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Sample records for complete primate skeleton

  1. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens L Franzen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record.We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest.Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  2. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jens L; Gingerich, Philip D; Habersetzer, Jörg; Hurum, Jørn H; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Smith, B Holly

    2009-05-19

    The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record. We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest. Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  3. Oldest skeleton of a plesiadapiform provides additional evidence for an exclusively arboreal radiation of stem primates in the Palaeocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Stephen G. B.; Williamson, Thomas E.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Silcox, Mary T.; Sargis, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    Palaechthonid plesiadapiforms from the Palaeocene of western North America have long been recognized as among the oldest and most primitive euarchontan mammals, a group that includes extant primates, colugos and treeshrews. Despite their relatively sparse fossil record, palaechthonids have played an important role in discussions surrounding adaptive scenarios for primate origins for nearly a half-century. Likewise, palaechthonids have been considered important for understanding relationships among plesiadapiforms, with members of the group proposed as plausible ancestors of Paromomyidae and Microsyopidae. Here, we describe a dentally associated partial skeleton of Torrejonia wilsoni from the early Palaeocene (approx. 62 Ma) of New Mexico, which is the oldest known plesiadapiform skeleton and the first postcranial elements recovered for a palaechthonid. Results from a cladistic analysis that includes new data from this skeleton suggest that palaechthonids are a paraphyletic group of stem primates, and that T. wilsoni is most closely related to paromomyids. New evidence from the appendicular skeleton of T. wilsoni fails to support an influential hypothesis based on inferences from craniodental morphology that palaechthonids were terrestrial. Instead, the postcranium of T. wilsoni indicates that it was similar to that of all other plesiadapiforms for which skeletons have been recovered in having distinct specializations consistent with arboreality.

  4. Edentulation alters material properties of cortical bone in the human craniofacial skeleton: functional implications for craniofacial structure in primate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Peterson, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal adaptations to reduced function are an important source of skeletal variation and may be indicative of environmental pressures that lead to evolutionary changes. Humans serve as a model animal to investigate the effects of loss of craniofacial function through edentulation. In the human maxilla, it is known that edentulation leads to significant changes in skeletal structure such as residual ridge resorption and loss of cortical thickness. However, little is known about changes in bone tissue structure and material properties, which are also important for understanding skeletal mechanics but are often ignored. The aims of this study were to determine cortical material properties in edentulous crania and to evaluate differences with dentate crania and thus examine the effects of loss of function on craniofacial structure. Cortical bone samples from fifteen edentulous human skulls were measured for thickness and density. Elastic properties and directions of maximum stiffness were determined by using ultrasonic techniques. These data were compared to those from dentate crania reported in a previous investigation. Cortical bone from all regions of the facial skeleton of edentulous individuals is thinner than in dentate skulls. Elastic and shear moduli, and density are similar or greater in the zygoma and cranial vault of edentulous individuals, while these properties are less in the maxilla. Most cortical bone, especially in edentulous maxillae, has reduced directional orientation. The loss of significant occlusal loads following edentulation may contribute to the change in material properties and the loss of orientation over time during the normal process of bone remodeling. These results suggest that area-specific cortical microstructural changes accompany bone resorption following edentulation. They also suggest that functional forces are important for maintaining bone mass throughout the craniofacial skeleton, even in areas such as the browridges, which

  5. Iterating skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Horstmeyer, Thomas; Berthold, Jost

    2012-01-01

    a particular skeleton ad-hoc for repeated execution turns out to be considerably complicated, and raises general questions about introducing state into a stateless parallel computation. In addition, one would strongly prefer an approach which leaves the original skeleton intact, and only uses it as a building...... block inside a bigger structure. In this work, we present a general framework for skeleton iteration and discuss requirements and variations of iteration control and iteration body. Skeleton iteration is expressed by synchronising a parallel iteration body skeleton with a (likewise parallel) state......Skeleton-based programming is an area of increasing relevance with upcoming highly parallel hardware, since it substantially facilitates parallel programming and separates concerns. When parallel algorithms expressed by skeletons involve iterations – applying the same algorithm repeatedly...

  6. The stapl Skeleton Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Zandifar, Mani; Thomas, Nathan; Amato, Nancy M.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    from programmers and enables them to express parallel programs as a composition of existing elementary skeletons such as map, map-reduce, scan, zip, butterfly, allreduce, alltoall and user-defined custom skeletons. Skeletons in this framework

  7. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  8. The stapl Skeleton Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Zandifar, Mani

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This paper describes the stapl Skeleton Framework, a highlevel skeletal approach for parallel programming. This framework abstracts the underlying details of data distribution and parallelism from programmers and enables them to express parallel programs as a composition of existing elementary skeletons such as map, map-reduce, scan, zip, butterfly, allreduce, alltoall and user-defined custom skeletons. Skeletons in this framework are defined as parametric data flow graphs, and their compositions are defined in terms of data flow graph compositions. Defining the composition in this manner allows dependencies between skeletons to be defined in terms of point-to-point dependencies, avoiding unnecessary global synchronizations. To show the ease of composability and expressivity, we implemented the NAS Integer Sort (IS) and Embarrassingly Parallel (EP) benchmarks using skeletons and demonstrate comparable performance to the hand-optimized reference implementations. To demonstrate scalable performance, we show a transformation which enables applications written in terms of skeletons to run on more than 100,000 cores.

  9. The value of scintigraphy in skeleton diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickenhauser, J.

    1976-01-01

    The complex topic of diagnostics of the numerous skeleton diseases was enriched by nuclear medicine, for it is now possible to complete the static picture of morphologic changes resulting from radiologic examinations by its functional component, shown in scintigraphy. This shows that maximal information can only be obtained if the results of skeleton scintigraphy are, according to their importance, integrated into the total picture of the diagnostical decision procedure the centre of which is taken by radiology as was always the case. Because of the different results they lead to, none of the methods can be replaced by another, but they can only complete one another. For the reasons mentioned, the isolated use of skeleton scintigraphy, as it is usual in many places, does not seem not purposeful. Using 8 cases, the author tried to show the problems of skeleton scintigraphy and its position in the diagnostical decision procedure in osteology. (orig.) [de

  10. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  11. The Postcranial Skeleton of an Exceptionally Complete Individual of the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus stenops (Dinosauria: Thyreophora from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Catherine Rose Maidment

    Full Text Available Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preserved fossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknown about the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords the opportunity to describe the anatomy of Stegosaurus in detail for the first time in over a century, and enables additional comparisons with other stegosaurian dinosaurs. The new specimen is from the Red Canyon Ranch Quarry, near Shell Wyoming, and appears to have been so well preserved because it was buried rapidly in a pond or body of standing water immediately after death. The quarry is probably located in the middle part of the Morrison Formation, which is believed to be Tithonian in age in this area. The specimen is referable to Stegosaurus stenops based on the possession of an edentulous anterior portion of the dentary and elevated postzygapophyses on the cervical vertebrae. New information provided by the specimen concerns the morphology of the vertebrae, the iliosacral block and dermal armor. Several aspects of its morphology indicate the individual was not fully skeletally mature at the time of death, corroborating a previous histological study.

  12. The Postcranial Skeleton of an Exceptionally Complete Individual of the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus stenops (Dinosauria: Thyreophora) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Susannah Catherine Rose; Brassey, Charlotte; Barrett, Paul Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preserved fossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknown about the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords the opportunity to describe the anatomy of Stegosaurus in detail for the first time in over a century, and enables additional comparisons with other stegosaurian dinosaurs. The new specimen is from the Red Canyon Ranch Quarry, near Shell Wyoming, and appears to have been so well preserved because it was buried rapidly in a pond or body of standing water immediately after death. The quarry is probably located in the middle part of the Morrison Formation, which is believed to be Tithonian in age in this area. The specimen is referable to Stegosaurus stenops based on the possession of an edentulous anterior portion of the dentary and elevated postzygapophyses on the cervical vertebrae. New information provided by the specimen concerns the morphology of the vertebrae, the iliosacral block and dermal armor. Several aspects of its morphology indicate the individual was not fully skeletally mature at the time of death, corroborating a previous histological study.

  13. An interactive editor for curve-skeletons: SkeletonLab

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Simone; Meloni, P.; Usai, F.; Spano, L.D.; Scateni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Curve-skeletons are powerful shape descriptors able to provide higher level information on topology, structure and semantics of a given digital object. Their range of application is wide and encompasses computer animation, shape matching, modelling and remeshing. While a universally accepted definition of curve-skeleton is still lacking, there are currently many algorithms for the curve-skeleton computation (or skeletonization) as well as different techniques for building a mesh around a give...

  14. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  15. [WHAT SKELETONS TELL US].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The recent excavations carried out by the Superintendence for the Colosseum, the Roman National Museum and the Archaeological Area of Rome allowed to uncover a large number of burial grounds of Imperial Age. In this work we present the data for 11 cemeteries scattered throughout the Suburbiumn, dating between 1st and 3rd centuries AD. A whole sample of 6061 tombs has been investigated and 5280 skeletons were anthropologically analyzed. All the field data have been scored in appropriate standardized charts in order to make easy their storage and processing in a dedicated database.

  16. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  17. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gilbert, Christopher C; Groenke, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21), tegulae (n = 4), and grooming claws (n = 10), and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7). Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae) and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  18. PrimateLit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primate Info Net Related Databases NCRR PrimateLit: A bibliographic database for primatology Top of any problems with this service. We welcome your feedback. The PrimateLit database is no longer being Resources, National Institutes of Health. The database is a collaborative project of the Wisconsin Primate

  19. A Replication-Defective Human Type 5 Adenovirus-Based Trivalent Vaccine Confers Complete Protection against Plague in Mice and Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; Klages, Curtis; Erova, Tatiana E; Telepnev, Maxim; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Baze, Wallace B; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K; Lawrence, William S; Patrikeev, Igor; Peel, Jennifer E; Andersson, Jourdan A; Kozlova, Elena V; Tiner, Bethany L; Peterson, Johnny W; McWilliams, David; Patel, Snehal; Rothe, Eric; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Currently, no plague vaccine exists in the United States for human use. The capsular antigen (Caf1 or F1) and two type 3 secretion system (T3SS) components, the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) and the needle protein YscF, represent protective antigens of Yersinia pestis We used a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) vector and constructed recombinant monovalent and trivalent vaccines (rAd5-LcrV and rAd5-YFV) that expressed either the codon-optimized lcrV or the fusion gene designated YFV (consisting of ycsF, caf1, and lcrV). Immunization of mice with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by either the intramuscular (i.m.) or the intranasal (i.n.) route provided protection superior to that with the monovalent rAd5-LcrV vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic plague when animals were challenged with Y. pestis CO92. Preexisting adenoviral immunity did not diminish the protective response, and the protection was always higher when mice were administered one i.n. dose of the trivalent vaccine (priming) followed by a single i.m. booster dose of the purified YFV antigen. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by the prime-boost strategy provided 100% protection against a stringent aerosol challenge dose of CO92 to animals that had preexisting adenoviral immunity. The vaccinated and challenged macaques had no signs of disease, and the invading pathogen rapidly cleared with no histopathological lesions. This is the first report showing the efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored trivalent vaccine against pneumonic plague in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The Milky Way Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that a very long, very thin infrared dark cloud 'Nessie' lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity space as traced by low density CO and high density NH3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first 'bone' of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high contrast filament that can be used to map our galaxy's 'skeleton.' We present the first evidence of additional 'bones' in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of many filaments that could potentially trace galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use CO, N2H+, and NH3 radial velocity data to establish the location of the candidates in position-velocity space. Of the ten filaments, three candidates have a projected aspect ratio of >50:1 and run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-velocity space. Evidence suggests that these three candidates are Nessie-like features which mark the location of the spiral arms in both physical space and position-velocity space. Other candidates could be spurs, feathers, or interarm clouds associated with the Milky Way's galactic structure. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we hope to find more bones in future studies, to ultimately create a global-fit to the Galaxy's spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  1. Caustic Skeleton & Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbrugge, Job; van de Weygaert, Rien; Hidding, Johan; Feldbrugge, Joost

    2018-05-01

    arbitrary dynamics. Most important in the present context is that it allows us to follow and describe the full three-dimensional geometric and topological complexity of the purely gravitationally evolving nonlinear cosmic matter field. While generic and statistical results can be based on the eigenvalue characteristics, one of our key findings is that of the significance of the eigenvector field of the deformation field for outlining the entire spatial structure of the caustic skeleton emerging from a primordial density field. In this paper we explicitly consider the caustic conditions for the three-dimensional Zel'dovich approximation, extending earlier work on those for one- and two-dimensional fluids towards the full spatial richness of the cosmic web. In an accompanying publication, we apply this towards a full three-dimensional study of caustics in the formation of the cosmic web and evaluate in how far it manages to outline and identify the intricate skeletal features in the corresponding N-body simulations.

  2. Skeleton scintigraphy in trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal trauma is common and presents both an opportunity and a problem in skeletal scintigraphy. The opportunity arises in the ability of skeletal scintigraphy to demonstrate abnormalities early after direct trauma. It is well recognized that the early detection of fractures in some sites cannot be reliably achieved by standard radiography, especially in the femoral neck and scaphoid bone. The problem comes in recognizing the effects of skeletal trauma when using skeletal scintigraphy for another purpose, such as the detection of metastatic disease. iatrogenic trauma to either the skeleton or soft tissues may be manifest scintigraphic ally. For example Craniotomy typically leaves a rim pattern at the surgical margin. Rib Retraction during thoracotomy can elicit periosteal reaction. Areas of the skeletal receiving curative levels of ionizing radiation (typically 4000 rads or greater) characteristically demonstrate decreased uptake within 6 months to 1 year after therapy. The generally high sensitivity of the skeletal scintigraphy seems to make it an ideal survey test in cases of suspected child abuse especially in which radiographs are unrevealing. Because of difficulties in obtaining a history of trauma from a preschool child or even eliciting a satisfactory description of the location and nature of the pain, skeletal scintigraphy provides a simple and reliable investigation in these children. Subtle trauma, such as that from stress fractures is often difficult to visualize on a plain radiograph. Skeletal scintigraphy is frequently positive at the time of clinical presentation. Skeletal scintigraphy is exquisitely sensitive to the remodeling process and typically shows abnormalities 1 to 2 weeks or more before the appearance of radiographic changes in stress fractures. The periosteal reaction can be visualized within hours of the injury. Insufficiency and fatigue fractures such as vertebral compression fracture, which is probably the most common consequence of

  3. Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe - northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2013-09-01

    European leopard sites in Europe demonstrate Early/Middle Pleistocene out of Africa lowland, and Late Pleistocene Asian alpine migrations being driven by climatic changes. Four different European Pleistocene subspecies are known. The final European Late Pleistocene “Ice Age leopard” Panthera pardus spelaea (Bächler, 1936) is validated taxonomically. The skull shows heavy signs of sexual dimorphism with closest cranial characters to the Caucasian Panthera pardus ciscaucasica (Persian leopard). Late Pleistocene leopards were distributed northernmost, up to S-England with the youngest stratigraphic records by skeletons and cave art in the MIS 2/3 (about 32,000-26,000 BP). The oldest leopard painting left by Late Palaeolithics (Aurignacians/Gravettians) in the Chauvet Cave (S-France) allows the reconstruction of the Ice Age leopard fur spot pattern being close to the snow or Caucasian leopards. The last Ice Age glacial leopard habitat was the mountain/alpine boreal forest (not mammoth steppe lowland), where those hunted even larger prey such as alpine game (Ibex, Chamois). Into some lairs, those imported their prey by short-term cave dwelling (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Harz Mountains, Germany). Only Eurasian Ice Age leopards specialized, similar as other Late Pleistocene large felids (steppe lions), on cave bear predation/scavenging partly very deep in caves. In Vjetrenica Cave (Dinarid Mountains, Bosnia Herzegovina), four adult leopards (two males/two females) of the MIS 3 were found about two km deep from the entrance in a cave bear den, near to one cave bear skeleton, that remained articulated in its nest. Leopards died there, partly being trapped by raising water levels of an active ponor stream, but seem to have been killed possibly either, similar as for lions known, in battles with cave bears in several cave bear den sites of Europe (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Wildkirchli Cave, Vjetrenica Cave). At other large cave sites, with overlap of hyena, wolf and dhole dens at

  4. Parallel FFT using Eden Skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Lobachev, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates and compares skeleton-based Eden implementations of different FFT-algorithms on workstation clusters with distributed memory. Our experiments show that the basic divide-and-conquer versions suffer from an inherent input distribution and result collection problem. Advanced...

  5. Banach spaces with projectional skeletons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 2 (2009), s. 758-776 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : projection * projectional skeleton * norming set Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2009

  6. Landau-Ginzburg skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Ian C.; Melnikov, Ilarion V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University,Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We study the class of indecomposable two-dimensional Landau-Ginzburg theories with (2,2) supersymmetry and central charge c < 6 with the aim of classifying all such theories up to marginal deformations. Our results include cases overlooked in previous classifications. The results are rigorous for three or fewer fields and more generally are rigorous if we assume an extra bound. Numerics suggest that we have the complete set of indecomposable Landau-Ginzburg families with c < 6. This set consists of 38 infinite families and a finite list of 418 sporadic cases. The basic tools are classic results of Kreuzer and Skarke on quasi-homogeneous isolated singularities and solutions to certain feasibility integer programming problems.

  7. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Skeleton-based Hierarchical Shape Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present an effective framework for segmenting 3D shapes into meaningful components using the curve skeleton. Our algorithm identifies a number of critical points on the curve skeleton, either fully automatically as the junctions of the curve skeleton, or based on user input. We use these points

  9. A Mitogenomic Phylogeny of Living Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstermeier, Knut; Zinner, Dietmar; Brameier, Markus; Meyer, Matthias; Kreuz, Eva; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Primates, the mammalian order including our own species, comprise 480 species in 78 genera. Thus, they represent the third largest of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals. Although recent phylogenetic studies on primates are increasingly built on molecular datasets, most of these studies have focused on taxonomic subgroups within the order. Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have proven to be extremely useful in deciphering within-order relationships even up to deep nodes. Using 454 sequencing, we sequenced 32 new complete mt genomes adding 20 previously not represented genera to the phylogenetic reconstruction of the primate tree. With 13 new sequences, the number of complete mt genomes within the parvorder Platyrrhini was widely extended, resulting in a largely resolved branching pattern among New World monkey families. We added 10 new Strepsirrhini mt genomes to the 15 previously available ones, thus almost doubling the number of mt genomes within this clade. Our data allow precise date estimates of all nodes and offer new insights into primate evolution. One major result is a relatively young date for the most recent common ancestor of all living primates which was estimated to 66-69 million years ago, suggesting that the divergence of extant primates started close to the K/T-boundary. Although some relationships remain unclear, the large number of mt genomes used allowed us to reconstruct a robust primate phylogeny which is largely in agreement with previous publications. Finally, we show that mt genomes are a useful tool for resolving primate phylogenetic relationships on various taxonomic levels. PMID:23874967

  10. Electrical injury involving the immature skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Southwick, W. O.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    Two patients are presented with significant problems of skeletal development and function consequent to electrical impulse propagation through the immature skeleton. Amputation stump revision in the first case allowed an opportunity to assess specific histological and morphologic changes. Electrical damage completeley destroyed portions of trabecular bone in the metaphyses and epiphyseal ossification centers. There were morphologic irregularities in the physis of the distal femur, while in the proximal tibia complete cessation of growth occurred through presumed electrical ablation of the physis. There was virtually no endosteal or periosteal callus, no intertrabecular inflammatory response, and no new bone formation well over a year following the original injury. The knee joint exhibited severe fibrous ankylosis. In the second case localized arrest of the posterolateral portion of the proximal tibial physis caused a valgus/recurvatum deformation, and probably slowed down distal growth sufficiently in the stump end to prevent irregular terminal overgrowth of the tibia, although it did occur in the fibula. (orig.)

  11. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  12. Raptors and primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Berger, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Most scholars agree that avoiding predators is a central concern of lemurs, monkeys, and apes. However, given uncertainties about the frequency with which primates actually become prey, the selective importance of predation in primate evolution continues to be debated. Some argue that primates are often killed by predators, while others maintain that such events are relatively rare. Some authors have contended that predation's influence on primate sociality has been trivial; others counter that predation need not occur often to be a powerful selective force. Given the challenges of documenting events that can be ephemeral and irregular, we are unlikely ever to amass the volume of systematic, comparative data we have on such topics as feeding, social dynamics, or locomotor behavior. Nevertheless, a steady accumulation of field observations, insight gained from natural experiments, and novel taphonomic analyses have enhanced understanding of how primates interact with several predators, especially raptors, the subject of this review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  14. A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock

  15. Coral skeletons defend against ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Reef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life.

  16. Weighted straight skeletons in the plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We investigate weighted straight skeletons from a geometric, graph-theoretical, and combinatorial point of view. We start with a thorough definition and shed light on some ambiguity issues in the procedural definition. We investigate the geometry, combinatorics, and topology of faces and the roof model, and we discuss in which cases a weighted straight skeleton is connected. Finally, we show that the weighted straight skeleton of even a simple polygon may be non-planar and may contain cycles, and we discuss under which restrictions on the weights and/or the input polygon the weighted straight skeleton still behaves similar to its unweighted counterpart. In particular, we obtain a non-procedural description and a linear-time construction algorithm for the straight skeleton of strictly convex polygons with arbitrary weights.

  17. Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts.

  18. Gracility of the modern Homo sapiens skeleton is the result of decreased biomechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy M; Shaw, Colin N

    2015-01-13

    The postcranial skeleton of modern Homo sapiens is relatively gracile compared with other hominoids and earlier hominins. This gracility predisposes contemporary humans to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Explanations for this gracility include reduced levels of physical activity, the dissipation of load through enlarged joint surfaces, and selection for systemic physiological characteristics that differentiate modern humans from other primates. This study considered the skeletal remains of four behaviorally diverse recent human populations and a large sample of extant primates to assess variation in trabecular bone structure in the human hip joint. Proximal femur trabecular bone structure was quantified from microCT data for 229 individuals from 31 extant primate taxa and 59 individuals from four distinct archaeological human populations representing sedentary agriculturalists and mobile foragers. Analyses of mass-corrected trabecular bone variables reveal that the forager populations had significantly higher bone volume fraction, thicker trabeculae, and consequently lower relative bone surface area compared with the two agriculturalist groups. There were no significant differences between the agriculturalist and forager populations for trabecular spacing, number, or degree of anisotropy. These results reveal a correspondence between human behavior and bone structure in the proximal femur, indicating that more highly mobile human populations have trabecular bone structure similar to what would be expected for wild nonhuman primates of the same body mass. These results strongly emphasize the importance of physical activity and exercise for bone health and the attenuation of age-related bone loss.

  19. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing

    2014-09-01

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (logn)logr) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomized, and runs in expected O(n√h+1log2n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (logn) logr + r 4/3 + ε ) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (logn) logr + r 17/11 + ε ).

  20. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Mencel, Liam A.

    2014-05-06

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (log n) log r) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomised, and runs in expected O(n √(h+1) log² n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (log n) log r + r^(4/3 + ε)) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (log n) log r + r^(17/11 + ε))

  1. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing; Mencel, Liam A.; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (logn)logr) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomized, and runs in expected O(n√h+1log2n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (logn) logr + r 4/3 + ε ) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (logn) logr + r 17/11 + ε ).

  2. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph N; Marquart, Chloe L; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four-layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel-fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel-fibred bone, showing osteon-like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we interpret the

  3. Can ancestry be consistently determined from the skeleton?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierp Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of race has been thoroughly criticised in biological anthropology, forensic anthropology still uses a number of methods to determine the ‘race’ of a skeleton. The methods must be evaluated to see how effective they are given large individual variation. This study used 20 cases of skeletons of varied provenance to test whether the nine published methods of ‘race’ determination, using a range of various approaches, were able to consistently identify the ethnic origin. No one individual was identified as belonging to just one ‘major racial class’, e.g. European, meaning that complete consistency across all nine methods was not observed. In 14 cases (70%, various methods identified the same individual as belonging to all three racial classes. This suggests that the existing methods for the determination of ‘race’ are compromised. The very concept of ‘race’ is inapplicable to variation that occurs between populations only in small ways and the methods are limited by the geographic population from which their discriminant functions or observations of morphological traits were derived. Methods of multivariate linear discriminant analysis, e.g. CRANID, are supposed to allocate an individual skull to a specific population rather than a ‘major race’. In our analysis CRANID did not produce convincing allocations of individual skeletons to specific populations. The findings of this study show that great caution must be taken when attempting to ascertain the ‘race’ of a skeleton, as the outcome is not only dependent on which skeletal sites are available for assessment, but also the degree to which the unknown skeleton’s population of origin has been investigated.

  4. Remarkable ancient divergences amongst neglected lorisiform primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekaris, K. Anne‐Isola; Perkin, Andrew; Bearder, Simon K.; Pimley, Elizabeth R.; Schulze, Helga; Streicher, Ulrike; Nadler, Tilo; Kitchener, Andrew; Zischler, Hans; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Lorisiform primates (Primates: Strepsirrhini: Lorisiformes) represent almost 10% of the living primate species and are widely distributed in sub‐Saharan Africa and South/South‐East Asia; however, their taxonomy, evolutionary history, and biogeography are still poorly understood. In this study we report the largest molecular phylogeny in terms of the number of represented taxa. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 86 lorisiform specimens, including ∼80% of all the species currently recognized. Our results support the monophyly of the Galagidae, but a common ancestry of the Lorisinae and Perodicticinae (family Lorisidae) was not recovered. These three lineages have early origins, with the Galagidae and the Lorisinae diverging in the Oligocene at about 30 Mya and the Perodicticinae emerging in the early Miocene. Our mitochondrial phylogeny agrees with recent studies based on nuclear data, and supports Euoticus as the oldest galagid lineage and the polyphyletic status of Galagoides. Moreover, we have elucidated phylogenetic relationships for several species never included before in a molecular phylogeny. The results obtained in this study suggest that lorisiform diversity remains substantially underestimated and that previously unnoticed cryptic diversity might be present within many lineages, thus urgently requiring a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this primate group. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London PMID:26900177

  5. Actinide distribution in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; McInroy, J.F.; Swint, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Radiochemical analysis of two half skeletons donated to the United States Transuranium Registry, one from an individual with an occupationally incurred deposition of 241 Am and the other with a deposition of 239 Pu, revealed an inverse linear relationship between the concentration of actinide in the bone ash and the fraction of ash. Two distinct relationships were noted, one for the cranium and the other for the remainder of the skeleton. The results suggest that the actinide content of the skeleton as a whole, Q, can be obtained with an uncertainty of +-50% from analysis of a single sample of any bone (except the cranium) by Q = [(830 C/sub sample/)/(0.61 - f/sub sample/)], in which C/sub sample/ refers to the actinide content per g of ash and f/sub sample/ the fraction of ash (i.e., ratio of dry to wet weight) in the sample. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Novel skeleton sesquiterpenoids isolated from guava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Yun-Jiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the plant Psidium guajava L., collected in Guangdong province, afforded two novel skeleton sesquiterpenoids 1 and 2. Compound 2 also known as isocaryolan-9-one was a new natural product. The structure of the novel compound 1 was determined as guavacid A by various spectroscopic methods. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was proposed.

  7. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  8. Skeletonized Least Squares Wave Equation Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2010-01-01

    of the wave equation. Only the early‐arrivals of these Green's functions are saved and skeletonized to form the migration Green's function (MGF) by convolution. Then the migration image is obtained by a dot product between the recorded shot gathers and the MGF

  9. Body mass estimation from the skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Estimating an individual body mass (BM) from the skeleton is a challenge for forensic anthropology. However, identifying someone's BMI (Body Mass Index) category, i.e. underweight, normal, overweight or obese, could contribute to identification. Individual BM is also known to influence the age...

  10. Osteoarthritis. Radiological aspects in the appendicular skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Pena Cortes, Mario; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Calvo Paramo, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    The osteoarthritis is a degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects all articular structures, especially cartilage and intervertebral disc, which conduce to progressive impairment of the joint. In this paper it Is showed the most significative cardiology findings of osteoarthritis in the appendicular skeleton that are fundamental for the diagnosis of this frequent pathology

  11. Morphology of the axial skeleton of seven bat genera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO J. GAUDIOSO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.

  12. 1-Skeletons of the Spanning Tree Problems with Additional Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bondarenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study polyhedral properties of two spanning tree problems with additional constraints. In the first problem, it is required to find a tree with a minimum sum of edge weights among all spanning trees with the number of leaves less than or equal to a given value. In the second problem, an additional constraint is the assumption that the degree of all nodes of the spanning tree does not exceed a given value. The recognition versions of both problems are NP-complete. We consider polytopes of these problems and their 1-skeletons. We prove that in both cases it is a NP-complete problem to determine whether the vertices of 1-skeleton are adjacent. Although it is possible to obtain a superpolynomial lower bounds on the clique numbers of these graphs. These values characterize the time complexity in a broad class of algorithms based on linear comparisons. The results indicate a fundamental difference between combinatorial and geometric properties of the considered problems from the classical minimum spanning tree problem.

  13. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Kathleen M.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity. PMID:26334525

  14. Mycobacterium leprae genomes from naturally infected nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honap, Tanvi P; Pfister, Luz-Andrea; Housman, Genevieve; Mills, Sarah; Tarara, Ross P; Suzuki, Koichi; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Rosenberg, Michael S; Stone, Anne C

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is caused by the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Apart from humans, animals such as nine-banded armadillos in the Americas and red squirrels in the British Isles are naturally infected with M. leprae. Natural leprosy has also been reported in certain nonhuman primates, but it is not known whether these occurrences are due to incidental infections by human M. leprae strains or by M. leprae strains specific to nonhuman primates. In this study, complete M. leprae genomes from three naturally infected nonhuman primates (a chimpanzee from Sierra Leone, a sooty mangabey from West Africa, and a cynomolgus macaque from The Philippines) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the cynomolgus macaque M. leprae strain is most closely related to a human M. leprae strain from New Caledonia, whereas the chimpanzee and sooty mangabey M. leprae strains belong to a human M. leprae lineage commonly found in West Africa. Additionally, samples from ring-tailed lemurs from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, and chimpanzees from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were screened using quantitative PCR assays, to assess the prevalence of M. leprae in wild nonhuman primates. However, these samples did not show evidence of M. leprae infection. Overall, this study adds genomic data for nonhuman primate M. leprae strains to the existing M. leprae literature and finds that this pathogen can be transmitted from humans to nonhuman primates as well as between nonhuman primate species. While the prevalence of natural leprosy in nonhuman primates is likely low, nevertheless, future studies should continue to explore the prevalence of leprosy-causing pathogens in the wild.

  15. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Sirokman, Ferenc

    1985-01-01

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  16. The ossification principle of the laryngeal skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, W. von.

    1981-01-01

    In 94 decreased of both sexes aged 15 to 79 who had not has any affections of the larynx itself, the laryngeal skeleton was X-rayed after removing the soft parts, to demonstrate the ossification processes. Furthermore the deformation of the thyroid cartilage caused at the larynx by the laryngopharyngeal muscle in the act of swallowing was experimentally induced and determined with the aid of strain gauges. (orig.) [de

  17. Brains, Genes and Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  18. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Jonathan B; Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Travis, Dominic A; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E; Johnson, Timothy J; Knights, Dan

    2016-09-13

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome.

  19. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  20. Skeletonized Least Squares Wave Equation Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2010-10-17

    The theory for skeletonized least squares wave equation migration (LSM) is presented. The key idea is, for an assumed velocity model, the source‐side Green\\'s function and the geophone‐side Green\\'s function are computed by a numerical solution of the wave equation. Only the early‐arrivals of these Green\\'s functions are saved and skeletonized to form the migration Green\\'s function (MGF) by convolution. Then the migration image is obtained by a dot product between the recorded shot gathers and the MGF for every trial image point. The key to an efficient implementation of iterative LSM is that at each conjugate gradient iteration, the MGF is reused and no new finitedifference (FD) simulations are needed to get the updated migration image. It is believed that this procedure combined with phase‐encoded multi‐source technology will allow for the efficient computation of wave equation LSM images in less time than that of conventional reverse time migration (RTM).

  1. Skeletal metastasis: The effect on immature skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury. (orig.)

  2. First virtual endocasts of adapiform primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Arianna R; Silcox, Mary T; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I

    2016-10-01

    Well-preserved crania of notharctine adapiforms from the Eocene of North America provide the best direct evidence available for inferring neuroanatomy and encephalization in early euprimates (crown primates). Virtual endocasts of the notharctines Notharctus tenebrosus (n = 3) and Smilodectes gracilis (n = 4) from the middle Eocene Bridger formation of Wyoming, and the late Eocene European adapid adapiform Adapis parisiensis (n = 1), were reconstructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. While the three species share many neuroanatomical similarities differentiating them from plesiadapiforms (stem primates) and extant euprimates, our sample of N. tenebrosus displays more variation than that of S. gracilis, possibly related to differences in the patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism or within-lineage evolution. Body masses predicted from associated teeth suggest that N. tenebrosus was larger and had a lower encephalization quotient (EQ) than S. gracilis, despite their close relationship and similar inferred ecologies. Meanwhile, body masses predicted from cranial length of the same specimens suggest that the two species were more similar, with overlapping body mass and EQ, although S. gracilis exhibits a range of EQs shifted upwards relative to that of N. tenebrosus. While associated data from other parts of the skeleton are mostly lacking for specimens included in this study, measurements for unassociated postcrania attributed to these species yield body mass and EQ estimates that are also more similar to each other than those based on teeth. Regardless of the body mass prediction method used, results suggest that the average EQ of adapiforms was similar to that of plesiadapiforms, only overlapped the lower quadrant for the range of extant strepsirrhines, and did not overlap with the range of extant haplorhines. However, structural changes evident in these endocasts suggest that early euprimates relied more on vision than olfaction

  3. Radiation Analysis for Skeleton of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Je; Na, Sang Ho; Yang, Jae Hwan; Kang, Kweon Ho

    2010-11-01

    ORIGEN-S code was used in order to analyze the radioactive characteristics of skeleton of the spent nuclear fuel assembly. From the results, radioactivity, decay heat for various compositions in skeleton were obtained with a variation of cooling period and axial distribution of radioactivity was calculated, too. These data will be utilized later to process and dispose the skeleton of spent nuclear fuel assembly

  4. Skeletonized wave-equation inversion for Q

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2016-09-06

    A wave-equation gradient optimization method is presented that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ε. Here, ε is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid frequency shifts of the early-arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency-shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests show that an improved accuracy of the inverted Q model by wave-equation Q tomography (WQ) leads to a noticeable improvement in the migration image quality.

  5. Skeleton tables of burnout heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, P.L.; Bobkov, V.P.; Boltenko, Eh.A.; Vinogradov, V.N.; Katan, I.B.; Smogalev, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    New methods of generating and arranging new reference data on critical thermal flux density during steam and water mixture flow in vertical round fubes are discussed. The modern requirements to such data include the assessment of data reliability and error, internal agreement, validation by physical and mathematical models, verification using a large amount of experimental results. The available reference data feature a number of drawbacks: they are not accurate enough and are limited by the parameters; other data feature a significant spread in values at the neighbouring values of parameters, discrepancy with the experimental results, not always substantiated extrapolations. A new version of skeleton tables, which are free from a major part of above disadvantages, is proposed

  6. Skeletonized wave-equation inversion for Q

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    A wave-equation gradient optimization method is presented that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ε. Here, ε is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid frequency shifts of the early-arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency-shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests show that an improved accuracy of the inverted Q model by wave-equation Q tomography (WQ) leads to a noticeable improvement in the migration image quality.

  7. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  8. A molecular phylogeny of living primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N; Horvath, Julie E; Moreira, Miguel A M; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-03-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (~8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (~90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species.

  9. A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E.; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N.; Horvath, Julie E.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C.; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (∼8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (∼90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species. PMID:21436896

  10. A molecular phylogeny of living primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Perelman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (~8 Mb from 186 primates representing 61 (~90% of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species.

  11. Molecular genetic analyses of 300-year old skeletons from Auersperg tomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2009 the archaeologists excavated five skeletons from a 17th-century archaeological site in Ljubljana. They were found in the side chapel of the church in the Franciscans monastery, which was the Auerspergs’ tomb. Beside the skeletons, the finds revealed a bronze bowl with the heart , and the name of Ferdinand II and the years of birth and death (1655–1706 engraved. In 2011, we were asked to identify those five skeletons. The skeletons were poorly preserved and bones degraded to small pieces. Fragments of femurs and teeth were preserved only in two skeletons, therefore for the remaining three the fragments of cranium were used for molecular genetic analyses.Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contamination, and ground them into powder. Prior to DNA isolation, bone or tooth powder was decalcified. DNA was purified in the Biorobot EZ1 device (Qiagen. Nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Short tandem repeat (STR typing of autosomal DNA was performed using Investigator ESSplex Kit (Qiagen, the NGM Kit (Applied Biosystems and the MiniFiler Kit (Applied Biosystems. Typing of the Y-STRs was performed using the YFiler Kit (Applied Biosystems. The two hypervariable regions HVI and HVII of the mtDNA were sequenced.Results: We were able to extract up to 10.7 ng DNA/g of tooth powder from Auersperg chapel archaeological site skeletal remains. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 300 years old. From one skeleton we obtained a complete male genetic profile of autosomal DNA, almost complete Y-STR haplotype, which enabled us to track the paternal line and mtDNA haplotype for HVI and HVII regions, which enabled us to track the maternal line. After comparing the profiles with elimination database, no match was found, and thus the authenticity of genetic profiles was confirmed.Conclusions: Now we are waiting for

  12. A skeleton from the Lapita site at Kone, Foue Peninsula, New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrusewsky, M.; Galipaud, J.-C.; Leach, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    A relatively complete and reasonably well preserved skeleton, including a partially reconstructed cranium and mandible, of an approximately 35-45 year old female, found at the Lapita site, WKO-013B, near Kone, Foue Peninsula, New Caledonia, is described. Although not without problems, radioacarbon dating of the skeleton and other archaeological considerations place the burial around the middle of the first millenium BC (c.500 BC). Chemical analysis of the bone gives no clear picture about diet, although direct or indirect consumption of C4 plants is hypothesised. Nitrogen isotope values imply average contribution from both land and marine environments. The reconstructed skull is long and resembles crania from eastern island Melanesia. The teeth are small and the incisors exhibit moderate shovelling. A single dental caries, an apical abscess, moderate dental attrition, enamel hypoplasias, and evidence of periodontal disease were observed in the teeth. The stature is estimated to be 161.4 cm, or 5 feet 3.5 inches. There is osteological evidence that this individual experienced childbirth. The cranial vault bones are thickened. There is little or no osteoarthritis in these remains. Limited comparisons of certain crania, dental and skeletal morphological features of this new skeleton suggest affinities with other Lapita-associated skeletons and skeletal series from eastern island Melanesia. (author). 66 refs., 24 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Talent identification and deliberate programming in skeleton: ice novice to Winter Olympian in 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Nicola; Gulbin, Jason P; Martin, David T; Ross, Angus; Holland, Terry; Marino, Frank

    2009-02-15

    The aims of this study were to talent transfer, rapidly develop, and qualify an Australian female athlete in the skeleton event at the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games and quantify the volume of skeleton-specific training and competition that would enable this to be achieved. Initially, 26 athletes were recruited through a talent identification programme based on their 30-m sprint time. After attending a selection camp, 10 athletes were invited to undertake an intensified skeleton training programme. Four of these athletes were then selected to compete for Australia on the World Cup circuit. All completed runs and simulated push starts were documented over a 14-month period. The athlete who eventually represented Australia at the Torino Winter Olympic Games did so following approximately 300 start simulations and about 220 training/competition runs over a period of 14 months. Using a deliberate programming model, these findings provide a guide to the minimum exposure required for a novice skeleton athlete to reach Olympic representative standard following intensified sport-specific training. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of the deliberate practice theory and offer the term "deliberate programming" as an alternative way of incorporating all aspects of expert development.

  14. A skeleton for distributed work pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  15. Radiation injuries to the skeleton and their orthopedic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, R.; Rahnfeld, R.

    1978-01-01

    70 patients subjected to orthopedic treatment and radiotherapy for skeletal tumors have been examined. It was found that serious radiation injuries frequently occurred. Above all there were contractures, disordered healing of wounds, ulcerations, and scolioses and kyphoses of the growing skeleton. Therefore, in the case of diseases of the skeleton, it is recommended to restrain radiotherapy. It has to be rejected in child's age

  16. Qualitative Comparison of Contraction-Based Curve Skeletonization Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobiecki, André; Yasan, Haluk C.; Jalba, Andrei C.; Telea, Alexandru C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many new methods have been proposed for extracting curve skeletons of 3D shapes, using a mesh-contraction principle. However, it is still unclear how these methods perform with respect to each other, and with respect to earlier voxel-based skeletonization methods, from the viewpoint

  17. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data

  18. 42 CFR 71.53 - Nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonhuman primates. 71.53 Section 71.53 Public... FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.53 Nonhuman primates. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the... nonhuman primates from a foreign country within a period of 31 days, beginning with the importation date...

  19. Skeleton extraction based on the topology and Snakes model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxue Cai

    Full Text Available A new skeleton line extraction method based on topology and flux is proposed by analyzing the distribution characteristics of the gradient vector field in the Snakes model. The distribution characteristics of the skeleton line are accurately obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the critical points and the flux of the gradient vector field. Then the skeleton lines can be effectively extracted. The results also show that there is no need for the pretreatment or binarization of the target image. The skeleton lines of complex gray images such as optical interference patterns can be effectively extracted by using this method. Compared to traditional methods, this method has many advantages, such as high extraction accuracy and fast processing speed. Keywords: Skeleton, Snakes model, Topology, Photoelasticity image

  20. A Genome-Wide Landscape of Retrocopies in Primate Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Fábio C P; Galante, Pedro A F

    2015-07-29

    Gene duplication is a key factor contributing to phenotype diversity across and within species. Although the availability of complete genomes has led to the extensive study of genomic duplications, the dynamics and variability of gene duplications mediated by retrotransposition are not well understood. Here, we predict mRNA retrotransposition and use comparative genomics to investigate their origin and variability across primates. Analyzing seven anthropoid primate genomes, we found a similar number of mRNA retrotranspositions (∼7,500 retrocopies) in Catarrhini (Old Word Monkeys, including humans), but a surprising large number of retrocopies (∼10,000) in Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys), which may be a by-product of higher long interspersed nuclear element 1 activity in these genomes. By inferring retrocopy orthology, we dated most of the primate retrocopy origins, and estimated a decrease in the fixation rate in recent primate history, implying a smaller number of species-specific retrocopies. Moreover, using RNA-Seq data, we identified approximately 3,600 expressed retrocopies. As expected, most of these retrocopies are located near or within known genes, present tissue-specific and even species-specific expression patterns, and no expression correlation to their parental genes. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that mRNA retrotransposition is an active mechanism in primate evolution and suggest that retrocopies may not only introduce great genetic variability between lineages but also create a large reservoir of potentially functional new genomic loci in primate genomes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nico M; Pier, Naomi M; Reeder, Deeann M; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-07-01

    Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2-317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3-483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across treatments

  2. Postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Cerveny, T.J.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with hypotension and a dramatic release of mast cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomenon and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were exposed to 100 Gy (1 Gy = 100 rads), whole-body, gamma radiation. Pontine and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. Systemic arterial histamine levels were determined preradiation and postradiation. Data obtained indicated that radiated animals showed a decrease in blood flow of 63% in the motor cortex and 51% in the pons by 10 min postradiation. Regional cerebral blood flow of radiated animals showed a slight recovery 20 min postradiation, followed by a fall to the 10 min nadir by 60 min postradiation. Immediately, postradiation systemic blood pressure fell 67% and remained at that level for the remainder of the experiment. Histamine levels in the radiated animals increased a hundredfold 2 min postradiation. This study indicates that regional cerebral blood flow decreases postradiation with the development of hypotension and may be associated temporally with the postradiation release of histamine

  3. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  4. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  5. Pathogenesis of varicelloviruses in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwendijk, Werner J D; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2015-01-01

    Varicelloviruses in primates comprise the prototypic human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its non-human primate homologue, simian varicella virus (SVV). Both viruses cause varicella as a primary infection, establish latency in ganglionic neurons and reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster in their respective hosts. VZV is endemic worldwide and, although varicella is usually a benign disease in childhood, VZV reactivation is a significant cause of neurological disease in the elderly and in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenesis of VZV infection remains ill-defined, mostly due to the species restriction of VZV that impedes studies in experimental animal models. SVV infection of non-human primates parallels virological, clinical, pathological and immunological features of human VZV infection, thereby providing an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in its natural host. In this review, we discuss recent studies that provided novel insight in both the virus and host factors involved in the three elementary stages of Varicellovirus infection in primates: primary infection, latency and reactivation. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Giant Cell Tumors of the Axial Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Balke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (=6 or sacrum (=13 have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4% patients with sacral and 4 (66.7% with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors.

  7. Building Up the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A team of scientistshas now uncovered half of theentire skeleton of the Milky Way, using an automated method to identify large filaments of gas and dust hiding between stars in the galactic plane.Galactic distribution of 54 newly discovered filaments, plotted along with colored lines indicating six relevant spiral arms in our galaxy. The upper two plots show the consistency of the filaments motion with the spiral arms, while the lower shows their location within the galactic plane. [Wang et al. 2016]The Search for Nessie and FriendsThe Milky Ways interstellar medium is structured hierarchically into filaments. These structures are difficult to observe since they largely lie in the galactic plane, but if we can discover the distribution and properties of these filaments, we can better understand how our galaxy formed, and how the filaments affect star formation in our galaxy today.Some of the largest of the Milky Ways filaments are hundreds of light-years long like the infrared dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, declared in 2013 to be one of the bones of the Milky Way because of its position along the center of the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm.Follow-up studies since the discovery of Nessie (like this one, or this) have found a number of additional large-scale filaments, but these studies all use different search methods and selection criteria, and the searches all start with visual inspection by humans to identify candidates.What if we could instead automate the detection process and build a homogeneous sample of the large filaments making up the skeleton of the Milky Way?Automated DetectionThis is exactly what a team of astronomers led by Ke Wang (European Southern Observatory) has done. The group used a customization of an algorithm called a minimum spanning tree the technique used to optimize the cost of internet networks, road networks, and electrical grids in our communities to perform an automated search of data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. The search was

  8. Who Believes in the Giant Skeleton Myth? An Examination of Individual Difference Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined individual difference correlates of belief in a narrative about the discovery of giant skeletal remains that contravenes mainstream scientific explanations. A total of 364 participants from Central Europe completed a survey that asked them to rate their agreement with a short excerpt describing the giant skeleton myth. Participants also completed measures of the Big Five personality factors, New Age orientation, anti-scientific attitudes, superstitious beliefs, and religiosity. Results showed that women, as compared with men, and respondents with lower educational qualifications were significantly more likely to believe in the giant skeleton myth, although effect sizes were small. Correlational analysis showed that stronger belief in the giant skeleton myth was significantly associated with greater anti-scientific attitudes, stronger New Age orientation, greater religiosity, stronger superstitious beliefs, lower Openness to Experience scores, and higher Neuroticism scores. However, a multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of belief in myth were Openness, New Age orientation, and anti-scientific attitudes. These results are discussed in relation to the potential negative consequences of belief in myths.

  9. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in position-position-velocity (p-p-v) space as traced by lower-density {{CO}} and higher-density {{NH}}3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy’s “skeleton.” Here we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our 10 bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features that lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use {{CO}}, {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+, {{{HCO}}}+, and {{NH}}3 radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in p-p-v space. Of the 10 candidates, 6 also have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50:1 run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in p-p-v space; and exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. The evidence presented here suggests that these candidates mark the locations of significant spiral features, with the bone called filament 5 (“BC_18.88-0.09”) being a close analog to Nessie in the northern sky. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, it should be possible to find more bones in future studies.

  10. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  11. Entheseal changes and pathological lesions in draught reindeer skeletons - Four case studies from present-day Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Anna-Kaisa; Niinimäki, Sirpa

    2016-09-01

    Draught use and being ridden often result in typical pathological patterns in animal skeletons. Moreover, physical activity patterns may be reflected in bone biomechanical properties and entheseal changes at muscle attachment sites. This paper presents the pathologies and entheseal changes observed in four draught and/or racing reindeer skeletons against information on their life histories and discusses the probability of linking the observed changes to their use. The results of this study are a useful point of comparison to researchers working on reindeer and other species of draught animals. However, our results also emphasize that entheseal changes and many pathologies have multifactorial etiologies and that interpretation of skeletal change patterns is not straightforward, even when there is information on the life history of the animal and its complete skeleton can be examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 13C-NMR of diterpenes with pimarane skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, W.S.; Pereira, A.L.; Silva Queiroz, P.P. da; Silva, R.S. da; Valente, L.M.M.; Peixoto, E.M.; Cunha Pinto, A. da

    1981-01-01

    The effect of substituent groups on the chemical shift of carbons using nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of carbon 13 ( 13 C-NMR) is discussed. Diterpenes having pimarane skeleton, isolated from plants of Velloziaceae family are analysed. (ARHC) [pt

  13. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve

  14. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dziuba; M. Cholewa

    2008-01-01

    In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of c...

  15. Mining Key Skeleton Poses with Latent SVM for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition based on 3D skeleton has become an active research field in recent years with the recently developed commodity depth sensors. Most published methods analyze an entire 3D depth data, construct mid-level part representations, or use trajectory descriptor of spatial-temporal interest point for recognizing human activities. Unlike previous work, a novel and simple action representation is proposed in this paper which models the action as a sequence of inconsecutive and discriminative skeleton poses, named as key skeleton poses. The pairwise relative positions of skeleton joints are used as feature of the skeleton poses which are mined with the aid of the latent support vector machine (latent SVM. The advantage of our method is resisting against intraclass variation such as noise and large nonlinear temporal deformation of human action. We evaluate the proposed approach on three benchmark action datasets captured by Kinect devices: MSR Action 3D dataset, UTKinect Action dataset, and Florence 3D Action dataset. The detailed experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art skeleton-based action recognition methods.

  16. Program Transformation to Identify List-Based Parallel Skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Algorithmic skeletons are used as building-blocks to ease the task of parallel programming by abstracting the details of parallel implementation from the developer. Most existing libraries provide implementations of skeletons that are defined over flat data types such as lists or arrays. However, skeleton-based parallel programming is still very challenging as it requires intricate analysis of the underlying algorithm and often uses inefficient intermediate data structures. Further, the algorithmic structure of a given program may not match those of list-based skeletons. In this paper, we present a method to automatically transform any given program to one that is defined over a list and is more likely to contain instances of list-based skeletons. This facilitates the parallel execution of a transformed program using existing implementations of list-based parallel skeletons. Further, by using an existing transformation called distillation in conjunction with our method, we produce transformed programs that contain fewer inefficient intermediate data structures.

  17. Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Tracking blue cone signals in the primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Dreher, Bogdan; Vidyasagar, Trichur R

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we review the path taken by signals originating from the short wavelength sensitive cones (S-cones) in Old World and New World primates. Two types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) carrying S-cone signals (blue-On and blue-Off cells) project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in the thalamus. In all primates, these S-cone signals are relayed through the 'dust-like' (konis in classical Greek) dLGN cells. In New World primates such as common marmoset, these very small cells are known to form distinct and spatially extensive, koniocellular layers. Although in Old World primates, such as macaques, koniocellular layers tend to be very thin, the adjacent parvocellular layers contain distinct koniocellular extensions. It appears that all S-cone signals are relayed through such konio cells, whether they are in the main koniocellular layers or in their colonies within the parvocellular layers of the dLGN. In the primary visual cortex, these signals begin to merge with the signals carried by the other two principal parallel channels, namely the magnocellular and parvocellular channels. This article will also review the possible routes taken by the S-cone signals to reach one of the topographically organised extrastriate visual cortical areas, the middle temporal area (area MT). This area is the major conduit for signals reaching the parietal cortex. Alternative visual inputs to area MT not relayed via the primary visual cortex area (V1) may provide the neurological basis for the phenomenon of 'blindsight' observed in human and non-human primates, who have partial or complete damage to the primary visual cortex. Short wavelength sensitive cone (S-cone) signals to area MT may also play a role in directing visual attention with possible implications for understanding the pathology in dyslexia and some of its treatment options. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  19. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Blanch, Adam J; Looker, Oliver; Dixon, Matthew W; Tilley, Leann

    2018-01-01

    We present Skan (Skeleton analysis), a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the "analyse skeletons" plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API) allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan's measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  20. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  1. Type 2 diabetes and the skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, V. V.; Mitchell, Deborah M; Rosen, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    fractures. The mechanisms underlying skeletal fragility in diabetes are not completely understood, but are multifactorial and likely include effects of obesity, hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress, and accumulation of advanced glycation end products, leading to altered bone metabolism, structure, and strength...

  2. Can we omit scintiscanning of the skeleton in follow-up aftercare of carcinoma of the breast?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuenemann, H.

    1989-01-01

    630 women patients of the Bad Trissl clinic were admitted in 1987/88 to a prospective study to find out whether scintiscanning, or radionuclide imaging, of the skeleton can be omitted completely or in part in the after care and follow-up of carcinoma of the breast. The initial criterion was a postoperative carcinoma of the breast without metastasizing in the skeleton at the time the study began or the patient was admitted to the study. Careful pain anamnesis was performed by means of prepared questions, and a detailed clinical examination conducted to detect any pain in the skeleton of the patient concerned. This was followed by whole body scintiscanning of the skeleton and complementary X-ray films, if necessary additional examinations. It was found that clinical findings and imaging methods agreed in 545 patients. In 55 cases a finding that was clinically suspicious of metastases or doubtful, could be refuted by both scintiscan and by X-ray, osseous metastasizing would have been overlooked without skeleton scintiscan in 14 patients only (2.2%), 11 of these 14 patients were high-risk patients (negative hormonal receptor status, axillary lymph node metastases). Hence, it will be sufficient to employ scintiscanning in the aftercare and follow-up of carcinoma of the breast on a risk-adapted basis provided this is preceded by careful pain analysis and clinical examination. Failure to detect metastasizing in the skeleton will then occur in only 3 of 630 patients (0.48%). In this manner 40% of scintiscans can be omitted in future. (orig.) [de

  3. Modeling The Skeleton Weight of an Adult Caucasian Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtandilashvili, Maia; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2018-05-17

    The reference value for the skeleton weight of an adult male (10.5 kg) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 70 is based on weights of dissected skeletons from 44 individuals, including two U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries whole-body donors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection analysis of anatomical data from 31 individuals with known values of body height demonstrated significant correlation between skeleton weight and body height. The corresponding regression equation, Wskel (kg) = -10.7 + 0.119 × H (cm), published in International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 70 is typically used to estimate the skeleton weight from body height. Currently, the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries holds data on individual bone weights from a total of 40 male whole-body donors, which has provided a unique opportunity to update the International Commission on Radiological Protection skeleton weight vs. body height equation. The original International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 70 and the new U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries data were combined in a set of 69 data points representing a group of 33- to 95-y-old individuals with body heights and skeleton weights ranging from 155 to 188 cm and 6.5 to 13.4 kg, respectively. Data were fitted with a linear least-squares regression. A significant correlation between the two parameters was observed (r = 0.28), and an updated skeleton weight vs. body height equation was derived: Wskel (kg) = -6.5 + 0.093 × H (cm). In addition, a correlation of skeleton weight with multiple variables including body height, body weight, and age was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, and a corresponding fit equation was derived: Wskel (kg) = -0.25 + 0.046 × H (cm) + 0.036 × Wbody (kg) - 0.012 × A (y). These equations will be used to estimate skeleton weights and, ultimately, total skeletal actinide activities for

  4. A new ankylosaurine dinosaur from the Judith River Formation of Montana, USA, based on an exceptional skeleton with soft tissue preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M.; Evans, David C.

    2017-05-01

    The terrestrial Judith River Formation of northern Montana was deposited over an approximately 4 Myr interval during the Campanian (Late Cretaceous). Despite having been prospected and collected continuously by palaeontologists for over a century, few relatively complete dinosaur skeletons have been recovered from this unit to date. Here we describe a new genus and species of ankylosaurine dinosaur, Zuul crurivastator, from the Coal Ridge Member of the Judith River Formation, based on an exceptionally complete and well-preserved skeleton (ROM 75860). This is the first ankylosaurin skeleton known with a complete skull and tail club, and it is the most complete ankylosaurid ever found in North America. The presence of abundant soft tissue preservation across the skeleton, including in situ osteoderms, skin impressions and dark films that probably represent preserved keratin, make this exceptional skeleton an important reference for understanding the evolution of dermal and epidermal structures in this clade. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Zuul as an ankylosaurin ankylosaurid within a clade of Dyoplosaurus and Scolosaurus, with Euoplocephalus being more distantly related within Ankylosaurini. The occurrence of Z. crurivastator from the upper Judith River Formation fills a gap in the ankylosaurine stratigraphic and geographical record in North America, and further highlights that Campanian ankylosaurines were undergoing rapid evolution and stratigraphic succession of taxa as observed for Laramidian ceratopsids, hadrosaurids, pachycephalosaurids and tyrannosaurids.

  5. The evolution of neocortex in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    We can learn about the evolution of neocortex in primates through comparative studies of cortical organization in primates and those mammals that are the closest living relatives of primates, in conjunction with brain features revealed by the skull endocasts of fossil archaic primates. Such studies suggest that early primates had acquired a number of features of neocortex that now distinguish modern primates. Most notably, early primates had an array of new visual areas, and those visual areas widely shared with other mammals had been modified. Posterior parietal cortex was greatly expanded with sensorimotor modules for reaching, grasping, and personal defense. Motor cortex had become more specialized for hand use, and the functions of primary motor cortex were enhanced by the addition and development of premotor and cingulate motor areas. Cortical architecture became more varied, and cortical neuron populations became denser overall than in nonprimate ancestors. Primary visual cortex had the densest population of neurons, and this became more pronounced in the anthropoid radiation. Within the primate clade, considerable variability in cortical size, numbers of areas, and architecture evolved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  7. Quality criteria in diagnostic radiology of the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional diagnostic radiology continues to represent the basic technique in skeleton diagnostics and results in decisive diagnoses in more than 80% of all cases. Compared with other examination methods, it is cheap and relatively easy to perform; however, it makes high demands on the physician's clinical and technical expertise. Compared with computerized tomography, conventional radiography has the advantage of decades of experience and of being cheaper by far. The author thinks the following quality criteria to be important in diagnostic radiology of the skeleton: roentgenological examination of one or several skeleton regions in keeping with the clinical issue concerned, accurate visualization of the object in a typical and reproducible projection, radiation quality matched to the dimension of the object, matched mean optical density, visualization of soft tissue near to bones and joints, and radiation dose in keeping with the clinical issue concerned. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers have tracked down a gigantic, previously unknown assembly of galaxies located almost seven billion light-years away from us. The discovery, made possible by combining two of the most powerful ground-based telescopes in the world, is the first observation of such a prominent galaxy structure in the distant Universe, providing further insight into the cosmic web and how it formed. "Matter is not distributed uniformly in the Universe," says Masayuki Tanaka from ESO, who led the new study. "In our cosmic vicinity, stars form in galaxies and galaxies usually form groups and clusters of galaxies. The most widely accepted cosmological theories predict that matter also clumps on a larger scale in the so-called 'cosmic web', in which galaxies, embedded in filaments stretching between voids, create a gigantic wispy structure." These filaments are millions of light years long and constitute the skeleton of the Universe: galaxies gather around them, and immense galaxy clusters form at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to digest. Scientists are struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us, solid proof of their existence in the more distant Universe has been lacking until now. The team led by Tanaka discovered a large structure around a distant cluster of galaxies in images they obtained earlier. They have now used two major ground-based telescopes to study this structure in greater detail, measuring the distances from Earth of over 150 galaxies, and, hence, obtaining a three-dimensional view of the structure. The spectroscopic observations were performed using the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope and FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Thanks to these and other observations, the astronomers were able to make a real demographic study of this structure

  9. Evolutionary and Functional Analysis of Old World Primate TRIM5 Reveals the Ancient Emergence of Primate Lentiviruses and Convergent Evolution Targeting a Conserved Capsid Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread distribution of lentiviruses among African primates, and the lack of severe pathogenesis in many of these natural reservoirs, are taken as evidence for long-term co-evolution between the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and their primate hosts. Evidence for positive selection acting on antiviral restriction factors is consistent with virus-host interactions spanning millions of years of primate evolution. However, many restriction mechanisms are not virus-specific, and selection cannot be unambiguously attributed to any one type of virus. We hypothesized that the restriction factor TRIM5, because of its unique specificity for retrovirus capsids, should accumulate adaptive changes in a virus-specific fashion, and therefore, that phylogenetic reconstruction of TRIM5 evolution in African primates should reveal selection by lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs. We analyzed complete TRIM5 coding sequences of 22 Old World primates and identified a tightly-spaced cluster of branch-specific adaptions appearing in the Cercopithecinae lineage after divergence from the Colobinae around 16 million years ago. Functional assays of both extant TRIM5 orthologs and reconstructed ancestral TRIM5 proteins revealed that this cluster of adaptations in TRIM5 specifically resulted in the ability to restrict Cercopithecine lentiviruses, but had no effect (positive or negative on restriction of other retroviruses, including lentiviruses of non-Cercopithecine primates. The correlation between lineage-specific adaptations and ability to restrict viruses endemic to the same hosts supports the hypothesis that lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs were present in Africa and infecting the ancestors of Cercopithecine primates as far back as 16 million years ago, and provides insight into the evolution of TRIM5 specificity.

  10. Atlas of Bone Scintigraphy in the Developing Paediatric Skeleton: The Normal Skeleton, Variants and Pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of 99m technetium polyphosphate in 1972 by Dr. M. Subramanian, bone scintigraphy has become an integral part of the evaluation of paediatric musculoskeletal disorders. Using the current high resolution gamma cameras and 99m technetium-methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) or 99m Tc 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-DPD), the quality of images available for interpretation is high. From the very earliest days, there has been a certain confusion over normal bone physiology, as depicted by the bone scintigram in paediatric patients. This has resulted in a number of difficulties in detecting subtle abnormalities, especially near the dynamically changing scintigraphic presentation of the physes (growth zones). Examples of abnormalities that might be confused with normal bone activity are osteomyelitis, bucket handle fractures of the long bones, as well as neuroblastoma and leukaemic metastases. The aim of this publication is to provide structured information about the maturation and normal appearance of the skeleton from infancy to adulthood. As such, it reflects the current status of bone scintigraphy. It is hoped that this work will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the dynamic process of naturally occurring metabolic bone changes, which will, in turn, improve the quality of reporting of paediatric bone scans. As the majority of paediatric bone scintigrams are interpreted by non-paediatric nuclear physicians, the availability of this reference atlas should improve the care of children. This atlas is intended to address the needs of nuclear medicine physicians, both residents and specialists. It is intended to serve as an illustrative reference to those not having sufficient exposure to paediatric bone scan investigations, to enable them to maintain adequate competency in this particular application. Experts in paediatric nuclear medicine are often consulted for their opinion on bone scans obtained in their respective

  11. The use of radionuclide skeleton visualization method in hygienic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likutova, I.V.; Bobkova, T.E.; Belova, E.A.; Bogomazov, M.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    Inhalation, intragastric and combined effect of two cadmium compounds on rats is studied. Investigations are performed by biochemical methods and the method of radionuclide visualization of the skeleton which was performed delta hours after RPP introduction in gamma-chamber with computer tape recording for the following mathematical treatment of the image. Using the method of radionuclide skeleton visualization pronounced quantitative characteristics of changes in the bone tissue are obtained, it is found that dose dependence of these changes is especially important when estimating the complex effect. Biochemical methods, are used to find alterations, however they have not been assessed quantitatively

  12. Tuberculous arthritis of the appendicular skeleton: MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Hemant E-mail: parurad@hotmail.com; Shah, Jeshil; Patkar, Deepak; Singrakhia, Manoj; Patankar, Tufail; Hutchinson, Charles

    2004-12-01

    Tuberculosis [TB] of the appendicular skeleton is an uncommon infection caused by the tuberculous bacilli and constitutes only 1-3% of all tuberculosis infections. MR imaging features of tuberculous arthritis include bone marrow oedema, cortical erosions, synovitis, joint effusion, tenosynovitis, soft tissue collections, and myositis. These imaging features are at times non-specific, but in the correct clinical context help in diagnosis of tuberculosis. We present the various pathological manifestations of TB arthritis involving the different joints of appendicular skeleton and discuss their MR imaging appearances.

  13. Tuberculous arthritis of the appendicular skeleton: MR imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Hemant; Shah, Jeshil; Patkar, Deepak; Singrakhia, Manoj; Patankar, Tufail; Hutchinson, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis [TB] of the appendicular skeleton is an uncommon infection caused by the tuberculous bacilli and constitutes only 1-3% of all tuberculosis infections. MR imaging features of tuberculous arthritis include bone marrow oedema, cortical erosions, synovitis, joint effusion, tenosynovitis, soft tissue collections, and myositis. These imaging features are at times non-specific, but in the correct clinical context help in diagnosis of tuberculosis. We present the various pathological manifestations of TB arthritis involving the different joints of appendicular skeleton and discuss their MR imaging appearances

  14. Tutorial for Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized Data

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai

    2017-04-25

    Full waveform inversion of seismic data is often plagued by cycle skipping problems so that an iterative optimization method often gets stuck in a local minimum. To avoid this problem we simplify the objective function so that the iterative solution can quickly converge to a solution in the vicinity of the global minimum. The objective function is simplified by only using parsimonious and important portions of the data, which are defined as skeletonized data. We now present a mostly non-mathematical tutorial that explains the theory of skeletonized inversion. We also show its effectiveness with examples.

  15. Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Ken'ichi; OHYA, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    p. 224-231 Strain change in the members of full-scale tensegrity skeletons has been monitored for eight years. The one-day data of one of the tensegrity frame on the hottest and the coldest day in the record are reported and discussed. Kawaguchi, K.; Ohya, S. (2009). Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change. Symposium of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10...

  16. Impending extinction crisis of the world’s primates: Why primates matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Roos, Christian; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola; Nijman, Vincent; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Lambert, Joanna E.; Rovero, Francesco; Barelli, Claudia; Setchell, Joanna M.; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Arregoitia, Luis Verde; de Guinea, Miguel; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Shanee, Sam; Shanee, Noga; Boyle, Sarah A.; Fuentes, Agustin; MacKinnon, Katherine C.; Amato, Katherine R.; Meyer, Andreas L. S.; Wich, Serge; Sussman, Robert W.; Pan, Ruliang; Kone, Inza; Li, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem health. Current information shows the existence of 504 species in 79 genera distributed in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Alarmingly, ~60% of primate species are now threatened with extinction and ~75% have declining populations. This situation is the result of escalating anthropogenic pressures on primates and their habitats—mainly global and local market demands, leading to extensive habitat loss through the expansion of industrial agriculture, large-scale cattle ranching, logging, oil and gas drilling, mining, dam building, and the construction of new road networks in primate range regions. Other important drivers are increased bushmeat hunting and the illegal trade of primates as pets and primate body parts, along with emerging threats, such as climate change and anthroponotic diseases. Often, these pressures act in synergy, exacerbating primate population declines. Given that primate range regions overlap extensively with a large, and rapidly growing, human population characterized by high levels of poverty, global attention is needed immediately to reverse the looming risk of primate extinctions and to attend to local human needs in sustainable ways. Raising global scientific and public awareness of the plight of the world’s primates and the costs of their loss to ecosystem health and human society is imperative. PMID:28116351

  17. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nunez-Iglesias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present Skan (Skeleton analysis, a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the “analyse skeletons” plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan’s measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  18. Special issue: Comparative biogeography of Neotropical primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Di Fiore, Anthony; Boubli, Jean P

    2015-01-01

    New research presented in this special issue of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution on the "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Neotropical Primates" greatly improves our understanding of the evolutionary history of the New World monkeys and provides insights into the multiple platyrrhine radiations, diversifications, extinctions, and recolonizations that have taken place over time and over space in the Neotropics. Here, we synthesize genetic and biogeographic research from the past several years to construct an overarching hypothesis for platyrrhine evolution. We also highlight continuing controversies in Neotropical primate biogeography, such as whether the location of origin of platyrrhines was Africa or Asia; whether Patagonian fossil primates are stem or crown platyrrhines; and whether cis- and trans-Andean Neotropical primates were subject to vicariance through Andes mountain building, or instead diversified through isolation in mountain valleys after skirting around the Andes on the northwestern coast of South America. We also consider the role of the Amazon River and its major tributaries in shaping platyrrhine biodiversity, and how and when primates from the Amazon reached the Atlantic Forest. A key focus is on primate colonizations and extirpations in Central America, the Andes, and the seasonally dry tropical forests and savannas (such as the Llanos, Caatinga, and Cerrado habitats), all ecosystems that have been understudied up until now for primates. We suggest that most primates currently inhabiting drier open habitats are relatively recent arrivals, having expanded from rainforest habitats in the Pleistocene. We point to the Pitheciidae as the taxonomic group most in need of further phylogenetic and biogeographic research. Additionally, genomic studies on the Platyrrhini are deeply needed and are expected to bring new surprises and insights to the field of Neotropical primate biogeography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Augmented Fast Marching Method for Computing Skeletons and Centerlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple and robust method for computing skeletons for arbitrary planar objects and centerlines for 3D objects. We augment the Fast Marching Method (FMM) widely used in level set applications by computing the paramterized boundary location every pixel came from during the boundary

  20. A Practical Introduction to Skeletons for the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bucksch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Before the availability of digital photography resulting from the invention of charged couple devices in 1969, the measurement of plant architecture was a manual process either on the plant itself or on traditional photographs. The introduction of cheap digital imaging devices for the consumer market enabled the wide use of digital images to capture the shape of plant networks such as roots, tree crowns, or leaf venation. Plant networks contain geometric traits that can establish links to genetic or physiological characteristics, support plant breeding efforts, drive evolutionary studies, or serve as input to plant growth simulations. Typically, traits are encoded in shape descriptors that are computed from imaging data. Skeletons are one class of shape descriptors that are used to describe the hierarchies and extent of branching and looping plant networks. While the mathematical understanding of skeletons is well developed, their application within the plant sciences remains challenging because the quality of the measurement depends partly on the interpretation of the skeleton. This article is meant to bridge the skeletonization literature in the plant sciences and related technical fields by discussing best practices for deriving diameters and approximating branching hierarchies in a plant network.

  1. Generalized Distance Transforms and Skeletons in Graphics Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strzodka, R.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for computing generalized distance transforms and skeletons of two-dimensional objects using graphics hardware. Our method is based on the concept of footprint splatting. Combining different splats produces weighted distance transforms for different metrics, as well as the

  2. Identification through osteometric data on three radium-burdened skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, J.E.; Forkal, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The skeletal remains of four persons of uncertain identity were disinterred from a family grave. The weight and description morphological traits of each bone were recorded, as were the lengths of the long bones. Analyses of these data, combined with information obtained from medical records and disinterment reports, led to the specific identification of each skeleton

  3. Morphological analysis of mouse skeleton following AZD4547 treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dosedělová, Hana; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, P.; Kunová, M.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 159, Suppl 1 (2015), s. 58-59 ISSN 1213-8118. [Morphology 2015. International Congress of the Czech Anatomical Society /49./. Lojda Symposium on Histochemistry /52./. 06.09.2015-08.09.2015, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31540S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mouse skeleton Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  4. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  5. Skeletonization and Partitioning of Digital Images Using Discrete Morse Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Friedrichs, Olaf; Robins, Vanessa; Sheppard, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    We show how discrete Morse theory provides a rigorous and unifying foundation for defining skeletons and partitions of grayscale digital images. We model a grayscale image as a cubical complex with a real-valued function defined on its vertices (the voxel values). This function is extended to a discrete gradient vector field using the algorithm presented in Robins, Wood, Sheppard TPAMI 33:1646 (2011). In the current paper we define basins (the building blocks of a partition) and segments of the skeleton using the stable and unstable sets associated with critical cells. The natural connection between Morse theory and homology allows us to prove the topological validity of these constructions; for example, that the skeleton is homotopic to the initial object. We simplify the basins and skeletons via Morse-theoretic cancellation of critical cells in the discrete gradient vector field using a strategy informed by persistent homology. Simple working Python code for our algorithms for efficient vector field traversal is included. Example data are taken from micro-CT images of porous materials, an application area where accurate topological models of pore connectivity are vital for fluid-flow modelling.

  6. Anatomical investigation on the appendicular skeleton of the cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pes consists of tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus and four pedal digits. The tibiotarsus is longer than the femur. The spur is not found in the male bird. Conclusion: The skeleton of the cattle egret has a unique conformation that accommodates its ability to flight as well as being an insectivorous animal. Key words: Anatomy ...

  7. Jean-Jacques Petter. Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Voici un magnifique ouvrage grand format sur les Primates dont l’auteur principal est le regretté Jean Jacques Petter, l’un des spécialistes historiques des prosimiens de Madagascar. Ce livre, publié à titre posthume, a une histoire que nous découvrons dans la préface d’Yves Coppens. A l’origine pensé et rédigé par Jean-Jacques Petter, qui a été professeur au Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, l’ouvrage interrompu à sa mort en 2002 a été remis en chantier sous l’impulsion de sa femme Arlet...

  8. Transmission of MDR MRSA between primates, their environment and personnel at a United States primate centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soge, Olusegun O; No, David; Michael, Karen E; Dankoff, Jennifer; Lane, Jennifer; Vogel, Keith; Smedley, Jeremy; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2016-10-01

    MDR MRSA isolates cultured from primates, their facility and primate personnel from the Washington National Primate Research Center were characterized to determine whether they were epidemiologically related to each other and if they represented common local human-associated MRSA strains. Human and primate nasal and composite environmental samples were collected, enriched and selected on medium supplemented with oxacillin and polymyxin B. Isolates were biochemically verified as Staphylococcus aureus and screened for the mecA gene. Selected isolates were characterized using SCCmec typing, MLST and WGS. Nasal cultures were performed on 596 primates and 105 (17.6%) were MRSA positive. Two of 79 (2.5%) personnel and two of 56 (3.6%) composite primate environmental facility samples were MRSA positive. Three MRSA isolates from primates, one MRSA from personnel, two environmental MRSA and one primate MSSA were ST188 and were the same strain type by conventional typing methods. ST188 isolates were related to a 2007 ST188 human isolate from Hong Kong. Both MRSA isolates from out-of-state primates had a novel MLST type, ST3268, and an unrelated group. All isolates carried ≥1 other antibiotic resistance gene(s), including tet(38), the only tet gene identified. ST188 is very rare in North America and has almost exclusively been identified in people from Pan-Asia, while ST3268 is a newly reported MRSA type. The data suggest that the primate MDR MRSA was unlikely to come from primate centre employees. Captive primates are likely to be an unappreciated source of MRSA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Primate diversification inferred from phylogenies and fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, James P

    2017-12-01

    Biodiversity arises from the balance between speciation and extinction. Fossils record the origins and disappearance of organisms, and the branching patterns of molecular phylogenies allow estimation of speciation and extinction rates, but the patterns of diversification are frequently incongruent between these two data sources. I tested two hypotheses about the diversification of primates based on ∼600 fossil species and 90% complete phylogenies of living species: (1) diversification rates increased through time; (2) a significant extinction event occurred in the Oligocene. Consistent with the first hypothesis, analyses of phylogenies supported increasing speciation rates and negligible extinction rates. In contrast, fossils showed that while speciation rates increased, speciation and extinction rates tended to be nearly equal, resulting in zero net diversification. Partially supporting the second hypothesis, the fossil data recorded a clear pattern of diversity decline in the Oligocene, although diversification rates were near zero. The phylogeny supported increased extinction ∼34 Ma, but also elevated extinction ∼10 Ma, coinciding with diversity declines in some fossil clades. The results demonstrated that estimates of speciation and extinction ignoring fossils are insufficient to infer diversification and information on extinct lineages should be incorporated into phylogenetic analyses. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. An Interactive Exhibition about Animal Skeletons: Did the Visitors Learn Any Zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Laterveer-de Beer, Manon

    2002-01-01

    Explores museum visitors' understanding of skeleton exhibits and whether such exhibits increase their understanding of the zoology displayed. The exhibition under study focused on the diversity of vertebrae skeletons which were arranged according to the mode of locomotion. (DDR)

  11. Colombian and Peruvian Primate Censusing Studies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    34PG ’AMR 0719) from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and funds from the Instituto de Desarrollo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables...04 FEB. 7?5 En Iia. " Discusion de la cirta convenio para el Desorrolla do un Proyocto do investi-&iciones Piologicas solbre Primates no humanos onl...adecuadas para garantizar la utilizacion y la pe.-petuidad de especies de primates no humanos . 2- Realizar investigaciones de campo para determinar: el estado

  12. Personality, social hierarchy and hormones in primates

    OpenAIRE

    KONEČNÁ, Martina

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with two main issues: personality (stable individual differences in behavior) and behavioral endocrinology (or socioendocrinology) in nonhuman primates. The first part of the thesis comprises of two primate personality studies of two species: Hanuman langurs and Barbary macaques. Two basic methods of animal personality research (behavioral coding and trait rating) were compared. Stability of personality assessments has been demonstrated. Social rank of individuals was used t...

  13. Contextualising primate origins--an ecomorphological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Christophe; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2016-04-01

    Ecomorphology - the characterisation of the adaptive relationship between an organism's morphology and its ecological role - has long been central to theories of the origin and early evolution of the primate order. This is exemplified by two of the most influential theories of primate origins: Matt Cartmill's Visual Predation Hypothesis, and Bob Sussman's Angiosperm Co-Evolution Hypothesis. However, the study of primate origins is constrained by the absence of data directly documenting the events under investigation, and has to rely instead on a fragmentary fossil record and the methodological assumptions inherent in phylogenetic comparative analyses of extant species. These constraints introduce particular challenges for inferring the ecomorphology of primate origins, as morphology and environmental context must first be inferred before the relationship between the two can be considered. Fossils can be integrated in comparative analyses and observations of extant model species and laboratory experiments of form-function relationships are critical for the functional interpretation of the morphology of extinct species. Recent developments have led to important advancements, including phylogenetic comparative methods based on more realistic models of evolution, and improved methods for the inference of clade divergence times, as well as an improved fossil record. This contribution will review current perspectives on the origin and early evolution of primates, paying particular attention to their phylogenetic (including cladistic relationships and character evolution) and environmental (including chronology, geography, and physical environments) contextualisation, before attempting an up-to-date ecomorphological synthesis of primate origins. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  14. Apatite mineralization in elasmobranch skeletons via a polyphosphate intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Lacroix, Nicolas; Lildhar, Levannia; Variola, Fabio; Dean, Mason

    2014-05-01

    All vertebrate skeletons are stiffened with apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral. Control of apatite mineralization is essential to the growth and repair of the biology of these skeletons, ensuring that apatite is deposited in the correct tissue location at the desired time. The mechanism of this biochemical control remains debated, but must involve increasing the localized apatite saturation state. It was theorized in 1923 that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity provides this control mechanism by increasing the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration via dephosphorylation of phosphorylated molecules. The ALP substrate for biological apatite is not known. We propose that polyphosphates (polyPs) produced by mitochondria may be the substrate for biological apatite formation by ALP activity. PolyPs (PO3-)n, also known as condensed phosphates, represent a concentrated, bioavailable Pi-storage strategy. Mitochondria import Pi and synthesize phosphate polymers through an unknown biochemical mechanism. When chelated with calcium and/or other cations, the effective P-concentration of these neutrally charged, amorphous, polyP species can be very high (~ 0.5 M), without inducing phosphate mineral crystallization. This P-concentration in the low Pi-concentration biological environment offers a method of concentrating P well above an apatite supersaturation required for nucleation. Bone is the most studied mineralized skeletal tissue. However, locating and analyzing active mineralizing areas is challenging. We studied calcified cartilage skeletons of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, stingrays and relatives) to analyse the phosphate chemistry in this continually mineralizing skeleton. Although the majority of the elasmobranch skeleton is unmineralized cartilage, it is wrapped in an outer layer of mineralized tissue comprised of small tiles called tesserae. These calcified tesserae continually grow through the formation of new mineral on their borders. Co-localization of ALP and

  15. Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M; Webber, Amanda D

    2010-09-01

    Nonhuman primates (referred to as primates in this study) are sometimes revered as gods, abhorred as evil spirits, killed for food because they damage crops, or butchered for sport. Primates' perceived similarity to humans places them in an anomalous position. While some human groups accept the idea that primates "straddle" the human-nonhuman boundary, for others this resemblance is a violation of the human-animal divide. In this study we use two case studies to explore how people's perceptions of primates are often influenced by these animals' apparent similarity to humans, creating expectations, founded within a "human morality" about how primates should interact with people. When animals transgress these social rules, they are measured against the same moral framework as humans. This has implications for how people view and respond to certain kinds of primate behaviors, their willingness to tolerate co-existence with primates and their likely support for primate conservation initiatives. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Júnior, Edivaldo Costa Sousa; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T; Júnior, João Lídio S G V; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L; de Sá, Lilian Rose M

    2016-08-18

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Silvestre et al.

  17. Chronology of lead pollution contained in banded coral skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R E; Gilbert, T R

    1984-08-01

    The possibility of the annual skeletal growth bands of reef-building corals containing a record of lead additions to the marine environment was investigated using coral skeletons from St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Concentrations of lead within a coral from a polluted reef averaged 395 ng/g, five fold higher than within a coral from a pristine site, 87 ng/g. The lead chronologies of both corals showed a significant increase in concentration towards the present during the past 26 yr. The increase in lead concentration in the coral from the pristine site is suggested to represent the increase in lead availability from global pollution. Coral skeletons offer the probability of development into tools for long term chemical recorders of levels of lead and possibly other metals or compounds in seawater. 50 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. NMR examinations of the facial skeleton. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Lenz, M.; Baumann, R.; Schroth, G.

    1984-01-01

    The resolution of NMR and CT was compared using axial sections of the normal anatomic structures of the facial skeleton. Is was shown that NMR was superior in differentiating muscles, tonsils, mucosa, lymph nodes and blood vessels. The demonstration of bone and its differentiation from air-containing spaces is often difficult. Metallic, non-ferromagnetic dental fillings, which cause serious artefacts on CT, do not after NMR. (orig.) [de

  19. Enhancing start performance in the sport of skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    A fast start is considered to be crucial in skeleton with marginal gains in start performance perceived to make meaningful improvements to overall chances of success. Currently, knowledge surrounding the underlying determinants of start performance is sparse and training practices are based on limited scientific evidence. A series of investigations were conducted to advance this understanding.Initial observations revealed similarities between dry-land push-starts and those on ice tracks. Howe...

  20. Average geodesic distance of skeleton networks of Sierpinski tetrahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjin; Wang, Songjing; Xi, Lifeng; Ye, Yongchao

    2018-04-01

    The average distance is concerned in the research of complex networks and is related to Wiener sum which is a topological invariant in chemical graph theory. In this paper, we study the skeleton networks of the Sierpinski tetrahedron, an important self-similar fractal, and obtain their asymptotic formula for average distances. To provide the formula, we develop some technique named finite patterns of integral of geodesic distance on self-similar measure for the Sierpinski tetrahedron.

  1. Complex diagnostic approaches in metastases of tumors in skeleton. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, V.; Stepan, J.; Hausner, P.; Vosecky, M.; Konopasek, B.; Novy, F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to the current methods of imaging the skeleton and of histomorphological and cytomorphological examinations of the bone marrow and the bone tissue, an ever growing attention is devoted to humoral factors affecting the metabolism of the skeleton. Prostaglandins, or in a broader sense, eicosanoids are in the forefront of the attention. Their relations is studied to immune and endocrine mechanisms and to growth factors (TGF (transforming growth factor), EDF (epidermal growth factor), PDGF (platelet derived growth factor)). Specific monoclonal antibodies to the membrane and cytoplasma structures of malignant cells represent an important shift towards improved detection of disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow. Computerized tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance contribute to improved definition in bone diagnosis. The condition of bone metabolism can be assessed by whole-body retention using technetium-labelled phosphate complexes. The methods offering information on the state of blood supply for the skeleton are also important. Common tests of bone marrow metastasis detection combine with the determination of the presence of tumor markers (CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), TPA (tissue polypeptide antigen), plasminogen activator, polyamine, etc.). Upon heterogeneity of cell populations in the tumor, an urgent need arises for the clinician to penetrate down to the cellular and the subcellular levels of the malignant growth with the aim of identifying biological potency of the individual cell clones, including their capability of produce and proliferate metastases. We are approaching this desirable target through the flow cytometry method. (author). 30 refs

  2. Social knowledge and signals in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Thore J; Sheehan, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Primates are notable for having a rich and detailed understanding of their social environment and there has been great interest in the evolution and function of social knowledge in primates. Indeed, primates have been shown to have impressive understandings of not only other group members but also the complex relationships among them. To be useful, however, social knowledge requires memories from previous encounters and observations about individual traits that are stable. Here, we argue that social systems or traits that make social knowledge more costly or less accurate will favor signals that either supplement or replace social knowledge. Thus, the relationship between signals and social knowledge can be complementary or antagonistic depending on the type of signal. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the relationships between signals and social knowledge in primates. We categorize signals into three types, each with different relationships to social knowledge. (1) Identity signals directly facilitate social knowledge, (2) current-state signals supplement information gained through social knowledge, and (3) badges of status replace social knowledge. Primates rely extensively on identity information, but it remains to be determined to what extent this is based on receiver perception of individual variation or senders using identity signals. Primates frequently utilize current-state signals including signals of intent to augment their interactions with familiar individuals. Badges of status are rare in primates, and the cases where they are used point to a functional and evolutionary trade-off between badges of status and social knowledge. However, the nature of this relationship needs further exploration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. How NASA KSC Controls Interfaces with the use of Motion Skeletons and Product Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will show how NASA KSC controls interfaces for Modular Product Architecture (MPA) using Locator Skeletons, Interface Skeletons, and Product Structure, to be combined together within a Motion Skeleton. The user will learn how to utilize skeleton models to communicate interface data, as successfully done at NASA KSC in their use of Motion Skeletons to control interfaces for multi-launch systems. There will be discussion of the methodology used to control design requirements through WTParts, and how to utilize product structure for non-CAD documents.

  4. Three-dimensional segmentation and skeletonization to build an airway tree data structure for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Lee, Zhenghong

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of intrathoracic airway tree geometry is important for objective evaluation of bronchial tree structure and function. Currently, there is more human data than small animal data on airway morphometry. In this study, we implemented a semi-automatic approach to quantitatively describe airway tree geometry by using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) images to build a tree data structure for small animals such as rats and mice. Silicon lung casts of the excised lungs from a canine and a mouse were used for micro-CT imaging of the airway trees. The programming language IDL was used to implement a 3D region-growing threshold algorithm for segmenting out the airway lung volume from the CT data. Subsequently, a fully-parallel 3D thinning algorithm was implemented in order to complete the skeletonization of the segmented airways. A tree data structure was then created and saved by parsing through the skeletonized volume using the Python programming language. Pertinent information such as the length of all airway segments was stored in the data structure. This approach was shown to be accurate and efficient for up to six generations for the canine lung cast and ten generations for the mouse lung cast

  5. Sensitivity analysis of a validated subject-specific finite element model of the human craniofacial skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, T D; Fialkov, J; Whyne, C M

    2011-01-01

    Developing a more complete understanding of the mechanical response of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) to physiological loads is fundamental to improving treatment for traumatic injuries, reconstruction due to neoplasia, and deformities. Characterization of the biomechanics of the CFS is challenging due to its highly complex structure and heterogeneity, motivating the utilization of experimentally validated computational models. As such, the objective of this study was to develop, experimentally validate, and parametrically analyse a patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the CFS to elucidate a better understanding of the factors that are of intrinsic importance to the skeletal structural behaviour of the human CFS. An FE model of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton was created from subject-specific computed tomography data. The model was validated based on bone strain measurements taken under simulated physiological-like loading through the masseter and temporalis muscles (which are responsible for the majority of craniofacial physiologic loading due to mastication). The baseline subject-specific model using locally defined cortical bone thicknesses produced the strongest correlation to the experimental data (r2 = 0.73). Large effects on strain patterns arising from small parametric changes in cortical thickness suggest that the very thin bony structures present in the CFS are crucial to characterizing the local load distribution in the CFS accurately.

  6. Human Activity Recognition in Real-Times Environments using Skeleton Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, we proposed a most effective noble approach for Human activity recognition in real-time environments. We recognize several distinct dynamic human activity actions using kinect. A 3D skeleton data is processed from real-time video gesture to sequence of frames and getter skeleton joints (Energy Joints, orientation, rotations of joint angles from selected setof frames. We are using joint angle and orientations, rotations information from Kinect therefore less computation required. However, after extracting the set of frames we implemented several classification techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA with several distance based classifiers and Artificial Neural Network (ANN respectively with some variants for classify our all different gesture models. However, we conclude that use very less number of frame (10-15% for train our system efficiently from the entire set of gesture frames. Moreover, after successfully completion of our classification methods we clinch an excellent overall accuracy 94%, 96% and 98% respectively. We finally observe that our proposed system is more useful than comparing to other existing system, therefore our model is best suitable for real-time application such as in video games for player action/gesture recognition.

  7. In vivo bone strain and finite-element modeling of the craniofacial haft in catarrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Callum F; Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Porro, Laura B; Richmond, Brian G; Spencer, Mark; Strait, David

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding patterns of stress, strain and deformation in the craniofacial skeleton are central to adaptive explanations for the evolution of primate craniofacial form. The complexity of craniofacial skeletal morphology makes it difficult to evaluate these hypotheses with in vivo bone strain data. In this paper, new in vivo bone strain data from the intraorbital surfaces of the supraorbital torus, postorbital bar and postorbital septum, the anterior surface of the postorbital bar, and the anterior root of the zygoma are combined with published data from the supraorbital region and zygomatic arch to evaluate the validity of a finite-element model (FEM) of a macaque cranium during mastication. The behavior of this model is then used to test hypotheses regarding the overall deformation regime in the craniofacial haft of macaques. This FEM constitutes a hypothesis regarding deformation of the facial skeleton during mastication. A simplified verbal description of the deformation regime in the macaque FEM is as follows. Inferior bending and twisting of the zygomatic arches about a rostrocaudal axis exerts inferolaterally directed tensile forces on the lateral orbital wall, bending the wall and the supraorbital torus in frontal planes and bending and shearing the infraorbital region and anterior zygoma root in frontal planes. Similar deformation regimes also characterize the crania of Homo and Gorilla under in vitro loading conditions and may be shared among extant catarrhines. Relatively high strain magnitudes in the anterior root of the zygoma suggest that the morphology of this region may be important for resisting forces generated during feeding. PMID:21105871

  8. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Dilmar A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense, while intragroup functions involve group coordination or alarm. Among Neotropical primates, several species perform long-distance calls that seem more related to intragroup coordination, markedly in atelines. Callitrichids present long-distance calls that are employed both in intragroup coordination and intergroup contests or spacing. Examples of extragroup directed long-distance calls are the duets of titi monkeys and the roars and barks of howler monkeys. Considerable complexity and gradation exist in the long-distance call repertoires of some Neotropical primates, and female long-distance calls are probably more important in non-duetting species than usually thought. Future research must focus on larger trends in the evolution of primate long-distance calls, including the phylogeny of calling repertoires and the relationships between form and function in these signals.

  9. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  10. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered

  11. Primate beta oscillations and rhythmic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Bartolo, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The study of non-human primates in complex behaviors such as rhythm perception and entrainment is critical to understand the neurophysiological basis of human cognition. Next to reviewing the role of beta oscillations in human beat perception, here we discuss the role of primate putaminal oscillatory activity in the control of rhythmic movements that are guided by a sensory metronome or internally gated. The analysis of the local field potentials of the behaving macaques showed that gamma-oscillations reflect local computations associated with stimulus processing of the metronome, whereas beta-activity involves the entrainment of large putaminal circuits, probably in conjunction with other elements of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, during internally driven rhythmic tapping. Thus, this review emphasizes the need of parametric neurophysiological observations in non-human primates that display a well-controlled behavior during high-level cognitive processes.

  12. Recent advances in primate nutritional ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Nicoletta

    2017-04-01

    Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences. From a nutritional perspective, several theories including energy and protein-to-fiber maximization, nutrient mixing, and toxin avoidance, have been proposed to explain the food choices of non-human primates. However, more recently, analytical frameworks such as nutritional geometry have been incorporated into primatology to explore, using a multivariate approach, the synergistic effects of multiple nutrients, secondary metabolites, and energy requirements on primate food choice. Dietary strategies associated with nutrient balancing highlight the tradeoffs that primates face in bypassing or selecting particular feeding sites and food items. In this Special Issue, the authors bring together a set of studies focusing on the nutritional ecology of a diverse set of primate taxa characterized by marked differences in dietary emphasis. The authors present, compare, and discuss the diversity of strategies used by primates in diet selection, and how species differences in ecology, physiology, anatomy, and phylogeny can affect patterns of nutrient choice and nutrient balancing. The use of a nutritionally explicit analytical framework is fundamental to identify the nutritional requirements of different individuals of a given species, and through its application, direct conservation efforts can be applied to regenerate and protect specific foods and food patches that offer the opportunity of a

  13. 76 FR 13120 - Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... primates (NHPs). Written comments were to be received on or before March 7, 2011. We have received a... regulations (42 CFR 71.53) for the imporation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing...

  14. Scaling of rotational inertia of primate mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Callum F; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Platts, Ellen; Walsh, Treva; Heins, Liam; Gerstner, Geoffrey E; Taylor, Andrea B

    2017-05-01

    The relative importance of pendulum mechanics and muscle mechanics in chewing dynamics has implications for understanding the optimality criteria driving the evolution of primate feeding systems. The Spring Model (Ross et al., 2009b), which modeled the primate chewing system as a forced mass-spring system, predicted that chew cycle time would increase faster than was actually observed. We hypothesized that if mandibular momentum plays an important role in chewing dynamics, more accurate estimates of the rotational inertia of the mandible would improve the accuracy with which the Spring Model predicts the scaling of primate chew cycle period. However, if mass-related momentum effects are of negligible importance in the scaling of primate chew cycle period, this hypothesis would be falsified. We also predicted that greater "robusticity" of anthropoid mandibles compared with prosimians would be associated with higher moments of inertia. From computed tomography scans, we estimated the scaling of the moment of inertia (I j ) of the mandibles of thirty-one species of primates, including 22 anthropoid and nine prosimian species, separating I j into the moment about a transverse axis through the center of mass (I xx ) and the moment of the center of mass about plausible axes of rotation. We found that across primates I j increases with positive allometry relative to jaw length, primarily due to positive allometry of jaw mass and I xx , and that anthropoid mandibles have greater rotational inertia compared with prosimian mandibles of similar length. Positive allometry of I j of primate mandibles actually lowers the predictive ability of the Spring Model, suggesting that scaling of primate chew cycle period, and chewing dynamics in general, are more strongly influenced by factors other than scaling of inertial properties of the mandible, such as the dynamic properties of the jaw muscles and neural control. Differences in cycle period scaling between chewing and locomotion

  15. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  16. Anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahimic, Candice G. T.; Wang, Yongmei; Bikle, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton, emphasizing the requirement for IGF-1 signaling in normal bone formation and remodeling. We first discuss the genomic context, splicing variants, and species conservation of the IGF-1 locus. The modulation of IGF-1 action by growth hormone (GH) is then reviewed while also discussing the current model which takes into account the GH-independent actions of IGF-1. Next, the skeletal phenotypes of IGF-1-deficient animals are described in both embryonic and postnatal stages of development, which include severe dwarfism and an undermineralized skeleton. We then highlight two mechanisms by which IGF-1 exerts its anabolic action on the skeleton. Firstly, the role of IGF-1 signaling in the modulation of anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone will be discussed, presenting in vitro and in vivo studies that establish this concept and the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms involving Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and the ephrins. Secondly, the crosstalk of IGF-1 signaling with mechanosensing pathways will be discussed, beginning with the observation that animals subjected to skeletal unloading by hindlimb elevation are unable to mitigate cessation of bone growth despite infusion with IGF-1 and the failure of IGF-1 to activate its receptor in bone marrow stromal cell cultures from unloaded bone. Disrupted crosstalk between IGF-1 signaling and the integrin mechanotransduction pathways is discussed as one of the potential mechanisms for this IGF-1 resistance. Next, emerging paradigms on bone-muscle crosstalk are examined, focusing on the potential role of IGF-1 signaling in modulating such interactions. Finally, we present a future outlook on IGF research. PMID:23382729

  17. A skeleton model for the MJO with refined vertical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thual, Sulian; Majda, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales and planetary spatial scales. The skeleton model is a minimal dynamical model that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (I) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 {ms}^{-1}, (II) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω /dk ≈ 0, and (III) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model depicts the MJO as a neutrally-stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. Here we propose and analyse an extended version of the skeleton model with additional variables accounting for the refined vertical structure of the MJO in nature. The present model reproduces qualitatively the front-to-rear vertical structure of the MJO found in nature, with MJO events marked by a planetary envelope of convective activity transitioning from the congestus to the deep to the stratiform type, in addition to a front-to-rear structure of moisture, winds and temperature. Despite its increased complexity the present model retains several interesting features of the original skeleton model such as a conserved energy and similar linear solutions. We further analyze a model version with a simple stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity. The stochastic model solutions show intermittent initiation, propagation and shut down of MJO wave trains, as in previous studies, in addition to MJO events with a front-to-rear vertical structure of varying intensity and characteristics from one event to another.

  18. MRI of the marrow in the paediatric skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.; Chapman, S.; Johnson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly advanced evaluation of marrow diseases of the paediatric skeleton. As with many other aspects of paediatric radiology it is important to recognize the normal variations in the appearance of the marrow that occur in the growing child. These normal variations need to be differentiated from diseases and conditions that affect the marrow. This review describes the normal changes that occur in children with age, and the appearances of the pathological changes seen in infection, infiltration, haematological disorders, transplantation and radiation therapy

  19. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-19

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  20. The effect of a loss of model structural detail due to network skeletonization on contamination warning system design: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The effect of limitations in the structural detail available in a network model on contamination warning system (CWS) design was examined in case studies using the original and skeletonized network models for two water distribution systems (WDSs). The skeletonized models were used as proxies for incomplete network models. CWS designs were developed by optimizing sensor placements for worst-case and mean-case contamination events. Designs developed using the skeletonized network models were transplanted into the original network model for evaluation. CWS performance was defined as the number of people who ingest more than some quantity of a contaminant in tap water before the CWS detects the presence of contamination. Lack of structural detail in a network model can result in CWS designs that (1) provide considerably less protection against worst-case contamination events than that obtained when a more complete network model is available and (2) yield substantial underestimates of the consequences associated with a contamination event. Nevertheless, CWSs developed using skeletonized network models can provide useful reductions in consequences for contaminants whose effects are not localized near the injection location. Mean-case designs can yield worst-case performances similar to those for worst-case designs when there is uncertainty in the network model. Improvements in network models for WDSs have the potential to yield significant improvements in CWS designs as well as more realistic evaluations of those designs. Although such improvements would be expected to yield improved CWS performance, the expected improvements in CWS performance have not been quantified previously. The results presented here should be useful to those responsible for the design or implementation of CWSs, particularly managers and engineers in water utilities, and encourage the development of improved network models.

  1. Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article r...

  3. Tracking Alu evolution in New World primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batzer Mark A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alu elements are Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs in primate genomes that have proven useful as markers for studying genome evolution, population biology and phylogenetics. Most of these applications, however, have been limited to humans and their nearest relatives, chimpanzees. In an effort to expand our understanding of Alu sequence evolution and to increase the applicability of these markers to non-human primate biology, we have analyzed available Alu sequences for loci specific to platyrrhine (New World primates. Results Branching patterns along an Alu sequence phylogeny indicate three major classes of platyrrhine-specific Alu sequences. Sequence comparisons further reveal at least three New World monkey-specific subfamilies; AluTa7, AluTa10, and AluTa15. Two of these subfamilies appear to be derived from a gene conversion event that has produced a recently active fusion of AluSc- and AluSp-type elements. This is a novel mode of origin for new Alu subfamilies. Conclusion The use of Alu elements as genetic markers in studies of genome evolution, phylogenetics, and population biology has been very productive when applied to humans. The characterization of these three new Alu subfamilies not only increases our understanding of Alu sequence evolution in primates, but also opens the door to the application of these genetic markers outside the hominid lineage.

  4. Homeostasis in primates in hyperacceleration fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Various homeostatic responses of a nonhuman primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) to acute changes in the acceleration environment were examined. When these animals were exposed to a hyperdynamic field the body temperature was consistently depressed and the animals showed behavioral indications of increased drowsiness. Further, time of day played a significant role in influencing these responses.

  5. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other

  6. Nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents have been widely used in the production of cerebral ischemia models. However, successful therapies have been proven on experimental rodent stroke model, and they have often failed to be effective when tested clinically. Therefore, nonhuman primates were recommended as the ideal alternatives, owing to their similarities with the human cerebrovascular system, brain metabolism, grey to white matter ratio and even their rich behavioral repertoire. The present review is a thorough summary of ten methods that establish nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia; electrocoagulation, endothelin-1-induced occlusion, microvascular clip occlusion, autologous blood clot embolization, balloon inflation, microcatheter embolization, coil embolization, surgical suture embolization, suture, and photochemical induction methods. This review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of each method, as well as precautions for each model, compared nonhuman primates with rodents, different species of nonhuman primates and different modeling methods. Finally it discusses various factors that need to be considered when modelling and the method of evaluation after modelling. These are critical for understanding their respective strengths and weaknesses and underlie the selection of the optimum model.

  7. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uranium in coral skeletons determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohde, S.; Hossain, M.M.M.; Ozaki, H.; Masuzawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and non-destructive method has been proposed for the routine determination of uranium by epithermal neutron activation analysis in coral skeletons. Using a cadmium capsule, about 0.1-0.2 g samples were irradiated for 6 hours in the Triga Mark II Reactor. Measurements of γ-ray ( 239 Np via 239 U) were performed with each sample and standard after cooling for about three days. Compared with a non-destructive thermal NAA, the present method was found to improve the sensitivity because it reduced the intense Compton background induced by 24 Na. Uranium in coral standards was determined within 2% of analytical precision. The data obtained for the carbonate standards are mostly consistent with reported values. The present method could be usefully applied to determine uranium contents in fossil corals from the Funafuti Atoll in the Pacific. The distribution of uranium between seawater and coral skeletons is also discussed in order to understand the environmental media in which the coral grew. (author)

  9. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-02-08

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  10. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  11. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  12. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of Indian primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Global and regional species conservation efforts are hindered by poor distribution data and range maps. Many Indian primates face extinction, but assessments of population status are hindered by lack of reliable distribution data. We estimated the current occurrence and distribution of 15 Indian primates by applying occupancy models to field data from a country-wide survey of local experts. We modeled species occurrence in relation to ecological and social covariates (protected areas, landscape characteristics, and human influences), which we believe are critical to determining species occurrence in India. We found evidence that protected areas positively influence occurrence of seven species and for some species are their only refuge. We found evergreen forests to be more critical for some primates along with temperate and deciduous forests. Elevation negatively influenced occurrence of three species. Lower human population density was positively associated with occurrence of five species, and higher cultural tolerance was positively associated with occurrence of three species. We find that 11 primates occupy less than 15% of the total land area of India. Vulnerable primates with restricted ranges are Golden langur, Arunachal macaque, Pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque, Phayre's leaf monkey, Nilgiri langur and Lion-tailed macaque. Only Hanuman langur and rhesus macaque are widely distributed. We find occupancy modeling to be useful in determining species ranges, and in agreement with current species ranking and IUCN status. In landscapes where monitoring efforts require optimizing cost, effort and time, we used ecological and social covariates to reliably estimate species occurrence and focus species conservation efforts. ?? Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Phalangeal morphology of Shanghuang fossil primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebo, Daniel L; Dagosto, Marian; Ni, Xijun; Beard, K Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Here, we describe hundreds of isolated phalanges attributed to middle Eocene fossil primates from the Shanghuang fissure-fillings from southern Jiangsu Province, China. Extending knowledge based on previous descriptions of postcranial material from Shanghuang, this sample of primate finger and toe bones includes proximal phalanges, middle phalanges, and over three hundred nail-bearing distal phalanges. Most of the isolated proximal and middle phalanges fall within the range of small-bodied individuals, suggesting an allocation to the smaller haplorhine primates identified at Shanghuang, including eosimiids. In contrast to the proximal and middle phalanges from Shanghuang, there are a variety of shapes, sizes, and possible taxonomic allocations for the distal phalanges. Two distal phalangeal morphologies are numerically predominant at Shanghuang. The sample of larger bodied specimens is best allocated to the medium-sized adapiform Adapoides while the smaller ones are allocated to eosimiids on the basis of the commonality of dental and tarsal remains of these taxa at Shanghuang. The digit morphology of Adapoides is similar morphologically to that of notharctines and cercamoniines, while eosimiid digit morphology is unlike living anthropoids. Other primate distal phalangeal morphologies at Shanghuang include grooming "claws" as well as specimens attributable to tarsiids, tarsiiforms, the genus Macrotarsius, and a variety of adapiforms. One group of distal phalanges at Shanghuang is morphologically indistinguishable from those of living anthropoids. All of the phalanges suggest long fingers and toes for the fossil primates of Shanghaung, and their digit morphology implies arboreality with well-developed digital flexion and strong, grasping hands and feet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronology of deep nodes in the neotropical primate phylogeny: insights from mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G; Menezes, Albert N; Moreira, Miguel A M; Pissinatti, Alcides; Seuánez, Hector N

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of Neotropical Primates (NP) is permeated by factors associated with the pattern of diversification and the biogeography of the major lineages. These questions can be better understood by providing a robust estimate of the chronological scenario of NP evolution, a reason why molecular dating methods have been widely applied. One aspect of especial interest is the timing of diversification of the major NP lineages (pitheciids, atelids and cebids), which may have resulted from rapid episodes of adaptive radiation, a question that requires NP divergence time estimates with accurate statistical certainty. In this study, we evaluated the primate timescale focused on the age of nodes of NP radiation. We investigated the performance of complete primate mitochondrial genomes as traditional molecular markers of primate evolution and further including original mitochondrial data from the endangered muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides (Accession No. JX262672). Comparisons of the age estimates at NP nodes based on mitochondrial genomes with those obtained from a nuclear supermatrix showed similar degrees of uncertainty. Further molecular data and more informative calibration priors are required for a more precise understanding of the early NP diversification.

  16. Chronology of deep nodes in the neotropical primate phylogeny: insights from mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G Schrago

    Full Text Available The evolution of Neotropical Primates (NP is permeated by factors associated with the pattern of diversification and the biogeography of the major lineages. These questions can be better understood by providing a robust estimate of the chronological scenario of NP evolution, a reason why molecular dating methods have been widely applied. One aspect of especial interest is the timing of diversification of the major NP lineages (pitheciids, atelids and cebids, which may have resulted from rapid episodes of adaptive radiation, a question that requires NP divergence time estimates with accurate statistical certainty. In this study, we evaluated the primate timescale focused on the age of nodes of NP radiation. We investigated the performance of complete primate mitochondrial genomes as traditional molecular markers of primate evolution and further including original mitochondrial data from the endangered muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides (Accession No. JX262672. Comparisons of the age estimates at NP nodes based on mitochondrial genomes with those obtained from a nuclear supermatrix showed similar degrees of uncertainty. Further molecular data and more informative calibration priors are required for a more precise understanding of the early NP diversification.

  17. A solution to the worn tooth conundrum in primate functional anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Peter S; M'Kirera, Francis

    2003-04-01

    Worn teeth are a bane to paleobiologists interested in the diets of human ancestors and other fossil primates. Although worn teeth dominate fossil assemblages, their shapes are usually not used to reconstruct the diets of extinct species. The problem is that traditional studies of primate dental functional anatomy have focused on unworn morphology. This has limited most functional analyses to only a few well-represented fossil species. This paper introduces a method to characterize and compare worn occlusal morphology in primates using laser scanning and geographic information systems technologies. A study of variably worn chimpanzee and gorilla molars indicates that differences between these species in tooth shape remain consistent at given stages of wear. Although cusp slope decreases with wear in both taxa, angularity values remain unchanged. These results indicate that African ape teeth wear in a manner that keeps them mechanically efficient for fracturing specific foods. Studies of changes in tooth shape with wear add a new dimension to dental functional anatomy, and offer a more complete picture of dental-dietary adaptations. Also, given how rare unworn teeth are in the fossil record, the ability to include worn specimens in analyses opens the door to reconstructing the diets of many more extinct primate groups, allowing us to better understand the adaptive radiation of our order.

  18. Molecular Evolutionary Characterization of a V1R Subfamily Unique to Strepsirrhine Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Anne D.; Chan, Lauren M.; dos Reis, Mario; Larsen, Peter A.; Campbell, C. Ryan; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Barrett, Meredith; Roos, Christian; Kappeler, Peter; Bielawski, Joseph; Yang, Ziheng

    2014-01-01

    Vomeronasal receptor genes have frequently been invoked as integral to the establishment and maintenance of species boundaries among mammals due to the elaborate one-to-one correspondence between semiochemical signals and neuronal sensory inputs. Here, we report the most extensive sample of vomeronasal receptor class 1 (V1R) sequences ever generated for a diverse yet phylogenetically coherent group of mammals, the tooth-combed primates (suborder Strepsirrhini). Phylogenetic analysis confirms our intensive sampling from a single V1R subfamily, apparently unique to the strepsirrhine primates. We designate this subfamily as V1Rstrep. The subfamily retains extensive repertoires of gene copies that descend from an ancestral gene duplication that appears to have occurred prior to the diversification of all lemuriform primates excluding the basal genus Daubentonia (the aye-aye). We refer to the descendent clades as V1Rstrep-α and V1Rstrep-β. Comparison of the two clades reveals different amino acid compositions corresponding to the predicted ligand-binding site and thus potentially to altered functional profiles between the two. In agreement with previous studies of the mouse lemur (genus, Microcebus), the majority of V1Rstrep gene copies appear to be intact and under strong positive selection, particularly within transmembrane regions. Finally, despite the surprisingly high number of gene copies identified in this study, it is nonetheless probable that V1R diversity remains underestimated in these nonmodel primates and that complete characterization will be limited until high-coverage assembled genomes are available. PMID:24398377

  19. Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-09-06

    We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.

  20. Companions for ``Nessie'' in the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The recent discovery of a purported bone of the Milky Way, a dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, has provided us with new clues for mapping out the spiral structure of our galaxy. It turns out that Nessie may not be alone: a follow-up study has identified more bones, potentially making up a skeleton of the Milky Way that traces out the densest parts of its spiral arms.Inconvenient Vantage PointHow many spiral arms does the Milky Way have? Where are they located? What does the structure look like between the arms? It may seem surprising that these fundamental questions dont yet have clear answers. But because were stuck in the galaxys disk, were forced to piece together our understanding of the Milky Ways structure based primarily on measurements of position and radial velocity of structures within the galactic plane.The discovery of Nessie presents an intriguing new tool to identify the layout of the galaxy. Nessie is a very long, thin, infrared-dark filament that runs along the modeled position of the Scutum-Centaurus arm and is believed therefore to trace the structure of the arm. In a new study led by Catherine Zucker (University of Virginia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), the authors have searched for additional bones like Nessie, hoping to use them to map out the skeleton of the Milky Way.New Bones DiscoveredIn this map of radial velocity vs. galactic longitude, the bone candidates are indicated by the numbered points. The colored lines indicate the positions of two of the galactic spiral arms, according to various models. Click for a closer look! [Zucker et al. 2015]Zucker and collaborators began by using World Wide Telescope, a tool that facilitates visualization of multiple layers of data at a variety of scales, to search through Spitzer infrared data for additional structures like Nessie. Searching specifically along the predicted positions of galactic arms, they found 15 initial bone candidates.Next, the team obtained radial-velocity data for the

  1. Benchmarking high performance computing architectures with CMS’ skeleton framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Gartung, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2017-10-01

    In 2012 CMS evaluated which underlying concurrency technology would be the best to use for its multi-threaded framework. The available technologies were evaluated on the high throughput computing systems dominating the resources in use at that time. A skeleton framework benchmarking suite that emulates the tasks performed within a CMSSW application was used to select Intel’s Thread Building Block library, based on the measured overheads in both memory and CPU on the different technologies benchmarked. In 2016 CMS will get access to high performance computing resources that use new many core architectures; machines such as Cori Phase 1&2, Theta, Mira. Because of this we have revived the 2012 benchmark to test it’s performance and conclusions on these new architectures. This talk will discuss the results of this exercise.

  2. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  3. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  4. Nonhuman primate dermatology: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Joseph A.; Didier, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In general, veterinary dermatologists do not have extensive clinical experience of nonhuman primate (NHP) dermatoses. The bulk of the published literature does not provide an organized evidence-based approach to the NHP dermatologic case. The veterinary dermatologist is left to extract information from both human and veterinary dermatology, an approach that can be problematic as it forces the clinician to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions based on two very disparate bodies of literature. A more cohesive approach to NHP dermatology – without relying on assumptions that NHP pathology most commonly behaves similarly to other veterinary and human disease – is required. This review of the dermatology of NHP species includes discussions of primary dermatoses, as well as diseases where dermatologic signs represent a significant secondary component, provides a first step towards encouraging the veterinary community to study and report the dermatologic diseases of nonhuman primates. PMID:19490576

  5. [Ecotourism disturbances to non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peng-Lai; Xiang, Zuo-Fu

    2013-02-01

    In tandem with economic growth and rising living conditions, ecotourism has increasingly gained popularity among the Chinese public. Non-human primates, as charismatic animals and the closest relatives of human beings, have shown a strong affinity in attracting the general public and raising money, and for that reason a variety of monkey parks, valleys, and islands are becoming increasingly popular in China. Though successful in raising a substantial sum of money for the managing agency of a nature reserve, there may be negative impacts on monkey groups used in ecotourism. Here, to establish effective guards for non-human primates involved in ecotourism, we present a review on tourism disturbance and summarize the negative impacts on behavioral patterns, reproduction, and health condition of animals.

  6. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anuja; Qiu, Zhifang; Farnsworth, Steven L; Hemmi, Jacob J; Li, Miao; Pickering, Alexander V; Hornsby, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells from nonhuman primates (NHPs) have unique roles in cell biology and regenerative medicine. Because of the relatedness of NHPs to humans, NHP iPS cells can serve as a source of differentiated derivatives that can be used to address important questions in the comparative biology of primates. Additionally, when used as a source of cells for regenerative medicine, NHP iPS cells serve an invaluable role in translational experiments in cell therapy. Reprogramming of NHP somatic cells requires the same conditions as previously established for human cells. However, throughout the process, a variety of modifications to the human cell protocols must be made to accommodate significant species differences.

  7. A simple algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study the characteristics of straight skeletons of monotone polygonal chains and use them to devise an algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons. Our algorithm runs in O(nlog⁡n) time and O(n) space, where n denotes the number of vertices of the polygon. PMID:25648376

  8. A simple algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We study the characteristics of straight skeletons of monotone polygonal chains and use them to devise an algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons. Our algorithm runs in [Formula: see text] time and [Formula: see text] space, where n denotes the number of vertices of the polygon.

  9. Inversion variants in human and primate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Maggiolini, Flavia Angela Maria; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Bitonto, Miriana; Capozzi, Oronzo; Signorile, Martina Lepore; Miroballo, Mattia; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Eichler, Evan E; Ventura, Mario; Antonacci, Francesca

    2018-05-18

    For many years, inversions have been proposed to be a direct driving force in speciation since they suppress recombination when heterozygous. Inversions are the most common large-scale differences among humans and great apes. Nevertheless, they represent large events easily distinguishable by classical cytogenetics, whose resolution, however, is limited. Here, we performed a genome-wide comparison between human, great ape, and macaque genomes using the net alignments for the most recent releases of genome assemblies. We identified a total of 156 putative inversions, between 103 kb and 91 Mb, corresponding to 136 human loci. Combining literature, sequence, and experimental analyses, we analyzed 109 of these loci and found 67 regions inverted in one or multiple primates, including 28 newly identified inversions. These events overlap with 81 human genes at their breakpoints, and seven correspond to sites of recurrent rearrangements associated with human disease. This work doubles the number of validated primate inversions larger than 100 kb, beyond what was previously documented. We identified 74 sites of errors, where the sequence has been assembled in the wrong orientation, in the reference genomes analyzed. Our data serve two purposes: First, we generated a map of evolutionary inversions in these genomes representing a resource for interrogating differences among these species at a functional level; second, we provide a list of misassembled regions in these primate genomes, involving over 300 Mb of DNA and 1978 human genes. Accurately annotating these regions in the genome references has immediate applications for evolutionary and biomedical studies on primates. © 2018 Catacchio et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kari L.; Kay, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The ‘expensive-tissue hypothesis’ (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans. PMID:21831898

  11. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kari L; Kay, Richard F

    2012-02-22

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The 'expensive-tissue hypothesis' (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans.

  12. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pervasive Adaptive Evolution in Primate Seminal Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Seminal fluid proteins show striking effects on reproduction, involving manipulation of female behavior and physiology, mechanisms of sperm competition, and pathogen defense. Strong adaptive pressures are expected for such manifestations of sexual selection and host defense, but the extent of positive selection in seminal fluid proteins from divergent taxa is unknown. We identified adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins using genomic resources in a tissue-specific study. We found extensive signatures of positive selection when comparing 161 human seminal fluid proteins and 2,858 prostate-expressed genes to those in chimpanzee. Seven of eight outstanding genes yielded statistically significant evidence of positive selection when analyzed in divergent primates. Functional clues were gained through divergent analysis, including several cases of species-specific loss of function in copulatory plug genes, and statistically significant spatial clustering of positively selected sites near the active site of kallikrein 2. This study reveals previously unidentified positive selection in seven primate seminal proteins, and when considered with findings in Drosophila, indicates that extensive positive selection is found in seminal fluid across divergent taxonomic groups.

  14. The appropriation of glucose through primate neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2014-12-01

    The human brain is considerably larger and more energetically costly than that of other primate species. As such, discovering how human ancestors were able to provide sufficient energy to their brains is a central theme in the study of hominin evolution. However, many discussions of metabolism frequently omit the different ways in which energy, primarily glucose, is used once made available to the brain. In this review, we discuss two glucose metabolic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis, and their respective contributions to the energetic and anabolic budgets of the brain. While oxidative phosphorylation is a more efficient producer of energy, aerobic glycolysis contributes essential molecules for the growth of the brain and maintaining the structure of its cells. Although both pathways occur in the brain throughout the lifetime, aerobic glycolysis is a critical pathway during development, and oxidative phosphorylation is highest during adulthood. We outline how elevated levels of aerobic glycolysis may support the protracted neurodevelopmental sequence of humans compared with other primates. Finally, we review the genetic evidence for differences in metabolic function in the brains of primates and explore genes that may provide insight into how glucose metabolism may differ across species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. [Progress in Application of Measuring Skeleton by CT in Forensic Anthropology Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, C Y; Xu, L; Wang, N; Zhang, M; Li, Y S; Lü, J X

    2017-02-01

    Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation. The major technology and the application of CT in forensic anthropology research are compared and discussed, respectively. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  18. The Mouse Lemur, a Genetic Model Organism for Primate Biology, Behavior, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezran, Camille; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Pendleton, Jozeph L; Sholtz, Alex; Krasnow, Maya R; Willick, Jason; Razafindrakoto, Andriamahery; Zohdy, Sarah; Albertelli, Megan A; Krasnow, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs ( Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans. They are the smallest, fastest developing, and among the most prolific and abundant primates in the world, distributed throughout the island of Madagascar, many in separate breeding populations due to habitat destruction. Their physiology, behavior, and phylogeny have been studied for decades in laboratory colonies in Europe and in field studies in Malagasy rainforests, and a high quality reference genome sequence has recently been completed. To initiate a classical genetic approach, we developed a deep phenotyping protocol and have screened hundreds of laboratory and wild mouse lemurs for interesting phenotypes and begun mapping the underlying mutations, in collaboration with leading mouse lemur biologists. We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. As part of this effort, we have begun a citizen science project in which students across Madagascar explore the remarkable biology around their schools, including longitudinal studies of the local mouse lemurs. We hope this work spawns a new model organism and cultivates a deep genetic understanding of primate biology and health. We also hope it establishes a new and ethical method of genetics that bridges biological, behavioral, medical, and conservation disciplines, while

  19. Development of neurologic diseases in a patient with primate T lymphotropic virus type 1 (PTLV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Caruso, Breanna; Haner, Benjamin; Charlip, Emily; Nair, Govind; Massoud, Raya; Billioux, Bridgette J; Ohayon, Joan; Switzer, William M; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-08-12

    Virus transmission from various wild and domestic animals contributes to an increased risk of emerging infectious diseases in human populations. HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with acute T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 originated from ancient zoonotic transmission from nonhuman primates, although cases of zoonotic infections continue to occur. Similar to HTLV-1, the simian counterpart, STLV-1, causes chronic infection and leukemia and lymphoma in naturally infected monkeys, and combined are called primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLV-1). However, other clinical syndromes typically seen in humans such as a chronic progressive myelopathy have not been observed in nonhuman primates. Little is known about the development of neurologic and inflammatory diseases in human populations infected with STLV-1-like viruses following nonhuman primate exposure. We performed detailed laboratory analyses on an HTLV-1 seropositive patient with typical HAM/TSP who was born in Liberia and now resides in the United States. Using a novel droplet digital PCR for the detection of the HTLV-1 tax gene, the proviral load in PBMC and cerebrospinal fluid cells was 12.98 and 51.68 %, respectively; however, we observed a distinct difference in fluorescence amplitude of the positive droplet population suggesting possible mutations in proviral DNA. A complete PTLV-1 proviral genome was amplified from the patient's PBMC DNA using an overlapping PCR strategy. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope and LTR sequences showed the virus was highly related to PTLV-1 from sooty mangabey monkeys (smm) and humans exposed via nonhuman primates in West Africa. These results demonstrate the patient is infected with a simian variant of PTLV-1, suggesting for the first time that PTLV-1smm infection in humans may be associated with a chronic progressive neurologic disease.

  20. Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury for the testing of novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Brian K; Streijger, Femke; Hill, Caitlin E; Anderson, Aileen J; Bacon, Mark; Beattie, Michael S; Blesch, Armin; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Brown, Arthur; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Case, Casey C; Colburn, Raymond W; David, Samuel; Fawcett, James W; Ferguson, Adam R; Fischer, Itzhak; Floyd, Candace L; Gensel, John C; Houle, John D; Jakeman, Lyn B; Jeffery, Nick D; Jones, Linda Ann Truett; Kleitman, Naomi; Kocsis, Jeffery; Lu, Paul; Magnuson, David S K; Marsala, Martin; Moore, Simon W; Mothe, Andrea J; Oudega, Martin; Plant, Giles W; Rabchevsky, Alexander Sasha; Schwab, Jan M; Silver, Jerry; Steward, Oswald; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Guest, James D; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2015-07-01

    Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) are being increasingly utilized for the testing of novel therapies. While these represent intermediary animal species between rodents and humans and offer the opportunity to pose unique research questions prior to clinical trials, the role that such large animal and primate models should play in the translational pipeline is unclear. In this initiative we engaged members of the SCI research community in a questionnaire and round-table focus group discussion around the use of such models. Forty-one SCI researchers from academia, industry, and granting agencies were asked to complete a questionnaire about their opinion regarding the use of large animal and primate models in the context of testing novel therapeutics. The questions centered around how large animal and primate models of SCI would be best utilized in the spectrum of preclinical testing, and how much testing in rodent models was warranted before employing these models. Further questions were posed at a focus group meeting attended by the respondents. The group generally felt that large animal and primate models of SCI serve a potentially useful role in the translational pipeline for novel therapies, and that the rational use of these models would depend on the type of therapy and specific research question being addressed. While testing within these models should not be mandatory, the detection of beneficial effects using these models lends additional support for translating a therapy to humans. These models provides an opportunity to evaluate and refine surgical procedures prior to use in humans, and safety and bio-distribution in a spinal cord more similar in size and anatomy to that of humans. Our results reveal that while many feel that these models are valuable in the testing of novel therapies, important questions remain unanswered about how they should be used and how data derived from them should be interpreted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. A comparative psychophysical approach to visual perception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Toyomi; Fujita, Kazuo

    2009-04-01

    Studies on the visual processing of primates, which have well developed visual systems, provide essential information about the perceptual bases of their higher-order cognitive abilities. Although the mechanisms underlying visual processing are largely shared between human and nonhuman primates, differences have also been reported. In this article, we review psychophysical investigations comparing the basic visual processing that operates in human and nonhuman species, and discuss the future contributions potentially deriving from such comparative psychophysical approaches to primate minds.

  2. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial co...

  3. The adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Daniel Marques Almeida; Maia, Rafael; de Albuquerque Ajuz, Rafael Cavalcanti; De Moraes, Pedro Zurvaino Palmeira Melo Rosa; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras

    2014-08-01

    The complex evolution of primate color vision has puzzled biologists for decades. Primates are the only eutherian mammals that evolved an enhanced capacity for discriminating colors in the green-red part of the spectrum (trichromatism). However, while Old World primates present three types of cone pigments and are routinely trichromatic, most New World primates exhibit a color vision polymorphism, characterized by the occurrence of trichromatic and dichromatic females and obligatory dichromatic males. Even though this has stimulated a prolific line of inquiry, the selective forces and relative benefits influencing color vision evolution in primates are still under debate, with current explanations focusing almost exclusively at the advantages in finding food and detecting socio-sexual signals. Here, we evaluate a previously untested possibility, the adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection. By combining color vision modeling data on New World and Old World primates, as well as behavioral information from human subjects, we demonstrate that primates exhibiting better color discrimination (trichromats) excel those displaying poorer color visions (dichromats) at detecting carnivoran predators against the green foliage background. The distribution of color vision found in extant anthropoid primates agrees with our results, and may be explained by the advantages of trichromats and dichromats in detecting predators and insects, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Why is a landscape perspective important in studies of primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-10-01

    With accelerated deforestation and fragmentation through the tropics, assessing the impact that landscape spatial changes may have on biodiversity is paramount, as this information is required to design and implement effective management and conservation plans. Primates are expected to be particularly dependent on the landscape context; yet, our understanding on this topic is limited as the majority of primate studies are at the local scale, meaning that landscape-scale inferences are not possible. To encourage primatologists to assess the impact of landscape changes on primates, and help future studies on the topic, we describe the meaning of a "landscape perspective" and evaluate important assumptions of using such a methodological approach. We also summarize a number of important, but unanswered, questions that can be addressed using a landscape-scale study design. For example, it is still unclear if habitat loss has larger consistent negative effects on primates than habitat fragmentation per se. Furthermore, interaction effects between habitat area and other landscape effects (e.g., fragmentation) are unknown for primates. We also do not know if primates are affected by synergistic interactions among factors at the landscape scale (e.g., habitat loss and diseases, habitat loss and climate change, hunting, and land-use change), or whether landscape complexity (or landscape heterogeneity) is important for primate conservation. Testing for patterns in the responses of primates to landscape change will facilitate the development of new guidelines and principles for improving primate conservation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sexual selection and the evolution of brain size in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A

    2006-12-20

    Reproductive competition among males has long been considered a powerful force in the evolution of primates. The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to our understanding of primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and the evolutionary development of brain size is not well studied. The present research examines the evolutionary relationship between brain size and two components of primate sexual selection, sperm competition and male competition for mates. Results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between relative brain size and sperm competition as measured by relative testis size in primates, suggesting sperm competition has not played an important role in the evolution of brain size in the primate order. There is, however, a significant negative evolutionary relationship between relative brain size and the level of male competition for mates. The present study shows that the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting primate monogamy may require greater social acuity and abilities of deception.

  6. Sexual selection and the evolution of brain size in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schillaci

    Full Text Available Reproductive competition among males has long been considered a powerful force in the evolution of primates. The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to our understanding of primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and the evolutionary development of brain size is not well studied. The present research examines the evolutionary relationship between brain size and two components of primate sexual selection, sperm competition and male competition for mates. Results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between relative brain size and sperm competition as measured by relative testis size in primates, suggesting sperm competition has not played an important role in the evolution of brain size in the primate order. There is, however, a significant negative evolutionary relationship between relative brain size and the level of male competition for mates. The present study shows that the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting primate monogamy may require greater social acuity and abilities of deception.

  7. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Taryn; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Clode, Peta L

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a "business-as-usual" emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100.

  9. The dynamics of secretion during sea urchin embryonic skeleton formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, Fred H.; Killian, Christopher E.; Hamilton, Patricia; Croker, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    Skeleton formation involves secretion of massive amounts of mineral precursor, usually a calcium salt, and matrix proteins, many of which are deposited on, or even occluded within, the mineral. The cell biological underpinnings of this secretion and subsequent assembly of the biomineralized skeletal element is not well understood. We ask here what is the relationship of the trafficking and secretion of the mineral and matrix within the primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, cells that deposit the endoskeletal spicule. Fluorescent labeling of intracellular calcium deposits show mineral precursors are present in granules visible by light microscopy, from whence they are deposited in the endoskeletal spicule, especially at its tip. In contrast, two different matrix proteins tagged with GFP are present in smaller post-Golgi vesicles only seen by electron microscopy, and the secreted protein are only incorporated into the spicule in the vicinity of the cell of origin. The matrix protein, SpSM30B, is post-translationally modified during secretion, and this processing continues after its incorporation into the spicule. Our findings also indicate that the mineral precursor and two well characterized matrix proteins are trafficked by different cellular routes

  10. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by μ 2 ∼ Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 where Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed

  11. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  12. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  13. Canaliculi in the tessellated skeleton of cartilaginous fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, M.N.; Socha, J.J.; Hall, B.K.; Summers, A.P. (UCI); (Dalhousie U.); (VPI-SU)

    2010-08-04

    The endoskeletal elements of sharks and rays are comprised of an uncalcified, hyaline cartilage-like core overlain by a thin fibro-ceramic layer of mineralized hexagonal tiles (tesserae) adjoined by intertesseral fibers. The basic spatial relationships of the constituent tissues (unmineralized cartilage, mineralized cartilage, fibrous tissue) are well-known - endoskeletal tessellation is a long-recognized synapomorphy of elasmobranch fishes - but a high-resolution and three-dimensional (3D) understanding of their interactions has been hampered by difficulties in sample preparation and lack of technologies adequate for visualizing microstructure and microassociations. We used cryo-electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation tomography to investigate tessellated skeleton ultrastructure but without damage to the delicate relationships between constituent tissues or to the tesserae themselves. The combination of these techniques allowed visualization of never before appreciated internal structures, namely passages connecting the lacunar spaces within tesserae. These intratesseral 'canaliculi' link consecutive lacunar spaces into long lacunar strings, radiating outward from the center of tesserae. The continuity of extracellular matrix throughout the canalicular network may explain how chondrocytes in tesserae remain vital despite encasement in mineral. Extracellular fluid exchange may also permit transmission of nutrients, and mechanical and mineralization signals among chondrocytes, in a manner similar to the canalicular network in bone. These co-adapted mechanisms for the facilitated exchange of extracellular material suggest a level of parallelism in early chondrocyte and osteocyte evolution.

  14. Primate malarias: Diversity, distribution and insights for zoonotic Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Faust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoans within the genus Plasmodium are well-known as the causative agents of malaria in humans. Numerous Plasmodium species parasites also infect a wide range of non-human primate hosts in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Studying this diversity can provide critical insight into our understanding of human malarias, as several human malaria species are a result of host switches from non-human primates. Current spillover of a monkey malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, in Southeast Asia highlights the permeability of species barriers in Plasmodium. Also recently, surveys of apes in Africa uncovered a previously undescribed diversity of Plasmodium in chimpanzees and gorillas. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to quantify the global distribution, host range, and diversity of known non-human primate malaria species. We used published records of Plasmodium parasites found in non-human primates to estimate the total diversity of non-human primate malarias globally. We estimate that at least three undescribed primate malaria species exist in sampled primates, and many more likely exist in unstudied species. The diversity of malaria parasites is especially uncertain in regions of low sampling such as Madagascar, and taxonomic groups such as African Old World Monkeys and gibbons. Presence–absence data of malaria across primates enables us to highlight the close association of forested regions and non-human primate malarias. This distribution potentially reflects a long coevolution of primates, forest-adapted mosquitoes, and malaria parasites. The diversity and distribution of primate malaria are an essential prerequisite to understanding the mechanisms and circumstances that allow Plasmodium to jump species barriers, both in the evolution of malaria parasites and current cases of spillover into humans.

  15. Why Primates? The Importance of Nonhuman Primates for Understanding Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Santos, Laurie R.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the thematic collection by noting some striking similarities in the cognitive abilities of human infants and nonhuman primates. What are the implications of these similarities for our comprehension of human infant cognition? After providing a brief historical and conceptual background on comparative behavioral research, we discuss how…

  16. What is the optimal anthropoid primate diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Dehmelt, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Following Socrates' advice "You should learn all you can from those who know. Everyone should watch himself throughout his life, and notice what sort of meat and drink and what form of exercise suit his constitution, and he should regulate them in order to enjoy good health." Based on biological, chemical and physical considerations I have attempted to synthesize guide lines for an optimal diet from the vast literature. For an offshoot of the primate line it may be wise not to stray too far f...

  17. Primates in peril: the significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, Russell A.; Wich, Serge; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Nijman, Vincent; Rylands, Anthony B.; Johnson, Steig; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Schwitzer, Christoph; Roos, Christian; Cheyne, Susan M.; Martins Kierulff, Maria Cecilia; Raharivololona, Brigitte; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Supriatna, Jatna; Boonratana, Ramesh; Wedana, Made; Setiawan, Arif

    2018-01-01

    Primates occur in 90 countries, but four—Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)—harbor 65% of the world’s primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worst-case-scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public

  18. Primates in peril: the significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A; Mittermeier, Russell A; Wich, Serge; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Nekaris, K A I; Nijman, Vincent; Rylands, Anthony B; Maisels, Fiona; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Bicca-Marques, Julio; Fuentes, Agustin; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Johnson, Steig; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Oliveira, Leonardo; Schwitzer, Christoph; Roos, Christian; Cheyne, Susan M; Martins Kierulff, Maria Cecilia; Raharivololona, Brigitte; Talebi, Mauricio; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Supriatna, Jatna; Boonratana, Ramesh; Wedana, Made; Setiawan, Arif

    2018-01-01

    Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worst-case-scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public

  19. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice.

  20. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Sengupta

    Full Text Available Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice.

  1. Primate theory of mind: a state of the art review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2006-01-01

    -cognitive evner og siden Premack & Woodruff (1978) for første gang introducerede begrebet "theory of mind", er der blevet foretaget mange laboratorie-forsøg om mennesker og andre primaters evne til at attribuere mentale tilstande til andre. I nærværende artikel er størstedelen af disse forsøg med andre primater...

  2. Multimedia in Anthropology: A Guide to the Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frances D.

    This paper describes a primatology project using computer assisted learning and interactive multimedia to help students at the University of Toronto (Canada) learn about non-human primates. The purpose of the interactive program is to present the "natural history" of the majority of the 200-plus species of non-human primates in constant…

  3. Establishing a minimum postmortem interval of human remains in an advanced state of skeletonization using the growth rate of bryophytes and plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, H F V; Santos, A; Dias, R; Garcia, C; Pinto, M; Sérgio, C; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    This paper illustrates the usefulness and efficiency of botanical evidence in establishing a minimum postmortem interval (PMI). The case under analysis refers to the remains of an adult male in an advanced state of skeletonization recovered from a wooded area in northern Portugal. The skeleton showed several taphonomical changes, which included the presence of green algae, bryophytes, and growing shrub roots in, around, and through the remains. By determining the age of both the bryophytes and shrub roots, it was concluded that the minimum amount of time elapsed since death was 3 years, to which several months or a few years have to be added to account for the complete decomposition of the remains. The disappearance of the presumptive individual had occurred 6 years before and is fully consistent with the estimate of the PMI. This report illustrates a novel use of bryophytes in a forensic setting.

  4. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Atlanto-occipital fusion and spondylolisthesis in an Anasazi skeleton from Bright Angel Ruin, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbs, C F; Euler, R C

    1985-08-01

    The skeleton of a middle-aged female showing an unusual pattern of congenital, traumatic, and degenerative pathology was recovered from a small Kayenta Anasazi site located near the confluence of Bright Angel Creek with the Colorado River in the Inner Gorge of Grand Canyon. The atlas is fused with the base of the skull and C2 is fused with C3. The cervical region was subjected to hyperextension, perhaps through use of a tumpline, with resultant reduction of the neural canal to 8 mm, a condition that quite likely led to neurological problems. The skeleton also includes a depression fracture of the lateral condyle of the left tibia. Complete, bilateral spondylolysis of L5 led to an olisthesis of approximately 15 mm. The disc between L5 and S1 then ossified, most likely from staphylococcus bacteremia, making the olisthesis permanent and thereby creating a unique arachaeological specimen. Although spondylolysis is usually viewed as a stress fracture, the general pattern of pathology in this individual makes it necessary to consider an etiology of acute trauma.

  6. N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Shaun D.; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Avoidance of nontarget microsphere deposition via hepatoenteric anastomoses is essential to the safety of yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE). The hepatic hilar arterial network may remain partially patent after coil embolization of major arteries, resulting in persistent risk. We retrospectively reviewed cases where n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) glue embolization was used to facilitate endovascular hepatic arterial skeletonization before RE. Methods. A total of 543 RE procedures performed between June 2004 and March 2012 were reviewed, and 10 were identified where n-BCA was used to embolize hepatoenteric anastomoses. Arterial anatomy, prior coil embolization, and technical details were recorded. Outcomes were reviewed to identify subsequent complications of n-BCA embolization or nontarget RE. Results. The rate of complete technical success was 80 % and partial success 20 %, with one nontarget embolization complication resulting in a minor change in treatment plan. No evidence of gastrointestinal or biliary ischemia or infarction was identified, and no microsphere-related gastroduodenal ulcerations or other evidence of nontarget RE were seen. Median volume of n-BCA used was <0.1 ml. Conclusion. n-BCA glue embolization is useful to eliminate hepatoenteric networks that may result in nontarget RE, especially in those that persist after coil embolization of major vessels such as the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries.

  7. What do bones tell us? The study of human skeletons from the perspective of forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrieri, Brigida; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Human remains are present in a number of contexts. Some of these are archaeological burial sites, which can comprise individual or mass graves burials. Human remains are usually found buried (or cremated), but they can also be found in museums and in universities, as part of their anatomical collections. Human remains can be found in churches as relics, in ossuaries, and as part of objects. Hence human remains refer to not just a complete skeleton, but also apart of a bone or tooth, hair and mummified remains. In more recent forensic, police or medico-legal cases, human skeletal remains can be found in a number of contexts, such as fire scenes, natural disasters, clandestine graves, or on the surface in open areas (e.g. a woodland). One aspect ofphysical anthropology is that which studies human skeletal remains in order to reconstruct the past, understand human variation, and provide information about the deceased individuals, such as their age at death, sex, ancestry, stature, pathological conditions or traumatic injuries; the remains from medico-legal or police cases fall under the branch offorensic anthropology.

  8. Validation Studies of Temperature Distribution and Mould Filling Process for Composite Skeleton Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of composite skeleton casting and mould filling process (Fig. 4, 5, 6. The basic subject of the computer simulation was the analysis of ability of metal to fill the channels creating the skeleton shape and prepared in form of a core. Analysis of filling for each consecutive levels of the skeleton casting was conducted for simulation results and real casting. The skeleton casting was manufactured according to proposed technology (Fig. 5. Number of fully filled nodes in simulation was higher than obtained in experimental studies. It was observed in the experiment, that metal during pouring did not flow through the whole channel section, what enabled possibilities of reducing the channel section and pointed out the necessity of local pressure increase.

  9. Case report: Radiologic changes of the skeleton in a dog with lead poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, J.; Šehić, M.; Žubčić, D.; Jesovsek, S.

    1994-01-01

    The skeleton of a young dog displayed radiological signs of chronic lead intoxication. Osteoclastic changes were demonstrable at the metaphyse of the long bones as well as in all areas with growth activity [de

  10. Predicting primate responses to "Stochastic" demographic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B

    1999-01-01

    Comparative approaches in contemporary primate behavioral ecology have tended to emphasize the deterministic properties of stochastic ecological variables. Yet, primate responses to ecological fluctuations may be mediated by the interactions among demographic processes at the levels of individuals, groups, and populations. In this paper I examine long-term data collected from June 1982-July 1998 on one expanding group of muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) at the Estação Biologica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil to explore the demographic and life history correlates of reproductive seasonality and skewed infant sex ratios. Variation in the size of annual birth cohorts (≥2 infants) was positively related to variation in the annual distribution of births (r (s)=0.96,n=10,p<0.01), indicating the importance of considering the effects that the number of reproductive females may have on interpretations of reproductive seasonality. The female-biased infants sex ratio documented from 59 births was attributed exclusively to multiparous mothers. Primiparous mothers produced comparable numbers of sons (n=6) and daughters (n=7), and were increasingly likely to produce daughters with each subsequent reproductive event. Seven of the 11 females that have produced≥3 infants to date exhibited biases in favor of daughters whereas only 1 was biased in favor of sons. Variation in female sensitivity to local resource competition at different stages of their life histories may account for the female-biased infant sex ration in this population.

  11. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Wenda

    2015-01-01

    The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an ‘obstetric dilemma’ whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. PMID:25602069

  13. The evolution of brachiation in ateline primates, ancestral character states and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrea L

    2008-10-01

    This study examines how brachiation locomotion evolved in ateline primates using recently-developed molecular phylogenies and character reconstruction algorithms, and a newly-collected dataset including the fossils Protopithecus, Caipora, and Cebupithecia. Fossils are added to two platyrrhine molecular phylogenies to create several phylogenetic scenarios. A generalized least squares algorithm reconstructs ateline and atelin ancestral character states for 17 characters that differentiate between ateline brachiators and nonbrachiators. Histories of these characters are mapped out on these phylogenies, producing two scenarios of ateline brachiation evolution that have four commonalities: First, many characters change towards the Ateles condition on the ateline stem lineage before Alouatta splits off from the atelins, suggesting that an ateline energy-maximizing strategy began before the atelines diversified. Second, the ateline last common ancestor is always reconstructed as an agile quadruped, usually with suspensory abilities. It is never exactly like Alouatta and many characters reverse and change towards the Alouatta condition after Alouatta separates from the atelins. Third, most characters undergo homoplastic change in all ateline lineages, especially on the Ateles and Brachyteles terminal branches. Fourth, ateline character evolution probably went through a hindlimb suspension with tail-bracing phase. The atelines most likely diversified via a quick adaptive radiation, with bursts of punctuated change occurring in their postcranial skeletons, due to changing climatic conditions, which may have caused competition among the atelines and between atelines and pitheciines.

  14. Value of the joint- and bone-scintigraphy in benign skeleton diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfannenstiel, P.

    1976-01-01

    Although skeleton scintigraphy is a relatively 'young' method when compared with other scintigraphic techniques, it is of great value in the diagnosis of benign skeleton diseases. For a full exploitation of the diagnostic possibilities of nuclear medicine, however, close cooperation between clinical rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists and experts in nuclear medicine. If the right method is used at the right time, the number of X-rays and thus the technical and financial expenditure may be reduced to a considerable degree. (GSE) [de

  15. Improvement of the skeleton tables for calculation of the critical heat load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotovskij, M.A.; Kvetnyj, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of drawbacks of the skeleton tables of the critical heat flows applied in calculated heat and hydraulic codes. Paper demonstrates the necessity to take account of specific nature of mechanisms of dryout crisis, of boiling crisis at slow mass rates and the range of small underheatings up to temperature of saturation. Attention is drawn to necessity of detailed account of the natural limitations of the application field of the skeleton tables [ru

  16. Radiological changes in the skeleton due to anticonvulsant therapy in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, R.; Heyer, R.; Freyschmidt, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anticonvulsant therapy can lead to severe rachitic changes in the skeleton which closely resemble renal osteopathy. In addition to apparent widening of the epiphyseal plate, there are changes in the cortex of the long bones. Within four to six weeks of the commencement of vitamin D therapy, recalcification of the poorly mineralised osteoid can be recognised. Since the changes are best seen in the hand, further examinations of the skeleton are only indicated if there are positive findings in the hand.

  17. The Effect of Locomotion on the Mobilization of Minerals from the Maternal Skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Wendy R.; Hobensack, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue from which minerals are deposited or withdrawn according to the body's demand. During late pregnancy and lactation, female mammals mobilize mineral from bone to support the ossification of offspring skeleton(s). Conversely, in response to mechanical loading, minerals are deposited in bone enabling it to develop a stronger architecture. Despite their central importance to reproductive performance and skeletal integrity, the interactions between these potentially opposi...

  18. Radiological changes in the skeleton due to anticonvulsant therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, R.; Heyer, R.; Freyschmidt, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anticonvulsant therapy can lead to severe rachitic changes in the skeleton which closely resemble renal osteopathy. In addition to apparent widening of the epiphyseal plate, there are changes in the cortex of the long bones. Within four to six weeks of the commencement of vitamin D therapy, recalcification of the poorly mineralised osteoid can be recognised. Since the changes are best seen in the hand, further examinations of the skeleton are only indicated if there are positive findings in the hand. (orig.) [de

  19. Dissection and Flat-mounting of the Threespine Stickleback Branchial Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nicholas A; Miller, Craig T

    2016-05-07

    The posterior pharyngeal segments of the vertebrate head give rise to the branchial skeleton, the primary site of food processing in fish. The morphology of the fish branchial skeleton is matched to a species' diet. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a model system to study the genetic and developmental basis of evolved differences in a variety of traits. Marine populations of sticklebacks have repeatedly colonized countless new freshwater lakes and creeks. Adaptation to the new diet in these freshwater environments likely underlies a series of craniofacial changes that have evolved repeatedly in independently derived freshwater populations. These include three major patterning changes to the branchial skeleton: reductions in the number and length of gill raker bones, increases in pharyngeal tooth number, and increased branchial bone lengths. Here we describe a detailed protocol to dissect and flat-mount the internal branchial skeleton in threespine stickleback fish. Dissection of the entire three-dimensional branchial skeleton and mounting it flat into a largely two-dimensional prep allows for the easy visualization and quantification of branchial skeleton morphology. This dissection method is inexpensive, fast, relatively easy, and applicable to a wide variety of fish species. In sticklebacks, this efficient method allows the quantification of skeletal morphology in genetic crosses to map genomic regions controlling craniofacial patterning.

  20. Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Research on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, E S; MacLean, A G; Mohan, M; Didier, P J; Lackner, A A; Kuroda, M J

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the biological process of declining physiologic function associated with increasing mortality rate during advancing age. Humans and higher nonhuman primates exhibit unusually longer average life spans as compared with mammals of similar body mass. Furthermore, the population of humans worldwide is growing older as a result of improvements in public health, social services, and health care systems. Comparative studies among a wide range of organisms that include nonhuman primates contribute greatly to our understanding about the basic mechanisms of aging. Based on their genetic and physiologic relatedness to humans, nonhuman primates are especially important for better understanding processes of aging unique to primates, as well as for testing intervention strategies to improve healthy aging and to treat diseases and disabilities in older people. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are the predominant monkeys used in studies on aging, but research with lower nonhuman primate species is increasing. One of the priority topics of research about aging in nonhuman primates involves neurologic changes associated with cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Additional areas of research include osteoporosis, reproductive decline, caloric restriction, and their mimetics, as well as immune senescence and chronic inflammation that affect vaccine efficacy and resistance to infections and cancer. The purpose of this review is to highlight the findings from nonhuman primate research that contribute to our understanding about aging and health span in humans. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Postcopulatory sexual selection influences baculum evolution in primates and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Matilda; Opie, Christopher

    2016-12-14

    The extreme morphological variability of the baculum across mammals is thought to be the result of sexual selection (particularly, high levels of postcopulatory selection). However, the evolutionary trajectory of the mammalian baculum is little studied and evidence for the adaptive function of the baculum has so far been elusive. Here, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to reconstruct baculum evolution across the mammalian class and investigate the rate of baculum length evolution within the primate order. We then test the effects of testes mass (postcopulatory sexual selection), polygamy, seasonal breeding and intromission duration on the baculum in primates and carnivores. The ancestral mammal did not have a baculum, but both ancestral primates and carnivores did. No relationship was found between testes mass and baculum length in either primates or carnivores. Intromission duration correlated with baculum presence over the course of primate evolution, and prolonged intromission predicts significantly longer bacula in extant primates and carnivores. Both polygamous and seasonal breeding systems predict significantly longer bacula in primates. These results suggest the baculum plays an important role in facilitating reproductive strategies in populations with high levels of postcopulatory sexual selection. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Nonhuman Primate Studies to Advance Vision Science and Prevent Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustari, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    Most primate behavior is dependent on high acuity vision. Optimal visual performance in primates depends heavily upon frontally placed eyes, retinal specializations, and binocular vision. To see an object clearly its image must be placed on or near the fovea of each eye. The oculomotor system is responsible for maintaining precise eye alignment during fixation and generating eye movements to track moving targets. The visual system of nonhuman primates has a similar anatomical organization and functional capability to that of humans. This allows results obtained in nonhuman primates to be applied to humans. The visual and oculomotor systems of primates are immature at birth and sensitive to the quality of binocular visual and eye movement experience during the first months of life. Disruption of postnatal experience can lead to problems in eye alignment (strabismus), amblyopia, unsteady gaze (nystagmus), and defective eye movements. Recent studies in nonhuman primates have begun to discover the neural mechanisms associated with these conditions. In addition, genetic defects that target the retina can lead to blindness. A variety of approaches including gene therapy, stem cell treatment, neuroprosthetics, and optogenetics are currently being used to restore function associated with retinal diseases. Nonhuman primates often provide the best animal model for advancing fundamental knowledge and developing new treatments and cures for blinding diseases. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The primate fovea: Structure, function and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Andreas; Syrbe, Steffen; Görner, Katja; Kacza, Johannes; Francke, Mike; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2018-03-30

    A fovea is a pitted invagination in the inner retinal tissue (fovea interna) that overlies an area of photoreceptors specialized for high acuity vision (fovea externa). Although the shape of the vertebrate fovea varies considerably among the species, there are two basic types. The retina of many predatory fish, reptilians, and birds possess one (or two) convexiclivate fovea(s), while the retina of higher primates contains a concaviclivate fovea. By refraction of the incoming light, the convexiclivate fovea may function as image enlarger, focus indicator, and movement detector. By centrifugal displacement of the inner retinal layers, which increases the transparency of the central foveal tissue (the foveola), the primate fovea interna improves the quality of the image received by the central photoreceptors. In this review, we summarize ‒ with the focus on Müller cells of the human and macaque fovea ‒ data regarding the structure of the primate fovea, discuss various aspects of the optical function of the fovea, and propose a model of foveal development. The "Müller cell cone" of the foveola comprises specialized Müller cells which do not support neuronal activity but may serve optical and structural functions. In addition to the "Müller cell cone", structural stabilization of the foveal morphology may be provided by the 'z-shaped' Müller cells of the fovea walls, via exerting tractional forces onto Henle fibers. The spatial distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein may suggest that the foveola and the Henle fiber layer are subjects to mechanical stress. During development, the foveal pit is proposed to be formed by a vertical contraction of the centralmost Müller cells. After widening of the foveal pit likely mediated by retracting astrocytes, Henle fibers are formed by horizontal contraction of Müller cell processes in the outer plexiform layer and the centripetal displacement of photoreceptors. A better understanding of the molecular, cellular

  4. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández-Duque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to

  5. The comparative anatomy of the forelimb veins of primates.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiranagama, R; Chamberlain, A T; Wood, B A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen forelimbs taken from 62 individuals belonging to 17 primate genera were dissected to reveal the entire course of the superficial venous system. The course of the deep venous system was also documented in at least one forelimb of each primate genus, and the number and location of perforating veins was recorded in 18 human and 45 non-human primate limbs. In Pan, Gorilla and in about 25% of human specimens the lateral superficial vein was confined to the forearm, while i...

  6. Conservation of myeloid surface antigens on primate granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letvin, N L; Todd, R F; Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Griffin, J D

    1983-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with myeloid cell surface antigens were used to study evolutionary changes in granulocyte surface antigens from primate species. Certain of these granulocyte membrane antigens are conserved in phylogenetically distant species, indicating the potential functional importance of these structures. The degree of conservation of these antigens reflects the phylogenetic relationship between primate species. Furthermore, species of the same genus show similar patterns of binding to this panel of anti-human myeloid antibodies. This finding of conserved granulocyte surface antigens suggests that non-human primates may provide a model system for exploring uses of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of human myeloid disorders.

  7. Mediodorsal thalamus and cognition in nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Baxter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies in nonhuman primates have provided new insights into the role of the medial thalamus in different aspects of cognitive function. The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD, by virtue of its connectivity with the frontal cortex, has been implicated in an array of cognitive functions. Rather than serving as an engine or relay for the prefrontal cortex, this area seems to be more specifically involved in regulating plasticity and flexibility of prefrontal-dependent cognitive functions. Focal damage to MD may also exacerbate the effects of damage to other subcortical relays. Thus a wide range of distributed circuits and cognitive functions may be disrupted from focal damage within the medial thalamus (for example as a consequence of stroke or brain injury. Conversely, this region may make an interesting target for neuromodulation of cognitive function via deep brain stimulation or related methods, in conditions associated with dysfunction of these neural circuits.

  8. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Christina S; Driscoll, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior can have adaptive value in certain environmental contexts, but when extreme or executed inappropriately, can also lead to maladaptive outcomes. Neurogenetic studies performed in nonhuman primates have shown that genetic variation that impacts reward sensitivity, impulsivity, and anxiety can contribute to individual differences in aggressive behavior. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding or promoter regions of the Mu-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4), and Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4) genes have been shown to be functionally similar in humans and rhesus macaques and have been demonstrated to contribute to individual differences in aggression. This body of literature suggests mechanisms by which genetic variation that promotes aggressivity could simultaneously increase evolutionary success while making modern humans more vulnerable to psychopathology.

  9. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Shively

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum.

  10. Transgenic nonhuman primates for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models that represent human diseases constitute an important tool in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases, and in developing effective therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders involving neuropathologic and psychiatric alterations. Although transgenic and knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD have been created, limited representation in clinical aspects has been recognized and the rodent models lack true neurodegeneration. Chemical induction of HD and PD in nonhuman primates (NHP has been reported, however, the role of intrinsic genetic factors in the development of the diseases is indeterminable. Nonhuman primates closely parallel humans with regard to genetic, neuroanatomic, and cognitive/behavioral characteristics. Accordingly, the development of NHP models for neurodegenerative diseases holds greater promise for success in the discovery of diagnoses, treatments, and cures than approaches using other animal species. Therefore, a transgenic NHP carrying a mutant gene similar to that of patients will help to clarify our understanding of disease onset and progression. Additionally, monitoring disease onset and development in the transgenic NHP by high resolution brain imaging technology such as MRI, and behavioral and cognitive testing can all be carried out simultaneously in the NHP but not in other animal models. Moreover, because of the similarity in motor repertoire between NHPs and humans, it will also be possible to compare the neurologic syndrome observed in the NHP model to that in patients. Understanding the correlation between genetic defects and physiologic changes (e.g. oxidative damage will lead to a better understanding of disease progression and the development of patient treatments, medications and preventive approaches for high risk individuals. The impact of the transgenic NHP model in understanding the role which

  11. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  12. HvrBase++: a phylogenetic database for primate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Jochen; Paulsen, Ingo; Laubach, Thomas; Radtke, Achim; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2006-01-01

    HvrBase++ is the improved and extended version of HvrBase. Extensions are made by adding more population-based sequence samples from all primates including humans. The current collection comprises 13 873 hypervariable region I (HVRI) sequences and 4940 hypervariable region II (HVRII) sequences. In addition, we included 1376 complete mitochondrial genomes, 205 sequences from X-chromosomal loci and 202 sequences from autosomal chromosomes 1, 8, 11 and 16. In order to reduce the introduction of erroneous data into HvrBase++, we have developed a procedure that monitors GenBank for new versions of the current data in HvrBase++ and automatically updates the collection if necessary. For the stored sequences, supplementary information such as geographic origin, population affiliation and language of the sequence donor can be retrieved. HvrBase++ is Oracle based and easily accessible by a web interface (). As a new key feature, HvrBase++ provides an interactive graphical tool to easily access data from dynamically created geographical maps. PMID:16381963

  13. Can we omit scintiscanning of the skeleton in follow-up aftercare of carcinoma of the breast. A prospective study of 630 cases. Ist die Skelettszintigraphie in der Nachsorge des Mammakarzinoms entbehrlich. Eine prospektive Studie ueber 630 Faelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuenemann, H [Onkologische Klinik Bad Trissl, Oberaudorf (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-08-01

    630 women patients of the Bad Trissl clinic were admitted in 1987/88 to a prospective study to find out whether scintiscanning, or radionuclide imaging, of the skeleton can be omitted completely or in part in the after care and follow-up of carcinoma of the breast. The initial criterion was a postoperative carcinoma of the breast without metastasizing in the skeleton at the time the study began or the patient was admitted to the study. Careful pain anamnesis was performed by means of prepared questions, and a detailed clinical examination conducted to detect any pain in the skeleton of the patient concerned. This was followed by whole body scintiscanning of the skeleton and complementary X-ray films, if necessary additional examinations. It was found that clinical findings and imaging methods agreed in 545 patients. In 55 cases a finding that was clinically suspicious of metastases or doubtful, could be refuted by both scintiscan and by X-ray, osseous metastasizing would have been overlooked without skeleton scintiscan in 14 patients only (2.2%), 11 of these 14 patients were high-risk patients (negative hormonal receptor status, axillary lymph node metastases). Hence, it will be sufficient to employ scintiscanning in the aftercare and follow-up of carcinoma of the breast on a risk-adapted basis provided this is preceded by careful pain analysis and clinical examination. Failure to detect metastasizing in the skeleton will then occur in only 3 of 630 patients (0.48%). In this manner 40% of scintiscans can be omitted in future. (orig.).

  14. Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandy B. Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in the ankle plantar flexors of primates and make comparisons to other mammals. The data suggest that great apes, atelines, and lorisines exhibit similarity in the mass distribution of the triceps surae. We conclude that variation in triceps surae may be related to the shared locomotor mode exhibited by these groups and that triceps surae morphology, which approaches that of humans, may be related to frequent use of semiplantigrade locomotion and vertical climbing.

  15. Nutritional ecology of entomophagy in humans and other primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2013-01-01

    Entomophagy is widespread among nonhuman primates and is common among many human communities. However, the extent and patterns of entomophagy vary substantially both in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we synthesize the literature to examine why humans and other primates eat insects and what accounts for the variation in the extent to which they do so. Variation in the availability of insects is clearly important, but less understood is the role of nutrients in entomophagy. We apply a multidimensional analytical approach, the right-angled mixture triangle, to published data on the macronutrient compositions of insects to address this. Results showed that insects eaten by humans spanned a wide range of protein-to-fat ratios but were generally nutrient dense, whereas insects with high protein-to-fat ratios were eaten by nonhuman primates. Although suggestive, our survey exposes a need for additional, standardized, data.

  16. Archiving and Databasing of Non-Human Primate Impact Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobie, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The National Biodynamics Laboratory (NBDL) of the University of New Orleans has preserved recoverable indirect impact acceleration data from non-human primate subject tests performed by the former Naval Biodynamics Laboratory...

  17. Quicker yet safe: skeletonization of 1640 internal mammary arteries with harmonic technology in 965 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Teresa M; Rose, M Sarah; Aluthman, Uthman; Narine, Kishan

    2014-05-01

    Skeletonization of the internal mammary artery (IMA) facilitates arterial grafting and has been shown to reduce deep sternal infection but is more time-consuming and tedious than pedicle harvest. We wished to determine if use of harmonic technology (HT) facilitates skeletonization of the IMA and is as safe as the conventional technique of skeletonization. In a consecutive series of 1057 patients with isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery from 2003 to 2013, adverse events and recorded harvest times were compared between harmonic (965 patients) and non-harmonic patients (86 patients). HT was used to harvest 1640 IMAs in 965 (91%) of 1057 consecutive CABG patients and skeletonization with the traditional technique (use of an electrocautery tip as a dissector) was used to harvest 147 IMAs in 86 patients. Six patients had no IMA harvested with this surgery (4 patients had an IMA used from a previous CABG, 1 had no disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 1 patient was in cardiogenic shock precluding IMA use). Excluding patients with single-vessel disease, 730/987 (74%) of patients received bilateral IMAs. Demographics of patients with and without harmonic skeletonization, respectively, were the following: mean age: 64.7 vs 67.7 years; diabetes: 33 vs 34%; women: 21 vs 26% and median European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation: 2.9 vs 3.2. The mean harvest time for 77 non-harmonic skeletonized mammary arteries (49 surgeries) was 32.2 min (95% confidence interval (CI): 30.1, 34.3), for harmonic skeletonized arteries after 450 surgeries was 28.4 min, (95% CI: 27.8, 29.1) and in the last 100 IMAs harvested for the isolated harmonic device use/mammary was 15.4 min (95% CI: 14.0, 16.7). Major adverse events for patients with and without harmonic skeletonization, respectively, were: reoperation for bleeding: 2.7 vs 3.5% (difference = 0.8%, 95% CI: -3.2, 4.8); damaged mammaries: 0.4 vs 0.7% (difference = 0.3%, 95% CI: -1.0, 1.7); deep

  18. Diverse mechanisms of plant resistance to cauliflower mosaic virus revealed by leaf skeleton hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, U; Brannan, C M; Gardner, C O; Essenberg, R C

    1992-01-01

    Plants not hosts for cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) may prevent systemic CaMV infection by interfering with dissemination of infection through the plant or by preventing viral replication and maturation. Leaf skeleton hybridization allows distinction between these two barriers. The technique assesses the spatial distribution of CaMV in an inoculated leaf by hybridization of a skeleton of the leaf with a CaMV DNA probe. Leaves or leaflets of soybean, cucumber, peanut, tomato, lettuce, spinach, pepper, onion, wheat, maize and barley, inoculated with CaMV DNA or CaMV virions were processed for leaf skeleton hybridization either immediately after inoculation or two weeks thereafter. Autoradiographic images of soybean and cucumber skeletons had many dark spots suggesting that CaMV DNA replication and local spread had occurred. Images of onion leaf skeletons prepared two weeks after inoculation with CaMV DNA had fewer spots. To test whether these spots resulted from CaMV replication, DNA was extracted from inoculated onion leaves and analyzed by electrophoresis, blotting and hybridization. Molecules recovered two weeks after inoculation resembled those inoculated, indicating absence of replication. For the other species, we found no evidence of local spread of CaMV infections. Thus, many plant species resist systemic CaMV infection by preventing replication or local spread of CaMV, while others solely prevent systemic movement of infection.

  19. Tracking a Subset of Skeleton Joints: An Effective Approach towards Complex Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Latif Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a robust algorithm for complex human activity recognition for natural human-robot interaction. The algorithm is based on tracking the position of selected joints in human skeleton. For any given activity, only a few skeleton joints are involved in performing the activity, so a subset of joints contributing the most towards the activity is selected. Our approach of tracking a subset of skeleton joints (instead of tracking the whole skeleton is computationally efficient and provides better recognition accuracy. We have developed both manual and automatic approaches for the selection of these joints. The position of the selected joints is tracked for the duration of the activity and is used to construct feature vectors for each activity. Once the feature vectors have been constructed, we use a Support Vector Machines (SVM multiclass classifier for training and testing the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a purposely built dataset of depth videos recorded using Kinect camera. The dataset consists of 250 videos of 10 different activities being performed by different users. Experimental results show classification accuracy of 83% when tracking all skeleton joints, 95% when using manual selection of subset joints, and 89% when using automatic selection of subset joints.

  20. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Hui; WANG Phillip L.; TSIEN Joe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the precUnical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic tech-nologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and limitations for systematic production of transgenic primates.

  1. Male germline stem cells in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, several studies have attempted to decipher the biology of mammalian germline stem cells (GSCs. These studies provide evidence that regulatory mechanisms for germ cell specification and migration are evolutionarily conserved across species. The characteristics and functions of primate GSCs are highly distinct from rodent species; therefore the findings from rodent models cannot be extrapolated to primates. Due to limited availability of human embryonic and testicular samples for research purposes, two non-human primate models (marmoset and macaque monkeys are extensively employed to understand human germline development and differentiation. This review provides a broader introduction to the in vivo and in vitro germline stem cell terminology from primordial to differentiating germ cells. Primordial germ cells (PGCs are the most immature germ cells colonizing the gonad prior to sex differentiation into testes or ovaries. PGC specification and migratory patterns among different primate species are compared in the review. It also reports the distinctions and similarities in expression patterns of pluripotency markers (OCT4A, NANOG, SALL4 and LIN28 during embryonic developmental stages, among marmosets, macaques and humans. This review presents a comparative summary with immunohistochemical and molecular evidence of germ cell marker expression patterns during postnatal developmental stages, among humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it reports findings from the recent literature investigating the plasticity behavior of germ cells and stem cells in other organs of humans and monkeys. The use of non-human primate models would enable bridging the knowledge gap in primate GSC research and understanding the mechanisms involved in germline development. Reported similarities in regulatory mechanisms and germ cell expression profile in primates demonstrate the preclinical significance of monkey models for development of

  2. Molecular evolution of the primate antiviral restriction factor tetherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tetherin is a recently identified antiviral restriction factor that restricts HIV-1 particle release in the absence of the HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu. It is reminiscent of APOBEC3G and TRIM5a that also antagonize HIV. APOBEC3G and TRIM5a have been demonstrated to evolve under pervasive positive selection throughout primate evolution, supporting the red-queen hypothesis. Therefore, one naturally presumes that Tetherin also evolves under pervasive positive selection throughout primate evolution and supports the red-queen hypothesis. Here, we performed a detailed evolutionary analysis to address this presumption. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results of non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates reveal that Tetherin as a whole experiences neutral evolution rather than pervasive positive selection throughout primate evolution, as well as in non-primate mammal evolution. Sliding-window analyses show that the regions of the primate Tetherin that interact with viral proteins are under positive selection or relaxed purifying selection. In particular, the sites identified under positive selection generally focus on these regions, indicating that the main selective pressure acting on the primate Tetherin comes from virus infection. The branch-site model detected positive selection acting on the ancestral branch of the New World Monkey lineage, suggesting an episodic adaptive evolution. The positive selection was also found in duplicated Tetherins in ruminants. Moreover, there is no bias in the alterations of amino acids in the evolution of the primate Tetherin, implying that the primate Tetherin may retain broad spectrum of antiviral activity by maintaining structure stability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results conclude that the molecular evolution of Tetherin may be attributed to the host-virus arms race, supporting the Red Queen hypothesis, and Tetherin may be in an intermediate stage in transition from neutral to pervasive

  3. Precursors to language: Social cognition and pragmatic inference in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2017-02-01

    Despite their differences, human language and the vocal communication of nonhuman primates share many features. Both constitute forms of coordinated activity, rely on many shared neural mechanisms, and involve discrete, combinatorial cognition that includes rich pragmatic inference. These common features suggest that during evolution the ancestors of all modern primates faced similar social problems and responded with similar systems of communication and cognition. When language later evolved from this common foundation, many of its distinctive features were already present.

  4. Role of the membrane skeleton in preventing the shedding of procoagulant-rich microvesicles from the platelet plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The platelet plasma membrane is lined by a membrane skeleton that appears to contain short actin filaments cross-linked by actin-binding protein. Actin-binding protein is in turn associated with specific plasma membrane glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to determine whether the membrane skeleton regulates properties of the plasma membrane. Platelets were incubated with agents that disrupted the association of the membrane skeleton with membrane glycoproteins. The consequences of this c...

  5. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Simon M; Hager, Yfke; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-04-12

    There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single 'general intelligence' factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of behavioural innovation, social learning, tool use, extractive foraging and tactical deception, in 62 primate species. All exhibited strong positive associations in principal component and factor analyses, after statistically controlling for multiple potential confounds. This highly correlated composite of cognitive traits suggests social, technical and ecological abilities have coevolved in primates, indicative of an across-species general intelligence that includes elements of cultural intelligence. Our composite species-level measure of general intelligence, 'primate g(S)', covaried with both brain volume and captive learning performance measures. Our findings question the independence of cognitive traits and do not support 'massive modularity' in primate cognition, nor an exclusively social model of primate intelligence. High general intelligence has independently evolved at least four times, with convergent evolution in capuchins, baboons, macaques and great apes.

  6. The behavioral genetics of nonhuman primates: Status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of primate behavior have long attracted the attention of ethologists, psychologists, behavioral ecologists, and neuroscientists. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the nature of genetic influences on differences in behavior among individuals within species. A number of analyses have focused on the genetic analysis of behavioral reactions to specific experimental tests, providing estimates of the degree of genetic control over reactivity, and beginning to identify the genes involved. Substantial progress is also being made in identifying genetic factors that influence the structure and function of the primate brain. Most of the published studies on these topics have examined either cercopithecines or chimpanzees, though a few studies have addressed these questions in other primate species. One potentially important line of research is beginning to identify the epigenetic processes that influence primate behavior, thus revealing specific cellular and molecular mechanisms by which environmental experiences can influence gene expression or gene function relevant to behavior. This review summarizes many of these studies of non-human primate behavioral genetics. The primary focus is on analyses that address the nature of the genes and genetic processes that affect differences in behavior among individuals within non-human primate species. Analyses of between species differences and potential avenues for future research are also discussed. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  7. The well-being of laboratory non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-01-01

    The well-being of non-human primates in captivity is of joint concern to scientists, veterinarians, colony managers, caretakers, and researchers working with non-human primates in biomedical research. With increased regulatory, accreditation, and research focus on optimizing the use of social housing for laboratory primates, as well as the advent of techniques to assess indices of chronic stress and related measures of well-being, there is no better time to present the most current advances in the field of non-human primate behavioral management. The collective body of research presented here was inspired in part by a 2014 symposium entitled, "Chronic Hormones and Demographic Variables: Center-Wide Studies on Non-Human Primate Well-Being" held at the American Society of Primatologists' 37th Annual Meeting in Decatur, GA. By aiming to target readership with scientific and/or management oversight of captive primate behavioral management programs, this special issue provides badly-needed guidance for implementing social housing programs in a research environment and leverages collaboration across multiple facilities to address key components of behavioral management, explore refinements in how well-being can be measured, and identify the interrelationships between varying indices. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22520, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Primates and the Evolution of Long-Slow Life Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James Holland

    2011-01-01

    Summary Primates are characterized by relatively late ages at first reproduction, long lives and low fertility. Together, these traits define a life-history of reduced reproductive effort. Understanding the optimal allocation of reproductive effort, and specifically reduced reproductive effort, has been one of the key problems motivating the development of life history theory. Because of their unusual constellation of life-history traits, primates play an important role in the continued development of life history theory. In this review, I present the evidence for the reduced reproductive effort life histories of primates and discuss the ways that such life-history tactics are understood in contemporary theory. Such tactics are particularly consistent with the predictions of stochastic demographic models, suggesting a key role for environmental variability in the evolution of primate life histories. The tendency for primates to specialize in high-quality, high-variability food items may make them particularly susceptible to environmental variability and explain their low reproductive-effort tactics. I discuss recent applications of life history theory to human evolution and emphasize the continuity between models used to explain peculiarities of human reproduction and senescence with the long, slow life histories of primates more generally. PMID:21959161

  9. Primates on display: Potential disease consequences beyond bushmeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Human interactions with nonhuman primates vary tremendously, from daily cultural engagements and food commodities, to pet ownership and tourist encounters. These interactions provide opportunities for the exchange of pathogenic organisms (both zoonoses and anthroponoses). As exposures are not limited to areas where bushmeat usage continues to be a major problem, we must work to understand better our motivations for engaging in activities like owning primates as pets and having direct physical contact with wild primates within the context of nature-based tourism. These topics, and the theoretical potential for pathogen transmission, are reviewed in the present manuscript. This is followed by a case study utilizing 3845 survey responses collected from four international locations known for primate-based tourism, with results indicating that while a majority of people understand that they can give/get diseases to/from wild primates, a surprising percentage would still touch or feed these animals if given the opportunity. Many people still choose to touch and/or own primates, as their drive to bond with animals outweighs some basic health behaviors. Desires to tame, control, or otherwise establish emotional connections with other species, combined with the central role of touch for exploring our environment, necessitate the development of better communication and educational campaigns to minimize risks of emerging infectious diseases. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  10. A partial skeleton of a new lamniform mackerel shark from the Miocene of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kriwet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenozoic lamniform sharks are mostly represented by isolated teeth and vertebrae, whereas articulated skeletal remains are usually very scarce. Here, we describe a partial skeleton of an extinct lamniform shark consisting of 42 slightly disarticulated teeth, 49 vertebrae, and additional unidentifiable cranial and postcranial remains. The specimen originates from the Miocene mica-clay of Groß Pampau (North Germany, which is of late Langenfeldian age (= Serravallian-Tortonian boundary; middle–late Miocene. A total of 13 measurements of each tooth, as well as morphological features, were used to reconstruct the dentition of this specimen and to provide detailed taxonomic information. Additionally, the total body size and age at death were established using methodologies based on vertebral and tooth measurements and vertebral centra growth ring counts, respectively. The specimen undoubtedly represents the most complete individual of “Carcharodon (= Isurus escheri”, previously known only from a few isolated teeth. The dental pattern (e.g., marked dignathic and monognathic heterodonty patterns; only slightly labio-lingually compressed upper teeth; upper teeth slender with distally inclined or curved main cusps; massive, hook-like upper intermediate tooth; main cusps with crenulated cutting edges; lateral cusplets in teeth of all ontogenetic stages clearly separates this shark from all hitherto known Cenozoic and Recent lamnids and a new genus, Carcharomodus, consequently is introduced. Carcharomodus escheri comb. nov. is a characteristic element of late early Miocene to the Pliocene Western and Central European fish faunas. All previously identified Pacific occurrences represent a different taxon. We estimate that the specimen had a total body length of about 4 m and that it was older than 10 years and thus might have reached maturity before death, as indicated by all available evidence.

  11. Diversity, habitat preferences, and conservation of the primates of Southern Assam, India: The story of a primate paradise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Khairujjaman Mazumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern part of Assam in India, a part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, harbors a myriad number of wild plant and animal species. Although there is only one protected area, the Barail Wildlife Sanctuary (Cachar district and a few reserve forests (RFs, there are as many as eight primates inhabiting the region – a diversity hardly found elsewhere. In addition to the protected area and RFs, tea gardens and secondary forests also serve as habitats for animals. The border areas of the region with the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura are among the most important abodes of these primates. Unfortunately, these primates are under constant threat from multiple sources. The present article provides an extensive survey of the available literature on the primates of southern Assam with reference to their distribution, habitat preferences, threats, and conservation. Additionally, data from field observations of the author are also presented.

  12. Correlation of results of skeleton gammagraphy with CEA and TPA levels in mammary gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makaiova, I.; Kausitz, J.; Hupka, S.; Michalikova, B.; Vivodova, M.; Simko, S.; Urbanova, M.; Bohunicky, L.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is submitted of the results obtained with whole-body skeleton gammagraphy using 99m Tc-MDP and levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and tissue polypeptide antigen in 147 patients with breast cancer. In 123 cases (83.7%) the results agreed, i.e., in 72 patients the negative results and in 51 patients the positive results of skeleton gammagraphy with at least one of the above tumor markers. In other 15 cases (10.2%) the positivity of the tumor marker was confirmed by extraosseous tumor manifestations. The reasons are discussed of possible disagreement in the results and a preliminary thought is proposed on the use of assessment of tumor antigen levels in combination with skeleton gammagraphy and other imaging methods, in monitoring patients with breast cancer. (author)

  13. Genetic analysis and ethnic affinities from two Scytho-Siberian skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaut, François-Xavier; Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Cammaert, Laurence; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2004-04-01

    We extracted DNA from two skeletons belonging to the Sytho-Siberian population, which were excavated from the Sebÿstei site (dating back 2,500 years) in the Altai Republic (Central Asia). Ancient DNA was analyzed by autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and by the sequencing of the hypervariable region 1 (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. The results showed that these two skeletons were not close relatives. Moreover, their haplogroups were characteristic of Asian populations. Comparison with the haplogroup of 3,523 Asian and American individuals linked one skeleton with a putative ancestral paleo-Asiatic population and the other with Chinese populations. It appears that the genetic study of ancient populations of Central Asia brings important elements to the understanding of human population movements in Asia. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Differences in the initial deposition of Pu and Ra in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.R.; Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.

    1978-01-01

    The ratio (still unknown) relating the experimentally determined effects of Pu and Ra in some animal species to observed effects of various isotopes of Ra in man presently provides the most reasonable basis for an assessment of the risk resulting to man from Pu. Extensive studies with the beagle have shown that an evaluation of this ratio on the basis of average skeletal radiation dose is complicated by several factors, one of which is the difference in the initial (gross) distribution of Pu and Ra between the various skeletal parts. Studies on the initial deposition of Pu and Ra in the whole skeleton and in individual parts of the skeleton after injection of the two nuclides as citrates demonstrated that significant differences in the distribution within the various skeletal parts exist, although the total deposition of the two nuclides in the whole skeleton is practically the same

  15. Relationship between push phase and final race time in skeleton performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Costanza; La Torre, Antonio; Merati, Giampiero; Rampinini, Ermanno; Impellizzeri, Franco M

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between push-time and final race time in skeleton participants during a series of major international competitions to determine the importance of the push phase in skeleton performance. Correlations were computed from the first and second heat split data measured during 24 men and 24 women skeleton competitions. Body mass, height, age, and years of experience of the first 30 men and women athletes of the skeleton, bobsleigh and luge 2003-2004 World Cup ranking were used for the comparison between sliding sports. Moderate but significant correlations (p push-time and final race time in men (r(mean) = 0.48) and women (r(mean) = 0.63). No correlations were found between changes in the individual push-time between the first and second heat with the corresponding changes in final race time. The bobsleigh sliders are heavier than the athletes of the other sliding disciplines. Luge athletes have more experience and are younger than bobsleigh and skeleton sliders. The results of this study suggest that a fast push phase is a prerequisite to success in competition and confirms that the selection of skeleton athletes based on the ability to accelerate to a maximum speed quickly could be valid. However, a good or improved push-time does not ensure a placement in the top finishing positions. On the basis of these results, we suggest that strength and power training is necessary to maintain a short push-time but additional physical training aimed to enhance the push phase might not reflect performance improvements. The recruitment of younger athletes and an increase of youthful competitive activity may be another effective way to reach international competitive results.

  16. Skeletonized Wave Equation Inversion in VTI Media without too much Math

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang

    2017-05-17

    We present a tutorial for skeletonized inversion of pseudo-acoustic anisotropic VTI data. We first invert for the anisotropic models using wave equation traveltime inversion. Here, the skeletonized data are the traveltimes of transmitted and/or reflected arrivals that lead to simpler misfit functions and more robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion. This provides a good starting model for waveform inversion. The effectiveness of this procedure is illustrated with synthetic data examples and a marine data set recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Loss of calcium from axial and appendicular skeleton in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1974-01-01

    The widespread prevalence of bone disease in chronic renal failure both prior to and during hemodialysis is an important aspect of uremia. Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA). The absorptiometric technique, using monochromatic photons from 125 I, applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius) also reflects the loss of bone mineral content (BMC) in renal disease. The results of these two techniques were compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 with end stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. (U.S.)

  18. Skeletonized Wave Equation Inversion in VTI Media without too much Math

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a tutorial for skeletonized inversion of pseudo-acoustic anisotropic VTI data. We first invert for the anisotropic models using wave equation traveltime inversion. Here, the skeletonized data are the traveltimes of transmitted and/or reflected arrivals that lead to simpler misfit functions and more robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion. This provides a good starting model for waveform inversion. The effectiveness of this procedure is illustrated with synthetic data examples and a marine data set recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Harbour dredging in the Townsville region: a cross-evaluation between proxy records in coral skeletons and environmental monitoring records (GBRMPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esslemont, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The hypothesis tested is whether coral skeletons provide a proxy-record of copper and zinc bio-availability in inner-neritic environments, which corresponds with conventionally obtained records of harbour dredging. Trace metal concentrations in a colony of the massive-branching coral Pocillopora damicornis were measured along two calice walls that grew at a relatively uniform rate of ∼1 mm/year. Each calice wall represented tracking surfaces for the SIMS micro-sampling beam, along which a complete series of measurements were made over two annual cycles, at approximately monthly increments. Measurements were located temporally using annual couplets of high and low density growth-bands, representing 1991-92. Sub-annual resolution was achieved using proxy temperature (Sr/Ca) and salinity records (Ba/Ca) in the coral skeleton, which were related to conventionally obtained GBRMPA records taken nearby. Proxy records of copper and zinc in coral skeletons were related to the 1991 dredging of Townsville Harbour, recorded in detail by GBRMPA. Records include six temporal measurements of labile copper and zinc in fine sediment resuspended by two dredging episodes, resulting in metal-rich sediment plumes (2-3 x background) settling onto reefs fringing Magnetic Island. The P. damicornis colony was obtained from an exposed reef. Both dredging episodes were clearly recorded by the coral skeleton, using copper and zinc tracers measured by the SIMS micro-beam, and sediment-biota accumulation coefficients were derived for these metals. Calibration of the SIMS instrument was achieved from a standard in a pseudo 'coral skeleton' matrix. We attempted to co-precipitate a four point series of multi-metal standards in an aragonite matrix, to provide an external calibration series verified by cross-instrument measurement (AAS). However, metal concentrations were heterogenous at the micron scale, and precise calibration could not be achieved using the SIMS instrument. This

  20. Stereometrics In Primate Taxonomy And Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Norman

    1980-07-01

    Studies of the systematic relationships within the primate taxa Homo, Hylobatidae (lesser apes), Hominoidea (apes and man) and Colobinae (Asian and African leaf monkeys) are described. All are based in large part on multivariate statistical analyses of cranial morphology. Adequate quantification of the frequently complex and subtle differences in the morphology of the animals being compared, as well as the inclusion of statistically adequate samples of as many presumed species or other groups of interest as possible, are essential to the success of such analyses. Two methods of stereometric measurement have been developed to make this possible. In initial studies of the Hylobatidae and the Hominoidea, a simple mechanical device was designed which determines the tri-dimensional coordinates of an anatomical point by measuring an angle and two distances. An improved version was used in an investigation of Subsaharan human crania. In a taxonomic revision of the Colobinae now in progress, crania are photographed in several views with a pair of metric cameras; point coordinates are then measured in a modified stereoplotter and the views rotated mathematically into a single coordinate system. Although stereometrics is only one component in a complex system of analysis, it is an extremely important one. Taxonomic revisions of the described scope and depth could not be carried out with conventional methods of measurement without a much greater commitment of resources, if at all.

  1. Visuomotor cerebellum in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogd, Jan; Schraa-Tam, Caroline K L; van der Geest, Jos N; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we will review the anatomical components of the visuomotor cerebellum in human and, where possible, in non-human primates and discuss their function in relation to those of extracerebellar visuomotor regions with which they are connected. The floccular lobe, the dorsal paraflocculus, the oculomotor vermis, the uvula-nodulus, and the ansiform lobule are more or less independent components of the visuomotor cerebellum that are involved in different corticocerebellar and/or brain stem olivocerebellar loops. The floccular lobe and the oculomotor vermis share different mossy fiber inputs from the brain stem; the dorsal paraflocculus and the ansiform lobule receive corticopontine mossy fibers from postrolandic visual areas and the frontal eye fields, respectively. Of the visuomotor functions of the cerebellum, the vestibulo-ocular reflex is controlled by the floccular lobe; saccadic eye movements are controlled by the oculomotor vermis and ansiform lobule, while control of smooth pursuit involves all these cerebellar visuomotor regions. Functional imaging studies in humans further emphasize cerebellar involvement in visual reflexive eye movements and are discussed.

  2. [Diversity and development of positional behavior in non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Pei; Guo, Song-Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-10-01

    In long-term evolution, wildlife in general and primates in particular have formed specific patterns of behavior to adapt to a diverse variety of habitat environments. Current research on positional behavior in non-human primates has been found to explain a great deal about primate adaptability diversification, ecology, anatomy and evolution. Here, we summarize the noted classifications and differences in seasonal, site-specific and sex-age positional behaviors while also reviewing the development and status of non-human primate positional behavior research. This review is intended to provide reference for the future research of non-human primates and aid in further research on behavioral ecology of primates.

  3. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.

  4. LOGISMOS-B for primates: primate cortical surface reconstruction and thickness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Sanchez, Mar; Shi, Yundi; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Cortical thickness and surface area are important morphological measures with implications for many psychiatric and neurological conditions. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of the cortical surface from 3D MRI scans is challenging due to the variable anatomy of the cortex and its highly complex geometry. While many methods exist for this task in the context of the human brain, these methods are typically not readily applicable to the primate brain. We propose an innovative approach based on our recently proposed human cortical reconstruction algorithm, LOGISMOS-B, and the Laplace-based thickness measurement method. Quantitative evaluation of our approach was performed based on a dataset of T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans from 12-month-old macaques where labeling by our anatomical experts was used as independent standard. In this dataset, LOGISMOS-B has an average signed surface error of 0.01 +/- 0.03mm and an unsigned surface error of 0.42 +/- 0.03mm over the whole brain. Excluding the rather problematic temporal pole region further improves unsigned surface distance to 0.34 +/- 0.03mm. This high level of accuracy reached by our algorithm even in this challenging developmental dataset illustrates its robustness and its potential for primate brain studies.

  5. Homologous and Heterologous Protection of Nonhuman Primates by Ebola and Sudan Virus-Like Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Dye, John M.; Wells, Jay B.; Unfer, Robert C.; Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Swenson, Dana L.; Bavari, Sina; Aman, M. Javad

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and virus-like particles (VLPs) have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV) following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system) and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV) and Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components. PMID:25793502

  6. Homologous and heterologous protection of nonhuman primates by Ebola and Sudan virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Warfield

    Full Text Available Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and virus-like particles (VLPs have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV and Taï Forest virus (TAFV. Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components.

  7. Functional comparison of innate immune signaling pathways in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis B Barreiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans respond differently than other primates to a large number of infections. Differences in susceptibility to infectious agents between humans and other primates are probably due to inter-species differences in immune response to infection. Consistent with that notion, genes involved in immunity-related processes are strongly enriched among recent targets of positive selection in primates, suggesting that immune responses evolve rapidly, yet providing only indirect evidence for possible inter-species functional differences. To directly compare immune responses among primates, we stimulated primary monocytes from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and studied the ensuing time-course regulatory responses. We find that, while the universal Toll-like receptor response is mostly conserved across primates, the regulatory response associated with viral infections is often lineage-specific, probably reflecting rapid host-virus mutual adaptation cycles. Additionally, human-specific immune responses are enriched for genes involved in apoptosis, as well as for genes associated with cancer and with susceptibility to infectious diseases or immune-related disorders. Finally, we find that chimpanzee-specific immune signaling pathways are enriched for HIV-interacting genes. Put together, our observations lend strong support to the notion that lineage-specific immune responses may help explain known inter-species differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  8. Biology of primate relaxin: A paracrine signal in early pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Eric S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Relaxin is a peptide hormone that exerts numerous effects in a variety of tissues across a broad range of species. Although first identified more than 75 years ago interest in relaxin biology has waxed and waned over the years consistent with peaks and troughs of new experimental data on its wide-ranging biological effects and advances in relaxin enabling technologies. Recent insights into species-dependent differences in relaxin biology during pregnancy have once again stimulated a relative surge of interest in the study of relaxin's reproductive biology. Identification and pharmacological characterization of orphaned relaxin receptors and exploration of its paracrine effects on pregnancy using genomic and proteomic technologies have succeeded in fueling current interest in relaxin research. Primates and non-primate vertebrates exhibit very disparate profiles of relaxin genomics, proteomics and functional biology. Non-human primates appear to exhibit a very close similarity to humans with respect to relaxin reproductive biology but the similarities and subtle differences are only just beginning to be understood. We, and others, have shown that relaxin produces significant changes to the non-human primate endometrium during the peri-implantation period that are consistent with relaxin's long perceived role as a paracrine modulator of pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the reproductive biology of relaxin in non-human primates with a specific emphasis on the paracrine role of ovarian and endometrial relaxin during embryo implantation and early pregnancy.

  9. Stature estimation equations for South Asian skeletons based on DXA scans of contemporary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Wells, Jonathan C K; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay; Stock, Jay T

    2018-05-03

    Stature estimation from the skeleton is a classic anthropological problem, and recent years have seen the proliferation of population-specific regression equations. Many rely on the anatomical reconstruction of stature from archaeological skeletons to derive regression equations based on long bone lengths, but this requires a collection with very good preservation. In some regions, for example, South Asia, typical environmental conditions preclude the sufficient preservation of skeletal remains. Large-scale epidemiological studies that include medical imaging of the skeleton by techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) offer new potential datasets for developing such equations. We derived estimation equations based on known height and bone lengths measured from DXA scans from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (Hyderabad, India). Given debates on the most appropriate regression model to use, multiple methods were compared, and the performance of the equations was tested on a published skeletal dataset of individuals with known stature. The equations have standard errors of estimates and prediction errors similar to those derived using anatomical reconstruction or from cadaveric datasets. As measured by the number of significant differences between true and estimated stature, and the prediction errors, the new equations perform as well as, and generally better than, published equations commonly used on South Asian skeletons or based on Indian cadaveric datasets. This study demonstrates the utility of DXA scans as a data source for developing stature estimation equations and offer a new set of equations for use with South Asian datasets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Semi-Automatic Construction of Skeleton Concept Maps from Case Judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Sijtsma, B.; Winkels, R.; Lettieri, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to generating Skeleton Conceptual Maps (SCM) semi automatically from legal case documents provided by the United Kingdom’s Supreme Court. SCM are incomplete knowledge representations for the purpose of scaffolding learning. The proposed system intends to provide

  11. On the skeleton method and an application to a quantum scissor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, P.; Ricaud, B.

    2008-01-01

    In the spectral analysis of few one dimensional quantum particles interacting through delta potentials it is well known that one can recast the problem into the spectral analysis of an integral operator (the skeleton) living on the submanifold which supports the delta interactions. We shall prese...

  12. Effects of ocean acidification on the dissolution rates of reef-coral skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Woesik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification threatens the foundation of tropical coral reefs. This study investigated three aspects of ocean acidification: (i the rates at which perforate and imperforate coral-colony skeletons passively dissolve when pH is 7.8, which is predicted to occur globally by 2100, (ii the rates of passive dissolution of corals with respect to coral-colony surface areas, and (iii the comparative rates of a vertical reef-growth model, incorporating passive dissolution rates, and predicted sea-level rise. By 2100, when the ocean pH is expected to be 7.8, perforate Montipora coral skeletons will lose on average 15 kg CaCO3 m−2 y−1, which is approximately −10.5 mm of vertical reduction of reef framework per year. This rate of passive dissolution is higher than the average rate of reef growth over the last several millennia and suggests that reefs composed of perforate Montipora coral skeletons will have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise under ocean acidification. Reefs composed of primarily imperforate coral skeletons will not likely dissolve as rapidly, but our model shows they will also have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise by 2050.

  13. Automated detection of branch dimensions in woody skeletons of leafless fruit tree canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Fleck, S.

    2009-01-01

    Light driven physiological processes of tree canopies need to be modelled based on detailed 3Dcanopy structure – we explore the possibilities offered by terrestrial LIDAR to automatically represent woody skeletons of leafless trees as a basis for adequate models of canopy structure. The automatic

  14. Paleodysmorphology and paleoteratology: Diagnosing and interpreting congenital conditions of the skeleton in anthropological contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Boer, Lucas; van der Merwe, Alie E.

    2016-01-01

    Most congenital conditions have low prevalence, but collectively they occur in a few percent of all live births. Congenital conditions are rarely encountered in anthropological studies, not least because many of them have no obvious effect on the skeleton. Here, we discuss two groups of congenital

  15. Design of a compliantly actuated exo-skeleton for an impedance controlled gait trainer robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Herman; Veneman, Jan; Ekkelenkamp, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and built a lower extremity powered exo-skeleton (LOPES) for the training of post-stroke patients. This paper describes the philosophy behind the design of LOPES, motivates the choices that have been made and gives some exemplary results of the ranges of mechanical impedances that can be achieved.

  16. Design of compliantly actuated exo-skeleton for an impedance controlled gait trainer robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Herman; Veneman, J.F.; Ekkelenkamp, R.; IEEE Engineering in Medicine,

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and built a lower extremity powered exo-skeleton (LOPES) for the training of post-stroke patients. This paper describes the philosophy behind the design of LOPES (Fig. 1), motivates the choices that have been made and gives some exemplary results of the ranges of mechanical

  17. A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

  18. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of amino acid extracts from Californian palaeoindian skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bada, J.L.; Gillespie, R.; Gowlett, J.A.J.; Hedges, R.E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used accelerator mass spectrometry to determine the radiocarbon ages of the amino acid extracts used in the original racemization studies of skeletal remains found in California. The studies indicate that some of the controversial Californian skeletons, which had been assigned to the Upper Pleistocene, are in fact Holocene. (author)

  19. Skeleton-Based Human Action Recognition With Global Context-Aware Attention LSTM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Gang; Duan, Ling-Yu; Abdiyeva, Kamila; Kot, Alex C.

    2018-04-01

    Human action recognition in 3D skeleton sequences has attracted a lot of research attention. Recently, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks have shown promising performance in this task due to their strengths in modeling the dependencies and dynamics in sequential data. As not all skeletal joints are informative for action recognition, and the irrelevant joints often bring noise which can degrade the performance, we need to pay more attention to the informative ones. However, the original LSTM network does not have explicit attention ability. In this paper, we propose a new class of LSTM network, Global Context-Aware Attention LSTM (GCA-LSTM), for skeleton based action recognition. This network is capable of selectively focusing on the informative joints in each frame of each skeleton sequence by using a global context memory cell. To further improve the attention capability of our network, we also introduce a recurrent attention mechanism, with which the attention performance of the network can be enhanced progressively. Moreover, we propose a stepwise training scheme in order to train our network effectively. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on five challenging benchmark datasets for skeleton based action recognition.

  20. Modified Alizarin Red S-Alcian Blue Staining for Reptilian Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ja’far Luthfi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal staining is an important method in anatomical study. The aim of the research was to develop staining and clearing method of Reptilian skeleton using Alizarin Red S-Alcian Blue. The specimen were eviscerated, fixed, stained, cleared, and keep in glycerine solution. This modified double-staining has successfully stain bone and cartilage of Reptilian.

  1. Osteocalcin protein sequences of Neanderthals and modern primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Marsh, Christina M; Richards, Michael P; Hauschka, Peter V; Thomas-Oates, Jane E; Trinkaus, Erik; Pettitt, Paul B; Karavanic, Ivor; Poinar, Hendrik; Collins, Matthew J

    2005-03-22

    We report here protein sequences of fossil hominids, from two Neanderthals dating to approximately 75,000 years old from Shanidar Cave in Iraq. These sequences, the oldest reported fossil primate protein sequences, are of bone osteocalcin, which was extracted and sequenced by using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Through a combination of direct sequencing and peptide mass mapping, we determined that Neanderthals have an osteocalcin amino acid sequence that is identical to that of modern humans. We also report complete osteocalcin sequences for chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a partial sequence for orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), all of which are previously unreported. We found that the osteocalcin sequences of Neanderthals, modern human, chimpanzee, and orangutan are unusual among mammals in that the ninth amino acid is proline (Pro-9), whereas most species have hydroxyproline (Hyp-9). Posttranslational hydroxylation of Pro-9 in osteocalcin by prolyl-4-hydroxylase requires adequate concentrations of vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid), molecular O(2), Fe(2+), and 2-oxoglutarate, and also depends on enzyme recognition of the target proline substrate consensus sequence Leu-Gly-Ala-Pro-9-Ala-Pro-Tyr occurring in most mammals. In five species with Pro-9-Val-10, hydroxylation is blocked, whereas in gorilla there is a mixture of Pro-9 and Hyp-9. We suggest that the absence of hydroxylation of Pro-9 in Pan, Pongo, and Homo may reflect response to a selective pressure related to a decline in vitamin C in the diet during omnivorous dietary adaptation, either independently or through the common ancestor of these species.

  2. Collagen Fiber Orientation in Primate Long Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Johanna; Bromage, Timothy G; Terranova, Carl J; Enlow, Donald H

    2017-07-01

    Studies of variation in orientation of collagen fibers within bone have lead to the proposition that these are preferentially aligned to accommodate different kinds of load, with tension best resisted by fibers aligned longitudinally relative to the load, and compression best resisted by transversely aligned fibers. However, previous studies have often neglected to consider the effect of developmental processes, including constraints on collagen fiber orientation (CFO), particularly in primary bone. Here we use circularly polarized light microscopy to examine patterns of CFO in cross-sections from the midshaft femur, humerus, tibia, radius, and ulna in a range of living primate taxa with varied body sizes, phylogenetic relationships and positional behaviors. We find that a preponderance of longitudinally oriented collagen is characteristic of both periosteal primary and intracortically remodeled bone. Where variation does occur among groups, it is not simply understood via interpretations of mechanical loads, although prioritized adaptations to tension and/or shear are considered. While there is some suggestion that CFO may correlate with body size, this relationship is neither consistent nor easily explicable through consideration of size-related changes in mechanical adaptation. The results of our study indicate that there is no clear relationship between CFO and phylogenetic status. One of the principle factors accounting for the range of variation that does exist is primary tissue type, where slower depositing bone is more likely to comprise a larger proportion of oblique to transverse collagen fibers. Anat Rec, 300:1189-1207, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PET imaging using parkinsonian primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Many animal models have been for studying neutrodegenerative diseases in humans. Among them, Parkinson's disease (PD) model in primates treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is expected to be valid and useful in the field of regenerative medicine. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate parkinsonian syndrome, such as tremor, dyskinesia, rigidity, immobility, caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons at the nigrostriatal pathway. In this model, investigation of cognitive impairment that is one of the important aspects of PD could be possible. We evaluated the degeneration process of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons with positron emission tomography (PET) using unanesthetized MPTP-treated two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The tracers used were [11C]PE2I, [11C]DOPA, [11C]raclopride for monitoring dopamine transporter (DAT) densities, dopamine (DA) turnover, dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) densities, respectively. The gross behavioral observation was also performed referring to the criteria of the PD symptoms. The motor dysfunction was not clearly observed up to the cumulative doses of 3 mg/kg MPTP. This period was called 'asymptomatic period'. As a result of PET scans in the asymptomatic period, DAT densities and DA turnover had already decreased greatly, but D2R densities had not changed clearly. These findings suggest that PET imaging can delineate the dopaminergic dysfunction in vivo even in the asymptomatic period. In human study of PD, it is reported that parkinsonism is shown after great loss of dopaminergic neutrons as well as pre-synaptic dysfunction. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate the parkinsonian syndrome with the similar mechanism as human PD. It can be expected that PET study with MPTP-monkeys would provide important clues relevant to the underlying cause of PD and be useful for preclinical study of regenerative medicine in this disease. (author)

  4. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  5. The axial skeleton of the Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostega.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Per Erik; Clack, Jennifer A; Blom, Henning

    2005-09-01

    Ichthyostega was the first Devonian tetrapod to be subject to a whole-body reconstruction. It remains, together with Acanthostega, one of only two Devonian tetrapods for which near-complete postcranial material is available. It is thus crucially important for our understanding of the earliest stages of tetrapod evolution and terrestrialization. Here we show a new reconstruction of Ichthyostega based on extensive re-examination of original material and augmented by recently collected specimens. Our reconstruction differs substantially from those previously published and reveals hitherto unrecognized regionalization in the vertebral column. Ichthyostega is the earliest vertebrate to show obvious adaptations for non-swimming locomotion. Uniquely among early tetrapods, the presacral vertebral column shows pronounced regionalization of neural arch morphology, suggesting that it was adapted for dorsoventral rather than lateral flexion.

  6. Geochemical study of coral skeletons from the Puerto Morelos Reef, southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper-Zubillaga, Juan J.; Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Rosales-Hoz, Leticia

    2014-12-01

    Geochemical analyses in coral skeletons have been used as a proxy of marine environmental conditions and to understand the mechanisms of adsorption of chemical elements into the coral skeletons and growth forms. However, little attention has been given to show the possible differences in the growth rates of corals based upon major, trace, rare earth element and microprobe analyses to examine the physical-chemical conditions influencing those differences. Our goal is to show how branch and fan corals incorporate elements into their skeletons comparing them with their coral growth rates. We determine the development of the skeletons of two branching (Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis) and one fan shaped (Gorgonia ventalina) colonies in the Puerto Morelos Reef, southeastern Mexico based upon geochemical data and the influence of terrigenous input into the species. Mg and Sr concentrations were the most statistically significant elements among the species studied suggesting that Mg concentration in Gorgonia ventalina is probably not linked to its growth rate. Mn content in the sea water is adsorbed by the three corals during past growth rates during high rainfall events. Sr concentration may be associated with the growth rate of Acropora palmata. Little differences in the growth rate in Acropora palmata may be associated with low rates of calcitization, negligible changes in the Sr concentration and little influence of temperature and water depth in its growth. Trace elements like Cr, Co, Ni and V adsorbed by the corals are influenced by natural concentration of these elements in the sea-water. Rare earth elements in the corals studied suggests abundant inorganic ions CO32- with variable pH in modern shallow well-oxygenated sea water. Lack of terrigenous input seawards is supported by geochemical, geomorphological and biological evidences. This study is an example of how geochemical data are useful to observe the differences in environmental conditions related to

  7. Introduction to the Handbook of Primate Behavioral Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schapiro, Steve

    2017-01-01

    of behavioral management programs for nonhuman primates (NHPs) with a plethora of information, guidance, and data that will allow them to do everything within their power to guarantee that their animals are living in the best conditions possible. A more specific goal involves the presentation of the science......Welcome to the Handbook of Primate Behavioral Management (HPBM). This handbook contains 29 chapters divided into six parts, all of which focus on aspects of primate behavioral management. The overall goal of the HPBM is to provide those responsible for the development and/or implementation...... of behavioral management, so that behavioral managers can base their decisions on relevant empirical evidence. If the data show that the subadult male offspring of high-ranking females cause social instability in large groups of rhesus macaques living in field cages (McCowan and Beisner 2017...

  8. Primate-specific evolution of an LDLR enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-Fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2005-12-01

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often been invoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecular examples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study we identified an anthropoid primate-specific sequence element that contributed to the regulatory evolution of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Using a combination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisons coupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we found that a functional cholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within a pre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Our study demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalian regulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primate lineage leading to human.

  9. A small nonhuman primate model for filovirus-induced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Ro, Youngtae; Hoosien, Kareema; Ticer, Anysha; Brasky, Kathy; de la Garza, Melissa; Mansfield, Keith; Patterson, Jean L

    2011-11-25

    Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus are members of the filovirus family and induce a fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates with 90% case fatality. To develop a small nonhuman primate model for filovirus disease, common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were intramuscularly inoculated with wild type Marburgvirus Musoke or Ebolavirus Zaire. The infection resulted in a systemic fatal disease with clinical and morphological features closely resembling human infection. Animals experienced weight loss, fever, high virus titers in tissue, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, high liver transaminases and phosphatases and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Evidence of a severe disseminated viral infection characterized principally by multifocal to coalescing hepatic necrosis was seen in EBOV animals. MARV-infected animals displayed only moderate fibrin deposition in the spleen. Lymphoid necrosis and lymphocytic depletion observed in spleen. These findings provide support for the use of the common marmoset as a small nonhuman primate model for filovirus induced hemorrhagic fever. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S; Rooney, William D

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third-trimester ......Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third......-trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (approximately 100%). Inasmuch as brain glucose metabolism is a sensitive marker of brain function, the current findings provide...

  11. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Primate social attention: Species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Fumihiro; Shepherd, Stephen V.; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2018-01-01

    When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models’ eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and th...

  13. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D; Timm, Robert M; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B; Perry, George H; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  15. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Scaling of cerebral blood perfusion in primates and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Angove, Sophie E; Snelling, Edward P; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of primates involved increasing body size, brain size and presumably cognitive ability. Cognition is related to neural activity, metabolic rate and rate of blood flow to the cerebral cortex. These parameters are difficult to quantify in living animals. This study shows that it is possible to determine the rate of cortical brain perfusion from the size of the internal carotid artery foramina in skulls of certain mammals, including haplorrhine primates and diprotodont marsupials. We quantify combined blood flow rate in both internal carotid arteries as a proxy of brain metabolism in 34 species of haplorrhine primates (0.116-145 kg body mass) and compare it to the same analysis for 19 species of diprotodont marsupials (0.014-46 kg). Brain volume is related to body mass by essentially the same exponent of 0.70 in both groups. Flow rate increases with haplorrhine brain volume to the 0.95 power, which is significantly higher than the exponent (0.75) expected for most organs according to 'Kleiber's Law'. By comparison, the exponent is 0.73 in marsupials. Thus, the brain perfusion rate increases with body size and brain size much faster in primates than in marsupials. The trajectory of cerebral perfusion in primates is set by the phylogenetically older groups (New and Old World monkeys, lesser apes) and the phylogenetically younger groups (great apes, including humans) fall near the line, with the highest perfusion. This may be associated with disproportionate increases in cortical surface area and mental capacity in the highly social, larger primates. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Sequential aminodiene Diels-Alder approach to the ergoline skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwa, Albert; Bur, Scott K; Zhang, Hongjun

    2005-08-19

    Through a novel sequence of aminodiene Diels-Alder reactions, several substituted amidofurans were readily converted to tricyclic ketones in good yield. The formation of the tricyclic ketone system is the result of a ring opening and dehydration of a transient oxabicyclic adduct formed by an intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition of an amidofuran with a cyclohexenone moiety tethered such that it participates in the cycloaddition as the 2pi component. A convenient way to construct the cyclohexenone is to make use of some aminodiene chemistry developed by Rawal. An angular carbomethoxy group is required in order to activate the olefin toward cycloaddition with Rawal's diene. The presence of this activating group not only prevents the isomerization of the advanced ergoline intermediate to a naphthalene but can also be leveraged for an oxidation to provide Uhle's ketone (13). The easily formed Kornfeld ketone analogue 25 was readily transformed into the corresponding triflate 41 by the action of triflic anhydride and a base. Oxidative addition of vinyl triflate 41 to Pd(0) and the ability of the resulting vinyl palladium species to undergo cross-coupling with terminal alkynes prompted us to devise an expeditious route to lysergic acid. Unfortunately, our inability to carry out a regioselective Heck reaction using vinyl triflate 41 and the methylene amino acrylate ester 48 thwarted the completion of the synthesis of lysergic acid.

  18. Radiological investigations of the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) appendicular skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Javadi, Shahram; Hadian, Mojtaba; Pourreza, Behzad; Behfar, Mahdi

    2009-03-01

    The normal radiographic anatomy of the healthy hedgehog can help to identify anatomic features unique to the hedgehog while comparing it with other small mammals, such as the dog and cat. Radiographic examination is a method that can play an important role in the diagnosis of a wide variety of skeletal diseases. Seven (2 males, 5 females) free-living hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from the Urmia region of Iran were selected for this study. Lateral and craniocaudal radiographs from the front and hind limbs were obtained. The radiographs from these hedgehogs were compared with the normal canine and feline skeletal radiographic anatomy. On the forelimb radiographs, the clavicle was observed as a complete bone connected to the scapula and manubrium. There are three and five carpal bones in the proximal and distal rows, respectively, as in the dog and cat. The pelvis has a larger obturator foramen when compared with the dog and cat. In the lateral view, the pubis and ischium are relatively larger than in the dog and cat and have a more ventral position. The tarsal bones are similar to those of the dog and cat. The number of phalanges and sesamoid bones in the forelimb and hindlimb are likewise similar to those found in the dog and cat.

  19. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonhuman primates. 3.87 Section 3.87 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.87 Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3...

  20. 78 FR 11521 - Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign-Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Part 71 Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign--Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP... Primates (NHP) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human... live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca...

  1. Primate-Specific Evolution of an LDLR Enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2006-06-28

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often beeninvoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecularexamples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study, weidentified an anthropoid primate specific sequence element thatcontributed to the regulatory evolution of the LDL receptor. Using acombination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisonscoupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we show that a functionalcholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within apre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Ourstudy demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalianregulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primatelineage leading to human.

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia

  3. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Picq

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  4. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use.

  5. A Conversation with Sally Coxe: A Primate Partnership Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riane Eisler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IJPS Editor-in-Chief Riane Eisler talks with Sally Coxe, founding director of the Bonobo Conservation Initiative (BCI, dedicated to protecting these uniquely peaceful primates who share more than 98 percent of our human species’ genes and are on the brink of extinction, as well as protecting their rainforest home.

  6. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  7. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  8. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.; Postma, A.; Ham, I.J. van der; Klink, P.C.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  9. Extensive diversity of intestinal trichomonads of non-human primates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smejkalová, P.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Pomajbíková, K.; Modrý, David; Čepička, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 1 (2012), s. 92-102 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : trichomonads * Parabasalia * non-human primates * diversity * host specificity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

  10. Molecular Evolution of the Glycosyltransferase 6 Gene Family in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Evanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosyltransferase 6 gene family includes ABO, Ggta1, iGb3S, and GBGT1 genes and by three putative genes restricted to mammals, GT6m6, GTm6, and GT6m7, only the latter is found in primates. GT6 genes may encode functional and nonfunctional proteins. Ggta1 and GBGT1 genes, for instance, are pseudogenes in catarrhine primates, while iGb3S gene is only inactive in human, bonobo, and chimpanzee. Even inactivated, these genes tend to be conversed in primates. As some of the GT6 genes are related to the susceptibility or resistance to parasites, we investigated (i the selective pressure on the GT6 paralogs genes in primates; (ii the basis of the conservation of iGb3S in human, chimpanzee, and bonobo; and (iii the functional potential of the GBGT1 and GT6m7 in catarrhines. We observed that the purifying selection is prevalent and these genes have a low diversity, though ABO and Ggta1 genes have some sites under positive selection. GT6m7, a putative gene associated with aggressive periodontitis, may have regulatory function, but experimental studies are needed to assess its function. The evolutionary conservation of iGb3S in humans, chimpanzee, and bonobo seems to be the result of proximity to genes with important biological functions.

  11. The pervasive role of social learning in primate lifetime development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; van de Waal, Erica

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, an accelerating research effort has exploited a substantial diversity of methodologies to garner mounting evidence for social learning and culture in many species of primate. As in humans, the evidence suggests that the juvenile phases of non-human primates' lives represent a period of particular intensity in adaptive learning from others, yet the relevant research remains scattered in the literature. Accordingly, we here offer what we believe to be the first substantial collation and review of this body of work and its implications for the lifetime behavioral ecology of primates. We divide our analysis into three main phases: a first phase of learning focused on primary attachment figures, typically the mother; a second phase of selective learning from a widening array of group members, including some with expertise that the primary figures may lack; and a third phase following later dispersal, when a migrant individual encounters new ecological and social circumstances about which the existing residents possess expertise that can be learned from. Collating a diversity of discoveries about this lifetime process leads us to conclude that social learning pervades primate ontogenetic development, importantly shaping locally adaptive knowledge and skills that span multiple aspects of the behavioral repertoire.

  12. Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza J Shapiro

    Full Text Available Since 2005, an extensive literature documents individuals from several families afflicted with "Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS," a condition that in its most extreme form is characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, loss of balance and coordination, impaired cognitive abilities, and habitual quadrupedal gait on hands and feet. Some researchers have interpreted habitual use of quadrupedalism by these individuals from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that it represents an atavistic expression of our quadrupedal primate ancestry or "devolution." In support of this idea, individuals with "UTS" are said to use diagonal sequence quadrupedalism, a type of quadrupedal gait that distinguishes primates from most other mammals. Although the use of primate-like quadrupedal gait in humans would not be sufficient to support the conclusion of evolutionary "reversal," no quantitative gait analyses were presented to support this claim. Using standard gait analysis of 518 quadrupedal strides from video sequences of individuals with "UTS", we found that these humans almost exclusively used lateral sequence-not diagonal sequence-quadrupedal gaits. The quadrupedal gait of these individuals has therefore been erroneously described as primate-like, further weakening the "devolution" hypothesis. In fact, the quadrupedalism exhibited by individuals with UTS resembles that of healthy adult humans asked to walk quadrupedally in an experimental setting. We conclude that quadrupedalism in healthy adults or those with a physical disability can be explained using biomechanical principles rather than evolutionary assumptions.

  13. Why does multiple sclerosis only affect human primates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) develops exclusively in humans. Non-human primates are resistant against MS, although they are highly susceptible to the MS animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Unravelling of the cause(s) underlying this discrepancy is highly relevant as

  14. Heterogeneity of life histories in a nonhuman primate population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Steiner, Uli

    2014-01-01

    histories within a primate population is generated by density-dependent dynamics, the demographic data of Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques over 40 years and 7000 individuals was used. A multi-stage model using a first-order Markov process describing reproductive dynamics was constructed and annual entropy...

  15. Differences in auditory timing between human and nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Merchant, H.

    2014-01-01

    The gradual audiomotor evolution hypothesis is proposed as an alternative interpretation to the auditory timing mechanisms discussed in Ackermann et al.'s article. This hypothesis accommodates the fact that the performance of nonhuman primates is comparable to humans in single-interval tasks (such

  16. Distribution of the potto Perodictus potto (Primates: Lorisidae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of East African Natural History ... This paper (1) examines the Eastern Rift Valley as a major barrier to primate distribution in eastern Africa, (2) reviews the taxonomy of P. potto, (3) describes the distribution of the eastern potto P.p. ibeanus, (4) summarizes what is known about the body size, abundance, elevation ...

  17. Locomotion and basicranial anatomy in primates and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, Catalina I

    2017-10-01

    There is ongoing debate in paleoanthropology about whether and how the anatomy of the cranium, and especially the cranial base, is evolving in response to locomotor and postural changes. However, the majority of studies focus on two-dimensional data, which fails to capture the complexity of cranial anatomy. This study tests whether three-dimensional cranial base anatomy is linked to locomotion or to other factors in primates (n = 473) and marsupials (n = 231). Results indicate that although there is a small effect of locomotion on cranial base anatomy in primates, this is not the case in marsupials. Instead, facial anatomy likely drives variation in cranial base anatomy in both primates and marsupials, with additional roles for body size and brain size. Although some changes to foramen magnum position and orientation are phylogenetically useful among the hominoids, they do not necessarily reflect locomotion or positional behavior. The interplay between locomotion, posture, and facial anatomy in primates requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens - Primate Evolutionary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens - Primate Evolutionary History. Sindhu Radhakrishna. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-06-07

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage.

  20. Functional morphology of the primate head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, Thierra K; Grider-Potter, Neysa

    2015-04-01

    The vertebral column plays a key role in maintaining posture, locomotion, and transmitting loads between body components. Cervical vertebrae act as a bridge between the torso and head and play a crucial role in the maintenance of head position and the visual field. Despite its importance in positional behaviors, the functional morphology of the cervical region remains poorly understood, particularly in comparison to the thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal column. This study tests whether morphological variation in the primate cervical vertebrae correlates with differences in postural behavior. Phylogenetic generalized least-squares analyses were performed on a taxonomically broad sample of 26 extant primate taxa to test the link between vertebral morphology and posture. Kinematic data on primate head and neck postures were used instead of behavioral categories in an effort to provide a more direct analysis of our functional hypothesis. Results provide evidence for a function-form link between cervical vertebral shape and postural behaviors. Specifically, taxa with more pronograde heads and necks and less kyphotic orbits exhibit cervical vertebrae with longer spinous processes, indicating increased mechanical advantage for deep nuchal musculature, and craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies and more coronally oriented zygapophyseal articular facets, suggesting an emphasis on curve formation and maintenance within the cervical lordosis, coupled with a greater resistance to translation and ventral displacement. These results not only document support for functional relationships in cervical vertebrae features across a wide range of primate taxa, but highlight the utility of quantitative behavioral data in functional investigations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  2. Alterations of a bony skeleton histostructure in amphibians inhabiting the Chernobyl AES zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, N.V.; Mazhuga, P.M.; Domashevskaya, E.I.; Gorskij, B.A.; Nakorenok, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    By using the methods of histology and radiochemistry was investigated the bone skeleton State of amphibians (pond and cake fogs) which were caught in the ChNPP cooling pond and in the village Kopachy. It were submitted the results of content measurements of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 134 Cs in the bone skeleton of the amphibians which were captured in the ChNPP 30-km zone and in the non contaminated territories (Sviyatoshin) during the period of 1991-1993 years. It was studied the hystostructure of the tubular bones. Main emphasis was placed to the state of cells and bone matrix state in metaphyses and also compacts in diaphyses. Some particular features of osteoblastic and resorbtion processes in the bones of amphibious in the ChNPP zone have been discovered

  3. Aspects of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton with particular emphasis on the active marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys on man and results from animal experiments have shown that two tissues associated with the skeleton are of primary concern with respect to cancer induction by ionizing radiation. These are the cells on or near endosteal surfaces of bone, from which osteosarcomas are thought to arise, and hematopoietic bone marrow, which is associated with leukemia. The complex geometry of the soft tissue-bone intermixture makes calculations of absorbed dose to these target regions a difficult problem. In the case of photon or neutron radiations, charged particle equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interface. In this paper a general study of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton is presented. Dosimetric data consistent with the MIRD schema and reflecting the physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition are tabulated for the relevant target regions. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Reversibility of Pt-Skin and Pt-Skeleton Nanostructures in Acidic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Julien; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Dubau, Laetitia; Chatenet, Marian; Soldo-Olivier, Yvonne; Guétaz, Laure; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Maillard, Frédéric

    2014-02-06

    Following a well-defined series of acid and heat treatments on a benchmark Pt3Co/C sample, three different nanostructures of interest for the electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction were tailored. These nanostructures could be sorted into the "Pt-skin" structure, made of one pure Pt overlayer, and the "Pt-skeleton" structure, made of 2-3 Pt overlayers surrounding the Pt-Co alloy core. Using a unique combination of high-resolution aberration-corrected STEM-EELS, XRD, EXAFS, and XANES measurements, we provide atomically resolved pictures of these different nanostructures, including measurement of the Pt-shell thickness forming in acidic media and the resulting changes of the bulk and core chemical composition. It is shown that the Pt-skin is reverted toward the Pt-skeleton upon contact with acid electrolyte. This change in structure causes strong variations of the chemical composition.

  5. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-07-14

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  6. Hybrid Compounds Strategy in the Synthesis of Oleanolic Acid Skeleton-NSAID Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawełczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the synthesis of several hybrid individuals combining a natural oleanolic acid skeleton and synthetic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug moieties (NSAIDs. It studied structural modifications of the oleanolic acid structure by use of the direct reactivity of hydroxyl or hydroxyimino groups at position C-3 of the triterpenoid skeleton with the carboxylic function of anti-inflammatory drugs leading to new perspective compounds with high potential pharmacological activities. Novel ester- and iminoester-type derivatives of oleanolic unit with the different NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, and ketoprofen, were obtained and characterized. Moreover, preliminary research of compounds obtaining structure stability under acidic conditions was examined and the PASS method of prediction of activity spectra for substances was used to estimate the potential biological activity of these compounds.

  7. Sea urchin skeleton: Structure, composition, and application as a template for biomimetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapkin, Nikolay P.; Khalchenko, Irina G.; Panasenko, Alexander E.; Drozdov, Anatoly L.

    2017-07-01

    SEM and optical microscopy, chemical and EDX analysis, XRD, and FT-IR spectroscopy of three sea urchins skeletons (tests) show that the test is a spongy stereom, consisting of calcite with high content of magnesium. The tests are composed of mineral-organic composite of calcite-magnesite crystals, coated with organic film, containing silicon in form of polyphenylsiloxane. In the test of sea urchin pore spaces are linked into united system of regular structure with structure motive period about 20 um. This developed three-dimensional structure was used as a template for polymer material based on polyferrofenilsiloxane [OSiC6H5OH]x[OSiC6H5O]y[OFeO]z, which is chemically similar to the native film, coating sea urchins skeleton.

  8. Semi-Automatic Construction of Skeleton Concept Maps from Case Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, A.; Sijtsma, B.; Winkels, R.; Lettieri, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to generating Skeleton Conceptual Maps (SCM) semi automatically from legal case documents provided by the United Kingdom’s Supreme Court. SCM are incomplete knowledge representations for the purpose of scaffolding learning. The proposed system intends to provide students with a tool to pre-process text and to extract knowledge from documents in a time saving manner. A combination of natural language processing methods and proposition extraction algorithms are u...

  9. Mobile computation offloading architecture for mobile augmented reality, case study: Visualization of cetacean skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Belen G. Rodriguez-Santana; Amilcar Meneses Viveros; Blanca Esther Carvajal-Gamez; Diana Carolina Trejo-Osorio

    2016-01-01

    Augmented Reality applications can serve as teach-ing tools in different contexts of use. Augmented reality appli-cation on mobile devices can help to provide tourist information on cities or to give information on visits to museums. For example, during visits to museums of natural history, applications of augmented reality on mobile devices can be used by some visitors to interact with the skeleton of a whale. However, making rendering heavy models can be computationally infeasible on device...

  10. New Insights into the Carbon Isotope Variations in Coral Skeletons (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    The origin of the carbon isotopic composition of coral skeletons has been a subject of speculation and controversy since the first stable C and O isotopic measurements were made on corals in the 1960s and the first models of fractionation were proposed by Weber and coworkers. Early models focused on the interactions between the zooxanthellae and the coral organism and the relationship with insolation. Models were proposed that linked higher levels of photosynthesis to both 13C enriched and 13C depleted skeletal material. While the model which showed elevated 13C values related to enhanced photosynthesis generally has found favor and fits the majority of the data from experimental and field studies, more recent work has also shown the importance of the natural variability of the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon on interannual and longer time scales. This variability can overwhelm photosynthetic induced variability. For example, changes over the time period of 100s of years, caused by the addition of fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere, has resulted in a general decline in the δ13C of coral skeletons since ~1800. These changes are even larger in instances in which local variations in δ13C are related to land use changes and the openness of the environment. Recently there has been concern regarding the decrease in the pH of the oceans related to increases in oceanic pCO2. This also has potential to changes the δ13C of the coral skeleton. Finally there are seasonal variations in the types of organic compounds being oxidized by the coral. This may be related to the types of materials being translocated between the zooxanthellae and the coral. All these factors make changes in the δ13C of coral skeletons much more than a reflection of the influence of insolation.

  11. The origin and diversification of the developmental mechanisms that pattern the vertebrate head skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Square, Tyler; Jandzik, David; Romášek, Marek; Cerny, Robert; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans

    2017-07-15

    The apparent evolvability of the vertebrate head skeleton has allowed a diverse array of shapes, sizes, and compositions of the head in order to better adapt species to their environments. This encompasses feeding, breathing, sensing, and communicating: the head skeleton somehow participated in the evolution of all these critical processes for the last 500 million years. Through evolution, present head diversity was made possible via developmental modifications to the first head skeletal genetic program. Understanding the development of the vertebrate common ancestor's head skeleton is thus an important step in identifying how different lineages have respectively achieved their many innovations in the head. To this end, cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates) are extremely useful, having diverged from jawed vertebrates approximately 400 million years ago, at the deepest node within living vertebrates. From this ancestral vantage point (that is, the node connecting cyclostomes and gnathostomes) we can best identify the earliest major differences in development between vertebrate classes, and start to address how these might translate onto morphology. In this review we survey what is currently known about the cell biology and gene expression during head development in modern vertebrates, allowing us to better characterize the developmental genetics driving head skeleton formation in the most recent common ancestor of all living vertebrates. By pairing this vertebrate composite with information from fossil chordates, we can also deduce how gene regulatory modules might have been arranged in the ancestral vertebrate head. Together, we can immediately begin to understand which aspects of head skeletal development are the most conserved, and which are divergent, informing us as to when the first differences appear during development, and thus which pathways or cell types might be involved in generating lineage specific shape and structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Explodator: A new skeleton mechanism for the halate driven chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszticzius, Z.; Farkas, H.; Schelly, Z. A.

    1984-06-01

    In the first part of this work, some shortcomings in the present theories of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii oscillating reaction are discussed. In the second part, a new oscillatory scheme, the limited Explodator, is proposed as an alternative skeleton mechanism. This model contains an always unstable three-variable Lotka-Volterra core (the ``Explodator'') and a stabilizing limiting reaction. The new scheme exhibits Hopf bifurcation and limit cycle oscillations. Finally, some possibilities and problems of a generalization are mentioned.

  13. Benign notochordal lesions of the axial skeleton: a review and current appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 1996 meeting of the International Skeletal Society, an idea was put forth that there existed symptomatic lesions of the axial skeleton, morphologically different from chordoma, that were consistent with benign notochordal remnants (rests). A review of the embryological basis for this concept is made, along with an analysis of these lesions, termed giant notochordal rests or benign notochordal cell tumors, that have been reported in the intervening 15 years, with a commentary on their relationship, if any, to chordoma. (orig.)

  14. Social networking between cells of the foetal skeleton: the importance of thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In this issue of Journal of Endocrinology, Lanham et al. investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on the developing skeleton of the ovine foetus in utero. Their analyses indicated that, following thyroidectomy, bone growth, structure and mechanical properties were all altered at late gestation or at term. Adrenalectomy, whilst preventing the prepartum rise in triiodothyronine, did not modify skeletal development. The hypothyroid-mediated skeletal defects of the developing foetus described in this study may have clinical implications for bone health in later life.

  15. Constraining calcium isotope fractionation (δ44/40Ca) in modern and fossil scleractinian coral skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Pretet, Chloé; Samankassou, Elias; Felis, Thomas; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Böhm, Florian; Eisenhauer, Anton; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of environmental (temperature, salinity) and biological (growth rate, inter-generic variations) parameters on calcium isotope fractionation (δ44/40Ca) in scleractinian coral skeleton to better constrain this record. Previous studies focused on the δ44/40Ca record in different marine organisms to reconstruct seawater composition or temperature, but only few studies investigated corals. This study presents measurements performed on modern corals f...

  16. Skeletonization of Left Internal Mammary Artery in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.S.; Shah, M.U.A.; Asghar, M.I.; Janjua, A.M.; Iqbal, A.; Siddiqi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare mean per-operative flow capacity between skeletonized and pedicled left internal mammary artery (LIMA) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Cardiac Surgery, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD), Rawalpindi, Pakistan from February to August, 2013. Methodology: Patients undergoing CABG for coronary artery disease, under 80 years, excluded by the exclusion criteria; and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two groups of 70 each. One group underwent skeletonized and the other underwent pedicled technique of LIMA harvesting. Free flow was checked just before anastamosis of each LIMA to the LAD, manually in blood flow in ml per minute during cardiopulmonary bypass by allowing it to bleed into a 100 ml container over 20 seconds. A specialized proforma was used to record the age, gender, weight, disease, type of IMA used, and free flow of the IMA. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18. Result: The mean age of the patients was 57.16 years in 40 patients, ranging from 36 to 75 years. Disease pattern analysis showed 5 percent, 10.7 percent and 84.3 percent single, double and triple vessel coronary artery disease, respectively. There was significantly higher free flow in the skeletonized group than the pedicled group (p=0.04). Conclusion: Skeletonized IMA had superior flow to pedicled IMA in addition to its traditional proven advantages, which justifies its further use as a conduit for myocardial revascularization. (author)

  17. Quality management for the international transportation of non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Elmore

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Safe and humane transportation of live animals requires dedicated, informed personnel who carefully plan and attend to the details of appropriate animal care and handling throughout the shipping process. Specifically, although transportation of non-human primates shares goals common to all live animal transport, it also poses unique challenges stemming from the nature of these animals. Some of these unique challenges of transporting non-human primates, include the impact of public perception of non-human primates as cargo, maintaining biosecurity of non-human primate cargo, safety of both the non-human primate and public contacts, meeting the vital husbandry needs of varying species of non-human primates and compliance with numerous regulatory agencies, which may have overlapping responsibilities. This discussion will focus on these important considerations, as they relate to the legal international transportation of non-human primates for scientific use.

  18. Reproductive/developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity assessment in the nonhuman primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buse, Eberhard; Habermann, Gunnar; Osterburg, Ingrid; Korte, Rainhart; Weinbauer, Gerhard F.

    2003-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are being used increasingly as a non-rodent animal model during preclinical toxicology and safety assessment on the basis of proven similarity and comparability between nonhuman primates and humans. The validity of the nonhuman primate models applies to many aspects of toxicological testing and holds particularly true for the evaluation of reproductive toxicology and developmental toxicology. More recently, the advent of humanized antibodies and vaccines imposed further demand on nonhuman primate models since many immunotherapeutics do not interact with rodent receptors but frequently only cross-react with primate tissue. In this paper we discuss the suitability of primate models for reproductive, developmental and immunotoxicology testing, and present our initial data on the development of lymphatic organs and immune system in a nonhuman primate model

  19. Longitudinal characterization of Escherichia coli in healthy captive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Clayton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.

  20. Darwin's legacy and the study of primate visual communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Frans B M

    2003-12-01

    After Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, published in 1872, we had to wait 60 years before the theme of animal expressions was picked up by another astute observer. In 1935, Nadezhda Ladygina-Kohts published a detailed comparison of the expressive behavior of a juvenile chimpanzee and of her own child. After Kohts, we had to wait until the 1960s for modern ethological analyses of primate facial and gestural communication. Again, the focus was on the chimpanzee, but ethograms on other primates appeared as well. Our understanding of the range of expressions in other primates is at present far more advanced than that in Darwin's time. A strong social component has been added: instead of focusing on the expressions per se, they are now often classified according to the social situations in which they typically occur. Initially, quantitative analyses were sequential (i.e., concerned with temporal associations between behavior patterns), and they avoided the language of emotions. I will discuss some of this early work, including my own on the communicative repertoire of the bonobo, a close relative of the chimpanzee (and ourselves). I will provide concrete examples to make the point that there is a much richer matrix of contexts possible than the common behavioral categories of aggression, sex, fear, play, and so on. Primate signaling is a form of negotiation, and previous classifications have ignored the specifics of what animals try to achieve with their exchanges. There is also increasing evidence for signal conventionalization in primates, especially the apes, in both captivity and the field. This process results in group-specific or "cultural" communication patterns.

  1. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  2. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: yxq-886@163.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Hong [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu, Dingcai [Materials Science Institute, PCFM Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Fu, Ruowen, E-mail: cesfrw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Materials Science Institute, PCFM Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g{sup −1} for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g{sup −1}). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite.

  3. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Hong; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi; Wu, Dingcai; Fu, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g −1 for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g −1 ). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m 2  g −1 , which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite

  4. The Facial Skeleton in Patients with Osteoporosis: A Field for Disease Signs and Treatment Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Kyrgidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis affects all bones, including those of the facial skeleton. To date the facial bones have not drawn much attention due to the minimal probability of morbid fractures. Hearing and dentition loss due to osteoporosis has been reported. New research findings suggest that radiologic examination of the facial skeleton can be a cost-effective adjunct to complement the early diagnosis and the follow up of osteoporosis patients. Bone-mass preservation treatments have been associated with osteomyelitis of the jawbones, a condition commonly described as osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ. The facial skeleton, where alimentary tract mucosa attaches directly to periosteum and teeth which lie in their sockets of alveolar bone, is an area unique for the early detection of osteoporosis but also for the prevention of treatment-associated complications. We review facial bone involvement in patients with osteoporosis and we present data that make the multidisciplinary approach of these patients more appealing for both practitioners and dentists. With regard to ONJ, a tabular summary with currently available evidence is provided to facilitate multidisciplinary practice coordination for the treatment of patients receiving bisphosphonates.

  5. Distribution of 239Pu and 241Am in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Swint, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The 241 Am and 239 Pu distribution in the skeletons of two former nuclear workers has been measured. The skeletons of both individuals appear to be within normal limits for Caucasian men about 50 y old. Both had lower limb bones that were heavier than the age controls and Case I had upper-body bones that were lighter than the age control group. The distribution of americium in the skeleton of Case I, 25 years post exposure, indicated that a more rapid turnover of initially deposited americium on the bone surfaces of cancellous bone, as compared to that deposited on the bone surfaces of compact bone, had occurred. This resulted in a larger proportion of americium located in the compact bone of the extremities and a lesser quantity in the more cancellous bones of the vertebral column, pelvis and rib cage. A similar shift in the distribution of plutonium occurred in Case II in the 35 y since initial deposition, but at a slower rate than that for americium. The ratio of each actinide in the liver to that in the systemic system (liver content/systemic system content) was 0.065 and 0.436, for americium and plutonium, respectively, suggesting that a much more rapid turnover of americium in the liver, compared to plutonium, provided a much larger fraction of that nuclide for circulatory feedback to the remodeling skeletal system. 8 references, 3 tables

  6. [Characteristics of local human skeleton reactions to microgravity and drug treatment of osteoporosis in clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganov, V S; Skripnikova, I A; Novikov, V E; Bakulin, A V; Kabitskaia, O E; Murashko, L M

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the results of long-term investigations of bones in cosmonauts flown on the orbital station MIR and International space station (n = 80) was performed. Theoretically predicted (evolutionary predefined) change in mass of different skeleton bones was found to correlate (r = 0.904) with position relatively the Earth's gravity vector. Vector dependence of bone loss ensues from local specificity of expression of bone metabolism genes which reflects mechanic prehistory of skeleton structures in the evolution of Homo erectus. Genetic polymorphism is accountable for high individual variability of bone loss attested by the dependence of bone loss rate on polymorphism of certain bone metabolism markers. Parameters of one and the other orbital vehicle did not modulate individual-specific stability of the bone loss ratio in different segments of the skeleton. This fact is considered as a phenotype fingerprint of local metabolism in the form of a locus-unique spatial structure of distribution of noncollagenous proteins responsible for position regulation of endosteal metabolism. Drug treatment of osteoporosis (n = 107) evidences that recovery rate depends on bone location; the most likely reason is different effectiveness of local osteotrophic intervention into areas of bustling resorption.

  7. HuAc: Human Activity Recognition Using Crowdsourced WiFi Signals and Skeleton Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint of WiFi-based and vision-based human activity recognition has attracted increasing attention in the human-computer interaction, smart home, and security monitoring fields. We propose HuAc, the combination of WiFi-based and Kinect-based activity recognition system, to sense human activity in an indoor environment with occlusion, weak light, and different perspectives. We first construct a WiFi-based activity recognition dataset named WiAR to provide a benchmark for WiFi-based activity recognition. Then, we design a mechanism of subcarrier selection according to the sensitivity of subcarriers to human activities. Moreover, we optimize the spatial relationship of adjacent skeleton joints and draw out a corresponding relationship between CSI and skeleton-based activity recognition. Finally, we explore the fusion information of CSI and crowdsourced skeleton joints to achieve the robustness of human activity recognition. We implemented HuAc using commercial WiFi devices and evaluated it in three kinds of scenarios. Our results show that HuAc achieves an average accuracy of greater than 93% using WiAR dataset.

  8. Modeling of the axon membrane skeleton structure and implications for its mechanical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihao Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that, unlike the soma and dendrites, the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under tension. Currently, the structure-function relationship of the axonal structure is unclear. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM to show that the stiffness of the axon plasma membrane is significantly higher than the stiffnesses of dendrites and somata. To examine whether the structure of the axon plasma membrane determines its overall stiffness, we introduced a coarse-grain molecular dynamics model of the axon membrane skeleton that reproduces the structure identified by super-resolution microscopy. Our proposed computational model accurately simulates the median value of the Young's modulus of the axon plasma membrane determined by atomic force microscopy. It also predicts that because the spectrin filaments are under entropic tension, the thermal random motion of the voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav, which are bound to ankyrin particles, a critical axonal protein, is reduced compared to the thermal motion when spectrin filaments are held at equilibrium. Lastly, our model predicts that because spectrin filaments are under tension, any axonal injuries that lacerate spectrin filaments will likely lead to a permanent disruption of the membrane skeleton due to the inability of spectrin filaments to spontaneously form their initial under-tension configuration.

  9. Modeling of the axon membrane skeleton structure and implications for its mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihao; Abiraman, Krithika; Li, He; Pierce, David M; Tzingounis, Anastasios V; Lykotrafitis, George

    2017-02-01

    Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that, unlike the soma and dendrites, the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under tension. Currently, the structure-function relationship of the axonal structure is unclear. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that the stiffness of the axon plasma membrane is significantly higher than the stiffnesses of dendrites and somata. To examine whether the structure of the axon plasma membrane determines its overall stiffness, we introduced a coarse-grain molecular dynamics model of the axon membrane skeleton that reproduces the structure identified by super-resolution microscopy. Our proposed computational model accurately simulates the median value of the Young's modulus of the axon plasma membrane determined by atomic force microscopy. It also predicts that because the spectrin filaments are under entropic tension, the thermal random motion of the voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), which are bound to ankyrin particles, a critical axonal protein, is reduced compared to the thermal motion when spectrin filaments are held at equilibrium. Lastly, our model predicts that because spectrin filaments are under tension, any axonal injuries that lacerate spectrin filaments will likely lead to a permanent disruption of the membrane skeleton due to the inability of spectrin filaments to spontaneously form their initial under-tension configuration.

  10. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, D. W.; Rubin, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself.

  11. Generation of a Skeleton Corpus of Digital Objects for the Validation and Evaluation of Format Identification Tools and Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To preserve digital information it is vital that the format of that information can be identified, in-perpetuity. This is the major focus of research within the field of Digital Preservation. The National Archives of the UK called for the Digital Preservation and Digital Curation communities to develop a test corpus of digital objects to help further develop tools to aid this purpose. Following that call, an attempt has been made to develop the suite.This paper initially outlines a methodology to generate a skeleton corpus using simple user-generated digital objects. It then explores the lessons learnt in the generation of a corpus using scripting language techniques from the file format signatures described in The National Archives PRONOM technical registry. It will also discuss the use of the digital signature for this purpose, the benefits of developing a test corpus using this technique. Finally, this paper will outline a methodology for future research before exploring how the community can best make use of the output of this project and how this project needs to be taken forward to completion.

  12. Antibodies to Mutated Citrullinated Vimentin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Diagnostic Value, Association with Radiological Damage and Axial Skeleton Affection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida E. Mansour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Early definitive diagnosis and effective treatment are mandatory in rheumatoid arthritis (RA as it can halt the disease progression and subsequent joints destruction. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV and its correlation with disease activity, peripheral and axial skeleton affection in RA patients. Patients and methods: A total of 123 patients with different rheumatic diseases were enrolled in a prospective-two year study at Ain Shams University hospital: 64 patients with RA and 59 patients with other rheumatic diseases as controls. RA patients were fulfilling the traditional and the new ACR/EULAR diagnostic criteria for RA. They have been followed up for two years. At baseline, all RA patients were subjected to: Clinical assessment of disease activity by taking full histories, general and local examination, measurement of 28 joint count of tender and swollen joints with calculation of disease activity score (DAS-28 for each patient. Complete blood count, erythrocytes sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor titers were performed. Anti-MCV IgG immunoglobulins’ assay was performed at the study endpoint by ELISA. RA patients were then classified into; anti-MCV positive and anti-MCV negative groups for statistical comparison. Plain X-ray was performed on the peripheral joints and scored by the Simple Erosion Narrowing score (SEN-score. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scans were carried out to 22 RA patients on cervical and lumbosacral regions. Results: Anti-MCV antibodies were found to be of high sensitivity (79.6% and specificity (96.6% in diagnosing RA. The area under the curve was 0.893 at 95% confidence interval (CI, confers an odds ratio of 23.5. Anti-MCV positive RA patients had significantly higher DAS-28 and SEN-scores than anti-MCV negative patients; who were found to have more benign disease with lower incidence of

  13. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vaccine protects nonhuman primates from intramuscular and aerosol challenge with ebolavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Barth, James F; Ortiz, Ramon A; Nichols, Donald K; Zak, Samantha E; Stonier, Spencer W; Muhammad, Majidat A; Bakken, Russell R; Prugar, Laura I; Olinger, Gene G; Groebner, Jennifer L; Lee, John S; Pratt, William D; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt I; Smith, Jonathan F; Hart, Mary Kate; Dye, John M

    2013-05-01

    There are no vaccines or therapeutics currently approved for the prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infection. Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Here, we report the protective efficacy of Sudan virus (SUDV)- and Ebola virus (EBOV)-specific VEEV replicon particle (VRP) vaccines in nonhuman primates. VRP vaccines were developed to express the glycoprotein (GP) of either SUDV or EBOV. A single intramuscular vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with VRP expressing SUDV GP provided complete protection against intramuscular challenge with SUDV. Vaccination against SUDV and subsequent survival of SUDV challenge did not fully protect cynomolgus macaques against intramuscular EBOV back-challenge. However, a single simultaneous intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP combined with VRP expressing EBOV GP did provide complete protection against intramuscular challenge with either SUDV or EBOV in cynomolgus macaques. Finally, intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP completely protected cynomolgus macaques when challenged with aerosolized SUDV, although complete protection against aerosol challenge required two vaccinations with this vaccine.

  14. Surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton: current approach and recent developments in biokinetic modelling for humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, A.; Polig, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, the biokinetics of surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton has been the object of several studies. Investigations were carried out to determine the kinetics of plutonium and americium in the skeleton of humans and beagles. As a result of these investigations, in recent years the models presented by ICRP in Publication 67 for humans were partially revised, particularly the skeletal part. The aim of the present work is to present recent developments in the biokinetic modelling of surface-seeking radionuclides (plutonium and americium) in beagles and humans. Various assumptions and physiological interpretations of the different approaches to the biokinetic modelling of the skeleton are discussed. Current ICRP concepts and skeleton modelling of plutonium and americium in humans are compared to the latest developments in biokinetic modelling in beagles. (authors)

  15. Contribution of ankyrin-band 3 complexes to the organization and mechanical properties of the membrane skeleton of human erythrocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Biological and Medical Research Div.

    1995-02-01

    To understand the role of ankyrin-band 3 complexes in the organization of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton and its contribution to the mechanical properties of human erythrocytes, intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets were prepared from intact and physically sheared membrane ghosts, expanded in low salt buffer, and examined by transmission electron microscopy. While the structures of intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets shared many common features, including rigid junctional complexes of spectrin, actin, and band 4.1; short stretches ({approximately}50 {angstrom}) of flexible spectrin filaments; and globular masses of ankyrin-band 3 complexes situated close to the middle of the spectrin filaments, the definition of structural units in the intact skeleton is obscured by the superposition of the two layers. However, the spatial disposition of structural elements can be clearly defined in the images of the single-layered skeleton leaflets. Partially expanded skeletal leaflets contain conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes arranged in a circular or clove-leaf configuration that straddles multiple strands of thick spectrin cables, presumably reflecting the association of ankyrin-band 3 complexes on neighboring spectrin tetramers as well as the lateral association of the spectrin filaments. Hyperexpansion of the skeleton leaflets led to dissociation of the conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes, full-extension of the spectrin tetramers, and separation of the individual strands of spectrin tetramers. Clearly defined stands of spectrin tetramers in the hyperexpanded single-layered skeletal leaflets often contained two sets of globular protein masses that divided the spectrin tetramers into three segments of approximately equal length.

  16. NEW LOCALITY OF CAVE BEAR (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller & Heinroth, 1794 IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: MORPHO- ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CRANIAL SKELETON FOUND IN CAVE AT VRELO MOKRANJSKA MILJACKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Lukić-Bilela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During the investigation of the Cave at Vrelo Mokranjska Miljacka, the bone remains of the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller & Heinroth, 1794 was found. This is the new Pleistocene fauna locality of this extinct species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Almost complete cranial skeleton belongs to a young adult male. Analyzed morphometric proportions completely fit within the variation range of the Pleistocene cave bear populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Key words: Ursus spelaeus, skull, teeth, Cave of Vrelo Mokranjska Miljacka

  17. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed

  18. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E

    2011-04-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.

  19. Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2014-08-21

    It has been possible to use viral-mediated gene therapy to transform dichromatic (red-green color-blind) primates to trichromatic. Even though the third cone type was added after the end of developmental critical periods, treated animals acquired red-green color vision. What happened in the treated animals may represent a recapitulation of the evolution of trichromacy, which seems to have evolved with the acquisition of a third cone type without the need for subsequent modification to the circuitry. Some transgenic mice in which a third cone type was added also acquired trichromacy. However, compared with treated primates, red-green color vision in mice is poor, indicating large differences between mice and monkeys in their ability to take advantage of the new input. These results have implications for understanding the limits and opportunities for using gene therapy to treat vision disorders caused by defects in cone function. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. Curing Color Blindness—Mice and Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It has been possible to use viral-mediated gene therapy to transform dichromatic (red-green color-blind) primates to trichromatic. Even though the third cone type was added after the end of developmental critical periods, treated animals acquired red-green color vision. What happened in the treated animals may represent a recapitulation of the evolution of trichromacy, which seems to have evolved with the acquisition of a third cone type without the need for subsequent modification to the circuitry. Some transgenic mice in which a third cone type was added also acquired trichromacy. However, compared with treated primates, red-green color vision in mice is poor, indicating large differences between mice and monkeys in their ability to take advantage of the new input. These results have implications for understanding the limits and opportunities for using gene therapy to treat vision disorders caused by defects in cone function. PMID:25147187

  1. Justice- and fairness-related behaviors in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F

    2013-06-18

    A distinctive feature across human societies is our interest in justice and fairness. People will sometimes invest in extremely costly behavior to achieve fair outcomes for themselves and others. Why do people care so much about justice? One way to address this is comparatively, exploring behaviors related to justice and fairness in other species. In this paper, I review work exploring responses to inequity, prosocial behavior, and other relevant behaviors in nonhuman primates in an effort to understand both the potential evolutionary function of these behaviors and the social and ecological reasons for the individual differences in behavior. I also consider how these behaviors relate to human behavior, particularly in the case of experimental studies using games derived from experimental economics to compare nonhuman primates' responses to those of humans in similar experimental conditions. These results emphasize the importance of a comparative approach to better understand the function and diversity of human behavior.

  2. Vaccines against viral hemorrhagic fevers: non-human primate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L

    2011-06-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of disease syndromes caused by infection with certain RNA viruses. The disease is marked by a febrile response, malaise, coagulopathy and vascular permeability culminating in death. Case fatality rates can reach 90% depending on the etiologic agent. Currently, there is no approved antiviral treatment. Because of the high case fatality, risk of importation and the potential to use these agents as biological weapons, development of countermeasures to these agents is a high priority. The sporadic nature of disease outbreaks and the ethical issues associated with conducting a human trial for such diseases make human studies impractical; therefore, development of countermeasures must occur in relevant animal models. Non-human primates are superior models to study infectious disease because their immune system is similar to humans and they are good predictors of efficacy in vaccine development and other intervention strategies. This review article summarizes viral hemorrhagic fever non-human primate models.

  3. The cardiorespiratory effects of detomidine in the primate (Papio ursinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bosman

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Detomidine is a novel imidazole derivative with a high affinity for a₂-adrenoceptors. The cardiorespiratory effects of this drug were evaluated in the primate (Papio ursinus under ketamine anaesthesia. The release of noradrenalin is modulated by a₂-adrenoceptors, and this resulted in a longer duration of anaesthesia when ketamine was combined with detomidine in comparison with ketamine alone. Detomidine caused a marked bradycardia, which was not reflex induced, but probably the result of a decreased sympathetic outflow. Various conducting disturbances were observed in the electrocardiogram, also probably the result of decreased sympathetic tone to the heart. The effect of detomidine on the respiratory system was minimal. Detomidine proved to be a useful drug to use in combination with ketamine for the induction of anaesthesia in primates. It should, however, not be used during cardiovascular studies.

  4. Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections.

  5. Genome typing of nonhuman primate models: implications for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Tanja; Ferguson, Betsy; Rogers, Jeffrey; Doxiadis, Gaby; Certa, Ulrich; Rose, Nicola J; Teepe, Robert; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Roos, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The success of personalized medicine rests on understanding the genetic variation between individuals. Thus, as medical practice evolves and variation among individuals becomes a fundamental aspect of clinical medicine, a thorough consideration of the genetic and genomic information concerning the animals used as models in biomedical research also becomes critical. In particular, nonhuman primates (NHPs) offer great promise as models for many aspects of human health and disease. These are outbred species exhibiting substantial levels of genetic variation; however, understanding of the contribution of this variation to phenotypes is lagging behind in NHP species. Thus, there is a pivotal need to address this gap and define strategies for characterizing both genomic content and variability within primate models of human disease. Here, we discuss the current state of genomics of NHP models and offer guidelines for future work to ensure continued improvement and utility of this line of biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social manipulation in nonhuman primates: Cognitive and motivational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, C J; Rossano, F; Call, J

    2017-11-01

    Social interactions are the result of individuals' cooperative and competitive tendencies expressed over an extended period of time. Although social manipulation, i.e., using another individual to achieve one's own goals, is a crucial aspect of social interactions, there has been no comprehensive attempt to differentiate its various types and to map its cognitive and motivational determinants. For this purpose, we survey in this article the experimental literature on social interactions in nonhuman primates. We take social manipulation, illustrated by a case study with orangutans (Pongo abelii), as our starting point and move in two directions. First, we will focus on a flexibility/sociality axis that includes technical problem solving, social tool-use and communication. Second, we will focus on a motivational/prosociality axis that includes exploitation, cooperation, and helping. Combined, the two axes offer a way to capture a broad range of social interactions performed by human and nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, Renato R; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Chiarello, Adriano G; Mourthé, Italo

    2012-01-01

    Line transect distance sampling (LTDS) can be applied to either trails or roads. However, it is likely that sampling along roads might result in biased density estimates. In this paper, we compared the results obtained with LTDS applied on trails and roads for two primate species (Callithrix penicillata and Callicebus nigrifrons) to clarify whether roads are appropriate transects to estimate densities. We performed standard LTDS surveys in two nature reserves in south-eastern Brazil. Effective strip width and population density were different between trails and roads for C. penicillata, but not for C. nigrifrons. The results suggest that roads are not appropriate for use as transects in primate surveys, at least for some species. Further work is required to fully understand this issue, but in the meantime we recommend that researchers avoid using roads as transects or treat roads and trails as covariates when sampling on roads is unavoidable. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S; Rooney, William D

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third-trimester ......Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third...... are influenced by the state of pregnancy. Our findings have clinical implications because they imply that the adverse effects of prenatal cocaine exposure to the newborn child include not only cocaine's deleterious effects to the placental circulation, but also cocaine's direct pharmacological effect...

  9. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  10. Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research.

  11. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    OpenAIRE

    KUANG, Hui; WANG, Phillip L.; TSIEN, Joe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the preclinical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic technologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and...

  12. Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Patrick O.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes is affected by the animal’s social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings ...

  13. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges.

  14. Primate Auditory Recognition Memory Performance Varies With Sound Type

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Wing, Ng; Bethany, Plakke; Amy, Poremba

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g. social status, kinship, environment),have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition, and/or memory. The present study employs a de...

  15. The cardiorespiratory effects of detomidine in the primate (Papio ursinus)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Bosman

    1990-01-01

    Detomidine is a novel imidazole derivative with a high affinity for a₂-adrenoceptors. The cardiorespiratory effects of this drug were evaluated in the primate (Papio ursinus) under ketamine anaesthesia. The release of noradrenalin is modulated by a₂-adrenoceptors, and this resulted in a longer duration of anaesthesia when ketamine was combined with detomidine in comparison with ketamine alone. Detomidine caused a marked bradycardia, which was not reflex induced, but probably the result of...

  16. Understanding the control of ingestive behavior in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E; Moore, Carla J; Ethun, Kelly F; Johnson, Zachary P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily addressed. The availability of these captive populations has led to the use of selected species to understand appetite control or metabolic physiology in humans. Recognizing the difficulty of quantitating food intake in free-ranging groups, the use of captive, singly-housed animals provided a distinct advantage though, at the same time, produced a different social ecology from the animals' natural habitat. However, the recent application of novel technologies to quantitate caloric intake and energy expenditure in free-feeding, socially housed monkeys permits prospective studies that can accurately define how food intake changes in response to any number of interventions in the context of a social environment. This review provides an overview of studies examining food intake using captive nonhuman primates organized into three areas: a) neurochemical regulation of food intake in nonhuman primates; b) whether exposure to specific diets during key developmental periods programs differences in diet preferences or changes the expression of feeding related neuropeptides; and c) how psychosocial factors influence appetite regulation. Because feeding patterns are driven by more than just satiety and orexigenic signals, appreciating how the social context influences pattern of feeding in nonhuman primates may be quite informative for understanding the biological complexity of feeding in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relative tooth size at birth in primates: Life history correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Bucher, Wade R; Vinyard, Christopher J; Bonar, Christopher J; Evans, Sian; Williams, Lawrence E; DeLeon, Valerie B

    2017-11-01

    Dental eruption schedules have been closely linked to life history variables. Here we examine a sample of 50 perinatal primates (28 species) to determine whether life history traits correlate with relative tooth size at birth. Newborn primates were studied using serial histological sectioning. Volumes of deciduous premolars (dp 2 -dp 4 ), replacement teeth (if any), and permanent molars (M 1-2/3 ) of the upper jaw were measured and residuals from cranial length were calculated with least squares regressions to obtain relative dental volumes (RDVs). Relative dental volumes of deciduous or permanent teeth have an unclear relationship with relative neonatal mass in all primates. Relative palatal length (RPL), used as a proxy for midfacial size, is significantly, positively correlated with larger deciduous and permanent postcanine teeth. However, when strepsirrhines alone are examined, larger RPL is correlated with smaller RDV of permanent teeth. In the full sample, RDVs of deciduous premolars are significantly negatively correlated with relative gestation length (RGL), but have no clear relationship with relative weaning age. RDVs of molars lack a clear relationship with RGL; later weaning is associated with larger molar RDV, although correlations are not significant. When strepsirrhines alone are analyzed, clearer trends are present: longer gestations or later weaning are associated with smaller deciduous and larger permanent postcanine teeth (only gestational length correlations are significant). Our results indicate a broad trend that primates with the shortest RGLs precociously develop deciduous teeth; in strepsirrhines, the opposite trend is seen for permanent molars. Anthropoids delay growth of permanent teeth, while strepsirrhines with short RGLs are growing replacement teeth concurrently. A comparison of neonatal volumes with existing information on extent of cusp mineralization indicates that growth of tooth germs and cusp mineralization may be selected for

  18. Common tree shrews and primates share leukocyte membrane antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Letvin, N L

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human peripheral blood lymphocyte and myeloid cell surface antigens were utilized to study the phylogeny of the common tree shrew. Blood cells from the common tree shrew, but not the bat or short-tailed shrew, react with certain of these antibodies. These data strengthen the argument that the Tupaiidae are primitive primates rather than insectivores. They also indicate that this approach should be useful for further work in taxonomic systemization.

  19. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  20. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  1. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, Tim W E

    2007-01-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction

  2. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudlin, Tim W E [Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 26 Nichol Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1411 (United States)

    2007-03-23

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction.

  3. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species.

  4. Characterization of interleukin-8 receptors in non-human primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, V.; Coto, E.; Gonzalez-Roces, S.; Lopez-Larrea, C. [Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-8 is a chemokine with a potent neutrophil chemoatractant activity. In humans, two different cDNAs encoding human IL8 receptors designated IL8RA and IL8RB have been cloned. IL8RA binds IL8, while IL8RB binds IL8 as well as other {alpha}-chemokines. Both human IL8Rs are encoded by two genes physically linked on chromosome 2. The IL8RA and IL8RB genes have open reading frames (ORF) lacking introns. By direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products, we sequenced the IL8R genes of cell lines from four non-human primates: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaca. The IL8RB encodes an ORF in the four non-human primates, showing 95%-99% similarity to the human IL8RB sequence. The IL8RA homologue in gorilla and chimpanzee consisted of two ORF 98%-99% identical to the human sequence. The macaca and orangutan IL8RA homologues are pseudogenes: a 2 base pair insertion generated a sequence with several stop codons. In addition, we describe the physical linkage of these genes in the four non-human primates and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Field endocrinology of nonhuman primates: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P

    2016-08-01

    In the past few decades, research on nonhuman primate endocrinology has moved from the lab to the field, leading to a huge increase in both the breadth and depth of primate field studies. Here, I discuss the past, present, and future of primate field endocrinology. I review the history of the field, and go on to discuss methodological developments and the issues that they sometimes entail. Next, I consider ways in which we might conceptualize the role of hormones, and focus on the need to distinguish proximate from ultimate levels of explanation. Current potentially problematic issues in the field include: 1) an inability to obtain noninvasive measurements of Central Nervous System (CNS) rather than peripheral hormone concentrations; 2) research questions that become stuck (e.g., questions regarding sexual swelling expression mechanisms); 3) data dredging and post-hoc linking of hormones to any plausible variable, leading to a lack of clarity on their role in animal ecology and behavior. I finish by discussing several unanswered questions that might benefit from further research. These are how we might: 1) best obtain measurements for CNS hormone concentrations non-invasively; 2) measure hormone receptor expression alongside hormone concentrations; 3) consider the human endocrinology literature more thoroughly and perhaps take more multimarker approaches; 4) better consider the social environment, including audience and dyadic familiarity effects; and 5) apply our findings to conservation issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D

    2007-09-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21] to test cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets, two new-World primates, for their spontaneous responses to stimuli that varied systematically with respect to tempo. Across several experiments, we found that both tamarins and marmosets preferred slow tempos to fast. It is possible that the observed preferences were due to arousal, and that this effect is homologous to the human response to tempo. In other respects, however, these two monkey species showed striking differences compared to humans. Specifically, when presented with a choice between slow tempo musical stimuli, including lullabies, and silence, tamarins and marmosets preferred silence whereas humans, when similarly tested, preferred music. Thus despite the possibility of homologous mechanisms for tempo perception in human and nonhuman primates, there appear to be motivational ties to music that are uniquely human.

  7. Research progress of the bitter taste receptor genes in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Luo, Rui-Jian

    2018-02-20

    Among the five basic tastes (umami, sweet, bitter, salty and sour), the perception of bitterness is believed to protect animals from digesting toxic and harmful substances, thus it is vital for animal survival. The taste of bitterness is triggered by the interaction between bitter substances and bitter taste receptors, which are encoded by Tas2rs. The gene numbers vary largely across species to meet different demands. So far, several ligands of bitter receptors have been identified in primates. They also discovered that the selective pressure of certain bitter taste receptor genes vary across taxa, genes or even different functional regions of the gene. In this review, we summarize the research progress of bitter taste receptor genes in primates by introducing the functional diversity of bitter receptors, the specific interaction between bitter taste receptors and ligands, the relationship between the evolutionary pattern of bitter taste receptors and diets, and the adaptive evolution of bitter taste receptor genes. We aim to provide a reference for further research on bitter receptor genes in primates.

  8. Comparative analysis of Meissner's corpuscles in the fingertips of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verendeev, Andrey; Thomas, Christian; McFarlin, Shannon C; Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-07-01

    Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) are tactile mechanoreceptors found in the glabrous skin of primates, including fingertips. These receptors are characterized by sensitivity to light touch, and therefore might be associated with the evolution of manipulative abilities of the hands in primates. We examined MCs in different primate species, including common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, n = 5), baboon (Papio anubis, n = 2), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta, n = 3), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, n = 3), bonobo (Pan paniscus, n = 1) and human (Homo sapiens, n = 8). Fingertips of the first, second and fourth digits were collected from both hands of specimens, dissected and histologically stained using hematoxylin and eosin. The density (MCs per 1 mm(2) ) and the size (cross-sectional diameter of MCs) were quantified. Overall, there were no differences in the densities of MCs or their size among the digits or between the hands for any species examined. However, MCs varied across species. We found a trend for higher densities of MCs in macaques and humans compared with chimpanzees and bonobos; moreover, apes had larger MCs than monkeys. We further examined whether the density or size of MCs varied as a function of body mass, measures of dexterity and dietary frugivory. Among these variables, only body size accounted for a significant amount of variation in the size of MCs. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  9. Adaptive cultural transmission biases in children and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Elizabeth E; Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Comparative and evolutionary developmental analyses seek to discover the similarities and differences between humans and non-human species that might illuminate both the evolutionary foundations of our nature that we share with other animals, and the distinctive characteristics that make human development unique. As our closest animal relatives, with whom we last shared common ancestry, non-human primates have been particularly important in this endeavour. Such studies have focused on social learning, traditions, and culture, and have discovered much about the 'how' of social learning, concerned with key underlying processes such as imitation and emulation. One of the core discoveries is that the adaptive adjustment of social learning options to different contexts is not unique to human, therefore multiple new strands of research have begun to focus on more subtle questions about when, from whom, and why such learning occurs. Here we review illustrative studies on both human infants and young children and on non-human primates to identify the similarities shared more broadly across the primate order, and the apparent specialisms that distinguish human development. Adaptive biases in social learning discussed include those modulated by task comprehension, experience, conformity to majorities, and the age, skill, proficiency and familiarity of potential alternative cultural models. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of the ocular skeleton of fossil and modern chondrichthyans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Brettney L; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A

    2009-01-01

    Many vertebrates have an ocular skeleton composed of cartilage and/or bone situated within the sclera of the eye. In this study we investigated whether modern and fossil sharks have an ocular skeleton, and whether it is conserved in morphology. We describe the scleral skeletal elements of three species of modern sharks and compare them to those found in fossil sharks from the Cleveland Shale (360 Mya). We also compare the elements to contemporaneous arthrodires from the same deposit. Surprisingly, the morphology of the skeletal support of the eye was found to differ significantly between modern and fossil sharks. All three modern shark species examined (spiny dogfish shark Squalus acanthias, porbeagle shark Lamna nasus and blue shark Prionace glauca) have a continuous skeletal element that encapsulates much of the eyeball; however, the tissue composition is different in each species. Histological and morphological examination revealed scleral cartilage with distinct tesserae in parts of the sclera of the porbeagle and blue shark, and more diffuse calcification in the dogfish. Strengthening of the scleral cartilage by means of tesserae has not been reported previously in the shark eye. In striking contrast, the ocular skeleton of fossil sharks comprises a series of individual elements that are arranged in a ring, similar to the arrangement in modern and fossil reptiles. Fossil arthrodires also have a multi-unit sclerotic ring but these are composed of fewer elements than in fossil sharks. The morphology of these elements has implications for the behaviour and visual capabilities of sharks that lived during the Devonian Period. This is the first time that such a dramatic variation in the morphology of scleral skeletal elements has been observed in a single lineage (Chondrichthyes), making this lineage important for broadening our understanding of the evolution of these elements within jawed vertebrates. PMID:19538630

  11. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, L; Konen, O; Schwarz, M; Siegel, Y; Horev, G; Hershkovitz, I; Laron, Z

    2008-02-01

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (PLaron syndrome may be related to a marked retroversion of the humeral head.

  12. The effect of locomotion on the mobilization of minerals from the maternal skeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R Hood

    Full Text Available Bone is a dynamic tissue from which minerals are deposited or withdrawn according to the body's demand. During late pregnancy and lactation, female mammals mobilize mineral from bone to support the ossification of offspring skeleton(s. Conversely, in response to mechanical loading, minerals are deposited in bone enabling it to develop a stronger architecture. Despite their central importance to reproductive performance and skeletal integrity, the interactions between these potentially opposing forces remains poorly understood. It is possible that inter-individual differences in the loading imposed by different forms of locomotion may alter the amount of mineral mobilized during reproduction. Here, the impact of vertical versus horizontal locomotion on bone mobilization was examined during reproduction in the laboratory mouse. The vertical, or climbing, group had access to a 60-cm tower, increasing strain on their appendicular skeleton. The horizontal, or tunnel, group had access to a 100-cm tunnel, which encouraged movements within the horizontal plane. Form of locomotion did not impact the amount of bone females mobilized during reproduction or the amount of mineral females deposited in the litter, but maternal bone architecture differed between groups. The climbing group displayed more trabeculae than the tunnel group, whereas the tunnel group displayed greater cortical bone mineral density mid-shaft. Interestingly, pups born to mothers in the climbing group had a higher concentration of total body calcium at 16 days than pups of mothers in the tunnel group. As maternal total body calcium composition and the amount of calcium invested in the full litter were not different between groups, the difference in the relative calcium content of pups between groups is not suspected to reflect difference in mineral allocation. Future research should consider the impact of maternal activity on the efficiency of offspring skeletal ossification via

  13. Mechanical characterization tests of a candidate skeleton for X-Gen fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, Young Ho

    2007-09-01

    Since the KNFC (KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co.) requested a mechanical characterization tests of a candidate skeleton for X-Gen fuel assembly (some welding locations of a center guide tube are free of welding compared with the PLUS7 case) were requested, transverse vibration and stiffness tests were carried out by using the FAMeCT. The major results are as follows. - Transverse vibration test There was no distinguishable discrepancy in the free vibration characteristics between the skeleton without welding at some locations of a center guide tube and that of original assembly (PLUS7; welded at every spacer grid locations). The natural frequencies were measured as 6.8 - 6.9 for the 1st mode; 17.7 - 18.3 for the 2nd mode; 30.2 - 31.2 for the 3rd mode; 50.4 - 52.1 Hz for the 4th mode. As a result, the difference in the vibration characteristics was extremely small regardless of the number of welding of a center guide tube. - Transverse bending test. The transverse bending test results of the X-Gen no. 2 were similar to those of the PLUS7 skeleton. The relationship between the force and displacement was found linear. 521 N was observed at the deflection of 30 mm, and the stiffness at the 6th grid location (load exerting location) was 17.4, 16.3 N/mm in the two consecutive tests. The displacements at the grid locations lower than the 6th grid were at bit smaller than those upper than that due to a comparatively higher rigidity

  14. The Skeleton Is a Storehouse of Mineral That Is Plundered During Lactation and (Fully?) Replenished Afterwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2017-04-01

    During lactation, mammals resorb mineral from the maternal skeleton to provide calcium to milk. Rodents lose 25% to 35% of skeletal ash weight, ash calcium content, and bone mineral content as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and have compromised material properties of bone as assessed by crushing vertebrae and 3-point bend tests of femora or tibias. The strength, stiffness, and toughness of vertebrae, femora, and tibias are reduced by as much as 60%. The effects of lactation are not uniform throughout the skeleton, but instead resorption is much more marked in the trabecular-rich spine than in the appendicular skeleton or whole body. Women who breastfeed exclusively lose an average of 210 mg calcium in milk each day, whereas nursing of twins or triplets can double and triple the output of calcium. Clinical data are also consistent with skeletal calcium being released during lactation to provide much of the calcium needed for milk production. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), as assessed by DXA, declines by a mean of 5% to 10% among numerous studies during 3 to 6 months of exclusive lactation, whereas largely cortical sites (hip, forearm, whole body) show half that loss or no significant changes. Micro-CT of rodents and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) imaging of women confirm that lactation causes microarchitectural deterioration of bone. These skeletal losses occur through two pathways: upregulated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteocytic osteolysis, in which osteocytes remove mineral from their lacunae and pericanalicular spaces. After weaning, the skeleton is fully restored to its prior mineral content and strength in both animal models and humans, despite persistent microarchitectural changes observed in high-resolution imaging. Osteoblasts upregulate to lay down new osteoid, while osteocytes remineralize their surroundings. The factors that stimulate this post-weaning skeletal recovery

  15. Voxel-based models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult - the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Eckerman, K.F.; Bolch, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved anatomical realism compared with the class of mathematical or stylized phantoms used previously. According to the ICRP philosophy, these phantoms should be representative of the male and female reference adults with respect to their external dimensions, their organ topology and their organ masses. To meet these requirements, reference models of an adult male and adult female have been constructed at the GSF, based on existing voxel models segmented from tomographic images of two individuals whose body height and weight closely resemble the ICRP Publication 89 reference values. The skeleton is a highly complex structure of the body, composed of cortical bone, trabecular bone, red and yellow bone marrow and endosteum ('bone surfaces' in their older terminology). The skeleton of the reference phantoms consists of 19 individually segmented bones and bone groups. Sub-division of these bones into the above-mentioned constituents would be necessary in order to allow a direct calculation of dose to red bone marrow and endosteum. However, the dimensions of the trabeculae, the cavities containing bone marrow and the endosteum layer lining these cavities are clearly smaller than the resolution of a normal CT scan and, thus, these volumes could not be segmented in the tomographic images. As an attempt to represent the gross spatial distribution of these regions as realistically as possible at the given voxel resolution, 48 individual organ identification numbers were assigned to various parts of the skeleton: every segmented bone was subdivided into an outer shell of cortical bone and a spongious core; in the shafts of the long bones, a medullary cavity was additionally segmented. Using the data from ICRP Publication 89 on elemental tissue composition, from ICRU Report 46 on material

  16. The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: an Argentinian sample of modern skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, S A; Desántolo, B; Mancuso, R García; Plischuk, M; Inda, A M

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The Lambre Collection is housed in the School of Medical Sciences of the National University of La Plata and it consists of skeletal remains ceded by the Municipal Cemetery of La Plata. The collection has more than four hundred skeletons, with information on age, sex, nationality, date and cause of death. It was created for teaching and research purposes in compliance with current legislation, and its management meets guidelines specified in the Declaration of the Argentinian Association for Biological Anthropology on Research Ethics on Human Remains (2007). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactive Shape Modeling using a Skeleton-Mesh Co-Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jacob Andreas; Abdrashitov, Rinat; Singh, Karan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Polar-Annular Mesh representation (PAM). A PAM is a mesh-skeleton co-representation designed for the modeling of 3D organic, articulated shapes. A PAM represents a manifold mesh as a partition of polar (triangle fans) and annular (rings of quads) regions. The skeletal topology of...... a PAM to a quad-only mesh. We further present a PAM-based multi-touch sculpting application in order to demonstrate its utility as a shape representation for the interactive modeling of organic, articulated figures as well as for editing and posing of pre-existing models....

  18. Alterations of bone skeleton structure in connection with strontium-90 incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, N.V.; Mazhuga, P.M.; Domashevskaya, E.I.; Gorskij, B.A.; Nakorenok, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    By using the methods of histology, electron microscopy and radiochemistry studied the bone skeleton state of animals (mouse like rodents and minks) which live in the 30 km zone of the ChNPP.It was defined contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 134 Cs in the bones during 1989-1993 years. There were described changes in histostructure of the periost endost and bone compact of the tubular bones and also in metaepiphyzal growth plate. The mechanisms of the revealed alterations are discussed

  19. Cloning Nacre's 3D Interlocking Skeleton in Engineering Composites to Achieve Exceptional Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hewei; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin; Wu, Juntao; Zhang, Youwei; Li, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Structure and mechanical implications of the pectoral fin skeleton in the Longnose Skate (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Hongjamrassilp, Watcharapong; Jung, Jae-Young; Hastings, Philip A; Lubarda, Vlado A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2017-03-15

    Animal propulsion systems are believed to show high energy and mechanical efficiency in assisting movement compared to artificial designs. As an example, batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming via enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. The aim of this work is to illustrate the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of a representative batoid, the Longnose Skate (Raja rhina), and explain the mechanical implications of its structural design. At the macro level, the pectoral fins are comprised of radially oriented fin rays, formed by staggered mineralized skeletal elements stacked end-to-end. At the micro level, the midsection of each radial element is composed of three mineralized components, which consist of discrete segments (tesserae) that are mineralized cartilage and embedded in unmineralized cartilage. The radial elements are wrapped with aligned, unmineralized collagen fibers. This is the first report of the detailed structure of the ray elements, including the observation of a 3-chain mineralized tesserae. Structural analyses demonstrate that this configuration enhances stiffness in multiple directions. A two-dimensional numerical model based on the morphological analysis demonstrated that the tessera structure helps distributing shear, tensile and compressive stress more ideally, which can better support both lift and thrust forces when swimming without losing flexibility. Batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming by applying their enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. Previous studies have shown structural features and mechanical properties of the mineralized cartilage skeleton in various batoid fishes. However, the details of the pectoral fin structure at different length scales, as well as the relationship between the mechanical properties and structural design remains unknown. The present work illustrates the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of

  1. 90Sr in the skeleton of new-born children and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, B.K.

    1980-01-01

    The correlation between 90 Sr content in the skeleton of new-born children and infants and 90 Sr content in the vertebrae spongy tissue of mother, is studied in different countries from 1965 to 1973. The highest indexes of 90 Sr concentration in the bone tissue of new-born children are found to be characteristic of Canada and Norway. The minimum 90 Sr content is observed in Japan. The dynamics of indexes which characterize 90 Sr content in the bone tissue of infants is presented. The peculiarities are conditioned by particular nutrition of an infant nursing and cow milk used as additional food

  2. A critical survey of vestigial structures in the postcranial skeletons of extant mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Senter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Mammalia, vestigial skeletal structures abound but have not previously been the focus of study, with a few exceptions (e.g., whale pelves. Here we use a phylogenetic bracketing approach to identify vestigial structures in mammalian postcranial skeletons and present a descriptive survey of such structures in the Mammalia. We also correct previous misidentifications, including the previous misidentification of vestigial caviid metatarsals as sesamoids. We also examine the phylogenetic distribution of vestigiality and loss. This distribution indicates multiple vestigialization and loss events in mammalian skeletal structures, especially in the hand and foot, and reveals no correlation in such events between mammalian fore and hind limbs.

  3. Skeleton series and multivaluedness of the self-energy functional in zero space-time dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Riccardo; Werner, Félix

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Kozik, Ferrero and Georges discovered numerically that for a family of fundamental models of interacting fermions, the self-energy {{Σ }}[G] is a multi-valued functional of the fully dressed single-particle propagator G, and that the skeleton diagrammatic series {{{Σ }}}{{bold}}[G] converges to the wrong branch above a critical interaction strength. We consider the zero space-time dimensional case, where the same mathematical phenomena appear from elementary algebra. We also find a similar phenomenology for the fully bold formalism built on the fully dressed single-particle propagator and pair propagator.

  4. Diagenesis of echinoderm skeletons: Constraints on paleoseawater Mg/Ca reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    One of the most profound environmental changes thought to be reflected in chemical composition of numerous geological archives is Mg/Ca ratio of the seawater, which has varied dramatically throughout the Phanerozoic. Echinoderms that today typically form high magnesium calcite skeletons are increasingly being utilized as a proxy for interpreting secular changes in seawater chemistry. However, accurate characterization of the diagenetic changes of their metastable high magnesium calcite skeletons is a prerequisite for assessing their original, major-element geochemical composition. Here we expand the existing models of diagenesis of echinoderm skeleton by integration of various analytical methods that up to now rarely have been used to assess the diagenetic changes of fossil echinoderms. We validated the preservation of a suite of differently preserved echinoderm ossicles, mostly crinoids, ranging in age from the Cambrian through Recent. In 13 of 99 fossil echinoderm ossicles we found well-preserved porous microstructure (stereom), non-luminescent behaviour or blotchy dark color in cathodoluminescence, and distinct nanostructural features (layered and nanocomposite structure). Moreover, in representatives of such preserved samples, distribution of sulphates associated with organic matter is identical to those in Recent echinoderms. Only such ossicles, despite of local micrometer-scale diagenetic changes, were herein considered well-preserved, retaining their original major-element skeletal composition. By contrast, majority of samples show transformation to the stable low magnesium calcite that leads to obliteration of the primary geochemical and micro/nanostructural features and is accompanied with increase in cathodoluminescence emission intensity. Using only well-preserved fossil echinoderm samples, we found purely random variation in Mg/Ca in echinoderm skeletons through the observed time series; any periodicities in echinoderm skeletal Mg/Ca ratio which might

  5. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  6. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  7. Continual reassessment method for dose escalation clinical trials in oncology: a comparison of prior skeleton approaches using AZD3514 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gareth D; Symeonides, Stefan N; Marshall, Jayne; Young, Julia; Clack, Glen

    2016-08-31

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) requires an underlying model of the dose-toxicity relationship ("prior skeleton") and there is limited guidance of what this should be when little is known about this association. In this manuscript the impact of applying the CRM with different prior skeleton approaches and the 3 + 3 method are compared in terms of ability to determine the true maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and number of patients allocated to sub-optimal and toxic doses. Post-hoc dose-escalation analyses on real-life clinical trial data on an early oncology compound (AZD3514), using the 3 + 3 method and CRM using six different prior skeleton approaches. All methods correctly identified the true MTD. The 3 + 3 method allocated six patients to both sub-optimal and toxic doses. All CRM approaches allocated four patients to sub-optimal doses. No patients were allocated to toxic doses from sigmoidal, two from conservative and five from other approaches. Prior skeletons for the CRM for phase 1 clinical trials are proposed in this manuscript and applied to a real clinical trial dataset. Highly accurate initial skeleton estimates may not be essential to determine the true MTD, and, as expected, all CRM methods out-performed the 3 + 3 method. There were differences in performance between skeletons. The choice of skeleton should depend on whether minimizing the number of patients allocated to suboptimal or toxic doses is more important. NCT01162395 , Trial date of first registration: July 13, 2010.

  8. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more...... invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma...

  9. Antigenic relatedness of primate procollagens as determined by a competitive radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubman, M.B.; Goldberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay specific for the nonhelical carboxy terminal portion of human type I procollagen was used to study the antigenic relatedness of primate procollagens. The assay identified reactive antigen in primate sera and in the media of primate fibroblast cultures. The displacement curves generated in the assay indicated that human and ape type I procollagens have antigenically identical carboxy terminal determinants which are partially cross-reactive with those from Old and New World monkeys. (author)

  10. Masticatory-stress hypotheses and the supraorbital region of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, W L; Picq, P G; Johnson, K R

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to test various masticatory-stress hypotheses about the evolution and function of well-developed browridges of higher primates. This was done by measuring and analyzing patterns of in vivo bone strain recorded from three-element rosette strain gages bonded to the supraorbital region and to other portions of the bony face of Macaca fascicularis and Papio anubis during mastication and incision. The magnitude and direction of the principal strains recorded support Endo's hypothesis that the supraorbital region during mastication and incision is bent in the frontal plane (Endo, 1966). Our data do not, however, support his hypothesis that the supraorbital region is bent more during incision than during mastication. The data also demonstrate that overall levels of supraorbital strain are not larger in more prognathic subjects. Most importantly, the data indicate that the supraorbital region of nonhuman catarrhines is strained very little during mastication and incision. This indicates that there is much more supraorbital bone than is necessary both to counter masticatory loads and to provide an adequate safety factor to failure for these loads. This in turn suggests that the macaque and baboon browridges can be considerably reduced in size and still maintain these required structural characteristics. Thus, our experiments provide no support whatsoever for those hypotheses that directly link browridge morphology to masticatory stress (cf. Endo, 1966; Russell, 1983, 1985). A recent review of Endo's original work indicates that this latter statement is also true for humans (Picq and Hylander, 1989). We conclude, therefore, that there is no good reason to believe that enlarged browridges in living and/or fossil primates are structural adaptations to counter intense masticatory forces. The evolution of browridge morphology in primates is best explained on the basis of factors related to the position of the brain relative to the orbits (Moss and

  11. Assessment of tropism and effectiveness of new primate-derived hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes in the mouse and primate retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Charbel Issa

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV have been shown to be safe in the treatment of retinal degenerations in clinical trials. Thus, improving the efficiency of viral gene delivery has become increasingly important to increase the success of clinical trials. In this study, structural domains of different rAAV serotypes isolated from primate brain were combined to create novel hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes, rAAV2/rec2 and rAAV2/rec3. The efficacy of these novel serotypes were assessed in wild type mice and in two models of retinal degeneration (the Abca4(-/- mouse which is a model for Stargardt disease and in the Pde6b(rd1/rd1 mouse in vivo, in primate tissue ex-vivo, and in the human-derived SH-SY5Y cell line, using an identical AAV2 expression cassette. We show that these novel hybrid serotypes can transduce retinal tissue in mice and primates efficiently, although no more than AAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 serotypes. Transduction efficiency appeared lower in the Abca4(-/- mouse compared to wild type with all vectors tested, suggesting an effect of specific retinal diseases on the efficiency of gene delivery. Shuffling of AAV capsid domains may have clinical applications for patients who develop T-cell immune responses following AAV gene therapy, as specific peptide antigen sequences could be substituted using this technique prior to vector re-treatments.

  12. Assessment of tropism and effectiveness of new primate-derived hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes in the mouse and primate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbel Issa, Peter; De Silva, Samantha R; Lipinski, Daniel M; Singh, Mandeep S; Mouravlev, Alexandre; You, Qisheng; Barnard, Alun R; Hankins, Mark W; During, Matthew J; Maclaren, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have been shown to be safe in the treatment of retinal degenerations in clinical trials. Thus, improving the efficiency of viral gene delivery has become increasingly important to increase the success of clinical trials. In this study, structural domains of different rAAV serotypes isolated from primate brain were combined to create novel hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes, rAAV2/rec2 and rAAV2/rec3. The efficacy of these novel serotypes were assessed in wild type mice and in two models of retinal degeneration (the Abca4(-/-) mouse which is a model for Stargardt disease and in the Pde6b(rd1/rd1) mouse) in vivo, in primate tissue ex-vivo, and in the human-derived SH-SY5Y cell line, using an identical AAV2 expression cassette. We show that these novel hybrid serotypes can transduce retinal tissue in mice and primates efficiently, although no more than AAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 serotypes. Transduction efficiency appeared lower in the Abca4(-/-) mouse compared to wild type with all vectors tested, suggesting an effect of specific retinal diseases on the efficiency of gene delivery. Shuffling of AAV capsid domains may have clinical applications for patients who develop T-cell immune responses following AAV gene therapy, as specific peptide antigen sequences could be substituted using this technique prior to vector re-treatments.

  13. [Does Alzheimer's disease exist in all primates? Alzheimer pathology in non-human primates and its pathophysiological implications (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, A; Álvarez, M I; López-Rodríguez, A B; Toledano-Díaz, A; Fernández-Verdecia, C I

    2014-01-01

    In the ageing process there are some species of non-human primates which can show some of the defining characteristics of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) of man, both in neuropathological changes and cognitive-behavioural symptoms. The study of these species is of prime importance to understand AD and develop therapies to combat this neurodegenerative disease. In this second part of the study, these AD features are discussed in the most important non-experimental AD models (Mouse Lemur -Microcebus murinus, Caribbean vervet -Chlorocebus aethiops, and the Rhesus and stump-tailed macaque -Macaca mulatta and M. arctoides) and experimental models (lesional, neurotoxic, pharmacological, immunological, etc.) non-human primates. In all these models cerebral amyloid neuropathology can occur in senility, although with different levels of incidence (100% in vervets;primates, such as the macaque, the existence of a possible continuum between "normal" ageing process, "normal" ageing with no deep neuropathological and cognitive-behavioural changes, and "pathological ageing" (or "Alzheimer type ageing"), may be considered. In other cases, such as the Caribbean vervet, neuropathological changes are constant and quite marked, but its impact on cognition and behaviour does not seem to be very important. This does assume the possible existence in the human senile physiological regression of a stable phase without dementia even if neuropathological changes appeared. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental primates and non-human primate (NHP) models of human diseases in China: current status and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Hu, Xin-Tian; Li, Jia-Li; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-11-18

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are phylogenetically close to humans, with many similarities in terms of physiology, anatomy, immunology, as well as neurology, all of which make them excellent experimental models for biomedical research. Compared with developed countries in America and Europe, China has relatively rich primate resources and has continually aimed to develop NHPs resources. Currently, China is a leading producer and a major supplier of NHPs on the international market. However, there are some deficiencies in feeding and management that have hampered China's growth in NHP research and materials. Nonetheless, China has recently established a number of primate animal models for human diseases and achieved marked scientific progress on infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases, reproductive diseases, neurological diseases, and ophthalmic diseases, etc. Advances in these fields via NHP models will undoubtedly further promote the development of China's life sciences and pharmaceutical industry, and enhance China's position as a leader in NHP research. This review covers the current status of NHPs in China and other areas, highlighting the latest developments in disease models using NHPs, as well as outlining basic problems and proposing effective countermeasures to better utilize NHP resources and further foster NHP research in China.

  15. Complete Ureteral Avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete avulsion of the ureter is one of the most serious complications of ureteroscopy. It requires open or laparoscopic intervention for repair. This case report emphasizes its management and presents recommendations for prevention in current urological practice.

  16. Ethnical evaluation of Bangladeshi young adults in terms of morphometrically-analyzed craniofacial skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Md. Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric study for the craniofacial relations and variations in humans have long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. The objective of this study was to describe the morphological features of craniofacial skeleton in Bangladeshi young adults and to compare it with already reported standards for the Caucasian population as well as cephalometric values of other Indian races using Steiner′s reference norms. The study was conducted for 52 Bangladeshi young adults (27 male and 25 females, aged 21-27 years, having balanced and harmonious facial profiles, clinically acceptable occlusion with permanent dentition and no history of orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms taken of these subjects were used for a series of morphometric analyses. Bangladeshi subjects were more protrusive skeletally and dentally than Caucasians. Furthermore, the mandibular plane angle was smaller in Bangladeshi subjects than in the Caucasians. Present results also suggest that the Astrics, Dravidians, and Armenoid who penetrated into Bengal in the early ages may have contributed substantially to the morphogenesis of craniofacial skeleton in the present Bengalis. The results of this study support the idea that a single standard of facial esthetics should not be applied to all racial and ethnic groups.

  17. Estimation of sex and age of 'virtual skeletons'-a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabherr, Silke [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi [University of Bern, Institute for the History of Medicine, Historical Anthropology, Bern (Switzerland); Uldin, Tanya [Service of Osteo-Archaeology, Aesch (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J. [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Christe, Andreas [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Schnyder, Pierre [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mangin, Patrice [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  18. UVB radiation prevents skeleton growth and stimulates the expression of stress markers in sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaventura, Rosa; Poma, Veronica; Costa, Caterina; Matranga, Valeria

    2005-01-01

    Ozone depletion results in an increased flux of biologically damaging radiations reaching the earth. Although ultraviolet (UV) penetration is attenuated by the seawater, harmful effects can be still observed at low depths where sea urchin embryos are living. We have used Paracentrotus lividus embryos to study the impacts of UV radiation on their development. Blastula cultures were exposed to different doses of UVB (312 nm) radiations and the resulting endpoint effects were evaluated in terms of embryonic morphological abnormalities, variations in specific gene expression, and changes in the levels of stress proteins. We found that embryos were moderately sensitive to 50 J/m 2 UVB radiation; an increase in the number of developmentally delayed and malformed embryos was detected when increasing doses, up to 1000 J/m 2 , were used. Major developmental defects, observed 24 and 48 h after exposure, consisted in the failure of skeleton elongation and patterning. Accordingly, we found a reduction in the number of primary mesenchyme cells that expressed Pl-SM30, a gene coding for one of the specific matrix proteins of the skeleton. The morphological effects observed 1, 24, and 48 h after exposure were correlated with a dose-dependent increase in the level and in the activation of two recognized stress markers, namely hsp70 and p38 MAPk, respectively, consistent with their role in mediating cellular response to stress and suggesting a function in embryo survival

  19. A comparison between skeleton and bounding box models for falling direction recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narupiyakul, Lalita; Srisrisawang, Nitikorn

    2017-12-01

    Falling is an injury that can lead to a serious medical condition in every range of the age of people. However, in the case of elderly, the risk of serious injury is much higher. Due to the fact that one way of preventing serious injury is to treat the fallen person as soon as possible, several works attempted to implement different algorithms to recognize the fall. Our work compares the performance of two models based on features extraction: (i) Body joint data (Skeleton Data) which are the joint's positions in 3 axes and (ii) Bounding box (Box-size Data) covering all body joints. Machine learning algorithms that were chosen are Decision Tree (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Voting Classification (VC), and Gradient boosting (GB). The results illustrate that the models trained with Skeleton data are performed far better than those trained with Box-size data (with an average accuracy of 94-81% and 80-75%, respectively). KNN shows the best performance in both Body joint model and Bounding box model. In conclusion, KNN with Body joint model performs the best among the others.

  20. Estimation of sex and age of ''virtual skeletons''-a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabherr, Silke; Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi; Uldin, Tanya; Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J.; Christe, Andreas; Schnyder, Pierre; Mangin, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  1. Incidence of tumours of the skeleton in 224Ra-treated ankylosing spondylitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, R.R.; Goessner, W.

    1983-01-01

    We are following 1426 ankylosing spondylitis (a.sp.) patients treated with 224 Ra and 1556 control patients with a.sp. not treated with any form of ionizing radiation. The average follow-up time of the exposure group is 16 years and the average α-dose to the skeleton is 65 rad, resulting from intravenous injection of 4.8μCi/kg 224 Ra on average within a medium injection span of 12 weeks. Injections normally have been performed once a week, and in some cases also half-weekly with a correspondingly shorter injection span. Since 1970 three cases of malignant tumours in the skeleton have been observed in the exposure group in patients with skeletal α-doses below 90 rad compared with 0.6 expected. (No bone tumour has occurred in the control group.) Two of the three cases observed were tumours of the bone marrow. The incidence of leukaemias in both exposure and control groups is discussed with respect to phenylbutazone treatment and α-radiation from 224 Ra. An effect of 224 Ra on the bone marrow not yet detected in the Spiess series of patients treated with higher amounts of 224 Ra cannot be excluded. (author)

  2. Morphological integration in the appendicular skeleton of two domestic taxa: the horse and donkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanot, Pauline; Herrel, Anthony; Guintard, Claude; Cornette, Raphaël

    2017-10-11

    Organisms are organized into suites of anatomical structures that typically covary when developmentally or functionally related, and this morphological integration plays a determinant role in evolutionary processes. Artificial selection on domestic species causes strong morphological changes over short time spans, frequently resulting in a wide and exaggerated phenotypic diversity. This raises the question of whether integration constrains the morphological diversification of domestic species and how natural and artificial selection may impact integration patterns. Here, we study the morphological integration in the appendicular skeleton of domestic horses and donkeys, using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics on 75 skeletons. Our results indicate that a strong integration is inherited from developmental mechanisms which interact with functional factors. This strong integration reveals a specialization in the locomotion of domestic equids, partly for running abilities. We show that the integration is stronger in horses than in donkeys, probably because of a greater degree of specialization and predictability of their locomotion. Thus, the constraints imposed by integration are weak enough to allow important morphological changes and the phenotypic diversification of domestic species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Morphometric studies on the facial skeleton of humans and pongids based on CT-scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, K U; Koppe, T; Fanghänel, J; Schumacher, G H; Nagai, H

    1994-10-01

    The changes of the skull, which we can observe during the anthropogenesis, are reflected especially in the different skull proportions. We carried out metric measurements at the median level on 10 adult skulls each of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas as well as 11 skulls of orangutans. All skulls were scanned with a CT at the median level. We measured the lines and angles of the scans and the means and the standard deviations were calculated. We carried out a correlation analysis to observe the relation of their characteristics. We showed that there is a relation between the length of the skull base and the facial length in all species. From the results of the correlation analysis, we can also conclude that a relation exists between the degree of prognathism and the different length measurements of the facial skeleton. We also found a bending of the facial skeleton in relation to the cranial base towards the ventral side, also known as klinorhynchy, in all observed species. The highest degree of klinorhynchy was found in humans and the lowest in orangutans. We will discuss the different definition of the term klinorhynchy and its importance in the evolution of the hominoids.

  4. The skeleton in the closet: should historians of science care about the history of mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amir

    2011-09-01

    Up until the 1950s, the history of mathematics was an integral part of the history of science. To George Sarton and his contemporaries, mathematics was the rational skeleton that organized science and held it together, and its history was a fundamental component of the broader history of science. But when historians began focusing on the cultural roots of science rather than its rational structure, the study of mathematics was marginalized and ultimately excluded from the history of science. The alienation between the two fields is detrimental to both, and in recent years there has been a sustained effort to reestablish meaningful communication between the two. This time, however, mathematics is seen not as the static skeleton of science but, instead, as a dynamic and historically evolving field in its own right-just like science itself. The new approach allows for a culturally sensitive study of mathematics, as well as a new and fruitful relationship between the history of science and the history of mathematics. The essays in this Focus section offer a sampling of the new approaches, opening the way to a rapprochement between fields that have gone their separate ways but should by rights be closely interconnected.

  5. Reconstructing the Curve-Skeletons of 3D Shapes Using the Visual Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesu, Marco; Guggeri, Fabio; Scateni, Riccardo

    2012-11-01

    Curve-skeletons are the most important descriptors for shapes, capable of capturing in a synthetic manner the most relevant features. They are useful for many different applications: from shape matching and retrieval, to medical imaging, to animation. This has led, over the years, to the development of several different techniques for extraction, each trying to comply with specific goals. We propose a novel technique which stems from the intuition of reproducing what a human being does to deduce the shape of an object holding it in his or her hand and rotating. To accomplish this, we use the formal definitions of epipolar geometry and visual hull. We show how it is possible to infer the curve-skeleton of a broad class of 3D shapes, along with an estimation of the radii of the maximal inscribed balls, by gathering information about the medial axes of their projections on the image planes of the stereographic vision. It is definitely worth to point out that our method works indifferently on (even unoriented) polygonal meshes, voxel models, and point clouds. Moreover, it is insensitive to noise, pose-invariant, resolution-invariant, and robust when applied to incomplete data sets.

  6. [Paleopathological skeleton findings. Macroscopical and radiographical studies of 364 individuals from a medieval graveyard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittrich, H; Kleibscheidel, C; Nizze, H

    2004-03-01

    Paleopathological examinations can give an idea of diseases and living conditions in ancient populations. An archaeological collection of 364 late medieval/early modern skeletons from the thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, excavated from a church cemetery in the Rostock town center, was examined palaeopathologically. The type and frequency of certain diseases within this north German urban population are described. The majority of the skeletons were from adults with a remarkably low percentage of children. Skeletal malformations (e.g. gap formations of the spinal column) were not abnormally represented. With the exception of single individuals, metabolic disorders or unusual infectious diseases could not be diagnosed. Degenerative diseases often found at the joints and the spinal column showed substantially lower prevalences in comparison with reference rural populations. Individual cases of benign and rare malignant neoplasms could be documented. Traumatic injuries as well as dental pathological changes were rare. In summary it can be concluded that the individuals buried here belonged to a better social class within the medieval population of Rostock.

  7. Various versions of analytic QCD and skeleton-motivated evaluation of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Valenzuela, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    We present skeleton-motivated evaluation of QCD observables. The approach can be applied in analytic versions of QCD in certain classes of renormalization schemes. We present two versions of analytic QCD which can be regarded as low-energy modifications of the ''minimal'' analytic QCD and which reproduce the measured value of the semihadronic τ decay ratio r τ . Further, we describe an approach of calculating the higher-order analytic couplings A k (k=2,3,...) on the basis of logarithmic derivatives of the analytic coupling A 1 (Q 2 ). This approach can be applied in any version of analytic QCD. We adjust the free parameters of the aforementioned two analytic models in such a way that the skeleton-motivated evaluation reproduces the correct known values of r τ and of the Bjorken polarized sum rule (BjPSR) d b (Q 2 ) at a given point (e.g., at Q 2 =2 GeV 2 ). We then evaluate the low-energy behavior of the Adler function d v (Q 2 ) and the BjPSR d b (Q 2 ) in the aforementioned evaluation approach, in the three analytic versions of QCD. We compare with the results obtained in the minimal analytic QCD and with the evaluation approach of Milton et al. and Shirkov

  8. Skeleton versus fine earth: what information is stored in the mobile extracellular soil DNA fraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Guiseppe; Pietramellara, Giacomo

    2010-05-01

    The soil genome consists of an intracellular and an extracellular fraction. Recently, soil extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been shown to be quantitatively relevant, with a high survival capacity and mobility, playing a crucial role in the gene transfer by transformation, in the formation of bacterial biofilm and as a source of nutrients for soil microorganisms. The eDNA fraction can be discriminated and classified by its interaction with clay minerals, humic acids and Al/Fe oxihydroxides, resulting in differently mobile components. The eDNA extractable in water, classified as DNA free in the extracellular soil environment or adsorbed on soil colloids (eDNAfree/adsorbed), is hypothesized to be the most mobile DNA in soil. Challenging to assess the information stored in this DNA fraction, eDNAfree/adsorbed was recovered from fine earth (gel electrophoresis), and qualitative analysis in terms of the composition and distribution of fungal and bacterial communities (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis- fingerprinting). The mobile soil eDNA, extracted from each horizon, was characterised by low molecular weight (result of the movement of eDNA along the soil profile and from fine earth to skeleton. The molecular characterization provided information about the autochthonous microflora inhabiting skeleton and fine earth as well as information about the fate of soil DNA in terms of presence, persistence and movement of eDNA and the stored genetic information.

  9. REVISITING THE DEBATE: DOES EXERCISE BUILD STRONG BONES IN THE MATURE AND SENESCENT SKELETON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional exercise programs seem to be less osteogenic in the mature and post-mature skeleton compared to the young skeleton, likely because of the decline in sensitivity of bone to mechanical loading that occurs with advancing age. Another factor contributing to the apparently diminished benefit of exercise in older adults is failure of widely used measurement techniques (i.e. DXA to account for changes in 3-dimensional bone structure, which are important determinants of bone strength. Moreover, although hormonal contributors to bone loss in the elderly are well-recognized, the influence of age-related increases in sympathetic nervous system activity on bone is rarely considered. In this Perspective, we cite evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating anabolic effects of exercise on bone across the lifespan and we discuss theoretical considerations for designing exercise regimens to optimize bone health. We conclude with suggestions for future research that should help define the osteogenic potential of exercise in older individuals.

  10. Modeling Surface Water Transport in the Central Pacific Ocean With 129I Records From Coral Skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W.; Biddulph, D. L.; Russell, J. L.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, T. J.; Correge, T.; Roeder, B.

    2008-12-01

    129I occurs naturally in extremely low abundance via cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere as well as by spontaneous fission of uranium. Oceanic concentrations of 129I have risen by several orders of magnitude during the last half century largely from environmental pollution coming from several point-source nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the Pacific basin, much of the increase has apparently come from the Hanford Nuclear reprocessing plant in the United States, with iodine primarily arriving via the Columbia River. Coral skeletons preserve records of 129I concentration of the surface waters from which they were deposited, yielding records with annual resolution or better. We will present three such records from different locations in the Pacific Ocean: the Solomon Islands, Easter Island and Clipperton Atoll. For this study, drill cores from living massive coral skeletons of the species Porites Lobata were collected from these sites. 129I/127I values were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Arizona with an NEC 3 MV Pelletron accelerator. Results from the analysis of the corals will be compared to the distribution of other mixed-layer tracers (chloro-fluorocarbons and tritium) collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises conducted between 1990 and 2002. The 129I/127I records observed in these corals will also be compared to tracer transit time calculations determined from a 20th century simulation of the GFDL coupled-climate passive-tracer model.

  11. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min

  12. Primate enamel evinces long period biological timing and regulation of life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, Timothy G; Hogg, Russell T; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hou, Chen

    2012-07-21

    The factor(s) regulating the combination of traits that define the overall life history matrix of mammalian species, comprising attributes such as brain and body weight, age at sexual maturity, lifespan and others, remains a complete mystery. The principal objectives of the present research are (1) to provide evidence for a key variable effecting life history integration and (2) to provide a model for how one would go about investigating the metabolic mechanisms responsible for this rhythm. We suggest here that a biological rhythm with a period greater than the circadian rhythm is responsible for observed variation in primate life history. Evidence for this rhythm derives from studies of tooth enamel formation. Enamel contains an enigmatic periodicity in its microstructure called the striae of Retzius, which develops at species specific intervals in units of whole days. We refer to this enamel rhythm as the repeat interval (RI). For primates, we identify statistically significant relationships between RI and all common life history traits. Importantly, RI also correlates with basal and specific metabolic rates. With the exception of estrous cyclicity, all relationships share a dependence upon body mass. This dependence on body mass informs us that some aspect of metabolism is responsible for periodic energy allocations at RI timescales, regulating cell proliferation rates and growth, thus controlling the pace, patterning, and co-variation of life history traits. Estrous cyclicity relates to the long period rhythm in a body mass-independent manner. The mass-dependency and -independency of life history relationships with RI periodicity align with hypothalamic-mediated neurosecretory anterior and posterior pituitary outputs. We term this period the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO), in reference to Clopton Havers, a 17th Century hard tissue anatomist, and Franz Halberg, a long-time explorer of long-period rhythms. We propose a mathematical model that may help elucidate

  13. A Skeleton Based Programming Paradigm for Mobile Multi-Agents on Distributed Systems and Its Realization within the MAGDA Mobile Agents Platform

    OpenAIRE

    R. Aversa; B. Di Martino; N. Mazzocca; S. Venticinque

    2008-01-01

    Parallel programming effort can be reduced by using high level constructs such as algorithmic skeletons. Within the MAGDA toolset, supporting programming and execution of mobile agent based distributed applications, we provide a skeleton-based parallel programming environment, based on specialization of Algorithmic Skeleton Java interfaces and classes. Their implementation include mobile agent features for execution on heterogeneous systems, such as clusters of WSs and PCs, and support reliab...

  14. On folivory, competition, and intelligence: generalisms, overgeneralizations, and models of primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Considerations of primate behavioral evolution often proceed by assuming the ecological and competitive milieus of particular taxa via their relative exploitation of gross food types, such as fruits versus leaves. Although this "fruit/leaf dichotomy" has been repeatedly criticized, it continues to be implicitly invoked in discussions of primate socioecology and female social relationships and is explicitly invoked in models of brain evolution. An expanding literature suggests that such views have severely limited our knowledge of the social and ecological complexities of primate folivory. This paper examines the behavior of primate folivore-frugivores, with particular emphasis on gray langurs (traditionally, Semnopithecus entellus) within the broader context of evolutionary ecology. Although possessing morphological characteristics that have been associated with folivory and constrained activity patterns, gray langurs are known for remarkable plasticity in ecology and behavior. Their diets are generally quite broad and can be discussed in relation to Liem's Paradox, the odd coupling of anatomical feeding specializations with a generalist foraging strategy. Gray langurs, not coincidentally, inhabit arguably the widest range of habitats for a nonhuman primate, including high elevations in the Himalayas. They provide an excellent focal point for examining the assumptions and predictions of behavioral, socioecological, and cognitive evolutionary models. Contrary to the classical descriptions of the primate folivore, Himalayan and other gray langurs-and, in actuality, many leaf-eating primates-range widely, engage in resource competition (both of which have previously been noted for primate folivores), and solve ecological problems rivaling those of more frugivorous primates (which has rarely been argued for primate folivores). It is maintained that questions of primate folivore adaptation, temperate primate adaptation, and primate evolution more generally cannot be

  15. Diagnostic overview of the illegal trade in primates and law enforcement in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Noga; Mendoza, A Patricia; Shanee, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Peru has one of the richest primate faunas of any country. The illegal trade in wild primates is one of the largest threats to this fauna in Peru. We characterize the illegal trade in primates through empirical and ethnographic data. We collected data from traffic routes and centers throughout Peru and evaluate current efforts to combat this traffic. Based on our findings from 2,070 instances of wildlife crime involving 6,872 primates, we estimate the domestic trade in primates for pets and bushmeat in Peru in the hundreds of thousands per year, with the larger bodied Atelidae facing the highest direct consequences. We found that government authorities lack sufficient staff, capacity, resources, infrastructure, and protocols to efficiently combat illegal trade in primates. Also, the complicated legal framework and lack of cooperation and antagonism with the public further limit these efforts. Wildlife authorities in Peru are able to confiscate only a fraction of primates traded and mostly intervene in cases of private pet owners rather than traffickers. We estimate that the current rate of illegal trade in primates is comparable to levels of trade prior to the 1973 ban on primates' exportation. The combination of direct observations on primate trade and ethnographic data allows a comprehensive look at primate trade in Peru. We call upon decision makers and international funders to channel their efforts toward "on the ground" actions such as increasing the ability of the authorities to act, giving them "in action" training in law enforcement and establishing strict control measures against corruption. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22516, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  17. Use of trepanofiopsis for determining 90 Sr and Ca in skeleton of horned cattle during its live time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A.N.; Sarapul'tsev, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method for in vivo determination of strontium 90 and calcium in the skeleton of cattle from radiometric and chemical analyses of bone tissue obtained on trepanobiopsy of the ilium was developed. Statistical processing of experimental data showed that in cows which had been receiving strontium 90 and calcium in their ration from the birth to the age of 12 the ratio of strontium 90 and calcium concentrations in the bone tissue of the trapanate and skeleton is independent of the animals' age. It was established that the spongy bone tissue of the ilium crest of different age cattle contains 20 wt.% more strontium 90 and 20 wt.% less calcium than their average concentration in the whole skeleton

  18. Myosin IIA interacts with the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton to control red blood cell membrane curvature and deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alyson S; Nowak, Roberta B; Zhou, Sitong; Giannetto, Michael; Gokhin, David S; Papoin, Julien; Ghiran, Ionita C; Blanc, Lionel; Wan, Jiandi; Fowler, Velia M

    2018-05-08

    The biconcave disk shape and deformability of mammalian RBCs rely on the membrane skeleton, a viscoelastic network of short, membrane-associated actin filaments (F-actin) cross-linked by long, flexible spectrin tetramers. Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) motors exert force on diverse F-actin networks to control cell shapes, but a function for NMII contractility in the 2D spectrin-F-actin network of RBCs has not been tested. Here, we show that RBCs contain membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA puncta, identified as bipolar filaments by superresolution fluorescence microscopy. MgATP disrupts NMIIA association with the membrane skeleton, consistent with NMIIA motor domains binding to membrane skeleton F-actin and contributing to membrane mechanical properties. In addition, the phosphorylation of the RBC NMIIA heavy and light chains in vivo indicates active regulation of NMIIA motor activity and filament assembly, while reduced heavy chain phosphorylation of membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA indicates assembly of stable filaments at the membrane. Treatment of RBCs with blebbistatin, an inhibitor of NMII motor activity, decreases the number of NMIIA filaments associated with the membrane and enhances local, nanoscale membrane oscillations, suggesting decreased membrane tension. Blebbistatin-treated RBCs also exhibit elongated shapes, loss of membrane curvature, and enhanced deformability, indicating a role for NMIIA contractility in promoting membrane stiffness and maintaining RBC biconcave disk cell shape. As structures similar to the RBC membrane skeleton exist in many metazoan cell types, these data demonstrate a general function for NMII in controlling specialized membrane morphology and mechanical properties through contractile interactions with short F-actin in spectrin-F-actin networks.

  19. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  20. Complete Rerouting Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a new protection method: Complete Rerouting. This is the most capacity e cient protection method for circuit switched networks and it is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time it has been described. We implement a column generation algorithm and test the performance...

  1. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  2. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  3. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  4. A complete woman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    treated me like a son in the way he encouraged my education, while my mother ... cine gives me a lot of satisfaction when I see my patients getting cured. Teaching ... thing in life as a complete woman in different roles – daughter, wife, mother ...

  5. Different responses to reward comparisons by three primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hani D; Sullivan, Jennifer; Hopper, Lydia M; Talbot, Catherine F; Holmes, Andrea N; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Williams, Lawrence E; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2013-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of cooperative breeding in the evolution of behavior. In many measures, cooperative breeders are more prosocial than non-cooperatively breeding species, including being more likely to actively share food. This is hypothesized to be due to selective pressures specific to the interdependency characteristic of cooperatively breeding species. Given the high costs of finding a new mate, it has been proposed that cooperative breeders, unlike primates that cooperate in other contexts, should not respond negatively to unequal outcomes between themselves and their partner. However, in this context such pressures may extend beyond cooperative breeders to other species with pair-bonding and bi-parental care. Here we test the response of two New World primate species with different parental strategies to unequal outcomes in both individual and social contrast conditions. One species tested was a cooperative breeder (Callithrix spp.) and the second practiced bi-parental care (Aotus spp.). Additionally, to verify our procedure, we tested a third confamilial species that shows no such interdependence but does respond to individual (but not social) contrast (Saimiri spp.). We tested all three genera using an established inequity paradigm in which individuals in a pair took turns to gain rewards that sometimes differed from those of their partners. None of the three species tested responded negatively to inequitable outcomes in this experimental context. Importantly, the Saimiri spp responded to individual contrast, as in earlier studies, validating our procedure. When these data are considered in relation to previous studies investigating responses to inequity in primates, they indicate that one aspect of cooperative breeding, pair-bonding or bi-parental care, may influence the evolution of these behaviors. These results emphasize the need to study a variety of species to gain insight in to how decision-making may vary across

  6. Different responses to reward comparisons by three primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani D Freeman

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of cooperative breeding in the evolution of behavior. In many measures, cooperative breeders are more prosocial than non-cooperatively breeding species, including being more likely to actively share food. This is hypothesized to be due to selective pressures specific to the interdependency characteristic of cooperatively breeding species. Given the high costs of finding a new mate, it has been proposed that cooperative breeders, unlike primates that cooperate in other contexts, should not respond negatively to unequal outcomes between themselves and their partner. However, in this context such pressures may extend beyond cooperative breeders to other species with pair-bonding and bi-parental care.Here we test the response of two New World primate species with different parental strategies to unequal outcomes in both individual and social contrast conditions. One species tested was a cooperative breeder (Callithrix spp. and the second practiced bi-parental care (Aotus spp.. Additionally, to verify our procedure, we tested a third confamilial species that shows no such interdependence but does respond to individual (but not social contrast (Saimiri spp.. We tested all three genera using an established inequity paradigm in which individuals in a pair took turns to gain rewards that sometimes differed from those of their partners.None of the three species tested responded negatively to inequitable outcomes in this experimental context. Importantly, the Saimiri spp responded to individual contrast, as in earlier studies, validating our procedure. When these data are considered in relation to previous studies investigating responses to inequity in primates, they indicate that one aspect of cooperative breeding, pair-bonding or bi-parental care, may influence the evolution of these behaviors. These results emphasize the need to study a variety of species to gain insight in to how decision-making may

  7. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Jacobs

    Full Text Available Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134 large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency. By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck. To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the

  8. The importance of protein in leaf selection of folivorous primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzhorn, Joerg U; Arrigo-Nelson, Summer J; Carrai, Valentina; Chalise, Mukesh K; Donati, Giuseppe; Droescher, Iris; Eppley, Timothy M; Irwin, Mitchell T; Koch, Flávia; Koenig, Andreas; Kowalewski, Martin M; Mowry, Christopher B; Patel, Erik R; Pichon, Claire; Ralison, Jose; Reisdorff, Christoph; Simmen, Bruno; Stalenberg, Eleanor; Starrs, Danswell; Terboven, Juana; Wright, Patricia C; Foley, William J

    2017-04-01

    Protein limitation has been considered a key factor in hypotheses on the evolution of life history and animal communities, suggesting that animals should prioritize protein in their food choice. This contrasts with the limited support that food selection studies have provided for such a priority in nonhuman primates, particularly for folivores. Here, we suggest that this discrepancy can be resolved if folivores only need to select for high protein leaves when average protein concentration in the habitat is low. To test the prediction, we applied meta-analyses to analyze published and unpublished results of food selection for protein and fiber concentrations from 24 studies (some with multiple species) of folivorous primates. To counter potential methodological flaws, we differentiated between methods analyzing total nitrogen and soluble protein concentrations. We used a meta-analysis to test for the effect of protein on food selection by primates and found a significant effect of soluble protein concentrations, but a non-significant effect for total nitrogen. Furthermore, selection for soluble protein was reinforced in forests where protein was less available. Selection for low fiber content was significant but unrelated to the fiber concentrations in representative leaf samples of a given forest. There was no relationship (either negative or positive) between the concentration of protein and fiber in the food or in representative samples of leaves. Overall our study suggests that protein selection is influenced by the protein availability in the environment, explaining the sometimes contradictory results in previous studies on protein selection. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22550, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adsorption of cadmium ions on nickel surface skeleton catalysts and its effect on reaction of cathodic hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, N.V.; Udris, E.Ya.; Savel'eva, O.N.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium adsorption from different concentration CdSO 4 solutions on nickel surface skeleton catalysts (Ni ssc ) is studied by recording of polarization and potentiodynamic curves using electron microscopy and X-ray spectrometry. Main regularities of cadmium adsorption on Ni ssc are shown to be similar to those on smooth and skeleton nickel. A conclusion is drawn that increase of catalytic activity in reaction of cathodic hydrogen evolution from alkali solutions of Ni ssc base electrodes after their treatment in solutions containing Cd 2+ ions is due to irreversible desorption of strongly and averagely bound hydrogen from electrode surface at cadmium adsorption on them

  10. The importance of scintimetry in the differential diagnosis of roentgenological areas of increased 'translucence' in the skeleton of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, P.; Benz, G.

    1979-01-01

    A random selection of lesions representing osteolytic bone processes was evaluated with the 'region-of-interest' technique in order to determine whether scintimetry can be helpful in the differential diagnosis of such processes in children. Bone tumours with structural densification, as well as osteomyelitides, were reviewed for comparative purposes. It was found that scintigraphy of the skeleton, while supplying additional and clinically quite interesting information, does not make any substantial contribution to the differential diagnostic clarification of roentgenological translucence in the skeleton of children. (orig.) [de

  11. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L.; Konen, O.; Schwarz, M.; Horev, G. [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Imaging Department, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Siegel, Y. [Rabin Medical Center, Imaging Department, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thoracic Section, Miami, FL (United States); Hershkovitz, I. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Laron, Z. [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2008-02-15

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (P < 0.001); however, at L5 the canal was wider, relative to the vertebral body. The study group had a higher rate of anterior osteophytes in the lumbar spine than the controls had, and their osteophytes were also significantly larger. In the six patients for whom radiographs of the upper extremity in its entirety were available on one film, the ulna appeared to be rotated. In one 22-year-old man, multiple epiphyses were still open. Congenital IGF-1 deficiency leads to skeletal abnormalities

  12. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Konen, O.; Schwarz, M.; Horev, G.; Siegel, Y.; Hershkovitz, I.; Laron, Z.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (P < 0.001); however, at L5 the canal was wider, relative to the vertebral body. The study group had a higher rate of anterior osteophytes in the lumbar spine than the controls had, and their osteophytes were also significantly larger. In the six patients for whom radiographs of the upper extremity in its entirety were available on one film, the ulna appeared to be rotated. In one 22-year-old man, multiple epiphyses were still open. Congenital IGF-1 deficiency leads to skeletal abnormalities

  13. Morphometric analysis of early Eocene Corbisema skeletons (Silicoflagellata) in Mors, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hideto; Jordan, Richard W.; Nishiwaki, Niichi; Nishida, Shiro

    2018-02-01

    A two-dimensional morphometric programme, recently designed to measure fossil skeletons of the silicoflagellate genus Corbisema, was used to investigate specimens of the C. apiculata-C. triacantha complex found in a sample from the Fur Formation on the island of Mors, Jutland, Denmark. The semi-automated programme measured the lengths of the basal sides and radial spines, the basal side curvature, and the location of the pikes (if present) from a photographic database (N = 469). As a result, two distinct morphological groups were revealed based on their radial spine length : basal side length ratio and the presence or absence of pikes: group A (ratio of 1 : 1.3, no pikes) and group B, with the latter subdivided into B1 (ratio of 1 : 7, with pikes) and B2 (ratio of 1 : 6, no pikes). Group A (C. triacantha sensu lato) possesses a small basal ring with relatively straight basal sides and long radial spines, while group B has a large basal ring with curved basal sides and short radial spines. In B1 specimens (C. apiculata sensu stricto) the pikes are positioned 0 to 1 µm away from the junction point of the strut and basal ring. This would suggest that B1 double skeletons are likely to be in the Star-of-David configuration, while A and B2 double skeletons (which lack pikes) are likely to be in the corner-to-corner configuration. Compared with the previously published biometric studies of extant Stephanocha (Stephanocha speculum complex in the Southern Ocean and S. medianoctisol in the Arctic Ocean), the results are somewhat different: although C. triacantha sensu lato (group A) is similar to the modern species of Stephanocha, the latter have smaller basal ring diameters, whereas specimens of C. apiculata sensu lato (types B1 and B2) have large basal rings. If their cell diameters are calculated, B1 is the largest, with S. speculum being the smallest - about half the size of B1. This could suggest that the relationship between radial spine length and mean basal ring

  14. Naloxone-induced electrographic seizures in the primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, E W; Shearer, D E; Beck, E C; Dustmann, R E

    1980-01-01

    Electrographic seizure activity was recorded shortly following naxolone injections in artificially ventilated, methadone-treated stump-tailed macaques. Plasma-methadone concentrations prior to seizure activity were many times higher than those that have produced respiratory depression and death in nonventilated monkeys. The duration of seizure activity was clearly related to the dose of naloxone. Naloxone was without epileptogenic properties in animals that had not been pretreated with methadone. The results suggest that methadone and naloxone have additive epileptogenic properties when high blood levels of methadone are achieved in the artificially ventilated primate. Naloxone was devoid of antagonistic properties with respect to opiate-induced electroencephalographic spiking activity.

  15. Nonhuman gamblers: lessons from rodents, primates, and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; De Petrillo, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico; Petrosino, Giancarlo; Ventricelli, Marialba; Zoratto, Francesca; Adriani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The search for neuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling in humans would benefit from investigating related phenomena also outside of our species. In this paper, we present a survey of studies in three widely different populations of agents, namely rodents, non-human primates, and robots. Each of these populations offers valuable and complementary insights on the topic, as the literature demonstrates. In addition, we highlight the deep and complex connections between relevant results across these different areas of research (i.e., cognitive and computational neuroscience, neuroethology, cognitive primatology, neuropsychiatry, evolutionary robotics), to make the case for a greater degree of methodological integration in future studies on pathological gambling. PMID:24574984

  16. An evolutionarily conserved sexual signature in the primate brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Reinius

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of a potential biological sexual signature in the human brain is a heavily disputed subject. In order to provide further insight into this issue, we used an evolutionary approach to identify genes with sex differences in brain expression level among primates. We reasoned that expression patterns important to uphold key male and female characteristics may be conserved during evolution. We selected cortex for our studies because this specific brain region is responsible for many higher behavioral functions. We compared gene expression profiles in the occipital cortex of male and female humans (Homo sapiens, a great ape and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, an old world monkey, two catarrhine species that show abundant morphological sexual dimorphism, as well as in common marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus, a new world monkey which are relatively sexually monomorphic. We identified hundreds of genes with sex-biased expression patterns in humans and macaques, while fewer than ten were differentially expressed between the sexes in marmosets. In primates, a general rule is that many of the morphological and behavioral sexual dimorphisms seen in polygamous species, such as macaques, are typically less pronounced in monogamous species such as the marmosets. Our observations suggest that this correlation may also be reflected in the extent of sex-biased gene expression in the brain. We identified 85 genes with common sex-biased expression, in both human and macaque and 2 genes, X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST and Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1, that were consistently sex-biased in the female direction in human, macaque, and marmoset. These observations imply a conserved signature of sexual gene expression dimorphism in cortex of primates. Further, we found that the coding region of female-biased genes is more evolutionarily constrained compared to the coding region of both male-biased and non sex-biased brain

  17. Effect of land use dynamics on habitat of two sympatric primates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Competition between growing human population and burgeoning number of primates were investigated at the Boabeng-Fiema monkey sanctuary (BFMS) in Ghana, to determine the effect of habitat change on primates. Remote sensing data, primarily Landsat imagery, were used to analyse the land use cover changes that ...

  18. Enumeration of Objects and Substances in Non-Human Primates: Experiments with Brown Lemurs ("Eulemur Fulvus")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Blanco, Marissa; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    Both human infants and adult non-human primates share the capacity to track small numbers of objects across time and occlusion. The question now facing developmental and comparative psychologists is whether similar mechanisms give rise to this capacity across the two populations. Here, we explore whether non-human primates' object tracking…

  19. Oldest known euarchontan tarsals and affinities of Paleocene Purgatorius to Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Boyer, Doug M; Clemens, William A

    2015-02-03

    Earliest Paleocene Purgatorius often is regarded as the geologically oldest primate, but it has been known only from fossilized dentitions since it was first described half a century ago. The dentition of Purgatorius is more primitive than those of all known living and fossil primates, leading some researchers to suggest that it lies near the ancestry of all other primates; however, others have questioned its affinities to primates or even to placental mammals. Here we report the first (to our knowledge) nondental remains (tarsal bones) attributed to Purgatorius from the same earliest Paleocene deposits that have yielded numerous fossil dentitions of this poorly known mammal. Three independent phylogenetic analyses that incorporate new data from these fossils support primate affinities of Purgatorius among euarchontan mammals (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Astragali and calcanei attributed to Purgatorius indicate a mobile ankle typical of arboreal euarchontan mammals generally and of Paleocene and Eocene plesiadapiforms specifically and provide the earliest fossil evidence of arboreality in primates and other euarchontan mammals. Postcranial specializations for arboreality in the earliest primates likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of this mammalian radiation in the Paleocene.

  20. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  1. Meeting report: Spontaneous lesions and diseases in wild, captive-bred, and zoo-housed nonhuman primates and in nonhuman primate species used in drug safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasseville, V G; Mansfield, K G; Mankowski, J L; Tremblay, C; Terio, K A; Mätz-Rensing, K; Gruber-Dujardin, E; Delaney, M A; Schmidt, L D; Liu, D; Markovits, J E; Owston, M; Harbison, C; Shanmukhappa, S; Miller, A D; Kaliyaperumal, S; Assaf, B T; Kattenhorn, L; Macri, S Cummings; Simmons, H A; Baldessari, A; Sharma, P; Courtney, C; Bradley, A; Cline, J M; Reindel, J F; Hutto, D L; Montali, R J; Lowenstine, L J

    2012-11-01

    The combination of loss of habitat, human population encroachment, and increased demand of select nonhuman primates for biomedical research has significantly affected populations. There remains a need for knowledge and expertise in understanding background findings as related to the age, source, strain, and disease status of nonhuman primates. In particular, for safety/biomedical studies, a broader understanding and documentation of lesions would help clarify background from drug-related findings. A workshop and a minisymposium on spontaneous lesions and diseases in nonhuman primates were sponsored by the concurrent Annual Meetings of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology held December 3-4, 2011, in Nashville, Tennessee. The first session had presentations from Drs Lowenstine and Montali, pathologists with extensive experience in wild and zoo populations of nonhuman primates, which was followed by presentations of 20 unique case reports of rare or newly observed spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates (see online files for access to digital whole-slide images corresponding to each case report at http://www.scanscope.com/ACVP%20Slide%20Seminars/2011/Primate%20Pathology/view.apml). The minisymposium was composed of 5 nonhuman-primate researchers (Drs Bradley, Cline, Sasseville, Miller, Hutto) who concentrated on background and spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates used in drug safety studies. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were emphasized, with some material presented on common marmosets. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and neoplastic changes were highlighed with a focus on clinical, macroscopic, and histopathologic findings that could confound the interpretation of drug safety studies.

  2. The complete cosmicomics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvino, Italo

    2014-01-01

    The definitive edition of Calvino’s cosmicomics, bringing together all of these enchanting stories—including some never before translated—in one volume for the first time. In Italo Calvino’s cosmicomics, primordial beings cavort on the nearby surface of the moon, play marbles with atoms, and bear ecstatic witness to Earth’s first dawn. Exploring natural phenomena and the origins of the universe, these beloved tales relate complex scientific concepts to our common sensory, emotional, human world. Now, The Complete Cosmicomics brings together all of the cosmicomic stories for the first time. Containing works previously published in Cosmicomics, t zero, and Numbers in the Dark, this single volume also includes seven previously uncollected stories, four of which have never been published in translation in the United States. This “complete and definitive collection” (Evening Standard) reconfirms the cosmicomics as a crowning literary achievement and makes them available to new generations of reader...

  3. A road for a promising future for China's primates: The potential for restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin A

    2018-07-18

    China is one of the most dynamic countries of the world and it shelters some amazing levels of biodiversity, including some very special primate species. However, primarily as a result of forest loss, most of which occurred in historical times, approximately 70% of China's primate species have less than 3 000 individuals. Here I evaluate one road for future conservation/development that could produce very positive gains for China's primates; namely forest restoration. I argue that for a large scale restoration project to be possible two conditions must be met; the right societal conditions must exist and the right knowledge must be in hand. This evaluation suggests that the restoration of native forest to support many of China's primates holds great potential to advance conservation goals and to promote primate population recovery.

  4. Behavioral and brain asymmetries in primates: a preliminary evaluation of two evolutionary hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Pope, Sarah M; Latash, Elitaveta M

    2015-11-01

    Contrary to many historical views, recent evidence suggests that species-level behavioral and brain asymmetries are evident in nonhuman species. Here, we briefly present evidence of behavioral, perceptual, cognitive, functional, and neuroanatomical asymmetries in nonhuman primates. In addition, we describe two historical accounts of the evolutionary origins of hemispheric specialization and present data from nonhuman primates that address these specific theories. Specifically, we first discuss the evidence that genes play specific roles in determining left-right differences in anatomical and functional asymmetries in primates. We next consider and present data on the hypothesis that hemispheric specialization evolved as a by-product of increasing brain size relative to the surface area of the corpus callosum in different primate species. Last, we discuss some of the challenges in the study of hemispheric specialization in primates and offer some suggestions on how to advance the field. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Minidosimetry of alpha-radiation from 239-Pu in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polig, E.

    1980-01-01

    A novel technique for evaluating alpha-autoradiograms of the skeleton was developed and applied. The method involves scanning the alpha-track distribution on cellulose-nitrate detector foils and determination of tissue structure from Alizarin-stained bone sections (150 μm) by means of a computer controlled microscope photometer. Geometrical alignment between the two samples is preserved during the measuring process. After combining the files containing the track density distribution with the corresponding digitized bone images on a random access storage medium, detailed information concerning the radionuclide distribution on a microscopic scale, dose rates, hit frequencies etc. are extracted by a sequence of FORTRAN-programs. The potential of the method is demonstrated in a study dealing with the distribution of 239-Pu in the lumbar vertebra of adult rats. The measured dose rate distribution is discussed in terms of hit probabilities for cell nuclei and consequences for quantitative tumour models are indicated. (H.K.)

  6. Archaeological skeletons support a northwest European origin for Paget's disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Simon

    2010-08-01

    The strong genetic component in the etiology of Paget's disease of bone (PDB), together with marked geographic variation in its prevalence, with high frequencies in British populations, has led some to suggest that the disease originated in Britain and spread around the world in recent times by the migration and admixture of British populations. This study aims to investigate this hypothesis by studying the world geographic distribution of PDB cases identified in ancient skeletons excavated from archaeological sites. The methodology is a review of PDB cases described in the literature. There were 109 cases that met modern diagnostic criteria. All came from Western Europe, 94% from England. These data support the hypothesis that PDB originated in this geographic region.

  7. A modern documented Italian identified skeletal collection of 2127 skeletons: The CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Mazzarelli, Debora; Cappella, Annalisa; Castoldi, Elisa; Mattia, Mirko; Poppa, Pasquale; De Angelis, Danilo; Vitello, Antonio; Biehler-Gomez, Lucie

    2018-04-24

    The CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection is a modern and continuously growing identified osteological collection of 2127 skeletons under study in the Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense (LABANOF) in the Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health of the University of Milan (Italy), and part of the Collezione Antropologica LABANOF (CAL). The collection presents individuals of both sexes and of all age groups with a high representation of elderly and an interesting sample of infants. Each individual is associated with a documentation that includes sex, age-at-death, dates of birth and death, and a death certificate that specifies the exact cause of death and the chain of events that led to it (related pathological conditions or traumatic events). It was also possible to recover for several individuals the autopsy reports and antemortem photographs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine sponge skeleton photosensitized by copper phthalocyanine: A catalyst for Rhodamine B degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined approach to photo-assisted degradation processes, in which a catalyst, H2O2 and UV irradiation are used together to enhance the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RB. The heterogeneous photocatalyst was made by the process of adsorption of copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (CuPC onto purified spongin-based Hippospongia communis marine sponge skeleton (HcS. The product obtained, CuPC-HcS, was investigated by a variety of spectroscopic (carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance 13C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS and microscopic techniques (scanning electron microscopy SEM, fluorescent and optical microscopy, as well as thermal analysis. The study confirms the stable combination of the adsorbent and adsorbate. For a 10 mg/L RB solution, the percentage degradation reached 95% using CuPC-HcS as a heterocatalyst. The mechanism of RB removal involves adsorption and photodegradation simultaneously.

  9. Anthropogenic 236U recorded in annually banded coral skeleton at Majuro atoll, the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Eto, Asuka; Takahashi, Yoshio; Steier, Peter; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Historical 236 U/ 238 U atom ratio and concentration of 236 U were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) in skeletons of dated modern coral core sample collected from Majuro atoll, equatorial Pacific, to reconstruct anthropogenic 236 U inputs to the Equatorial Pacific. The maximum hydrogen bomb-pulses of 236 U/ 238 U and 236 U concentration, 2.83x10 -9 and 1.85x10 7 atom/g, in an annually resolved coral core were captured in 1954 (Operation Castle at Bikini and Enewetok atolls). The values were abruptly decreased in a few years, and they have been gradually decreased over time. Our results allow studies of not only the present distribution pattern, but gives access to the temporal evolution of 236 U in surface seawater of North Equatorial Current which is introduced to the Japan Sea and the North West Pacific Ocean as Kuroshio and Tsushima currents over the past decades. (author)

  10. The results of nuclear tomography in the investigation of tumours of the facial skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Radtke, J.; Beyer, H.K.; Machtens, E.; Pastoors, H.; Knappschaftskrankenhaus Langendreer, Essen

    1986-01-01

    We examined 21 patients with tumours of the mouth, one with tumour involvement of the facial skeleton and three with lymph node involvement in the upper neck, by nuclear tomography. Twenty patients with carcinomas of the mouth were also examined by CT. Nuclear tomography was superior to CT in showing the extent of the tumour; in ten patients the extent of the tumour could not be accurately determined, since there was no clear demarcation from normal tissue. Amongst our patients, nuclear tomography was also superior for showing lymph node metastases. Computed tomography is better at showing bone infiltration. Our results indicate that nuclear tomography is better than CT for showing the tumour and lymph nodes. If there is a suspicion of bone involvement, CT should be used in addition. (orig.) [de

  11. Cytotoxic Meroterpenoids with Rare Skeletons from Psidium guajava Cultivated in Temperate Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yan, Huan; Ni, Wei; Yu, Mu-Yuan; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xia; He, Li; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; di, Ying-Tong; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Three new meroterpenoids, guajavadials A-C (1-3), were isolated from Psidium guajava cultivated in temperate zone. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic evidence and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Guajavadial A (1) represents a novel skeleton of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol-coupled monoterpenoid, while guajavadials B (2) and C (3) are new adducts of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol and a sesquiterpene with different coupling models. The plausible biosynthetic pathways as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these meroterpenoids are also discussed. All these isolates exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines, with 3 being most effective with an IC50 value of 3.54 μM toward SMMC-7721 cell lines.

  12. Results of nuclear tomography in the investigation of tumours of the facial skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlenbrock, D; Radtke, J; Beyer, H K; Machtens, E; Pastoors, H

    1986-03-01

    We examined 21 patients with tumours of the mouth, one with tumour involvement of the facial skeleton and three with lymph node involvement in the upper neck, by nuclear tomography. Twenty patients with carcinomas of the mouth were also examined by CT. Nuclear tomography was superior to CT in showing the extent of the tumour; in ten patients the extent of the tumour could not be accurately determined, since there was no clear demarcation from normal tissue. Amongst our patients, nuclear tomography was also superior for showing lymph node metastases. Computed tomography is better at showing bone infiltration. Our results indicate that nuclear tomography is better than CT for showing the tumour and lymph nodes. If there is a suspicion of bone involvement, CT should be used in addition.

  13. Animals, Pictures, and Skeletons: Andreas Vesalius's Reinvention of the Public Anatomy Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotwell, R Allen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the procedures used by Andreas Vesalius for conducting public dissections in the early sixteenth century. I point out that in order to overcome the limitations of public anatomical demonstration noted by his predecessors, Vesalius employed several innovative strategies, including the use of animals as dissection subjects, the preparation and display of articulated skeletons, and the use of printed and hand-drawn illustrations. I suggest that the examination of these three strategies for resolving the challenges of public anatomical demonstration helps us to reinterpret Vesalius's contributions to sixteenth-century anatomy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A novel triterpenoid carbon skeleton in immature sulphur-rich sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; De Leeuw, J.W. [Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Texel (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    A novel S compound, 1,4-bis(2{sup {prime}}, 5{sup {prime}}, 5{sup {prime}}, 8a{sup {prime}}-tetramethylhexahydrothiochroman)-butane has been detected in several immature S-rich sediments, of which the desulphurized counterpart was unambiguously identified by synthesis of an authentic standard and coinjection experiments. This C skeleton of the S compound, 1, 10-bis(2{sup {prime}}, 2{sup {prime}}, 6{sup {prime}}-trimethylcyclohexyl)-3,8-dimethyldodecane(I), has not been reported yet in any sediment or organism. We suggest that it may be biosynthesized through an enzymatic cyclization reaction of squalene (II), which shows similarities with the biosynthesis of {Beta}, {Beta}-carotene (III) from lycopene (IV). 24 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Selected radionuclides and heavy metals in skeletons of birds of prey from eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosa, A.; Chibowski, S.; Solecki, J.; Orzel, J.; Kitowski, I.; Rozanski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Results of determination of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 40 K, 239+240 Pu, and heavy metals: Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cu in skeletons of 15 species of birds of prey from Eastern Poland were presented. The greatest amounts of 137 Cs and 90 Sr (70 Bq/kg and 33 Bq/kg, respectively) were found in rough-legged buzzards (Buteo lagopus), winter visitors, coming from former soviet nuclear test places. Concentrations of 239+240 Pu in raptors were negligible, only lesser-spotted eagles (Aquila pomarina) revealed slightly higher values. Median concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in raptors which feed predominantly on small mammals were higher in comparison to concentrations found in other ones preferring different trophy. The most noticeable was a very high lead concentration (reaching above 600 mg/kg) in birds which utilize un-retrieved hunting casualties as their prey. (author)

  16. Radiological abnormalities of the skeleton in patients with sickle-cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dridi, M.F.; Oumaya, A.; Gastli, H.; Doggaz, C.; Bousnina, S.; Fattoum, S.; Ben Osman, R.; Gharbi, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The way in which bones are affected in cases of sickle-cell anemia is well known. Nevertheless, advances in treatment and in methods of transfusion mean that we are increasingly seeing cases of older patients with this disease. A retrospective analysis of 222 cases of sickle-cell anemia demonstrates the radiological appearance of the skeleton in the disease and reveals the various bone segments which are particularly vulnerable at certain periods of life. Correlation of X-rays permits the discovery of lesions which are not clinically apparent. The frequency and characteristics of epiphyseal osteonecrosis and osteitis are studied. Aggravation of the bone lesions when corticoids are administered poses the problem of differential diagnosis of the disease, especially in comparison with rheumatic fever. (orig.)

  17. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  18. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  19. SHIVA laser: nearing completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Godwin, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of the Shiva laser system is nearing completion. This laser will be operating in fall 1977 and will produce over 20 terawatts of focusable power in a subnanosecond pulse. Fusion experiments will begin early in 1978. It is anticipated that thermonuclear energy release equal to one percent that of the incident light energy will be achieved with sub-millimeter deuterium-tritium targets. From other experiments densities in excess of a thousand times that of liquid are also expected

  20. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.