17. Liquid-Air Interface Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hicks, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-30

    Coupon tests on A537 carbon steel materials were conducted to evaluate the Liquid-Air Interface (LAI) corrosion susceptibility in a series of solutions designed to simulate conditions in the radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Nuclear Facility. The new stress corrosion cracking requirements and the impact of ammonia on LAI corrosion were the primary focus. The minimum R value (i.e., molar ratio of nitrite to nitrate) of 0.15 specified by the new stress corrosion cracking requirements was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion at the LAI. The pH of the test solutions was 10, which was actually less than the required pH 11 defined by the new requirements. These tests examined the effect of the variation of the pH due to hydroxide depletion at the liquid air interface. The pits from the current testing ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 inch in solutions with nitrate concentrations of 0.4 M and 2.0 M. The pitting and general attack that occurred progressed over the four-months. No significant pitting was observed, however, for a solution with a nitrate concentration of 4.5 M. The pitting depths observed in these partial immersion tests in unevaporated condensates ranged from 0.001 to 0.005 inch after 4 months. The deeper pits were in simulants with low R values. Simulants with R values of approximately 0.6 to 0.8 appeared to significantly reduce the degree of attack. Although, the ammonia did not completely eliminate attack at the LAI, the amount of corrosion in an extremely corrosive solution was significantly reduced. Only light general attack (< 1 mil) occurred on the coupon in the vicinity of the LAI. The concentration of ammonia (i.e., 50 ppm or 500 ppm) did not have a strong effect.

  18. Does Math Self-Efficacy Mediate the Effect of the Perceived Classroom Environment on Standardized Math Test Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Lisa A.; Lewis, James L.; Bryant, Michael J.; Bocian, Kathleen A.; Cardullo, Richard A.; Rettig, Michael; Hammond, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effect of the perceived classroom environment on math self-efficacy and the effect of math self-efficacy on standardized math test performance. Upper elementary school students (N = 1,163) provided self-reports of their perceived math self-efficacy and the degree to which their math classroom environment was mastery oriented,…

  19. Optimizing cyanobacteria growth conditions in a sealed environment to enable chemical inhibition tests with volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J; Zahler, Jacob D; Baldwin, Emily L; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2016-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are currently being engineered to photosynthetically produce next-generation biofuels and high-value chemicals. Many of these chemicals are highly toxic to cyanobacteria, thus strains with increased tolerance need to be developed. The volatility of these chemicals may necessitate that experiments be conducted in a sealed environment to maintain chemical concentrations. Therefore, carbon sources such as NaHCO3 must be used for supporting cyanobacterial growth instead of CO2 sparging. The primary goal of this study was to determine the optimal initial concentration of NaHCO3 for use in growth trials, as well as if daily supplementation of NaHCO3 would allow for increased growth. The secondary goal was to determine the most accurate method to assess growth of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in a sealed environment with low biomass titers and small sample volumes. An initial concentration of 0.5g/L NaHCO3 was found to be optimal for cyanobacteria growth, and fed-batch additions of NaHCO3 marginally improved growth. A separate study determined that a sealed test tube environment is necessary to maintain stable titers of volatile chemicals in solution. This study also showed that a SYTO® 9 fluorescence-based assay for cell viability was superior for monitoring filamentous cyanobacterial growth compared to absorbance, chlorophyll α (chl a) content, and biomass content due to its accuracy, small sampling size (100μL), and high throughput capabilities. Therefore, in future chemical inhibition trials, it is recommended that 0.5g/L NaHCO3 is used as the carbon source, and that culture viability is monitored via the SYTO® 9 fluorescence-based assay that requires minimum sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the Microbial Community Composition at Yucca Mountain and Laboratory Test Nuclear Repository Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J; Carrillo, C; Dias, V

    2002-10-09

    The microbiological community structure within a proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV was determined. Microbial growth from collected rock was detected using simulated ground water as a growth medium, with or without amendment of a carbon source. Grown isolates were identified by 16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis. A more complete compositional analysis of the microbial community located at the proposed nuclear waste repository site was performed using environmental DNA isolation and subsequent identification of amplified 16s rDNA genes. Concurrently, a series of corrosion testing tanks that simulate the evolution of anticipated environmental conditions within the proposed repository have been subjected to the same type of analyses.

  1. Testing of a technique for remotely measuring water salinity in an estuarine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    An aircraft experiment was flown on November 7, 1973 to test a technique for remote water salinity measurement. Apparent temperatures at 21 cm and 8-14 micron wavelengths were recorded on eight runs over a line along which the salinity varied from 5 to 30%. Boat measurements were used for calibration and accuracy calculations. Overall RMS accuracy over the complete range of salinities was 3.6%. Overall RMS accuracy for salinities greater than 10%, where the technique is more sensitive, was 2.6%. Much of this error is believed to be due to inability to exactly locate boat and aircraft positions. The standard deviation over the eight runs for salinities or = 10% is 1.4%; this error contains a component due to mislocation of the aircraft also. It is believed that operational use of the technique is possible with accuracies of 1-2%.

  2. Analysis, testing, and control of telescope's high-precision drive system in low-temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fu-Jia; Zhang, Jian; Wen, Hai-Kun

    2014-07-01

    Antarctic is perfect site for astronomic observatory. But Antarctic also challenge the telescope design because of low temperature. The low temperature can impact characterization of telescope control system, especially for drive system. The following phenomenon can be produced due to low temperature. 1. The viscosity of grease will increase. 2. The clearance of bearing and gear will decrease. These two factors can lead to the increase in load torque of drive system with temperature drop. This would cause the bad tracking accuracy and low speed creeping. In order to overcome the impact of low temperature and improve the telescope's track accuracy. In this paper, we describe some methods to overcome the effect of low temperature. First, the motor's electromagnetism and lubrication in low temperature are analyzed. It shows that motor's electromagnetism is little affected by temperature if the suitable material is selected. But the characterization of grease change dramatically with temperature. Second, the other lubricant material, solid lubricant, instead of lubricating grease is proposed. Contrasting experiment on two lubricant material proved that the solid lubricant is better than lubricating grease in low temperature environment. Third, besides the mechanical solution, a method from control point view is proposed to reduce the temperature influence. In this paper, the friction feedforward algorithm is used to compensate the torque change. Laboratory testing results will be presented verifying that friction feedforward can increase the tracking accuracy in low temperature environment.

  3. Fear responses to novelty in testing environments are related to day-to-day activity in the home environment in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacKay, J.R.D.; Haskell, M.J.; Deag, J.M.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural tests for cattle take time to perform and can be stressful for the animals but are currently the only way of assessing behavioural reactions to fear-causing stimuli in a standardised manner. It may be possible to use behavioural data collected remotely in the home pen environment through

  4. Fear responses to novelty in testing environments are related to day-to-day activity in the home environment in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacKay, J.R.D.; Haskell, M.J.; Deag, J.M.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural tests for cattle take time to perform and can be stressful for the animals but are currently the only way of assessing behavioural reactions to fear-causing stimuli in a standardised manner. It may be possible to use behavioural data collected remotely in the home pen environment through

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEST METHODS OF THE CONVEYOR BELTS USED IN ENVIRONMENTS ENDANGERED BY EXPLOSION HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  6. Simulate different environments TDLAS On the analysis of the test signal strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    TDLAS system is the use of the wavelength tuning characteristics of the laser diode, for detecting the absorption spectrum of the gas absorption line. Detecting the gas space, temperature, pressure and flow rate and concentration. The use of laboratory techniques TDLAS gas detection, experimental simulation engine combustion water vapor and smoke. using an optical lens system receives the signal acquisition and signal interference test analysis. Analog water vapor and smoke in two different environments in the sample pool interference. In both experiments environmental interference gas absorption in the optical signal acquisition, signal amplitude variation analysis, and records related to the signal data. In order to study site conditions in the engine combustion process for signal acquisition provides an ideal experimental data .

  7. Effect of empowerment on professional practice environments, work satisfaction, and patient care quality: further testing the Nursing Worklife Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Leiter and Laschinger's Nursing Worklife Model linking structural empowerment to Lake's 5-factor professional practice work environment model and work quality outcomes. A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 234 staff nurses. The analysis revealed that professional practice environment characteristics mediated the relationship between structurally empowering work conditions and both job satisfaction and nurse-assessed patient care quality.

  8. MAOA genotype, social exclusion and aggression: an experimental test of a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Pujol, D; Andrés-Pueyo, A; Maydeu-Olivares, A

    2013-02-01

    In 2002, Caspi and colleagues provided the first epidemiological evidence that genotype may moderate individuals' responses to environmental determinants. However, in a correlational study great care must be taken to ensure the proper estimation of the causal relationship. Here, a randomized experiment was performed to test the hypothesis that the MAOA gene promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with environmental adversity in determining aggressive behavior using laboratory analogs of real-life conditions. A sample of 57 Caucasian male students of Catalan and Spanish origin was recruited at the University of Barcelona. Ostracism, or social exclusion, was induced as environmental adversity using the Cyberball software. Laboratory aggression was assessed with the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), which was used as an analog of antisocial behavior. We also measured aggressiveness by means of the reduced version of the Aggression Questionnaire. The MAOA-LPR polymorphism showed a significant effect on the number of aggressive responses in the PSAP (F(1,53) = 4.63, P = 0.03, partial η(2) = 0.08), as well as social exclusion (F(1,53) = 8.03, P = 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.13). Most notably, however, we found that the MAOA-LPR polymorphism interacts significantly with social exclusion in order to provoke aggressive behavior (F(1,53) = 4.42, P = 0.04, partial η(2) = 0.08), remarkably, the low-activity allele of the MAOA-LPR polymorphism carriers in the ostracized group show significantly higher aggression scores than the rest. Our results support the notion that gene-environment interactions can be successfully reproduced within a laboratory using analogs and an appropriate design. We provide guidelines to test gene-environment interactions hypotheses under controlled, experimental settings.

  9. Stability of fruit quality traits in diverse watermelon cultivars tested in multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html.

  10. Stability of fruit quality traits in diverse watermelon cultivars tested in multiple environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html. PMID:28066557

  11. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steve P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Center of gravity (CG) is likely to be an important variable in astronaut performance during partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA). The Apollo Lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance Project (EPSP) in conjunction with the Constellation EVA Systems Project Office have developed plans to systematically understand the role of suit weight, CG and suit pressure on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments. This presentation based upon CG studies seeks to understand the impact of varied CG on human performance in lunar gravity.

  12. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data For the Environment Ageing of Coflon (PVDF). Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    This report aims to identify correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological structure changes for Coflon. It is intended both to illustrate the overall methodology and to indicate the testing that needs to be undertaken in order to obtain correlations. Many fluid exposures have now been carried out on Coflon during the project and many data generated as a result. The report summarises the changes observed in mechanical and physical properties and relates these as well as possible to the chemistry thought to be occurring during ageing. For this purpose, data have been collated from already-issued MERL and TRI technical and progress reports. Most of the mechanical testing of aged testpieces has been performed soon after the completion of the exposure; however, there is of necessity a delay in obtaining chemical analysis of the same testpieces, so that more physical than chemical data are shown. Three fluids have so far caused measurable deterioration of Coflon, these being: methanol (Fluid A), a methanol and amine mixture (Fluid G), and a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen sulphide gas plus aqueous amine (Fluid F). Only the effects of these fluids will be dealt with in any detail in this report, although other fluids are assessed to give relevant background information. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, mode of sample failure at break, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate and resistance, stress relaxation rate, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity and molecular weight distributions together with changes in fluorine levels, and other observations where appropriate. However, not all of these were obtained for every ageing condition. Because of the wide range of tests employed, and the different ways in which their results are obtained, the following section has been included to serve as a background for making comparisons.

  13. Characterization of the Scale Model Acoustic Test Overpressure Environment using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tanner; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale test of the Space Launch System (SLS), which is currently being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The purpose of this test is to characterize and understand a variety of acoustic phenomena that occur during the early portions of lift off, one being the overpressure environment that develops shortly after booster ignition. The pressure waves that propagate from the mobile launcher (ML) exhaust hole are defined as the ignition overpressure (IOP), while the portion of the pressure waves that exit the duct or trench are the duct overpressure (DOP). Distinguishing the IOP and DOP in scale model test data has been difficult in past experiences and in early SMAT results, due to the effects of scaling the geometry. The speed of sound of the air and combustion gas constituents is not scaled, and therefore the SMAT pressure waves propagate at approximately the same speed as occurs in full scale. However, the SMAT geometry is twenty times smaller, allowing the pressure waves to move down the exhaust hole, through the trench and duct, and impact the vehicle model much faster than occurs at full scale. The DOP waves impact portions of the vehicle at the same time as the IOP waves, making it difficult to distinguish the different waves and fully understand the data. To better understand the SMAT data, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed with a fictitious geometry that isolates the IOP and DOP. The upper and lower portions of the domain were segregated to accomplish the isolation in such a way that the flow physics were not significantly altered. The Loci/CHEM CFD software program was used to perform this analysis.

  14. Family-supportive work environments and psychological strain: a longitudinal test of two theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Herleman, Hailey A; Britt, Thomas W; Moore, Dewayne D; Castro, Carl A; McGurk, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model (E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, & W. B. Schaufeli, 2001, The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512) and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002, Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324), we tested three competing models that predict different directions of causation for relationships over time between family-supportive work environments (FSWE) and psychological strain, with two waves of data from a military sample. Results revealed support for both the JDR and COR theories, first in the static model where FSWE at Time 1 predicted psychological strain at Time 2 and when testing the opposite direction, where psychological strain at Time 1 predicted FSWE at Time 2. For change models, FSWE predicted changes in psychological strain across time, although the reverse causation model was not supported (psychological strain at Time 1 did not predict changes in FSWE). Also, changes in FSWE across time predicted psychological strain at Time 2, whereas changes in psychological strain did not predict FSWE at Time 2. Theoretically, these results are important for the work-family interface in that they demonstrate the application of a systems approach to studying work and family interactions, as support was obtained for both the JDR model with perceptions of FSWE predicting psychological strain (in both the static and change models), and for COR theory where psychological strain predicts FSWE across time.

  15. Completion of a large environmental application facility for testing composite materials. Fukugozai kozo shiken[prime]yo ogata kankyo fuyo sochi kansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports a summary of the large enviromntal application facility to perform strength tests on composite materials under varying temperature environments. The facility features the capability of providing uniform temperature and humidity distributions in an environmental space of 9[times] 5[times]3 m, and covering a wide temperature range from[minus]70[degree]C to 200[degree]C. Since the environmental room temperature of 200[degree] C is not sufficiently high to meet high-temperature structural testing requirement for HOPE, an auxiliary ceramic heater was brought into the environmental room to heat only the required area up to 350[degree] C. A hydraulic actuator including the already introduced high-load loading equipment was installed in a space under the environmental room rack, and loads are induced to an extension rod attached to the load terminal in the actuator. Tests scheduled include a fatigue test on CF/thermoplastic composite filament winding beams for high-altitude unmanned spacecraft under a use temperature of [minus]60[degree]C, which is under preparation at normal temperatures, and a high-temperature strength test on polyimide CFPP structure for HOPE to follow the former test. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The Application of GGE Biplot Analysis for Evaluatng Test Locations and Mega-Environment Investigation of Cotton Regional Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Nai-yin; Fok Michel; ZHANG Guo-wei; LI Jian; ZHOU Zhi-guo

    2014-01-01

    In the process to the marketing of cultivars, identiifcation of superior test locations within multi-environment variety trial schemes is of critical relevance. It is relevant to breeding organizations as well as to governmental organizations in charge of cultivar registration. Where competition among breeding companies exists, effective and fair multi-environment variety trials are of utmost importance to motivate investment in breeding. The objective of this study was to use genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis to evaluate test locations in terms of discrimination ability, representativeness and desirability, and to investigate the presence of multiple mega-environments in cotton production in the Yangtze River Valley (YaRV), China. Four traits (cotton lint yield, ifber length, lint breaking tenacity, micronaire) and two composite selection indices were considered. It was found that the assumption of a single mega-environment in theYaRV for cotton production does not hold. The YaRV consists of three cotton mega-environments: a main one represented by 11 locations and two minor ones represented by two test locations each. This demands that the strategy of cotton variety registration or recommendation must be adjusted. GGE biplot analysis has also led to the identiifcation of test location superior for cotton variety evaluation. Although test location desirable for selecting different traits varied greatly, Jinzhou, Hubei Province, China, was found to be desirable for selecting for all traits considered while Jianyang, SichuanProvince, China, was found to be desirable for none.

  17. Using HLM to Explore the Effects of Perceptions of Learning Environments and Assessments on Students' Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Man-Wai; Babenko, Oksana; Cui, Ying; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the role that perceptions or impressions of learning environments and assessments play in students' performance on a large-scale standardized test. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test aspects of the Learning Errors and Formative Feedback model to determine how much variation in students' performance was explained…

  18. Using HLM to Explore the Effects of Perceptions of Learning Environments and Assessments on Students' Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Man-Wai; Babenko, Oksana; Cui, Ying; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the role that perceptions or impressions of learning environments and assessments play in students' performance on a large-scale standardized test. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test aspects of the Learning Errors and Formative Feedback model to determine how much variation in students' performance was explained…

  19. Perceived characteristics of the environment associated with active travel: development and testing of a new scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutrie Nanette

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental characteristics may be associated with patterns of physical activity. However, the development of instruments to measure perceived characteristics of the local environment is still at a comparatively early stage, and published instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings. We therefore developed and established the test-retest reliability of a new scale for use in a study of the correlates of active travel and overall physical activity in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland. Methods We developed and piloted a 14-item scale based on seven constructs identified from the literature (aesthetics, green space, access to amenities, convenience of routes, traffic, road safety and personal safety. We administered the scale to all participants in a random postal survey (n = 1322 and readministered the scale to a subset of original respondents (n = 125 six months later. We used principal components analysis and Varimax rotation to identify three principal components (factors and derived summary scores for subscales based on these factors. We examined the internal consistency of these subscales using Cronbach's alpha and examined the test-retest reliability of the individual items, the subscale summary scores and an overall summary neighbourhood score using a combination of correlation coefficients and Cohen's kappa with and without weighting. Results Public transport and proximity to shops were the items most likely to be rated positively, whereas traffic volume, traffic noise and road safety for cyclists were most likely to be rated negatively. Three principal components – 'safe and pleasant surroundings', 'low traffic' and 'convenience for walking' – together explained 45% of the total variance. The test-retest reliability of individual items was comparable with that of items in other published scales (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs 0.34–0.70; weighted Cohen

  20. The effect of denture design and fixatives on the retention of mandibular complete dentures tested on a novel in-vitro edentulous model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A; Al-Kaisy, N; Miller, C A; Martin, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the design (extension and adaptation) of a mandibular complete acrylic denture and the use of denture adhesives using a novel in-vitro edentulous model. The model is a highly anatomically accurate replica based on a moderately resorbed human mandibular edentulous arch. The model has been designed and fabricated by means of an elaborate clinical and technical process that employs synthetic elastomeric materials with properties that attempts to reproduce in-vitro characteristics of the soft tissues overlying the ridges and immediate reflected tissues. This model was used to measure and compare the retention of mandibular dentures ofvarying designs (well-fitting, over- and under-extended) with and without the aid of denture fixatives. Retention tests were conducted with different volumes of artificial saliva at a cross head speed of 50 mm/min with 4 equidistant holding points on the denture occlusal surface, using a universal tensile testing machine in an axial pull direction. The effect of three denture adhesives on denture retention was also tested on the same denture types at different times over a period of 5 hours and beyond. The in-vitro model presented can be effectively used to test the retention of mandibular complete dentures. The speed of dislodgement force and amount of saliva are important variables in mandibular denture retention. The retention of well-fitting dentures was statistically higher than that of ill-fitting dentures. A significantly higher retention force was needed to dislodge mandibular dentures (well and ill-fitting dentures) when using a denture adhesive.

  1. Performance Test of Various Types of Antenna Arrays in Real Propagation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyanto, Setiyo; Nugraha, Beny; WidiAstuti, Dian

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted on various types of antenna arrays namely Uniform Array, Binomial Array, Dolph-Chebyshev Array, and Taylor Array. This research is done in the real propagation environment in order to define precisely the number of antenna elements, the distance between the elements, the angle of the antenna arrays, the side lobe level and the n-bar array distribution. The testing process is done by using Matlab and the Non-Uniform Array Simulation Program. The results obtained for various types of antenna arrays are as follows: On Uniform Array produces Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) of 10.152° and directivity of l0 dB, on Binomial Array generates Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) of 20.245° and directivity of 7.47 dB, on Dolph-Chebyshev Arrayproduces Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) of 20.304° and directivity of 4.0185 dB, and on Taylor Arrayproduces Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) of 12.78° and directivity of 8.9 dB.

  2. Beam test results of CMS RPCs at high eta region under high-radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Bahk, S Y; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Kang, D H; Kang, T I; Kim, T J; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Oh, J K; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward resistivity plate chambers (RPCs) at the high eta region must be operated in presence of a radiation-induced rate as high as 1 kHz/cm**2. It is still unknown if the RPCs coated with linseed oil can be operated under such a high- radiation environment over the lifetime of CMS. Non-oiled RPCs may be one of the options since phenolic or melamine-coated bakelite is chemically stabler than linseed oil. We have constructed oiled and non-oiled RPCs at the high eta region of CMS using phenolic bakelite and tested them in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. While both RPCs show the same characteristics in the efficiency and the strip multiplicity, the non-oiled RPC generates an intrinsic noise rate of 50 Hz/cm**2, compared to only 5 Hz/cm**2 for the oiled RPC, both at 10.0kV which is about 100 V above the 95% knee of the efficiency curve.

  3. Development and testing of a prototype tool for integrated assessment of chemical status in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jesper H; Murray, Ciarán; Larsen, Martin M; Green, Norman; Høgåsen, Tore; Dahlgren, Elin; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Gustavson, Kim; Haarich, Michael; Kallenbach, Emilie M F; Mannio, Jaakko; Strand, Jakob; Korpinen, Samuli

    2016-02-01

    We report the development and application of a prototype tool for integrated assessment of chemical status in aquatic environments based on substance- and matrix-specific environmental assessment criteria (thresholds). The Chemical Status Assessment Tool (CHASE) integrates data on hazardous substances in water, sediments and biota as well as bio-effect indicators and is based on a substance- or bio-effect-specific calculation of a 'contamination ratio' being the ratio between an observed concentration and a threshold value. Values 1.0 indicate areas potentially 'affected'. These ratios are combined within matrices, i.e. for water, sediment and biota and for biological effects. The overall assessment used a 'one out, all out principle' with regard to each matrix. The CHASE tool was tested in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in 376 assessment units. In the former, the chemical status was >1.0 in practically all areas indicating that all areas assessed were potentially affected. The North Sea included areas classified as unaffected or affected. The CHASE tool can in combination with temporal trend assessments of individual substances be advantageous for use in remedial action plans and, in particular, for the science-based evaluation of the status and for determining which specific substances are responsible for a status as potentially affected.

  4. Laboratory Test on Long-Term Deterioration of Cement Soil in Seawater Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰; 闫楠; 刘强; 张玥宸

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of curing time, cement ratio and seawater pressure on cement soil deterioration formed at simulative marine soft clay sites. Deterioration depth was determined on the basis of characteristics of penetration resistance and penetration depth curves, and the deterioration depth of cement soil with the cement ratio of 7%, reached 31.8 mm after 720 d. Results of research indicated that deterioration ex-tended quickly under seawater environment and the deterioration depth increased with the prolonging curing time. In addition, the water pressure could speed up deterioration. With the increase of cement content, the strength of cement soil increased obviously. At the same time, the deterioration depth decreased significantly. The concentra-tion of calcium ion in the cement stabilized soil increased with the increase of depth, while that of magnesium ion gradually decreased. The variations were consistent with energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS)analysis results, and the calcium concentration with depth was in a good consistency with strength distribution at long term. The results showed that the deterioration became more serious with the curing time, and it was related to calcium leaching.

  5. Electric Propulsion Test & Evaluation Methodologies for Plasma in the Environments of Space and Testing (EP TEMPEST) (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    transitioned to FalconSat-6, NASA, industry, and academia • Correlated thruster plasma oscillations with transient ion flux impacting chamber...Research PAYOFF - Pervasive Space Capability for Increased Payload Transition Improved T&E Methods Cannot fully replicate space environment in ground

  6. Using Non-Destructive Test Methods to Monitor Flaw Behavior in a Real· Time Test Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, K. Q.; Kersker, K.; Miller, K.; Teles, S.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate modeling of flaw behavior in both propellant-liner-insulation and insulation-to-insulation interfaces is required for flight certification of NASA's Space Launch System solid rocket booster. In-situ monitoring of the flaw propagation using nondestructive test methods such as X-ray and ultrasonic testing allows pressure and volumetric flow data to be correlated with the time of flaw propagation during pressurization. The use of X-ray and ultrasonic test inspection allowed physical flaw growth to be tracked continuously throughout testing, overcoming a limitation in previous model validation techniques. The techniques used are capable of corroborating model predictions as well as validating simpler test methodologies for past and future testing efforts.

  7. Complete prewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We study continuous interfacial transitions, analagous to two-dimensional complete wetting, associated with the first-order prewetting line, which can occur on steps, patterned walls, grooves and wedges, and which are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple prototypical geometries. Using microscopic classical density functional theory to model systems with realistic Lennard-Jones fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate intermolecular potentials, we compute mean-field fluid density profiles, adsorption isotherms and phase diagrams for a variety of confining geometries.

  8. Thermal Response of UHMWPE Materials in a Flash Flame Test Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    garment , as well as differences in protection based on how the garments are worn. A cost -effective alternative to the manikin test for measuring and...an FR fabric outer layer of Tencate Defender M. Prior to fabricating test garments , preliminary flash flame testing was conducted with a midscale...test setup, which guided the full-scale thermal manikin test plan. Test garments were fabricated for evaluation on the instrumented thermal test

  9. Evaluation and study on PMD performance of OPGW optical cables in wind induced vibration and galloping test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Ziyuan

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the concepts of wind induced vibration and galloping of power transmission lines, indicates the necessity of evaluation in wind induced vibration and galloping test environment, proposes the evaluation method of wind induced vibration and galloping, summarizes and analyzes the measured PMD performance data of OPGW optical fiber obtained from wind induced vibration and galloping tests on OPGW, and reaches a conclusion that the PMD performance parameters of OPGW cable stocks meet the industry standard in wind induced vibration and galloping environment, and will play an important role in project construction guidance and operation maintenance.

  10. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and chest x-rays as routine screening in early-stage breast cancer: value added or just cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M

    2015-11-01

    Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually.

  11. Testing the hybrid-3D Hillslope Hydrological Model in a Real-World Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D. J.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    Hillslopes play an important role for converting rainfall into runoff, and as such, influence theterrestrial dynamics of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we have developed a hybrid-3D (h3D) hillslope hydrological model that couples a 1D vertical soil column model with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow model. The h3D model gives similar results as the CATchment HYdrological model (CATHY), which simulates the subsurface movement of water with the 3D Richards equation, though the runtime efficiency of the h3D model is about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster. In the current work, the ability of the h3D model to predict real-world hydrological dynamics is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at the Biosphere 2 near Tucson, Arizona, USA. LEO offers accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs and storage dynamics of several hillslopes. The level of detail of these observations is generally not possible with real-world hillslope studies. Therefore, LEO offers an optimal environment to test the h3D model. The h3D model captures the observed storage, baseflow, and overland flow dynamics of both a larger and a smaller hillslope. Furthermore, it simulates overland flow better than CATHY. The h3D model has difficulties correctly representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the smaller hillslope, though. There is a gravel layer near this seepage face, and the numerical boundary condition of the h3D model is insufficient to capture the hydrological dynamics within this region. In addition, the h3D model is used to test the hypothesis that model parameters change through time due to the migration of soil particles during the recharge-drainage experiments. An in depth calibration of the h3D model parameters reveals that the best results are obtained by applying an event-based optimization procedure as compared

  12. Creating the Thermal Environment for Safely Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Lauterbach, John; Garcia, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. The chamber was originally built to support testing of the Apollo Service and Command Module for lunar missions, but underwent major modifications to be able to test the James Webb Space Telescope in a simulated deep space environment. To date seven tests have been performed in preparation of testing the flight optics for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Each test has had a uniquie thermal profile and set of thermal requirements for cooling down and warming up, controlling contamination, and releasing condensed air. These range from temperatures from 335K to 15K, with tight uniformity and controllability for maintining thermal stability and pressure control. One unique requirement for two test was structurally proof loading hardware by creating thermal gradients at specific temperatures. This paper will discuss the thermal requirements and goals of the tests, the original requirements of the chamber thermal systems for planned operation, and how the new requirements were met by the team using the hardware, system flexiblilty, and engineering creativity. It will also discuss the mistakes and successes to meet the unique goals, especially when meeting the thermal proof load.

  13. Going Virtual… or Not: Development and Testing of a 3D Virtual Astronomy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhitskaya, L.; Speck, A.; Ding, N.; Baldridge, S.; Witzig, S.; Laffey, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present our preliminary results of a pilot study of students' knowledge transfer of an astronomy concept into a new environment. We also share our discoveries on what aspects of a 3D environment students consider being motivational and discouraging for their learning. This study was conducted among 64 non-science major students enrolled in an astronomy laboratory course. During the course, students learned the concept and applications of Kepler's laws using a 2D interactive environment. Later in the semester, the students were placed in a 3D environment in which they were asked to conduct observations and to answers a set of questions pertaining to the Kepler's laws of planetary motion. In this study, we were interested in observing scrutinizing and assessing students' behavior: from choices that they made while creating their avatars (virtual representations) to tools they choose to use, to their navigational patterns, to their levels of discourse in the environment. These helped us to identify what features of the 3D environment our participants found to be helpful and interesting and what tools created unnecessary clutter and distraction. The students' social behavior patterns in the virtual environment together with their answers to the questions helped us to determine how well they understood Kepler's laws, how well they could transfer the concepts to a new situation, and at what point a motivational tool such as a 3D environment becomes a disruption to the constructive learning. Our founding confirmed that students construct deeper knowledge of a concept when they are fully immersed in the environment.

  14. Completing the Complete ECC Formulae with Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Chmielewski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work implements and evaluates the recent complete addition formulae for the prime order elliptic curves of Renes, Costello and Batina on an FPGA platform. We implement three different versions:(1 an unprotected architecture; (2 an architecture protected through coordinate randomization; and (3 an architecture with both coordinate randomization and scalar splitting in place. The evaluation is done through timing analysis and test vector leakage assessment (TVLA. The results show that applying an increasing level of countermeasures leads to an increasing resistance against side-channel attacks. This is the first work looking into side-channel security issues of hardware implementations of the complete formulae.

  15. Derivation and Testing of Computer Algorithms for Automatic Real-Time Determination of Space Vehicle Potentials in Various Plasma Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-31

    COMPUTER ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATIC REAL-TIME DETERMINATION OF SPACE VEHICLE POTENTIALS IN VARIOUS PLASMA ENVIRONMENTS May 31, 1988 Stanley L. Spiegel...crrnaion DiviSiofl 838 12 2 DERIVATION AND TESTING OF COMPUTER ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATIC REAL-TIME DETERMINATION OF SPACE VEHICLE POTENTIALS IN VARIOUS...S.L., "Derivation and testing of computer algorithms for automatic real time determination of space vehicle poteuatials in various plasma

  16. Over-the-Air Testing of Cognitive Radio Nodes in a Virtual Electromagnetic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Sharma

    2013-01-01

    a multiuser scenario. Although MIMO-OTA testing addresses many limitations of single antenna-conducted test systems, more dimensions and parameters to be addressed in the new scenarios imply further increase in cost and complexity. Closed-loop OTA test setups for CR evaluation are discussed along with an overview of other test scenarios.

  17. Completing $h$

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, the science community was introduced to the $h$-index, a proposed statistical measure of the collective impact of the publications of any individual researcher. It is of course undeniable that any method of reducing a complex data set to a single number will necessarily have certain limitations and introduce certain biases. However, in this paper we point out that the definition of the $h$-index actually suffers from something far deeper: a hidden mathematical incompleteness intrinsic to its definition. In particular, we point out that one critical step within the definition of $h$ has been missed until now, resulting in an index which only achieves its stated objectives under certain rather limited circumstances. For example, this incompleteness explains why the $h$-index ultimately has more utility in certain scientific subfields than others. In this paper, we expose the origin of this incompleteness and then also propose a method of completing the definition of $h$ in a way which remai...

  18. Testing a novel agri-environment scheme based on the ecology of the target species, Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaich, Almut E.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem; Both, Christiaan; Koks, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    Farmland birds are in steep decline and agri-environment schemes (AES) to counteract these biodiversity losses are expensive and inefficient. Here we test a novel AES, Birdfields', designed using detailed ecological knowledge of the target species, Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus. Current AES, suc

  19. Evolutionary significance of phenotypic accommodation in novel environments: an empirical test of the Baldwin effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander V Badyaev

    2009-01-01

    ... (later termed the Baldwin effect) by which non-heritable developmental accommodation of novel inputs, which makes an organism fit in its current environment, can become internalized in a lineage and affect the course of evolution...

  20. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  1. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  2. RESEARCH ON DEGRADATION CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENT OF SOME STEELS USED IN MANUFACTURING MINING EQUIPMENT. MECHANICAL TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous action of mechanical stress variables and the corrosive environment leads to the deterioration of structures made of steel or of other metallic materials, a process called fatigue in corrosive environment or corrosion fatigue, which has causes and effects different from degradation under the singular action, either of mechanical strain or of corrosive environment. The aim of this paper is the study of the behavior,under fatigue conditions in corrosive environment of low alloy steels meant for the construction of mining equipment used in various mining operations in Gorj county. Based on experimental research regarding sustainability in fatigue corrosion, analyses of the interaction between the mechanical and the electrochemical factors as well as microscopic analyses of the structures we aim in this paper at deeply studying the performance of degradation processes that occur in the surface layers and lead to destruction by corrosion fatigue of the steels under study.

  3. Physical work environment: testing an expanded model of job satisfaction in a sample of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Budin, Wendy C; Norman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The impact of personal, organizational, and economic factors on nurses' job satisfaction have been studied extensively, but few studies exist in which the effects of physical work environment--including perceptions of architectural, interior design, and ambient features on job satisfaction-are examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of perceived physical work environment on job satisfaction, adjusting for multiple personal, organizational, and economic determinants of job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, predictive design and a Web-based survey instrument were used to collect data from staff registered nurses in a large metropolitan hospital. The survey included 34 questions about multiple job satisfaction determinants, including 18 Likert-type measures with established good validity (comparative fit index = .97, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, root mean square error of approximation = .06) and reliability (r ≥ .70). A response rate of 48.5% resulted in a sample of 362, with 80% power to detect a medium effect of perceived physical environment on job satisfaction. On average, nurses had negative perceptions of physical work environment (M = 2.9, SD = 2.2). Although physical environment was related positively to job satisfaction (r =.256, p = .01) in bivariate analysis, in ordered probit regression, no effect of physical work environment on job satisfaction was found. In future studies, this relationship should be examined in larger and more representative samples of nurses. Qualitative methods should be used to explore how negatively perceived physical work environment impacts nurses. Rebuilding of U.S. hospitals, with a planned investment of $200 billion without considering how physical environment contributes to nurse work outcomes, threatens to exacerbate organizational nurse turnover.

  4. The complete genome of Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 reveals its adaptation to the deep-sea environment and ecological role in sedimentary organic nitrogen degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87, which was isolated from deep-sea sediment, is an aerobic, gram-negative bacterium that represents a new genus of Flavobacteriaceae. This is the first sequenced genome of a deep-sea bacterium from the phylum Bacteroidetes. Results The Z. profunda SM-A87 genome has a single 5 128 187-bp circular chromosome with no extrachromosomal elements and harbors 4 653 predicted protein-coding genes. SM-A87 produces a large amount of capsular polysaccharides and possesses two polysaccharide biosynthesis gene clusters. It has a total of 130 peptidases, 61 of which have signal peptides. In addition to extracellular peptidases, SM-A87 also has various extracellular enzymes for carbohydrate, lipid and DNA degradation. These extracellular enzymes suggest that the bacterium is able to hydrolyze organic materials in the sediment, especially carbohydrates and proteinaceous organic nitrogen. There are two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats in the genome, but their spacers do not match any sequences in the public sequence databases. SM-A87 is a moderate halophile. Our protein isoelectric point analysis indicates that extracellular proteins have lower predicted isoelectric points than intracellular proteins. SM-A87 accumulates organic osmolytes in the cell, so its extracelluar proteins are more halophilic than its intracellular proteins. Conclusion Here, we present the first complete genome of a deep-sea sedimentary bacterium from the phylum Bacteroidetes. The genome analysis shows that SM-A87 has some common features of deep-sea bacteria, as well as an important capacity to hydrolyze sedimentary organic nitrogen. PMID:20398413

  5. The complete genome of Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 reveals its adaptation to the deep-sea environment and ecological role in sedimentary organic nitrogen degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bai-Cheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87, which was isolated from deep-sea sediment, is an aerobic, gram-negative bacterium that represents a new genus of Flavobacteriaceae. This is the first sequenced genome of a deep-sea bacterium from the phylum Bacteroidetes. Results The Z. profunda SM-A87 genome has a single 5 128 187-bp circular chromosome with no extrachromosomal elements and harbors 4 653 predicted protein-coding genes. SM-A87 produces a large amount of capsular polysaccharides and possesses two polysaccharide biosynthesis gene clusters. It has a total of 130 peptidases, 61 of which have signal peptides. In addition to extracellular peptidases, SM-A87 also has various extracellular enzymes for carbohydrate, lipid and DNA degradation. These extracellular enzymes suggest that the bacterium is able to hydrolyze organic materials in the sediment, especially carbohydrates and proteinaceous organic nitrogen. There are two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats in the genome, but their spacers do not match any sequences in the public sequence databases. SM-A87 is a moderate halophile. Our protein isoelectric point analysis indicates that extracellular proteins have lower predicted isoelectric points than intracellular proteins. SM-A87 accumulates organic osmolytes in the cell, so its extracelluar proteins are more halophilic than its intracellular proteins. Conclusion Here, we present the first complete genome of a deep-sea sedimentary bacterium from the phylum Bacteroidetes. The genome analysis shows that SM-A87 has some common features of deep-sea bacteria, as well as an important capacity to hydrolyze sedimentary organic nitrogen.

  6. Swim test immobility in a genetic rat model of depression is modified by maternal environment: a cross-foster study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Elliot; Berman, Marissa; Overstreet, David

    2006-03-01

    The Flinders sensitive line (FSL) genetic animal model of depression exhibits marked immobility during forced swimming, an accepted index of depressive like behavior in rodent depression models. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that swim test behavior in the FSL rats is influenced in part by early experience, specifically maternal environment. Male FSL and control Flinders resistant line (FRL) pups were cross fostered onto dams of the same or complementary strain. Nest quality and dam behavior during pup retrieval were measured on PN5 and PN8, and swim test behavior assessed in the adult males on PN60. FSL rats reared by foster FRL dams were significantly less immobile than FSL rats raised by FSL dams, but still significantly more immobile that the two FRL groups, which did not differ from each other. FSL dams took significantly longer to retrieve their pups and dropped them more often than the FRL control dams. Moreover, strain differences in maternal retrieval behavior significantly predicted later swim test immobility in the FSL animals. These findings suggest that swim test immobility in the FSL rats is modified by maternal environment. In contrast, the FRL control rats were relatively insensitive to the influence of maternal environment. The FSL model offers promise for understanding the interactions of genetic vulnerabilities and environmental influences in the etiology of clinical depression.

  7. Complete Makeover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released July 23, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. We finish our look at Mars's dynamic atmosphere with an image of the surface that has been completely modified by the wind. Even the small ridges that remain have been ground down to a cliff-face with a 'tail' of eroded material. The crosshatching shows that the wind regime has remained mainly E/W to ENE/WSW. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.9, Longitude 221 East (139 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State

  8. Fault Tolerant Magnetic Bearing Testing and Conical Magnetic Bearing Development for Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Clark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    During the six month tenure of the grant, activities included continued research of hydrostatic bearings as a viable backup-bearing solution for a magnetically levitated shaft system in extreme temperature environments (1000 F), developmental upgrades of the fault-tolerant magnetic bearing rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center, and assisting in the development of a conical magnetic bearing for extreme temperature environments, particularly turbomachinery. It leveraged work from the ongoing Smart Efficient Components (SEC) and the Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) program at NASA Glenn Research Center. The effort was useful in providing technology for more efficient and powerful gas turbine engines.

  9. BUSN 460 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    BUSN 460 Complete Class Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/busn-460-complete-class/     Week 1 DQ 1 Selling your team’s services to CanGo  Week 1 DQ 2 Mission, Vision & Values  Week 2 DQ 1 Planning a Technological Solution  Week 2 DQ 2 Cost Benefit Analysis  Week 3 DQ 1 Flow Charting Processes  Week 3 DQ 2 Implementing Technology  Week 4 DQ 1 Group vs Team  Week  4 DQ 2 Matrixed Employee Environments  Week 5 DQ 1 Pe...

  10. Standard guide for corrosion tests in high temperature or high pressure environment, or both

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures, specimens, and equipment for conducting laboratory corrosion tests on metallic materials under conditions of high pressure (HP) or the combination of high temperature and high pressure (HTHP). See for definitions of high pressure and temperature. 1.2 Tests conducted under HP or HTHP by their nature have special requirements. This guide establishes the basic considerations that are necessary when these conditions must be incorporated into laboratory corrosion tests. 1.3 The procedures and methods in this guide are applicable for conducting mass loss corrosion, localized corrosion, and electrochemical tests as well as for use in environmentally induced cracking tests that need to be conducted under HP or HTHP conditions. 1.4 The primary purpose for this guide is to promote consistency of corrosion test results. Furthermore, this guide will aid in the comparison of corrosion data between laboratories or testing organizations that utilize different equipment. 1.5 The values s...

  11. Functional evaluation before lung resection: searching for a low technology test in a safer environment for the patient: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Nuria M; Esteban, Pedro; Rodriguez, Maria; Gomez, Maria Teresa; Varela, Gonzalo

    2017-05-01

    Stair climbing is considered the first step for functional evaluation of patients requiring anatomical lung resection who have low-predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1) or diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) values. Nevertheless, stair climbing is not performed in many centres because of structural issues or patient safety concerns. We hypothesized that comparable exercise can be obtained on an ergometric bicycle in a safer environment where any adverse event can be treated. We tried to correlate the amount of exercise performed by stair climbing and by using an ergometric bicycle in a series of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) evaluated prospectively. Thirty-four consecutive patients with NSCLC who were scheduled for lung resection were prospectively enrolled to complete two low-technology exercise tests: The first one was stair climbing, and the second was a ramp test on an ergometric bicycle. For most patients (85%), both tests were performed on the same day, separated with at least 2 h of rest. The amount of exercise on the stair-climbing test (in watts: Watt 1) was calculated per patient weight, height reached on stairs and time spent. The bicycle test was performed on a Lode Corival ergometer with automatic calculation of the total work load (Watt 2). No estimation of VO 2 max was attempted. The bicycle test was conducted in an ad-hoc room fully equipped with oxygen, cardiac and blood pressure and PO 2 monitoring and resuscitation equipment. The Bland-Altman plot was used to evaluate the agreement between both tests. A linear regression model was constructed in which the power developed on the stairs was the dependent variable and the watts generated on the bicycle and patient age were the covariates. All patients (median age: 65.5 years; range: 41-84), completed both tests without any adverse events. The number of watts was greater on the stairs tests (mean 227 vs 64

  12. Deterrence Impact Modeling Environment (DIME) Proof-of-Concept Test Evaluations and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    participants use facial expressions , physical actions, and the way that words are expressed to judge the trustworthiness of the others involved. 2...adoption and their manifestation in beliefs, behaviors and attitudes expressed not only in the tactical and operational maritime environments but...Within communities, instrumental, social, and normative sanctions continue to be expressed and experienced, but often in ways totally unknown and

  13. Testing Principles of Language Learning in a Cyber Face-to-Face Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Wang, Yuping

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the application of the established principles of instructed language learning in a cyber fact-to-face environment supported by an advanced Synchronous Learning Management System (SLMS). Following a critical review of the use of SLMS in distance language learning, the main body of the article focuses on the discussion of…

  14. A Test of Spatial Contiguity for Virtual Human's Gestures in Multimedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Twyford, Jessica; Irigoyen, Norma; Zipp, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual humans are becoming an easily available and popular component of multimedia learning that are often used in online learning environments. There is still a need for systematic research into their effectiveness. The current study investigates the positioning of a virtual human's gestures when guiding the learner through a multimedia…

  15. Amplitude Test for Input Devices for System Control in Immersive Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Thornemann Hansen, Nina; Hald, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the amplitudes best suited to compare four input devices are examined in the context of a pointer-based system control interface for immersive virtual environments. The interfaces are based on a pen and tablet, a touch tablet, hand-tracking using Kinect and a Wii Nunchuk analog stick...

  16. A Test of Spatial Contiguity for Virtual Human's Gestures in Multimedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Twyford, Jessica; Irigoyen, Norma; Zipp, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual humans are becoming an easily available and popular component of multimedia learning that are often used in online learning environments. There is still a need for systematic research into their effectiveness. The current study investigates the positioning of a virtual human's gestures when guiding the learner through a multimedia…

  17. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 1-2-612 Nuclear Environment Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-24

    REPORT NUMBER TOP 1-2-612 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Test Business Management ...improving this publication to the following address: Test business Management Division (TEDT-TMB), US Army Developmental Test Command, 314 Longs Corner...Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) IGBT 2K - Above Increase in VCE (Sat) Logic Devices TTL 10K - Above Not concern @ tactical GTD levels Memory - DRAM

  18. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  19. Simulation of creep test on 316FR stainless steel in sodium environment at 550degC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satmoko, A. [National Atomic Energy Agency, BATAN (Indonesia); Asayama, Tai

    1999-04-01

    In sodium environment, material 316FR stainless steel risks to suffer from carburization. In this study, an analysis using a Fortran program is conducted to evaluate the carbon influence on the creep behavior of 316FR based on experimental results from uni-axial creep test that had been performed at temperature 550degC in sodium environment simulating Fast Breeder Reactor condition. As performed in experiments, two parts are distinguished. At first, elastic-plastic behavior is used to simulate the fact that just before the beginning of creep test, specimen suffers from load or stress much higher than initial yield stress. In second part, creep condition occurs in which the applied load is kept constant. The plastic component should be included, since stresses increase due to section area reduction. For this reason, elastic-plastic-creep behavior is considered. Through time carbon penetration occurs and its concentration is evaluated empirically. This carburization phenomena are assumed to affect in increasing yield stress, decreasing creep strain rate, and increasing creep rupture strength of material. The model is capable of simulating creep test in sodium environment. Material near from surface risks to be carburized. Its material properties change leading to non-uniform distribution of stresses. Those layers of material suffer from stress concentration, and are subject to damage. By introducing a damage criteria, crack initialization can thus be predicted. And even, crack growth can be evaluated. For high stress levels, tensile strength criterion is more important than creep damage criterion. But in low stress levels, the latter gives more influence in fracture. Under high stress, time to rupture of a specimen in sodium environment is shorter than in air. But for stresses lower than 26 kgf/mm{sup 2}, the time to rupture of creep in sodium environment is the same or little longer than in air. Quantitatively, the carburization effect at 550degC is not important

  20. Development and testing of the CALDs and CLES+T scales for international nursing students' clinical learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Kristina; Elo, Satu; Miettunen, Jouko; Saarikoski, Mikko; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the new Cultural and Linguistic Diversity scale, which is designed to be used with the newly validated Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale for assessing international nursing students' clinical learning environments. In various developed countries, clinical placements are known to present challenges in the professional development of international nursing students. A cross-sectional survey. Data were collected from eight Finnish universities of applied sciences offering nursing degree courses taught in English during 2015-2016. All the relevant students (N = 664) were invited and 50% chose to participate. Of the total data submitted by the participants, 28% were used for scale validation. The construct validity of the two scales was tested by exploratory factor analysis, while their validity with respect to convergence and discriminability was assessed using Spearman's correlation. Construct validation of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale yielded an eight-factor model with 34 items, while validation of the Cultural and Linguistic Diversity scale yielded a five-factor model with 21 items. A new scale was developed to improve evidence-based mentorship of international nursing students in clinical learning environments. The instrument will be useful to educators seeking to identify factors that affect the learning of international students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Testing of optical components to assure performance in a high acerage power environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Eickelberg, W.K.; Primdahl, K.A.

    1997-06-24

    Evaluation and testing of the optical components used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant is critical for qualification of suppliers, development of new optical multilayer designs and monufacturing processes, and assurance of performance in the production cycle. The range of specifications requires development of specialized test equipment and methods which are not routine or readily available in industry. Specifications are given on material characteristics such as index homogeneity, subsurface damage left after polishing, microscopic surface defects and contamination, coating absorption, and high average power laser damage. The approach to testing these performance characteristics and assuring the quality throughout the production cycle is described.

  2. By-Pass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By-Pass diodes are a key design feature of solar arrays and system design must be robust against local heating, especially with implementation of larger solar cells. By-Pass diode testing was performed to aid thermal model development for use in future array designs that utilize larger cell sizes that result in higher string currents. Testing was performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon provided by SSL. Test conditions were vacuum with cold array backside using discrete by-pass diode current steps of 0.25 A ranging from 0 A to 2.0 A.

  3. The context counts: congruent learning and testing environments prevent memory retrieval impairment following stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-09-01

    Stress before retention testing impairs memory, whereas memory performance is enhanced when the learning context is reinstated at retrieval. In the present study, we examined whether the negative impact of stress before memory retrieval can be attenuated when memory is tested in the same environmental context as that in which learning took place. Subjects learned a 2-D object location task in a room scented with vanilla. Twenty-four hours later, they were exposed to stress or a control condition before memory for the object location task was assessed in a cued-recall test, either in the learning context or in a different context (unfamiliar room without the odor). Stress impaired memory when assessed in the unfamiliar context, but not when assessed in the learning context. These results suggest that the detrimental effects of stress on memory retrieval can be abolished when a distinct learning context is reinstated at test.

  4. Process-Hardened, Multi-Analyte Sensor for Characterizing Rocket Plum Constituents Under Test Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II STTR project is to develop a prototype multi-analyte sensor system to detect gaseous analytes present in the test stands during...

  5. Wind power communication design and implementation of test environment for IEC61850/UCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, A.; Svensson, J.

    2002-04-01

    Elforsk has sponsored a joint Swedish-Danish project aiming at finding and recommend a common solution for communication with wind power plants. The first stage of the work resulted in a requirement specification Functional Requirements on Communication System for Wind Turbine Applications. During the project a number of possible communication solutions were identified. The two most promising solutions have been tested in order to verify to what extent they fulfil the requirements in the specification. A version of the IEC 61850 standard based on the communication protocol MMS, has been tested at a wind power plant at Gotland, Sweden, and an OPC-interface has been tested in Denmark. This report includes a description of the design choices made for the test implementation of MMS, as well as a detailed description of the implementation of the IEC 61850/UCA2 software including information models and information exchange services. (BA)

  6. Wind power communication design and implementation of test environment for IEC61850/UCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, A.; Svensson, J.

    2002-04-01

    Elforsk has sponsored a joint Swedish-Danish project aiming at finding and recommend a common solution for communication with wind power plants. The first stage of the work resulted in a requirement specification Functional Requirements on Communication System for Wind Turbine Applications. During the project a number of possible communication solutions were identified. The two most promising solutions have been tested in order to verify to what extent they fulfil the requirements in the specification. A version of the IEC 61850 standard based on the communication protocol MMS, has been tested at a wind power plant at Gotland, Sweden, and an OPC-interface has been tested in Denmark. This report includes a description of the design choices made for the test implementation of MMS, as well as a detailed description of the implementation of the IEC 61850/UCA2 software including information models and information exchange services. (BA)

  7. Revolution In Toxicity Testing And Risk Prediction For Chemicals In The Environment (ASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing safety aspects of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing; however, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation require alternative approaches to traditional animal studies. Newer in vitro and in s...

  8. Testing a Novel Geopolymer Binder as a Refractory Material for Rocket Plume Environments at SSC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project involved the development and testing of a new alumina-silicate based multi-purpose, cost-effective, ‘green’ cementitious binder (geopolymer)...

  9. Revolution In Toxicity Testing And Risk Prediction For Chemicals In The Environment (ASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing safety aspects of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing; however, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation require alternative approaches to traditional animal studies. Newer in vitro and in s...

  10. Instrumentation, control and data acquisition system with multiple configurations for test in nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.monti@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; Pollastrone, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA developed and characterized a first prototype of the In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) probe for ITER. • Piezo motor technology to be used in IVVS probe was tested in neutrons, gamma radiations, high temperature, vacuum and high magnetic fields. • A general architecture of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) was defined and then specialized for each test. • The test campaign has validated instrumentation solutions, which can be effectively used in final IVVS implementation or other ITER diagnostics or applications. - Abstract: The In-Vessel Viewing System is a 3D laser scanning system which will be used to inspect the blanket first wall in ITER. To make the IVVS probe design compatible with the harsh environmental conditions present in ITER, a test campaign was performed in 2012–2013 to verify the adequacy of the main components of the IVVS probe. The IVVS components inspected were an optical encoder, passive components and two customized ultrasonic piezoceramic motors that were instrumented with various sensors. A general architecture of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) was defined and then specialized for each test. To be suitable for this test campaign, the DACS had to host various I/O modules and to properly interface the driver of the customized piezo motors, in order to permit the full control of the test and the acquisition of experimental data. This paper presents the instrumentation solutions designed and implemented for different facilities constraints and the related DACS developed in four specialized versions for the described test campaign.

  11. Super-flat wafer chucks: from simulation and testing to a complete 300mm wafer chuck with low wafer deformation between pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Renate; Afanasiev, Kanstantin; Ziemann, Marcel; Schmidt, Volker

    2014-04-01

    Berliner Glas is a privately owned, mid-sized manufacturer of precision opto-mechanics in Germany. One specialty of Berliner Glas is the design and production of high performance vacuum and electrostatic wafer chucks. Driven by the need of lithography and inspection for smaller overlay values, we pursue the production of an ideally flat wafer chuck. An ideally flat wafer chuck holds a wafer with a completely flat backside and without lateral distortion within the wafer surface. Key parameters in influencing the wafer chucks effective flatness are thermal performance and thermal management, roughness of the surface, choice of materials and the contact area between wafer and wafer chuck. In this presentation we would like to focus on the contact area. Usually this is decreased as much as possible to avoid sticking effects and the chance of trapped particles between the chuck surface and the backside of the wafer. This can be realized with a pin structure on the chuck surface. Making the pins smaller and moving pins further apart from each other makes the contact area ever smaller but also adds new challenges to achieve a flat and undistorted wafer on the chuck. We would like to address methods of designing and evaluating such a pin structure. This involves not only the capability to simulate the ideal pattern of pins on the chuck's surface, for which we will present 2D and 3D simulation results. As well, we would like to share first results of our functional models. Finally, measurement capability has to be ensured, which means improving and further development of Fizeau flatness test interferometers.

  12. Validation of a Virtual Sound Environment System for Testing Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    reverberation, background noise, and multiple interfering talkers. Loudspeaker-based sound field reproduction techniques, such as higher-order Ambisonics, allow for the simulation of such complex sound environments and can be used for realistic listening experiments with hearing aids. However, to successfully...... of that room auralized via a spherical array of 29 loudspeakers, using either Ambisonics or a nearest loudspeaker method. The benefit from a static beamforming algorithm was considered in comparison to a hearing aid setting with omnidirectional microphones. The measured SRTs were about 2-4 dB higher...

  13. Discussion on Audit the Monitoring Report of Environment Protection for Check and Accept of Completed Construction Project%建设项目竣工环境保护验收监测报告的审核

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成国兴; 吴旻妍; 吴福全

    2013-01-01

    The connotation and characteristics of monitoring report of environment protection for check and accept of completed construction project were expounded. A summary of the technical method requirement of report audit was proposed according to normalizing the audit program, optimizing the audit method and getting hold of the audit keys. Suzhou environment monitoring station was use as an example. The audit process was network based. The detailed requirements for auditor were introduced. The audit program shows scientificity and accountability. Such problems were further discussed as retest, timeliness and sensitive environment monitoring during the course of audit.%简述了建设项目竣工环境保护验收监测报告的内涵和特点,从规范审核程序、优选审核方法、把握审核重点等方面总结了验收监测报告审核的技术方法与要求,并以苏州市环境监测中心站为例,介绍了网络化管理审核流程,以及对审核人员的具体要求,突出审核过程的科学性和责任性.对实际审核过程中有关复测、时效性以及环境敏感点监测等问题作了进一步的探讨.

  14. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  15. Real-time Terrain Relative Navigation Test Results from a Relevant Environment for Mars Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Cheng, Yang; Montgomery, James; Trawny, Nikolas; Tweddle, Brent; Zheng, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) is an on-board GN&C function that generates a position estimate of a spacecraft relative to a map of a planetary surface. When coupled with a divert, the position estimate enables access to more challenging landing sites through pin-point landing or large hazard avoidance. The Lander Vision System (LVS) is a smart sensor system that performs terrain relative navigation by matching descent camera imagery to a map of the landing site and then fusing this with inertial measurements to obtain high rate map relative position, velocity and attitude estimates. A prototype of the LVS was recently tested in a helicopter field test over Mars analog terrain at altitudes representative of Mars Entry Descent and Landing conditions. TRN ran in real-time on the LVS during the flights without human intervention or tuning. The system was able to compute estimates accurate to 40m (3 sigma) in 10 seconds on a flight like processing system. This paper describes the Mars operational test space definition, how the field test was designed to cover that operational envelope, the resulting TRN performance across the envelope and an assessment of test space coverage.

  16. About the treaty of complete nuclear test ban: the USA between unilateralism and multilateralism; A propos du traite sur l'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires: les Etats-Unis entre l'unilateralisme et le multilateralisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, S. [Universite Pantheon-Assas, 75 - Paris (France); Centre Thucydide, Analyse et Recherche en Relations Internationales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This article analyses the possible reasons that have led the US Senate to reject the treaty of comprehensive nuclear test ban. Even if this decision did not retained the attention of the international public opinion, it appears as surprising because the USA have worked a lot for the elaboration of this treaty and were considered as the main beneficiaries of it. Three interpretations are proposed by the author: some purely internal disputes inside Clinton's administration, a real will of the USA to abandon the arms control policy, or an intermediate attitude which allows the USA to act on different levels and to get rid of common rules. (J.S.)

  17. Testing gene-environment interaction in large-scale case-control association studies: possible choices and comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bhramar; Ahn, Jaeil; Gruber, Stephen B; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2012-02-01

    Several methods for screening gene-environment interaction have recently been proposed that address the issue of using gene-environment independence in a data-adaptive way. In this report, the authors present a comparative simulation study of power and type I error properties of 3 classes of procedures: 1) the standard 1-step case-control method; 2) the case-only method that requires an assumption of gene-environment independence for the underlying population; and 3) a variety of hybrid methods, including empirical-Bayes, 2-step, and model averaging, that aim at gaining power by exploiting the assumption of gene-environment independence and yet can protect against false positives when the independence assumption is violated. These studies suggest that, although the case-only method generally has maximum power, it has the potential to create substantial false positives in large-scale studies even when a small fraction of markers are associated with the exposure under study in the underlying population. All the hybrid methods perform well in protecting against such false positives and yet can retain substantial power advantages over standard case-control tests. The authors conclude that, for future genome-wide scans for gene-environment interactions, major power gain is possible by using alternatives to standard case-control analysis. Whether a case-only type scan or one of the hybrid methods should be used depends on the strength and direction of gene-environment interaction and association, the level of tolerance for false positives, and the nature of replication strategies.

  18. Complete Rerouting Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a new protection method: Complete Rerouting. This is the most capacity e cient protection method for circuit switched networks and it is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time it has been described. We implement a column generation algorithm and test the performanc...

  19. Cryogenic testing of a foam-multilayer insulation concept in a simulated prelaunch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James J.

    1992-07-01

    NASA-Marshall has devised an upper-stage vehicle-applicable reusable cryogenic insulation thermal-control system which employs spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) that is attached to the cryotank wall and covered by 17-sheet multilayer insulation composed of double-aluminized mylar and Dacron scrim. Four prelaunch test simulations have been conducted for the case of LH2 with gaseous N2 purge gas. Test results indicate that the SOFI surface temperature was sufficiently high to preclude atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen liquefaction.

  20. 40 CFR 790.26 - Initiation and completion of rulemaking proceedings on ITC-designated chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initiation and completion of rulemaking proceedings on ITC-designated chemicals. 790.26 Section 790.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES GOVERNING TESTING CONSENT AGREEMENTS AND TEST RULES...

  1. Testing the Psychometric Features of the Academic Intellectual Leadership Scale in a University Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Baris

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a scale for measuring the level of academics' intellectual leadership, test the scale by examining the influence of their personal and institutional characteristics, and then investigate the relationship of academic intellectual leadership (AIL) to communication, climate, and managerial flexibility…

  2. Integrating Testing into Software Engineering Courses Supported by a Collaborative Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Peter J.; Davis, Debra; King, Tariq M.; Pava, Jairo; Jones, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    As software becomes more ubiquitous and complex, the cost of software bugs continues to grow at a staggering rate. To remedy this situation, there needs to be major improvement in the knowledge and application of software validation techniques. Although there are several software validation techniques, software testing continues to be one of the…

  3. 76 FR 69755 - National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Pub. L. 103-182, 107 Stat. 2057, 2170, December 8, 1993... successor to the Automated Commercial System (ACS). ACE is an automated and electronic system for commercial... specific legacy ACS function. Each release will begin with a test and will end with mandatory compliance...

  4. 77 FR 20835 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Pub. L. 103-182, 107 Stat. 2057, 2170, December 8, 1993... successor to the Automated Commercial System (ACS). ACE is an automated and electronic system for commercial... specific legacy ACS function. Each release will begin with a test and will end with mandatory compliance...

  5. Developing a virtualised testbed environment in preparation for testing of network based attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available event being a simple task to detect, making network traffic simulation a requirement for an event detection test bed. Five main kinds of traffic were simulated: Web browsing, File transfer, e-mail, version control and Intranet File traffic. The simulated...

  6. Conical Magnetic Bearing Development and Magnetic Bearing Testing for Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Jansen, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The main proposed research of this grant were: to design a high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility, to test the high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing facility to higher speeds, to investigate different backup bearing designs and materials, to retrofit the high-temperature test facility with a magnetic thrust bearing, to evaluate test bearings at various conditions, and test several lubricants using a spiral orbit tribometer. A high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility has been fully developed using Solidworks. The facility can reuse many of the parts of the current high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing, helping to reduce overall build costs. The facility has the ability to measure bearing force capacity in the X, Y, and Z directions through a novel bearing mounting design. The high temperature coils and laminations, a main component of the facility, are based upon the current radial design and can be fabricated at Texas A&M University. The coil design was highly successful in the radial magnetic bearing. Vendors were contacted about fabrication of the high temperature lamination stack. Stress analysis was done on the laminations. Some of the components were procured, but due to budget cuts, the facility build up was stopped.

  7. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Plume Induced Environment Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)

  8. Integrating Testing into Software Engineering Courses Supported by a Collaborative Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Peter J.; Davis, Debra; King, Tariq M.; Pava, Jairo; Jones, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    As software becomes more ubiquitous and complex, the cost of software bugs continues to grow at a staggering rate. To remedy this situation, there needs to be major improvement in the knowledge and application of software validation techniques. Although there are several software validation techniques, software testing continues to be one of the…

  9. UFC advisor: An AI-based system for the automatic test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, David T.; Fink, Pamela K.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Logistics Command within the Air Force is responsible for maintaining a wide variety of aircraft fleets and weapon systems. To maintain these fleets and systems requires specialized test equipment that provides data concerning the behavior of a particular device. The test equipment is used to 'poke and prod' the device to determine its functionality. The data represent voltages, pressures, torques, temperatures, etc. and are called testpoints. These testpoints can be defined numerically as being in or out of limits/tolerance. Some test equipment is termed 'automatic' because it is computer-controlled. Due to the fact that effective maintenance in the test arena requires a significant amount of expertise, it is an ideal area for the application of knowledge-based system technology. Such a system would take testpoint data, identify values out-of-limits, and determine potential underlying problems based on what is out-of-limits and how far. This paper discusses the application of this technology to a device called the Unified Fuel Control (UFC) which is maintained in this manner.

  10. The light spot test : Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, rel

  11. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.; Maroteaux, G.; Loos, M.; Koopmans, B.; Kovačević, J.; Smit, A.B.; Verhage, M.; van de Sluis, S.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, rel

  12. 76 FR 34246 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... National Customs Automation Program Test of Automated Procedures for In-Bond Shipments Transiting Through....S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) plans to conduct a National Customs Automation Program (NCAP...@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Customs Automation Program (NCAP)...

  13. Survival and testing parameters of zirconia-based crowns under cyclic loading in an aqueous environment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshiyab, Shareen Hayel; Nawafleh, Noor; George, Roy

    2017-03-19

    To study the hypothesis that in vitro fatigue testing variables in an aqueous environment affect the survival results of zirconia-based restorations, and evaluate the level of agreement between in vitro and previous in vivo data. An electronic search of literature was conducted in PubMed and Scopus to identify in vitro studies testing zirconia-based crowns using cyclic loading in an aqueous environment. Only studies that complied with the inclusion criteria were included. Data extracted were used for survival analysis and assessment of in vitro parameters for fatigue testing of implant and tooth-supported crowns. Using "Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews" (AMSTAR), recent in vivo systematic review studies were assessed prior to consideration for comparison with the current in vitro data. After applying the inclusion criteria only 25 articles were included. Five-year cumulative survival rate of zirconia-based implant-supported crowns was lower than tooth-supported crowns (84% and 88.8% respectively). Tooth-supported crowns subjected to wet fatigue showed a lower 5-year cumulative survival rate compared to thermocycling (62.8% and 92.6% respectively). Monolithic crowns showed higher fracture resistance compared to bi-layered structure (pressed or hand-layered). Only in vivo systematic reviews, which complied with AMSTAR assessment criteria, were used for comparison to the in vitro data. As for fatigue testing parameters, differences in the experimental setting were evident and affected the outcomes. Crown survivals depend on type of support, type of fatigue test conducted, crown structure, and veneering method. In vitro fatigue testing protocols are highly variable, which introduces a need for international standardization to allow for more valid comparability of data. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Bypass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon Under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Tests were performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon whose purpose was to determine margin available for bypass diodes integrated with new, large multi-junction solar cells that are manufactured from a 4-inch wafer. The tests were performed under high vacuum with coupon back side thermal conditions of both cold and ambient. The bypass diodes were subjected to a sequence of increasing discrete current steps from 0 Amp to 2.0 Amp in steps of 0.25 Amp. At each current step, a temperature measurement was obtained via remote viewing by an infrared camera. This paper discusses the experimental methodology, experiment results, and the thermal model.

  15. Induction furnace testing of the durability of prototype crucibles in a molten metal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, Paul D.

    2005-09-01

    Engineered ceramic crucibles are commonly used to contain molten metal. Besides high temperature stability, other desired crucible characteristics include thermal shock resistance, minimal reaction with the molten metal and resistance to attack from the base metal oxide formed during melting. When used in an induction furnace, they can be employed as a “semi-permanent” crucible incorporating a dry ram backup and a ceramic cap. This report covers several 250-lb single melt crucible tests in an air melt induction furnace. These tests consisted of melting a charge of 17-4PH stainless steel, holding the charge molten for two hours before pouring off the heat and then subsequently sectioning the crucible to review the extent of erosion, penetration and other physical characteristics. Selected temperature readings were made throughout each melt. Chemistry samples were also taken from each heat periodically throughout the hold. The manganese level was observed to affect the rate of chromium loss in a non-linear fashion.

  16. Research of explosives in an environment of high pressure and temperature using a new test stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzewiecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the test stand for determining the blast abilities of explosives in high pressure and temperature conditions as well as the initial results of the research are presented. Explosives are used in rock burst and methane prevention to destroy precisely defined fragments of the rock mass where energy and methane are accumulated. Using this preventive method for fracturing the structure of the rocks which accumulate the energy or coal of the methane seam very often does not bring the anticipated results. It is because of the short range of destructive action of the post-blast gases around the blast hole. Evaluation of the blast dynamics of explosives in a test chamber, i.e. in the pressure and temperature conditions comparable to those found “in situ”, will enable evaluation of their real usefulness in commonly used mining hazard preventive methods. At the same time, it will enable the development of new designs of the explosive charges used for precisely determined mining hazards. In order to test the explosives for their use in difficult environmental conditions and to determine the characteristics of their explosion, a test chamber has been built. It is equipped with a system of sensors and a high-frequency recording system of pressure and temperature during a controlled explosion of an explosive charge. The results of the research will enable the development of new technologies for rock burst and methane prevention which will significantly increase workplace health and safety level. This paper presented results constitute the initial phase of research started in the middle of 2014.

  17. A Scalable and Dynamic Testbed for Conducting Penetration-Test Training in a Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    identifying vulnerabilities: reverse engineering, debugging, and fuzz testing. Publicly known exploits are also available from online databases such...settings, as either of the DHCP server may respond (causing a race condition). For this reason, we configured the router DHCP services to respond...attacker advertises their MAC address as the default gateway. In this case, the gateway is using the first available IP address in the subnetwork

  18. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Vibration Testing, Instrumentation and Data Analysis, Loads and Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    Mathews, B.W. Duggin, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM SHOCK WAVEFORM TESTING ON AN ELECTRODYNAMIC VIBRATOR W.E. Frain, Applied Physics Laboratory, The...when tuned to 260 Hz at ambient RESPONSE OF GUITAR FIXTURE pressure and 1000 Hz at maximum pres- sure. The operational range of this de- by strings and...frequency. The strings used are tion, for a variation over the entire guitar strings and are installed at a S S pressure range. slight angle, as

  19. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  20. Performance of RHA Cement Concrete under Marine Environment via Wetting and Drying Cyclic by Rapid Migration Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the performance of concrete containing rice husk ash (RHA under marine environment through wetting and drying cycles was investigated. Five levels of cement replacement (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight were used. The total cementitious content used was 420 kg/m3. A water/binder ratio of 0.49 was used to produce concrete having a target compressive strength of 40MPa at the age of 28 days. The performance of blended cement concrete under marine environment was evaluated using rapid migration test (RMT.  The results clearly showed that RHA can be satisfactorily used as a cement replacement material in order to reduce the chloride penetration depth and hence increases the durability of concrete. Generally, the chloride penetration depth of concrete containing higher RHA replacement is decreased as the RHA replacement increases, resulting in concrete with higher resistance to seawater attack.

  1. An Envision of Low Cost Mobile Adhoc Network Test Bed in a Laboratory Environment Emulating an Actual MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitiket N Mhala

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Orchestrating a live field trial of wireless mobile networking involves significant cost andlogistical issues relating to mobile platforms, support personnel, network and experiment automation andsupport equipment. The significant cost and logistics required to execute such a field trial can also belimiting in terms of achieving meaningful test results that exercise a practical number of mobile nodesover a significant set of test conditions within a given time. There is no argument that field trials are animportant component of dynamic network testing. A field test of prototype will show whether simulationswere on right track or not, but that’s a big leap to take; going from the simulator directly to the realthing. In conceiving our work, we envisioned a mobile network emulation system that is low cost, flexibleand controllable. This paper describes our wireless MANET test bed under development which emulatesan actual MANET. Here, we focuses that, this test bed allows the users to automatically generatearbitrary logically network topologies in order to perform real time operations on adhoc network at arelatively low cost in a laboratory environment without having to physically move the nodes in the adhocnetwork. Thus, we try to “compress” wireless network so that it fits on a single table.

  2. Screening tests for assessing the anaerobic biodegradation of pollutant chemicals in subsurface environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Concannon, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Screening methods were developed to assess the susceptibility of ground water contaminants to anaerobic biodegradation. One method was an extrapolation of a procedure previously used to measure biodegradation activity in dilute sewage sludge. Aquifer solids and ground water with no additional nutritive media were incubated anaerobically in 160-ml serum bottles containing 250 mg·l−1 carbon of the substrate of interest. This method relied on the detection of gas pressure or methane production in substrateamended microcosms relative to background controls. Other screening procedures involved the consumption of stoichiometrically required amounts of sulfate or nitrate from the same type of incubations. Close agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated amounts of substrate bioconversion based on the measured biogas pressure in methanogenic microcosms. Storage of the microcosms for up to 6 months did not adversely influence the onset or rate of benzoic acid mineralization. The lower detection limits of the methanogenic assay were found to be a function of the size of the microcosm headspace, the mean oxidation state of the substrate carbon, and the method used to correct for background temperature fluctuations. Using these simple screening procedures, biodegradation information of regulatory interest could be generated, including, (i) the length of the adaptation period, (ii) the rate of substrate decay and (iii) the completeness of the bioconversion.

  3. The general environment fit scale: a factor analysis and test of convergent construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A; Miller, Steven A

    2012-09-01

    Person-environment fit (P-E fit) was initially espoused as an important construct in the field of community psychology; however, most of the theoretical and empirical development of the construct has been conducted by the industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists and business management fields. In the current study, the GEFS-a P-E fit measure that was developed from organizational perspectives on fit-was administered to 246 attendees of an annual convention for residents and alumni of Oxford House, a network of over 1,400 mutual-help addiction recovery homes. The authors conducted confirmatory factor and convergent construct validity analyses with the GEFS. The results suggested that the theoretical factor structure of the measure adequately fit the data and provided limited support for the measure's validity. Sufficient supply of resident needs by the Oxford House and similarity between residents and their housemates predicted satisfaction with the recovery home, but only perceived similarity to housemates predicted how long residents intended to stay in the Oxford Houses.

  4. The development and testing of the dementia friendly communities environment assessment tool (DFC EAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Richard; Bennett, Kirsty; Preece, Terri; Phillipson, Lyn

    2017-02-01

    There is a growing recognition of the need to make the built environment in towns and cities more enabling for people with dementia. This study reports the development of a reliable tool to assess the support provided to people with dementia by public and commercial buildings such as council offices, supermarkets, banks, and medical centers as they approach, use, and leave them. A three-step process was carried out to develop and establish the reliability of the tool: (1) a review of principles and available tools informed the development and modification of an environmental audit tool of proven utility, (2) the draft tool was subjected to an iterative process of evaluation by a team of people with expertise in design and town planning, people with dementia and their carers, (3) inter-rater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on a sample of 60 public and commercial buildings. The review of available tools led to the drafting of a tool that was refined through iterative, experience-based evaluation resulting in a tool that has high inter-rater reliability and internal validity. The data gathered enabled a sample of banks, libraries, shops, medical facilities, supermarkets and council offices to be compared. The new tool aids the collection of reliable information on the strengths and weaknesses of public and commercial buildings. This information is likely to be of use in the refurbishment of these buildings to improve their support of people with dementia as they use them in their daily life.

  5. Slow Strain Rate Tensile Testing to Assess the Ability of Superalloys to Resist Environment-Assisted Intergranular Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Banik, Anthony; McDevitt, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Intergranular fatigue crack initiation and growth due to environmental degradation, especially at notched features, can often limit the fatigue life of disk superalloys at high temperatures. For clear comparisons, the effects of alloy composition on cracking in air needs to be understood and compared separately from variables associated with notches and cracks such as effective stress concentration, plastic flow, stress relaxation, and stress redistribution. The objective of this study was to attempt using simple tensile tests of specimens with uniform gage sections to compare the effects of varied alloy composition on environment-assisted cracking of several powder metal and cast and wrought superalloys including ME3, LSHR, Udimet 720, ATI 718Plus alloy, Haynes 282, and Inconel 740. Slow and fast strain-rate tensile tests were found to be a useful tool to compare propensities for intergranular surface crack initiation and growth. The effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile fracture strain and associated failure modes were compared. Environment interactions were determined to often limit ductility, by promoting intergranular surface cracking. The response of various superalloys and heat treatments to slow strain rate tensile testing varied substantially, showing that composition and microstructure can significantly influence environmental resistance to cracking.

  6. 浅谈高速铁路竣工文件组卷方法%The Method of Generating Test Paper Documents on Completion of High Speed Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马钰

    2015-01-01

    Engineering completion document plays an important role in the process of construction of high speed railway passenger dedicated line, it accurately reflects the high-speed passenger dedicated railway technical conditions of construction and project completion status, is an important data tracing quality problems during High-speed Rail operation. Technology of completion document collection, collation, archiving and transfer, to achieve the completion document preparation and accumulation and engineering construction progress, project completion acceptance handover and handover entity file synchronization. To complete and authentic, system, uniform, neatly prepared for high speed passenger railway engineering technical completion document, should first clear management ideas clear and feasible preparation method.%工程技术竣工文件在高速铁路客运专线建设过程中起着重要的作用,它如实反映了高速铁路客运专线施工技术状况和工程竣工的状况,是高铁运营期间追溯质量问题的重要资料。技术竣工文件的收集、整理、归档及移交,要做到竣工文件编制和积累与工程施工进度同步、工程实体验收交接与竣工文件交接同步。要完整、真实、系统、统一、整洁地编制好高速铁路客运专线工程技术竣工文件,首先要明确清晰的管理思路和切实可行的编制方法。

  7. Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittin, Pierre; Decelle, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.

  8. Vapor Space Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gray, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hicks, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-30

    As part of an integrated program to better understand corrosion in the high level waste tanks, Hanford has been investigating corrosion at the liquid/air interface (LAI) and at higher areas in the tank vapor space. This current research evaluated localized corrosion in the vapor space over Hanford double shell tank simulants to assess the impact of ammonia and new minimum nitrite concentration limits, which are part of the broader corrosion chemistry limits. The findings from this study showed that the presence of ammonia gas (550 ppm) in the vapor space is sufficient to reduce corrosion over the short-term (i.e. four months) for a Hanford waste chemistry (SY102 High Nitrate). These findings are in agreement with previous studies at both Hanford and SRS which showed ammonia gas in the vapor space to be inhibitive. The presence of ammonia in electrochemical test solution, however, was insufficient to inhibit against pitting corrosion. The effect of the ammonia appears to be a function of the waste chemistry and may have more significant effects in waste with low nitrite concentrations. Since high levels of ammonia were found beneficial in previous studies, additional testing is recommended to assess the necessary minimum concentration for protection of carbon steel. The new minimum R value of 0.15 was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion in the vapor space. The pitting that occurred, however, did not progress over the four-month test. Pits appeared to stop growing, which would indicate that pitting might not progress through wall.

  9. Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) Experiences and Considerations With Irradiation Test Performance in an International Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MH Lane

    2006-02-15

    This letter forwards a compilation of knowledge gained regarding international interactions and issues associated with Project Prometheus. The following topics are discussed herein: (1) Assessment of international fast reactor capability and availability; (2) Japanese fast reactor (JOYO) contracting strategy; (3) NRPCT/Program Office international contract follow; (4) Completion of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contract for manufacture of reactor test components; (5) US/Japanese Departmental interactions and required Treaties and Agreements; and (6) Non-technical details--interactions and considerations.

  10. Design aspects to consider during drilling and completion of wells of the pilot test in the in situ combustion project, Bare field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, D.; Garcia, J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Exploration and Production; PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP; Rodriguez, J.; Reverol, H. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Exploration and Production

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed an in situ combustion demonstration project in Venezuela's Orinoco oil belt. Unconventional drilling and completion techniques are being implemented in order to assess well performance during different phases of the combustion process. Drilling, well completion and monitoring techniques planned in each of the project's wells were described. The purpose of the project is to minimize formation damage, reduce corrosion, and prevent formation sand production. Numerical analyses, sampling studies, and laboratory experiments will be conducted in order to define well arrangement and to select completion equipment. Thermocouples, pressure chambers, and fiber optics will be used to monitor temperature and pressure rates. To date, the analyses have demonstrated that the horizontal section of the production wells must be drilled with special directional and geo-navigational tools. The selected completion equipment must allow for the installation of high capacity mechanical pumping systems. Completion equipment must be capable of performing in high temperatures and with the corrosive gases produced during the combustion process. It was concluded that casings for the wells must be centralized in order to ensure good cement placement. Real time monitoring will be conducted to control firefloods. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  11. Is sex advantageous in adverse environments? A test of the abandon-ship hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Joshua G; Bonser, Stephen P

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction remains a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology. Stress often induces sexual reproduction in facultatively sexual species (those species capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction). The abandon-ship hypothesis predicts higher allocation to sex under stress to allow low-fitness individuals to recombine their genotype, potentially increasing offspring fitness. However, effective tests of the abandon-ship hypothesis, particularly in multicellular organisms, are lacking. Here we test the abandon-ship hypothesis, using cyanogenic and acyanogenic defense phenotypes of the short-lived perennial herb Trifolium repens. Cyanogenesis provides an effective defense against herbivores and is under relatively simple genetic control (plants dominant for cyanogenesis at two alleles express the defended phenotype). Thus, maladapted individuals can acquire adaptive defense alleles for their offspring in a single episode of sexual reproduction. Plants were grown under high- and low-herbivory treatments (plants were exposed to herbivorous snails) and a control treatment (no herbivory). Herbivores reduced growth and fitness in all treated plants, but herbivory induced higher sexual allocation only in maladapted (acyanogenic) individuals. Overall, our results support the abandon-ship hypothesis.

  12. An overview of the radiation environment at the LHC in light of R2E irradiation test activities

    CERN Document Server

    Roeed, K; Spiezia, G; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present a brief overview of the radiation environment that can be expected in areas where electronics is installed in the LHC. This covers particle energy spectra in addition to nominal integrated values of the High Energy Hadron (HEH) fluence, relevant for Single Event Effects (SEEs), Total Ionizing Dose (TID), and the 1 MeV neutron equivalent, relevant for displacement damage. The risk of thermal neutrons is considered by introducing the risk factor Rth. This report is presented as part of the R2E project and should create a foundation from which appropriate irradiation test criteria can be evaluated and determined.

  13. Implementation of Genetic Algorithm for Solving De Jong Test Function on Cloud Environment and Compare Its Performance with Local Host Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tauhid Zuhori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this day, Cloud Computing has gained large attention not only from IT specialists but also from many clients. It is global network (internet-based computing, where shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like the electricity bill. Firstly Cost can be reduced and the technology is also known as green saver or power technology. Secondly, the dynamic and flexible scalability of cloud computing. The third is that cloud computing is platform independent means any internet supported system can be used to access cloud environment. In our paper, we will discuss the utility of the cloud computing for scientific computing. Google App Engine (GAE is adopted because it is open source or free and good software development Kit is available. Simple Genetic Algorithm are implemented on the GAE for solving the minimization of De Jong Test Function and for measuring the performance of cloud for showing that how cloud is the better choice than desktop

  14. Test data on leadless chip carriers with ceramic substrates in severe random vibration environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J.

    Relatively new in electronic packages are the hermetic chip carriers (HCC). LSI technology, coupled with the HCC packaging concept, offers density which is two to five times more dense than conventional dual-in-line or flatpack concepts. The present study is concerned with a research program which has been conducted in connection with the application of leadless hermetic chip carriers to a high reliability system design. Because of the thermal coefficient of expansion differential between the HCC and its substrate, the specific choice would be ceramic or porcelain steel technologies. The HCC can assemble to either a multilayer thick film or cofired ceramic substrate. An on-board computer with a 128K x 22 memory capacity is currently being developed. Two approaches are being considered. The first uses eight 16K trays, while the second employs four 32K trays. In vibration development tests, both the 16 and 32K trays were vibrated in the same fixture.

  15. Design, fabrication and testing of two electrohydraulic vibration isolation systems for helicopter environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. E.; Calcaterra, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    Two electrohydraulic vibration isolation systems were designed and fabricated to reduce the vertical vibrations transmitted to the XH-51N research helicopter cabin at the blade passage frequency (18 Hz) and its first harmonic (36 Hz). Hydraulic power and electrical control are provided to two separate servoactuators from a common power supply and control electronics package located behind the pilot's seat. One servoactuator is installed between the cabin and fuselage and replaces an existing passive spring. A second servoactuator is mounted between the existing seat and cabin floor. Both servoactuators incorporate a mechanical failsafe design. The control electronics circuitry provides automatic tracking of the blade passage frequency. Results of laboratory, environmental and ground vibration tests employing an XH-51A stripped down helicopter fuselage show that the active cabin isolator reduces the vertical vibrations transmitted from the fuselage attachment point to the cabin attachment point at 18 and 36 Hz (or as an alternative, 6 Hz) by better than 90 percent.

  16. TESTING OF 304L STAINLESS STEEL IN NITRIC ACID ENVIRONMENTS WITH FLUORIDES AND CHLORIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2010-10-04

    Impure radioactive material processed in nitric acid solutions resulted in the presence of chlorides in a dissolver fabricated from 304L stainless steel. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of chloride in nitric acid/fluoride solutions on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel. The test variables included temperature (80, 95, and 110 C) and the concentrations of nitric acid (6, 12, and 14 M), fluoride (0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and chloride (100, 350, 1000, and 2000 ppm). The impact of welding was also investigated. Results showed that the chloride concentration alone was not a dominant variable affecting the corrosion, but rather the interaction of chloride with fluoride significantly affected corrosion.

  17. WEAR TESTS OF SLIDING SURFACES IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF MIXTURES OF LUBRICATING OILS AND REFRIGERANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Górny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elements of refrigeration compressors may be exposed to various types of wear processes, depending on the used oils and refrigerants. The presence of the refrigerant makes the lubricating properties and anti-oil mixture - factor much worse than in case of the lack of refrigerant oil. Current regulations on the use of ODS phase-out of working require refrigeration synthetic refrigerants HCFC (e.g. popular R22. The paper presents the effect of different mixtures of oils and refrigerants on friction coefficient and surface condition of cast iron and aluminium PA6. Tests were performed on a prototype machine using frictional node type block-on-ring, which is located inside a pressure chamber that simulates the refrigeration compressor. The results of the study confirm the possibility of using green refrigerant R290 (propane as a substitute for R22, while keeping the existing mineral oil.

  18. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education.

  19. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawedzki Waclaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  20. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  1. Beam test of novel n-in-p strip sensors for high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, T., E-mail: kubota@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kishida, T.; Jinnouchi, O. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ikegami, Y.; Unno, Y.; Terada, S.; Mitsui, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tamii, A.; Aoi, T. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hanagaki, K. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hara, K. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kimura, N. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University (Japan); Takashima, R. [Department of Education, Kyoto University of Education, 1 Fukakusa-Fujimori-cho, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8522 (Japan); Takubo, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tojo, J. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Nagai, K. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Nakano, I. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tshushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yorita, K. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University (Japan)

    2013-12-11

    Highly radiation tolerant n-in-p strip sensors have been developed for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This paper reports the results of measurements with 392 MeV kinetic energy proton beam at RCNP in December 2011. The data was taken with a new DAQ system consisting of an universal read-out board ‘SEABAS’ and beam tracking telescopes whose spacial resolution is better than 5μm. The aim of this beam test is to evaluate the new 1 cm×1 cm n-in-p miniature sensors before and after 10{sup 15} n{sub eq} cm{sup −2} irradiation. The median charge of un-irradiated sensor is 6.2 fC at full depletion voltage, while the median charge after 10{sup 15} n{sub eq} cm{sup −2} irradiation of the sensor is 4.2 fC. The novel Punch-Through-Protection (PTP) has been implemented in these sensors. The length of active region of the sensor around PTP is observed to be decreased by 12μm in the irradiated sensors at 10{sup 15} n{sub eq} cm{sup −2}.

  2. Testing FSO WDM communication system in simulation software optiwave OptiSystem in different atmospheric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderka, Ales; Hajek, Lukas; Bednarek, Lukas; Latal, Jan; Vitasek, Jan; Hejduk, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    In this article the author's team deals with using Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications. In FSO communication occurs due to the influence of atmospheric effect (attenuation, and fluctuation of the received power signal, influence turbulence) and the WDM channel suffers from interchannel crosstalk. There is considered only the one direction. The behavior FSO link was tested for one or eight channels. Here we will be dealing with modulation schemes OOK (On-Off keying), QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) and Subcarrier Intensity Modulation (SIM) based on a BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying). Simulation software OptiSystem 14 was used for tasting. For simulation some parameters were set according to real FSO link such as the datarate 1.25 Gbps, link range 1.4 km. Simulated FSO link used wavelength of 1550 nm with 0.8 nm spacing. There is obtained the influence of crosstalk and modulation format for the BER, depending on the amount of turbulence in the propagation medium.

  3. Alignment Test Results of the JWST Pathfinder Telescope Mirrors in the Cryogenic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Hadaway, James; Knight, J. Scott; Lunt, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    After integration of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) to the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to become the OTIS, the James Webb Space Telescope OTIS is tested at NASAs Johnson Space Center (JSC) in the cryogenic vacuum Chamber A for alignment and optical performance. The alignment of the mirrors comprises a sequence of steps as follows: The mirrors are coarsely aligned using photogrammetry cameras with reflective targets attached to the sides of the mirrors. Then a multi-wavelength interferometer is aligned to the 18-segment primary mirror using cameras at the center of curvature to align reflected light from the segments and using fiducials at the edge of the primary mirror. Once the interferometer is aligned, the 18 primary mirror segments are then adjusted to optimize wavefront error of the aggregate mirror. This process phases the piston and tilt positions of all the mirror segments. An optical fiber placed at the Cassegrain focus of the telescope then emits light towards the secondary mirror to create a collimated beam emitting from the primary mirror. Portions of the collimated beam are retro-reflected from flat mirrors at the top of the chamber to pass through the telescope to the SI detector. The image on the detector is used for fine alignment of the secondary mirror and a check of the primary mirror alignment using many of the same analysis techniques used in the on-orbit alignment. The entire process was practiced and evaluated in 2015 at cryogenic temperature with the Pathfinder telescope.

  4. Alignment test results of the JWST Pathfinder Telescope mirrors in the cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Hadaway, James B.; Knight, J. Scott; Lunt, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    After integration of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) to the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to become the OTIS, the James Webb Space Telescope OTIS is tested at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in the cryogenic vacuum Chamber A for alignment and optical performance. The alignment of the mirrors comprises a sequence of steps as follows: The mirrors are coarsely aligned using photogrammetry cameras with reflective targets attached to the sides of the mirrors. Then a multi-wavelength interferometer is aligned to the 18-segment primary mirror using cameras at the center of curvature to align reflected light from the segments and using fiducials at the edge of the primary mirror. Once the interferometer is aligned, the 18 primary mirror segments are then adjusted to optimize wavefront error of the aggregate mirror. This process phases the piston and tilt positions of all the mirror segments. An optical fiber placed at the Cassegrain focus of the telescope then emits light towards the secondary mirror to create a collimated beam emitting from the primary mirror. Portions of the collimated beam are retro-reflected from flat mirrors at the top of the chamber to pass through the telescope to the Science Instrument (SI) detector. The image on the detector is used for fine alignment of the secondary mirror and a check of the primary mirror alignment using many of the same analysis techniques used in the on-orbit alignment. The entire process was practiced and evaluated in 2015 at cryogenic temperature with the Pathfinder telescope.

  5. Interpretation of friction and wear in DLC film: role of surface chemistry and test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaki, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Madapu, K.; Ganesan, K.; Krishna, N. G.; Srivastava, S. K.; Abhaya, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    In spite of the large amount of tribological work carried out to explain the friction and wear mechanism in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, some of the core issues relating to the evolution of reactive species across sliding interfaces and their role on the friction and wear mechanism remain unclear. The phase composition, film density and hydrogen content present in a DLC film can be tailored by substrate biasing during film deposition to achieve a nearly vanishing friction coefficient. Furthermore, nitrogen doping in DLC films significantly improves wear resistance, and sliding occurs in a nearly wearless regime. Undoped and nitrogen-doped DLC films exhibit a nearly frictionless value with ultra-low wear behavior when tests are performed in argon, nitrogen and methane atmospheres. The antifriction and antiwear properties of the DLC films were improved with the reduction of adsorbed oxygen impurities on the film surface. This behavior was understood by correlating the oxygen impurities present at the surface/subsurface region of the DLC film while using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and depth-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy.

  6. Testing Dragonflies as Species Richness Indicators in a Fragmented Subtropical Atlantic Forest Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S; Sahlén, G; Périco, E

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed 15 bodies of water among remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil for adult dragonflies and damselflies to test whether an empirical selection method for diversity indicators could be applied in a subtropical ecosystem, where limited ecological knowledge on species level is available. We found a regional species pool of 34 species distributed in a nested subset pattern with a mean of 11.2 species per locality. There was a pronounced difference in species composition between spring, summer, and autumn, but no differences in species numbers between seasons. Two species, Homeoura chelifera (Selys) and Ischnura capreolus (Hagen), were the strongest candidates for regional diversity indicators, being found only at species-rich localities in our surveyed area and likewise in an undisturbed national forest reserve, serving as a reference site for the Atlantic Forest. Using our selection method, we found it possible to obtain a tentative list of diversity indicators without having detailed ecological information of each species, providing a reference site is available for comparison. The method thus allows for indicator species to be selected in blanco from taxonomic groups that are little known. We hence argue that Odonata can already be incorporated in ongoing assessment programs in the Neotropics, which would also increase the ecological knowledge of the group and allow extrapolation to other taxa.

  7. Experimental study of CT test on the failure of acrylate spray-applied waterproof layer in the groundwater environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this study the computerized tomography (CT) was first used to quantitatively analyze the failure of acrylate spray-applied waterproof membrane in the groundwater environment. The results of the CT tests show that it is feasible to use the CT to quantitatively analyze the failure of the waterproof membrane and the CT method has the advantages of speediness and accuracy that can eliminate the fussy operation process in routine tests. The main conclusions summarized from the study are as follows. First, there are two combined-indexes that can be used to decide the failure of the spray-on waterproof layer: one is that the reduced percentage of the CT number of the spray-on waterproof layer is less than 40.0% and the other is that the variance of the CT number decreases first and then increases. Second, the applicability for the spray-on waterproof layer in the groundwater environment is the SO 24-concentration ≤ 1%, the Cl-concentration ≤ 7.5% and the pH value ≤ 12.0 of the groundwater, respectively.

  8. The behavioural repertoire of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) in captivity: A case study for testing ethogram completeness and reducing observer effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bolgan, Marta; O'Brien, Joanne; Gammell, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, research has been directed towards possible differences in the mating behaviour of species belonging to the Salmonidae family that may reproductively isolate wild populations from escaped hatchery or farmed fish. Despite these studies, a detailed description of the overall behavioural repertoire of Salmonidae species from wild and farmed environments is still lacking. Furthermore, although Arctic charr has been described as the most variable between all vertebrate specie...

  9. Analysis of the 2007 Chinese ASAT Test and the Impact of its Debris on the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T.

    On 2007 January 11, the People's Republic of China conducted a successful direct-ascent ASAT test against one of their own defunct polar-orbiting weather satellites. The test produced at least 1,337 pieces of debris large enough to be routinely tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office estimated it generated over 35,000 pieces of debris down to 1 centimeter in size. While this event captured worldwide attention in the weeks and months after the test was revealed, much of the information provided in the press was inaccurate or misleading and did not appear to be based on scientific analysis of the data available to the public. In order to help the public and key policy makers more fully understand the nature of the event and its impact on the existing satellite population, the Center for Space Standards & Innovation developed a series of animations, images, and graphical analyses to more clearly portray this event and provide a factual foundation for the subsequent debate. Those materials were all made publicly available via the Internet without restriction and have appeared in numerous publications. This paper will summarize the primary areas of analysis of this event, to include a confirmation of the basic facts initially reported in Aviation Week & Space Technology, a visualization of the initial spread of the debris cloud in the first couple of hours after the attack, analysis of the impact of the debris on the LEO space environment including the number of satellites potentially affected and the increase in the number of conjunctions, a look at the current debris environment, and an assessment of the orbital lifetimes that shows that these impacts will last not for years but for centuries. The visualization techniques used to portray these analyses played a substantial role in helping the scientific community to quickly and easily convey important aspects of this event to policy makers and the public at large.

  10. Card Sorting in an Online Environment: Key to Involving Online-Only Student Population in Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Emily B.; Klentzin, Jacqueline C.; Mills, Chloe P.

    2017-01-01

    Based on in-person, task-based usability testing and interviews, the authors' library Web site was recently overhauled in order to improve user experience. This led to the authors' interest in additional usability testing methods and test environments that would most closely fit their library's goals and situation. The appeal of card sorting…

  11. Semiautomatic device tests components with biaxial leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.

    1966-01-01

    Semiautomatic device with a four-terminal network tests quantities of components having biaxial leads. The four-terminal network permits the testing of components in different environments. This device is easily modified for completely automatic operation.

  12. A Novel Mogi Type True Triaxial Testing Apparatus and Its Use to Obtain Complete Stress-Strain Curves of Hard Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Zhang, Xiwei; Kong, R.; Wang, G.

    2016-05-01

    A true triaxial apparatus (TTA) was designed and fabricated at Northeastern University, Shenyang, China, by modifying the original Mogi type testing apparatus to emulate three-dimensional stress paths in deep mining and tunneling excavations. Such an apparatus can be used to investigate deformation and brittle failure behaviors of hard rocks as well as the cause of rockbursts. The novel TTA can capture the post-peak behavior of a 50 × 50 × 100 mm3 specimen. Technical improvements such as a considerable increase of the stiffness of the loading frames were implemented to deal with difficulties in TTA testing. The accuracy of the volume change measurement was improved and a combined pneumatic and hydraulic technique was applied to create a "floating" vertical loading frame. The end friction effect and the loading gap effect were evaluated using a series of tests. Repeatability tests, brittle failure tests in a loading stress path and an unloading stress path (unloading of σ 3) were carried out on granite specimens to verify the performance of the TTA. The test results show that the apparatus achieves its original design goal.

  13. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić-Gajić Milina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS belongs to disorders of sex development, resulting from complete or partial resistance to the biological actions of androgens in persons who are genetically males (XY with normally developed testes and age-appropriate for males of serum testosterone concentration. Case Outline. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted at our Clinic further evaluation and treatment of testicular feminization syndrome, which was diagnosed at the age of 16 years. The patient had never menstruated. On physical examination, her external genitalia and breast development appeared as completely normal feminine structures but pubic and axillary hair was absent. Cytogenetic analysis showed a 46 XY karyotype. The values of sex hormones were as in adult males. The multisliced computed tomography (MSCT showed structures on both sides of the pelvic region, suggestive of testes. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed. Hormone replacement therapy was prescribed after gonadectomy. Vaginal dilatation was advised to avoid dyspareunia. Conclusion. The diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity is based on clinical findigs, hormonal analysis karyotype, visualization methods and genetic analysis. Bilateral gonadectomy is generally recommended in early adulthood to avoid the risk of testicular malignancy. Vaginal length may be short requiring dilatation in an effort to avoid dyspareunia. Vaginal surgery is rarely indicated for the creation of a functional vagina. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175067

  14. Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a high-pressure fluid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An; Feng, Zhili; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Liu, Kenneth C

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides fatigue testing of a material specimen while the specimen is disposed in a high pressure fluid environment. A specimen is placed between receivers in an end cap of a vessel and a piston that is moveable within the vessel. Pressurized fluid is provided to compression and tension chambers defined between the piston and the vessel. When the pressure in the compression chamber is greater than the pressure in the tension chamber, the specimen is subjected to a compression force. When the pressure in the tension chamber is greater than the pressure in the compression chamber, the specimen is subjected to a tension force. While the specimen is subjected to either force, it is also surrounded by the pressurized fluid in the tension chamber. In some examples, the specimen is surrounded by hydrogen.

  15. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories/NM, Tonopah Test Range environs, 1994-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi M.; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-05-01

    From 1994 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), NV, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at TTR. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory of metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  16. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willits, M.H.; McCoy, R.L.; Dobson, R.J.; Hartsock, J.H.

    1979-12-01

    The Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, located in the East Franklin area of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, is the first successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the Well-of-Opportunity program. The section tested was the MA-6 sand of lower Miocene age which has produced large quantities of gas from the adjacent but structurally separated Garden City field. In the subject well the observed temperature was 270{sup 0}F (132{sup 0}C) and the measured gradient was 0.77 psi/ft. The gross sand thickness was 270 feet, the net sand thickness 190 feet, and the tested interval 58 net feet. The temperatures and pressures encountered approached the limits of the surface-recording bottomhole pressure gauge and particularly the single-conductor cables on which the gauges were run. The objectives of the tests were all accomplished, and data were obtained which will contribute to the overall assessment of the geopressured-geothermal resource of the Upper Gulf of Mexico basin. In general, the gas solubility (22.8 scf/bbl) was as expected for the temperature, pressure, and salinity of the brine. The produced water was more saline than expected (160,000 mg/l). The high concentrations of dissolved solids, coupled with the evolution of CO{sub 2} from these waters during production, created a scaling problem in the tubular goods and surface equipment that will have to be addressed in future tests.

  17. Exploring relationships between the use of affect in science instruction and the pressures of a high-stakes testing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Diane C.

    This study explored how science teachers and school administrators perceive the use of the affective domain during science instruction situated within a high-stakes testing environment. Through a multimethodological inquiry using phenomenology and critical ethnography, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with six fifth-grade science teachers and two administrators from two Texas school districts. Data reconstructions from interviews formed a bricolage of diagrams that trace the researcher's steps through a reflective exploration of these phenomena. This study addressed the following research questions: (a) What are the attitudes, interests, and values (affective domain) that fifth-grade science teachers integrate into science instruction? (b) How do fifth-grade science teachers attempt to integrate attitudes, interests and values (affective domain) in science instruction? and (c) How do fifth-grade science teachers manage to balance the tension from the seeming pressures caused by a high-stakes testing environment and the integration of attitudes, interests and values (affective domain) in science instruction? The findings from this study indicate that as teachers tried to integrate the affective domain during science instruction, (a) their work was set within a framework of institutional values, (b) teaching science for understanding looked different before and after the onset of the science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), and (c) upon administration of the science TAKS---teachers broadened their aim, raised their expectations, and furthered their professional development. The integration of the affective domain fell into two distinct categories: 1) teachers targeted student affect and 2) teachers modeled affective behavior.

  18. 完全图哈密尔顿圈遗传算法的MATLAB模拟实现%The Simulation of Genetic Algorithm for Hamilton Circle on Complete Graph in MATLAB Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕君; 张立; 赵强

    2015-01-01

    求解完全图上的哈密尔顿圈是典型的组合优化问题,遗传算法是解决此类NP问题的一种较理想的方法。对基本的遗传算法进行改进,在选择操作和变异操作中加入贪心优化思想,使算法获得更优的全局最优解。在MATLAB环境下模拟实现了哈密尔顿圈的经典问题———TSP( travelling salesman problem)旅行商问题,从而验证了该算法的可行性和正确性。%Solving Hamilton-circle on a complete graph is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Genetic algorithm is a good way to solve such an NP problem. In this paper, the basic genetic algorithm is improved. Particularly, the greedy optimization i-deas are applied to the selection and mutation operation in order to obtain global optimal solutions with the algorithm. In the MATLAB environment, the algorithm was simulated to implement classical Hamilton circle- TSP ( travelling salesman problem) and the results verify the feasibility and correctness of the algorithm.

  19. 完全图哈密尔顿圈遗传算法的MATLAB模拟实现%The Simulation of Genetic Algorithm for Hamilton Circle on Complete Graph in MATLAB Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕君; 张立; 赵强

    2015-01-01

    Solving Hamilton-circle on a complete graph is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Genetic algorithm is a good way to solve such an NP problem. In this paper, the basic genetic algorithm is improved. Particularly, the greedy optimization i-deas are applied to the selection and mutation operation in order to obtain global optimal solutions with the algorithm. In the MATLAB environment, the algorithm was simulated to implement classical Hamilton circle-TSP ( Travelling Salesman Problem) and the results verify the feasibility and correctness of the algorithm.%求解完全图上的哈密尔顿圈是典型的组合优化问题,遗传算法是解决此类NP问题的一种较理想的方法。对基本的遗传算法进行改进,在选择操作和变异操作中加入贪心优化思想,使算法获得更优的全局最优解。在MATLAB环境下模拟实现了哈密尔顿圈的经典问题———TSP( travelling salesman problem)旅行商问题,从而验证了该算法的可行性和正确性。

  20. Verification of MEMS fabrication process for the application of MEMS solid propellant thruster arrays in space through launch and on-orbit environment tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ung; Kim, Tae-Gyu; Han, Sung-Hyeon; Lee, Jongkwang

    2017-02-01

    One of the most significant barriers encountered to the space application of MEMS technology is its lack of reliability and flight heritage in space environments. In this study a MEMS solid propellant thruster array was selected for the verification test of MEMS technology in space. The function and performance of MEMS solid thruster have been previously verified by laboratory-level research in universities. To ensure the successful operation of the MEMS thruster module before flight demonstration on-orbit, launch and on-orbit environment tests were performed at the qualification level. In the launch test, sine burst, and random vibration loads were applied to the MEMS thruster module. The thermal vacuum tests were carried out for the on-orbit environment test. As a result of the launch vibration test and on-orbit environment test, the variations of the characteristics were less than 0.7%, and all the functional requirements were successfully verified after the vibration tests. The tests successfully verified the manufacturing process because the thruster module showed stable normal function before the ignition. The test result outputs will be helpful in establishing MEMS fabrication guidelines for space applications.

  1. Experimental Results of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells in a Low Density LEO Plasma Environment: Ground Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma ground testing results, conducted at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) National Plasma Interaction (N-PI) Facility, are presented for a number of thin-film photovoltaic cells. The cells represent a mix of promising new technologies identified by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) under the CYGNUS Space Science Technology Experiment (SSTE-4) Program. The current ground tests are aimed at characterizing the performance and survivability of thin film technologies in the harsh low earth orbital space environment where they will be flown. Measurements of parasitic current loss, charging/dielectric breakdown of cover-slide coatings and arcing threshold tests are performed for each individual cell. These measurements are followed by a series of experiments designed to test for catastrophic arc failure mechanisms. A special type of power supply, called a solar array simulator (SAS) with adjustable voltage and current limits on the supply s output, is employed to bias two adjacent cells at a predetermined voltage and current. The bias voltage is incrementally ramped up until a sustained arc results. Sustained arcs are precursors to catastrophic arc failure where the arc current rises to a maximum value for long timescales often ranging between 30 to 100 sec times. Normal arcs by comparison, are short lived events with a timescale between 10 to 30 sec. Sustained arcs lead to pyrolization with extreme cell damage and have been shown to cause the loss of entire array strings in solar arrays. The collected data will be used to evaluate the suitability of thin-film photovoltaic technologies for future space operations.

  2. I just ran a thousand analyses: benefits of multiple testing in understanding equivocal evidence on gene-environment interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera E Heininga

    Full Text Available In psychiatric genetics research, the volume of ambivalent findings on gene-environment interactions (G x E is growing at an accelerating pace. In response to the surging suspicions of systematic distortion, we challenge the notion of chance capitalization as a possible contributor. Beyond qualifying multiple testing as a mere methodological issue that, if uncorrected, leads to chance capitalization, we advance towards illustrating the potential benefits of multiple tests in understanding equivocal evidence in genetics literature.We focused on the interaction between the serotonin-transporter-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR and childhood adversities with regard to depression. After testing 2160 interactions with all relevant measures available within the Dutch population study of adolescents TRAILS, we calculated percentages of significant (p < .05 effects for several subsets of regressions. Using chance capitalization (i.e. overall significance rate of 5% alpha and randomly distributed findings as a competing hypothesis, we expected more significant effects in the subsets of regressions involving: 1 interview-based instead of questionnaire-based measures; 2 abuse instead of milder childhood adversities; and 3 early instead of later adversities. Furthermore, we expected equal significance percentages across 4 male and female subsamples, and 5 various genotypic models of 5-HTTLPR.We found differences in the percentages of significant interactions among the subsets of analyses, including those regarding sex-specific subsamples and genetic modeling, but often in unexpected directions. Overall, the percentage of significant interactions was 7.9% which is only slightly above the 5% that might be expected based on chance.Taken together, multiple testing provides a novel approach to better understand equivocal evidence on G x E, showing that methodological differences across studies are a likely reason for heterogeneity in findings - but chance

  3. Multi-parameter decoupling and slope tracking control strategy of a large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke; Liu Wangkai; Wang Jun; Huang Yong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin was developed to accu-rately control temperatures and pressures encountered at high altitudes. The system was developed to provide slope-tracking dynamic control of the temperature–pressure two-parameter and over-come the control difficulties inherent to a large inertia lag link with a complex control system which is composed of turbine refrigeration device, vacuum device and liquid nitrogen cooling device. The system includes multi-parameter decoupling of the cabin itself to avoid equipment damage of air refrigeration turbine caused by improper operation. Based on analysis of the dynamic characteris-tics and modeling for variations in temperature, pressure and rotation speed, an intelligent control-ler was implemented that includes decoupling and fuzzy arithmetic combined with an expert PID controller to control test parameters by decoupling and slope tracking control strategy. The control system employed centralized management in an open industrial ethernet architecture with an indus-trial computer at the core. The simulation and field debugging and running results show that this method can solve the problems of a poor anti-interference performance typical for a conventional PID and overshooting that can readily damage equipment. The steady-state characteristics meet the system requirements.

  4. Fieldwork Test Research of the Impact on Building Physical Environment on Six Types of Atrium Space in Cold Climates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeHao Song; JunJie Li; Ning Zhu; JiaLiang Wang; ZhengHao Lin

    2014-01-01

    Since the research on verification to passive design strategies in sustainable building is at the initial stage, and its test method and verification conclusion are not scientific enough to validate, this paper proposes the necessity of building physical environmental monitoring to quantitative optimization of passive strategies efficiency from the perspective of architecture design and building environment. Adopting comparative research method, this research chooses six types of atrium space in cold climate in China as a prototype, focusing on building physical environmental performance difference in and between atrium and building main space. Spatial parameters of the atrium space will be divided into four factors:spatial geometry, interfacial properties, internal and external related categories. With subdividing these four factors into sub-factors, this paper makes cross-comparison among the sub-factors to clarify passive strategies effectiveness in atrium. Data comparison analysis shows that Winter atrium passive strategy in cold regions from traditional view is not obvious in practical application, and test data need to be stratified refined in atrium design in case of optimizing passive strategy from building prototype perspective.

  5. Asynchronous P300-based brain-computer interface to control a virtual environment: initial tests on end users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, Fabio; Schettini, Francesca; Aricò, Pietro; Salinari, Serenella; Guger, Christoph; Rinsma, Johanna; Aiello, Marco; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo

    2011-10-01

    Motor disability and/or ageing can prevent individuals from fully enjoying home facilities, thus worsening their quality of life. Advances in the field of accessible user interfaces for domotic appliances can represent a valuable way to improve the independence of these persons. An asynchronous P300-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system was recently validated with the participation of healthy young volunteers for environmental control. In this study, the asynchronous P300-based BCI for the interaction with a virtual home environment was tested with the participation of potential end-users (clients of a Frisian home care organization) with limited autonomy due to ageing and/or motor disabilities. System testing revealed that the minimum number of stimulation sequences needed to achieve correct classification had a higher intra-subject variability in potential end-users with respect to what was previously observed in young controls. Here we show that the asynchronous modality performed significantly better as compared to the synchronous mode in continuously adapting its speed to the users' state. Furthermore, the asynchronous system modality confirmed its reliability in avoiding misclassifications and false positives, as previously shown in young healthy subjects. The asynchronous modality may contribute to filling the usability gap between BCI systems and traditional input devices, representing an important step towards their use in the activities of daily living.

  6. Statistics a complete introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Statistics: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using Statistics. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all the key areas of Statistics including graphs, data interpretation, spreadsheets, regression, correlation and probability. Everything you will need is here in this one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.

  7. Virtual environments in cancer care: Pilot-testing a three-dimensional web-based platform as a tool for support in young cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Olsen, Pia Riis; Hansson, Helena Eva

    2016-01-01

    Bringing virtual environments into cancer support may offer a particular potential to engage patients and increase adherence to treatment. Developing and pilot-testing an online real-time multi-user three-dimensional platform, this study tested the use of an early prototype of the platform among...

  8. A qualitative study of the complete set of solutions of the differential equation of motion of a test particle in the equatorial plane of the Kerr gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, H. E.; Chan, F. K.

    1973-01-01

    A study is made of the mathematical solution of the differential equation of motion of a test particle in the equatorial plane of the Kerr gravitational field, using S (Schwarzschild-like) coordinates. A qualitative solution of this equation leads to the conclusion that there can only be 25 different types of orbits. For each value of a, the results are presented in a master diagram for which h and e are the parameters. A master diagram divides the h, e parameter space into regions such that at each point within one of these regions the types of admissible orbits are qualitatively the same. A pictorial representation of the physical orbits in the r, phi plane is also given.

  9. The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey: Nurse-Led Instrument Development and Psychometric Testing to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Series Completion in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami; Dalmida, Safyia; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey (SHPVS) was developed to examine students' perceived benefits or barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Survey development included (a) 2-phase integrative literature reviews; (b) draft of survey items based on the literature; (c) critique of survey items by young adults, nursing and psychology faculty, and health care providers; and (d) pilot testing. The psychometric properties of the SHPVS were evaluated using classical item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) among a sample of 527 university students' ages 18-24 years. The estimated Cronbach's alpha for the SHPVS is .74. The SHPVS is a measure of young adults HPV perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination.

  10. Heavy duty complete extension slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, José Ignacio; Vázquez, Javier

    2001-09-01

    The selection from available commercial market of a set of slides to be used in an habitable pressurised module in space, to draw a 660 mm box out of a rack, up to a completely extracted position in a safely supported configuration, seems in principle not to be a complicated task. That was the first approach taken in the design process of the telescopic guides of the Crew Work Bench (CWB) included in the Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), part of "ESA Microgravity Facilities for Columbus" within the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Nevertheless, common space compatible requirements such as materials, specific environmental loads, available envelope, total weight, etc., can make the selection of telescopic slides from commercial market unfeasible. A specific development to design space compatible telescopic slides for the CWB was undertaken. A set of heavy duty space compatible telescopic slides were designed, manufactured and tested. They should be operative in both, 1-g environment and in orbit, and additionally should withstand an inadvertent astronaut kick or bump of 556 N in any direction.

  11. Determination of Hydrogen Bond Structure in Water versus Aprotic Environments To Test the Relationship Between Length and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigala, Paul A.; Ruben, Eliza A.; Liu, Corey W.; Piccoli, Paula M. B.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Martinez, Todd J.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Herschiag, Daniel

    2015-05-06

    Hydrogen bonds profoundly influence the architecture and activity of biological macromolecules. Deep appreciation of hydrogen bond contributions to biomolecular function thus requires a detailed understanding of hydrogen bond structure and energetics and the relationship between these properties. Hydrogen bond formation energies (Delta G(f)) are enormously more favorable in aprotic solvents than in water, and two classes of contributing factors have been proposed to explain this energetic difference, focusing respectively on the isolated and hydrogen-bonded species: (I) water stabilizes the dissociated donor and acceptor groups much better than aprotic solvents, thereby reducing the driving force for hydrogen bond formation; and (II) water lengthens hydrogen bonds compared to aprotic environments, thereby decreasing the potential energy within the hydrogen bond. Each model has been proposed to provide a dominant contribution to Delta G(f), but incisive tests that distinguish the importance of these contributions are lacking. Here we directly test the structural basis of model II. Neutron crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that O-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds in crystals, chloroform, acetone, and water have nearly identical lengths and very similar potential energy surfaces despite Delta G(f) differences >8 kcal/mol across these solvents. These results rule out a substantial contribution from solvent-dependent differences in hydrogen bond structure and potential energy after association (model II) and thus support the conclusion that differences in hydrogen bond Delta G(f) are predominantly determined by solvent interactions with the dissociated groups (model I). These findings advance our understanding of universal hydrogen-bonding interactions and have important implications for biology and engineering.

  12. Microscope, test of the Universality of mass free-fall in a well controlled in Orbit Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Touboul, P.; Josselin, V.; Pradels, G.; Vandermarcq, O.

    To perform the test of the Equivalence Principle, numerous "free fall" type experiments have been proposed since Galileo, who first suggested the drop of objects from the top of the Pisa tower. These experiments have never met the best performance, up to now obtained with torsion pendulum or lunar laser ranging. With a space experiment like the MICROSCOPE mission, dedicated instruments take advantage of the very steady and soft environment that is managed on board a dedicated satellite maintained on a pure gravitational orbit. The selection of the orbit, the very stiff structure of the satellite, the thermal insulation of the instrument case as well as the accommodation of the instrument and the choice of the satellite equipment provide specific conditions that lead to consider comparisons of measured accelerations with a few 10-1 5 ms -2 accuracy. This paper describes the accommodation of the MICROSCOPE instrument and emphasises the impact to the performance of the environmental conditions provided by the satellite and of the instrument sensitivity evaluated on ground or in orbit.

  13. Evaluation of tracer tests completed in 1999 and 2000 on the upper Santa Clara River, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Marisa H.; Mendez, Gregory O.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of surface water and hyporheic water along the Santa Clara River in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, was evaluated by conducting tracer tests and analyzing water-quality data under different flow conditions in October 1999 and May 2000. Tracer and water-quality samples were collected at multiple river and hyporheic sites as well as at the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts Saugus and Valencia Water Reclamation Plants. These water reclamation plants provide the main source of base flow in the river. Rhodamine WT dye was injected into the river to determine river traveltimes and to indicate when Lagrangian water-quality sampling could be performed at each site. Sodium bromide was injected into the river at a constant rate at the water reclamation plants to evaluate the surface-water and shallow ground-water interactions in the hyporheic zone. In the upper reach of the study area, which extends 2.9 river miles downstream from the Saugus Water Reclamation Plant, traveltime was 3.2 hours during May 2000. In the lower reach, which extends 14.1 river miles downstream from the Valencia Water Reclamation Plant, traveltime was 9.6 hours during October 1999 and 7.1 hours during May 2000. The sodium bromide tracer was detected at both hyporheic locations sampled during October 1999, and at two of the three hyporheic locations sampled during May 2000. On the basis of Rhodamine dye tests, flow curves were constructed from the discharge measurements in the Valencia reach. Flow-curve results indicate net gains in flow throughout most, but not all, of the upper parts of the reach and net losses in flow at the lower part of the reach. Lagrangian water-quality sampling provides information on the changes in chemistry as the water flows downstream from the water reclamation plants. Along both reaches there is an increase in sulfate (40-60 mg/L in the Saugus reach and 160 mg/L in the Valencia reach) and a decrease in chloride (about 45 mg/L in the

  14. Single-trip subsea completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.J.; Lorenzatto, R.A.; Rittershaussen, J.H.; Barreto, J.L.; Filho, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    Reliability of completion equipment and rig time are becoming more and more critical for subsea completions because of continually increasing water depths in which operators are being required to complete wells. In addition, completion designs must reflect the more stringent economic requirements of today`s oil and gas industry. This paper describes the use of a single-trip completion system that has been successfully and economically installed in the offshore Marimba and Bonito fields of South America. This new completion system has the capability to land the tubing hanger and install it in the wellhead before setting the packer and compensating for subsequent tubing movement. The new system also can employ pre-job calculations--based on initial well conditions and anticipated conditions during production--that help determine appropriate completion configurations and bottomhole equipment compatibility. Many failures in offshore wells, whether platform or subsea, can be attributed to inappropriate application of downhole completion tools or methods. Use of pre-job calculations during the equipment design stage can facilitate proper selection of design criteria and can help ensure operational safety and cost efficiency. The development of this new completion system is discussed in detail. Three case histories that document successful test completions is reviewed along with the economic gains and advantages that the reduction in rig time generated.

  15. The third-party software test environment cloud computing in the virtual environment%云计算虚拟环境下第三方软件测试环境研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 冯亚娜

    2013-01-01

    云计算成为目前信息技术领域主要的技术趋势之一.将会有越来越多的信息系统构建在其云计算环境下,软件系统测试环境也发生了相应的变化,同时软件测试业也面临着机遇与挑战.对云计算环境下的软件测试加以论述.%Cloud computing has become a major technology trends in the field of information.There will be more and more information systems to build in the cloud computing environment,the system test has also undergone a corresponding change,while facing the opportunities and challenges for the software test industry.This paper presents the software test in the cloud computing environment.

  16. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K.; Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K.; Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; Altenheiner, S.; Blue, A.; Bomben, M.; Butter, A.; Cervelli, A.; Crawley, S.; Ducourthial, A.; Gisen, A.; Hagihara, M.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Hirose, M.; Homma, Y.; Ikegami, Y.; Kamada, S.; Kono, T.; Macchiolo, A.; Marchiori, G.; Meloni, F.; Milovanovic, M.; Morton, A.; Mullier, G.; Munoz, F. J.; Nellist, C.; Paschen, B.; Quadt, A.; Rashid, T.; Rieger, J.; Rummler, A.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Savic, N.; Sawai, H.; Sexton, K.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Swiatlowski, M.; Takashima, R.; Takubo, Y.; Terzo, S.; Todome, K.; Tojo, J.; Houten, K. Van; Weingarten, J.; Wonsak, S.; Wraight, K.; Yamamura, K.

    2016-09-01

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD).

  17. Tests for gene-environment interaction from case-control data: a novel study of type I error, power and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bhramar; Ahn, Jaeil; Gruber, Stephen B; Rennert, Gad; Moreno, Victor; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the risk of a disease associated with the joint effects of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures, epidemiologic researchers often test for non-multiplicative gene-environment effects from case-control studies. In this article, we present a comparative study of four alternative tests for interactions: (i) the standard case-control method; (ii) the case-only method, which requires an assumption of gene-environment independence for the underlying population; (iii) a two-step method that decides between the case-only and case-control estimators depending on a statistical test for the gene-environment independence assumption and (iv) a novel empirical-Bayes (EB) method that combines the case-control and case-only estimators depending on the sample size and strength of the gene-environment association in the data. We evaluate the methods in terms of integrated Type I error and power, averaged with respect to varying scenarios for gene-environment association that are likely to appear in practice. These unique studies suggest that the novel EB procedure overall is a promising approach for detection of gene-environment interactions from case-control studies. In particular, the EB procedure, unlike the case-only or two-step methods, can closely maintain a desired Type I error under realistic scenarios of gene-environment dependence and yet can be substantially more powerful than the traditional case-control analysis when the gene-environment independence assumption is satisfied, exactly or approximately. Our studies also reveal potential utility of some non-traditional case-control designs that samples controls at a smaller rate than the cases. Apart from the simulation studies, we also illustrate the different methods by analyzing interactions of two commonly studied genes, N-acetyl transferase type 2 and glutathione s-transferase M1, with smoking and dietary exposures, in a large case-control study of colorectal cancer.

  18. Testing of different soil combinations as substrates in slalom slopes and golf courses in the cold climate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2010-05-01

    Testing of different soil combinations as substrates in slalom slopes and golf courses in the cold climate environment Jouni Pihlaja, Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, P.O. Box 77, FIN-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland. jouni.pihlaja@gtk.fi, www.gtk.fi The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is, with some partners, carrying out a cooperative project, POMARA, in the Levi tourist center in northern Finland. The purpose of this applied geology project is to determine which soil combinations work best over the long term as substrates on slalom slopes and golf course areas. Since the tourist center is located in a cold climate area, it gives extra challenges to those landscaping activities. The average temperature in January is about -15°C and in July +14°C. In the Levi area, the slalom slopes have normally been covered by local carex peat during the shaping phase of slopes. The problem has been that on the top part of the fell, the peat has "disappeared" after some years and stones have come up under the peat layer, since these areas are naturally covered by block fields. The main assumption at the beginning of the project was that frost weathering is causing the problems. In this project, test areas have been prepared on the slopes. The most important task is to compare test areas covered by carex peat to areas covered by a combination of sandy till and carex peat. The reason why sandy till was chosen to be the additional material was that it is supposed to stand up better against frost weathering than peat itself. Also, when considering future landscaping, the sandy till is the most economically viable mineral material to be used because of its nearby location . In the golf course areas, a combination of fine sand and sphagnum peat has been used in landscaping. The peat was brought from the Simo area, 300 km south of Levi. In this project, the goal is to determine if the local carex peat is working properly in the green areas of the golf club. The

  19. Diabetes Learning in Virtual Environments: Testing the Efficacy of Self-Management Training and Support in Virtual Environments (Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Melkus, Gail D; Pan, Wei; Lewinski, Allison A; Johnson, Constance M

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing self-management improves outcomes for those with Type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, there are many barriers to patients receiving assistance in this from the healthcare system and peers. Findings from our pilot study showed that a virtual diabetes community on the Internet with real-time interaction among peers with T2D-and with healthcare professionals-is feasible and has the potential to influence clinical and psychosocial outcomes. The purpose of this article is to present the protocol for the Diabetes Learning in Virtual Environments (LIVE) trial. Diabetes LIVE is a two-group, randomized controlled trial to compare effects of a virtual environment and traditional Web site on diet and physical activity. Our secondary aims will determine the effects on metabolic outcomes; effects of level of engagement and social network formation in LIVE on behavioral outcomes; potential mediating effects of changes in self-efficacy; and diabetes knowledge, diabetes-related distress, and social support on behavior change and metabolic outcomes. We will enroll 300 subjects at two sites (Duke University/Raleigh-Durham, NC and New York University/New York, NY) who have T2D and do not have serious complications or comorbidities. Those randomly assigned to the intervention group have access to the LIVE site where they can find information, synchronous classes with diabetes educators, and peer support to enhance self-management. Those in the control group have access to the same informational and educational content in a traditional asynchronous Web format. Measures of self-management, clinical outcomes, and psychosocial outcomes are assessed at baseline and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Should LIVE prove effective in improved self-management of diabetes, similar interventions could be applied to other prevalent chronic diseases. Innovative programs such as LIVE have potential for improving healthcare access in an easily disseminated alternative model of care that potentially improves

  20. Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Inducer Dynamic Environment Characterization through Water Model and Hot-Fire Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Patrick; Patton, Marc; Schwartz, Alan; Stanton, David

    2006-01-01

    The Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (LPOTP) inducer on the Block II configuration Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) experienced blade leading edge ripples during hot firing. This undesirable condition led to a minor redesign of the inducer blades. This resulted in the need to evaluate the performance and the dynamic environment of the redesign, relative to the current configuration, as part of the design acceptance process. Sub-scale water model tests of the two inducer configurations were performed, with emphasis on the dynamic environment due to cavitation induced vibrations. Water model tests were performed over a wide range of inlet flow coefficient and pressure conditions, representative of the scaled operating envelope of the Block II SSME, both in flight and in ground hot-fire tests, including all power levels. The water test hardware, facility set-up, type and placement of instrumentation, the scope of the test program, specific test objectives, data evaluation process and water test results that characterize and compare the two SSME LPOTP inducers are discussed. In addition, dynamic characteristics of the two water models were compared to hot fire data from specially instrumented ground tests. In general, good agreement between the water model and hot fire data was found, which confirms the value of water model testing for dynamic characterization of rocket engine turbomachinery.

  1. Standardized 'Pre-flight' Exercise Tests to Predict Performance during Extravehicular Activities in a Lunar Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several manuscripts have been submitted or are in final preparation for submission from the Phase I data. Phase II has been completed, with a total of 12 subjects...

  2. The Relationship of Safe and Participatory School Environments and Supportive Attitudes toward Violence: Evidence from the Colombian Saber Test of Citizenship Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diazgranados, Silvia; Noonan, James

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, reducing levels of interpersonal and community violence is a key component of the country's approach to citizenship education. In this study, we use data collected during the 2005 Saber test of Citizenship Competencies to examine the relationship of school environments and individual students' supportive attitudes toward…

  3. Human and Financial Capital in the Rural Educational Environment: The Effects of Exceeding the Carrying Capacity Threshold on Standardized Test Scores in Rural Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Glenn

    The Rural Educational Environment (REE) is a complex mixture of demographic and economic forces that interact to impact the rural school corporation. The condition of REE financial and human capital indicates REE health and may influence student performance on standardized tests. This paper proposes an ecosystem model of the impact of financial,…

  4. Testing Two Path Models to Explore Relationships between Students' Experiences of the Teaching-Learning Environment, Approaches to Learning and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the relationships between students' experiences of the teaching-learning environment and their approaches to learning, and the effects of these variables on academic achievement. Two three-stage models were tested with structural equation modelling techniques. The "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students"…

  5. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K., E-mail: kimihiko@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Altenheiner, S. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Blue, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bomben, M. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Butter, A. [LAL, University Paris-Sud (France); CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cervelli, A. [Universität Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Sidlerstrasse 55, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Crawley, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ducourthial, A. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Gisen, A. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Hagihara, M. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD). - Highlights: • The

  6. 面向云环境的应用系统测试技术研究%Test Technology Reasearch of the Application System for Cloud Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何育浩; 赵戈

    2014-01-01

    Based on the user’s demands of technological assessment for the application system migrated to a cloud environment, the paper put forward to a performance test method for application system in different technical environment, and developed a performance test platform for the user-oriented application system, which contained the resource management of the cloud testing, the capacity building of the cloud testing, the service operation management and other functions. By the comparison of the different testing results of the test platform in the local environment and cloud environment, it proved that the test platform provided a scientifi c basis for the applicability of the system migration.%针对用户将应用系统迁移到云环境下运行的技术评估需求,本文提出了应用系统在不同技术环境下的性能测试方法,研发了面向用户应用系统性能测评的平台,该平台具有云测试资源管理、云测试能力建设以及服务运营管理等功能。应用系统通过该平台的本地环境与云环境下的测试结果比较,为用户提供了系统迁移适用性的科学依据。

  7. Completions of rationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz J. Charatonik

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Spaces which are metrizable completions of the space Q of rationals are described. A characterization of metrizable spaces having the same family of metrizable completions as Q is deduced.

  8. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  9. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  10. Virtual environments in cancer care: Pilot-testing a three-dimensional web-based platform as a tool for support in young cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Olsen, Pia Riis; Hansson, Helena Eva; Spiegel, David; Bennetsen, Henrik; Cheslack-Postava, Ewen

    2016-11-28

    Bringing virtual environments into cancer support may offer a particular potential to engage patients and increase adherence to treatment. Developing and pilot-testing an online real-time multi-user three-dimensional platform, this study tested the use of an early prototype of the platform among adolescent and young adult cancer patients. Data were collected with an online questionnaire and using ethnographic methods of participant observation. The adolescent and young adult patients tested basic features of the virtual environment and some conducted brief in-world interactions with fellow patients during hospitalization. They had no reservations about using the technology and shared their ideas about its use. Our pilot test pointed to a number of areas of development for virtual environment applications as potential platforms for medical or behavioral interventions in cancer care. Overall, the results demonstrate the need for high user involvement in the development of such interventions and early testing of intervention designs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A proposed hardness assurance test methodology for bipolar linear circuits and devices in a space ionizing radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, D.B. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Cohn, L. [Defense Special Weapons Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A hardness assurance test approach has been developed for bipolar linear circuits and devices in space. It consists of a screen for dose rate sensitivity and a characterization test method to develop the conditions for a lot acceptance test at high dose rate.

  12. Embedded software simulation testing environment based on virtual machine%基于虚拟机的嵌人式软件仿真测试环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷永峰; 刘斌; 王志

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance the quality and reliability of embedded software, an embedded software simulation testing environment based on virtual machine was proposed. The virtual machine technology was introduced into the simulation testing field of embedded software, and the constitution principle of embedded software simulation testing environment was introduced. In addition, the virtual machine technology was analyzed, and an embedded software simulation testing virtual machine (ESSTVM) based on an extended program-transplantation virtual machine model was proposed. And the design scheme for the memory management and instruction system was presented. The ESSTVM was applied to the design of avionics embedded software simulation testing environment (AESSTE), and the system structure of the testing environment was studied. Moreover, the design and realization of both testing development and testing execution systems were elaborated, and the transportability of AESSTE was analyzed. The analysis results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the universality, transportability and maintainability of embedded software testing environment.%为了提高嵌入式软件的质量和可靠性,提出了一种基于虚拟机的嵌入式软件仿真测试环境.将虚拟机技术引入到嵌入式软件仿真测试领域中,介绍了嵌入式软件仿真测试环境的构成原理,并对虚拟机技术进行了分析,提出一种基于程序移植虚拟机模型扩展的嵌入式软件仿真测试虚拟机(ESSTVM),给出了内存管理和指令系统的设计方案.将ESSTVM应用到航电嵌入式软件系统测试环境AESSTE设计中,研究了该测试环境的体系结构,阐述了测试开发系统及测试执行系统的设计与实现,并对AESSTE的可移植性进行了分析.分析结果表明,该方法能有效提高嵌入式软件测试环境的通用性、可移植性和可维护性.

  13. 火星探测器热环境模拟与试验技术探讨%The thermal environment simulation and test technology for Mars probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 刘波涛; 许杰

    2014-01-01

    为保证火星探测器的可靠运行,需要对其进行真空热试验和火星表面热环境模拟试验。文章通过对国外火星探测器热试验的调研,梳理出热试验所涉及的关键技术。并通过对行星际空间热环境和火星表面热环境特点的分析,结合国外相关热环境模拟设备的研制使用情况,探讨不同热环境的地面模拟方法,可为我国火星探测器热环境试验设备的研制及开展相关热试验提供技术参考。%For a Mars probe, the thermal tests in vacuum and Mars surface environment are required. This paper reviews the thermal tests for Mars probes in various countries and the key technologies which would provide a reference for the probe development in our country. The thermal environment characteristics of deep space and Mars surface are analyzed, and the simulation methods of different thermal environments are discussed. A technical guidance is provided for the manufacture of the ground thermal environment test equipment for Mars probe.

  14. On completely irreducible operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zejian; SUN Shanli

    2006-01-01

    Let T be a bounded linear operator on Hilbert space H,M an invariant subspace of T.If there exists another invariant subspace N of T such that H=M+N and M ∩ N=0,then M is said to be a completely reduced subspace of T.If T has a nontrivial completely reduced subspace,then T is said to be completely reducible;otherwise T is said to be completely irreducible.In the present paper we briefly sum up works on completely irreducible operators that have been done by the Functional Analysis Seminar of Jilin University in the past ten years and more.The paper contains four sections.In section 1 the background of completely irreducible operators is given in detail.Section 2 shows which operator in some well-known classes of operators,for example,weighted shifts,Toeplitz operators,etc.,is completely irreducible.In section 3 it is proved that every bounded linear operator on the Hilbert space can be approximated by the finite direct sum of completely irreducible operators.It is clear that a completely irreducible operator is a rather suitable analogue of Jordan blocks in L(H),the set of all bounded linear operators on Hilbert space H.In section 4 several questions concerning completely irreducible operators are discussed and it is shown that some properties of completely irreducible operators are different from properties of unicellular operators.

  15. Does it really matter that people zip through ads? Testing the effectiveness of simultaneous presentation advertising in an IDTV environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoonjae; Kwon, Kyonghee H; Lee, Sungjoon

    2010-04-01

    In an IDTV environment, which facilitates self-scheduling, skipping advertisements by zipping is an emerging ad-avoidance behavior. This study explores whether an alternative ad format, called simultaneous presentation advertising (SPA), may overcome the limitations of classical sequential advertising (CSA) in controlling zipping behavior and increasing the effectiveness of ads. The experiment revealed that SPA is more effective than CSA in reducing zipping and increasing recall, but SPA was more intrusive and produced a negative product image. There was no difference regarding cognitive avoidance. This work discusses the implications of these findings in the interactive media environment.

  16. [Biological review of completed suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ikuo; Sora, Ichiro; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2016-06-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have revealed genetic factors involved in suicide, while the accumulation of stress and mental illnesses are major contributing factors of suicide. Since higher lethality of suicidal behavior is considered to increase familial liability to suicidal behavior, we believe biological research of completed suicide is most important for a better understanding of the pathophysiology in suicide. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has gained a special interest in the neurobiology of suicide, mostly because of the findings using a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in which DST non-suppressors show a nearly 10-fold higher risk of completed suicide than DST suppressors in a depressed cohort. Other data mainly from postmortem brain studies indicate abnormalities of the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus system, serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, inflammatory cytokines and omega-3 fatty acid in completed suicide. However, genetic research of complete suicide is behind other mental problems because it is extremely difficult to obtain tissue samples of completed suicide. Under the difficult situation, we now retain over 800 blood samples of suicide completers thanks to bereaved families' cooperation. We are actively working on the research of suicide, for instance, by performing a GWAS using 500 samples of suicide completers.

  17. A-3 steel work completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  18. Design of Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test Environment Chamber, Cooling System, and Radio Frequency Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Reid, R. S.; Stewart, E. T.; Davis, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipes will be experimentally tested to examine heat pipe aging. To support this evaluation, an environmental test chamber and a number of auxiliary subsystems are required. These subsystems include radio frequency (RF) power supplies/inductive coils, recirculation water coolant loops, and chamber gas conditioning. The heat pipes will be grouped, based on like power and gas mixture requirements, into three clusters of five units each, configured in a pentagonal arrangement. The highest powered heat pipe will be tested separately. Test chamber atmospheric purity is targeted at test hardware, providing warning indicators followed by automatic shutdown should potentially damaging conditions develop. During hardware construction, a number of checkout tests.many making use of stainless steel prototype heat pipes that are already fabricated.will be required to verify operation.

  19. An Envision of Low Cost Mobile Adhoc Network Test Bed in a Laboratory Environment Emulating an Actual MANET

    CERN Document Server

    Mhala, Nitiket N; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2305

    2010-01-01

    Orchestrating a live field trial of wireless mobile networking involves significant cost and logistical issues relating to mobile platforms, support personnel, network and experiment automation and support equipment. The significant cost and logistics required to execute such a field trial can also be limiting in terms of achieving meaningful test results that exercise a practical number of mobile nodes over a significant set of test conditions within a given time. There is no argument that field trials are an important component of dynamic network testing. A field test of prototype will show whether simulations were on right track or not, but that's a big leap to take; going from the simulator directly to the real thing. In conceiving our work, we envisioned a mobile network emulation system that is low cost, flexible and controllable. This paper describes our wireless MANET test bed under development which emulates an actual MANET. Here, we focuses that, this test bed allows the users to automatically gener...

  20. Tracer test with arsenic(V) in an iron-reducing environment at the USGS Cape Cod Site (Mass. USA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, R.; Isenbeck-Schröter, M.; Niedan, V.

    2001-01-01

    conditions, a small scale con-tinuous tracer test was performed in the zone with iron reduction in a sandy aquifer at the USGS Cape Cod test site. During 4 weeks, a tracer solution containing suboxic water, arsenic (V) (6.7 μmol) and bromide (1.6 mmol) was injected. Downstream the breakthrough of bromide...

  1. Environmental evaluation of agri-environment schemes using participatory approaches: Experiences of testing the Agri-Environmental Footprint Index

    OpenAIRE

    Louwagie, Geertrui; Mauchline, Alice L.; Mortimer, Simon R.; Park, Julian R.; Finn, John A.; HAYSOM Karen; Westbury, Duncan B.; Purvis, Gordon; Northey, Greg; Primdahl, Jørgen; Vejre, Henrik; SØDERKVIST KRISTENSEN Lone; VIND TEILMANN Kasper; Vesterager, Jens Peter; KASPERCZYKE Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The Agri-Environment Footprint Index (AFI) has been developed as a generic methodology to assess changes in the overall environmental impacts from agriculture at the farm level and to assist in the evaluation of European agri-environmental schemes (AES). The methodology is based on multicriteria analysis (MCA) and involves stakeholder participation to provide a locally customised evaluation based on weighted environmental indicators. The methodology was subjected to a validatio...

  2. Bio-indication-based estimates as an integral part of the environment quality assessment on an example of allium-test application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Dikarev, V.; Dikareva, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Michalik, B.; Chalupnik, S.; Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Kozmin, G. [State Technical University of Atomic Energy, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Human nuclear and industrial activities can substantially increase environmental exposure levels. Concerns about the damaging effect of ionizing radiation have led to the establishment of radioprotection norms by ICRP and national regulatory authorities. A great deal of research has been carried out to specify and justify constraints for radionuclide discharges and safety levels, and regulatory decision making strategies are still an important topic for radiation protection of the environment and the public. Contamination of territories through human civil and military activities such as nuclear facilities operation, mining, nuclear weapon testing involves, however, a complex impact so that a mixture of radionuclides is often supplemented by other potentially hazardous substances (e.g. heavy or alkali metals). There is still a large lack of knowledge on actual hazard of such combined contamination and a need to fill the gap between an acquisition of spectrum and levels of environmental pollutants to possible adverse effects to biota and human health. A study was aimed at developing a complex approach for the environment health assessment integrating information on contaminants levels registered with routine techniques and bio indication-based estimates of adverse effects of their combination.Findings from two studies carried out in sites with different scenarios of long-term impact caused by human industrial activity are presented. In both studies, samples of water and/or soil were taken, and their cyto- and genotoxicity was tested with Allium cepa plant system to assess a hazardous potential of complex contamination.The present work and our previous investigations (Evseeva et al., 2005; Geraskin et al., 2005) demonstrate that an adequate environment quality assessment cannot relies only on information about pollutants concentrations. Unfortunately, limited lists of toxicants are adopted to control the levels of man-made stress to the environment. Furthermore

  3. Latino College Completion: Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  4. Completely random signed measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar

    Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases.......Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases....

  5. Latino College Completion: Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  6. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  7. Evaluating Constraints on Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility Imposed by Proton SEE Testing and Other Mixed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, R. L.; Lauenstein, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop metrics for assessing the effectiveness of proton SEE data for bounding heavy-ion SEE susceptibility. The metrics range from simple geometric criteria requiring no knowledge of the test articles to bounds of SEE rates.

  8. Hydrology in a Mediterranean mountain environment, the Vallcebre Research basins (North Eastern Spain). IV. Testing hydrological and erosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart, F.; Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Martinez-Carreras, N.

    2009-07-01

    Three modelling exercises were carried out in the Vallcebre research basins in order to both improve the understanding of the hydrological processes and test the adequate of some models in such Mediterranean mountain conditions. These exercises consisted of i) the analysis of the hydrological role of the agricultural terraces using the TOPMODEL topographic index, ii) the parametrisation of TOPMODEL using internal basin information, and iii) a test of the erosion model KINEROS2 for simulating badlands erosion. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Completely positive maps with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Daffer, S; Cresser, J D; McIver, J K; Daffer, Sonja; Wodkiewicz, Krzysztof; Cresser, James D.; Iver, John K. Mc

    2003-01-01

    The prevailing description for dissipative quantum dynamics is given by the Lindblad form of a Markovian master equation, used under the assumption that memory effects are negligible. However, in certain physical situations, the master equation is essentially of a non-Markovian nature. This paper examines master equations that possess a memory kernel, leading to a replacement of white noise by colored noise. The conditions under which this leads to a completely positive, trace-preserving map are discussed for an exponential memory kernel. A physical model that possesses such an exponential memory kernel is presented. This model contains a classical, fluctuating environment based on random telegraph signal stochastic variables.

  10. SPS completes LS1 activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 27 June, the SPS closed its doors to the LS1 engineers, bringing to an end almost 17 months of activities. The machine now enters the hardware-testing phase in preparation for an October restart.   Photo 1: The SPS transfer tunnel, TT10, reinforced with steal beams. Having completed their LS1 activities right on schedule (to the day!), the SPS team is now preparing the machine for its restart. Over the next eight weeks, hardware tests of the SPS dipole and quadrupole power converters will be underway, led by the TE-EPC (Electrical Power Converters) team. "OP start-up test activities will also be running in parallel, utilising the off hours when EPC is not using the machine," says David McFarlane, the SPS technical coordinator from the Engineering Department. "The primary beam testing phase will start at the beginning of September, once hardware tests and DSO safety tests have been completed." It has been a long journey to this point, with several major...

  11. Assessment of the Effects of Cold Work on Crack Initiation in a Light Water Environment Using the Small-Punch Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselin, Jerome; Kai, Akira; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2008-05-01

    Work hardening induced by manufacturing processes has important consequences for the resistance to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of low-carbon stainless steel in high-temperature water conditions. It is of great importance to understand the mechanisms and the factors promoting environmentally assisted cracking in such environments. In this study, the effect of work hardening on 316L austenitic stainless steel was studied using a small-punch SCC test facility applied to miniaturized specimens. Tests were performed in a boiling water reactor (BWR) environment with trapezoidal loading. After the tests, the fracture faces and the surfaces of the samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Focused ion beam (FIB) etching was used to prepare samples for the SEM observations. Identification of the oxide was done using a Raman spectroscope and comparison of the data to reference spectra. The results showed the unfavorable effect of cold rolling against crack initiation. The oxide composition is affected by work hardening. Hence, the ferrous oxide formation is promoted by Fe diffusion caused by the dislocation density increase associated with an active strain during the test.

  12. Specification for the Performance, Design, Development and Test Requirements for a Severe Environment Cartridge Recorder. Issue 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Interference Characteristics, Measurement of MIL-STD-810C Environmental Test Methods 2.5 Other American Ornanisations IRIG 118-73 Test Methods for Telemetry...Section 3-32(g) of IRIG 118-73. The measured output shall be less than 3.0% RMS at all controlled speeds. 5.2.4 Control The motor speed switch shall...Delay The technique of 5.2.2 shall be used to monitor motor speed while the output from the frequency discriminator of Section 3-32(g) of IRIG 118-73

  13. Characterization of complete denture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srivastava, Rajeev; Choukse, Vivek

    2011-01-01

    Characterization is a procedure in which the character or collective qualities of a person are introduced in the complete denture, either by modification of teeth or denture bases, to make it appear...

  14. Hollow Maxillary Complete Denture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radke, Usha; Mundhe, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    .... The resorption occurs at a faster rate in mandibular arch as compared to the maxillary arch; but severely atrophic maxillae with large interridge distance often pose a clinical challenge during fabrication of a successful maxillary complete denture...

  15. Crop yield response to soil fertility and N, P, K inputs in different environments: Testing and improving the QUEFTS model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattari, S.Z.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bouwman, A.F.; Smit, A.L.; Janssen, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Global food production strongly depends on availability of nutrients. Assessment of future global phosphorus (P) fertilizer demand in interaction with nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertilizers under different levels of food demand requires a model-based approach. In this paper we tested use of the

  16. Towards a programme of testing and qualification for structural and plasma-facing materials in ‘fusion neutron’ environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, D.; Heidinger, R.; Muroga, T.; Zinkle, S. J.; Moeslang, A.; Porton, M.; Boutard, J.-L.; Gonzalez, S.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-09-01

    Materials damage by 14.1MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactions can only be characterised definitively by subjecting a relevant configuration of test materials to high-intensity ‘fusion-neutron spectrum sources’, i.e. those simulating closely D-T fusion-neutron spectra. This provides major challenges to programmes to design and construct a demonstration fusion reactor prior to having a large-scale, high-intensity source of such neutrons. In this paper, we discuss the different aspects related to these ‘relevant configuration’ tests, including: • generic issues in materials qualification/validation, comparing safety requirements against those of investment protection; • lessons learned from the fission programme, enabling a reduced fusion materials testing programme; • the use and limitations of presently available possible irradiation sources to optimise a fusion neutron testing program including fission-neutron irradiation of isotopically and chemically tailored steels, ion damage by high-energy helium ions and self-ion beams, or irradiation studies with neutron sources of non-fusion spectra; and • the different potential sources of simulated fusion neutron spectra and the choice using stripping reactions from deuterium-beam ions incident on light-element targets.

  17. Crop yield response to soil fertility and N, P, K inputs in different environments: Testing and improving the QUEFTS model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattari, S.Z.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bouwman, A.F.; Smit, A.L.; Janssen, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Global food production strongly depends on availability of nutrients. Assessment of future global phosphorus (P) fertilizer demand in interaction with nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertilizers under different levels of food demand requires a model-based approach. In this paper we tested use of the

  18. Influence of aeration cycles on mechanical characteristics of elastomeric diffusers in biological intermittent processes: Accelerated tests in real environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Anna Laura; Bellezze, Tiziano; Chiappini, Gianluca; Sasso, Marco; Battistoni, Paolo

    2017-06-15

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the effect of on/off switching of diffuser membranes, in the intermittent aeration process of the urban wastewater treatments. Accelerated tests were done using two types of commercial EPDM diffusers, which were submitted to several consecutive cycles up to the simulation of more than 8 years of real working conditions. The effect of this switching on the mechanical characteristics of the membranes was evaluated in terms of pressure increment of the air operating at different flow rates (2, 3.5 and 6 m(3)/h/diff): during accelerated tests, such increment ranged from 2% to 18%. The intermittent phases emphasized the loss both of the original mechanical proprieties of the diffusers and of the initial pore shapes. The main cause of pressure increment was attributed to the fouling of the internal channels of the pores. Further analyses performed by scanning electron microscopy and by mechanical tests on EPDM membrane, using a traditional tensile test and a non destructive optical method, from which the Young's Modulus was obtained, supported previous conclusions. Any changes in terms of oxygen transfer parameters (KLa and SOTE%) were specifically founded by causing to the repeated on/off switching. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Development and psychometric testing of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher evaluation scale (CLES+T): the Spanish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaya-Moreno, M Flores; Pérez-Cañaveras, Rosa M; De Juan, Joaquín; Saarikoski, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the quality of the clinical learning process in international nursing education contexts. This paper reports the development and psychometric testing of the Spanish version of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale. Cross-sectional validation study of the scale. 10 public and private hospitals in the Alicante area, and the Faculty of Health Sciences (University of Alicante, Spain). 370 student nurses on clinical placement (January 2011-March 2012). The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale was translated using the modified direct translation method. Statistical analyses were performed using PASW Statistics 18 and AMOS 18.0.0 software. A multivariate analysis was conducted in order to assess construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to evaluate instrument reliability. An exploratory factorial analysis identified the five dimensions from the original version, and explained 66.4% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the factor structure of the Spanish version of the instrument. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the scale was .95, ranging from .80 to .97 for the subscales. This version of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale instrument showed acceptable psychometric properties for use as an assessment scale in Spanish-speaking countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 超级13Cr马氏体不锈钢在入井流体与产出流体环境中的腐蚀行为研究%Corrosion Behaviors of Super 13Cr Martensitic Stainless Steel Under Drilling and Completion Fluids Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚娟; 吕祥鸿; 赵国仙; 陈长风; 薛艳

    2012-01-01

    By simulating drilling and completion fluids environment, the performance of super 13Cr martensitic stainless tubular products against uniform corrosion, pitting, stress corrosion cracking (SCO and acid liquid corrosion was studied. The results indicate that the uniform corrosion rate of super 13Cr martensitic stainless steel increases as the well depth increases. Further,the uniform corrosion rate of super 13Cr in gas phase is higher than the one in the liquid phase,but it is far less than 0. lmm/a both in liquid phase and gas phase corrosion conditions. Since super 13Cr martensitic stainless steel contained relatively higher Mo and Ni element. obvious pit corrosion and stress corrosion cracking did not occur under simulating corrosion environment. After the cyclic acid corrosion test,local corrosion including pitting, crevice corrosion, etc. , did not occur either on the pipe body or on the coupling.%通过模拟油田超深超高压高温油气井腐蚀环境,研究超级13Cr马氏体不锈钢管材抗均匀腐蚀、点蚀、应力腐蚀开裂(SCC)及酸化液腐蚀的性能.研究结果表明:随着井深的增加,超级13Cr马氏体不锈钢的均匀腐蚀速率逐渐增大,且气相的均匀腐蚀速率要大于液相的腐蚀速率,但不论在液相还是在气相腐蚀条件下,均匀腐蚀速率均远小于0.1mm/a;由于超级13Cr马氏体不锈钢有较高的Mo,Ni含量,在模拟腐蚀环境中未出现明显点蚀现象,且具有良好的抗SCC性能;循环酸化腐蚀试验后试样管体和接箍部分没有出现点蚀、缝隙腐蚀等局部腐蚀迹象.

  1. 基于 PSO-SVM算法的环境监测数据异常检测和缺失补全%Anomaly Detection and Missing Completion of Environment Monitoring Data based on PSO-SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晶茹; 马瑜; 白冰; 任贵召; 贺青

    2016-01-01

    For problems of abnormal data and missing data in environmental monitoring, an anomaly detec-tion and data missing completion algorithm was presented based on particle swarm optimization with support vec-tor machine ( PSO-SVM) .Non-linear SVM model was established by applying the PSO algorithm in selecting the appropriate training parameter set and fitting prediction of real data.Taking the experimental data from a sewage plant in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the predictions by this algorithm had the accuracy rate of 97.977%, showing high accuracy in abnormal data detection and missing data completion.%针对环境监测数据异常和数据缺失问题,提出了基于支持向量机的粒子群优化数据异常检测和缺失补全算法。利用粒子群优化算法选取较优的支持向量机训练参数组合,以此建立非线性的支持向量机模型,并利用结果模型对测得的真实数据拟合预测。以宁夏回族自治区某污水处理厂的污染物测量数据作为实验数据,结果表明,利用该算法预测数据的准确率可达97.977%,检测异常数据准确度高,缺失数据补全正确。

  2. Design of Light Transmitting Environment Supporting Software for Virtual Test%虚拟试验光传输环境通用支撑软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冲; 林连雷; 姜守达

    2011-01-01

    According to the actual requirement of electro-optical countermeasures ( EOCM) virtual test, the model of light transmitting environment is analyzed here and universal supporting software is designed to provide light transmitting services for variety EOCM virtual test system. The supporting framework able to integrate practical light transmitting model is investigated and universal interface of environment services is designed on the basis of component object model (COM) and agent technology and the interface visiting dalabase following the synthetic environment data representation & interchange specification ( SEDRIS) . At last, work procedure of the supporting software applied into the actual EOCM virtual test system is introduced. In practice , the software provides strong support for more scientific and reasonable evaluation of virtual test effect.%根据光电对抗虚拟试验的实际需要,分析了虚拟试验光传输环境模型,设计了一种能为光电对抗虚拟试验提供光传输环境服务的通用支撑软件.研究了能集成现有光传输效应模型的软件框架,设计了基于组件对象模型和通信代理技术的环境服务通用接口及符合综合自然环境数据表示与交互规范(SEDRIS)的环境数据库访问接口,最后介绍了软件在光电对杭虚拟试验系统中的应用流程.实际表明,支撑软件能为更科学、合理地评价光电对抗虚拟试验效果提供有力支持.

  3. The WEST project: Testing ITER divertor high heat flux component technology in a steady state tokamak environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, J., E-mail: jerome.bucalossi@cea.fr; Missirlian, M.; Moreau, P.; Samaille, F.; Tsitrone, E.; Houtte, D. van; Batal, T.; Bourdelle, C.; Chantant, M.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Delpech, L.; Doceul, L.; Douai, D.; Dougnac, H.; Faïsse, F.; Fenzi, C.; Ferlay, F.; Firdaouss, M.; Gargiulo, L.; and others

    2014-10-15

    The WEST project recently launched at Cadarache consists in transforming Tore Supra in an X-point divertor configuration while extending its long pulse capability, in order to test the ITER divertor technology. The implementation of a full tungsten actively cooled divertor with plasma facing unit representative of ITER divertor targets will allow addressing risks both in terms of industrial-scale manufacturing and operation of such components. Relevant plasma scenarios are foreseen for extensive testing under high heat load in the 10–20 MW/m{sup 2} range and ITER-like fluences (1000 s pulses). Plasma facing unit monitoring and development of protection strategies will be key elements of the WEST program. WEST is scheduled to enter into operation in 2016, and will provide a key facility to prepare and be prepared for ITER.

  4. Validation of Late Season Cornstalk Nitrate Test under Different Natural and Social Environments for Better Fertilizer Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the current food security is fulfilled in China, the substantial nitrogen fertilizer use has caused many far-reaching environmental problems. Therefore, reforming the fertilizer management is the key toward sustainable agriculture for 1.3 billion people. The present study is intended to test the applicability of a nitrogen fertilizer management approach for corn production developed in U.S. to regions with different climates in China. Through field work, it was found that the so-called Late Season Cornstalk Nitrate Test approach may have to be adapted to dry continental climate and irrigation water conditions, but meanwhile appeared workable under sub-humid warm temperate continental monsoon climate in China. A hypothesis was made to explain the findings and a simple cure was suggested. Moreover, the importance of applying this approach to China was discussed in relation to GHG emission reduction and national fertilizer subsidy policy. Finally, a new fertilizer management scheme was proposed.

  5. A platform for testing and comparing of real-time decision-support algorithms in mobile environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrov, Maxim Y; Rutishauser, Matthew; Montgomery, Kevin; Reisner, Andrew T; Reifman, Jaques

    2009-01-01

    The unavailability of a flexible system for realtime testing of decision-support algorithms in a pre-hospital clinical setting has limited their use. In this study, we describe a plug-and-play platform for real-time testing of decision-support algorithms during the transport of trauma casualties en route to a hospital. The platform integrates a standard-of-care vital-signs monitor, which collects numeric and waveform physiologic time-series data, with a rugged ultramobile personal computer. The computer time-stamps and stores data received from the monitor, and performs analysis on the collected data in real-time. Prior to field deployment, we assessed the performance of each component of the platform by using an emulator to simulate a number of possible fault scenarios that could be encountered in the field. Initial testing with the emulator allowed us to identify and fix software inconsistencies and showed that the platform can support a quick development cycle for real-time decision-support algorithms.

  6. Nurse Work Engagement Impacts Job Outcome and Nurse-Assessed Quality of Care: Model Testing with Nurse Practice Environment and Nurse Work Characteristics as Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mathieu Van Bogaert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Key words: burnout,job satisfaction, nurse retention, nurse practice environment,quality of care, acute health care,structural equation modelling. Aim:To explore the mechanisms through which nurse practice environment dimensions are associated with job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care. Mediating variables tested included nurse work characteristics of workload, social capital, decision latitude, as well as work engagement dimensions of vigor, dedication and absorption.Background: Understanding to support and guide the practice community in their daily effort to answer most accurate complex care demands along with a stable nurse workforce are challenging.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method:Based on previous empirical findings,a structural equation model designed with valid measurement instruments was tested.The study population was registered acute care hospital nurses(N = 1201 in twoindependent hospitals and one hospital group with six hospitals in Belgium.Results: Nurse practice environment dimensions predicted job outcome variables and nurse ratings of quality of care.Analyses were consistent with features of nurses’ work characteristics including perceived workload,decision latitude,and social capital,as well as three dimension of work engagement playing mediating roles between nurse practice environment and outcomes.A revised model adjusted using various fit measures explained 60 % and 47 % of job outcomes and nurse - assessed quality of care,respectively.Conclusion: Study findings show that aspects of nurse work characteristics such as workload,decision latitude and social capital along with nurse work engagement(e.g.vigor, dedication and absorption play a role between how various stakeholders such as executives,nurse managers and physicians will organize care and how nurses perceive job outcomes and quality of care.

  7. Impedance cardiography – Old method, new opportunities. Part II. Testing of cardiovascular response to various factors of work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Siedlecka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Impedance cardiography seems to be a very good, although underappreciated diagnostic method. What may distinguish it from among the many research methods is the fact that it enables non-invasive monitoring of cardiac output, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance. Holter recording of the hemodynamic parameters makes it possible to study them not only in stationary (hospital, outpatient clinic conditions, but also during household or professional activities, e.g., during road vehicle driving. Assessment of the trends of changes in the circulatory system of the employee at work makes it possible to judge whether the type of work performed by the worker is well tolerated – whether it is not too hard or too stressful. This is important, therefore, impedance cardiography can be extensively used in occupational medicine. Provision of preventive care to workers according to current standards requires, on the one hand, the use of the latest diagnostic methods while, on the other hand, the methods must be inexpensive, because otherwise the employer would not be able or willing to pay the associated costs. Impedance cardiography meets those criteria; however, few data is available in literature worldwide on the use of this method in the research on the impact of occupational work on cardiovascular responses of the employees. This work reports the use of impedance cardiography in studies on the various aspects of work environment.

  8. Control Algorithms and Simulated Environment Developed and Tested for Multiagent Robotics for Autonomous Inspection of Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edmond

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and academic partners are developing advanced multiagent robotic control algorithms that will enable the autonomous inspection and repair of future propulsion systems. In this application, on-wing engine inspections will be performed autonomously by large groups of cooperative miniature robots that will traverse the surfaces of engine components to search for damage. The eventual goal is to replace manual engine inspections that require expensive and time-consuming full engine teardowns and allow the early detection of problems that would otherwise result in catastrophic component failures. As a preliminary step toward the long-term realization of a practical working system, researchers are developing the technology to implement a proof-of-concept testbed demonstration. In a multiagent system, the individual agents are generally programmed with relatively simple controllers that define a limited set of behaviors. However, these behaviors are designed in such a way that, through the localized interaction among individual agents and between the agents and the environment, they result in self-organized, emergent group behavior that can solve a given complex problem, such as cooperative inspection. One advantage to the multiagent approach is that it allows for robustness and fault tolerance through redundancy in task handling. In addition, the relatively simple agent controllers demand minimal computational capability, which in turn allows for greater miniaturization of the robotic agents.

  9. Testing putative causal associations of risk factors for early intercourse in the study of twin adults: genes and environment (STAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Kelly L; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences and substance use have been identified as potential causal risk factors for early-onset sexual intercourse. While it is possible that exposure to these risk factors directly increases the likelihood of engaging in early intercourse, an alternative explanation is that observed associations between these variables are due to shared familial confounds. These unmeasured confounds may increase the likelihood of being exposed to these risk factors and of engaging in early intercourse. Participants drawn from a population-based study of Swedish adult twins (ages 19-47 years; N = 12,126) reported on their history of exposure to early physical and sexual trauma, cigarette use, and cannabis use. We investigated the nature of the association between these risk factors and young age at first intercourse, using a comparison of twins differentially exposed to each risk factor. When compared to non-exposed, unrelated individuals, participants who reported adverse childhood experiences or who engaged in early cigarette use or cannabis use were more likely to engage in early intercourse. However, co-twin comparisons indicated that observed associations between these risk factors and early intercourse may be due to familial factors shared within twin pairs, and risk factor exposure may not lead directly to early intercourse. Our results suggest that preventing trauma exposure or preventing or delaying adolescents' cigarette smoking or cannabis use may not effectively delay intercourse onset; instead, other aspects of the adolescent's environment should be addressed.

  10. Testing river surveying techniques in tidal environments: example from an actively meandering channel surveyed with TLS (Mont Saint-Michel bay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, J.; Lague, D.

    2013-12-01

    factor 2 during summer/autumn spring tides at the peak of pioneer vegetation development. Bank erosion and channel dynamics show a marked difference for tides reaching the salt marsh elevation. For tides below marsh elevation, bank erosion is negligible and the channel is systematically aggrading at a rate proportional to HWL. For tides flooding the marsh, mean bank erosion increases linearly with HWL and the channel shifts to erosion for over-marsh tides. Using flow velocity and SSC data we show that sedimentation on the inner bar results from the penetration of the turbid flood onto the inner bar. Spatial variability in sedimentation results from local interactions between flow and vegetation. On the contrary, bank erosion is dominated by the very large ebb peak velocity developing during spring tides. The very non-linear sensitivity to HWL of bank erosion and channel erosion means that the rate of evolution is largely controlled by the largest tides of the year. This in turn yields very large annual fluctuations in the rates of meander evolution. These results demonstrate that mega-tidal environment can offer an alternative setting to test new survey techniques aimed at river monitoring and can shed light in the elementary processes governing biogeomorphological interactions.

  11. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating mec

  12. Optical tests of a space mechanism under an adverse environment: GAIA secondary mirror mechanism under vaccum and thermal controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Urgoiti, Eduardo; Ramírez Quintana, Argiñe

    2007-09-01

    In this work, the optical evaluation of a mechanism for space applications under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA) is reported. The mechanism was developed by the Spanish company SENER to fulfill the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for GAIA Astrometric Mission; in particular, a five degrees of freedom (dof), three translations and two rotations positioning mechanism for the secondary mirror of the GAIA instrument. Both interferometric tests and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions: vacuum and thermal controlled conditions, up to a 10 -6mbar and 100K. The scope of this paper will cover the measurements concept selection, the presentation of verification activities, the results of such dedicated optical measurements, the correlation with the mechanical models and a brief description of the design process followed to meet the test requirements.

  13. Simultaneous Laser-induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide and Atomic Oxygen in the Hypersonic Materials Environment Test System Arcjet Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Craig; Lincoln, Daniel; Bathel, Brett; Inman, Jennifer; Danehy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous nitric oxide (NO) and atomic oxygen (O) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The data serves as an experimental database for validation for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium models used in hypersonic flows. Measurements were taken over a wide range of stagnation enthalpies (6.7 - 18.5 MJ/kg) using an Earth atmosphere simulant with a composition of 75% N2, 20% O2, and 5% Ar (by volume). These are the first simultaneous measurements of NO and O LIF to be reported in literature for the HYMETS facility. The maximum O LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of approximately 12 MJ/kg while the maximum NO LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of 6.7 MJ/kg. Experimental results were compared to simple fluorescence model that assumes equilibrium conditions in the plenum and frozen chemistry in the isentropic nozzle expansion (Mach 5). The equilibrium calculations were performed using CANTERA v2.1.1 with 16 species. The fluorescence model captured the correlation in mean O and NO LIF signal intensities over the entire range of stagnation enthalpies tested. Very weak correlations between single-shot O and NO LIF intensities were observed in the experiments at all of the stagnation enthalpy conditions.

  14. [Radiation ecological environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the vicinity of the reactors and on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D S

    2012-01-01

    The results of research into the environmental conditions in the regions of location of the pressurized water reactor WWR-K, fast neutron breeder BN-350 and on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site are represented. The effects of the exposure to aerosol emissions from WWR-K and BN-350 reactors on the environment are summarized. We present some arguments in favor of the safe operation of fission reactors in compliance with the rules and norms of nuclear and radiation protection and the efficient disposal of radioactive waste on the territory of the Republic.

  15. Stress Corrosion Cracking of X80 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Environment under Constant Load Tests with and without Preload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Z. Jia; J.Q. Wang; E.H. Han; W. Ke1

    2011-01-01

    Constant load tests in NS4 solution purged with N2-5%CO2 gas mixture were conducted on American Petroleum Institute (API) X80 pipeline steel applied in the 2nd West-East (;as Pipeline project with and without preload. The results show that cracks could initiate and propagate in X80 pipeline steel in near-neutral pH environment under a constant load condition. The life of crack initiation and propagation increased with decreasing applied stress. Preload did not change its corrosion behavior obviously. However, preload reduced the time for crack initiation.

  16. Nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: A European Union–United States perspective on the status of ecotoxicity testing, research priorities, and challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Handy, Richard D; Fernandes, Teresa F.;

    2016-01-01

    on bioavailability and toxicity; 5) development of more environmentally realistic bioassays; and 6) uptake, internal distribution, and depuration of NMs. Research addressing these key topics will reduce uncertainty in ecological risk assessment and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology....... on work within the Ecotoxicology Community of Research (2012–2015) the present Focus article provides an overview of the state of the art of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment by addressing different research questions, with a focus on ecotoxicological test systems and the challenges faced...

  17. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  18. Complete-member Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Yu Sharon Chuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the vast array of ethnographic research methodology, complete-member ethnography (CME is one ethnographic inquiry whose methodological development is still in infantile in intercultural communication research. Specifically in this article, the author includes four major sections to understand and to advance CME. First, the author reviews the historical development of CME, and realizes epistemological intimacy as the core of CME and as how researchers’ complete-memberships may be established. Second, the author explains the concept and practice of epistemological intimacy in extant literature. Third, the author advances the concept of epistemological intimacy to identify and explain five contextual factors that influence a complete-member ethnographer’s complete-membership to his or her research community. The five factors include historicity of identity, institutional memory, situational (intersubjectivity, consensual membership, and symbolic codes. In order to elucidate that said factors are essentially interrelated, the author supplements the five factors with her conceptualizations of selfhood/identity. In the end, the author discusses three potential contributions of how CME can advance critical communication research, which pertain to (a praxis and reflexivity, (b challenging struggles and inequalities in power and privilege, and (c promote hopeful social justice from within.

  19. Global Hyperbolicity and Completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2002-01-01

    We prove global hyperbolicity of spacetimes under generic regularity conditions on the metric. We then show that these spacetimes are timelike and null geodesically complete if the gradient of the lapse and the extrinsic curvature $K$ are integrable. This last condition is required only for the tracefree part of $K$ if the universe is expanding.

  20. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  1. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  2. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  3. Transparency of 0.2% GdCl3 Doped Water in a Stainless Steel Test Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, W; Dazeley, S; Svoboda, R

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of neutron and neutrino detection using water Cerenkov detectors doped with gadolinium holds the promise of constructing very large high-efficiency detectors with wide-ranging application in basic science and national security. This study addressed a major concern regarding the feasibility of such detectors: the transparency of the doped water to the ultraviolet Cerenkov light. We report on experiments conducted using a 19-meter water transparency measuring instrument and associated materials test tank. Sensitive measurements of the transparency of water doped with 0.2% GdCl3 at 337nm, 400nm and 420nm were made using this instrument. These measurements indicate that GdCl3 is not an appropriate dopant in stainless steel constructed water Cerenkov detectors.

  4. Capacitively-Coupled Resistivity measurements to determine frequency dependent electrical parameters in periglacial environment - theoretical considerations and first field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyklenk, A.; Hördt, A.; Radić, T.

    2016-05-01

    Capacitively-Coupled Resistivity (CCR) is conventionally used to emulate DC resistivity measurements and may provide important information about the ice content of material in periglacial areas. The application of CCR theoretically enables the determination of both electrical parameters, i.e. the resistivity and the electrical permittivity, by analyzing magnitude and phase shift spectra. The electrical permittivity may dominate the impedance, especially in periglacial areas or regions of hydrogeological interest. However, previous theoretical work suggested that the phase shift may strongly depend on electrode height above ground, implying that electrode height must be known with great accuracy to determine electrical permittivity. Here, we demonstrate with laboratory test measurements, theoretical modelling and by analysing the Jacobian matrix of the inversion, that the sensitivity towards electrode height is drastically reduced if the electrical permittivity is frequency dependent in a way that is typical for ice. For the fist time, we used a novel broadband CCR device "Chameleon" for a field test located in one of the ridge galleries beneath the crest of Mount Zugspitze. A permanently ice covered bottom of a tunnel was examined. For the inversion of the measured spectra, the frequency dependance of the electrical parameters was parameterized in 3 different ways. A Debye Model for pure ices, a Cole-Cole Model for pure ices and a dual Cole-Cole Model including interfacial water additionally. The frequency-dependent resistivity and permittivity spectra obtained from the inversion, including low and high frequency limits, agree reasonably well with laboratory and field measurements reported in the literature.

  5. 下一代网络协议一致性测试执行系统的实现%The Implement of Test Executing System Based Linux Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新铭; 王红霞; 石立新

    2003-01-01

    In order to go along the work of next generation network protocol conformance testing effectively and thorough, we bring forward a sign idea about test executing system and implement it base on Linux environment, which is obtained based ISO' criterion and method. The main function of test executing system is to execute automatically the test suit in TTCN form in course of protocol conformance testing and present the testing report in the end. In this paper,we first introduce the realization Idea of test executing system base on Linux environment and some interrelated arithmetic. We emphasize on the sign flow and implement procedure of test executing system and discuss some arithmetic for central module. Finally, we give test procedure and test result for IPv6 protocol using this test executing system.

  6. Standard test method for determining effects of chemical admixtures on corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement in concrete exposed to chloride environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the effects of chemical admixtures on the corrosion of metals in concrete. This test method can be used to evaluate materials intended to inhibit chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete. It can also be used to evaluate the corrosivity of admixtures in a chloride environment. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Rigorous tests of gene-environment interactions in a lab study of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), alcohol exposure, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoParo, Devon; Johansson, Ada; Walum, Hasse; Westberg, Lars; Santtila, Pekka; Waldman, Irwin

    2016-07-01

    Naturalistic studies of gene-environment interactions (G X E) have been plagued by several limitations, including difficulty isolating specific environmental risk factors from other correlated aspects of the environment, gene-environment correlation (rGE ), and the use of a single genetic variant to represent the influence of a gene. We present results from 235 Finnish young men in two lab studies of aggression and alcohol challenge that attempt to redress these limitations of the extant G X E literature. Specifically, we use a latent variable modeling approach in an attempt to more fully account for genetic variation across the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and to robustly test its main effects on aggression and its interaction with alcohol exposure. We also modeled aggression as a latent variable comprising various indices, including the average and maximum levels of aggression, the earliest trial on which aggression was expressed, and the proportion of trials on which the minimum and maximum levels of aggression were expressed. The best fitting model for the genetic variation across OXTR included six factors derived from an exploratory factor analysis, roughly corresponding to six haplotype blocks. Aggression levels were higher on trials in which participants were administered alcohol, won, or were provoked. There was a significant main effect of OXTR on aggression across studies after controlling for covariates. The interaction of OXTR and alcohol was also significant across studies, such that OXTR had stronger effects on aggression in the alcohol administration condition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Contrasty Tests on Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Alloys 2E12-T3 and 7050-T7451 in Pooding Environment of Fuel Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue properties in typical corrosion environments are the premise of fatigue life design for metallic structures in aircraft. Therefore, fatigue tests were performed on smooth and notched specimens subjected to constant amplitude loading in two environments of dry air and fuel tank ponding respectively to determine pure and corrosion fatigue properties of aluminum alloys 2E12-T3 and 7050-T7451. Corrosion fatigue properties in the two environments were analyzed and compared with each other, and the interaction mechanisms between corrosion and fatigue were deduced from fractographical studies by using scanning election microscope (SEM. It is showed that fuel tank ponding has a detrimental influence on fatigue properties and the adverse effect increases with the decreasing stress level. In addition, the notch of specimen enhances the severity of corrosion effects. Fatigue crack is easily initiate from the corrosion pits on the rough fatigue surface, and crack propagation is enhanced by the corrosion products and the hydrogen embrittlement effects at crack tips, thus the degradation of fatigue properties and the reduction of fatigue life are caused.

  9. The Analysis of Jiangsu Province Environment Monitoring System Third Party Software Test Example%浅析江苏省生态环境监控系统第三方软件测试实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦红

    2015-01-01

    江苏省生态环境监控系统(1831系统)为全省的环保工作提供了完备的监督监测平台和丰富的实时底层业务数据。第三方检测机构对1831系统进行了全面的软件验收测试,发现缺陷,排查问题,为系统的正常稳定运行提供了有力保障。文章就江苏省生态环境监控系统第三方软件测试实例进行了分析。%Jiangsu province environment monitoring system(1831 system)has provided complete monitoring plat⁃form and abundant real time basic data for entire province's environmental protection working. Third party testing department has performed software acceptance testing for 1831 system roundly, found bugs and figured out prob⁃lems, guaranteed 1831 system steady operation.

  10. Testing the Large-Scale Environments of Cool-core and Noncool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Medezinski, Elinor; Coupon, Jean; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A; Spergel, David N

    2016-01-01

    There is a well observed bimodality in X-ray astronomy between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn lead to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is $b = 1.42 \\pm 0.35$ ($1.6\\sigma$ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small ...

  11. From Classrooms to Geosciences Careers: Developing and Testing a Curriculum Module and Web Application for Modeling Water in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenec, J. M.; Durand, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    A curriculum module created to teach basic principles of hydrology and promote geoscience careers at the high school level will be shared. The module, consisting of five exercises of increasing complexity, focuses on investigating local problems in hydrology using tangible models, readily available online tools, and a custom-built web application. The module culminates in students examining changing land use patterns over time and looking at subsequent impacts on runoff. Materials were field tested during two summer workshops for educators and support was provided during the subsequent school years. Participants reported that the materials filled existing voids in their instructional materials, that they preferred to select individual exercises for use in their classrooms rather than the module as a whole, and that they found online tools in geosciences and connections to local field sites and geoscience professionals to be particularly valuable. Furthermore, while the five exercises where developed for use together in high school classrooms, individual exercises were found to be applicable in classrooms from the elementary through graduate levels. The module addresses NGSS Disciplinary Core Idea - The Role of Water in Earth's Surface Processes in addition to Cross Cutting Concepts - Systems and System Models and Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World and multiple NGSS Practices.

  12. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Coupon, Jean; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N.

    2017-02-01

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  13. An Accelerated Test Method of Simultaneous Carbonation and Chloride Ion Ingress: Durability of Silica Fume Concrete in Severe Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ghahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack on mechanical characteristics and durability of concrete containing silica fume have been investigated through an accelerated test method. Specimens containing different amounts of silica fume were maintained in an apparatus in which carbon dioxide pressure and concentration and relative humidity were kept constant, and wetting and drying cycles in saline water were applied. Surface resistivity, sorptivity, CO2 consumption, and carbonation and chloride ion ingress depths measurements were taken. Phase change due to carbonation and chloride ion attack was monitored by XRD analysis, and microstructures and interfacial transition zones were studied by implementing SEM as well as mercury intrusion porosimetry. It was expected to have a synergistic effect in the tidal zone where simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack happen. However, the observed reduced surface resistivity, compared to specimens maintained in CO2 gas, could be due to the moisture that is available near the surface, hindering CO2 from penetrating into the pores of the specimens. Moreover, the porosity analysis of the specimens showed that the sample containing silica fume cured in the tidal zone had 50.1% less total porosity than the plain cement paste cured in the same condition.

  14. Nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: An EU-USA perspective on the status of ecotoxicity testing, research priorities and challenges ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Handy, Richard D.; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Petersen, Elijah J.

    2016-01-01

    The US-EU Community of Research (CoR) was established in 2012 to provide a platform for scientists to develop a ‘shared repertoire of protocols and methods to overcome nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) research gaps and barriers’ (www.us-eu.org/). Based on work within the Ecotoxicology CoR (2012–2015) we provide here an overview of the state-of-the-art of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment by addressing different research questions with a focus on ecotoxicological test systems and the challenges faced when assessing nanomaterial (NM) hazards (e.g., uptake routes, bioaccumulation, toxicity, test protocols and model organisms). Our recommendation is to place particular importance on studying the ecological effects of aged/weathered NMs, as-manufactured NMs, as well as NMs released from consumer products in addressing the following overarching research topics: i) NM characterization and quantification in environmental and biological matrices, ii) NM transformation in the environment and consequences for bioavailability and toxicity, iii) alternative methods to assess exposure, iv) influence of exposure scenarios on bioavailability and toxicity, v) development of more environmentally realistic bioassays and vi) uptake, internal distribution, and depuration of NMs. Research addressing these key topics will reduce uncertainty in ecological risk assessment and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:27089437

  15. 云计算环境下软件测试研究进展%Software Testing Research Progress in Cloud Computing Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐赐发

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of era and the progress of science and technology, people with advanced computer network technology service system is more and more attention, how to improve the function of the computer network environment service, need to master relevant technology test methods shall be supervised and managed. The basis of the research study in cloud computing environment, hope to discuss specific software development and application of the design master the related content, test and research work for our country the development of the society to lay the good foundation of science and technology.%伴随时代的不断发展和科学技术的不断进步,人们对于先进的计算机网络技术服务体系越来越关注,如何能够完善计算机网络环境下的功能服务,需要掌握相关的技术测试方式予以监督和管理。文章以云计算环境作为研究的基础,希望通过讨论具体的软件开发和应用设计掌握相关的测试和研究工作内容,为我国社会的发展奠定良好的科技基础。

  16. Development and testing of the Survey of Family Environment (SFE): a novel instrument to measure family functioning and needs for family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohashi, Naohiro; Honda, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Hohashi's Concentric Sphere Family Environment Model (CSFEM; Hohashi & Honda, 2011) is a newly proposed family nursing theory for holistically understanding the family environment that acts on family well-being. The purpose of this article is to develop and psychometrically test the Japanese version of the Survey of Family Environment (SFE-J), grounded in the CSFEM, for measuring family's perceived family functioning and family's perceived needs for family support. The SFE-J is a 30-item self-administered instrument that assesses five domains (suprasystem, macrosystem, microsystem, family internal environment system, and chronosystem) and has been subjected to rigorous reliability and validity investigations among paired partners in child-rearing families (N of family = 1,990). Internal consistency reliability was high as measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Temporal stability over a 2-week interval was supported by high (substantial or perfect) and significant intraclass correlation coefficients. The total score for the SFE-J was significantly correlated with the Japanese version of the Feetham Family Functioning Survey (FFFS-J), indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. Construct validity was supported by a confirmatory factor analysis that evaluated the five-factor structure to measure the concept of CSFEM. Results also demonstrate that the SFE-J family functioning scores show no significant differences between paired partners. The SFE-J is a reliable and valid instrument to assess not only intrafamily functioning but also interfamily functioning and, by identifying items/domains with high requirements for family support, serves to facilitate the providing of appropriate support to families.

  17. The complete cosmicomics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvino, Italo

    2014-01-01

    The definitive edition of Calvino’s cosmicomics, bringing together all of these enchanting stories—including some never before translated—in one volume for the first time. In Italo Calvino’s cosmicomics, primordial beings cavort on the nearby surface of the moon, play marbles with atoms, and bear ecstatic witness to Earth’s first dawn. Exploring natural phenomena and the origins of the universe, these beloved tales relate complex scientific concepts to our common sensory, emotional, human world. Now, The Complete Cosmicomics brings together all of the cosmicomic stories for the first time. Containing works previously published in Cosmicomics, t zero, and Numbers in the Dark, this single volume also includes seven previously uncollected stories, four of which have never been published in translation in the United States. This “complete and definitive collection” (Evening Standard) reconfirms the cosmicomics as a crowning literary achievement and makes them available to new generations of reader...

  18. An assessment of the reported leakage of anthropogenic radionuclides from the underground nuclear test sites at Amchitka Island, Alaska, USA to the surface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Douglas E-mail: ddasher@envircon.state.ak.us; Hanson, Wayne; Read, Stan; Faller, Scott; Farmer, Dennis; Efurd, Wes; Kelley, John; Patrick, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Three underground nuclear tests representing approximately 15-16% of the total effective energy released during the United States underground nuclear testing program from 1951 to 1992 were conducted at Amchitka Island, Alaska. In 1996, Greenpeace reported that leakage of radionuclides, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu, from these underground tests to the terrestrial and freshwater environments had been detected. In response to this report, a federal, state, tribal and non-governmental team conducted a terrestrial and freshwater radiological sampling program in 1997. Additional radiological sampling was conducted in 1998. An assessment of the reported leakage to the freshwater environment was evaluated by assessing {sup 3} H values in surface waters and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios in various sample media. Tritium values ranged from 0.41 Bq/l{+-}0.11 two sigma to 0.74 Bq/l{+-}0.126 two sigma at the surface water sites sampled, including the reported leakage sites. Only at the Long Shot test site, where leakage of radioactive gases to the near-surface occurred in 1965, were higher {sup 3}H levels of 5.8 Bq/l{+-}0.19 two sigma still observed in 1997, in mud pit no. 3. The mean {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu for all of the Amchitka samples was 0.1991{+-}0.0149 one standard deviation, with values ranging from 0.1824{+-}1.43% one sigma to 0.2431{+-}6.56% one sigma. The measured {sup 3}H levels and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios in freshwater moss and sediments at Amchitka provide no evidence of leakage occurring at the sites reported by Buske and Miller (1998 Nuclear-Weapons-Free America and Alaska Community Action on Toxics, Anchorage, Ak, p. 38) and Miller and Buske (1996 Nuclear Flashback: The Return to Anchitka, p. 35). It was noted that the marine sample; {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios are statistically different than the global fallout ratios presented by Krey et al. (1976) and Kelley, Bond, and Beasley (1999). The additional non-fallout component {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu

  19. MKT 438 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

      To purchase this material click below link   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/MKT-438/MKT-438-Complete-Class-Guide   For more classes visit www.assignmentcloud.com   MKT 438 Week 1 Individual Assignment Defining Public Relation Paper MKT 438 Week 2 Team Assignment Public Relations Campaign Overview Paper MKT 438 Week 3 Individual Assignment Functions of Public Relation Paper MKT 438 Week 3 Team Assignment Public Relations Campaig...

  20. Deployment Completion Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-24

    computer in its con- struction management effort. NMCE ONE enjoyed and fostered strong relations between the Seabees and the Fleet. * SUPLY: NMCB CNE’s...planning, & leadership present day to day on the projects was exhibited for the enbarka- tion. NMCB CNE maintained a strong Community Relations Program...DICMY LABR EX] EHM : 166 mandays(CAT 0115: 93, TRAINEE: 3, LOCAL: 70) 3. O OSITICH CF W= O : CAT 0115, TRAINEE, & LOAL 4. UIM’I OF PIOJIM: Completion

  1. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  2. Development of paper-based color test-strip for drug detection in aquatic environment: Application to oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I A S; Sales, M Goreti F

    2015-03-15

    The wide use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of resistant microbial species. It should be avoided/minimized by controlling the amount of drug employed in fish farming. For this purpose, the present work proposes test-strip papers aiming at the detection/semi-quantitative determination of organic drugs by visual comparison of color changes, in a similar analytical procedure to that of pH monitoring by universal pH paper. This is done by establishing suitable chemical changes upon cellulose, attributing the paper the ability to react with the organic drug and to produce a color change. Quantitative data is also enabled by taking a picture and applying a suitable mathematical treatment to the color coordinates given by the HSL system used by windows. As proof of concept, this approach was applied to oxytetracycline (OXY), one of the antibiotics frequently used in aquaculture. A bottom-up modification of paper was established, starting by the reaction of the glucose moieties on the paper with 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES). The so-formed amine layer allowed binding to a metal ion by coordination chemistry, while the metal ion reacted after with the drug to produce a colored compound. The most suitable metals to carry out such modification were selected by bulk studies, and the several stages of the paper modification were optimized to produce an intense color change against the concentration of the drug. The paper strips were applied to the analysis of spiked environmental water, allowing a quantitative determination for OXY concentrations as low as 30ng/mL. In general, this work provided a simple, method to screen and discriminate tetracycline drugs, in aquaculture, being a promising tool for local, quick and cheap monitoring of drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH(3)T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH(3)T concentrations. The HT and CH(3)T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH(3)T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH(4) to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH(3)T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 1993 triggered lighnting test program: Environments within 20 meters of the lighting channel and small area temporary protection concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.J.; Schnetzer, G.H.

    1994-03-01

    Vertical electric fields, azimuthal magnetic fields, and earth step potentials at ground level have been measured at 10 and 20 meters from the base of triggered lightning flashes. For incident stroke peak currents in the range of 4.4 to 29 kA, vertical electric field change amplitudes as high as 210 kV/m were observed at 10 m, with rise times of the order of a few microseconds. Magnetic fields were found to follow Ampere`s law closely at both 10 and 20 m. Earth step potentials measured over a 0.5-m radial distance at the 10-m and 20m stations were linear with and had the same waveforms as the stroke currents. The step voltages exhibited a l/r distance dependence between the two measurement distances. A model that incorporates the presence of a thin surface layer, due to rain water saturation, of much higher conductivity than the bulk of the underlying earth is proposed to explain the observed behavior. Tests were also carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of several concepts for protecting a small exposed object, such as a piece of ordnance at the site of a transportation accident, from either a direct strike or from the indirect effects of electromagnetic fields produced by a nearby lightning flash to ground. Photographs of the occurrence of significant radial filamentary arcing along the surface of the ground from the strike points were acquired. This type of arcing, with a maximum radial extent of at least 20 m, was observed on six of seven of triggered flashes and on all strokes of 15-kA peak amplitude or higher.

  5. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  6. Hilbert, completeness and geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Venturi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show how the mathematical content of Hilbert's Axiom of Completeness consists in an attempt to solve the more general problem of the relationship between intuition and formalization. Hilbert found the accordance between these two sides of mathematical knowledge at a logical level, clarifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for a good formalization of geometry. We will tackle the problem of what is, for Hilbert, the definition of geometry. The solution of this problem will bring out how Hilbert's conception of mathematics is not as innovative as his conception of the axiomatic method. The role that the demonstrative tools play in Hilbert's foundational reflections will also drive us to deal with the problem of the purity of methods, explicitly addressed by Hilbert. In this respect Hilbert's position is very innovative and deeply linked to his modern conception of the axiomatic method. In the end we will show that the role played by the Axiom of Completeness for geometry is the same as the Axiom of Induction for arithmetic and of Church-Turing thesis for computability theory. We end this paper arguing that set theory is the right context in which applying the axiomatic method to mathematics and we postpone to a sequel of this work the attempt to offer a solution similar to Hilbert's for the completeness of set theory.

  7. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold.

  8. 以提高临床实践能力为导向的出科OSCE实施探索%Preliminary exploration of OSCE-test on completion of a course to improve students' clinical competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金懿; 丁美琴; 徐文; 丁晓林; 孙书方; 陈卫昌

    2013-01-01

    目的:探索实习过程中提高医学生临床实践能力的有效途径。方法选取苏州大学2006级与2007级临床医学专业398名学生为研究对象,将分配至附属第一医院40人作为实验组,分配至其他实习医院的358人为对照组。实验组通过在常规实习管理过程中引入出科客观结构化临床考核(objective structured clinical examination,OSCE),引导学生开展自主学习、强化临床实践。对照组采用传统实习和考核方法。应用SPSS 19.0软件包对学生操作考试成绩进行统计分析,采用配对样本t检验和独立样本t检验,计量资料以均分±标准差(x±s)表示,P<0.05为差异有统计学意义。结果实验组40名学生实习前后的临床实践能力均有不同程度的提高,其中心电图判读、心肺听诊、问诊技巧、内科操作和外科操作成绩提高明显(P<0.05);实验组在毕业临床实践能力评估中的综合能力表现明显优于对照组总体水平(P<0.05)。结论合理应用出科OSCE,使实习管理更有效,学生实习目的更明确,可有效促进和提高学生的临床实践能力。%Objective To investigate the effective ways of improving medical students' clinical competence during the process of internship. Methods Totally 398 students of clinical medicine from 2006 and 2007 grade in Soochow University were enrolled as research objects. Forty objects distribut-ed to the First Affiliated Hospital were taken as experiment group while 358 objects distributed to other hospital as control group. In experiment group, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was introduced during regular internship, innovation was made on test on completion of a course and autonomous learning and clinical practice was advocated and enhanced. Traditional practice and ex-amination method was used in control group. SPSS 19.0 was used to do statistical analysis on the test scores of students. Paired

  9. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  10. Oracle Goldengate 11g complete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ankur

    2013-01-01

    Oracle Goldengate 11g Complete Cookbook follows the Cookbook style. Each recipe provides step by step instructions with various examples and scripts. This book provides the necessary information to successfully complete most of the possible administration tasks.Oracle Goldengate 11g Complete Cookbook is aimed at Database Administrators, Architects, and Middleware Administrators who are keen to know more about Oracle Goldengate. Whether you are handling Goldengate environments on a day-to-day basis, or using it just for migration, this book provides the necessary information required to success

  11. A Completely New Type of Actuator -or- This Ain't Your Grandfather's Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian W.; Hawkins, Gary F.; Hess, Peter A.; Moore, Teresa A.; Fournier, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    A completely new type of actuator - one that is proposed for use in a variety of environments from sea to land to air to space - has been designed, patented, built, and tested. The actuator is loosely based on the principle of the internal combustion engine, except that it is a completely closed system, only requiring electrical input, and the working fuel is water. This paper outlines the theory behind the electrolysis- and ignition-based cycle upon which the actuator operates and describes the performance capability test apparatus and results for the actuator. A mechanism application that harnessed the unit s power to twist a scaled rotor blade is also highlighted.

  12. Complete thoracic ectopia cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonso, N; Venugopal, P S; Deshpande, R; Anderson, D

    2003-03-01

    Thoracic ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect with very few reported survivors after surgical correction. We report a case of complete thoracic ectopia cordis with double outlet right ventricle. The diagnosis was established antenatally and a repair was undertaken soon after birth. The child remained stable and was extubated on the fifth post-operative day. Forty-eight hours later the child succumbed to an unexplained respiratory arrest. Also presented is a review of the different surgical strategies for this unusual condition.

  13. Research on Fidelity Evaluation of Electromagnetic Environment Simulation Construction in Equipment Test%电磁环境模拟逼真度评估顶层研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金朝; 徐忠富; 高进涛; 李广东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the fidelity evaluation of electromagnetic environment simulation construction in equip-ment test. Methods Based on the analysis of the conception and characteristics of fidelity evaluation of electromagnetic en-vironment, this paper established four hierarchies of the general study framework for fidelity evaluation from methodology, theory, technique and application, and clarified the basic idea for fidelity evaluation, and established the function and process model of evaluation with IDEF0 method, and presented a fidelity evaluation method based on the similarity system theory. Results This paper presented the concept of electromagnetic environment's fidelity, identified the overall theory framework, concrete contents and research methods of electromagnetic environment fidelity evaluation. Conclusion These i-deas formed the basic theory and method system about fidelity evaluation of electromagnetic environment from the top-level.%目的:研究装备试验中电磁环境模拟构建的逼真度评估问题。方法在电磁环境逼真度评估相关概念及特性分析的基础上,从指导层、理论层、方法层及应用层等4个层面建立总体研究框架,阐明评估基本思想,运用 IDEF0建模方法对评估活动及过程进行描述和建模,并提出基于相似系统理论的电磁环境逼真度评估方法。结果给出了电磁环境逼真度评估的相关概念,从总体上明确了电磁环境逼真度评估的理论框架、研究内容及方法思路。结论从顶层设计并形成了电磁环境模拟逼真度评估的基础理论和方法体系。

  14. Completion processing for data communications instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-01

    Completion processing of data communications instructions in a distributed computing environment with computers coupled for data communications through communications adapters and an active messaging interface (`AMI`), injecting for data communications instructions into slots in an injection FIFO buffer a transfer descriptor, at least some of the instructions specifying callback functions; injecting a completion descriptor for each instruction that specifies a callback function into an injection FIFO buffer slot having a corresponding slot in a pending callback list; listing in the pending callback list callback functions specified by data communications instructions; processing each descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer, setting a bit in a completion bit mask corresponding to the slot in the FIFO where the completion descriptor was injected; and calling by the AMI any callback functions in the pending callback list as indicated by set bits in the completion bit mask.

  15. Completion processing for data communications instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Kumar, Sameer; Jeffrey, Parker J.

    2014-06-10

    Completion processing of data communications instructions in a distributed computing environment with computers coupled for data communications through communications adapters and an active messaging interface (`AMI`), injecting for data communications instructions into slots in an injection FIFO buffer a transfer descriptor, at least some of the instructions specifying callback functions; injecting a completion descriptor for each instruction that specifies a callback function into an injection FIFO buffer slot having a corresponding slot in a pending callback list; listing in the pending callback list callback functions specified by data communications instructions; processing each descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer, setting a bit in a completion bit mask corresponding to the slot in the FIFO where the completion descriptor was injected; and calling by the AMI any callback functions in the pending callback list as indicated by set bits in the completion bit mask.

  16. Photometric and Obscurational Completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, R A

    2005-01-01

    We report a method that uses "completeness" to estimate the number of exrasolar planets discovered by an observing program with a direct-imaging instrument. We develop a completeness function for Earth-like planets on "habitable" orbits for an instrument with a central field obscuration, uniform sensitivity in an annular detection zone, and limiting sensitivity that is expressed as a "delta magnitude" with respect to the star, determined by systematic effects (given adequate exposure time). We demonstrate our method of estimation by applying it to our understanding of the coronagraphic version of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-C) mission as of October 2004. We establish an initial relationship between the size, quality, and stability of the instrument's optics and its ability to meet mission science requirements. We provide options for increasing the fidelity and versatility of the models on which our method is based, and we discuss how the method could be extended to model the TPF-C mission as a whole, t...

  17. Superluminality and UV Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, G M

    2007-01-01

    The idea that the existence of a consistent UV completion satisfying the fundamental axioms of local quantum field theory or string theory may impose positivity constraints on the couplings of the leading irrelevant operators in a low-energy effective field theory is critically discussed. Violation of these constraints implies superluminal propagation, in the sense that the low-frequency limit of the phase velocity $v_{\\rm ph}(0)$ exceeds $c$. It is explained why causality is related not to $v_{\\rm ph}(0)$ but to the high-frequency limit $v_{\\rm ph}(\\infty)$ and how these are related by the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, depending on the sign of the imaginary part of the refractive index $\\Ima n(\\w)$ which is normally assumed positive. Superluminal propagation and its relation to UV completion is investigated in detail in three theories: QED in a background electromagnetic field, where the full dispersion relation for $n(\\w)$ is evaluated numerically for the first time and the role of the null energy con...

  18. Fast neutron environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Lu, Ping; Brewer, Luke N. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA); Goods, Steven Howard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Foiles, Stephen Martin; Puskar, Joseph David; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Boyce, Brad Lee; Clark, Blythe G.

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this LDRD project is to develop a rapid first-order experimental procedure for the testing of advanced cladding materials that may be considered for generation IV nuclear reactors. In order to investigate this, a technique was developed to expose the coupons of potential materials to high displacement damage at elevated temperatures to simulate the neutron environment expected in Generation IV reactors. This was completed through a high temperature high-energy heavy-ion implantation. The mechanical properties of the ion irradiated region were tested by either micropillar compression or nanoindentation to determine the local properties, as a function of the implantation dose and exposure temperature. In order to directly compare the microstructural evolution and property degradation from the accelerated testing and classical neutron testing, 316L, 409, and 420 stainless steels were tested. In addition, two sets of diffusion couples from 316L and HT9 stainless steels with various refractory metals. This study has shown that if the ion irradiation size scale is taken into consideration when developing and analyzing the mechanical property data, significant insight into the structural properties of the potential cladding materials can be gained in about a week.

  19. Evaluating students' perception of their clinical placements - testing the clinical learning environment and supervision and nurse teacher scale (CLES + T scale) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergjan, Manuela; Hertel, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Clinical nursing education in Germany has not received attention in nursing science and practice for a long time, as it often seems to be a more or less "formalized appendix" of nursing education. Several development projects of clinical education taking place are mainly focused on the qualification of clinical preceptors. However, the clinical context and its influence on learning processes have still not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was the testing of a German version of the clinical learning environment and supervision and nurse teacher scale (CLES + T scale). The sample of the pilot study consists of first-, second- and third-year student nurses (n=240) of a university nursing school from January to March 2011. Psychometric testing of the instrument is carried out by selected methods of classical testing theories using SPPS 19. The results show transferability of all subcategories of the CLES + T scale in the non-academic nursing education system of a university hospital in Germany, without the teacher scale. The strongest factor is "supervisory relationship". The German version of the CLES + T scale may help to evaluate and compare traditional and new models in clinical nursing education.

  20. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...