WorldWideScience

Sample records for competitive swimming training

  1. The Effects of a Motivational Training Program on Competitive Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Block, Frank; Evans, Fred

    1981-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of a seven-week motivational training program on competitive veteran swimmers. Results suggested that the motivational training program exerted significant and positive influences on swimming performances. Swimmers perceived the program effective in improving swimming performances, developing personal motivation, establishing…

  2. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  3. Indices of training stress during competitive running and swimming seasons.

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    Flynn, M G; Pizza, F X; Boone, J B; Andres, F F; Michaud, T A; Rodriguez-Zayas, J R

    1994-01-01

    Eight male cross-country runners and five male swimmers were tested four times during their collegiate seasons. Each trial corresponded to a different training load. The runners' trials were conducted before the start of organized practice (RT1), after 3 wk of increased training (RT2), 3 wk prior to the conference championship (pre-taper, RT3), and 4 d after the conference championship (post-taper, RT4). The swimmers' trials were conducted after the first 9 wk of training (ST1), after completing 2 wk of hard training (ST2), after an additional 6 wk of training (pre-taper, ST3) and during a week following the conference championship (post-taper, ST4). Venous blood samples, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained after 15 min supine rest (0700 h). Serum was analyzed for cortisol (C), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and creatine kinase (CK). Blood samples (lactate), HR and RPE were obtained during a fixed velocity run (75% preseason VO2max) and blood samples and RPE following a 365.8 m swim (90% preseason VO2max). The runners then completed a "performance run" to exhaustion (110% preseason VO2max) and the swimmers completed maximal 22.9 and 365.8 m swims. Serum CK, C, TT, FT, and the TT:C and FT:C ratios were not significantly different among trials for the runners. Serum TT and FT were significantly (P swimmers at ST2 (TT 16.7 +/- 2.5; FT 85.3 +/- 8.5) compared to ST1 (TT 30.3 +/- 2.8; FT 130.2 +/- 20.9) whereas, C, TT:C or FT:C were not significantly altered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

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    Costa Mário J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i present two testing points; (ii on swimming physiology; (iii using adult elite swimmers; (iv no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7, endocrine secretion (n=11, muscle biochemistry (n=7, cardiovascular response (n=8 and the energetic profile (n=14. The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93. It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience.

  5. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário J; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2015-12-22

    The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i) present two testing points; (ii) on swimming physiology; (iii) using adult elite swimmers; (iv) no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7), endocrine secretion (n=11), muscle biochemistry (n=7), cardiovascular response (n=8) and the energetic profile (n=14). The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93). It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems) is limited and may depend on the athletes' training background and experience.

  6. A Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成兵; 邓新华

    2004-01-01

    Last Sunday, there was a swimming competition in our school. It had been a short time since I learned how to swim. Mr. Zhang, our PE teacher, said I had a gift in swimming and that competing in the game would help build up my confidence and courage. With his encouragement,I signed up for the swimming race.

  7. Airway remodeling and inflammation in competitive swimmers training in indoor chlorinated swimming pools.

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    Bougault, Valérie; Loubaki, Lionel; Joubert, Philippe; Turmel, Julie; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Chakir, Jamila; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Airway disorders are common in regular chlorinated swimming pool attendees, particularly competitive athletes, but the impact of intense swimming training on airway function and structure remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate airway inflammation and remodeling in elite swimmers. Twenty-three elite swimmers were tested during off-training season. All had exhaled nitric oxide measurement, methacholine test, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge, allergy skin prick tests, and bronchoscopy with bronchial biopsies. Clinical data and tissues from 10 age-matched mild-asthmatic and 10 healthy nonallergic subjects were used for comparison. Swimmers had increased airway mucosa eosinophil and mast cell counts than did controls (P swimming training in indoor chlorinated swimming pools is associated with airway changes similar to those seen in mild asthma, but with higher mucin expression. These changes were independent from airway hyperresponsiveness. The long-term physiological and clinical consequences of these changes remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. World outlook, moral and volitional training as tasks of educational work in modern competitive swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachurovs'kyy D.O.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with situation in the field of world outlook, moral and volitional training of Ukrainian swimmers. Practical recommendations regarding world outlook, moral and volitional training of swimmers are given to coaches, directors of sports schools, members of Federation of Swimming of Ukraine, scientists and specialists of educational institutions in the field of physical culture and sport in Ukraine. The aim was reached by means of literature analysis, uninvolved observation of educational work in competitive swimming, and experts' survey. It's determined that educational work in the sport of high performances lacks necessary theoretical and methodological basis at present time. The main task of educational work in sports should become world outlook training that provides first of all an extension sportsmen's and coaches' understanding of social and cultural sense of sport. It's proposed that idea of olympism (that is determined in Olympic Charter must serve as fundamental concept of educational work. It's assumed that work at recommendations and steps to ensure necessary world outlook and professional competence of the both sportsmen and coaches could be the main direction in the field of modernization of educational work in competitive swimming.

  9. Effect of intense swimming training on rhinitis in high-level competitive swimmers.

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    Bougault, V; Turmel, J; Boulet, L P

    2010-08-01

    Rhinitis is commonly reported by swimmers. Seasonal allergic rhinitis may impair athletes' performance and quality of life (QOL). No data are currently available on the changes of nasal symptoms during and after a swimming season. We aimed to determine in competitive swimmers: (1) the prevalence of rhinitis and its impact on their QOL during an intense training programme, (2) the changes in nasal symptoms and QOL after a resting period and (3) the relationship between rhinitis and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Thirty-nine swimmers and 30 healthy controls answered the Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and scored nasal symptoms on a seven-point Likert scale during the week preceding their visit. Subjects had allergy skin prick tests and a methacholine challenge. Peak nasal inspiratory flows were also measured. The athletes performed these tests during an intense training period (V1), outside the pollen season and after at least 2 weeks without swimming (V2). At V1, rhinitis symptoms were reported by 74% of swimmers and 40% of controls (Pswimming training is associated with an increase in nasal symptoms and impairment in QOL in most competitive swimmers. Such an increase is not related to seasonal allergen exposure in atopic athletes and probably results from chlorine derivative exposure.

  10. Effect of Swim Training on the Physical Characteristics of Competitive Adolescent Swimmers.

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    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Laudner, Kevin G; Kucera, Kristen L; Berkoff, David J; Yu, Bing; Myers, Joseph B

    2016-11-01

    Subacromial space distance and forward head and shoulder posture are common characteristics resulting from swim training. These alterations can cause abnormal scapular kinematics and positioning, potentially increasing compression of structures in the subacromial space and increasing the risk for the development of swimmer's shoulder. To evaluate the effect of the swim training season on subacromial space distance and forward head and forward shoulder posture as well as to determine the relationship between these variables. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Included in the study were 43 competitive adolescent swimmers and 29 nonoverhead adolescent athletes (controls) who were not currently experiencing any shoulder, neck, or back pain that limited their participation in sports activity. All participants were evaluated 3 times: once before the start of the swim training season and then at 2 follow-up sessions 6 and 12 weeks after the initial testing session. At each testing session, each participant completed a physical examination that included evaluation of posture and subacromial space distance. Swimmers had significantly greater decreases in subacromial space distance during the training season compared with nonoverhead athletes. Swimmers also demonstrated significantly greater increases in forward shoulder posture compared with nonoverhead athletes. A significant relationship was noted between changes in forward shoulder posture and changes in subacromial space distance from the baseline testing session to the assessment 6 weeks after baseline assessment. As forward shoulder posture increased, subacromial space significantly decreased. Because of their training load, swimmers experience a decrease in subacromial space distance and an increase in forward shoulder posture over the course of 12 weeks of training, potentially making these athletes more vulnerable to the development of shoulder pain and injury. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D; Berkoff, D C

    1997-06-01

    Alveolar breath sampling was used to assess trihalomethane (THM) exposures encountered by collegiate swimmers during a typical 2-hr training period in an indoor natatorium. The breath samples were collected at regular intervals before, during, and for 3 hr after a moderately intense training workout. Integrated and grab whole-air samples were collected during the training period to help determine inhalation exposures, and pool water samples were collected to help assess dermal exposures. Resulting breath samples collected during the workout demonstrated a rapid uptake of two THMs (chloroform and bromodichloromethane), with chloroform concentrations exceeding the natatorium air levels within 8 min after the exposure began. Chloroform levels continued to rise steeply until they were more than two times the indoor levels, providing evidence that the dermal route of exposure was relatively rapid and ultimately more important than the inhalation route in this training scenario. Chloroform elimination after the exposure period was fitted to a three compartment model that allowed estimation of compartmental half-lives, resulting minimum bloodborne dose, and an approximation of the duration of elevated body burdens. We estimated the dermal exposure route to account for 80% of the blood chloroform concentration and the transdermal diffusion efficiency from the water to the blood to in excess of 2%. Bromodichloromethane elimination was fitted to a two compartment model which provided evidence of a small, but measurable, body burden of this THM resulting from vigorous swim training. These results suggest that trihalomethane exposures for competitive swimmers under prolonged, high-effort training are common and possibly higher than was previously thought and that the dermal exposure route is dominant. The exposures and potential risks associated with this common recreational activity should be more thoroughly investigated.

  12. Knee Muscles Isokinetic Evaluation after a Six-Month Regular Combined Swim and Dry-Land Strength Training Period in Adolescent Competitive Swimmers

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    Dalamitros Athanasios A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated significant increases in the shoulder internal rotators’ peak torque values and unilateral muscular imbalances of the shoulder rotators after a competitive swim period. However, there are no similar data concerning the knee muscles. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a six-month training period on knee flexor and extensor peak torque values, examine a possible bilateral strength deficit and evaluate the unilateral strength balance in competitive swimmers. Eleven male adolescent swimmers (age: 14.82 ± 0.45 years were tested for concentric knee extension and flexion peak torque (60°/s with an isokinetic dynamometer, before and after a regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period. A trend towards greater improvements in the knee extensor compared to flexor muscles peak torque was observed. Furthermore, the bilateral strength deficit remained almost unchanged, whereas unilateral strength imbalance was increased for both limbs. However, all results were nonsignificant (p > 0.05. According to the data presented, a six-month regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period caused non-significant alterations for all the parameters evaluated during isokinetic testing. This study highlights the fact that competitive adolescent swimmers demonstrated unilateral knee strength imbalances throughout a long period of their yearly training macrocycle.

  13. Knee Muscles Isokinetic Evaluation after a Six-Month Regular Combined Swim and Dry-Land Strength Training Period in Adolescent Competitive Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Manou, Vasiliki; Christoulas, Kosmas; Kellis, Spiros

    2015-12-22

    Previous studies demonstrated significant increases in the shoulder internal rotators' peak torque values and unilateral muscular imbalances of the shoulder rotators after a competitive swim period. However, there are no similar data concerning the knee muscles. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a six-month training period on knee flexor and extensor peak torque values, examine a possible bilateral strength deficit and evaluate the unilateral strength balance in competitive swimmers. Eleven male adolescent swimmers (age: 14.82 ± 0.45 years) were tested for concentric knee extension and flexion peak torque (60°/s) with an isokinetic dynamometer, before and after a regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period. A trend towards greater improvements in the knee extensor compared to flexor muscles peak torque was observed. Furthermore, the bilateral strength deficit remained almost unchanged, whereas unilateral strength imbalance was increased for both limbs. However, all results were non-significant (p > 0.05). According to the data presented, a six-month regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period caused non-significant alterations for all the parameters evaluated during isokinetic testing. This study highlights the fact that competitive adolescent swimmers demonstrated unilateral knee strength imbalances throughout a long period of their yearly training macrocycle.

  14. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D; Berkoff, D C

    1997-01-01

    Alveolar breath sampling was used to assess trihalomethane (THM) exposures encountered by collegiate swimmers during a typical 2-hr training period in an indoor natatorium. The breath samples were collected at regular intervals before, during, and for 3 hr after a moderately intense training workout. Integrated and grab whole-air samples were collected during the training period to help determine inhalation exposures, and pool water samples were collected to help assess dermal exposures. Resu...

  15. ESTIMATION OF COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY IN SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING

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    Shul'ga L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to develop the approach to technical complexity estimation of free routine composition in synchronized swimming. Were analyzed and considered free routine compositions of the strongest swimmers in European and World Championships during the period under study (2008-2011. In the research took part 32 qualified athletes different ages. Were determined the options of the constructed of free program and location the combination saturation in those programs. Were established complicated elements distribution by the minutes of the free routine composition performance and developed the approach to technical complexity estimation of free routine composition (solo for using in training and competitive activity for qualified athletes in synchronized swimming. The total time of breath-holding makes up 40% of the time of the whole free routine composition.

  16. Changes and Historical Background of Competitive Swimming in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    野尻, 奈央子

    2008-01-01

    A changes and the historical background of the competitive swimming in Japan were examined in this paper. Beginning of the Meiji era, swim places appeared, and swimming races started. The competitive swimming progressed rapidly after transmitting the pool in 1907. The swimming changes in relation to the social environment and has evolved. Recently, the number of participant of ""Masters"" and ""Opening Water Swimming"" increases. On the other hand, the competitive swimming of young swimmers p...

  17. Assisted and resisted sprint training in swimming.

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    Girold, Sébastien; Calmels, Paul; Maurin, Didier; Milhau, Nicolas; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2006-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the resisted-sprint in overstrength (OSt) or the assisted-sprint in overspeed (OSp) could be efficient training methods to increase 100-m front crawl performance. Thirty-seven (16 men, 21 women) competition-level swimmers (mean +/- SD: age 17.5 +/- 3.5 years, height 173 +/- 14 cm, weight 63 +/- 14 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups: OSt, OSp, and control (C). All swimmers trained 6 days per week for 3 weeks, including 3 resisted or assisted training sessions per week for the groups OSt and OSp respectively. Elastic tubes were used to generate swimming overstrength and overspeed. Three 100-m events were performed before, during, and after the training period. Before each 100-m event, strength of the elbow flexors and extensors was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. Stroke rate and stroke length were evaluated using the video-recorded 100-m events. In the OSt group, elbow extensor strength, swimming velocity, and stroke rate significantly increased (p < 0.05), while stroke length remained unchanged after the 3-week training period. In the OSp group, stroke rate significantly increased (p < 0.05) and stroke length significantly decreased (p < 0.05) without changes in swimming velocity. No significant variations in the C group were observed. Both OSt and OSp proved to be more efficient than the traditional training program. However, the OSt training program had a larger impact on muscle strength, swimming performance, and stroke technique than the OSp program.

  18. Swimming and asthma: factors underlying respiratory symptoms in competitive swimmers.

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    Päivinen, Marja Kristiina; Keskinen, Kari Lasse; Tikkanen, Heikki Olavi

    2010-04-01

    Swimming is recommended for asthmatics. However, many competitive swimmers report asthmatic symptoms. While some studies identify the swimming environment as a trigger for allergy and asthmatic symptoms, even more studies suggest swimming to be suitable for people with allergies and asthma. The factors behind the symptoms were studied first by determining the prevalence of asthma, allergy and self-reported asthmatic symptoms in experienced Finnish swimmers and then by examining the relationships between the reported symptoms and the main triggering factors: medical history, environment and exercise intensity. Top swimmers (n = 332) of the Finnish Swimming Association registry (N = 4578) were asked to complete a structured questionnaire on their medical history, swimming background, swimming environment and symptoms in different swimming intensities. Two hundred experienced swimmers, 107 females and 93 males, with an average age of 18.5 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.0] years and a swimming training history of 9 (SD = 3.8) years completed the questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported by 32 swimmers (16%), including 24 (12%) with exercise-induced asthma. Physician-diagnosed allergy was reported by 81 (41%) swimmers. Asthmatic symptoms during swimming were described by 84 subjects (42%). Most symptoms occurred when swimming exceeded speeds corresponding to the lactic/anaerobic threshold. Family history of asthma was significant and the most important risk factor for asthmatic symptoms. The prevalence of asthma in swimmers was higher than in the general population but not different from that in other endurance athletes. Family history of asthma and increased swimming intensity had the strongest associations with the reported asthmatic symptoms.

  19. The Fluid Dynamics of Competitive Swimming

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    Wei, Timothy; Mark, Russell; Hutchison, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Nowhere in sport is performance so dependent on the interaction of the athlete with the surrounding medium than in competitive swimming. As a result, understanding (at least implicitly) and controlling (explicitly) the fluid dynamics of swimming are essential to earning a spot on the medal stand. This is an extremely complex, highly multidisciplinary problem with a broad spectrum of research approaches. This review attempts to provide a historical framework for the fluid dynamics-related aspects of human swimming research, principally conducted roughly over the past five decades, with an emphasis on the past 25 years. The literature is organized below to show a continuous integration of computational and experimental technologies into the sport. Illustrations from the authors' collaborations over a 10-year period, coupling the knowledge and experience of an elite-level coach, a lead biomechanician at USA Swimming, and an experimental fluid dynamicist, are intended to bring relevance and immediacy to the review.

  20. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

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    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  1. Physical and energy requirements of competitive swimming events.

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    Pyne, David B; Sharp, Rick L

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic sports competitions held during the summer Olympic Games include diving, open-water swimming, pool swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. Elite-level performance in each of these sports requires rigorous training and practice to develop the appropriate physiological, biomechanical, artistic, and strategic capabilities specific to each sport. Consequently, the daily training plans of these athletes are quite varied both between and within the sports. Common to all aquatic athletes, however, is that daily training and preparation consumes several hours and involves frequent periods of high-intensity exertion. Nutritional support for this high-level training is a critical element of the preparation of these athletes to ensure the energy and nutrient demands of the training and competition are met. In this article, we introduce the fundamental physical requirements of these sports and specifically explore the energetics of human locomotion in water. Subsequent articles in this issue explore the specific nutritional requirements of each aquatic sport. We hope that such exploration will provide a foundation for future investigation of the roles of optimal nutrition in optimizing performance in the aquatic sports.

  2. Quality versus Quantity Debate in Swimming: Perceptions and Training Practices of Expert Swimming Coaches

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    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches’ perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches’ perspective which was not currently available in the research literature. PMID:28713467

  3. Quality Versus Quantity Debate in Swimming: Perceptions and Training Practices of Expert Swimming Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Frank J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches’ perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches’ perspective which was not currently available in the research literature.

  4. Inspiratory muscle training improves 100 and 200 m swimming performance.

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    Kilding, Andrew E; Brown, Sarah; McConnell, Alison K

    2010-02-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated. Similarly, it is not known whether any ergogenic influence of IMT upon swimming performance is confined to specific race distances. To determine the influence of IMT upon swimming performance over 3 competitive distances, 16 competitive club-level swimmers were assigned at random to either an experimental (pressure threshold IMT) or sham IMT placebo control group. Participants performed a series of physiological and performance tests, before and following 6 weeks of IMT, including (1) an incremental swim test to the limit of tolerance to determine lactate, heart rate and perceived exertion responses; (2) standard measures of lung function (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak expiratory flow) and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP); and (3) 100, 200 and 400 m swim time trials. Training utilised a hand-held pressure threshold device and consisted of 30 repetitions, twice per day. Relative to control, the IMT group showed the following percentage changes in swim times: 100 m, -1.70% (90% confidence limits, +/-1.4%), 200 m, -1.5% (+/-1.0), and 400 m, 0.6% (+/-1.2). Large effects were observed for MIP and rates of perceived exertion. In conclusion, 6 weeks of IMT has a small positive effect on swimming performance in club-level trained swimmers in events shorter than 400 m.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Swimming Styles in Competitive Swimming

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    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Gupta, Varun; Mark, Russell

    2007-11-01

    High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to conduct a critical evaluation of swimming strokes in competitive swimming. We combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD), laser body scans, animation software, and video footage to develop accurate models of Olympic level swimmers and use these to examine contrasting styles of the dolphin kick as well as the arm strokes in back and front crawl stroke. In the dolphin kick, the focus is on examining the effects of Strouhal number, kick amplitude, frequency, and technique on thrust production. In the back stroke, we examine the performance of the so called ``flat stroke'' versus the ``deep catch,'' The most important aspect that separates the two major types of back stroke is the alignment or angle of attack of the palm during the stroke. In one style of front crawl arm stroke, there is greater elbow joint flexion, shoulder abduction and sculling whereas the other style consists of a straight arm pull dominated by simple shoulder flexion. Underlying the use of these two styles is the larger and more fundamental issue of the role of lift versus drag in thrust production and we use the current simulations to examine this issue in detail.

  6. Endorphin responses to stress induced by competitive swimming event.

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    Carrasco, L; Villaverde, C; Oltras, C M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in endorphins (END) induced by swimming competitive practice. Twenty-three males, (13 trained swimmers [experimental group] and 10 sedentary and healthy students [age-matched comparison group]) took part in this investigation. The swimmers were assessed at 3 points: basal conditions, pre- and postswimming competition (100 m freestyle), whereas subjects from the control group only undertook the basal trial. The variables analysed were anxiety level, plasma END and lactate concentrations. No statistical differences were observed in END basal levels between groups. An evident END response to precompetition psychological stress was observed in the experimental group, since the plasma END concentration rose from 36.3+/-2.9 pg/mL (basal conditions) to 51.8+/-3.2 pg/mL (P=0.05). The END response to the competitive effort produced a remarkable increase in its plasma concentration (128.6+/-18.1 pg/mL), showed statistical differences from precompetition (P=orSwimming competition (short-term maximal type of effort) induces a psychological and physiological stress, which stimulates the secretion of END. END are secreted to counter the negative effects of competitive stress, although more research is needed to accurate the relationship between END and anxiety levels during exercise.

  7. Glucose response after a ten-week training in swimming.

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    Sengoku, Y; Nakamura, K; Takeda, T; Nabekura, Y; Tsubakimoto, S

    2011-11-01

    The present study investigated the difference in blood glucose concentration (Glu) response during an incremental swimming test before and after a ten-week training period and verified whether blood glucose threshold (GT) could be determined in competitive swimmers. 7 elite male university swimmers participated in this study. 2 incremental swimming tests were conducted in a swimming flume before and after a ten-week training period. Blood lactate concentration (Bla) and Glu were measured after each swimming step, and the velocities of the lactate threshold (VLT) and glucose threshold (VGT) were analyzed. VLT increased significantly after training (1.21±0.06 m x s(-1) pre-training, 1.31±0.10 m x s(-1) post-training, pswimming intensity steps. GT was not determined at each trial. Our results show that lactate threshold (LT) improved significantly after the ten-week training period, while the Glu response during incremental swimming tests did not change. Therefore, GT could not be determined in elite competitive swimmers before and after training. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training

    OpenAIRE

    Břízová, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    THESIS ANNOTATION Title: The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training Aim: To assess the impact of 'baby swimming' on the successfulness in introductory and partly in elementary swimming training, and to find out whether also other circumstances (for example the length of attendance at 'baby swimming') have some influence on introductory swimming training. Methods: We used a questionnaire method for the parents of children who had attended 'baby swimming' and f...

  9. Evaluation of the energy expenditure in competitive swimming strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, T M; Fernandes, R; Keskinen, K L; Colaço, P; Cardoso, C; Silva, J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the total energy expenditure of the four competitive swimming strokes. Twenty-six swimmers of international level were submitted to an incremental set of 200-m swims (5 swimmers at Breaststroke, 5 swimmers at Backstroke, 4 swimmers at Butterfly and 12 swimmers at Front Crawl). The starting velocity was approximately 0.3 m x s (-1) less than a swimmer's best performance and thereafter increased by 0.05 m x s (-1) after each swim until exhaustion. Cardio-pulmonary and gas exchange parameters were measured breath-by-breath (BxB) for each swim to analyze oxygen consumption (VO2) and other energetic parameters by portable metabolic cart (K4b(2), Cosmed, Rome, Italy). A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to measure pulmonary ventilation and to collect breathing air samples. Blood samples from the ear lobe were collected before and after each swim to analyze blood lactate concentration (YSI 1500 L, Yellow Springs, Ohio, USA). Total energy expenditure (E(tot)), was calculated for each 200-m stage. E (tot) differed significantly between the strokes at all selected velocities. At the velocity of 1.0 m x s (-1) and of 1.2 m x s (-1) the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke than in Backstroke, in Breaststroke than in Freestyle and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. At the velocity of 1.4 m x s (-1), the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke than in Backstroke, in Backstroke than in Freestyle, in Breaststroke than in Freestyle and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. At the velocity of 1.6 m x s (-1), the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. As a conclusion, E(tot) of well-trained competitive swimmers was measured over a large range of velocities utilising a new BxB technique. Freestyle was shown to be the most economic among the competitive swimming strokes, followed by the Backstroke, the Butterfly and the Breaststroke.

  10. Fluid dynamics of competitive swimming: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T.; Voorhees, A.; Mark, R.; Mittal, R.

    2004-11-01

    The world of competitive swimming is dynamic. Swimmers today are bigger, stronger and faster than they ever have been. The training regimen of an elite athlete includes not only endless practice of his or her skills, but also a carefully planned diet, strength and endurance training, and hours of mental preparation. Within this framework, researchers from Rutgers and George Washington Universities have teamed with USA Swimming to develop advanced, fluid dynamics based training and analysis tools for current and future Olympic swimmers. The focus of this presentation will be on the objectives, methodologies and early outcomes of DPIV measurements of flow around swimmers. Testing was conducted at the Olympic training center in Colorado Springs and focussed specifically on the dolphin kick, an undulating motion swimmers use at the beginning of a race and after pushing off from the wall during a turn. Movies of flow measurements around swimmers, including Beth Botsford, the 1996 Olympic Gold Medalist in the 100 m backstroke, will be presented.

  11. Relationship between energy cost, swimming velocity, speed fluctuation in competitive swimming strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Tiago M.; Lima, A.B.; Portela, A; Novais, D.; L Machado; Colaço, P.; Gonçalves, P; Fernandes, R. J.; Keskinen, K.L.; Vilas-Boas, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationships between the total energy expenditure ( tot), the energy cost (EC), the intra-cycle variation of the horizontal velocity of displacement of centre of mass (dv) and the mean swimming velocity (v) in the four competitive swimming strokes.

  12. The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Knudsen, H K; Juul-Kristensen, B

    2015-01-01

    for performance enhancement in swimming (Smith et al., 2002). In order to detail the individual training programme, reference values are needed. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the association between muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity and 100 m freestyle time (FT) in young, competitive...... swimmers, and secondly to determine reference values for these physiological factors. Methods In total, 119 competitive swimmers aged 11-15 years were assessed with Grip Strength (GS), Vertical Jump (VJ) and an intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake, the Andersen Test (AT). Swim time......, including data on reference values for each test, may be considered in order to improve dry-land training prescription, thereby supporting the enhancing swimming performance in young, competitive swimmers...

  13. Prevalence of dental erosion in adolescent competitive swimmers exposed to gas-chlorinated swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowska-Radlińska, J; Łagocka, R; Kaczmarek, W; Górski, M; Nowicka, A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dental erosion among competitive swimmers of the local swimming club in Szczecin, Poland, who train in closely monitored gas-chlorinated swimming pool water. The population for this survey consisted of a group of junior competitive swimmers who had been training for an average of 7 years, a group of senior competitive swimmers who had been training for an average of 10 years, and a group of recreational swimmers. All subjects underwent a clinical dental examination and responded to a questionnaire regarding aspects of dental erosion. In pool water samples, the concentration of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sodium, and potassium ions and pH were determined. The degree of hydroxyapatite saturation was also calculated. Dental erosion was found in more than 26 % of the competitive swimmers and 10 % of the recreational swimmers. The lesions in competitive swimmers were on both the labial and palatal surfaces of the anterior teeth, whereas erosions in recreational swimmers developed exclusively on the palatal surfaces. Although the pH of the pool water was neutral, it was undersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. The factors that increase the risk of dental erosion include the duration of swimming and the amount of training. An increased risk of erosion may be related to undersaturation of pool water with hydroxyapatite components. To decrease the risk of erosion in competitive swimmers, the degree of dental hydroxyapatite saturation should be a controlled parameter in pool water.

  14. The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Kromann; Henriksen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers Henriksen, P.1, 2, Kromann Knudsen, H.2, Juul-Kristensen, B.3, 4, Junge, T.2, 5, 6 1Inter-Faculty Educational Resources, University College Lillebaelt, Odense, Denmark 2Department...... Services, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark 6Health Sciences Research Centre, University College Lillebaelt, Odense, Denmark Introduction Swim time performance is affected by physiological factors such as muscle strength and power of the upper and lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity...... (Smith et al., 2002). The association between these factors and swim time performance may plausibly identify some of the determinants for performance enhancement in swimming (Smith et al., 2002). In order to detail the individual training programme, reference values are needed. The aims of this study...

  15. The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Knudsen, H K; Juul-Kristensen, B

    2015-01-01

    for performance enhancement in swimming (Smith et al., 2002). In order to detail the individual training programme, reference values are needed. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the association between muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity and 100 m freestyle time (FT) in young, competitive......Swim time performance is affected by physiological factors such as muscle strength and power of the upper and lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity (Smith et al., 2002). The association between these factors and swim time performance may plausibly identify some of the determinants....... Conclusion Muscle strength and power tests for upper and lower extremities, expressed as GS and VJ, were found to be significantly and negatively associated with 100 m FT in the current study. Also, increasing aerobic capacity was found to improve swim time performance. These simple and low-cost tests...

  16. Swimming overuse injuries associated with triathlon training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    Most triathlon overuse injuries occur due to the running and cycling aspects of the sport. By nature of swimming being a non-weight-bearing sport, triathletes have a tendency to use swimming for rehabilitation and recovery. Swimming has a significantly lower injury rate than the other 2 disciplines in a triathlon. Most triathletes use the freestyle stroke, because it is typically the first stroke learned, it is for many the fastest stroke, and by lifting the head the freestyle stroke allows triathletes to sight their direction, which is important in open water swimming. During the freestyle stroke, the shoulder undergoes repetitive overhead motion, and shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in competitive swimmers. It is felt that the pathologic process is attributable to repetitive overhead motion causing microtrauma in the shoulder from either mechanical impingement or generalized laxity or both. Without sufficient rest and recovery, the development of inflammation and pain may result. Depending on the age of the triathlete and the exact etiology of the shoulder pain, treatment options range from nonsurgical to surgical in nature.

  17. The effect of a one-piece competition speedsuit on swimming performance and thermoregulation during a swim-cycle trial in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Landers, Grant

    2007-10-01

    This study investigated the thermoregulatory response to wearing a one-piece competition speedsuit during the swim-cycle aspect of a sprint-distance triathlon. Eight highly trained, male triathletes completed a graded-exercise test, and two swim-cycle trials including a 750 m swimming time trial followed by 30 min of cycling at 95% lactate threshold. Cycling was conducted inside a climate regulated chamber set to 30.0+/-0.3 degrees C and 60.3+/-0.3% humidity. Throughout each swim-cycle testing session, the athletes wore either standard swimming bathers only (BATHERS), or a competition speedsuit (SPEEDSUIT). During the swim-cycle trial, the athletes core temperature (T(c)) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were recorded via a telemetric temperature pill and a series of skin thermistors, respectively. Blood lactate concentration (BLa), heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived thermal sensation (RPTS) were collected at the conclusion of the swim and during cycling. The SPEEDSUIT swim time (590+/-20s) was significantly faster (3.2%, p0.05). During the 30 min cycle, there were not significant differences between the mean values for power output, T(c), T(sk), HR, BLa or RPTS (SPEEDSUIT: 289+/-13W, 38.65+/-0.27 degrees C, 34.30+/-0.71 degrees C, 7.8+/-1.1 mmol L(-1), 17+/-1, BATHERS: 288+/-14W, 38.35+/-0.10 degrees C, 33.50+/-0.57 degrees C, 7.1+/-0.9 mmol L(-1), 17+/-1, respectively) (p>0.05). The use of a competition speedsuit improved the triathletes' swim time without effecting temperature regulation during a laboratory-based swim-cycle trial.

  18. COMBINED STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Aspenes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11 or a control group (n = 9 from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers

  19. Warm-up and performance in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up before physical activity is commonly accepted to be fundamental, and any priming practices are usually thought to optimize performance. However, specifically in swimming, studies on the effects of warm-up are scarce, which may be due to the swimming pool environment, which has a high temperature and humidity, and to the complexity of warm-up procedures. The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the different studies on how warming up affects swimming performance, and to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of warm-up before competition. Most of the main proposed effects of warm-up, such as elevated core and muscular temperatures, increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscle cells and higher efficiency of muscle contractions, support the hypothesis that warm-up enhances performance. However, while many researchers have reported improvements in performance after warm-up, others have found no benefits to warm-up. This lack of consensus emphasizes the need to evaluate the real effects of warm-up and optimize its design. Little is known about the effectiveness of warm-up in competitive swimming, and the variety of warm-up methods and swimming events studied makes it difficult to compare the published conclusions about the role of warm-up in swimming. Recent findings have shown that warm-up has a positive effect on the swimmer's performance, especially for distances greater than 200 m. We recommend that swimmers warm-up for a relatively moderate distance (between 1,000 and 1,500 m) with a proper intensity (a brief approach to race pace velocity) and recovery time sufficient to prevent the early onset of fatigue and to allow the restoration of energy reserves (8-20 min).

  20. Pitching effects of buoyancy during four competitive swimming strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Harrison, Simon M; Mason, Bruce R; Pease, David L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pitching effects of buoyancy during all competitive swimming strokes--freestyle, backstroke, butterfly, and breaststroke. Laser body scans of national-level athletes and synchronized multiangle swimming footage were used in a novel markerless motion capture process to produce three-dimensional biomechanical models of the swimming athletes. The deforming surface meshes were then used to calculate swimmer center-of-mass (CoM) positions, center-of-buoyancy (CoB) positions, pitch buoyancy torques, and sagittal plane moments of inertia (MoI) throughout each stroke cycle. In all cases the mean buoyancy torque tended to raise the legs and lower the head; however, during part of the butterfly stroke the instantaneous buoyancy torque had the opposite effect. The swimming strokes that use opposing arm and leg strokes (freestyle and backstroke) had smaller variations in CoM positions, CoB positions, and buoyancy torques. Strokes with synchronized left-right arm and leg movement (butterfly and breaststroke) had larger variations in buoyancy torques, which impacts the swimmer's ability to maintain a horizontal body pitch for these strokes. The methodology outlined in this paper enables the rotational effects of buoyancy to be better understood by swimmers, allowing better control of streamlined horizontal body positioning during swimming to improve performance.

  1. Electromyography in the four competitive swimming strokes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Jonas; Figueiredo, Pedro; Daly, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview on 50 years of research in electromyography in the four competitive swimming strokes (crawl, breaststroke, butterfly, and backstroke). A systematic search of the existing literature was conducted using the combined keywords "swimming" and "EMG" on studies published before August 2013, in the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SPORT discus, Academic Search Elite, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. The quality of each publication was assessed by two independent reviewers using a custom made checklist. Frequency of topics, muscles studied, swimming activities, populations, types of equipment and data treatment were determined from all selected papers and, when possible, results were compared and contrasted. In the first 20 years of EMG studies in swimming, most papers were published as congress proceedings. The methodological quality was low. Crawl stroke was most often studied. There was no standardized manner of defining swimming phases, normalizing the data or of presenting the results. Furthermore, the variability around the mean muscle activation patterns is large which makes it difficult to define a single pattern applicable to all swimmers in any activity examined.

  2. Examining Self-Training Procedures in Leisure Swimming

    OpenAIRE

    J. Potdevin, Francois; Normani, Clement; Pelayo, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated contents of training sessions from 387 regular swimmers involved in a recreational workout without supervision. We did use multiple correspondences analysis in order to identify self-trained swimmers typology in a sample from a social networking website, focusing on swimming practice. Self-reported parameters (n = 12) were age, gender, practice frequency, supervision in physical activity experiment, main training target, main reason for swimming choice, swimming sessio...

  3. Pulmonary adaptations to swim and inspiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Stager, Joel M; Chatham, Ken; Lindley, Martin R; Ionescu, Alina A

    2008-08-01

    Because the anomalous respiratory characteristics of competitive swimmers have been suggested to be due to inspiratory muscle work, the respiratory muscle and pulmonary function of 30 competitively trained swimmers was assessed at the beginning and end of an intensive 12-week swim training (ST) program. Swimmers (n = 10) combined ST with either inspiratory muscle training (IMT) set at 80% sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP) with progressively increased work-rest ratios until task failure for 3-days per week (ST + IMT) or ST with sham-IMT (ST + SHAM-IMT, n = 10), or acted as controls (ST only, ST, n = 10). Measures of respiratory and pulmonary function were assessed at the beginning and end of the 12 week study period. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in respiratory and pulmonary function between groups (ST + IMT, ST + SHAM-IMT and ST) at baseline and at the end of the 12 week study period. However, within all groups significant increases (P inspiratory and expiratory pressure, inspiratory power output, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory and inspiratory volume in 1-s, total lung capacity and diffusion capacity of the lung. This study has demonstrated that there are no appreciable differences in terms of respiratory changes between elite swimmers undergoing a competitive ST program and those undergoing respiratory muscle training using the flow-resistive IMT device employed in the present study; as yet, the causal mechanisms involved are undefined.

  4. Application of regression and neural models to predict competitive swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Waśkiewicz, Zbigniew; Czuba, Miłosz; Mikołajec, Kazimierz; Zajac, Adam; Stanula, Arkadiusz

    2012-04-01

    This research problem was indirectly but closely connected with the optimization of an athlete-selection process, based on predictions viewed as determinants of future successes. The research project involved a group of 249 competitive swimmers (age 12 yr., SD = 0.5) who trained and competed for four years. Measures involving fitness (e.g., lung capacity), strength (e.g., standing long jump), swimming technique (turn, glide, distance per stroke cycle), anthropometric variables (e.g., hand and foot size), as well as specific swimming measures (speeds in particular distances), were used. The participants (n = 189) trained from May 2008 to May 2009, which involved five days of swimming workouts per week, and three additional 45-min. sessions devoted to measurements necessary for this study. In June 2009, data from two groups of 30 swimmers each (n = 60) were used to identify predictor variables. Models were then constructed from these variables to predict final swimming performance in the 50 meter and 800 meter crawl events. Nonlinear regression models and neural models were built for the dependent variable of sport results (performance at 50m and 800m). In May 2010, the swimmers' actual race times for these events were compared to the predictions created a year prior to the beginning of the experiment. Results for the nonlinear regression models and perceptron networks structured as 8-4-1 and 4-3-1 indicated that the neural models overall more accurately predicted final swimming performance from initial training, strength, fitness, and body measurements. Differences in the sum of absolute error values were 4:11.96 (n = 30 for 800m) and 20.39 (n = 30 for 50m), for models structured as 8-4-1 and 4-3-1, respectively, with the neural models being more accurate. It seems possible that such models can be used to predict future performance, as well as in the process of recruiting athletes for specific styles and distances in swimming.

  5. Computational Modeling of the Dolphin Kick in Competitive Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebbeck, A.; Mark, R.; Bhanot, G.

    2005-11-01

    Numerical simulations are being used to study the fluid dynamics of the dolphin kick in competitive swimming. This stroke is performed underwater after starts and turns and involves an undulatory motion of the body. Highly detailed laser body scans of elite swimmers are used and the kinematics of the dolphin kick is recreated from videos of Olympic level swimmers. We employ a parallelized immersed boundary method to simulate the flow associated with this stroke in all its complexity. The simulations provide a first of its kind glimpse of the fluid and vortex dynamics associated with this stroke and hydrodynamic force computations allow us to gain a better understanding of the thrust producing mechanisms.

  6. Lane bias in elite-level swimming competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Christopher; Cornett, Andrew; Stager, Joel

    2017-02-01

    Performance outcomes at the 2013 World Swimming Championship were previously shown to be biased depending on the swimmer's lane assignment. The purpose of this study was to determine if this kind of bias was unique, and if not, if the bias was related to the temporary or permanent nature of the pool. The effect of lane on the average odd-length split minus the preceding even-length split in the 800- and 1500-m freestyle events, and on the relative change from qualifying to preliminary performance in the 50-m events, was determined for 16 other elite-level competitions. Depending on the swimmers' direction, split times were on average 0.16 s slower or faster in at least one lane at each of the 16 competitions, and in 49% of all lanes analysed. In 5 competitions, swimmers were shown to be faster in a majority of lanes in one direction as compared to the other. Analysis of the 50-m events at these 5 competitions indicate that preliminary performances were between 0.5 and 0.9% slower or faster than qualifying times, which is consistent with the direction effect observed in the distance freestyle events. Further, lane biases occur more often in temporary pools (70% of lanes) than in permanent pools (35% of lanes), with water currents as the most plausible cause. The prevalence of lane bias at elite-level swimming competition highlights the need for the implementation of policies and procedures to prevent such bias from occurring again in the future.

  7. Increased exhaled breath condensate 8-isoprostane after a swimming session in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Mathieu C; Murray, Nicolas; Turmel, Julie; Milot, Julie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bougault, Valérie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP) in the airways of competitive swimmers at baseline and after a swimming session according to their airway responsiveness. Twenty-three swimmers and six lifeguards had a baseline spirometry and bronchoprovocative challenges. During a second visit, swimmers performed a usual swimming session while lifeguards stayed in the same pool environment for the same time period. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured before and 5 min after the end of the session. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was sampled before and 10 min after the session and EBC 8-IsoP levels were analysed by enzyme immunoassay. Change in EBC 8-IsoP from baseline to post-swimming session was calculated. We observed no relationships between airway hyper-responsiveness and 8-IsoP values before or after swimming in swimmers. The levels of 8-IsoP were significantly higher after the training session (mean value 2.9, s = 0.5 pg mL(-1)) than at baseline (mean value 1.9, s = 0.4 pg mL(-1)) in swimmers only (p = .012). EBC 8-IsoP levels after the swimming session significantly correlated with the percent change in FEV1 after swimming. EBC 8-IsoP levels were increased after training in swimmers but not in lifeguards, suggesting that exercise-induced hyperpnoea in a chlorinated pool environment increases airways oxidative stress.

  8. Drag characteristics of competitive swimming children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Stallman, Robert Keig

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to compare drag in swimming children and adults, quantify technique using the technique drag index (TDI), and use the Froude number (Fr) to study whether children or adults reach hull speed at maximal velocity (vmax). Active and passive drag was measured by the perturbation method and a velocity decay method, respectively, including 9 children aged 11.7+/-0.8 and 13 adults aged 21.4+/-3.7. The children had significantly lower active (kAD) and passive drag factor (kPD) compared with the adults. TDI (kAD/kPD) could not detect any differences in swimming technique between the two groups, owing to the adults swimming maximally at a higher Fr, increasing the wave drag component, and masking the effect of better technique. The children were found not to reach hull speed at vmax, and their Fr were 0.37+/-0.01 vs. the adults 0.42+/-0.01, indicating adults' larger wave-making component of resistance at vmax compared with children. Fr is proposed as an evaluation tool for competitive swimmers.

  9. MONITORING SWIMMING SPRINT PERFORMANCE DURING A TRAINING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Marinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation for a major competition is an important concern of coaches and athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution in sprint performance during a training macro cycle in age-group swimmers of both genders. The sample comprised twenty four age-group swimmers (12.0 ± 0.72 years old, 41.43 ± 6.88 kg, 1.51 ± 0.09 m. The evaluations occurred during nine weeks of swimming training in the first macro cycle. During this period the subjects performed 54 training units (6 units per week. In all weeks, the performance in two trials of a 25 m front crawl all out test, with 15 min of rest, was recorded. Only the bestperformance was used to assess the effects of training. Comparisons between the first week and the following weeks were conducted using pair-sample t-test. The significance level was set at 5%. The sprint performance did not change during the first 6 weeks of preparation. In the last three weeks the performance in the 25 m front crawl test was improved when compared with the first week, although the major changes occurred at the last week of preparation.It seems that in age-group swimmers seven weeks of specific swimming training enables improving swimmer’s sprint performance, although some differences exists between male and female swimmers. Thesedata could be used by coaches to program the training season and the evolution of the load components.

  10. Competitive Swimming and Diving. Official Rules, Officating. August 1983-August 1984. NAGWS Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

    Arranged in three sections, this pamphlet details the rules, officiating techniques, and official records for girls' and womens' competitive swimming and diving. Section 1 lists members of the national rules committee, major rule changes for 1983-84, and official rules for swimming and diving competition. Section 2 contains officiating tips,…

  11. Influence of short-term inertial training on swimming performance in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naczk, Mariusz; Lopacinski, Artur; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Naczk, Alicja; Adach, Zdzisław

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dry-land inertial training (IT) on muscle force, muscle power, and swimming performance. Fourteen young, national-level, competitive swimmers were randomly divided into IT and control (C) groups. The experiment lasted four weeks, during which time both groups underwent their regular swimming training. In addition, the IT group underwent IT using the Inertial Training Measurement System (ITMS) three times per week. The muscle groups involved during the upsweep phase of the arm stroke in front crawl and butterfly stroke were trained. Before and after training, muscle force and power were measured under IT conditions. Simultaneously with the biomechanical measurements on the ITMS, the electrical activity of the triceps brachii was registered. After four weeks of training, a 12.8% increase in the muscle force and 14.2% increase in the muscle power (p swimming velocity in the 100 m butterfly and 50 m freestyle improved significantly following the four weeks of dry-land IT (-1.86% and -0.76%, respectively). Changes in the C group were trivial. Moreover, values of force and power registered during the ITMS test correlated negatively with the 100 m butterfly and 50 m freestyle swimming times (r value ranged from -.80 to -.91). These results suggest that IT can be useful in swimming practice.

  12. Fluid Dynamics of Competitive Swimming: A Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rajat; Loebbeck, Alfred; Singh, Hersh; Mark, Russell; Wei, Timothy

    2004-11-01

    The dolphin kick is an important component in competitive swimming and is used extensively by swimmers immediately following the starting dive as well as after turns. In this stroke, the swimmer swims about three feet under the water surface and the stroke is executed by performing an undulating wave-like motion of the body that is quite similar to the anguilliform propulsion mode in fish. Despite the relatively simple kinematics of this stoke, considerable variability in style and performance is observed even among Olympic level swimmers. Motivated by this, a joint experimental-numerical study has been initiated to examine the fluid-dynamics of this stroke. The current presentation will describe the computational portion of this study. The computations employ a sharp interface immersed boundary method (IBM) which allows us to simulate flows with complex moving boudnaries on stationary Cartesian grids. 3D body scans of male and female Olympic swimmers have been obtained and these are used in conjuction with high speed videos to recreate a realistic dolphin kick for the IBM solver. Preliminary results from these computations will be presented.

  13. The effect of swimming on oral health status: competitive versus non-competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ercole, Simonetta; Tieri, Marco; Martinelli, Diego; Tripodi, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Young swimmers are particularly susceptible to the onset of oral diseases. Objective To evaluate the oral health status in young competitive and non-competitive swimmers, involving an assessment of salivary cariogenic bacteria and secretory IgA (S-IgA) concentration. Material and Methods Before training sessions (T1), 54 competitive and 69 non-competitive swimmers had the following parameters assessed: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), Plaque Index (PlI), and Gingival Index (GI). At T1 and after training sessions (T2), stimulated saliva was collected and microbiological and immunological analyses were performed. Results Competitive swimmers trained 2.02±0.09 hours 5 times a week, while non-competitive swimmers trained 2.03±0.18 hours a week. A total of 14.7% of competitive swimmers suffered dental trauma related to sports. Only 11.76% of the competitive swimmers took a daily dose of fluoride, against 32.65% of non-competitive swimmers (p=0.029). Neither group followed an established diet or presented statistically significant differences in terms of nutritional supplement drink and chocolate intake. There were statistically significant differences in terms of oral hygiene. No significant difference in clinical indexes (DMFT, PlI, and GI) was present. S. mutans was harbored by 18.6% of competitive and the 32.2% of non-competitive swimmers. S. sobrinus was detected in 22.03% of competitive and 91.6% of non-competitive swimmers (pcompetitive swimmers. The average S-IgA of competitive swimmers decreased significantly at T2 (p<0.05). The pool water had a daily average pH of 7.22. Conclusions Microbial markers, immune status and sporting characteristics are important for establishing guidelines for management of training load in order to minimize physical stress and the risk of oral infection.

  14. Use of employments on swimming in pulling in and restoration microcycles in the training process of the highly skilled sportsmen of the highly skilled heavy weight sambo wrestlers

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    Zakorko I.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedience of the use of the sporting and health swimming is grounded in precontest preparation of the highly skilled sportsmen unarmed self-defence. 10 sportsmen took part in research (weight over 90 kg. Offered to recommendation on the use of swimming in renewal of sportsmen after the competition and trainings loadings. On employments, swimming was utillized a method crawl on a breast and by a method breast-stroke. Length of path of pool is 25 meters. The level of influence of trainings is set on swimming of different orientation on the general consisting of the sportsman unarmed self-defence of context of preparation and renewal during the specialized competition activity. It is recommended in training on swimming to utillize overcoming at full pelt of cutting-off 250 meters in the mode to 5 minutes (time of competition fight is in the fight of sambo-5 of minutes.

  15. The effect of swimming on oral health status: competitive versus non-competitive athletes

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    Simonetta D’ERCOLE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Young swimmers are particularly susceptible to the onset of oral diseases. Objective To evaluate the oral health status in young competitive and non-competitive swimmers, involving an assessment of salivary cariogenic bacteria and secretory IgA (S-IgA concentration. Material and Methods Before training sessions (T1, 54 competitive and 69 non-competitive swimmers had the following parameters assessed: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT, Plaque Index (PlI, and Gingival Index (GI. At T1 and after training sessions (T2, stimulated saliva was collected and microbiological and immunological analyses were performed. Results Competitive swimmers trained 2.02±0.09 hours 5 times a week, while non-competitive swimmers trained 2.03±0.18 hours a week. A total of 14.7% of competitive swimmers suffered dental trauma related to sports. Only 11.76% of the competitive swimmers took a daily dose of fluoride, against 32.65% of non-competitive swimmers (p=0.029. Neither group followed an established diet or presented statistically significant differences in terms of nutritional supplement drink and chocolate intake. There were statistically significant differences in terms of oral hygiene. No significant difference in clinical indexes (DMFT, PlI, and GI was present. S. mutans was harbored by 18.6% of competitive and the 32.2% of non-competitive swimmers. S. sobrinus was detected in 22.03% of competitive and 91.6% of non-competitive swimmers (p<0.05. S. sanguinis was found only in the saliva of competitive swimmers. The average S-IgA of competitive swimmers decreased significantly at T2 (p<0.05. The pool water had a daily average pH of 7.22. Conclusions Microbial markers, immune status and sporting characteristics are important for establishing guidelines for management of training load in order to minimize physical stress and the risk of oral infection.

  16. Examining self-training procedures in leisure swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Potdevin, Francois; Normani, Clement; Pelayo, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated contents of training sessions from 387 regular swimmers involved in a recreational workout without supervision. We did use multiple correspondences analysis in order to identify self-trained swimmers typology in a sample from a social networking website, focusing on swimming practice. Self-reported parameters (n = 12) were age, gender, practice frequency, supervision in physical activity experiment, main training target, main reason for swimming choice, swimming session duration and distance, most used swimming stroke and material, quality of the training control, and training evolution during a year. Results have highlighted different training strategies and targets according to gender and age. Male strategy consists in performing higher distance (1818.8 ± 644.5 m vs. 1453.0 ± 603.3, p female respectively) by using several swim stroke and gears involving upper body muscles (front crawl, pull buoy and paddles). More concerned about duration of their sessions, women are mainly using breaststroke. Backstroke is associated with people aged higher than 50. We also have established a connection between motives according to ages and long term strategies. The main motivation for middle aged people appears to be general health benefits by performing identical swimming session without evolution during a year. People aged from 20 to 30 are divided between an identical swimming session strategy and an increase in distance or in intensity strategy during a year. This population appears to be concerned about a global health benefits and a body shape effects. Suggestions are made to improve swimming practice environment during free time sessions according to the main results. Key PointsMale strategy consists in performing higher distance by using several swim stroke and gears involving upper body muscles whereas women are more concerned about effort duration and use breaststroke in majority.The main motivation for middle aged people appears to be

  17. An Annotated Bibliography of Experimental Research concerning Competitive Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, John C.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled as a guide for the researcher of swimming in referring to experimental studies in the physiological, mechanical, psychological, and medical aspects of swimming. The studies have been briefly annotated to enable the reader to quickly determine the salient points the authors made in their studies. The…

  18. 赛前高原训练对游泳运动员自组织适应状态的影响:脑电压缩谱分析%Impacts of high-altitude training on self-organizing adaptation in swimming athletes before competition: analysis with compressed spectral array electroencephalogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽雅; 张莉; 邓树勋; 李捷

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-altitude training before competition aims to obtain maximum hypoxia physiological adaptability of athletes through hypoxia environmental irritation at high altitude. Physiological adaptability to high al titude is the substantial foundation for function improvement of athletes,reflecting adjustment of body to environmental changes.OBJECTIVE: In views of self-regulation, practical training and compressed spectral array (CSA) electroencephalogram (EEG), and by observing adaptive change rule of brain before (before competition) and after high-altitude training of swimming athletes, the influence of high-altitude training was analyzed systematically on self-organizing state of athletes before competition so as to probe into the impacts of high-altitude training from brain level.DESIGN: Randomized investigation.SETTING: Guangdong Scientific Institute of Physical Exercise and Physical Exercise College of South China Normal University.PARTICIPANTS: Nine swimming athletes were selected from Guangdong Swimming Team from March to April 2001.METHODS: Time-order observation was applied in the experiment, in which, the results 1 week (3rd March) before high-altitude training, during (22nd March) and on the 5th day (5th April) after the training, the results in competition on the 13th day (12th April) after high-altitude training and corresponding blood lactic acid were tested and SCA EEG was done successively one day before high-altitude training (10th March), on the 1st day after the training (30th March) and on the 11th day after training, that was two days before National Competition (10th April) to observe self- adaptive regulation of brain to sports training load.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Training index and lactic acid change before and during high-altitude training and before competition. ②Comparison of results before high-altitude training and in competition. ③Changes in indexes of cerebral evaluation before, during and after high-altitude training

  19. Masters swimming competitions – A study on applying a registration fee

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    Marcel RĂSĂDEAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At the conceptual level, masters swimming is systematically practiced in an organized environment, by adults as amateurs. According to the level of personal motivation, practicing swimming by adults can be conducted as: a recreational activity (leisure swimming; an activity for maintaining physical capacity (fitness; a therapeutic activity; a socializing activity; an initiation activity for adults; a competitive activity. The competitive activity values the sportive dimension of masters swimming. At a worldwide level, there are many masters swimming competitions, and the vast majority of them are organized by the masters swimming clubs. Taking into account that the financing of masters swimming events is mainly based on income from the participation fees, the choice of the participation fee is an important factor in the financial success of such an event. The purpose of this study is to analyse the financial impact determined by applying the two most common types of participation fees both on the organizing club and on the participants themselves. Furthermore, we aim to find a way of taxing participation so that one may take part in as many competitions as possible, but also to ensure the budgetary balance of the event.

  20. Effects of swim training on lung volumes and inspiratory muscle conditioning.

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    Clanton, T L; Dixon, G F; Drake, J; Gadek, J E

    1987-01-01

    Lung volumes and inspiratory muscle (IM) function tests were measured in 16 competitive female swimmers (age 19 +/- 1 yr) before and after 12 wk of swim training. Eight underwent additional IM training; the remaining eight were controls. Vital capacity (VC) increased 0.25 +/- 0.25 liters (P less than 0.01), functional residual capacity (FRC) increased 0.39 +/- 0.29 liters (P less than 0.001), and total lung capacity (TLC) increased 0.35 +/- 0.47 (P less than 0.025) in swimmers, irrespective of IM training. Residual volume (RV) did not change. Maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) measured at FRC changed -43 +/- 18 cmH2O (P less than 0.005) in swimmers undergoing IM conditioning and -29 +/- 25 (P less than 0.05) in controls. The time that 65% of prestudy PImax could be endured increased in IM trainers (P less than 0.001) and controls (P less than 0.05). All results were compared with similar IM training in normal females (age 21.1 +/- 0.8 yr) in which significant increases in PImax and endurance were observed in IM trainers only with no changes in VC, FRC, or TLC (Clanton et al., Chest 87: 62-66, 1985). We conclude that 1) swim training in mature females increases VC, TLC, and FRC with no effect on RV, and 2) swim training increases IM strength and endurance measured near FRC.

  1. Master's swimming: an example of successful aging in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leslie W; Powell, Amy P; Rasch, Jeffrey

    2007-12-01

    Master's swimming has been one of the most successful master's athletic organizations over the past few decades. It creates an excellent environment for older athletes to stay fit and develop friendships. Exercise has been shown to be important in keeping an aging population healthy by reducing risk factors associated with chronic diseases. Physiology is an important part of athletic performance in an older population as our cardiovascular system and musculature change over time. Although swimming is an excellent form of exercise, some medical conditions such as exercised-induced asthma can be caused or worsened by swimming. Swimming is a great way to build muscular strength and endurance, but it can result in shoulder, cervical, and lumbar spine injuries because of its repetitive nature.

  2. Can Blood Gas and Acid-Base Parameters at Maximal 200 Meters Front Crawl Swimming be Different Between Former Competitive and Recreational Swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapus, Jernej; Usaj, Anton; Strumbelj, Boro; Kapus, Venceslav

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether maximal 200 m front crawl swimming strategies and breathing patterns influenced blood gas and acid-base parameters in a manner which gives advantage to former competitive swimmers in comparison with their recreational colleagues. Twelve former competitive male swimmers (the CS group) and nine recreational male swimmers (the RS group) performed a maximal 200 m front crawl swimming with self- selected breathing pattern. Stroke rate (SR) and breathing frequency (BF) were measured during the swimming test. Measures also included blood lactate concentration ([LA]) and parameters of blood acid-base status before and during the first minute after the swimming test. The CS group swam faster then the RS group. Both groups have similar and steady SR throughout the swimming test. This was not matched by similar BF in the CS group but matched it very well in the RS group (r = 0.89). At the beginning of swimming test the CS group had low BF, but they increased it throughout the swimming test. The BF at the RS group remained constant with only mirror variations throughout the swimming test. Such difference in velocity and breathing resulted in maintaining of blood Po2 from hypoxia and Pco2 from hypercapnia. This was similar in both groups. [LA] increased faster in the CS group than in the RS group. On the contrary, the rate of pH decrease remained similar in both groups. The former competitive swimmers showed three possible advantages in comparison to recreational swimmers during maximal 200 m front crawl swimming: a more dynamic and precise regulation of breathing, more powerful bicarbonate buffering system and better synchronization between breathing needs and breathing response during swimming. Key pointsTraining programs for competitive swimmers should promote adaptations to maximal efforts.Those adaptations should include high and maximal intensity swims with controlled breathing frequency (taking breath every fourth

  3. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young

  4. Does the GNB3 C825T Polymorphism Influence Swimming Performance in Competitive Swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenda, Agata; Sawczuk, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Umiastowska, Danuta; Łubkowska, Wioletta; Żmijewski, Piotr; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-09-29

    Single nucleotide polymorphism C825T located within the GNB3 gene has been proposed in the literature as the performance enhancing polymorphism in highly trained athletes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis assuming an association between the C825T polymorphic site and performance of competitive swimmers. The frequencies of C/T alleles and distribution of CC, CT and TT genotypes of the C825T GNB3 polymorphism were compared between athletes and nonathletic controls as well as between sprint and endurance swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 197 competitive swimmers (50 long distance swimmers (LDS) and 147 short distance swimmers (SDS)) and 379 sedentary volunteers. The allele frequencies and genotype distribution of the C825T polymorphic site were not significantly different when LDS and SDS were compared to sedentary controls. Gender-specific analysis did not reveal any significant differences in allele and genotype distribution, neither between female controls and female swimmers nor between male controls and male swimmers. No significant differences in allele frequencies and genotype distribution were observed when LDS and SDS as well as groups of swimmers stratified by gender were compared. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene is associated with swimming performance in competitive swimmers.

  5. Does the GNB3 C825T Polymorphism Influence Swimming Performance in Competitive Swimmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenda Agata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphism C825T located within the GNB3 gene has been proposed in the literature as the performance enhancing polymorphism in highly trained athletes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis assuming an association between the C825T polymorphic site and performance of competitive swimmers. The frequencies of C/T alleles and distribution of CC, CT and TT genotypes of the C825T GNB3 polymorphism were compared between athletes and nonathletic controls as well as between sprint and endurance swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 197 competitive swimmers (50 long distance swimmers (LDS and 147 short distance swimmers (SDS and 379 sedentary volunteers. The allele frequencies and genotype distribution of the C825T polymorphic site were not significantly different when LDS and SDS were compared to sedentary controls. Gender-specific analysis did not reveal any significant differences in allele and genotype distribution, neither between female controls and female swimmers nor between male controls and male swimmers. No significant differences in allele frequencies and genotype distribution were observed when LDS and SDS as well as groups of swimmers stratified by gender were compared. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene is associated with swimming performance in competitive swimmers.

  6. Carbohydrates for training and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Wong, Stephen H S; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    An athlete's carbohydrate intake can be judged by whether total daily intake and the timing of consumption in relation to exercise maintain adequate carbohydrate substrate for the muscle and central nervous system ("high carbohydrate availability") or whether carbohydrate fuel sources are limiting for the daily exercise programme ("low carbohydrate availability"). Carbohydrate availability is increased by consuming carbohydrate in the hours or days prior to the session, intake during exercise, and refuelling during recovery between sessions. This is important for the competition setting or for high-intensity training where optimal performance is desired. Carbohydrate intake during exercise should be scaled according to the characteristics of the event. During sustained high-intensity sports lasting ~1 h, small amounts of carbohydrate, including even mouth-rinsing, enhance performance via central nervous system effects. While 30-60 g · h(-1) is an appropriate target for sports of longer duration, events >2.5 h may benefit from higher intakes of up to 90 g · h(-1). Products containing special blends of different carbohydrates may maximize absorption of carbohydrate at such high rates. In real life, athletes undertake training sessions with varying carbohydrate availability. Whether implementing additional "train-low" strategies to increase the training adaptation leads to enhanced performance in well-trained individuals is unclear.

  7. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF DEEP TRUNK MUSCLE TRAINING ON SWIMMING START PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Satoshi; Imai, Atsushi; Koizumi, Keisuke; Okuno, Keisuke; Kaneoka, Koji

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, deep trunk muscle training has been adopted in various sports, including swimming. This is performed both in everyday training and as part of the warm-up routine before competitive races. It is suggested that trunk stabilization exercises are effective in preventing injury, and aid in improving performance. However, conclusive evidence of the same is yet to be obtained. The time of start phase of swimming is a factor that can significantly influence competition performance in a swimming race. If trunk stabilization exercises can provide instantaneous trunk stability, it is expected that they will lead to performance improvements in the start phase of swimming. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of trunk stabilization exercises on the start phase in swimming. Intervention study. Nine elite male swimmers (mean age 20.2 ± 1.0 years; height 174.4 ± 3.5 cm; weight 68.9 ± 4.1 kg) performed the swimming start movement. The measurement variables studied included flying distance, and the time and velocity of subjects at hands' entry and on reaching five meters. Measurements were taken in trials immediately before and after the trunk stabilization exercises. A comparison between pre- and post-exercise measurements was assessed. The time to reach five meters (T5m) decreased significantly after trunk stabilization exercises, by 0.019 s (p = 0.02). Velocity at entry (Ventry) did not demonstrate significant change, while velocity at five meters (V5m) increased significantly after the exercises (p = 0.023). In addition, the speed reduction rate calculated from Ventry and V5m significantly decreased by 5.17% after the intervention (p = 0.036). Trunk stabilization exercises may help reduce the time from start to five meters in the start phase in swimming. The results support the hypothesis that these exercises may improve swimming performance. Level 3b.

  8. DOES COMBINED DRY LAND STRENGTH AND AEROBIC TRAINING INHIBIT PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Garrido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was twofold: (i to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls and a control group (six boys and five girls. Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day, the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values, and strength (bench press and leg extension and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump performances were tested in three moments: (i before the experimental period, (ii after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved

  9. Computational Modeling and Analysis of the Fluid Dynamics of Competitive Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rajat

    2009-11-01

    In order to swim efficiently and/or fast, a swimmer needs to master the subtle cause-and-effect relationship that exists between his/her movements and the surrounding fluid. This is what makes swimming one of the most technical of all sports. For the most part, science has played little if any role in helping swimmers and coaches improve swimming techniques or even to better understand the fluid dynamics of human swimming. Experiments of free swimming humans are extremely difficult to conduct and computational modeling approaches have, in the past, been unable to address this very complex problem. However, the development of a new class of numerical methods, coupled with unique animation and analysis tools is making it possible to analyze swimming strokes in all their complexity. The talk will focus on describing a relatively new numerical method that has been developed to solve flows with highly complex, moving/deforming boundaries. Numerical simulations are used to perform a detailed analysis of the dolphin kick. This stroke has emerged as an important component of competitive swimming in recent years and our analysis has allowed us to extract some useful insights into the fluid dynamics of this stroke. In addition, we also address the continuing debate about the role of lift versus drag in thrust production for human swimming.

  10. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  11. Monitoring internal load parameters during competitive synchronized swimming duet routines in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara; Iglesias, Xavier; Barrero, Anna; Torres, Lorena; Chaverri, Diego; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses as internal load indicators while performing duet routines during training and competition, both in the technical and free programs of synchronized swimming (SS). Participants were 10 SS Olympic medalists (age, 17.4 ± 3.0 years; height, 164.0 ± 6.1 cm; body mass, 52.0 ± 6.4 kg; training, 36.3 ± 6.2 h·wk; experience, 9.2 ± 2.6 years). They were monitored while performing the same technical duet or free duet, during a training session (T) and during an official competition (C). Heart rate was continuously monitored. Rate of perceived exertion was assessed using the Borg CR10 scale. Heart rate responses during T and C were almost identical: pre-exercise mean HR (b·min) was 130.5 ± 13.9 (T) and 133.6 ± 7.7 (C) and quickly increased yielding mean peak values of 184.8 ± 5.8 (T) and 184.8 ± 6.6 (C), with interspersed bradycardic events down to 86.6 ± 4 (T) and 86.3 ± 5 (C). Routines were perceived as "hard" to "extremely hard" by the swimmers in both conditions, and mean RPE scores (0-10+) were equally high during C (7.9 ± 1.2) and T (7.5 ± 1.2) (p = 0.223). Rate of perceived exertion inversely correlated with minimum (R = -0.545; p = 0.008) and mean HR (R = -0.452; p = 0.026) and positively correlated with HRrange (R = 0.520; p = 0.011). The internal load imposed by SS duets performed during training is virtually identical to that elicited in a real competitive situation. Therefore, practicing competitive routines is suitable for developing and maintaining the cardiovascular fitness that is needed for specific conditioning in elite synchronized swimmers, with the added value of favoring exercise automaticity, interindividual coordination, and artistic expression simultaneously.

  12. Influence of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination in competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborough, Conor D; Payton, Carl J; Daly, Daniel J

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the effect of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination and the inter-relationships between swimming speed, inter-arm coordination, and other stroke parameters, in a group of competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Thirteen highly-trained swimmers were filmed underwater during a series of 25-m front crawl trials of increasing speed. Arm coordination for both arms was quantified using an adapted version of the Index of Coordination. Inter-arm coordination of the amputee swimmers did not change as swimming speed was increased up to maximum. Swimmers showed significantly more catch-up coordination of their affected-arm compared to their unaffected-arm. When sprinting, the fastest swimmers used higher stroke frequencies and less catch-up of their affected-arm than the slower swimmers. Unilateral arm-amputees used an asymmetrical strategy for coordinating their affected-arm relative to their unaffected-arm to maintain the stable repetition of their overall arm stroke cycle. When sprinting, the attainment of a high stroke frequency is influenced mainly by the length of time the affected-arm is held in a stationary position in front of the body before pulling. Reducing this time delay appears to be beneficial for successful swimming performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The interaction between intra-cyclic variation of the velocity and mean swimming velocity in young competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, T M; Morouço, P G F; Jesus, S; Feitosa, W G; Costa, M J; Marinho, D A; Silva, A J; Garrido, N D

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intra-cyclic variation of the horizontal velocity (dv) and the velocity of the 4 competitive swimming techniques in young swimmers. 45 young swimmers performed a set of maximal 4 × 25 m (freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly stroke) swims with in water start. A speed-meter cable was attached to the swimmer's hip. The dv and the swimming velocity were analyzed. Within-subject tests presented significant variations in the dv based on the swimming technique. Post-hoc test revealed significant differences across all pair-wised swimming techniques (Pswimming velocity in all swimming techniques (0.24 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.51). As a conclusion, there is a non-linear relationship where the increase of swimming velocity leads to a decrease of dv in young competitive swimmers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. The interest for the masters swimming competitions in 2010 – the managerial perspective. A case study: Timişoara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Răsădean

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Masters swimmers are adults that systematically practise this sportive activity as amateurs in an organized environment. They have very different sportive abilities and their interest for practising swimming is linked to the benefits of this type of activity. In relation to the public perception existing in Romania, both in the mainstream public and in the specialists’ circle, the competitive dimension is the most visible as opposed to the other forms of masters swimming: fitness swimming, recreational swimming, therapeutic swimming etc. The Timişoara Masters Swimming Club, which came into being in 2007, is the first club dedicated to masters swimming in our country. Its primary objective is to promote the practice of swimming by adults. The club’s image and, implicitly, its marketing and, respectively, its financial management are influenced to a significant extent by the results achieved in masters swimming competitions. In this sense, statistics show that in 2010, compared to the precedent year, all the measurement indicators of the club’s participation in competitions have decreased. The present paper focuses on the development of this amateur sportive movement by optimizing the organizational management in the sportive environment. The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes that have determined the decreasing tendencies of the Timişoara club members’ participation and, respectively, of the results achieved in masters swimming competitions in 2010 as opposed to 2009.

  15. Tethered Swimming for the Evaluation and Prescription of Resistance Training in Young Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoti, Marcelo; da Silva, Adelino S R; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; Santiago, Vanessa; Martins, LuizEduardo Barreto; Cunha, Sérgio Augusto; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the present study were 1) to evaluate the effects of 11 weeks of a typical free-swimming training program on aerobic and stroke parameters determined in tethered swimming (Study 1; n=13) and 2) to investigate the responses of tethered swimming efforts, in addition to free-swimming sessions, through 7 weeks of training (Study 2; n=21). In both studies, subjects performed a graded exercise test in tethered swimming (GET) to determine anaerobic threshold (AnT), stroke rate at AnT (SRAnT), peak force at GET (PFGET) and peak blood lactate ([La-]GET). Participants also swam 100-, 200- and 400-m lengths to evaluate performance. In Study 2, swimmers were divided into control (i. e., only free-swimming; GC [n=11]) and tethered swimming group (i. e., 50% of the main session; GTS [n=10]). The results of Study 1 demonstrate that AnT, PFGET, [La(-)]GET and 200-m performance were improved with free-swimming training. The SRAnT decreased with training. In Study 2, free-swimming performance and most of the graded exercise test parameters were not altered in either group. However, [La-]GET improved only for GTS. These results demonstrate that aerobic parameters obtained in tethered swimming can be used to evaluate free-swimming training responses, and the addition of tethered efforts during training routine improves the lactate production capacity of swimmers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The effects of two different swimming training periodization on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Dalamitros, Athanasios; Ribeiro, João; Sousa, Ana; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo

    2017-05-01

    This study analysed the effects of two different periodization strategies on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities in competitive swimmers. Seventeen athletes of both sexes were divided to two groups, the traditional periodization (TPG, n = 7) and the reverse periodization group (RPG, n = 10). Each group followed a 10-week training period based on the two different periodization strategies. Before and after training, swimming velocity (SV), energy expenditure (EE), energy cost (EC) and percentage of aerobic (%Aer) and anaerobic (%An) energy contribution to the swimming intensities corresponding to the aerobic threshold (AerT), the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) were measured. Both groups increased the %An at the AerT and AnT intensity (P ≤ .05). In contrast, at the AnT intensity, EE and EC were only increased in TPG. Complementary, %Aer, %An, EE and EC at vVO2max did not alter in both groups (P > .05); no changes were observed in SV in TPG and RPG at all three intensities. These results indicate that both periodization schemes confer almost analogous adaptations in specific physiological parameters in competitive swimmers. However, given the large difference in the total training volume between the two groups, it is suggested that the implementation of the reverse periodization model is an effective and time-efficient strategy to improve performance mainly for swimming events where the AnT is an important performance indicator.

  17. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  18. Possible causal relationships between competitive swimming in growing age and three-dimensional dentoalveolar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Capurro, Claudia; Ugolini, Alessandro; Butti, Andrea Carlo; Salvato, Antonino

    2013-07-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between competitive swimming during the growth phase and the development of the dentoalveolar arches. The study sample included 100 swimmers and a control group of 100 age-matched non-swimmers who had never practised swimming or related sports. Subjects who had had previous orthodontic treatment were excluded. Overjet, overbite, sagittal and transverse parameters, arch dimension, crowding and oral habits were recorded. In the swimmers, there was a significantly higher frequency of molar symmetry (P=0.04), together with a greater number of Class I subjects. The overjet in the swimmers was mainly normal, but the arch dimensions were significantly wider (+10% in the upper arch; Pcompetitive swimming during the growth phase has a favourable effect on dental arch development in the sagittal, vertical and transverse planes.

  19. The interaction between intra-cyclic variation of the velocity and mean swimming velocity in young competitive swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Tiago M; P. Morouço; Jesus, S.; Feitosa, W.G.; Costa, M.J.; Marinho, D. A.; Silva, A. J.; Garrido, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intra-cyclic variation of the horizontal velocity (dv) and the velocity of the 4 competitive swimming techniques in young swimmers. 45 young swimmers performed a set of maximal 4 × 25 m (freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfl y stroke) swims with in water start. A speed-meter cable was attached to the swimmer’s hip. The dv and the swimming velocity were analyzed. Within-subject tests prese...

  20. Swim training does not protect mice from skeletal muscle oxidative damage following a maximum exercise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Tatiane Oliveira; Cleto, Lorena Sabino; Gioda, Carolina Rosa; Silva, Renata Sabino; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; de Sousa-Franco, Junia; de Magalhães, José Carlos; Penaforte, Claudia Lopes; Pinto, Kelerson Mauro de Castro; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2012-07-01

    We investigated whether swim training protects skeletal muscle from oxidative damage in response to a maximum progressive exercise. First, we investigated the effect of swim training on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the gastrocnemius muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, 48 h after the last training session. Mice swam for 90 min, twice a day, for 5 weeks at 31°C (± 1°C). The activities of SOD and CAT were increased in trained mice (P swim test. Compared to control mice (untrained, not acutely exercised), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice after maximum swim. The activity of GPx was increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice, while SOD activity was increased only in trained mice after maximum swimming. CAT activity was increased only in the untrained compared to the control group. Although the trained mice showed increased activity of citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, swim performance was not different compared to untrained mice. Our results show an imbalance in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in response to swim training, which could account for the oxidative damage observed in the skeletal muscle of trained mice in response to maximum swim, resulting in the absence of improved exercise performance.

  1. A 200-m All-out Front-crawl Swim Modifies Competitive Swimmers' Shoulder Joint Position Sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uematsu, A.; Kurita, Y.; Inoue, K.; Okuno, K.; Hortobagyi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an all-out-effort 200-m front-crawl swim trial affects competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense. On Day 1, we measured shoulder joint position sense before and after the swim trial, and on Day 2 before and after 2 min of seated rest. On both days, shoulder

  2. A 200-m All-out Front-crawl Swim Modifies Competitive Swimmers' Shoulder Joint Position Sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uematsu, A.; Kurita, Y.; Inoue, K.; Okuno, K.; Hortobagyi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an all-out-effort 200-m front-crawl swim trial affects competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense. On Day 1, we measured shoulder joint position sense before and after the swim trial, and on Day 2 before and after 2 min of seated rest. On both days, shoulder jo

  3. Redox, iron, and nutritional status of children during swimming training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kalitsis, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Tsalis, George; Kouretas, Dimitris; Loupos, Dimitris; Mougios, Vassilis

    2009-11-01

    Effects of exercise training on important determinants of children's long-term health, such as redox and iron status, have not been adequately investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in markers of the redox, iron and nutritional status of boy and girl swimmers during a prolonged period of training. 11 boys and 13 girls, aged 10-11 years, were members of a swimming club. They were assessed at the beginning of the training season, at 13 weeks and at 23 weeks through blood sampling and recording of the diet. Reduced glutathione increased at 13 and 23 weeks, whereas oxidised glutathione decreased at 13 weeks, resulting in an increase of the reduced/oxidised glutathione ratio at 13 and 23 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation and ferritin did not change significantly. Carbohydrate intake was below 50% of energy and fat intake was above 40% of energy. Intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were excessive. Iron intake was adequate but intakes of folate, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium did not meet the recommended daily allowances. No significant differences were found between sexes in any of the parameters measured. In conclusion, child swimmers improved the redox status of glutathione during training, although the intake of antioxidant nutrients did not change. The iron status was not impaired by training. Suboptimal intake of several nutrients suggests the need for nutritional monitoring and education of children athletes.

  4. Early remodeling of rat cardiac muscle induced by swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verzola R.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of acute swimming training with an anaerobic component on matrix metallopeptidase (MMP activity and myosin heavy chain gene expression in the rat myocardium. Animals (male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 180 g were trained for 6 h/day in 3 sessions of 2 h each for 1 to 5 consecutive days (N = 5 rats per group. Rats swam in basins 47 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep filled with water at 33 to 35ºC. After the training period a significant increase (P < 0.05 was observed in the heart weight normalized to body weight by about 22 and 35% in the groups that trained for 96 and 120 h, respectively. Blood lactate levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05 in all groups after all training sessions, confirming an anaerobic component. However, lactate levels decreased (P < 0.05 with days of training, suggesting that the animals became adapted to this protocol. Myosin heavy chain-ß gene expression, analyzed by real time PCR and normalized with GAPDH gene expression, showed a significant two-fold increase (P < 0.01 after 5 days of training. Zymography analysis of myocardium extracts indicated a single ~60-kDa activity band that was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after 72, 96, and 120 h, indicating an increased expression of MMP-2 and suggesting precocious remodeling. Furthermore, the presence of MMP-2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, but not the presence of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Taken together, our results indicate that in these training conditions, the rat heart undergoes early biochemical and functional changes required for the adaptation to the new physiological condition by tissue remodeling.

  5. Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... going out on a boat, always wear a life jacket. (Again, the life jacket should be Coast Guard-approved.) Even if you ... are other water park safety tips: Wear a life jacket if you don't know how to swim ...

  6. A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho Dalton M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5 performed: (a a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase, and (b an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds. This incremental test was continued until the limit of tolerance with pulmonary gas exchange (rates of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production and ventilatory (rate of minute ventilation data collected breath by breath. These data were subsequently analyzed to determine whether two breakpoints defining the isocapnic region (i.e., gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were present. We also determined the peak rate of O2 uptake and exercise economy during the incremental test. The gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed for each test such that the associated metabolic rates, which bound the heavy-intensity domain during constant-work-rate exercise, could be determined. Significant correlations (Spearman’s were observed for exercise economy along with (a peak rate of oxygen uptake (ρ = .562; p < 0.025, and (b metabolic rate at gas exchange threshold (ρ = −.759; p < 0.005. A rapidly-incremented tethered-swimming test allows for determination of the metabolic rates that define zones for domain-specific constant-work-rate training.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF SWIMMING TRAINING (DEFINED IN RELATION TO ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD ON THE INCREASE OF SWIM SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 32 fourth grade students of some Belgrade highs schools, who had the physical education classes carried out at the city’s swimming pools, an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of the two different programmes of swimming training in different intensity zones, defi ned relative to the anaerobic threshold. The examinees were divided into two groups out of 15 i.e. 17 participants who were not (according to statistics signifi cantly different in terms of average time and heart frequency during the 400 m swimming test and heart frequency and time measured after 50 m in the moment of reaching the anaerobic threshold. The fi rst training model consisted of swimming at the intensity level within the zone below anaerobic threshold, while the second model involved occasional swimming at a higher intensity sometimes surpassing the anaerobic threshold. The experimentalprogramme with both sub-groups lasted 8 weeks with 3 training sessions per week, 2 ‘of which we’re identical for both experimental groups, with the third one differing regarding the swimming intensity, this in the fi rst group being still in the zone below, and in the second group occasionally in the zone above the anaerobic threshold. The amount of training and the duration were the same in both programmes. The aim of the research , was to evaluate and to compare the effects of the two training models, using as the basic criteria possible changes of average time and heart frequency during the 400 m swimming test and heart frequency and time measured after 50 m in the moment of reaching the anaerobic thereshold. On the basis of the statistical analysis of the obtained data, it is possible to conclude that in both experimental groups there were statistically signifi cant changes of average values concerning all the physiological variables. Although the difference in effi ciency of applied experimental programmes is not defi ned, we can claim that both of experimental

  8. 湖北省竞技游泳可持续发展研究%Sustainable Development of Competitive Swimming in Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪

    2012-01-01

    With the research methods of literature study and questionaire investigation,the paper researches and analyses the present situation of competitive swimming in Hubei province,advantage project's research and human resources reserve and points out the restraining factors which influences the sustainable development of the competitive swimming in Hubei province so as to optimize the reserve players as the center,strengthen teaching staff and imporve the system of sports training and education integration.All above have a crucial practical significance for expansing Hubei province competitive sport strategy in winning the gold medals in national games,improving the overall sport level of competitive swimming team of Hubei province and accomplishing the sustainable development of competitive swimming team of Hubei province.%通过文献资料和调查问卷法,对湖北省竞技游泳发展现状、优势项目、人力资源储备等情况进行调查与分析,找出影响湖北省竞技游泳可持续发展的制约因素,以完善湖北省竞技游泳后备人才为中心,不断加强师资力量、改进体教结合制度为可持续发展的条件,寻求湖北省竞技游泳可持续发展道路,这对于扩充湖北省竞技体育全运战略夺金点、提高湖北省竞技游泳专业队的整体运动水平、实现湖北省竞技游泳的可持续发展有着决定性的现实意义。

  9. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    .1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20...... turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women.......PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14...

  10. The development direction of modern swimming training%现代游泳技术训练发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启元

    2013-01-01

    在现代游泳技术训练的过程中,要想在国际国内大赛上取得好成绩,首先需要教练员和运动员要关注国际现代游泳技术训练发展方向,让本土训练和国际训练有效接轨。同时,在训练的过程中,要注重强调运动员的技术是否有利于减少阻力,还要让游泳技术训练在合理性的基础上进行创新,并注意训练强度以及训练量要合理结合,确保运动员能够在技术中运用核心力量进行身体专项训练。%In the process of modern swimming training, in order to achieve good results in the domestic and international competition, first of all coaches and athletes should pay attention to the development direction of international modern swimming skill training, make the local training and international training effective connected. At the same time, in the process of training, to emphasize the athlete's technology is beneficial to reduce the resistance, also make the swimming training innovation on the basis of rationality, and pay attention to the combination of training intensity and volume of training, to ensure that athletes can use the core strength of special physical training in techniques.

  11. Development of competitive swimming in China in the new century%新世纪我国竞技游泳运动的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高捷; 陶旼; 袁绍婷

    2015-01-01

    The development of competitive swimming technology, stamina, training philosophy, methods and means, competition system and equipment is the core factor that has resulted in the constant, steady development of competi-tive swimming performance; in terms of technology, the characteristics of technical refinement have been highlighted, technical detail control, scientific resistance reduction theory application, as well as rational stroke frequency and mag-nitude combination, have become the keys to win in today's swimming world; the development of stamina training has shown the characteristics of its combination with the main event, while the coaches and swimmers have focused on developing core power and core stability, carrying out in-depth small muscle group training, and avoiding sports injury; in terms of training philosophy, there has been breaking development, more and more coaches started to value quality training and effective intensity training, more rationally established, implemented and monitored training intensity, and significantly improved their performance in making training more scientific; competition system development is mainly embodied in competition schedules and competition methods, in which competition schedules are made according to major international games, while competition methods highlight Chinese characteristics; swimming equipment devel-opment in China in the new century mainly adapt to competition rules, highlight the characteristics of combination of training equipment with specific event training.%竞技游泳运动技术、体能、训练理念、方法与手段、赛制以及器材的发展是我国竞技游泳运动成绩持续稳定提高的核心要素.技术方面突出技术精细化的特点,对细节技术的把握、科学减阻理论的应用以及合理的划频、划幅组合;体能训练表现出与主项相结合的特点,注重核心力量与核心稳定性的发展,发展深层小肌群训练,避免运动损伤;

  12. Health effects from swimming training in chlorinated pools and the corresponding metabolic stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Deng, Zhao-Hui; Cai, Can-Xin; Qiu, Li-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Lin, Ya-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chlorination is the most popular method for disinfecting swimming pool water; however, although pathogens are being killed, many toxic compounds, called disinfection by-products (DBPs), are formed. Numerous epidemiological publications have associated the chlorination of pools with dysfunctions of the respiratory system and with some other diseases. However, the findings concerning these associations are not always consistent and have not been confirmed by toxicological studies. Therefore, the health effects from swimming in chlorinated pools and the corresponding stress reactions in organisms are unclear. In this study, we show that although the growth and behaviors of experimental rats were not affected, their health, training effects and metabolic profiles were significantly affected by a 12-week swimming training program in chlorinated water identical to that of public pools. Interestingly, the eyes and skin are the organs that are more directly affected than the lungs by the irritants in chlorinated water; instead of chlorination, training intensity, training frequency and choking on water may be the primary factors for lung damage induced by swimming. Among the five major organs (the heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys), the liver is the most likely target of DBPs. Through metabolomics analysis, the corresponding metabolic stress pathways and a defensive system focusing on taurine were presented, based on which the corresponding countermeasures can be developed for swimming athletes and for others who spend a lot of time in chlorinated swimming pools.

  13. Sperm swimming velocity predicts competitive fertilization success in the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available Sperm competition is expected to favour the evolution of traits that influence the performance of sperm when they compete to fertilize a female's eggs. While there is considerable evidence that selection favours increases in sperm numbers, much less is known about how sperm quality contributes towards competitive fertilization success. Here, we determine whether variation in sperm quality influences competitive fertilization success in the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, a highly promiscuous livebearing fish. We use artificial insemination as a method of controlled sperm delivery and show that sperm swimming velocity is the primary determinant of fertilization success when ejaculates from two males compete to fertilize a female's eggs. By contrast, we found no evidence that sperm length had any effect on siring success. We also found no evidence that pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits were phenotypically integrated in this species, suggesting that the previous observation that reproductive skew favours males with high mating rates is unlikely to be due to any direct association between sperm quality and male sexual ornamentation.

  14. A review of the effect of swim training and nutrition on bone mineral density in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present paper reviews the physiological adaptation to swim training and dietary supplementation relating to bone mineral density (BMD) in female swimmers. Swim training still seems to have conflicting effects on bone health maintenance in athletes. [Methods] This review article focuses on swim training combined with dietary supplementation with respect to BMD in female athletes. [Results] Upon review of previous studies, it became obvious that the majority of studies did not col...

  15. Effects of swimming training on blood pressure and vascular function in adults >50 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualnim, Nantinee; Parkhurst, Kristin; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Tarumi, Takashi; Vavrek, Jackie; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2012-04-01

    Swimming is ideal for older adults because it includes minimum weight-bearing stress and decreased heat load. However, there is very little information available concerning the effects of regular swimming exercise on vascular risks. We determined if regular swimming exercise would decrease arterial blood pressure (BP) and improve vascular function. Forty-three otherwise healthy adults >50 years old (60 ± 2) with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension and not on any medication were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of swimming exercise or attention time controls. Before the intervention period there were no significant differences in any of the variables between groups. Body mass, adiposity, and plasma concentrations of glucose and cholesterol did not change in either group throughout the intervention period. Casual systolic BP decreased significantly from 131 ± 3 to 122 ± 4 mm Hg in the swimming training group. Significant decreases in systolic BP were also observed in ambulatory (daytime) and central (carotid) BP measurements. Swimming exercise produced a 21% increase in carotid artery compliance (p improved after the swim training program (p improvements in vascular function in previously sedentary older adults.

  16. Talented competitive swimming Survey Research of Fujian Province%福建省竞技游泳后备人才培养现状调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林长青

    2012-01-01

    采用文献资料、问卷调查、专家访谈等研究方法,对福建省竞技游后备人才培养现状进行了较为深入的调查分析。发现其存在的问题,提出逐步转变政府职能,加快游泳场馆、训练器材设施建设,拓宽教练员人才的培养口径,打破传统训练体系的理念和机制,适当地增加各级比赛的次数,促进训练水平的提高。%By means of literature, questionnaire, expert interviews and other .,:search methods, on Fujian Province of competitive swimming reserve personnel training present situation has carried on the thorough investigation and a- nalysis. Found that the existence of the problem, presented with progressive change government function, acceler- ate the swimming venue, training equipment and facilities construction, widen the coaches training caliber, break- ing the traditional training system concept and meehanism, appropriately increase the levels of race times, promote the level of training to improve.

  17. Long-Term, Competitive Swimming and the Association with Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Andrew D; Keith, Brad A; Abernathy, Karen E; Zhang, Jingwen; Brzezinski, Walter A

    2016-12-01

    Endurance exercise plays a role in cardiovascular risk reduction, but may also be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population of long-term, competitive swimmers compared with patients within an internal medicine clinic with known risk factors for atrial fibrillation such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. This cross-sectional study utilized survey data comparing the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in swimmers to a general internal medicine population. A multi-national group of swimmers over the age of 60 were surveyed, and a chart review was performed on a random sample of age-matched internal medicine patients. The primary outcome was the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Univariate analysis was used for means of proportions of the responses, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with diagnosis of atrial fibrillation as the dependent variable. Forty-nine swimmers completed surveys and 100 age-matched internal medicine patients underwent chart review. Swimmers reported atrial fibrillation in 13 cases (26.5 %) compared to 7 (7 %) in the comparison group (p = 0.001). A diagnosis of hypertension or diabetes mellitus was present in 23 (46.9 %) and 1 (2 %) of the swimmers, respectively, as compared to 72 (72 %, p = 0.003) and 32 (32 %, p swimming history were variables included in the logistic regression, in relation to atrial fibrillation. Swimming was associated with an odds ratio of 8.739 (95 % CI 2.290 to 33.344, p = 0.015). Long-term, competitive swimmers have an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation compared to internal medicine patients, despite the higher burden of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the internal medicine group.

  18. Applied physiology of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  19. The Functions and Methods of Mental Training on Competitive Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianshe

    Mental training is the major training method of the competitive sports and the main factor of athletes skill and tactics level.By combining the psychological factor with the current competitive sports characteristics, this paper presents the function of mental training forward athletes, and how to improve the comprehensive psychological quality by using mental training.

  20. Swim-training changes the spatio-temporal dynamics of skeletogenesis in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio.

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    Ansa W Fiaz

    Full Text Available Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical loading induced by muscle forces plays a role in prioritizing the development of these structures. Mechanical loading by muscle forces has been shown to affect larval and embryonic bone development in vertebrates, but these investigations were limited to the appendicular skeleton. To explore the role of mechanical load during chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton, we subjected zebrafish larvae to swim-training, which increases physical exercise levels and presumably also mechanical loads, from 5 until 14 days post fertilization. Here we show that an increased swimming activity accelerated growth, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during larval development in zebrafish. Interestingly, swim-training accelerated both perichondral and intramembranous ossification. Furthermore, swim-training prioritized the formation of cartilage and bone structures in the head and tail region as well as the formation of elements in the anal and dorsal fins. This suggests that an increased swimming activity prioritized the development of structures which play an important role in swimming and thereby increasing the chance of survival in an environment where water velocity increases. Our study is the first to show that already during early zebrafish larval development, skeletal tissue in the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton is competent to respond to swim-training due to increased water velocities. It demonstrates that changes in water flow conditions can result into significant spatio-temporal changes in skeletogenesis.

  1. Swim-training changes the spatio-temporal dynamics of skeletogenesis in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz, Ansa W; Léon-Kloosterziel, Karen M; Gort, Gerrit; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Leeuwen, Johan L; Kranenbarg, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical loading induced by muscle forces plays a role in prioritizing the development of these structures. Mechanical loading by muscle forces has been shown to affect larval and embryonic bone development in vertebrates, but these investigations were limited to the appendicular skeleton. To explore the role of mechanical load during chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton, we subjected zebrafish larvae to swim-training, which increases physical exercise levels and presumably also mechanical loads, from 5 until 14 days post fertilization. Here we show that an increased swimming activity accelerated growth, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during larval development in zebrafish. Interestingly, swim-training accelerated both perichondral and intramembranous ossification. Furthermore, swim-training prioritized the formation of cartilage and bone structures in the head and tail region as well as the formation of elements in the anal and dorsal fins. This suggests that an increased swimming activity prioritized the development of structures which play an important role in swimming and thereby increasing the chance of survival in an environment where water velocity increases. Our study is the first to show that already during early zebrafish larval development, skeletal tissue in the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton is competent to respond to swim-training due to increased water velocities. It demonstrates that changes in water flow conditions can result into significant spatio-temporal changes in skeletogenesis.

  2. ALGORITHMIC TRAINING PROGRAM FOR SWIMMING I - IV CLASS IN THE BULGARIAN SCHOOL

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    Petya Kutincheva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the application of an alternative program for swimming for 1-4 class in Bulgarian schools. The experiment was conducted with children (7-8 years old at two schools in Sofia with the styles crawl and back crawl. The results show that the developed programs can be used as for mandatory training and in elective. These forms are regulated under the governmental educational requirements for learning the physical education and sport (swimming.

  3. Effect of Eight Weeks Forced Swimming Training with Methadone Supplementation on Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase, and Alkaline Phosphatase of Rats

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    Seyed Ali Hoseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Narcotics abuse can induce liver disorders; nevertheless, exercises improve liver disorders. The present research aimed to review the effect of eight weeks forced swimming training with methadone supplementation on liver enzymes of rats. Material & Method: In this experimental research, 48 rats were selected, and after one week adaptation to lab environment, they were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats including (1 forced swimming training, (2 methadone supplementation, (3 forced swimming training with methadone supplementation, and (4 control. Groups 2 and 3 used 2 mg/kg methadone daily for 8 weeks. Also, groups 1 and 3 swam for 8 weeks, three sessions per week and each session for 30 minutes. For statistical analysis of data, one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used (α≤0.05. Results: Findings showed that forced swimming training, methadone supplementation, and forced swimming training with methadone supplementation had no significant effect on AST (P=0.90 and ALT (P=0.99 enzymes; forced swimming training had significant effect on increase of ALP (P=0.001; also, forced swimming training, compared with methadone supplementation and combination of forced swimming training with methadone supplementation, had significant effect on increase of ALP (P=0.001. Conclusion: Accordingly, 8 weeks of forced swimming training with methadone has possibly no significant effect on liver enzymes.

  4. The relevance of complex training on competitive swimming performance

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Carvalho Barbosa

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito do treinamento de força específica no desempenho na natação. Para isso 14 nadadores competitivos em nível estadual foram divididos em dois grupos: controle (GC / n=6) e experimental (GE / n = 8). Ambos os grupos realizaram o mesmo treinamento durante seis semanas, cinco dias por semana. Adicionalmente o GE realizou um treinamento de força específica denominado treinamento complexo (MC) três vezes por semana em sessões extras durante o m...

  5. Evolução de biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo e relação com a performance competitiva em dois momentos da temporada de treinamento de natação Evolution of oxidative stress biomarkers and correlation with competitive performance in two moments of the swimming training season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Deminice

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm demonstrado aumento na formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio após o esforço físico intenso. Esses eventos podem aumentar a suscetibilidade das células musculares a danos oxidativos como a peroxidação lipídica. Assim, variações na intensidade e no volume de treinamento durante a temporada podem modular o metabolismo oxidativo e influenciar a performance dos atletas. OBJETIVO: Estudar a evolução de biomarcadores de peroxidação lipídica em dois momentos de um ciclo periodizado de treinamento e relacionar com a performance competitiva de natação. MÉTODOS: Participaram do presente estudo 16 nadadores (nove do gênero masculino e sete do feminino. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em dois períodos do ciclo de treinamento: período preparatório específico e período de polimento. Espécies reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS e peróxidos totais foram determinados como biomarcadores de peroxidação lípidica. Creatina quinase foi determinada como parâmetro de dano celular muscular. O índice técnico alcançado no estilo de especialidade de cada atleta foi utilizado como parâmetro de performance competitiva. O índice técnico foi determinado na competição preparatória Troféu Electro Bonini realizada no período preparatório específico, e no Campeonato Paulista realizado no final do período de polimento. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrado aumento significativo (p INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown increase in the formation of oxygen reactive species after intense physical exertion. These events may increase the susceptibility of muscular cells to oxidative damage such as lipid per-oxidation. Thus, variations in training intensity as well as volume during the season may modulate the oxidative stress and influence in performance of athletes. AIM: To study the evolution of lipid peroxidation biomarkers in two moments of a periodized cycle of training and correlate it with swimming competitive performance

  6. A 200-m All-out Front-crawl Swim Modifies Competitive Swimmers' Shoulder Joint Position Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, A; Kurita, Y; Inoue, K; Okuno, K; Hortobágyi, T; Suzuki, S

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an all-out-effort 200-m front-crawl swim trial affects competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense. On Day 1, we measured shoulder joint position sense before and after the swim trial, and on Day 2 before and after 2 min of seated rest. On both days, shoulder joint position sense was measured in the seated position using electromagnetic movement sensors in a position-matching paradigm. An investigator abducted participants' left (reference) shoulder joint in the frontal plane to test angles of 90°, 135°, and 180°. Participants then actively abducted the right (indicator) shoulder joint to match the position of the left, reference arm. After the 200-m all-out front-crawl swim trial, the indicator relative to the reference angle differed by 4.4° toward adduction at the 180° (vertical) testing position (Pswim compared with the no-swim control trial. An all-out 200-m front-crawl swim trial can selectively increase competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense error and increase variation in matching error in horizontal arm position.

  7. 喀山世锦赛中国游泳队竞技实力分析%Analysis on Competitive Strength of Chinese Swimming Team at Kazan World Swimming Championships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元桂

    2016-01-01

    采用文献资料等方法探析2015年喀山游泳世锦赛的竞争格局及中国游泳队的竞技实力。主要结论:欧洲整体实力优势明显,美洲实力大幅下滑,澳、亚旗鼓相当且上升势头强劲;美、澳占据领先,中、英、法引领第2集团激烈抗争;中国男队跻身三甲行列,优势及潜优项目实力稳步提高,劣势项目实力差距显著;中国女队整体实力下滑明显,逐渐失去第2集团的领先地位。建议:夯实人才储备,巩固优势项目实力;加快提升潜优项目的奖牌竞争力;以赛代练,提高年轻运动员的综合能力。%This paper mainly analyzes competitive situation of Kazan World Swimming Championships in 2015 and competitive strength of Chinese swimming team.Conclusions are as follows:European teams have their obvious advantages,American teams have poor performance,meanwhile,Australian and Asian teams are equal in matches and become better;American team and Australian team are in the lead,and there are fierce competitions in the second rank lead by China,the United Kingdom and France;Chinese men’s swimming team has enhanced performance in dominant and potential dominant events,but still falls behind in the disadvantaged events;Chinese women’s swimming team has a bad performance and gradually loses the lead in the second rank.Thus,this paper suggests:it should strengthen talent reserve,and consolidate advantages in dominant events;competitiveness of potential dominant events should be improved;and matches should be used as the training method to improve comprehensive abilities of young players.

  8. Effect of 10 Week Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Competition and Training Performance in Elite Swimmers

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    Louise M. Burke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships and after (international or national selection meet supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ±0.8%, mean, ±90% confidence limits of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (−1.3%; ±1.0%, there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (−0.2%; ±1.5% and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings.

  9. Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Weiliang; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Megan E; Pyne, David B; Saunders, Philo U; Bishop, David J; Burke, Louise M

    2012-10-09

    Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ± 0.8%, mean, ± 90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (-1.3%; ± 1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (-0.2%; ± 1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings.

  10. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva W; Petersen, Liljan F; Lindenskov, Annika; Weihe, Pál; Mortensen, Jann; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (± SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20). The training groups completed three sessions per week for 15 weeks. DXA scans were performed and resting blood samples were drawn pre- and post-intervention. In SOC, plasma osteocalcin, procollagen type I N propeptide and C-terminal telopeptide increased (P training with sedentary middle-aged women caused marked increases in bone turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women.

  11. Effect of reduced training on muscular strength and endurance in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufer, P D; Costill, D L; Fielding, R A; Flynn, M G; Kirwan, J P

    1987-10-01

    Following 5 months of competitive training (approximately 9,000 yards.d-1, 6 d.wk-1), three groups of eight male swimmers performed 4 wk of either reduced training (3,000 yard.session-1) or inactivity. Two groups reduced their training to either 3 sessions.wk-1 (RT3) or 1 session.wk-1 (RT1), whereas the third group (IA) did no training. Measurement of muscular strength (biokinetic swim bench) showed no decrement in any group over the 4 wk. In contrast, swim power (tethered swim) was significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) in all groups, reaching a mean change of -13.6% by week 4. Blood lactate measured after a standard 200-yard (183 m) front crawl swim increased by 1.8, 3.5, and 5.5 mM over the 4 wk in groups RT3, RT1 and IA, respectively. In group RT1, stroke rate measured during the 200-yard swim significantly increased (P less than 0.05) from 0.54 +/- 0.03 to 0.59 +/- 0.03 strokes.-1 while stroke distance significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) from 2.50 +/- 0.08 to 2.29 +/- 0.13 m.stroke-1 during the 4-wk period. Both stroke rate and stroke distance were maintained in group RT3 over the 4 wk of reduced training. Group IA was not tested for stroke mechanics. Whereas maximal oxygen uptake decreases significantly (P less than 0.05) over the 4 wk in group RT1 (4.75 to 4.62 l.min-1), no change in maximal oxygen uptake was observed in group RT3. These results suggest that aerobic capacity is maintained over 4 wk of moderately reduced training (3 sessions.wk-1) in well-trained swimmers. Muscular strength was not diminished over 4 wk of reduced training or inactivity, but the ability to generate power during swimming was significantly reduced in all groups.

  12. Resting heart rate variability after yogic training and swimming: A prospective randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawane, Manish Vinayak; Gupta, Shilpa Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Resting heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the modulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) at rest. Increased HRV achieved by the exercise is good for the cardiovascular health. However, prospective studies with comparison of the effects of yogic exercises and those of other endurance exercises like walking, running, and swimming on resting HRV are conspicuous by their absence. Study was designed to assess and compare the effects of yogic training and swimming on resting HRV in normal healthy young volunteers. Study was conducted in Department of Physiology in a medical college. Study design was prospective randomized comparative trial. One hundred sedentary volunteers were randomly ascribed to either yoga or swimming group. Baseline recordings of digital electrocardiogram were done for all the subjects in cohorts of 10. After yoga training and swimming for 12 weeks, evaluation for resting HRV was done again. Percentage change for each parameter with yoga and swimming was compared using unpaired t-test for data with normal distribution and using Mann-Whitney U test for data without normal distribution. Most of the HRV parameters improved statistically significantly by both modalities of exercise. However, some of the HRV parameters showed statistically better improvement with yoga as compared to swimming. Practicing yoga seems to be the mode of exercise with better improvement in autonomic functions as suggested by resting HRV.

  13. Swimming training for asthma in children and adolescents aged 18 years and under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Sean; Foong, Yi Chao; Le, Hong Cecilia T; Noor, Danial; Wood-Baker, Richard; Walters, Julia A E

    2013-04-30

    Asthma is the most common chronic medical condition in children and a common reason for hospitalisation. Observational studies have suggested that swimming, in particular, is an ideal form of physical activity to improve fitness and decrease the burden of disease in asthma. To determine the effectiveness and safety of swimming training as an intervention for asthma in children and adolescents aged 18 years and under. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialised Register of trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE , EMBASE, CINAHL, in November 2011, and repeated the search of CENTRAL in July 2012. We also handsearched ongoing Clinical Trials Registers. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of children and adolescents comparing swimming training with usual care, a non-physical activity, or physical activity other than swimming. We used standard methods specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of Interventions. Two review authors used a standard template to independently assess trials for inclusion and extract data on study characteristics, risk of bias elements and outcomes. We contacted trial authors to request data if not published fully. When required, we calculated correlation coefficients from studies with full outcome data to impute standard deviation of changes from baseline. Eight studies involving 262 participants were included in the review. Participants had stable asthma, with severity ranging from mild to severe. All studies were randomised trials, three studies had high withdrawal rates. Participants were between five to 18 years of age, and in seven studies swimming training varied from 30 to 90 minutes, two to three times a week, over six to 12 weeks. The programme in one study gave 30 minutes training six times per week. The comparison was usual care in seven studies and golf in one study. Chlorination status of swimming pool was unknown for four studies. Two studies used non-chlorinated pools, one study used an

  14. Research of auxiliary supporting means in swimming training of adults, which are afraid of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Sheyko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the possibility of effective teaching swimming adults suffering from hydrophobia, using auxiliary equipment. Materials and Methods: the study involved 37 people aged 22–45 years. Applied: analysis of the educational process of learning to swim, questioning, peer review techniques, teacher observation and experiment, mathematical statistics. Results: this study suggests that the formation of swimming skills is faster and more effective when used the auxiliary equipment. In the experimental group, four swimming styles were mastered by 59% and in the control by 18%. Conclusions: the proposed method of training of adults, with auxiliary equipment, allows to overcome the feelings of fear, accelerates the learning process and improve its efficiency.

  15. Intermittent hypoxic training improves anaerobic performance in competitive swimmers when implemented into a direct competition mesocycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Robert; Karpiński, Jakub; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Zajac, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on anaerobic and aerobic capacity and swimming performance in well-trained swimmers. Sixteen male swimmers were randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n = 8), which trained in a normobaric hypoxia environment, and a control (C) group (n = 8), which exercised under normoxic conditions. However, one participant left the study without explanation. During the experiment group H trained on land twice per week in simulated hypoxia (FiO2 = 15.5%, corresponding to 2,500 m a.s.l); however, they conducted swim training in normoxic conditions. Group C performed the same training program under normoxic conditions. The training program included four weekly microcyles, followed by three days of recovery. During practice sessions on land, the swimmers performed 30 second sprints on an arm-ergometer, alternating with two minute high intensity intervals on a lower limb cycle ergometer. The results showed that the training on land caused a significant (pswimming performance, by 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively in group H. Training in normoxia (group C), resulted in a significant (pswimming performance at 100m and 200m, by 1.1% and 0.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the most important finding of this study includes a significant improvement in anaerobic capacity and swimming performance after high-intensity IHT. However, this training protocol had no effect on absolute values of VO2max and hematological variables. PMID:28763443

  16. Muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats: effects of continuous and intermittent swimming training

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    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the effects of intermittent and continuous swimming training on muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats. Methods Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous trained alloxan (CA, intermittent trained alloxan (IA, continuous trained control (CC and intermittent trained control (IC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg body weight was injected into newborn rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 5% of body weight; uninterrupted swimming for 1 h/day, five days a week. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 15% of body weight; 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest for a total of 20 min/day, five days a week. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals displayed higher glycemia after glucose overload than the control animals. No differences in insulinemia among the groups were detected. At 120 days, no differences in serum albumin and total protein among the groups were observed. Compared to the other groups, DNA concentrations were higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to continuous training, whereas the DNA/protein ratio was higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to intermittent training. Conclusion It was concluded that continuous and intermittent training sessions were effective in altering muscle growth by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, respectively, in alloxan-administered animals.

  17. Return to swimming protocol for competitive swimmers: a post-operative case study and fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigelman, Tracy; Sciascia, Aaron; Uhl, Tim

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of swimmers report shoulder pain during their swimming career. Shoulder pain in swimmers has been attributed to duration of swim practice, total yardage, and break down in stroke technique. Rehabilitation programs are generally land-based and cannot adequately address the intricacies of the swimming strokes. Return to swimming protocols (RTSP) that address progression of yardage are scarce, yet needed. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to familiarize the clinician with the culture and vernacular of swimming, and to provide a suggested yardage based RTSP for high school and collegiate level swimmers. 5.

  18. Effect of endurance swimming training during pregnancy on histology and apoptotic index of rats\\' liver

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    Shadmehr Mirdar Harijani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The studies have reported that exercise induced apoptosis in various tissues. The abnormal regulation of apoptosis contributes to the progression of pathological processes in the placenta and effects on embryo development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of swimming endurance training during pregnancy on apoptosis induction in pregnant rats' liver. Materials and Methods:: Sixteen female Wistar rats with an average weight of 200 ± 20 grams were divided into two groups: swimming and control. The rats of training group were forced from first day of pregnancy to delivery in a particular pool. The time of training in first day of pregnancy was 10 min and this time in second week reached to 60 min by increasing of 5 min per day. The time of 60 min continued to end of third week. The sampling of the rats' liver was performed two days after delivery and the liver apoptotic index was determined with TUNEL technique. Statistical analysis of the data was done using independent t-test (α≤ 0.05. Results: The results of study showed that swimming endurance training did not induce significant change in liver apoptosis (p < 0.424. The mean of apoptosis in control and training groups was %7.40 and %8.60 respectively. But 3-wk period of swimming training induced significantly minor increase in the amount of post pregnancy weight gain compared to the control group (p < 0.001. In addition, it was observed non-significant decrease in weight of training groups rat's liver compared to the control group (p = 1.00. Conclusion: It seems that endurance swimming training during pregnancy has no anguishing effect on apoptosis induction in liver and it is considered as safe exercise way in the improvement of mother and infant health.

  19. Swimming training beneficial effects in a mice model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Alini; Mendonca, Leonardo S; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of swimming training in reducing the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated comorbidities, including the hepatic expression of fatty acid synthesis and peroxisome proliferator receptor activity-alpha. Male C57BL/6 mice were separated into two major groups according to their nutrition and studied during 22 weeks: standard chow (10% fat, SC) or high-fat chow (60% fat, HF), characterizing the sedentary groups SC-Sed and HF-Sed. In the last 10 weeks of the experiment, half of the sedentary groups were submitted to a swimming training with a progressive increase in duration, characterizing the exercised groups: SC-Ex and HF-Ex. At the end of the experiment, considering the findings in the SC-Sed group, HF-Sed group had significantly higher body mass, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance, hypertrophy of the adipocytes (with inflammatory infiltrate), hypertrophy of the pancreatic islets, dyslipidemia, altered liver enzymes and inflammatory cytokines, and NAFLD with changes in gene expression of hepatic lipogenic and oxidative proteins. The swimming program, even concomitant with the high-fat diet, reduced overweight and all the other worst findings, especially NAFLD. In conclusion, the swimming training can attenuate the morbid effects of a high-fat diet combined with sedentary lifestyle in mice. These data reinforce the notion that swimming exercise can be considered an efficient nonpharmacologic therapy in the treatment of NAFLD, obesity and insulin resistance.

  20. Effects of concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training on respiratory and exercise performance in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gregory D; Plyley, Michael; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Len; Duffin, James

    2005-08-01

    The efficiency of the respiratory system presents significant limitations on the body's ability to perform exercise due to the effects of the increased work of breathing, respiratory muscle fatigue, and dyspnoea. Respiratory muscle training is an intervention that may be able to address these limitations, but the impact of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance remains controversial. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effects of a 12-week (10 sessions week(-1)) concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training (CRMT) program in 34 adolescent competitive swimmers. The CRMT program consisted of 6 weeks during which the experimental group (E, n = 17) performed CRMT and the sham group (S, n = 17) performed sham CRMT, followed by 6 weeks when the E and S groups performed CRMT of differing intensities. CRMT training resulted in a significant improvement in forced inspiratory volume in 1 s (FIV1.0) (P = 0.050) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) (P = 0.045) in the E group, which exceeded the S group's results. Significant improvements in pulmonary function, breathing power, and chemoreflex ventilation threshold were observed in both groups, and there was a trend toward an improvement in swimming critical speed after 12 weeks of training (P = 0.08). We concluded that although swim training results in attenuation of the ventilatory response to hypercapnia and in improvements in pulmonary function and sustainable breathing power, supplemental respiratory muscle training has no additional effect except on dynamic pulmonary function variables.

  1. Combined intervention of dietary soybean proteins and swim training: effects on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figard, Hélène; Mougin, Fabienne; Gaume, Vincent; Berthelot, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Soybean proteins, a rich source of isoflavones, taken immediately after an ovariectomy prevent bone loss in rats. Exercise-induced stimuli are essential for bone growth. Few studies exist about the combined effects of swim training and soybean protein supplementation on bone metabolism. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate, in 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) the effects of an 8-week swim-training regimen (1 h/day, 5 days/week) and dietary soybean proteins (200 g/kg diet) on bone metabolism. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) ovariectomized fed with a semisynthetic control diet; (2) ovariectomized fed with a soybean protein-enriched semisynthetic diet; (3) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with control diet; (4) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with a soybean protein diet. Following the treatment period, body weight gain was identical in the four groups. Soybean protein supplementation increased bone calcium content, and reduced plasma osteocalcin values, without significant modification of calcium balance and net calcium absorption. Swim training enhanced plasma and bone calcium content and calcium balance and net calcium absorption. It did not modify either plasma osteocalcin values or urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion. Both exercise and soybean protein intake increased plasma on bone calcium without modifying net calcium absorption or bone markers. In conclusion, we demonstrated, in ovariectomized rats, that swimming exercise and dietary supplementation with soy proteins do not have synergistic effects on calcium metabolism and bone markers.

  2. Maternal physiological responses to swimming training during the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Ann-Maree; Goodman, Carmel; Choy, Po Lin; Dawson, Brian; Newnham, John P; McDonald, Susan; Blanksby, Brian A

    2007-01-01

    Maternal submaximal aerobic fitness (PWC170) was measured before, during, and after 12 weeks of swimming training during the second trimester of pregnancy in 23 sedentary women. For comparison, 11 women maintained their normal activities, but did not swim. Training sessions were 3 times per week for 40 min, producing heart rate (HR) responses of 65%-70% of estimated maximum HR and increases in rectal temperature (n = 8) of approximately 0.4 degrees C. Distance swum per session almost doubled over the training period (581 +/- 177 m to 1110 +/- 263 m). PWC170 of the nonswimming group remained stable over time; that of the swimming group increased significantly by 13.8% after 8 weeks of training (790 +/- 145 to 909 +/- 137 kpm/min; p = 0.026). The results indicate that a significant aerobic training effect can be achieved by light-moderate-intensity swimming during pregnancy in previously sedentary women. Further, all women remained healthy, with no adverse outcomes for mother or baby.

  3. The effect of swimming and type of stroke on bone metabolism in competitive adolescent swimmers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AkgüL, Sinem; Kanbur, Nuray; Cinemre, Şükrü Alpan; Karabulut, Erdem; Derman, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity plays a key role in increasing and preserving bone mineral density (BMD). Effects on bone development associated with various nonweight-bearing sporting activities, such as swimming, are controversial. Different strokes used in swimming may also present as another factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of swimming and type of stroke on BMD in competitive adolescent athletes. Seventy-nine swimmers between the ages of 10 and 21 years participated in this study. BMD was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar vertebrae and left proximal femur. Daily calorie intake and calcium consumption, and measurements of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphates, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D), and osteocalcin were evaluated. Preliminary results revealed that the type of stroke had no effect on BMD (P = 0.79). Additionally competitive swimmers did not have augmented bone mineral accretion, and in 13.9% of athletes low BMD was confirmed. Sixty percent of swimmers had either deficient or insufficient 25(OH) D levels and a low mean calorie (P = 0.542) and calcium (P = 0.038) intake was observed. This was the first study to evaluate the effect of swimming stroke on BMD. Although no effect was statistically shown, further studies with a larger series may determine this effect.

  4. Establishment of a system of influence factor for Chinese competitive swimming development%我国竞技游泳运动发展影响因素指标体系的构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜更

    2014-01-01

    In view of the essential attributes of competitive swimming and the development condition of international competitive swimming’s pattern at present,a research was made on the establishment of systematic influence factors in the Chinese competitive swimming mainly by documentation,questionnaire survey,expert interviews and factor analysis with the theory of organization,on basis of real standard and developing stage of Chinese competitive swimming. The research results indicate that 1 )The systematic influence factors on the Chinese competitive swimming consist of 3 first-level factors,10 second-level factors,30 third-level factors. 2)It manifested that there was a great coherence between the first-level,second-level and third-level factors with the factorial analysis,and there were good logicality and scientificity in the inner structure. 3 )There were three hierarchies in the systematic influence factors of Chinese competitive swimming:environment stratum that guaranteed the Chinese competitive swimming development,which was made of social politics,economic and cultural context;systemic stratum that kept Chinese competitive swimming going,made of man power,material resources,financial resources which were needed by the Chinese competitive swimming;that driving force stratum which urged the Chinese competitive swimming to develop,made of training,competition and administration which could have an active impact on Chinese competitive swimming.%采用系统组织理论,结合竞技游泳的本质属性和世界竞技游泳格局发展态势,基于我国竞技游泳现实水平,主要运用问卷调查、专家访谈和因子分析等方法对构建我国竞技游泳运动发展影响因素指标体系进行研究。研究结果表明:1)影响我国竞技游泳运动发展的指标体系包括3个一级指标,10个二级指标,30个三级指标;2)因子分析结果表明我国竞技游泳运动发展影响因素指标体系一、二、三级指

  5. Competitive Swimming and Handball Participation Have a Positive Influence on Bone Parameters as Assessed by Phalangeal Quantitative Ultrasound in Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahenbuhl, Tathyane; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Guimarães, Roseane Fatima; Guerra-Junior, Gil; Barros-Filho, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    To examine the influence of participation in competitive sports on bone parameters, as assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the phalanges in female adolescents. Female adolescents (n = 329, 13.0-16.7 years old) were classified into handball (n = 55), swimming (n = 49) and control (n = 225) groups. QUS was used to evaluate the amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and bone transmission time (BTT), and their z-scores (zAD-SoS and zBTT) were calculated. Anthropometric measurements and Tanner's stages were also obtained. Swimmers had higher AD-SoS (2089 ± 43.8 m/s) and zAD-SoS (0.47 ± 0.8) than controls (2060 ± 54.0 m/s; 0.09 ± 1.0; both p ≤ .05) and both groups of athletes had higher BTT (handball: 1.44 ± 0.2 μs; swimming: 1.45 ± 0.2) and zBTT (handball: 0.71 ± 0.8; swimming: 0.72 ± 1.1) than the control group (1.37 ± 0.2 μs; 0.32 ± 0.9; all p ≤ .05). Swimmers had a higher total training time (TTT: 52.5 ± 27.6 months) and frequency of training per week (FT: 5.38 ± 0.1) compared with the handball group (35.9 ± 18.1; 3.32 ± 0.8; p ≤ .05). zAD-SoS, BTT and zBTT were positively correlated with FT, while BTT and zBTT showed a positive correlation with TTT. Sports practice influences bone parameters and higher bone parameter values are related to the amount of time and frequency of weekly training. The differences in phalangeal QUS parameters are independent of the impact of weight-bearing exercise.

  6. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  7. The Impact of Product Market Competition on Training Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    2014-01-01

    While standard models of training focus on how input market affects firms' training decisions, this paper investigates the impact of product market competition on training provision. Using the longitudinal data from Statistics Canada's Workplace and Employee Survey, we find that increased...... competition is strongly associated with more training provision. This association is unlikely to be driven by unobserved heterogeneity, specific measures used and other relevant factors. To the extent that training is a significant source of human capital and industry competitiveness, our results suggest...

  8. The Effects of Swim Training on Respiratory Aspects of Speech Production in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Amanda Faith; Emes, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated…

  9. Effects of Swimming Training on Stress Levels of the Students Aged 11-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroglu, Mihraç; Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the swimming training program on stress levels of the students ages 11-13. To this end, 60 students from Private Sahin School in the Sakarya city participated in the study voluntarily. 60 students were divided into two groups and each group was included 30 students. Stress Level Scale II…

  10. The effect of swimming training on body composition and motoric features in adult sedentary young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut Aysan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of 8 week of swimming training program on motoricfeatures, resting heart rate, blood pressure, andbody composition in young sedentary men.Materials and methods: Forty volunteers aged between20 and 29 years participated in the research. The participants’body weight, percentage of body fat, body massindex, flexibility, push-up, shuttle, horizontal-verticaljump and 20-meter sprint were measured and comparedbefore and after the 8 weeks of swimming training program.Results: At the end of the study, study groups’ measurementswere compared. Significant decreases wereobserved on parameters of percentage of body fat and20 m sprint run between pre-post test (p0.05. Significant increaseswere observed on parameters of push-up, verticaljump (p0.05.Conclusion: Eight weeks swimming training seems toreduce percentage of body fat. It has been observed that8 weeks swimming training increased values of push-up,shuttle and vertical jump. On the other hand, no changewas observed in values of flexibility and horizontal jump.J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 69-73

  11. The Effects of Swim Training on Respiratory Aspects of Speech Production in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Amanda Faith; Emes, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated…

  12. The Impact of Product Market Competition on Training Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    While standard models of training focus on how the structure of the input market affects training provisions of firms, this paper investigates the relationship between product market competition and training provision. Using the longitudinal and nationally representative data from Statistics Canada......'s Workplace and Employee Survey, we find that increased competition is strongly associated with more training provision within workplace. We show that this association is unlikely to be driven by unobservable workplace heterogeneity, the specific measures used, and other relevant factors which can affect...... training provisions. To the extent that training is a significant source of human capital and industry competitiveness, our empirical results suggest increasing training is a significant channel through which competition raises productivity....

  13. Critical load during continuous and discontinuous training in swimming Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chimin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the pattern of critical load (CL and anaerobic swim capacity (ASC during a twelve-week continuous program, after 3 and 9 days of detraining, and in a short-term retraining in swimming rats. Animals were distributed into four groups: control (CG, trained (TG, detrained 3 days (D3G and detrained 9 days (D9G. They were submitted to a CL test in a swimming exercise. TG group trained continuously during 12 weeks. D3G and D9G groups trained for five weeks, stopped for three and nine days, respectively, and came back to complete the training period. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures was used to compare data. All groups showed decline on CL during the twelve weeks of training, but TG showed higher CL values at the end of the twelve weeks (T: 7.03 ± 1.62% of body mass, p<0.05. ASC values did not have a regular pattern of change; there were no statistical difference in the end of the twelve weeks. This study showed that continuous training was able to keep CL values higher than the other groups, but detraining and a short-term retraining was not benefic for CL and ASC.

  14. Effect of high-intensity hypoxic training on sea-level swimming performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijens, M J; Toussaint, H M; Dow, J; Levine, B D

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity hypoxic training improves sea-level performances more than equivalent training in normoxia. Sixteen well-trained collegiate and Masters swimmers (10 women, 6 men) completed a 5-wk training program, consisting of three high-intensity training sessions in a flume and supplemental low- or moderate-intensity sessions in a pool each week. Subjects were matched for gender, performance level, and training history, and they were assigned to either hypoxic [Hypo; inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O(2))) = 15.3%, equivalent to a simulated altitude of 2,500 m] or normoxic (Norm; Fi(O(2)) = 20.9%) interval training in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. All pool training occurred under Norm conditions. The primary performance measures were 100- and 400-m freestyle time trials. Laboratory outcomes included maximal O(2) uptake (Vo(2 max)), anaerobic capacity (accumulated O(2) deficit), and swimming economy. Significant (P = 0.02 and swimming performances and Vo(2 max) in well-trained swimmers, with no additive effect of hypoxic training.

  15. The Effect of an Altitude Training Camp on Swimming Start Time and Loaded Squat Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Calderón, Carmen; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Tomazin, Katja; Strumbelj, Boro; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT) camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men) were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT) and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level) that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight) were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach. Following the SLT camp, significant impairments in swimming start times to 10 (+3.1%) and 15 m (+4.0%) were observed (P camp (-0.89%; P > 0.05). Trivial changes in peak velocity were obtained during the loaded squat jump after both training periods (effect sizes: effectiveness of power-oriented resistance training in the development of explosive actions.

  16. 广西基层游泳教练员的现状调查与研究%Research on Current Situation for Competitive Swimming Coaches in Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    远航

    2012-01-01

    对广西基层游泳教练员的现状调查,了解其基本情况、执教能力现状、自身修养与科研能力现状以及岗位培训与待遇现状,并提出改善教练员队伍情况的建议,为广西竞技游泳的可持续发展提供参考。%This essay studies about the basic information, teaching ability, self cultivation and scientific research ability, as well as on-the-job training and current terms of employment, based on the current situation for competitive swimming coaches in Guangxi, gives advice on how to strengthen the coaches team, and provides a valuable reference to the development of competitive swimming in C~mngxi.

  17. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on the bones of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taewoong; Tanaka, Sakura; Naka, Tatsuki; Igawa, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17β-estradiol (OE2) and 6) OVX exercise training and given 17β-estradiol (OEE). SE, OE and OEE rats were used extremely high-intensity swim exercise. The rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 5, the next 9, and the last 5 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. HIT was originally designed as an exercise method; a method that very quickly induces an increase in the maximum oxygen intake (Tabata I et al., 1996). OEE and OE2 rats were subcutaneously injected ethanol with 25μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol 3 times per week. Bone strength, bone mineral density and trabecular bone parameters were measured after a 8-weeks experimental period. Bone strength was significantly higher in the SE, OE, OE2 and OEE group compared with the O group. BV/TV was significant increase in the SE, OE groups compared with the O group. BMD showed no difference in the OE group compared with the O group. This study demonstrate some beneficial effects of postmenopausal osteoporosis of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on bone structure and strength.

  18. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on the bones of ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taewoong; Tanaka, Sakura; Naka, Tatsuki; Igawa, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. [Methods] Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17β-estradiol (OE2) and 6) OVX exercise training and given 17β-estradiol (OEE). SE, OE and OEE rats were used extremely high-intensity swim exercise. The rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 5, the next 9, and the last 5 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. HIT was originally designed as an exercise method; a method that very quickly induces an increase in the maximum oxygen intake (Tabata I et al., 1996). OEE and OE2 rats were subcutaneously injected ethanol with 25μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol 3 times per week. [Results] Bone strength, bone mineral density and trabecular bone parameters were measured after a 8-weeks experimental period. Bone strength was significantly higher in the SE, OE, OE2 and OEE group compared with the O group. BV/TV was significant increase in the SE, OE groups compared with the O group. BMD showed no difference in the OE group compared with the O group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrate some beneficial effects of postmenopausal osteoporosis of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on bone structure and strength. PMID:27757386

  19. Performance enhancement in swimming: the effect of mental training with biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, M; Blumenstein, B

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and swimmers' performance was investigated. The Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the performance among 16-18 year-old pre-elite swimmers. Participants (n = 40) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) experimental--regular training plus the Wingate 5-step mental training program (adapted for swimming), and (b) control--regular training plus relaxing activities. After a baseline measurement, participants were tested on running and swimming five times during a 10-week period. Results indicated that the experimental group improved its performance over time on both running and swimming, with improvement being most substantial during transformation and realisation (steps 4 and 5). In contrast, the control group remained relatively stable on both dependent measures. Results are discussed in reference to previous work on the 5-step approach, including several methodological and theoretical aspects that are particularly relevant to the use of such interventions with other athletic tasks and populations.

  20. Sports Medicine Meets Synchronized Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Betty J.; And Others

    This collection of articles contains information about synchronized swimming. Topics covered include general physiology and cardiovascular conditioning, flexibility exercises, body composition, strength training, nutrition, coach-athlete relationships, coping with competition stress and performance anxiety, and eye care. Chapters are included on…

  1. Effects of 8-week swimming training on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen-Xue; Liu, Hai-Bin; Gao, Feng-Shan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2016-12-28

    Exercise has been found to either reduce or increase arterial stiffness. Land-based exercise modalities have been documented as effective physical therapies to decrease arterial stiffness. However, these land-based exercise modalities may not be suitable for overweight individuals, in terms of risks of joint injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8-week swimming training and 4-week detraining on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults. Twenty young male adults who were overweight were recruited and engaged in 8-week of swimming training and 4-week detraining. Five individuals withdrew due to lack of interest and failure to follow the training protocol. Body Fat Percentage (BFP) and carotid hemodynamic variables were measured on a resting day at the following intervals: baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks after swimming training and 4 weeks after detraining. A repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the differences between baseline and each measurement. When significant differences were detected, Tukey's test for post hoc comparisons was used. Eight-week swimming training at moderate intensity decreased BFP, including the trunk and four extremities. Additionally, the BFP of the right and left lower extremities continued to decrease in these overweight adults 4 weeks after ceasing training. Carotid arterial stiffness decreased, while there were no significant changes in arterial diameters. Blood flow velocity, flow rate, maximal and mean wall shear stress increased, while systolic blood pressure and peripheral resistance decreased. No significant differences existed in minimal wall shear stress and oscillatory shear stress. Eight-week swimming training at moderate intensity exhibited beneficial effects on systolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness and blood supply to the brain in overweight adults. Moreover, maximal and mean wall shear stress increased after training. It is worth noting that these

  2. CAN BLOOD GAS AND ACID-BASE PARAMETERS AT MAXIMAL 200 METERS FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING BE DIFFERENT BETWEEN FORMER COMPETITIVE AND RECREATIONAL SWIMMERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Kapus

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether maximal 200 m front crawl swimming strategies and breathing patterns influenced blood gas and acid-base parameters in a manner which gives advantage to former competitive swimmers in comparison with their recreational colleagues. Twelve former competitive male swimmers (the CS group and nine recreational male swimmers (the RS group performed a maximal 200 m front crawl swimming with self- selected breathing pattern. Stroke rate (SR and breathing frequency (BF were measured during the swimming test. Measures also included blood lactate concentration ([LA] and parameters of blood acid-base status before and during the first minute after the swimming test. The CS group swam faster then the RS group. Both groups have similar and steady SR throughout the swimming test. This was not matched by similar BF in the CS group but matched it very well in the RS group (r = 0.89. At the beginning of swimming test the CS group had low BF, but they increased it throughout the swimming test. The BF at the RS group remained constant with only mirror variations throughout the swimming test. Such difference in velocity and breathing resulted in maintaining of blood Po2 from hypoxia and Pco2 from hypercapnia. This was similar in both groups. [LA] increased faster in the CS group than in the RS group. On the contrary, the rate of pH decrease remained similar in both groups. The former competitive swimmers showed three possible advantages in comparison to recreational swimmers during maximal 200 m front crawl swimming: a more dynamic and precise regulation of breathing, more powerful bicarbonate buffering system and better synchronization between breathing needs and breathing response during swimming

  3. The response of the lactate minimum test to a 12-week swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zapaterra Campos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the utilization of lactate minimum test (LMT in training, its intensity response to training remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to verify alterations of LMT intensity in swimmers during a 12-week training protocol. Eight swimmers were submitted to three LMT assessments: beginning of the season, T0; after four, T4; and twelve weeks, T12. The LMT consisted of a 200m maximal effort and, after eight minutes of passive rest, five incremental stages of 200m swimming. The intensities of the incremental stages were defined subjectively ("very light," "light," "moderate," "hard," and "all-out". The training was divided in two blocks of periodization: endurance training period (ETP, T0 - T4, and quality plus taper period (QTP, T4 - T12. The LMT intensity of T4 and T12 were significantly higher than T0. We conclude that LMT is modified due to swimming training and can be used for training prescription and detection of aerobic capacity alterations during a season.

  4. Injuries in the event horse: training versus competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Ellen R; Barnes, Jane; Saxby, Fiona; Murray, Jane K

    2008-01-01

    Two related studies on injuries sustained by event horses during competition and during training are reported. During the cross-country phase of competition, the most common injuries were lacerations and abrasions to the carpus and stifle. Superficial digital flexor tendonitis and exertional rhabdomyolysis were significantly more common during Cours Complete Internationale (CCI) competitions compared to one-day event (ODE) competitions. The difference in injury types at ODEs and CCI competitions probably relates to the increased athletic demands of the CCI and the closer veterinary observation at these competitions. The results of the training study indicate that 21% of horses intending to compete in a CCI did not start due to injury. Forty-three percent of these injuries involved soft tissue structures with injuries to the superficial digital flexor tendon and the suspensory ligament each accounting for 33%. The most important area for future research is investigation of the risk factors for these career-threatening soft tissue injuries.

  5. Swimming training attenuates oxidative damage and increases enzymatic but not non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Nonato

    Full Text Available Although it is well known that physical training ameliorates brain oxidative function after injuries by enhancing the levels of neurotrophic factors and oxidative status, there is little evidence addressing the influence of exercise training itself on brain oxidative damage and data is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of well-established swimming training protocol on lipid peroxidation and components of antioxidant system in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were randomized into trained (5 days/week, 8 weeks, 30 min; n=8 and non-trained (n=7 groups. Forty-eight hours after the last session of exercise, animals were euthanized and the brain was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Swimming training decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels (P0.05. Moreover, the swimming training promoted metabolic adaptations, such as increased maximal workload capacity (P<0.05 and maintenance of body weight. In this context, the reduced TBARS content and increased SOD antioxidant activity induced by 8 weeks of swimming training are key factors in promoting brain resistance. In conclusion, swimming training attenuated oxidative damage and increased enzymatic antioxidant but not non-enzymatic status in the rat brain.

  6. The role of the coach in training for swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsilman, J E

    1986-01-01

    It is the coach's responsibility to balance the intensity of psychological and physiological stress in such a way that the swimmer achieves optimal performance, to provide an environment that is conducive to positive motivation of the swimmers, to have a thorough knowledge of training methods and stroke mechanics, to communicate enthusiasm to the athletes, and to cooperate in a team effort with other personnel, such as the managerial staff, the sports publicity department, and support personnel.

  7. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  8. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  9. Features of technical and tactical actions of highly skilled athletes at swimming of competitive distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters way to crawl on his back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pilipko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the features of technical and tactical actions of highly skilled athletes, specializing in swimming crawl on way back to the distances of different lengths. Material and Methods: we used analysis of scientific and methodical literature, teacher observation, video, timing, methods of mathematical processing of the data. Collection of digital material was carried out during the Championship and Cup of Ukraine on swimming. Surveyed group consisted of participants of the final swim at distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters way to crawl on his back. Results: characterized by changes of speed, tempo and "step" cycle paddle movements in the process of overcoming competitive distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters way to crawl on his back, given their comparative characteristics. Conclusions: the nature of the technical and tactical actions of highly skilled athletes, specializing in swimming crawl on way back, depending on the length of competitive distance.

  10. Core Strength Training of Synchronized Swimming to Improve Performance%论核心力量训练对花样游泳运动成绩提高的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茹

    2016-01-01

    the synchronized SWIMMING the europeans called water ballet of sports, in our country for 20 years,from the beginning that we understand the synchronized SWIMMING to the developing trend of today,has far exceeded the SYNCHRONIZERS SWIMMING, synchronized SWIMMING) the meaning in English. Synchronized swimming, therefore, the characteristics of this project is changing with the development of the project. So the traditional physical training cannot satisfy the need of the competitive sports, the core strength training has become a synchronized swimming fitness training is very important part of. Core strength is a basic posture and synchronized swimming movement control factors, the stability of the spine, pelvis,maintain the correct body posture, balance coordination, improve the speed of synchronized swimming athletes,strength,water level and so on all has the very vital significance. Because of synchronized swimming movement is cyclical projects, the method of core strength training is mainly aimed at the trunk deep small muscles, under the unbalanced state of various training load. Special physical elements around the synchronized swimming projects, this paper puts forward the basic thought of core training, advice on the basis of the initial diagnosis, training cycle, divided into screening and training methods and determine the load trend,pay attention to the individual athlete.%核心力量是花样游泳基本姿势和动作的控制因素,对稳定脊柱、骨盆,保持正确的身体姿势,协调平衡,提高花样游泳运动员的速度、力度、水位等等都具有很重要的意义。由于花样游泳运动是非周期性项目,核心力量的训练方法主要是针对躯干深层小肌肉,在不平衡的状态下进行各种负荷的训练。围绕花样游泳项目专项体能构成要素,提出核心训练的基本思路,建议在初始诊断的基础上,划分训练周期,筛选训练方法和确定负荷趋势,注重运动员个体化。

  11. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Training on Performance in Competitive Swimmers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Burrows, Emma; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-03-01

    Nugent, FJ, Comyns, TM, Burrows, E, and Warrington, GD. Effects of low-volume, high-intensity training on performance in competitive swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 837-847, 2017-The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature to determine the effects of low-volume, high-intensity training (HIT) on physiological performance and swimming performance in competitive swimmers. The methodology followed the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. A search of relevant databases and conference proceedings was performed until December 2015. The inclusion criteria were (a) competitive swimmers, (b) ≥4 weeks HIT intervention, (c) comparison group had to involve a higher training volume, (d) outcome measures of physiological and swimming performance, and (e) all experimental study designs. Quality assessment was performed using the Quality Index checklist. Results indicate that of the 538 studies retrieved, 7 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 studies found that an HIT intervention resulted in significant improvements in physiological performance. Four of the 7 studies found that HIT resulted in significant improvements in swimming performance, whereas none of the 7 studies resulted in a reduction in physiological or swimming performance. Despite the positive findings of this review, the short study duration is a limitation to a number of studies. The current evidence on the effects of HIT on performance is promising; however, it is difficult to draw accurate conclusions until further research has been conducted.

  12. Silkworm pupae powder ingestion increases fat metabolism in swim-trained rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Sung Pil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Many researchers are trying to solve the metabolic syndrome by utilizing a variety of nutritional control and exercise. Of those, silkworm pupae peptides are known to inhibit the synthesis of fat. Therefore, we examine the effect of fat metabolism by supplying silkworm pupae (SP) for 5-week in swim-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into four groups as a group (n = 32) fed a normal diet (CO) with exercise training (CE); a group fed a silkworm pupa diet (SPC) with an exerci...

  13. Intermittent hypoxic training improves anaerobic performance in competitive swimmers when implemented into a direct competition mesocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Miłosz; Wilk, Robert; Karpiński, Jakub; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Zajac, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on anaerobic and aerobic capacity and swimming performance in well-trained swimmers. Sixteen male swimmers were randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n = 8), which trained in a normobaric hypoxia environment, and a control (C) group (n = 8), which exercised under normoxic conditions. However, one participant left the study without explanation. During the experiment group H trained on land twice per week in simulated hypoxia (FiO2 = 15.5%, corresponding to 2,500 m a.s.l); however, they conducted swim training in normoxic conditions. Group C performed the same training program under normoxic conditions. The training program included four weekly microcyles, followed by three days of recovery. During practice sessions on land, the swimmers performed 30 second sprints on an arm-ergometer, alternating with two minute high intensity intervals on a lower limb cycle ergometer. The results showed that the training on land caused a significant (pvalues of VO2max by 6.9% in group H and 3.7% in group C. However, absolute values of VO2max were not significantly changed. Additionally, a significant (pvalues of lactate concentration (ΔLA) after both Wingate tests were significantly (pvalues of blood pH (ΔpH) after both Wingate tests in group H, with a significant decrease in values of ΔpH by 33.3%. The IHT caused a significant (pTraining in normoxia (group C), resulted in a significant (ptraining protocol had no effect on absolute values of VO2max and hematological variables.

  14. Swimming training prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.G. Claudio

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency and hypertension are considered major risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. On the other hand, exercise training is considered an effective form to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of swimming training (SW on coronary vascular reactivity in female ovariectomized hypertensive rats are not known. We aimed to evaluate the effects of SW on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. Three-month old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=50 were divided into four groups: sham (SH, sham plus swimming training (SSW, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized plus swimming training (OSW. The SW protocol (5 times/week, 60 min/day was conducted for 8 weeks. The vasodilatory response was measured in isolated hearts in the absence and presence of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME, 100 µM. Cardiac oxidative stress was evaluated in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence, while the expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-2 and catalase and their activities were assessed by western blotting and spectrophotometry, respectively. Vasodilation in SHR was significantly reduced by OVX, even in the presence of L-NAME, in conjunction with an increased oxidative stress. These effects were prevented by SW, and were associated with a decrease in oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2 and catalase expression increased only in the OSW group. However, no significant difference was found in the activity of these enzymes. In conclusion, SW prevented the endothelial dysfunction in the coronary bed of ovariectomized SHR associated with an increase in the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and therefore may prevent coronary heart disease in hypertensive postmenopausal women.

  15. Use of Biotechnology Devices to Analyse Fatigue Process in Swimming Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, V J; Arroyo-Toledo, J J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to analyze the acute psycho-physiological response during a high intensity interval training (HIIT) session of trained swimmers. We analyzed blood lactate concentration, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), arms isometric strength, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and cortical arousal before and after a HIIT session in 14 trained swimmers (16.2 ± 2.6 years 169.1 ± 10.2 cm 61.3 ± 9.9 kg). HIIT session consisted in: 4 × 10 m tethered swimming resting 90 s between sets, 3 min rest, 16 × 25 m maximum speed swimming resting 30 s between sets. Blood lactate concentration, cortical arousal, and rating of perceived exertion significantly increased (p < 0.05) after HIIT. HRV parameters significantly decreased after HIIT, showing an increase in sympathetic nervous system modulation. Results obtained showed the high impact of HIIT sessions on the swimmer's organism, which may be the cause of adaptation in this low volume training sessions.

  16. Effects of Two Different Weight Training Programs on Swimming Performance and Muscle Enzyme Activities and Fiber Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Glen R; Noble, Earl G; Taylor, Albert W

    2016-02-01

    The effects of 2 different weight training programs incorporating bench press (BP) and pullover (PO) exercises on swimming performance, power, enzyme activity, and fiber type distribution were studied on 16 men (age = 23 ± 4 years). A 30-second group (n = 6) performed up to 20 repetitions of BP and PO in 30 seconds. The 2-minute group (n = 6) performed a maximum of 80 repetitions of BP and PO in 2 minutes. As participants reached the prescribed 20 or 80 repetitions, the weight was increased 4.5 kg. A third group (n = 4) served as nontraining controls. Exercise groups trained 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Maximal effort swims of 50 and 200 yd were performed before and after training. Training resulted in increases in work on both exercises in both groups pre- to post-training (BP 30 seconds, 722 ± 236-895 ± 250 kg; PO 30 seconds, 586 ± 252-1,090 ± 677 kg; and BP 2 minutes, 1,530 ± 414-1,940 ± 296; PO 2 minutes, 1,212 ± 406-2,348 ± 194, p ≤ 0.05). Swim performances of the 30-second group improved for both the 50-yd (32.0 ± 6.9 seconds, 30.0 ± 5.9 seconds, p ≤ 0.05) and 200-yd swims 200.0 ± 54 seconds, 182 ± 45.1 seconds (p ≤ 0.05), whereas 2-minute training improved only the 200-yd swim (198.3 ± 32.3 seconds, 186.2 ± 32.2 seconds). No changes in swim performance were observed for the control group. Triceps muscle succinate dehydrogenase activities increased (pre 3.48 ± 1.1 μmol · g(-1) wet weight per minute, post 6.25 ± 1.5 μmoles · g(-1) wet weight per minute, p ≤ 0.05) in only the 30-second training group, whereas phosphofructokinase activities and fiber type distribution did not change in either training group. This study has demonstrated that a 30-second 20-repetition weight training program, specific to the swimming musculature without concurrent swim training, improves swimming performances at both 50- and 200-yd distances.

  17. Swimming training attenuates oxidative damage and increases enzymatic but not non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonato, L F; Rocha-Vieira, E; Tossige-Gomes, R; Soares, A A; Soares, B A; Freitas, D A; Oliveira, M X; Mendonça, V A; Lacerda, A C; Massensini, A R; Leite, H R

    2016-09-29

    Although it is well known that physical training ameliorates brain oxidative function after injuries by enhancing the levels of neurotrophic factors and oxidative status, there is little evidence addressing the influence of exercise training itself on brain oxidative damage and data is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of well-established swimming training protocol on lipid peroxidation and components of antioxidant system in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were randomized into trained (5 days/week, 8 weeks, 30 min; n=8) and non-trained (n=7) groups. Forty-eight hours after the last session of exercise, animals were euthanized and the brain was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Swimming training decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels (P0.05). Moreover, the swimming training promoted metabolic adaptations, such as increased maximal workload capacity (Pswimming training are key factors in promoting brain resistance. In conclusion, swimming training attenuated oxidative damage and increased enzymatic antioxidant but not non-enzymatic status in the rat brain.

  18. Specific features of elite bodybuilders’ training process in competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihorsky A.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To substantiate methodic of training process construction for elite bodybuilders in competition period with usage of different training methods. Material: elite bodybuilders - members of combined team of Ukraine (n=16 participated in the research. Results: we presented comparative characteristic of the most often used bodybuilding training methodic. Besides, optimal training methodic in competition period was worked out and substantiated. Such methodic permits to improve body proportions at the account of fat layer reduction. By the data of Harvard step-test the sportsmen improved organism’s functional potentials by 6%. Conclusions: the offered methodic noticeably reduces probability of functional unfavorable states (over-training, overloading, traumas. The methodic permits to achieve the required sport form without over-tension adaptation-compensatory mechanisms and acquire maximal muscular relief; improve proportions with minimal losses of muscles’ volume.

  19. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. An Evaluation of the Usefulness of Stroke Index Values in the Swimming Training of People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidel Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. When evaluating the swimming technique of people with disabilities, a particularly important factor, besides physiological aspects, is the efficiency of the effort expended. This suggests that assessing and monitoring the effectiveness of swimming should be a regular part of training for swimmers with disabilities. Therefore, it seems important to distinguish how changes occur in the parameters that determine the effectiveness of swimming. This is especially true of anaerobic lactic exercise as the lactic acid concentration in the blood increases significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of calculating velocity and the stroke index in the swimming training of people with disabilities, along with the progressive fatigue of a high-intensity interval training workout. Material and methods. The sample comprised 12 elite competitors with a disability. The experiment consisted in swimming sequential distances of 48 m, 50 m, 52 m, and 54 m at maximum intensity. Competitors performed four sets of four repetitions with a 75-second interval between repetitions and 15 minutes of active resting between sets. All sets were recorded using five digital cameras with a frequency of 50 frames per second. The recorded material was analysed with the use of motion analysis software, and the stroke index was calculated. Results. There was found to be no significant change in the average swimming velocity during each set and corresponding repetition, which means that the participants were able to tolerate the training intensity. Also, the stroke index did not change to a statistically significant degree in either of the subsequent sets or the subsequent repetitions (p < 0.05. Conclusions. We conclude that analysing the value of the swimming stroke index for people with disabilities can be a diagnostic method for assessing the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training.

  1. Cardiac response to doxorubicin and dexrazoxane in intact and ovariectomized young female rats at rest and after swim training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvé, Annie; Haddad, Rami; Barama, Sarah-Neiel; Meilleur, Melissa; Sebag, Igal A; Chalifour, Lorraine E

    2012-05-15

    The impact of cancer therapies on adult cardiac function is becoming a concern as more children survive their initial cancer. Cardiovascular disease is now a significant problem to adult survivors of childhood cancer. Specifically, doxorubicin (DOX) may be particularly harmful in young girls. The objective of this study was to characterize DOX damage and determine the ability of dexrazoxane (DEX) to reduce DOX-mediated cardiac damage in sedentary and swim-trained female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were left intact or ovariectomized (OVX) at weaning then injected with DEX (60 mg/kg) before DOX (3 mg/kg), DOX alone, or PBS. Rats were separated into sedentary and swim cohorts. Body weight was reduced in DOX:DEX- but not PBS- or DOX-treated rats. Echocardiographic parameters were similar in sedentary rats. Swim training revealed greater concentric remodeling in DOX-treated rats and reduced fractional shortening in DOX:DEX-treated rats. Calsequestrin 2 was reduced with DOX and increased with DOX:DEX postswim. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a was reduced and calsequestrin 2 reduced further by swim training only in intact rats. OVX rats were heavier and developed eccentric remodeling post-swim with DOX and eccentric hypertrophy with DOX:DEX. Changes in SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 expression were not observed. Ovariectomized DOX- and DOX:DEX-treated rats stopped growing during swim training. DEX coinjection did not relieve DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity in intact or hormone-deficient rats. DOX-mediated reductions in growth, cardiac function, and expression of calcium homeostasis proteins were exacerbated by swim. DEX coadministration did not substantially relieve DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity in young female rats. Ovarian hormones reduce DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.

  2. Duration-controlled swimming exercise training induces cardiac hypertrophy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Evangelista

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training associated with robust conditioning can be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A swimming apparatus is described to control training regimens in terms of duration, load, and frequency of exercise. Mice were submitted to 60- vs 90-min session/day, once vs twice a day, with 2 or 4% of the weight of the mouse or no workload attached to the tail, for 4 vs 6 weeks of exercise training. Blood pressure was unchanged in all groups while resting heart rate decreased in the trained groups (8-18%. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, measured spectrophotometrically, increased (45-58% only as a result of duration and frequency-controlled exercise training, indicating that endurance conditioning was obtained. In groups which received duration and endurance conditioning, cardiac weight (14-25% and myocyte dimension (13-20% increased. The best conditioning protocol to promote physiological hypertrophy, our primary goal in the present study, was 90 min, twice a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks with no overload attached to the body. Thus, duration- and frequency-controlled exercise training in mice induces a significant conditioning response qualitatively similar to that observed in humans.

  3. Long-Term, Competitive Swimming and the Association with Atrial Fibrillation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schreiner, Andrew D; Keith, Brad A; Abernathy, Karen E; Zhang, Jingwen; Brzezinski, Walter A

    2016-01-01

    .... This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population of long-term, competitive swimmers compared with patients within an internal medicine clinic with known risk...

  4. High molecular mass proteomics analyses of left ventricle from rats subjected to differential swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Luiz A O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular exercises are commonly described as an important factor in health improvement, being directly related to contractile force development in cardiac cells. In order to evaluate the links between swimming exercise intensity and cardiac adaptation by using high molecular mass proteomics, isogenic Wistar rats were divided into four groups: one control (CG and three training groups (TG’s, with low, moderate and high intensity of exercises. In order to evaluate the links between swimming exercise intensity and cardiac adaptation by using high molecular mass proteomics, isogenic Wistar rats were divided into four groups: one control (CG and three training groups (TG’s, with low, moderate and high intensity of exercises. Results Findings here reported demonstrated clear morphologic alterations, significant cellular injury and increased energy supplies at high exercise intensities. α-MyHC, as well proteins associated with mitochondrial oxidative metabolism were shown to be improved. α-MyHC expression increase 1.2 fold in high intensity training group when compared with control group. α-MyHC was also evaluated by real-time PCR showing a clear expression correlation with protein synthesis data increase in 8.48 fold in high intensity training group. Other myofibrillar protein, troponin , appear only in high intensity group, corroborating the cellular injury data. High molecular masses proteins such as MRS2 and NADH dehydrogenase, involved in metabolic pathways also demonstrate increase expression, respectily 1.5 and 1.3 fold, in response to high intensity exercise. Conclusions High intensity exercise demonstrated an increase expression in some high molecular masses myofibrilar proteins, α-MyHC and troponin. Furthermore this intensity also lead a significant increase of other high molecular masses proteins such as MRS2 and NADH dehydrogenase in comparison to low and moderate intensities. However, high intensity exercise also

  5. Swimming training increases cardiac vagal activity and induces cardiac hypertrophy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medeiros

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of swimming training (ST on vagal and sympathetic cardiac effects was investigated in sedentary (S, N = 12 and trained (T, N = 12 male Wistar rats (200-220 g. ST consisted of 60-min swimming sessions 5 days/week for 8 weeks, with a 5% body weight load attached to the tail. The effect of the autonomic nervous system in generating training-induced resting bradycardia (RB was examined indirectly after cardiac muscarinic and adrenergic receptor blockade. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by cardiac weight and myocyte morphometry. Plasma catecholamine concentrations and citrate synthase activity in soleus muscle were also determined in both groups. Resting heart rate was significantly reduced in T rats (355 ± 16 vs 330 ± 20 bpm. RB was associated with a significantly increased cardiac vagal effect in T rats (103 ± 25 vs 158 ± 40 bpm, since the sympathetic cardiac effect and intrinsic heart rate were similar for the two groups. Likewise, no significant difference was observed for plasma catecholamine concentrations between S and T rats. In T rats, left ventricle weight (13% and myocyte dimension (21% were significantly increased, suggesting cardiac hypertrophy. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity was significantly increased by 52% in T rats, indicating endurance conditioning. These data suggest that RB induced by ST is mainly mediated parasympathetically and differs from other training modes, like running, that seems to mainly decrease intrinsic heart rate in rats. The increased cardiac vagal activity associated with ST is of clinical relevance, since both are related to increased life expectancy and prevention of cardiac events.

  6. Modeling of breaststroke swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmanov, S. P.; Chernous'ko, F. L.

    2014-02-01

    A mechanical system that models swimming using a pair of two-chain extremities is considered. The motion of the system under study is similar to swimming of a frog and some other animals, in which lower extremities play the main role. This type of motion is characteristic of competitive breaststroke swimming.

  7. Comparative analysis of thrust production for distinct arm-pull styles in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebbecke, Alfred von; Mittal, Rajat

    2012-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based analysis of the propulsive forces generated by two distinct styles of arm-pulls in front-crawl as well as backstroke is presented in this Technical Brief. Realistic models of the arm pulling through water are created by combining underwater video footage and laser-scans of an arm with computer animation. The contributions of drag and lift forces on the arm to thrust are computed from CFD, and it is found that lift forces provide a dominant contribution to thrust for all the arm-pull styles examined. However, contrary to accepted notions in swimming, pronounced sculling (lateral motion) not only does not increase the contribution of lift forces on the hand to overall thrust, it decreases the contribution of drag forces to thrust. Consequently, pronounced sculling seems to reduce the effectiveness of the arm-pull.

  8. Biomechanical comparison of the track start and the modified one-handed track start in competitive swimming: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, H; Scurr, J; Hencken, C; Wood, L; Graham-Smith, P

    2008-11-01

    This study compared the conventional track and a new one-handed track start in elite age group swimmers to determine if the new technique had biomechanical implications on dive performance. Five male and seven female GB national qualifiers participated (mean +/- SD: age 16.7 +/- 1.9 years, stretched stature 1.76 +/- 0.8 m, body mass 67.4 +/- 7.9 kg) and were assigned to a control group (n = 6) or an intervention group (n = 6) that learned the new one handed dive technique. All swimmers underwent a 4-week intervention comprising 12 +/- 3 thirty-minute training sessions. Video cameras synchronized with an audible signal and timing suite captured temporal and kinematic data. A portable force plate and load cell handrail mounted to a swim starting block collected force data over 3 trials of each technique. A MANCOVA identified Block Time (BT), Flight Time (FT), Peak Horizontal Force of the lower limbs (PHF) and Horizontal Velocity at Take-off (Vx) as covariates. During the 10-m swim trial, significant differences were found in Time to 10 m (TT10m), Total Time (TT), Peak Vertical Force (PVF), Flight Distance (FD), and Horizontal Velocity at Take-off (Vx) (p < .05). Results indicated that the conventional track start method was faster over 10 m, and therefore may be seen as a superior start after a short intervention. During training, swimmers and coaches should focus on the most statistically significant dive performance variables: peak horizontal force and velocity at take-off, block and flight time.

  9. The effects induced by swimming training on rats submitted to normal and hypercaloric diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Antonio dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to analyse the effects induced by six weeks of swimming periodized training (SPT on the aerobic capacity (AC and body weight (BW, on rats fed with either normal or hypercaloric diets. Twenty-four Wistar rats (90 days old were divided in two groups: Normocaloric (NG, n = 12 and Hypercaloric (HG, n = 12. The rats were fed with respective diets (NG or HG for eight weeks and then underwent SPT for six weeks. Before (pre and after (post the SPT, the animals were submitted to an AC determination, using a ”Chassain Test” . There was no significant changes to AC in the HG group (pre = 5.59 ± 4.56% BW vs. post = 4.45 ± 1.66% BW, but in the NG group it increased significantly (pre = 3.95 ± 2.42% BW vs. post = 4.48 ± 1.18% BW.

  10. Nutritional practices of elite female surfers during training and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, J M; Burke, L M; Lowdon, B J; Cameron-Smith, D; Collier, G R

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary practices of 10 elite female surfers. Four- and five-day food diaries completed over competition and training periods demonstrated energy intakes (mean +/- SD) of 9,468 kJ (+/- 2,007) and 8,397 kJ (+/- 1,831), respectively. This level of energy intake was less than that estimated for the requirements of surfing. Female surfers' carbohydrate intakes failed to meet the recommendations, and suboptimal zinc intake was observed with 90% of subjects not meeting the Australian RDI. Comparisons between competition and training demonstrated that carbohydrate (g and g/kg body weight) and confectionary (g) intakes were significantly higher (p nutritional habits while traveling, which was compounded by a lack of knowledge of nutritional practices.

  11. CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WHO TRAIN SPORTS SWIMMING AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION (IN ANNUAL TRAINING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eider Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This is an empirical article aiming at defining the changes of motor fitness in children practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Proper selection of candidates to practice certain sports is a very complex process. One needs to select from the very large population of children, girls and boys, characterized by certain features, including somatic and motor features, which developed in a longstanding process of training, will lead them to become champions. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to define the changes of motor fitness in girls’ practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Material and Methods: The subjects to the research were 85 girls aged 7 (1st year of primary school, including 36 girls in swimming group and 49 girls in control group. 36 of them belonged to swimmers’ group- all girls were members of the Municipal Swimming Club in Szczecin. Control group consisted of 49 girls, who attended the same elementary schools. The examinations were carried out twice in the 2009-2010 academic year. The most reliable and accurate indirect test- EUROFIT Test Battery-was used. Results : The research revealed changes in both groups (Sw, C in terms of all eight tests. Examination II proved statistically significant improvement of results in both groups (Sw, C in comparison to Examination I. The dynamics of changes in general balance, flexibility, static force, functional force, running agility, was bigger in the girls who practiced swimming. As the speed of movement of upper limb, explosive force and thorax force are concerned; the differences of results in both examinations were similar in both groups (swimming group and control group. Progressive changes in motor fitness of the examined groups are a positive phenomenon in the development of child’s young organism. Conclusions: Swimming training significantly affected the dynamics of

  12. [Injury risk of competitive, handicapped cross-country skiers in training nd competition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Hüring, H; Huber, G; Gösele, A; Hecker-Kube, H; Gruhn, O; Stinus, H; Birnesser, H; Keul, J

    1998-03-01

    Injuries caused by cross country skiing have been poorly investigated in handicapped athletes. The dynamic sliding shape of motion makes this sport to a suitable discipline for people with a deficit of locomotion. Visual handicapped people with a guide are able to improve their motoric skills, co-ordination, orientation and body self-consciousness in the track. Since handicapped athletes are performing in international competitions the training intensity to fulfill the requirements, but also the risk of overstrain induced injuries got increased, like in other high-performance sports. Our study examined injuries and overuse syndromes of the German National Team Ski Nordic during the Paralympics in Tignes/ Albertville (1992). Lillehammer (1994) and the training period in preparation for the Paralympics in Nagano (March 1998). The incidence and kind of injuries in the competitive handicapped cross country skier was comparable with non-handicapped athletes, but the injury pattern was different.

  13. Training of academic writing: improving competitiveness of Czech universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education across Europe” has reached its final phase. We have collected lots of data reflecting facts and opinions about plagiarism and related areas. Training of academic writing is one of important means for plagiarism prevention.The paper compares levels of training of academic writing between the Czech republic and the rest of Europe. The answers in a questionnaire survey dealing with plagiarism and training of academic writing will be compared and analysed. According to these answers, best practices in European higher education institutions will be identified, and gaps in the Czech institutions will be described. Removing gaps than poses a step to improve the competitiveness of the Czech higher education institutions.

  14. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week).

  15. Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.

  16. Analysis of the world swimming competitive situation from 14th FINA World Championship%从第14届游泳世锦赛解析世界泳坛竞争格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满晓霞; 钟炼; 耿涛

    2011-01-01

    With the methods of documentation, expert interview, video observation and mathematical statistics, it analysed the results of the 14th FINA World Championships. The results showed that the gold medals have distributed in more countries such as Asian and European nowadays except the US swimmers, this made the situation more competitive. The old world swimming pattern has been broken and replaced by a new one: the United States and Australia were two leading swimming countries, but now, only the U.S. still maintained the leading position; the European countries are rising rapidly; the Asian swimming situation is unsteady. Due to the banned use of high - tech swimwear, the frequency of breaking the world record reduced. The Chinese swimming has made a greater progress and the men' s team had some breakthrough. The authors suggested that during the preparation for London Olympic Games, the Chinese swimming team should keep an eye on Britain and France and other European countries as well as the United States, and also consider the reasons why the Australian swimming performance decline, so as to explore a new training mode, which suits the Chinese swimmers the most.%通过文献资料、专家访谈、录像观察及数理统计等方法对2011年第14届上海游泳世锦赛成绩进行对比分析,管窥当前世界泳坛竞争格局。结果表明:金牌分布更为广泛,美国金牌被亚欧分流,泳坛竞争更加激烈;美国与澳大利亚两强争霸的世界泳坛格局已经消失,取而代之的是美国霸主地位稳固,欧洲诸强迅速崛起,亚洲泳坛动荡的新格局。高科技泳衣禁用后,世界纪录刷新速度放缓;中国游泳进步较大,男队成绩有所突破。明年伦敦奥运会,中国游泳除了关注传统强队美国之外,英国和法国等欧洲国家也需要格外注意。

  17. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  18. Serum creatine kinase and CK-MB isoenzyme responses to acute and prolonged swimming in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symanski, J D; McMurray, R G; Silverman, L M; Smith, B W; Siegel, A J

    1983-04-01

    Six highly-trained male swimmers completed a maximum work capacity tethered swim and a 1-h continuous tethered swim at approximately 70% VO2max in order to evaluate total serum creatine kinase and CK-MB isoenzyme changes. Venous blood obtained before, 5 min post-, 6 h post-, and 24 h post-exercise was analyzed for total serum CK (kinetic UV method, normal = less than 100 U/l) and CK-MB isoenzyme (quantitative electrophoretic technique, normal = less than 5 U/l). VO2max averaged 4.59 +/- 0.28 l/min, with a mean total work time of 24.5 min to achieve maximum capacity. Mean resting total CK was 100.5 +/- 15.8 U/l. Compared to rest, neither swim bout produced a significant (p greater than 0.05) elevation in mean total creatine kinase. No CK-MB isoenzyme was observed in any post-exercise blood sample. Swimming, performed by highly-trained swimmers at high levels of intensity or for prolonged durations, may not impose sufficient degrees of trauma producing muscular stress. Therefore, the structural integrity of the cell membrane is maintained and the loss of intracellular creatine kinase to the bloodstream prevented.

  19. Effects of exercise training and coronary ablation on swimming performance, heart size, and cardiac enzymes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FARRELL, AP; JOHANSEN, JA; STEFFENSEN, JF

    1990-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exercise trained for 28-52 days. Trained fish were 13% larger and swam 12% faster in an aerobic swimming test. Training induced cardiac growth that was isometric with body growth, since ventricle mass relative to body mass was constant. The proportions...... a temporary interruption of coronary flow to the compact myocardium because new vessels grew around the ligation site in the majority of fish during the 28- to 52-day experiment. Nonetheless, coronary ligation resulted in a significantly smaller (17%) proportion of compact myocardium with lower levels...

  20. Physiological Alterations Observed in Young Competitive Swimmers During Three Years of Intensive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauner, Christian W.; Benson, Norma Y.

    This investigation sought to determine whether the excellent performer evolves from typical material through training or if he brings facilitating characteristics with him to practice on the first day. Subjects were highly successful AAU age-group competitors who had invested at least 50 percent of their lives in swim training. These seven female…

  1. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

    2012-09-01

    Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force

  2. Case Study: Competition Nutrition Intakes During the Open Water Swimming Grand Prix Races in Elite Female Swimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumstát, Michal; Rybárová, Silvie; Thomas, Andy; Novotný, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The nutritional intake of elite open water swimmers during competition is not well established, and therefore this case study aims to provide new insights by describing the feeding strategies adopted by an elite female swimmer (28 yrs; height; 1.71 m; body mass: 60 kg; body fat: 16.0%) in the FINA open water Grand Prix 2014.Seven events of varying distances (15-88 km) and durations (3-12 hrs) were included. In all events, except one, feeds were provided from support boats. Swimmer and support staff were instructed to track in detail all foods and beverages consumed during the events. Nutritional information was gathered from the packaging and dietary supplements labels and analyzed by nutrition software. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) and protein intake reached 83 ± 5 g·h-1 and 12 ± 8 g·h-1, respectively. Fat intake was neglected (~1 g·h-1). Mean in-race energy intake reached 394 ± 26 kcal·h-1. Dietary supplements in the form of sport beverages and gels, containing multitransportable CHO, provided 40 ± 4 and 49 ± 6% of all CHO energy, respectively. Caffeine (3.6 ± 1.8 mg·kg-1 per event) and sodium (423 ± 16 mg·h-1) were additionally supplemented in all events. It was established that continuous intake of high doses of CHO and sodium and moderate dose of caffeine were an essential part of the feeding strategy for elite-level high intensity ultra-endurance open-water swimming races. A well scheduled and well-prepared nutrition strategy is believed to have ensured optimal individual performance during Grand Prix events.

  3. Effect of swimming training on neural microcirculation in rats with sciatic nerve compression A study based on laser Doppler flowmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Gao; Xinglin Wang; Senyang Lang; Lining Zhang; Wei Suo; Tianyu Jiang; Jingping Fan

    2010-01-01

    Microcirculation of the peripheral nerve is necessary for neural growth and regeneration.However,technical limitations have limited studies in this area.The few studies conducted have concerned active exercise effects on microcirculation of the peripheral nerve.Using an animal experiment,this study evaluated the effect of swimming training on microcirculation of injured peripheral nerve by laser Doppler flowmetry.The results showed that the blood vessel at the distal end of the peripheral nerve was the main blood supply for the nerve,and the internal blood supply for the nerve had strong compensatory ability.Swimming training promoted the functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve injury and the regeneration of myelin sheath and blood vessels,but had no impact on neural blood flow.

  4. Competitive Ability in 14th World Swimming Championship%第14届游泳世锦赛竞技实力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡治东; 周小林; 郭西魁

    2012-01-01

    With the research methods of literature study,statistics analysis and comparative analysis,the paper analyses the competition results of the 14th world swimming championship and the medal distribution in America and compares with the former two world championships.The U.S.is still the most powerful in the swimming competition and Brazil performs well in the championships while Australia is not as good as before.The Europe is strong in the women freestyle swimming.China is strong and plays the leading role in Asia.%运用数理统计法、比较分析法等,对第14届世界游泳锦标赛的成绩及奖牌洲际分布进行分析,并与前两届世锦赛进行比较。结果表明:奖牌洲际分布不均,美洲板块实力强大,夺金项群分布广泛,美国霸主地位难以撼动,新贵巴西表现抢眼;澳大利亚表现仍不佳,美澳争霸彻底瓦解;欧洲板块整体实力雄厚,女子自由泳项群较突出;中国队表现出色,带领亚洲板块强势崛起。

  5. Effects of Short-Interval and Long-Interval Swimming Protocols on Performance, Aerobic Adaptations, and Technical Parameters: A Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Zafeiridis, Andreas S; Toubekis, Argyris G; Tsalis, George A; Pelarigo, Jailton G; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spiridon

    2016-10-01

    Dalamitros, AA, Zafeiridis, AS, Toubekis, AG, Tsalis, GA, Pelarigo, JG, Manou, V, and Kellis, S. Effects of short-interval and long-interval swimming protocols on performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters: A training study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2871-2879, 2016-This study compared 2-interval swimming training programs of different work interval durations, matched for total distance and exercise intensity, on swimming performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters. Twenty-four former swimmers were equally divided to short-interval training group (INT50, 12-16 × 50 m with 15 seconds rest), long-interval training group (INT100, 6-8 × 100 m with 30 seconds rest), and a control group (CON). The 2 experimental groups followed the specified swimming training program for 8 weeks. Before and after training, swimming performance, technical parameters, and indices of aerobic adaptations were assessed. ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 improved swimming performance in 100 and 400-m tests and the maximal aerobic speed (p ≤ 0.05); the performance in the 50-m swim did not change. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values were higher compared with pretraining values in both training groups (p ≤ 0.05), whereas peak aerobic power output increased only in INT100 (p ≤ 0.05). The 1-minute heart rate and blood lactate recovery values decreased after training in both groups (p training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05); no changes were observed in stroke rate after training. Comparisons between groups on posttraining mean values, after adjusting for pretraining values, revealed no significant differences between ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 for all variables; however, all measures were improved vs. the respective values in the CON (p training.

  6. Analysis of the Wrong Ideas in Swimming Technique and Training%游泳技术与训练中的错误观念分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐荣建

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and analyzes the common errors in the technology and training of swimming, and puts forward the measures to improve the training of swimming skills.%本文就游泳技术与训练中普遍存在的错误观念进行探讨与分析,并提出提高游泳技术训练的措施。

  7. The influence of swimming type on the skin-temperature maps of a competitive swimmer from infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaïdi, H; Taïar, R; Fohanno, S; Polidori, G

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the usability of infrared thermography in swimming for the purpose of quantifying the influence of the swimming style on the cartographies of cutaneous temperatures of a swimmer. Only one subject took part in the experimental protocol, who was to accomplish a 4 x 100 m 4 medley. Thermal acquisitions followed by one period of recovery with return to thermal balance were carried out between particular strokes. IR thermography made it possible to discuss the influence of the swimming style on the distributions of cutaneous temperatures in various body zones. This process seems to be completely adaptable to the development of future statistical studies.

  8. The Effects of Two-Week Swimming Training on Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury and the Expression of GAD65 in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Farzad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Unknown mechanisms are involved in neuropathic pain. Among the non-pharmacological treatments, it seems that physical activity improves neuropathic pain. However, the possible reasons for the effectiveness of regular physical activity on neuropathic pain are unknown. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of two-week swimming training on the expression of GAD65 enzyme and P2X3 receptor in Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve. Materials & Methods: 40Wistar adult rats were divided into five groups randomly: 1 CCI neuropathic pain with swimming training (CCIST2; 2 CCI neuropathic pain without swimming training (CCI; 3 No CCI neuropathic pain with swimming training (ST2; No CCI neuropathic pain without swimming training (control group; 5 CCI sham surgery (Sham CCI. CCI and CCIST2 groups underwent peripheral nerve injury by four loose ligatures around sciatic nerve. Swimming program included two weeks with five sessions per week, and 30-60 min per session. The protein expressions of GAD65 enzyme and P2X3 receptor were evaluated by western blotting technique. Results: CCI surgery decreased the expression of GAD65, but two weeks swimming training increased expression of GAD65 comparing to CCI and Sham CCI groups (P≤0.001, but P2X3 receptor expression were not significantly different among groups in lumbar segment of rats (P>0.05. Conclusion: Totally, our findings showed that two-week swimming training improves neuropathic pain possibly through maintenance of inhibitory neurons and subsequently increased GAD65, which converts glutamate excitatory neurotransmitter to GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter.

  9. Teaching Swimming Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Jean G.

    A step-by-step sequential plan is offered for developing a successful competitive swimming season, including how to teach swimming strokes and organize practices. Various strokes are analyzed, and coaching check points are offered along with practice drills, helpful hints on proper body positioning, arm strokes, kicking patterns, breathing…

  10. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravana, Cristina; Medica, P.; Ragonese, G.; Fazio, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA) showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001), only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023), with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001). The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between post-competition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024) with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training. Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise program

  11. Swim-Training Changes the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Skeletogenesis in Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, A.W.; Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Gort, G.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Kranenbarg, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical

  12. Swim-training changes the spatio-temporal dynamics of skeletogenesis in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, A.W.; Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Gort, G.; Schulte-Merker, S.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Kranenbarg, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical

  13. Analysis on the Current Situation of Juvenile Swimming Athletes Training in Bijie%毕节市青少年游泳运动员训练现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭月娟

    2016-01-01

    参加贵州省2015年第九届运动会游泳比赛的40名青少年运动员取得了较好的成绩,但是,通过对他们初始训练年龄、训练时间、训练强度等现状进行分析,发现毕节市青少年游泳运动还存在训练场馆缺乏、运动员来源有限、青少年游泳教练员缺少、忽视身体全面训练等问题,只有有针对性地解决了这些问题,毕节市青少年游泳才能取得更大成就。%In Bijie sports school swimming team, 40 players obtained good achievements in the ninth games swimming competition (Youth Group) in young athletes of Guizhou province. According to junior swim⁃mer initial training age, training time, training intensity, status analysis, put strengthening suggested training venue construction, expand the selection of athletes, strengthen the training of coaches, we would get greater achievements.

  14. Effects of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling and swim exercise on post-exertional blood pressure in healthy young untrained and triathlon-trained men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (Pswimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (Pswimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (Pswimming.

  15. Construction training process of highly skilled players in mini-football for competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiuk I.I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the structure and content of the competition period in mini-football. It was determined that the structure of the competition period consists of 4 competitive mesocycles. In each mesocycle includes various types of micro-cycles (competitive, cross-game and rehabilitation. Reflects the ratio of specific and non-specific (general preparations means training work. So in the competitive period for competitive mesocycles general preparations exercises ranged from 38.3 to 42.4%, special-preparation - from 29.9 to 32.6%, competitive - from 20.9 to 23.3%. The intensity of the training load in intergame microcycles less than competitive. This corresponds to the strategy of building the training process in the competitive period. During the competition period the ratio of the training load was: aerobic focus - 49.2%, mixed - 46.1%, anaerobic alactate - 2.4%, anaerobic glycolytic - 2.3%. Defines the scope and focus of the training load: longer the aerobic work, then - mixed, anaerobic- alactate and anaerobic-glycolytic. The comparative characteristics of the intensity of the training load in competitive and intergame microcycles.

  16. Effect of physical training on metabolic responses of pregnant rats submitted to swimming under thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alexis Lazo-Osorio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pre-pregnancy physical training on metabolic responses and its effects on offspring.
    • METHODS: Three groups of rats (n = 7 in each group: sedentary pregnant rats (PS, exercised during  regnancy (PE and pregnant rats trained before and during pregnancy (PT were compared. They were separated  nto three subgroups regarding water temperature: 28°C, 35°C or 39°C. Plasma triglycerides and glucose levels,  eight gain during pregnancy and rectal temperature pre and post exercise (swim, as well as the offspring size and weight were analysed.
    • RESULTS: Rectal temperature post exercise was lower than pre exercise at 28°C and 35°C, and higher at 39°C.  eight gain was lower at 39°C for the PT group and at 35°C for the PT and PE groups compared to the PS group. Plasma glucose, at 28°C and 39°C for PS and PE groups, was higher than those obtained at 35°C, while triglycerides  ere lower. For trained rats, plasma glucose and triglycerides were similar at all water temperatures.  rained rats presented lower triglyceride values at 35°C, and higher triglyceride values at 39°C compared to PS  roup. Glucose presented inverse results. None of the groups presented fetal reabsorption. However, in the PS group, the offspring presented lower weight gain at 28

    • Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Cristina Cravana

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing and Group B (not competing. To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and postcompetition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001, only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023, with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001. The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between postcompetition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024 with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training. Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise

    • Competition and alliances in fuel cell power train development

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Schlecht, L. [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research Centre

      2003-07-01

      For the realisation of the effective application and cost effectiveness of fuel cell power trains, and competitiveness with the current internal combustion engine technology, it will be necessary to either: (a) produce a large number of vehicles, (b) reduce the production costs by permanent production optimisation, or (c) introduce new materials. Learning curves, which have been derived from empirical data of past energy technologies, are initially used to provide a cost prognosis for the market launch of fuel cell power trains. Drawing on game theory the paper then describes a basic model which addresses the issue of the optimal strategy of the automotive industry, in either a monopoly or oligopoly structure. When this model's outputs are combined with the anticipated rate of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), learning curves and network effects, from the first section of the paper we can see that if the successful market launch of FCVs is desired, an alliance structure within the automotive industry is the optimal path. (author)

    • CYCLING EFFICIENCY IN TRAINED MALE AND FEMALE COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      James Hopker

      2010-06-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine differences in cycling efficiency between competitive male and female cyclists. Thirteen trained male (mean ± SD: 34 ± 8 yr, 74.1 ± 6.0 kg, Maximum Aerobic Power (MAP 414 ± 40 W, VO2max 61.3 ± 5.4 ml·kg-1·min-1 and 13 trained female (34 ± 9 yr, 60.1 ± 5.2 kg, MAP 293 ± 22 W, VO2max 48.9 ± 6.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 competitive cyclists completed a cycling test to ascertain their gross efficiency (GE. Leg and lean leg volume of all cyclists was also measured. Calculated GE was significantly higher in female cyclists at 150W (22.5 ± 2.1 vs 19.9 ± 1. 8%; p < 0.01 and 180W (22.3 ± 1.8 vs 20.4 ± 1.5%; p = 0.01. Cadence was not significantly different between the groups (88 ± 6 vs 91 ± 5 rev·min-1. Lean leg volume was significantly lower for female cyclists (4.04 ± 0.5 vs 5.51 ± 0.8 dm3; p < 0.01 and was inversely related to GE in both groups at 150 and 180W (r = -0.59 and -0.58; p < 0.05. Lean leg volume was shown to account for the differences in GE between the males and females. During an "unloaded" pedalling condition, male cyclists had a significantly higher O2 cost than female cyclists (1.0 ± 0.1 vs 0.7 ± 0.1 L·min-1; p < 0.01, indicative of a greater non-propulsive cost of cycling. These results suggest that differences in efficiency between trained male and female cyclists can be partly accounted for by sex-specific variation in lean leg volume

    • Swimming and the heart.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lazar, Jason M; Khanna, Neel; Chesler, Roseann; Salciccioli, Louis

      2013-09-20

      Exercise training is accepted to be beneficial in lowering morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiac disease. Swimming is a popular recreational activity, gaining recognition as an effective option in maintaining and improving cardiovascular fitness. Swimming is a unique form of exercise, differing from land-based exercises such as running in many aspects including medium, position, breathing pattern, and the muscle groups used. Water immersion places compressive forces on the body with resulting physiologic effects. We reviewed the physiologic effects and cardiovascular responses to swimming, the cardiac adaptations to swim training, swimming as a cardiac disease risk factor modifier, and the effects of swimming in those with cardiac disease conditions such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and the long-QT syndrome.

  1. Peculiarities of perfection of training process of the qualified bodybuilder in the competitive period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhym V.Yu.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study methods of improving the training process of skilled bodybuilders in the competitive period. Material : The study involved 18 athletes aged 18-25 years old. The experiment was conducted for 8 weeks. Used two variants of training techniques: large percentage weights; with smooth dynamics with emphasis on static load muscles. Efficacy was evaluated using the preparation method of expert evaluations. The method involved the use of information on the implementation of directives coach dynamics of power and endurance performance, subjective indicators (health, mood, desire to train. Results : comparative characteristic of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and justified best practices, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the competition period of training. Shows the dependence of changes in body weight of the athlete training. Conclusions : the proposed best practices, depending on the microcycle training in the competitive period (precompetitive and competitive mesocycles.

  2. Achievement motivation across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Training and competition are two important contexts within the sport domain. In this study, we examined: (a) consistency and differences in goal orientations across the training and competition contexts and whether these are moderated by sport type; and (b) whether goal orientations predict effort,

  3. Achievement motivation across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Training and competition are two important contexts within the sport domain. In this study, we examined: (a) consistency and differences in goal orientations across the training and competition contexts and whether these are moderated by sport type; and (b) whether goal orientations predict effort,

  4. Recognition of modified conditioning sounds by competitively trained guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayuki eOjima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The guinea pig (GP is an often-used species in hearing research. However, behavioral studies are rare, especially in the context of sound recognition, because of difficulties in training these animals. We examined sound recognition in a social competitive setting in order to examine whether this setting could be used as an easy model. Two starved GPs were placed in the same training arena and compelled to compete for food after hearing a conditioning sound (CS, which was a repeat of almost identical sound segments. Through a two-week intensive training, animals were trained to demonstrate a set of distinct behaviors solely to the CS. Then, each of them was subjected to generalization tests for recognition of sounds that had been modified from the CS in spectral, fine temporal and tempo (i.e., intersegment interval, ISI dimensions. Results showed that they discriminated between the CS and band-rejected test sounds but had no preference for a particular frequency range for the recognition. In contrast, sounds modified in the fine temporal domain were largely perceived to be in the same category as the CS, except for the test sound generated by fully reversing the CS in time. Animals also discriminated sounds played at different tempos. Test sounds with ISIs shorter than that of the multi-segment CS were discriminated from the CS, while test sounds with ISIs longer than that of the CS segments were not. For the shorter ISIs, most animals initiated apparently positive food-access behavior as they did in response to the CS, but discontinued it during the sound-on period probably because of later recognition of tempo. Interestingly, the population range and mean of the delay time before animals initiated the food-access behavior were very similar among different ISI test sounds. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a wide aspect of sound discrimination abilities of the GP and will provide a way to examine tempo perception mechanisms using this

  5. Swimming training down-regulates plasma leptin levels, but not adipose tissue ob mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, F B; Polacow, V O; Ribeiro, S M L; Gualano, B; Coelho, D F; Rogeri, P S; Costa, A S; Lancha Junior, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of endurance training on leptin levels and adipose tissue gene expression and their association with insulin, body composition and energy intake. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: trained (N = 18) and sedentary controls (N = 20). The trained group underwent swimming training for 9 weeks. Leptin and insulin levels, adiposity and leptin gene expression in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined after training. There were no differences in energy intake between groups. Trained rats had a decreased final body weight (-10%), relative and total body fat (-36 and -55%, respectively) and insulin levels (-55%) compared with controls (P leptin levels (2.58 +/- 1.05 vs 5.89 +/- 2.89 ng/mL in control; P leptin gene expression in either fat depot was demonstrable between groups. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that lower leptin levels in trained rats were due primarily to their lower body fat mass. After adjustment for total body fat, leptin levels were still 20% (P leptin gene expression, but did lead to a decrease in leptin levels that was independent of changes in body fat.

  6. Factors determining swimming efficiency observed in less skilled swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucia-Czyszczoń, Katarzyna; Dybińska, Ewa; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Chwała, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of performance in professional sport requires a systematic improvement of the training process. Such activities should also include optimizing the children and youth training in these disciplines, where an early specialization operates. The main aim of this paper was to search for the relationship between swimmer's segmental kinematics (segmental velocities, stroke rate, stroke length, stroke index); the relationship between swimmer's technical skill level (in four competitive swimming techniques) and training overloads taking into consideration gender and age effect. The study group consisted of 121 swimmers (69 female and 52 male), of the Polish 12-15 age group swim team, volunteered to serve as subjects. Video-based methods and video equipment are being applied to assist qualitative and simple quantitative analysis for immediate feedback and research in swimming. Both technical skill level preparation and segmental kinematics of 12-15 year old swimmers proved to be highly conditioned by implemented training intensity (p swimming efficiency, presented segmental kinematics and technical skill level, however, there appeared particularly pronounced relationship with the size of kinematic parameters taken into account in four competitive swimming techniques, components of the 100 m individual medley.

  7. Influence of pre-school swimming on level of swimming abilities of early schol age children

    OpenAIRE

    Velová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on children swimming from their birth to early school age. The pivotal part of the paper is the comparison of swimming abilities between primary school children who have passed pre-school swimming training and those who have had no training at all. Theoretical framework of the paper is then focused on general swimming theory, characteristics of children's evolutionary stages within the context of swimming and definition of basic swimming skills.

  8. Swim-Training Changes the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Skeletogenesis in Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, A.W.; Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Gort, G.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Kranenbarg, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical l

  9. Swim-training changes the spatio-temporal dynamics of skeletogenesis in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, A.W.; Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Gort, G.; Schulte-Merker, S.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Kranenbarg, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical l

  10. Changes in Respiratory Parameters and Fin-Swimming Performance Following a 16-Week Training Period with Intermittent Breath Holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Vasileios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training with intermittent breath holding (IBH on respiratory parameters, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 and performance. Twenty-eight fin-swimming athletes were randomly divided into two groups and followed the same training for 16 weeks. About 40% of the distance of each session was performed with self-selected breathing frequency (SBF group or IBH (IBH group. Performance time of 50 and 400 m at maximum intensity was recorded and forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF and SpO2 were measured before and after the 50 m test at baseline and post-training. Posttraining, the respiratory parameters were increased in the IBH but remained unchanged in the SBF group (FEV1: 17 ±15% vs. -1 ±11%; FVC: 22 ±13% vs. 1 ±10%; PEF: 9 ±14% vs. -4 ±15%; p<0.05. Pre compared to post-training SpO2 was unchanged at baseline and decreased post-training following the 50 m test in both groups (p<0.05. The reduction was higher in the IBH compared to the SBF group (p<0.05. Performance in the 50 and 400 m tests improved in both groups, however, the improvement was greater in the IBH compared to the SBF group in both 50 and 400 m tests (p<0.05. The use of IBH is likely to enhance the load on the respiratory muscles, thus, contributing to improvement of the respiratory parameters. Decreased SpO2 after IBH is likely due to adaptation to hypoventilation. IBH favours performance improvement at 50 and 400 m fin-swimming.

  11. Relationship between Muscle Strength and Front Crawl Swimming Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gola Radosław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. competitive performance in swimming depends on a number of factors including, among others, the development of relevant muscle groups. The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity and the role of individual muscle groups in front crawl swimming. Methods. sixteen physical education university students participated in the study. The strength values, defined as torque produced during isometric contractions, of eight upper and lower extremity muscle groups were measured. Data were compared with participants' front crawl swim times in the 25m and 50m distances. Results. correlation analysis demonstrated a relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity. statistically significant relationships were observed between swimming velocity and the torque values of the elbow flexor and shoulder extensor muscles as well as the sum of upper extremity muscle torque values (p ⋋ 0.05. Conclusions. The results indicate the need for a focus on training those muscle groups identified as having a statistically significant relationship with swimming velocity for a given distance, as the sample showed deficiencies in the strength of those muscle groups responsible for generating propulsive force in the front crawl. Additionally, the collected data can serve as a diagnostic tool in evaluating the development of muscle groups critical for swimming performance.

  12. Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.

  13. Heart rate variability and swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Jarczok, Marc N; Wasner, Mieke; Hillecke, Thomas K; Thayer, Julian F

    2014-10-01

    Professionals in the domain of swimming have a strong interest in implementing research methods in evaluating and improving training methods to maximize athletic performance and competitive outcome. Heart rate variability (HRV) has gained attention in research on sport and exercise to assess autonomic nervous system activity underlying physical activity and sports performance. Studies on swimming and HRV are rare. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the application of HRV in swimming research and draws implications for future research. A systematic search of databases (PubMed via MEDLINE, PSYNDEX and Embase) according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (a) empirical investigation (HRV) in humans (non-clinical); (b) related to swimming; (c) peer-reviewed journal; and (d) English language. The search revealed 194 studies (duplicates removed), of which the abstract was screened for eligibility. Fourteen studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the review. Included studies broadly fell into three classes: (1) control group designs to investigate between-subject differences (i.e. swimmers vs. non-swimmers, swimmers vs. other athletes); (2) repeated measures designs on within-subject differences of interventional studies measuring HRV to address different modalities of training or recovery; and (3) other studies, on the agreement of HRV with other measures. The feasibility and possibilities of HRV within this particular field of application are well documented within the existing literature. Future studies, focusing on translational approaches that transfer current evidence in general practice (i.e. training of athletes) are needed.

  14. 自由游抬头在游泳训练中的应用%The Application of Freestyle Rise in Swimming Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2012-01-01

    自由游抬头在游泳教学过程中,常常处于被忽略地位,本文通过实证分析,阐述自由游抬头在游泳教学与训练中的应用,提高游泳教学与训练的效果。%Freestyle rise is often ignored in the progress of swimming teaching. This article, based on the empirical analysis, states the application of freestyle rise in the teaching and training, in the purpose of im- proving the swimming teaching and training effects.

  15. Zen and the Art of Swimming – Aesthetical Experience as a New Perspective for Training Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Gerda Martha Dahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in alternative movement concepts has been on the increase in recent years. Mindfulness is well known in sports psychology, and many sports have been promoted as ‘Zen sports’. The use of the phrase ‘Zen and the Art of ...’ has also become commonplace. People learning and teaching swimming techniques face unique challenges due to the special conditions that water provides. The approach based on looking at swimming as a Zen sport, or as an art in the sense of being a sensual aesthetic experience, and an aesthetic learning process, can provide new teaching and learning opportunities. Gadamer’s, Dewey’s, and Johnson’s philosophical concepts combined with approaches of embodiment theories and theories of aesthetic learning processes (Storch, Stelter, Gallagher have been brought together with the basic elements from Zen and supplemented and exemplified with practical examples.

  16. Does a land-based compensatory strength-training programme influences the rotator cuff balance of young competitive swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Nuno; Raimundo, Armando; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Paulo, João; Simão, Roberto; Silva, António J

    2015-01-01

    During the repeated execution of the swimming strokes, the shoulder adductor and internal rotator muscles have a tendency to become proportionally stronger when compared to their antagonist group. This can lead to muscle imbalances. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a compensatory training programme on the strength and balance of shoulder rotator muscles in young swimmers. A randomized controlled trial design was used. Forty male swimmers took part in the study and were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a training group (n = 20). A control group (n = 16) of young sedentary male students was also evaluated. The experimental group subjects participated in a 16-week shoulder-strength programme with Thera-Band® elastic bands; the training group was restricted to aquatic training. Peak torque of shoulder internal rotator and external rotator (ER) was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. Concentric action at 1.04 rad s(-1) (3 reps) and 3.14 rad s(-1) (20 reps) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The strength-training programme led to an improvement of the ER strength and shoulder rotator balance in the experimental group (data from both shoulders at 1.04 rad s(-1)). Moreover, concentric action at 3.14 rad s(-1) presented significant differences only for the dominant shoulder. Findings suggest that the prescribed shoulder-strengthening exercises could be a useful training option for young competitive swimmers. They can produce an increase in absolute strength values and greater muscle balance in shoulder rotators.

  17. Nutrition for swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Boyd, Kevin T; Burke, Louise M; Koivisto, Anu

    2014-08-01

    Swimming is a sport that requires considerable training commitment to reach individual performance goals. Nutrition requirements are specific to the macrocycle, microcycle, and individual session. Swimmers should ensure suitable energy availability to support training while maintaining long term health. Carbohydrate intake, both over the day and in relation to a workout, should be manipulated (3-10 g/kg of body mass/day) according to the fuel demands of training and the varying importance of undertaking these sessions with high carbohydrate availability. Swimmers should aim to consume 0.3 g of high-biological-value protein per kilogram of body mass immediately after key sessions and at regular intervals throughout the day to promote tissue adaptation. A mixed diet consisting of a variety of nutrient-dense food choices should be sufficient to meet the micronutrient requirements of most swimmers. Specific dietary supplements may prove beneficial to swimmers in unique situations, but should be tried only with the support of trained professionals. All swimmers, particularly adolescent and youth swimmers, are encouraged to focus on a well-planned diet to maximize training performance, which ensures sufficient energy availability especially during periods of growth and development. Swimmers are encouraged to avoid rapid weight fluctuations; rather, optimal body composition should be achieved over longer periods by modest dietary modifications that improve their food choices. During periods of reduced energy expenditure (taper, injury, off season) swimmers are encouraged to match energy intake to requirement. Swimmers undertaking demanding competition programs should ensure suitable recovery practices are used to maintain adequate glycogen stores over the entirety of the competition period.

  18. 花样游泳项目专项体能训练方法的研究%Research Swimming on Special Physical Fitness Training Methods of Synchronized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 何跃进; 何一帆

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the first line of synchronized swimming athletes as the main research objects. It uses literature method, questionnaire survey method and expert interviews method, and also collected three stages of synchronized swimming physical training methods and data from 2004 , 2008, 2012 until today. Comparing with the special physical fitness training method of traditional synchronized swimming with world first-class level countries, it found that there is a big gap in the core strength training and special ability training of Chinese synchronized swimming special physical training methods and world first-class level countries training methods. This paper provides reference for national synchronized swimming physical training.%以我国一线花样游泳运动员为研究对象,采用文献法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法、实地调研等方法,收集2004、2008、2012至今3个阶段的花样游泳体能训练方法资料数据,将中国传统的花样游泳专项体能训练方法与世界一流水平国家的训练方法进行对比。发现中国花样游泳专项体能训练方法与世界一流水平国家的训练方法在核心力量训练和在专项能力训练上还存在很大差距,为国家花样游泳体能训练提供参考。

  19. Profile simulation of highly-skilled sportswomen specializing in front crawl swimming stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Александровна Пилипко

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues associated with structure modeling of competitive activity and the specific training of highly-skilled sportswomen, specializing  in  front crawl swimming stroke at distances of different lengths, psychophysiological, functional and technical - tactical characteristics of sportswomen of different distance specializations are studied, identified factors affecting the effective distance cover of different length in front crawl swimming stroke are determined and their model specifications are developed.

  20. The Effect of Training on the Relationships among Velocity, Stroke Rate and Distance per Stroke in Untrained Subjects Swimming the Breaststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru

    1982-01-01

    The velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke of l68 male high school students in Japan were studied before and after they received training in the breaststroke. The increase in their swimming velocity resulted from an increase in the distance covered per stroke, not from a faster stroke rate. (Author/PP)

  1. Salivary hormones response to preparation and pre-competitive training of world-class level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël eGuilhem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A, chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while immunoglobulin A (+61% and creatine kinase activity (+43% increased, and chromogranin A decreased (-27% during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15% and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05. None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training.

  2. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  3. Effect of sustained training on glycolysis and fatty acids oxidation in swimming muscles and liver in juvenile tinfoil barb Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Bleeker, 1854).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiming; Song, Bolan; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng

    2016-12-01

    The present study examines the effect of sustained exercise on glycolysis and fatty acids oxidation in the swimming muscles and liver in juvenile tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii). The subjects were divided into one control group (water current speed of 0.0 bl s(-1), body length per second) and two training groups (1.0 and 2.0 bl s(-1)), respectively. Results showed that the glycolysis was stimulated by high-speed training in the white muscle, accompanied by significantly increased activities of hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and reduction in glycogen contents in training groups (P fatty acids oxidation was observed in the red muscle in high-speed training group, showed significant reduction in crude lipid content with a significant increase in the activities of hormone-sensitive lipase, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and cytochrome C oxidase in 2.0 bl s(-1) group (P fatty acids in the red muscle and monounsaturated fatty acids in the white muscle were used preferentially during sustained training, respectively. Furthermore, the glycogen content within the liver was also significantly reduced with increasing training intensities (P fatty acids were all used as a fuel to support sustained swimming in two functional muscles in B. schwanenfeldii, but higher glycolysis and fatty acids oxidation were seen in white and red muscles during high-speed swimming, respectively. Furthermore, the hepatic glycogen played an important role in the supply of energy in sustained training periods in B. schwanenfeldii.

  4. La habilidad física percibida en la natación de competición Perceived physical ability in competitive swimming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salguero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se ha utilizado la Escala de Habilidad percibida de Ryckman y cols. (1982 para la valoración de las percepciones individuales de su propia habilidad física en jóvenes nadadores de competición. La muestra estaba compuesta por 428 deportistas (204 nadadores y 224 nadadoras con una media de edad de 14 años pertenecientes a diferentes categorias competitivas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los varones puntuan más alto en habilidad física percibida general y global. La habilidad física percibida específica se reduce de forma progresiva desde la categoría alevín hasta la absoluta, evolucionando la habilidad general y la global de forma similar aunque menos acusada. Resultados semejantes muestra el análisis del nivel competitivo o de los años de experiencia. Se concluye que las escalas de habilidad física percibida, en especial aquélla que incluye items específicos sobre natación, revelan ser un buen instrumento para predecir el grado de habilidad real de los nadadores, siempre y cuando se esté examinando a deportistas de similar nivel y características, pero no así cuando se pretende establecer comparaciones entre grupos de distinta composición.

    PALABRAS CLAVE: Habilidad física percibida, natación, género, edad

    The Perceived Physical Ability Scale by Ryckman et al. (1982 has been used to measure individual perception of physical ability in young competitive swimmers. 428 swimmers of different competitive categories participated in this study. The group consisted of 204 males and 224 females with a mean age of 14 years. Results indicate that males rated higher in general and total perceived ability. To a lesser extent, general and total perceived ability decreased from younger to older swimmers. Similar results were obtained for competitive level or years of experience. It is concluded that physical perceived ability scales, mainly those including swimming

  5. The response of the lactate minimum test to a 12-week swimming training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Da Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Despite the utilization of lactate minimum test (LMT) in training, its intensity response to training remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to verify alterations of LMT intensity in swimmers during a 12-week training protocol. Eight swimmers were submitted to three LMT assessmen...

  6. Effects of 7-weeks competitive training period on physiological and mental condition of top level judoists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatachea, N; Hernández-García, R; Villaverde, C; González-Gallego, J; Torres-Luque, G

    2012-02-01

    We examined hormonal and haematological parameters and the profile of mood states (POMS) in top level judoists undertaking a 7-week competitive training period in a real contest. Participants were 10 top level judoists belonging to the Spanish National Team. Training load was calculated by multiplying the training session intensity by the duration of the training session. The judoists competed in two official events on weeks 3 and 6 of the study. Urinary catecholamines increased at the end of the competitive period. Serum cortisol increased during the weeks in which judoists competed, confirming the existence of and anticipatory cortisol response to exercise; although we failed to find serum testosterone increases. Because of leukocyte values did not change, except monocytes, we speculate that the intensity of training was not sufficiently high to evoke injury to muscle tissue. Anger, tension, and fatigue increased according with training load, suggesting that the training exercise led participants into a negative psychological state. Findings indicate that during competitive periods, judoists suffer hormonal and mood changes according to training load and competitive events. Results support the usefulness of monitoring biological and psychological markers during season in order to adjust training loads and periods of recovery.

  7. 优秀女子游泳运动员训练监控个案研究%The Case Study of Outstanding Female Swimming Athletes Training Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董光

    2012-01-01

    为了研究重点运动员训练及参赛期间自身规律,探讨总结其个性化特征,文章运用文献资料法、实验测试法、体能分配模式速度系数法及数理统计法对优秀女子游泳运动员备战全运会及参赛期间进行训练监控个案研究。得出主要结论:备战某次重大比赛阶段训练对机体施加负荷较合理,身体机能整体呈良性发展,其血红蛋白和血尿素随负荷变化在可控范围之内,机体肌酸激酶对刺激反应较敏感;有氧能力随训练逐步提高,但乳酸能系统参与度较低,建议在加强有氧训练基础上对乳酸能系统进行精炼,并加强营养和监控;在重大比赛时,800米自由泳途中游速度过于平稳,基本无明显加速特征,400米混合泳体能分配较合理。%In order to study the own rule of key athletes during the time of training and competitions,discussing and summarizing the individual characteristics,this article is just do case study through the training monitoring of excellent female swimmers,with the methods of literature,experimental test,physical distribution models speed coefficient method and mathematical statistics during the time of preparing for national games and participation.This study's mainly conclusion shows that training load on the body exerts more reasonable,the body function having better development,the changes of hemoglobin and blood urea with training load changes in the controllable scope,the body creatine kinase more sensitive to stimuli,aerobic capacity improving with training stimulation but lactic acid system having relatively lower participation.The study suggests to do the main traing to improve the capability of Lactic acid energy and strengthening nutrition and monitoring during the stage of preparing for major competitions.In major competitions,the 800-meter freestyle swim speed of these athletes are too smooth,basic without obvious acceleration feature,while 400-meter medley physical

  8. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All param

  9. Physiological responses to successive days of intense training in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; Costill, D L; Flynn, M G; Mitchell, J B; Fink, W J; Neufer, P D; Houmard, J A

    1988-06-01

    To examine the physiological responses to successive days of intense training, 12 male collegiate swimmers doubled their training distance (4,266 +/- 264 to 8,970 +/- 161 m.d-1) while maintaining the intensity at approximately 95% VO2max for 10 d. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise and immediately and 5 min after a sub-maximal (approximately 95% VO2max) front crawl swim (365.8 m) on days 0, 5, and 11. Swim performance was assessed from a maximal front crawl swim (365.8 m), two maximal front crawl sprints (22.9 m), and a semi-tethered swim power test. No significant changes were observed in performance. Pre-exercise serum cortisol (17.5 +/- 1.5, 19.5 +/- 1.6, and 20.6 +/- 1.2 micrograms.dl-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) and creatine kinase (56.2 +/- 7.7, 93.1 +/- 10.1, and 119.0 +/- 23.1 U.l-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) values were significantly elevated (P less than 0.05) on days 5 and 11 compared to day 0. Resting plasma catecholamine concentrations were higher but not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) at the end of the training period. Measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit indicated a relative increase of 11.4 +/- 2.7% (P less than 0.05) in estimated plasma volume during the training period. Resting blood glucose values were unaffected by the training regimen while small but significant decreases in resting blood lactate values (1.01 +/- 0.06, 0.85 +/- 0.06, and 0.86 +/- 0.06 mmol.l-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) were observed on days 5 and 11. Resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure were not affected by the increased training load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Hormonal responses to training and its tapering off in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, I; Chatard, J C; Padilla, S; Guezennec, C Y; Geyssant, A

    1996-01-01

    During a winter training season, the effects of 12 weeks of intense training and 4 weeks of tapering off (taper) on plasma hormone concentrations and competition performance were investigated in a group of highly trained swimmers (n = 8). Blood samples were collected and the swimmers performed their speciality in competition at weeks 10 (mid-season), 22 (pre-taper) and 26 (post-taper). No statistically significant changes were observed in the concentrations of total testosterone (TT), non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound-testosterone (NSBT), cortisol (C), luteinising hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine plasma catecholamines, creatine kinase and ammonia during training and taper. Mid-season NSBT: C ratio and the amount of training were statistically related (r = 0.82, P swimmers' performance capacities throughout the training season.

  11. Keeping Competitive: Hiring, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Scott

    The Center for Workforce Preparation (CWP), a nonprofit affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, initiated the Workforce Academies demonstration project to help businesses remain successful in a competitive, tight economy. More than 1,800 business members of the 6 chambers engaged with the Workforce Academies demonstration in 2001 were surveyed…

  12. Application of Serum CK and BUN Determination in Monitoring Pre-Competition Training of Badminton Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of serum creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in monitoring pre-competition training of badminton athletes, the pre-competition training load of 20 badminton athletes was studied, and serum CK and BUN were determined before, immediate and next morning after training. The results showed that after intensive training for one week, serum CK levels were significantly increased by 57.53 mmol/L (P<0.05). After regulation of the training intensity, average serum CK levels were increased by 21.79 mmol/L (P<0.05). BUN contents were increased by 0.83 mmol/L on average with the difference being not significant (P>0.05). After intermittent training, there was significant difference in the average increased levels of serum CK in athletes (P<0.05). There was significant difference before and after regulation of training (P<0.05). The increased levels of BUN were 0.78 mmol/L without significant difference (P>0.05). It was concluded that serum CK was one of the biochemical indicators monitoring the training load sensitivity of badminton athletes, but BUN was of little value in monitoring the training load. Both serum CK and BUN recovered slowly after one-week intensive training and intermittent training, suggesting the metabolic mechanism of human body in training needs further study.

  13. 太原市游泳培训市场状况的调研报告%In Taiyuan Swimming Training Market Condition Investigation Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文海; 孙民; 贾秋英

    2011-01-01

    By using the method of documentation,interviews,questionnaire method,as the main exploration methods in Taiyuan city,the YingZe area,WanBaiLin area,XiaoDian area,XingHuaLing area 13 home swimming pools,the swimming training institutions in Taiyuan city,and consumers swimming student,as the research object,the comprehensive understanding and analyzes the development of Taiyuan swimming training market situation.Results show that:the swimming training in Taiyuan city market in recent years to develop good,but there are still some problems affecting the Taiyuan swimming training market better development.Suggestion:government related departments to swim the benefits the nation and the project,giving support and attention.%采用文献资料法、访谈法为主要研究方法,以太原市的迎泽区、万柏林区、小店区、杏花岭区的13家游泳馆、太原市的游泳培训机构及游泳消费者作为研究对象,全面了解分析了太原市游泳培训市场的现状.结果表明:游泳场馆、培训机构和游泳消费者三个要素的结合初步形成了太原市游泳培训市场.太原市游泳培训市场近几年发展良好,但仍存在一些问题:1.管理手段、经营方式和经营理念的落后限制了游泳培训俱乐部的发展;2.在经营方式上只注重儿童培训,忽视成人消费群体的培训;3.在经营理念上大都只注重短期效应,在教学质量上没有严格的标准要求.建议提升经营理念,注重市场的长远发展.

  14. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  15. Swimming training repercussion on metabolic and structural bone development: benefits of the incorporation of whole body vibration or pilometric training; the RENACIMIENTO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gómez-Bruton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enviromental factors such as exercise participation and nutrition have often been linked to bone improvements. However, not all sports have the same effects, being non-osteogenic sports such as swimming defined as negative or neutral sports to practice regarding bone mass by some authors, similarly exercise-diet interaction in especific groups is still not clear. Objective: To present the methodology of the RENACIMENTO project that aims to evaluate body composition and more specifically bone mass by several techniques in adolescent swimmers and to observe the effects and perdurability of whole body vibration (WBV and jumping intervention (JIN on body composition and fitness on this population and explore posible diet interactions. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: 78 swimmers (12-17 y and 26 sex- and age-matched controls will participate in this study. Dual energy X-ray, peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography, Quantitative Ultrasound, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and anthropometry measurements will be performed in order to evaluate body composition. Physical activity, nutrition, pubertal development and socio-economical status may act as confounders of body composition and therefore will also be registered. Several fitness factors regarding strength, endurance, performance and others will also be registered to evaluate differences with controls and act as confounders. A 7-month WBV therapy will be performed by 26 swimmers consisting of a training of 15 minutes 3 times per week. An 8 month JIM will also be performed by 26 swimmers 3 times per week. The remaining 26 swimmers will continue their normal swimming training. Four evaluations will be performed, the first one in order to describe differences between swimmers and controls. The second one to describe the effects of the interventions and the third and fourth evaluations to describe the perdurability of the effects of the WBV and JIN. Conclusion: The

  16. Swimming training repercussion on metabolic and structural bone development; benefits of the incorporation of whole body vibration or pilometric training; the RENACIMIENTO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bruton, A; Gonzalez-Agüero, A; Casajus, J A; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2014-08-01

    Enviromental factors such as exercise participation and nutrition have often been linked to bone improvements. However, not all sports have the same effects, being non-osteogenic sports such as swimming defined as negative or neutral sports to practice regarding bone mass by some authors, similarly exercise-diet interaction in especific groups is still not clear. To present the methodology of the RENACIMENTO project that aims to evaluate body composition and more specifically bone mass by several techniques in adolescent swimmers and to observe the effects and perdurability of whole body vibration (WBV) and jumping intervention (JIN) on body composition and fitness on this population and explore posible diet interactions. Randomized controlled trial. 78 swimmers (12-17 y) and 26 sex- and age-matched controls will participate in this study. Dual energy X-ray, peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography, Quantitative Ultrasound, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and anthropometry measurements will be performed in order to evaluate body composition. Physical activity, nutrition, pubertal development and socio-economical status may act as confounders of body composition and therefore will also be registered. Several fitness factors regarding strength, endurance, performance and others will also be registered to evaluate differences with controls and act as confounders. A 7-month WBV therapy will be performed by 26 swimmers consisting of a training of 15 minutes 3 times per week. An 8 month JIM will also be performed by 26 swimmers 3 times per week. The remaining 26 swimmers will continue their normal swimming training. Four evaluations will be performed, the first one in order to describe differences between swimmers and controls. The second one to describe the effects of the interventions and the third and fourth evaluations to describe the perdurability of the effects of the WBV and JIN. The RENACIMIENTO project will allow to answer several questions regarding body

  17. Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  18. The effects of training volume and competition on the salivary cortisol concentrations of Olympic weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Heke, Taati; Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of training volume and competition on the salivary cortisol (Sal-C) concentrations of Olympic weightlifters. Male (n = 5) and female (n = 4) Olympic weightlifters provided saliva samples across a 5-week experimental = period. The first aim was to assess the weekly effects of high (≥ 200 sets) and low (≤ 100 sets) training volume on Sal-C. The second aim was to compare Sal-C concentrations and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) performance during 2 simulated and 2 actual competitions. Performance was assessed using the snatch, clean and jerk, and the Olympic total lift. Data from each competition setting were pooled before analysis. There were no significant weekly changes in Sal-C levels (p > 0.05). The actual competitions produced higher (128-130%) Sal-C concentrations (p < 0.001) and superior 1RM lifts (1.9-2.6%) for the clean and jerk, and the Olympic total, than the simulated competitions (p < 0.05). Individual Sal-C concentrations before the simulated competitions were positively correlated to all of the 1RM lifts (r = 0.48-0.49, p < 0.05). In conclusion, actual competitions produced greater Sal-C responses than simulated competitions, and this appeared to benefit the 1RM performance of Olympic weightlifters. Individuals with higher Sal-C concentrations also tended to exhibit superior 1RM lifts during the simulated competitions. Given these findings, greater emphasis should be placed upon the monitoring of C to establish normative values, training standards and to assist with performance prediction.

  19. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bridoux

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political arena

  20. THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE TRAINING STRATEGIES IN WHAT CONCERNS OBTAINING A BIGGER TRANSFER OF THE TRAINING EFFECT FOR THE COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULGHERU MIRELA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The personal experiences in the position of performance athletes, put us in the situation to do observations about the differences between the segmentary muscular contraction regime during training and theone of the solicitations in the competition effort. In the present paper we want to acknowledge and demonstrate the existence of a competition specific bio-motor (un-metabolic of which if we do not take it into account we risk to have low transfer premises of the training effect towards the competition. In the present paper we usedclassic materials and methods and modern ones of research (the bibliographic study method, the observation method, the logical method, the measurements and recordings method, the graphic method and the experimental one. In our paper we will present the video recorded data of the executions during the competitions and thetraining of an athlete that was part of the investigated subjects’ batch. I put experimentally in evidence the differences in the speed and positions distribution and also in the strengths and speeds distribution during training and competition reaching the conclusion that these differences are obvious and generate changes in thecommands succession. The conclusion that we reached refers to the fact that the administration and regulation process of the physical effort in concordance with the competition effort’s specificity must be revised, known being the fact that because of ignoring the differential nature of the effort’s specificity mistakes are made inchoosing the means and dosages, means are chosen without taking into account the existent differences between the segmentary contraction regime during practice and the one of the solicitations during the competition effort

  1. Alterations in Plasma Glucose and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract and Swimming Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, Karimeh; Bakhtiyari, Salar; Doost Mohammadpour, Jafar

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and swimming training have previously been reported to have hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. We aimed to evaluate the effects of swimming training and fenugreek aqueous extract, alone and in combination, on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidant enzymes activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. We divided 70 male Wistar rats equally into 7 groups: diabetic control (DC), healthy control (HC), swimming (S), fenugreek seed extract (1.74 g/kg) (F1), fenugreek seed extract (0.87 g/kg) (F2), swimming + fenugreek seed extract (1.74 g/kg) (SF1), and swimming + fenugreek seed extract (0.87 g/kg) (SF2). We used streptozotocin for the induction of diabetes. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical program SPSS. We did not detect any significant differences in body weight in the F1, F2, S, SF1 and SF2 groups compared with the DC group (p>0.05). The results also revealed that the hypoglycemic effect of combined swimming and fenugreek was significantly stronger (pactivity with respect to the DC group (pactivity in the F1, S, SF1 and SF2 groups were significantly higher than those of the DC group (pactivity in the S, SF1 and SF2 groups were significantly increased compared with the DC group (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that the combination of fenugreek seed extract and swimming could be useful for the treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiac oxidative stress induced by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of hand and foot force to take-off velocity for the kick-start in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Shin; Takagi, Hideki; Okuno, Keisuke; Tsubakimoto, Shozo

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the hand and foot reaction force recorded independently while performing the kick-start technique. Eleven male competitive swimmers performed three trials for the kick-start with maximum effort. Three force platforms (main block, backplate and handgrip) were used to measure reaction forces during starting motion. Force impulses from the hands, front foot and rearfoot were calculated via time integration. During the kick-start, the vertical impulse from the front foot was significantly higher than that from the rearfoot and the horizontal impulse from the rearfoot was significantly higher than that from the front foot. The force impulse from the front foot was dominant for generating vertical take-off velocity and the force impulse from the rearfoot was dominant for horizontal take-off velocity. The kick-start's shorter block time in comparison to prior measurements of the grab start was explained by the development of horizontal reaction force from the hands and the rearfoot at the beginning of the starting motion.

  3. Carbohydrate dependence during hard-intensity exercise in trained cyclists in the competitive season: importance of training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, J; Brun, J F; Maimoun, L; Galy, O; Coste, O; Maso, F; Raibaut, J L; Benezis, C; Lac, G; Mercier, J

    2002-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that intensive endurance training increases CHO utilisation during hard-intensity exercise, seven competitive road cyclists (Cy) performed three 50-min steady-state exercise tests on a cycle ergometer above their ventilatory threshold (+ 15 %) over the course of a cycling season (January [ET1], May [ET2] and September [ET3]). We compared the data with the baseline values of seven sedentary controls (Sed). CHO oxidation in Cy was higher in ET2 and ET3 than in ET1 (p competitive cyclists increase CHO oxidation during hard-intensity exercise over the course of a season, but show a decline by the end of the season in association with the appearance of an overtraining state. Thus, well-trained cyclists develop a CHO dependence, which is modified with training status.

  4. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2016-01-01

    to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min...... adhesion molecule 1 had decreased (P training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function...

  5. Acute apnea swimming: metabolic responses and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimard, Alexandre; Prieur, Fabrice; Zorgati, Houssem; Morin, David; Lasne, Françoise; Collomp, Katia

    2014-04-01

    Competitive swimmers regularly perform apnea series with or without fins as part of their training, but the ergogenic and metabolic repercussions of acute and chronic apnea have not been examined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular, lactate, arterial oxygen saturation and hormonal responses to acute apnea in relation to performance in male swimmers. According to a randomized protocol, 15 national or regional competitive swimmers were monitored while performing four 100-m freestyle trials, each consisting of four 25-m segments with departure every 30 seconds at maximal speed in the following conditions: with normal frequency breathing with fins (F) and without fins (S) and with complete apnea for the four 25-m segments with (FAp) and without fins (SAp). Heart rate (HR) was measured continuously and arterial oxygen saturation, blood, and saliva samples were assessed after 30 seconds, 3 minutes, and 10 minutes of recovery, respectively. Swimming performance was better with fins than without both with normal frequency breathing and apnea (p swimming performance in SAp (p swimming.

  6. Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕思思

    2007-01-01

    <正> The term competition reminds me of asoul-stirring fight between a mother monkeyand a crocodile,The crocodile caught her babywhen the baby was drinking water in a pool,Inthe end,the mother got her baby,but herbaby’s body only,She lost her child forever,just for a mouthful of water.Such is competition,cruel and merciless,But if we see the other side of the coin,we’ll

  7. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes – Results from Simulated Training Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Hecksteden; Sabrina Skorski; Sascha Schwindling; Daniel Hammes; Mark Pfeiffer; Michael Kellmann; Alexander Ferrauti; Tim Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers ...

  8. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and postintervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance...

  9. Bridging the Gap: Helping Students from Competitive Dance Training Backgrounds Become Successful Dance Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the methods the author uses to help first-year dance majors from competitive training backgrounds expand their understanding of dance and learn to create a strong foundation for collegiate success. By acknowledging differences in dance backgrounds, carefully emphasizing the theory behind postmodern contemporary dance…

  10. Autonomy support and motivational responses across training and competition in individual and team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined: (a) whether athletes’ (Nn=n348) perceived autonomy support (i.e., showing interest in athletes’ input and praising autonomous behavior) differs across contexts (training vs. competition) and sport types (individual vs. team sports), and (b) whether the relationships between auto

  11. Bridging the Gap: Helping Students from Competitive Dance Training Backgrounds Become Successful Dance Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the methods the author uses to help first-year dance majors from competitive training backgrounds expand their understanding of dance and learn to create a strong foundation for collegiate success. By acknowledging differences in dance backgrounds, carefully emphasizing the theory behind postmodern contemporary dance…

  12. 游泳训练体能分配监测系统设计%Monitoring system design of swimming training physical distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立苗

    2011-01-01

    目前,游泳训练体能分配监测技术已经成为国内外游泳界、工程界研究的热点,为了提高运动员的体育成绩,必须对其进行有效的监测。论文根据游泳训练体能分配的主要特点和长期实时监测的需求,提出一套基于LABVIEW和LINUX软件开发的远程结构监测系统的方案,并对监测中心和监测点进行了详细的系统设计和软硬件开发。%Swimming training physical distribution monitoring technology has become a current international research focus in the field of swimming and engineering. In order to improve the athlete's sports performance, it must be effective monitored. A set of software for remote monitoring system based on LABVIEW and LINUX was developed, according to the main features of swimming training physical distribution and the demand for long-term real-time monitoring. The detailed system design, software and hardware development has been done for the monitoring center and points.

  13. 基层少儿游泳力量和柔韧素质训练%Strength and Flexibility Training in Children’s Swimming Trainning at Basic Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翌帆; 杨国荣

    2012-01-01

    少儿游泳训练过程中,速度、力量、耐力、柔韧、灵敏等各项运动素质均衡发展是培养优秀运动员的重要因素。针对目前我省基层少儿游泳训练中普遍出现力量训练和柔韧素质训练脱节的现象进行分析,提出几点建议,为促进我省少儿游泳训练水平的提高提供理论参考。%In children’s swimming training,the balanced development of such athletic qualities as speed,strength,endurance,flexibility,sensitiveness plays a very important role in cultivating excellent athletes.The paper aims to analyze the common phenomenon of strength training being divorced from flexibility training in children’s swimming training at basic level in Jiangxi Province,and put forward some suggestions,thus providing theoretical references for the improvement of children’s swimming training in Jiangxi.

  14. Effectiveness of Training and Development on Employees’ Performance and Organisation Competitiveness in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falola, H.O.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Training and development is indispensable strategic tool for enhancing employee performance and organizations keep increasing training budget on yearly basis with believe that it will earn them competitive edge. The main objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of training and development on employees’ performance and organisation competitive advantage in the Nigerian banking industry. Descriptive research method was adopted for this study using two hundred and twenty three valid questionnaires which were completed by selected banks in Lagos State, South-West Nigeria using simple random sampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using descriptive statistics to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. The results show that strong relationship exists between training and development, employees’ performance and competitive advantage. Summary of the findings indicates that there is strong relationship between the tested dependent variable and independent construct. However, bank management should not relent in their quest to train their staff to develop new ideas that will keep improving and retaining employee performance.

  15. [Swimming-induced asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjellbirkeland, L; Gulsvik, A; Walløe, A

    1995-06-30

    Swimming is said to have low asthmogeneity especially when compared with other physical activities. Four young athletes who participated in heavy swimming exercise are reported as having symptoms of exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Three of them started to develop the symptoms after several years of training and had no former history of asthma. In the fourth, the asthma was diagnosed in childhood but the EIA-symptoms here exacerbated by swimming. All four experienced more symptoms when the air in the swimming pool was warm, or when there was a strong smell of chlorine. Two of the athletes reported having no symptoms when they swam in outdoor pools and had only minor symptoms, or none at all, when they did other formes of physical exercise, including running. In all four their swimming performance was hampered by their respiratory symptoms. Two of the swimmers improved when they inhaled steroids and adrenerg-beta 2 agonists, and continued their swimming carrier. The cases suggest that an irritant may provoke asthma symptoms in susceptible swimmers. Volatile compounds from chlorination of the pools are suspected as possible irritant agents.

  16. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  17. Perceptions of wellness to monitor adaptive responses to training and competition in elite Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean

    2013-09-01

    Perceptions of wellness are often used by athletes and coaches to assess adaptive responses to training. The purpose of this research was to describe how players were coping with the demands of elite level Australian football over a competitive season using subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness and to assess the ecological validity of such a monitoring approach. Twenty-seven players completed ratings for 9 items (fatigue, general muscle, hamstring, quadriceps, pain/stiffness, power, sleep quality, stress, well-being). Players subjectively rated each item as they arrived at the training or competition venue on a 1-5 visual analog scale, with 1 representing the positive end of the continuum. A total of 2,583 questionnaires were analyzed from completions on 183 days throughout the season (92 ± 24 per player, 103 ± 20 per week; mean ± SD). Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to understand how player ratings of wellness varied over the season and during the week leading into game day and whether selected player characteristics moderated these relationships. Results indicated that subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness were sensitive to weekly training manipulations (i.e., improve steadily throughout the week to a game day low, p wellness provide a useful tool for coaches and practitioners to monitor player responses to the rigorous demands of training, competition, and life as a professional athlete.

  18. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  19. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  20. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  1. Research on Some Characteristics of Junior Swimming Basic Training in China%我国青少年游泳基础训练若干特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣礴

    2015-01-01

    Objective :The analysis of current junior swimming basic training in China reveals the reasons for a number of new features of our elite swimming athletes in the international compe-tition .Methods :this paper mainly adopts questionnaire investigation ,testing and mathematical statistics to analyze junior athletes' basic training .Results :Our men's short distance athletes age in active service and for the first time to participate in international competition age signifi-cantly less than the United States and Australia ,performance keep time ,play times that there was no significant difference compared with the two countries ,our man's long distance athletes age still in active service in China should be less than the total level of the United States and Australia ,but in the early training age than aggregate level between the two countries ,there is no significant difference between other important indicators ;Women's short time base training athletes significantly less ,but remain fixed number of year ,and the race times better than the other two countries ,women's long distance each entry and there was no significant difference between the two countries combined ;Most coaches on the best competitive state age and grade the fastest growing age relatively objective ,in line with the youth physical development objec-tive law ,they can be familiar with the use of outline ,adhere to the outline in the foundation position in the amateur training ;Our men and women the age group athletes performance chan-ges and adolescent athletes body shape ,function ,more accord with physical changes ,movement can achieve the secondary standard ,had not reached the level of standards ,in accordance with the swimming age group swimming performance criteria of teaching syllabus ,men and women athletes age and performance in accordance with degree ,less a higher score .Conclusion :In re-cent years ,our country excellent swimming athletes in the international competition sports life

  2. Nutrition considerations for open-water swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Koivisto, Anu; Gerrard, David; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5-25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5-88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1-6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/ hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition.

  3. Physical demands of professional rugby league training and competition using microtechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the physical demands of professional rugby league match-play using microtechnology, and to compare these demands with typical training activities used to prepare players for competition. Prospective cohort study. Thirty elite rugby league players participated in this study. Seven hundred and eighty-six. training data sets and 104 data sets from National Rugby League matches were collected over one playing season. Movement was recorded using a commercially available microtechnology unit (minimaxX, Catapult Innovations), which provided information on speeds, distances, accelerations, physical collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts. Mean distances covered during match-play by the hit-up forwards, wide-running forwards, adjustables, and outside backs were 3,569 m, 5,561 m, 6,411 m, and 6,819 m, respectively. Hit-up forwards and wide-running forwards were engaged in a greater number of moderate and heavy collisions than the adjustables and outside backs, and more repeated high-intensity effort bouts per minute of play (1 bout every 4.8-6.3 min). The physical demands of traditional conditioning, repeated high-intensity effort exercise, and skill training activities were all lower than the physical demands of competition. These results demonstrate that absolute distances covered during professional rugby league matches are greater for outside backs, while the collision and repeated high-intensity effort demands are higher for hit-up forwards and wide-running forwards. The specific physical demands of competitive play, especially those demands associated with collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts, were not well matched by those observed in traditional conditioning, repeated high-intensity effort exercise, and skills training activities. Further research is required to investigate whether modifications need to be made to these training activities to better prepare players for the demands of National Rugby League competition. Copyright © 2011

  4. 广东省花样游泳运动员备战第十二届全国运动会的专项素质指标与训练监控指标研究%Study on Special Physical Fitness and Training of Monitoring Indicators of Guangdong Province Synchronized Swimming Athletes Who Joined in the 12th National Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 王远; 梁昀

    2015-01-01

    整理分析广东省花样游泳运动员备战第十二届全国运动会的专项体能训练与训练监控指标数据,总结成功有效的备战与参赛模式,为今后的训练提供参考。%Through collecting and analyzing the special physical fitness training and training of monitoring indicators date of the 12th Guangdong synchronized swimming athletes who joined in the 12th National Games, it attempts to summarize the successful and effective mode of competition, provides reference for the future training.

  5. Maximal Strength Training Improves Surfboard Sprint and Endurance Paddling Performance in Competitive and Recreational Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph O C; Tran, Tai T; Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Coyne, JOC, Tran, TT, Secomb, JL, Lundgren, LE, Farley, ORL, Newton, RU, and Sheppard, JM. Maximal strength training improves surfboard sprint and endurance paddling performance in competitive and recreational surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 244-253, 2017-Upper-body (UB) strength has very high correlations with faster surfboard paddling speeds. However, there is no research examining the effects of improving UB strength has on surfboard paddling ability. This study aimed to determine the influence that improvements in UB closed-kinetic chain maximal strength have on surfboard paddling in both competitive and recreational surfers. Seventeen competitive and recreational male surfers (29.7 ± 7.7 years, 177.4 ± 7.4 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg) participated in a repeated-measures, parallel control study design. Anthropometry; 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint; and 400-m endurance surfboard paddling tests along with pull-up and dip 1 repetition maximum strength tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Subjects in the training group performed 5 weeks of maximal strength training in the pull-up and dip. Differences between the training and control groups were examined postintervention. The training group increased their speed over the 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint, whereas the control group became slower (d = 0.71, 0.51, and 0.4, respectively). The training group also displayed faster endurance paddling performance compared with the control group (d = 0.72). Short-term exposure to maximal strength training elicits improvements in paddling performance measures. However, the magnitude of performance increases seems to be dependent on initial strength levels with differential responses between strong and weaker athletes. Although a longer maximal strength training period may have produced more significant paddling improvements in stronger subjects, practitioners are unlikely to have any more than 5 weeks in an uninterrupted block with competitive surfing athletes. This study reveals

  6. Changes in force production and stroke parameters of trained able-bodied and unilateral arm-amputee female swimmers during a 30 s tethered front-crawl swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey Jane; Sanders, Ross H; Payton, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined changes in the propulsive force and stroke parameters of arm-amputee and able-bodied swimmers during tethered swimming. Eighteen well-trained female swimmers (nine unilateral arm amputees and nine able-bodied) were videotaped performing maximal-effort 30 s front-crawl swims, while attached to a load cell mounted on a pool wall. Tether force, stroke rate, stroke phase durations and inter-arm angle were quantified. The able-bodied group produced significantly higher mean and maximum tether forces than the amputee group. The mean of the intra-cyclic force peaks was very similar for both groups. Mean and maximum tether force had significant negative associations with 100 m swim time, for both groups. Both groups exhibited a similar fatigue index (relative decrease in tether force) during the test, but the amputees had a significantly greater stroke rate decline. A significant positive association between stroke rate decline and fatigue index was obtained for the able-bodied group only. Inter-arm angle and relative phase durations did not change significantly during the test for either group, except the recovery phase duration of the arm amputees, which decreased significantly. This study's results can contribute to the development of a more evidence-based classification system for swimmers with a disability.

  7. 糖有氧供能训练方法在游泳项目中的运用%Sugar Aerobic Energy Training Methods in Use in Swimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵记; 殷劲

    2012-01-01

    The good or bad of Aerobic energy system plays a decisive role in the swimming game of a long or short distance. Using literature review from the characteristics of swimming exercise, the article analyzed the role of Sugar aerobic energy which plays at swimming sports and the characteristics of training methods.%由于有氧供能系统能力的大小对游泳运动的成绩起着决定性作用。本文拟通过文献综述、并结合游泳运动的特点,对糖有氧供能在游泳运动中的作用和训练方法进行整理,以期对糖有氧供能能力的游泳训练方法提供系统和科学的依据,为提高糖有氧供能的能力和游泳运动的成绩服务。

  8. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Nelson, David E; Izmirlian, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one's career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987-2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n = 114), and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32) postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140) completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-7.69) and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04-4.90) were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82) or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.94) had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5-9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.87, respectively), as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.98). These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors.

  9. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  10. BDKRB2 GENE -9/+9 POLYMORPHISM AND SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grenda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between swimming performance and the -9/+9 (rs5810761 polymorphism within the BDKRB2 gene in successful competitive swimmers.Best individual swimming results expressed in FINA points achieved at short, middle and long distance events of 157 well-trained Polish swimmers were incorporated into an analysis. Athletes’ genotype and allele distributions were analysed in comparison to 230 unrelated sedentary subjects who served as controls with the χ2 test. All samples were genotyped for the BDKRB2 -9/+9 polymorphism using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The effects of genotype on swimming performance were analysed with two-way (3 x 2; genotype x gender analysis of variance with metrical age as a covariate for each distance specialization. No statistical differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were found in long distance swimmers when compared with the total group of swimmers or controls. The BDKRB2 +9/-9 genotype had no significant effect on swimming performance at short, middle or long distance, regardless of gender. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the BDKRB2 -9/+9 polymorphism is associated with swimming performance in Polish swimmers.

  11. Training alters the resolution of lexical interference: Evidence for plasticity of competition and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C; McMurray, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Language learning is generally described as a problem of acquiring new information (e.g., new words). However, equally important are changes in how the system processes known information. For example, a wealth of studies has suggested dramatic changes over development in how efficiently children recognize familiar words, but it is unknown what kind of experience-dependent mechanisms of plasticity give rise to such changes in real-time processing. We examined the plasticity of the language processing system by testing whether a fundamental aspect of spoken word recognition, lexical interference, can be altered by experience. Adult participants were trained on a set of familiar words over a series of 4 tasks. In the high-competition (HC) condition, tasks were designed to encourage coactivation of similar words (e.g., net and neck) and to require listeners to resolve this competition. Tasks were similar in the low-competition (LC) condition, but did not enhance this competition. Immediately after training, interlexical interference was tested using a visual world paradigm task. Participants in the HC group resolved interference to a fuller degree than those in the LC group, demonstrating that experience can shape the way competition between words is resolved. TRACE simulations showed that the observed late differences in the pattern of interference resolution can be attributed to differences in the strength of lexical inhibition. These findings inform cognitive models in many domains that involve competition/interference processes, and suggest an experience-dependent mechanism of plasticity that may underlie longer term changes in processing efficiency associated with both typical and atypical development.

  12. Effect of strength training on muscular strength-aerobic performance relationship for competitive swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orival Andries Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verifi car os efeitos do treinamento de força na relação força muscular fora da águadesempenho aeróbio dentro da água. Dezesseis nadadores foram divididos em grupos controle (GC e experimental (GE, e submetidos a dezessete semanas de treinamento dentro da água. O GE também realizou um treinamento de força fora da água (TFFA, objetivando o ganho de potência. Antes e após as doze semanas do TFFA foi aplicado o teste de 10 minutos (T10 para avaliar a resistência aeróbia, 1 ação voluntária máxima (1AVM e repetições máximas em 30s (REM com 70% da carga de 1AVM, de onde foi calculada a quilagem total. Valores obtidos em 1AVM e quilagem foram relativizados pela massa corporal. Não foi observada correlação significante entre as alterações percentuais do T10 e dos indicadores de força muscular fora da água, apesar do aumento signifi cante deles no GE. Conclui-se que o TFFA não gera melhora no desempenho aeróbio dentro da água. ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to verify the effects of strength training on the muscular strength-aerobic erformance relationship. Sixteen swimmers were assigned to control (CG or experimental (EG groups and underwent seventeen weeks of swimming training. Swimmers in the EG also performed dry land strength training (DLST, lasting twelve weeks, and aiming to develop power. A 10 minutes test (T10 was taken before and after the 12 weeks of DLST, in order to evaluate aerobic resistance, one maximum voluntary contraction (1MVC and maximum repetition in 30s (REM using 70% of 1MVC, where total weight was calculated. Total weight, T10, and 1MVC were all normalized for body mass. There was no signifi cant correlation between percent changes in T10 and dry land muscle strength, despite signifi cant increases being detected in dry land muscle strength. It can be concluded that nonspecifi c training does not improve aerobic performance in swimming.

  13. Training patterns and negative health outcomes in triathlon: longitudinal observations across a full competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, L C; Landers, G J; Grove, J R; Dawson, B; Goodman, C

    2010-12-01

    Despite heavy training requirements, triathlon is a sport that is rapidly increasing in popularity. Yet, there is limited research detailing the relationship between training, the incidence of injuries and illness, psychological stress, overtraining and athlete burnout amongst triathletes. Six hypotheses relating inter-individual differences to training factors were generated to evaluate change in self-reported measures of these negative health outcomes over a training year. Thirty, well-trained, triathletes (males n=20: age=27.1±9.1 years and females n=10: age=27.4±6.6 years) from a local triathlon club participated in this study. The study commenced during pre-season training, and involved weekly monitoring of each athlete until the end of the competitive season 45 weeks later. Linear Mixed Modelling was used for the analysis. Signs and symptoms of injury and illness (SAS) were significantly associated with increases in training factors (P≤0.05); however, greatest impact on SAS was produced by psychological stressors (P≤0.001). Common symptoms of overtraining were significantly affected by increases in exposure to both training and psychological stressors (P≤0.05). Mood disturbance was not significantly affected by training factors (P>0.05) but rather increases in psychological stressors (P≤0.001). Finally, each of the three athlete burnout subscales were significantly affected by both psychological (P≤0.001) stressors as well as varying combinations of training factors (P≤0.05). Exposure to stressors (either training or psychological) had significant effects on all negative health outcomes assessed.

  14. Impact of 6 consecutive days of sprint training in hypoxia on performance in competitive sprint runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Nobukazu; Mizuno, Sahiro; Ishimoto, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Etsuko; Maruta, Misato; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Kurosawa, Yuko; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-04-18

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of 6 successive days of repeated sprint training in moderate hypoxia on anaerobic capacity in 100-200-m sprint runners. Eighteen male sprint runners (age, 20.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 175.9 ± 1.1 cm; body mass, 65.0 ± 1.2 kg) performed repeated cycling sprints for 6 consecutive days in either normoxic (NOR; fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2], 20.9%; n = 9) or hypoxic conditions (HYPO; FiO2, 14.5%; n = 9). The repeated sprint ability (10 × 6-s sprints), 30-s maximal sprint ability, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and 60-m running time on the track were measured before and after the training period. Intramuscular PCr content (quadriceps femoris muscle) was measured by P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS) before and after the training period. Both groups showed similar improvements in repeated sprint ability after the training period (Psprint test and VO2max did not change significantly after the training period in either group. Running time for 0-10m improved significantly after the training period in the HYPO only (before, 1.39 ± 0.01s; after, 1.34 ± 0.02s, Psprint training for 6 consecutive days in hypoxia or normoxia improved repeated sprint ability in competitive sprint runners.

  15. Effects of a Staff Training Program on Community Instructors' Ability to Teach Swimming Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Stephanie; Mirenda, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less physically active than their typically developing peers and are thus at risk of health problems associated with inactivity (e.g., obesity or diabetes). There is a need to examine the effectiveness of interventions such as swimming that are aimed at…

  16. Effects of training at simulated altitude on performance and muscle metabolic capacity in competitive road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrados, N; Melichna, J; Sylvén, C; Jansson, E; Kaijser, L

    1988-01-01

    Differences between the effects of training at sea level and at simulated altitude on performance and muscle structural and biochemical properties were investigated in 8 competitive cyclists who trained for 3-4 weeks, 4-5 sessions/week, each session consisting of cycling for 60-90 min continuously and 45-60 min intermittently. Four subjects, the altitude group (AG), trained in a hypobaric chamber (574 torr = 2300 m above sea level), and the other four at sea level (SLG). Before and after training work capacity was tested both at simulated altitude (574 torr) and at sea level, by an incremental cycle ergometer test until exhaustion. Work capacity was expressed as total amount of work performed. Venous blood samples were taken during the tests. Leg muscle biopsies were taken at rest before and after the training period. AG exhibited an increase of 33% in both sea level and altitude performance, while SLG increased 22% at sea level and 14% at altitude. Blood lactate concentration at a given submaximal load at altitude was significantly more reduced by training in AG than SLG. Muscle phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity decreased with training in AG but increased in SLG. All AG subjects showed increases in capillary density. In conclusion, work capacity at altitude was increased more by training at altitude than at sea level. Work capacity at sea level was at least as much improved by altitude as by sea level training. The improved work capacity by training at altitude was paralleled by decreased exercise blood lactate concentration, increased capillarization and decreased glycolytic capacity in leg muscle.

  17. 乒乓球与游泳训练儿童的执行功能比较研究%Primary study on executive function in children with Ping-Pong training and swimming training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松; 季星; 颜崇淮; 徐健; 任芳; 沈理笑

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨接受不同类型运动训练儿童的执行功能特点.方法 以40名参加乒乓球训练(乒乓球组)和41名参加游泳训练(游泳组)的6~9岁儿童为研究对象,分别完成GO/NOGO任务,采集和分析两组儿童的行为学指标(反应时间和正确率)及事件相关电位成分N2的波幅.结果 与乒乓球组比较,游泳组GO和NOGO的反应时间较快,而正确率较低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05和P<0.01).游泳组和乒乓组脑电图CPz点NOGO-N2的波幅分别为(-11.36±9.4)μV和(-7.55±7.99)μV,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 接受乒乓球训练的儿童在抑制性控制方面强于接受游泳训练的儿童.%Objective To investigate the executive function of children with different sports training. Methods Forty children with Ping-Pong training (Ping-Pong group) and 41 children with swimming training (swimming group), aged 6-9 years, completed GO/NOGO task. Behavioral data (reaction time and accuracy) and event related potential component N2 were collected and analyzed. Results The reaction time was significantly faster and accuracy significantly lower of GO task and NOGO task in swimming group than in Ping-Pong group (P<0.05 and P<0.01). There were significant differences in the amplitude of NOGO-N2 on site CPz between swimming group and Ping-Pong group[(-11.36±9.4) μV vs (-7.55±7.99) μV, P<0.05]. Conclusion The inhibitory function of children with Ping-Pong training is stronger than those with swimming training.

  18. Observing the coach-created motivational environment across training and competition in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, Paul R; Duda, Joan L

    2017-01-01

    Adopting an integrated achievement goal (Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.) and self-determination theory (Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01) perspective as proffered by Duda, J. L. (2013). (The conceptual and empirical foundations of empowering coaching(TM): Setting the stage for the PAPA project. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 311-318. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2013.839414), the aim of the current study was to observe empowering and disempowering features of the multidimensional motivational coaching environment in training and competition in youth sport. Seventeen grass-roots soccer coaches were observed and rated in training and competitive settings using the multidimensional motivational climate observation system (MMCOS; Smith, N., Tessier, D., Tzioumakis, Y., Quested, E., Appleton, P., Sarrazin, P., … Duda, J. L. (2015). Development and validation of the multidimensional motivational climate observation system (MMCOS). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37, 4-22. doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0059). In line with our hypotheses, coaches created different motivational environments in the two contexts. More specifically, coaches were observed to create a less empowering and more disempowering environment in competition compared to in training. The observed differences were underpinned by distinctive motivational strategies used by coaches in the two contexts. Findings have implications for the assessment of the coach-created motivational environment and the promotion of quality motivation for young athletes taking part in grass-roots-level sport.

  19. 广东省游泳后备力量人才培养模式现状调查研究%Guangdong province swimming reserve forces training mode present situation investigation and study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军强; 徐朝阳

    2014-01-01

    该文主要通过文献资料法,问卷调查法,访谈法选取广东代表性游泳队进行研究,对广东游泳后备人才培养模式现状进行调查,总结成功经验与不足,为广东游泳的可持续发展提供有效帮助。同时,还可以为国内其他省市的游泳后备人才培养提供参考,从而促使我国游泳水平不断提高,逐步缩小与欧美游泳发达国家水平的差距。%This paper mainly through the literature material law, questionnaire investigation, interview method to select representative swimming team in Guangdong, in Guangdong province swimming reserve personnel training mode present situation investigation, summarizes the successful experience and deficiency, for the sustainable development of Guangdong swimming provide effective help. At the same time, can also for other domestic provinces and cities to offer reference to the swimming reserve personnel training, to promote China’s swimming level enhances unceasingly, gradually reducing the gap with Europe and the United States swimming level in developed countries.

  20. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Nyberg, Michael; Weihe, Pál; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low-volume high-intensity swimming has a larger impact on insulin sensitivity and glucose control than high-volume low-intensity swimming in inactive premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Sixty-two untrained premenopausal women were randomised to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function in inactive, middle-aged mildly hypertensive women.

  1. 竞技游泳项目临赛准备活动模式调查研究%The Research of Pre - match Warm - up mode in Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋耀伟

    2011-01-01

    通过对53名优秀游泳运动员进行问卷调查,了解优秀游泳运动员赛前生理、心理准备活动方法、步骤、时间、次数、强度等,尝试归纳总结游泳临赛前准备活动模式。结果显示:我国优秀游泳运动员准备活动模式相对固定,差异不大,但会在特殊情况下做出细微调整;游泳赛前准备活动模式包括赛前一晚制定比赛行为活动程序、比赛当天起床后的热身活动、陆上身体活动、临赛前水上活动、水上活动与比赛间隔及心理准备活动、检录前后的再活动、上出发台前的活动等;临赛前水上准备包括专项技术、生理机能调动、绝对强度和技战术部分;常用方法包括适应性热身游、主项技术游、上肢与下肢练习、主项强度游、短冲、比赛细节练习与整理放松等;临赛前心理准备活动方法包括呼吸调节、注意集中、表象演练、自我谈话等。%Through the questionnaire survey among 53 excellent swimmers, we found the method, process, time, frequency and intension of physical and psychological pre - match warm - up of them and tried to summarize the mode of warm - up before swimming competition. The result showed that the mode of our excellent national swimmers' warm -up is comparatively stable and will be adusted imperceptibly under some special conditions. The mode of warm - up before swimming competition included setting the competition tactics one night before, the activities after getting up on the competition day, onsite ground exercises, in - water exercises, psy- chological preparation between the intervals of competition, exercises before and after inspection and exercises before standing on the starting dive, etc. Pre - match on - water exercised included special technical section, adjustment of physiological enginery section, the certain intension section, technique and tactics section. The common method included adaptable warm - up

  2. Body weight changes and voluntary fluid intakes during training and competition sessions in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, E M; Burke, L M; Cox, G R; Heeley, P; Riley, M

    1996-09-01

    Fluid losses (measured by body weight changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were measured in elite basketball, netball, and soccer teams during typical summer and winter exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements and the degree of fluid replacement. Each subject was weighed in minimal clothing before and immediately after training, weights, and competition sessions; fluid intake, duration of exercise, temperature and humidity, and opportunity to drink were recorded. Sweat rates were greatest during competition sessions and significantly lower during weights sessions for all sports. Seasonal variation in dehydration (%DH) was not as great as may have been expected, particularly in sports played indoors. Factors influencing fluid replacement during exercise included provision of an individual water bottle, proximity to water bottles during sessions, encouragement to drink, rules of the game, duration and number of breaks or substitutions, and awareness of personal sweat rates. Guidelines for optimizing fluid intakes in these three sports are provided.

  3. Biologic-pharmacological providing of trainings, competitions and renewal of triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vodlozerov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the main means of biologic-pharmacological providing of triathletes during different periods of sports activity. Material & Methods: studying and generalization of special literature on problem of ensuring efficiency of training, competitive and renewal processes in continuous triathlon, analysis of features of application of sports food, medicamentous means and methods of passive renewal in kinds of sport on endurance. Results: features of biologic-pharmacological providing of sportsmen are considered before, during and after thriathlon competitions, and also expediency of application of methods of passive renewal therapy is shown. Conclusions: sports food is balanced by products of the increased biological value, adequate drinking mode and medicamentous providing play the major role by preparation, successful overcoming of the combined distance and the subsequent full renewal with simultaneous use of methods of passive therapy.

  4. Bone loss over one year of training and competition in female cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Barry, Daniel W; Villalon, Karen L; Hansen, Kent C; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe changes in hip, spine, and tibia bone characteristics in female cyclists over the course of 1 year of training. Design Prospective observational study Setting Laboratory Participants Female cyclists (n=14) aged 26-41 years with at least 1 year of competition history and intent to compete in 10 or more races in the coming year. Assessment of Risk Factors Women who train and compete in road cycling as their primary sport. Main Outcome Measures Total body fat-free and fat mass, and lumbar spine and proximal femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) assessments by DXA. Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and BMC of the tibia were measured by pQCT at sites corresponding to 4%, 38%, 66%, and 96% of tibia length. Time points were baseline and after 12 months of training and competition. Results Weight and body composition did not change significantly over 12 months. Total hip aBMD and BMC decreased by −1.4±1.9% and −2.1±2.3% (p0.11). Conclusions Bone loss in female cyclists was site-specific and similar in magnitude to losses previously reported in male cyclists. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms for bone loss in cyclists. PMID:24326929

  5. Training processes in under 6s football competition: The transition from ingenuity to institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Merino Orozco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant observation. It uses the narrative and image data to understand the scenario from the perspective of its builder. The results show that the institutionalization process starts from the ingenuity and lack of understanding of the child, who develops training processes in a prescriptive environment, where the competitive performance of the team is pursued. Promoting certain types of learning which the participant himself consciously considers inappropriate undertakes the presence of different kinds of behaviour, which go against the positive values usually attributed to football. The study claims for the necessity of taking advantage of the training opportunities which football offers to children such as the enhancing of creativity, self-efficacy and self-esteem.

  6. A Methodology for Introducing Competitive Anxiety and Pressure in VR Sports Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran eArgelaguet Sanz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes' performances are influenced by internal and external factors, including their psychological state and environmental factors, especially during competition. As a consequence, current training programs include stress management. In this paper, we explore whether highly immersive systems can be used for such training programs. First, we propose methodological guidelines to design sport training scenarios both on considering the elements that a training routine must have, and how external factors might influence the participant. The proposed guidelines are based on Flow and social-evaluative threat theories. Second, to illustrate and validate our methodology, we designed an experimental setup reproducing a ten meter Olympic pistol shooting. We analyzed whether changes in the environment are able to induce changes in user performance, physiological responses and the subjective perception of the task. The simulation included stressors in order to raise a social-evaluative threat, such as aggressive public behavior or unforced errors, increasing the pressure while performing the task. The results showed significant differences in their subjective impressions, trends in the behavioral and physiological data were also observed. Taken together, our results suggest that highly immersive systems could be further used for training in sports.

  7. Swimming Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Corinna C.; Krüger, Carsten; Herminghaus, Stephan; Bahr, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Swimming droplets are artificial microswimmers based on liquid droplets that show self-propelled motion when immersed in a second liquid. These systems are of tremendous interest as experimental models for the study of collective dynamics far from thermal equilibrium. For biological systems, such as bacterial colonies, plankton, or fish swarms, swimming droplets can provide a vital link between simulations and real life. We review the experimental systems and discuss the mechanisms of self-propulsion. Most systems are based on surfactant-stabilized droplets, the surfactant layer of which is modified in a way that leads to a steady Marangoni stress resulting in an autonomous motion of the droplet. The modification of the surfactant layer is caused either by the advection of a chemical reactant or by a solubilization process. Some types of swimming droplets possess a very simple design and long active periods, rendering them promising model systems for future studies of collective behavior.

  8. Estimating energy expenditure during front crawl swimming using accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Van Thiel, David H

    2014-01-01

    The determination of energy expenditure is of major interest in training load and performance assessment. Small, wireless accelerometer units have the potential to characterise energy expenditure during swimming. The correlation between absorbed oxygen versus flume swimming speed and absorbed...

  9. Goldratt's Thinking Process Applied to the Problems Associated with Trained Employee Retention in a Highly Competitive Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lloyd J., III; Poyner, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the problem of trained employee retention in a highly competitive labor market for a manufacturing facility in the oilfields of West Texas. Design/methodology/approach: This article examines how one manufacturing facility should be able to retain their trained employees by using the logic of Eliyahu M.…

  10. Goldratt's Thinking Process Applied to the Problems Associated with Trained Employee Retention in a Highly Competitive Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lloyd J., III; Poyner, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the problem of trained employee retention in a highly competitive labor market for a manufacturing facility in the oilfields of West Texas. Design/methodology/approach: This article examines how one manufacturing facility should be able to retain their trained employees by using the logic of Eliyahu M.…

  11. Differential effects of swimming training on neuronal calcium sensor-1 expression in rat hippocampus/cortex and in object recognition memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Luciana Estefani; Mourão, Flávio Afonso Gonçalves; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Abreu, Renata Viana; Reis, Helton José; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Massensini, André Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    Physical activity has been proposed as a behavioral intervention that improves learning and memory; nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these health benefits are still not well understood. Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of a superfamily of proteins that respond to local Ca(2+) changes shown to have an important role in learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of swimming training on NCS-1 levels in the rat brain after accessing cognitive performance. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (SG) or exercised groups (EG). The EG was subject to forced swimming activity, 30 min/day, 5 days/week, during 8 weeks. Progressive load trials were performed in the first and last week in order to access the efficiency of the training. After the 8 week training protocol, memory performance was evaluated by the novel object preference and object location tasks. NCS-1 levels were measured in the cortex and hippocampus using immunoblotting. The EG performed statistically better for the spatial short-term memory (0.73 ± 0.01) when compared to the SG (0.63 ± 0.02; P0.05). In addition, chronic exercise promoted a significant increase in hippocampal NCS-1 levels (1.8 ± 0.1) when compared to SG (1.17 ± 0.08; P0.05). Results suggest that physical exercise would modulate the state of the neural network regarding its potential for plastic changes: physical exercise could be modulating NCS-1 in an activity dependent manner, for specific neural substrates, thus enhancing the cellular/neuronal capability for plastic changes in these areas; which, in turn, would differentially effect ORM task performance for object recognition and displacement.

  12. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive electrostimulation strength training for competitive tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Bramanti, Jacopo; Jubeau, Marc; Bizzini, Mario; Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Gilles

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to show the feasibility of electrostimulation (ES) strength exercise incorporated into tennis sessions during the preparatory season of competitive players, and its impact on anaerobic performance. Twelve tennis players (5 men, 7 women) completed 9 sessions of quadriceps ES (duration: 16 minutes; frequency: 85 Hz; on-off ratio: 5.25-25 seconds) during 3 weeks. The ES sessions were integrated into tennis training sessions. Subjects were baseline tested and retested 1 (week 4), 2 (week 5), 3 (week 6), and 4 weeks (week 7) after the ES training program for maximal quadriceps strength, vertical jump height, and shuttle sprint time. Participants were able to progressively increase ES current amplitude and evoked force throughout the 9 training sessions, with an optimal treatment compliance of 100%. Maximal quadriceps strength significantly increased during the entire duration of the experiment (p < 0.001). Countermovement jump height at week 5 (+5.3%) and week 6 (+6.4%) was significantly higher than at baseline (p < 0.05). In addition, 2 x 10-m sprint time at week 6 was significantly shorter (-3.3%; p = 0.004) compared with pretraining. The 3-week ES strength training program was successfully incorporated into preseason tennis training with a linear progression in all training parameters. Throughout the study period, a delayed enhancement of anaerobic power and stretch-shortening cycle performance was observed. Progressive ES strength training may be safely included in the early tennis season and can lead to improvements in the anaerobic performance of men and women players.

  13. Long-term aerobic swimming training by rats reduces the number of aberrant crypt foci in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lunz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of long-term aerobic swimming training regimens of different intensities on colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats (11 weeks old were given 4 subcutaneous injections (40 mg/kg body weight each of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH, dissolved in 0.9% NaCl containing 1.5% EDTA, pH 6.5, at 3-day intervals and divided into three exercise groups that swam with 0% body weight (EG1, N = 11, 2% body weight (EG2, N = 11, and 4% body weight of load (EG3, N = 10, 20 min/day, 5 days/week for 35 weeks, and one sedentary control group (CG, N = 10. At sacrifice, the colon was removed and counted for tumors and aberrant crypt foci. Tumor size was measured and intra-abdominal fat was weighed. The mean number of aberrant crypt foci was reduced only for EG2 compared to CG (26.21 ± 2.99 vs 36.40 ± 1.53 crypts; P < 0.05. Tumor incidence was not significantly different among groups (CG: 90%; EG1: 72.7%; EG2: 90%; EG3: 80%. Swimming training did not affect either tumor multiplicity (CG: 2.30 ± 0.58; EG1: 2.09 ± 0.44; EG2: 1.27 ± 0.19; EG3: 1.50 ± 0.48 tumors or size (CG: 1.78 ± 0.24; EG1: 1.81 ± 0.14; EG2: 1.55 ± 0.21; EG3: 2.17 ± 0.22 cm³. Intra-abdominal fat was not significantly different among groups (CG: 10.54 ± 2.73; EG1: 6.12 ± 1.15; EG2: 7.85 ± 1.24; EG3: 5.11 ± 0.74 g. Aerobic swimming training with 2% body weight of load protected against the DMH-induced preneoplastic colon lesions, but not against tumor development in the rat.

  14. Evolution of oxidative stress biomarkers and correlation with competitive performance in two moments of the swimming training season

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Deminice; Gabriel Carvalho Degiovanni; Monike Ribeiro Garlipp-Picchi; Nóbrega,Mariana T.; Marcelo Teixeira; Alceu Afonso Jordão

    2009-01-01

    Estudos têm demonstrado aumento na formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio após o esforço físico intenso. Esses eventos podem aumentar a suscetibilidade das células musculares a danos oxidativos como a peroxidação lipídica. Assim, variações na intensidade e no volume de treinamento durante a temporada podem modular o metabolismo oxidativo e influenciar a performance dos atletas. OBJETIVO: Estudar a evolução de biomarcadores de peroxidação lipídica em dois momentos de um ciclo periodizado de...

  15. Tethered swimming can be used to evaluate force contribution for short-distance swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Keskinen, Kari L; Badillo, Juan J; Marques, Mário C

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to compare stroke and the physiological responses between maximal tethered and free front crawl swimming and (b) to evaluate the contribution of force exertion for swimming performance over short distances. A total of 34 male swimmers, representing various levels of competitive performance, participated in this study. Each participant was tested in both a 30-second maximal tethered swimming test and a 50-m free swimming test. The tethered force parameters, the swimming speed, stroke (stroke rate [SR]), and the physiological responses (increase in blood lactate concentration [ΔBLa], heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion) were recorded and calculated. The results showed no differences in stroke and the physiological responses between tethered and free swimming, with a high level of agreement for the SR and ΔBLa. A strong correlation was obtained between the maximum impulse of force per stroke and the speed (r = 0.91; p swimming performance. The relationship between the swimming speed and maximum force tended to be nonlinear, whereas linear relationships were observed with the maximum impulse. This study demonstrates that tethered swimming does not significantly alter stroke and the physiological responses compared with free swimming, and that the maximum impulse per stroke should be used to evaluate the balance between force and the ability to effectively apply force during sprint swimming. Consequently, coaches can rely on tethered forces to identify strength deficits and improve swimming performance over short distances.

  16. Injury patterns in Division I collegiate swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Brian R; Ebinger, Alexander E; Lawler, Michael P; Britton, Carla L

    2009-10-01

    In the last 25 years, it is estimated that over 42,000 male and female swimmers have competed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A level. Despite the magnitude of these numbers, little is known about the epidemiology of collegiate swimming injuries. Purpose To describe the pattern of injuries incurred for one NCAA Division I collegiate men's and women's swimming team over 5 seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Musculoskeletal and head injuries reported in the Sports Injury Management System for a Division I swimming team from 2002-2007 were identified. Gender, body part, year of eligibility, position, stroke specialty, scholarship status, and team activity during which the injury occurred and lost time were recorded. Risk of injury was assessed relative to gender, stroke specialty, and year of eligibility. From 2002-2007, 44 male and 50 female athletes competed for the University of Iowa swimming and diving team. The overall injury rates were estimated as 4.00 injuries per 1000 exposures for men and 3.78 injuries per 1000 exposures for women. Thirty-seven percent of injuries resulted in missed time. The shoulder/upper arm was the most frequently injured body part followed by the neck/back. Freshman swimmers suffered the most injuries as well as the highest mean number of injuries per swimmer. A significant pattern of fewer injuries in later years of eligibility was also demonstrated. The relative risk (RR) for injury was higher among nonfreestyle stroke specialties (RR, 1.33 [1.00-1.77]). Injury most often occurred as a result of, or during, practice for all swimmers. However, 38% of injuries were the result of team activities outside of practice or competition, such as strength training. No significant relationship was found between occurrence of injury and gender or scholarship status. There was no significant relationship between body part injured and stroke specialty. An increased number of total injuries and an increased risk

  17. The Effects of Training on the Competitive Economic Advantage of Companies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Marin-Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for factors that lead to competitive advantage in a company in relation to its competitors is a widely debated subject; a wide range of issues have been examined to determine which factors are the most influential. The aim of this paper is to study training effect on business results (particularly on firm’s financial turnover. For the present research, the classical model of Industrial Economy as a frame of reference has been used. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent to 381 large organizations in Catalonia (Spain during 2009 and 2010. The empirical section of the present article was developed using structural equation modeling (SEM. Results relate training to company’s financial turnover in a positive way. The General Expenditure and Costs is the variable that most contributes to the explanation of firms’ financial turnover. The Organization of Training variable is the second most important construct to account for financial turnover However, training is required to be well organized as well as properly financed.

  18. Development of a Noncontact Kickboxing Circuit Training Protocol That Simulates Elite Male Kickboxing Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Davis, Philip; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the specific kickboxing circuit training protocol (SKCTP) could reproduce kickboxing combat's hormonal, physiological, and physical responses. Twenty athletes of regional and national level volunteered to participate in the study (mean ± SD, age: 21.3 ± 2.7 years; height: 170 ± 0.5 cm; body mass: 73.9 ± 13.9 kg). After familiarization, SKCTP was conducted 1 week before a kickboxing competition. Cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone (GH), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as the Wingate upper-body test and countermovement jump (CMJ) performances were measured before and after SKCTP and combat. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured throughout rounds (R) R1, R2, and R3. Testosterone, GH, glucose, [La], HR, RPE, and CMJ did not differ among the 2 conditions (p > 0.05). However, Cortisol was higher for competition (p = 0.038), whereas both peak (p = 0.003) and mean power (p kickboxing training, as well as a specific assessment tool to be used by kickboxing coaches to quantify kickboxers' fitness levels, when physiological parameters responses to the test are measured.

  19. 苏州市少儿游泳业余训练中存在的问题及对策%Problems and Solutions to Amateur Training in Children Swimming in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白泉; 顾李敏

    2011-01-01

    With the deepening of the market economy system to the Market economic reform in China,amateur swimming training is facing new challenges.Survival and development is the real problem which the amateur swimming training faces.This paper made some analysis,based on the valid data obtained from the status quo of amateur training in children swimming in Suzhou City.Also,combined with the reality in Suzhou City,it proposed some suggestions concerning the problems and promotion of amateur training in children swimming in Suzhou City.%随着我国社会经济体制向市场经济改革的不断深入,业余游泳训练正面临着新的挑战。生存和发展是业余游泳训练面对的现实问题。文章通过对苏州市少儿游泳业余训练现状所获得的有效资料进行了分析,并结合苏州市的实际情况对苏州市少儿游泳业余训练中存在的问题及如何促进苏州市少儿游泳业余训练的发展提出了建议。

  20. Stress responses to short-term intensified and reduced training in competitive weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, A G; Birch, N P; Fan, V; Smith, H K

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify and evaluate the tolerance to, and consequences of, short-term variations in training load in competitive weightlifters. Seven international-level lifters performed 1 week of initial training followed by 2 weeks of intensified (INT: +100%, 36.5 ± 11.3 × 10(3)  kg/week) and 1 week of subsequently reduced (RED: -25%) training within their annual program. After INT, but not RED, 90 min of weightlifting increased mRNA levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and cellular stress-associated DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 40-240%. Resting- and weightlifting-induced changes in plasma protein carbonyls, indicative of oxidative stress, but not pro-inflammatory CCL4 concentrations differed between INT and RED. Symptoms of stress (Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes questionnaire) were reported as worse than normal more frequently during INT and RED than initial training. Global (negative) mood state increased during INT and declined during RED. Maximal snatch (-4.3 ± 3.7%) and vertical jump (-7.2 ± 6.5%), but not clean and jerk, were reduced after INT and restored after RED. Chemokine signaling may thus be part of the stress response to intense weightlifting and short-term reductions in training load support recovery from periodic INT training in weightlifters. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Plasma catecholamines and renin activity in wrestlers following vigorous swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigas, M; Celko, J; Juránková, E; Jezová, D; Kvetnanský, R

    1998-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to exercise in a physically fit and an untrained group of young healthy subjects were compared to study the significance of physical fitness for performance in a discipline for which the athletes were not trained. Ten wrestlers of national rank prepared for an international competition (age 18 years) and 9 untrained healthy males (age 21 years). Exercise consisted of 27-min swimming, freestyle, in water of 29 degrees C, with last 3 min increased to maximal effort. The blood pressure, heart rate and sublingual temperature were measured and blood samples were withdrawn before exercise, immediately after and after a 30 min period of rest. Catecholamines were analyzed by radioenzymatic method and plasma renin activity (PRA) using commercial kits. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate after swimming were increased comparably in the two groups, diastolic pressure was unchanged in the controls and decreased in the wrestlers. Plasma cortisol remained unchanged. Plasma glucose tended to increase in the controls and so decrease in wrestlers, with a significant difference between them after swimming (p < 0.05). However, plasma adrenaline was concomitantly increased in both groups (p < 0.01). Noradrenaline and PRA were increased after swimming in both the control and trained group. The increments of noradrenaline and PRA in wrestlers were significantly reduced compared to the control group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Higher physical fitness in athletes significantly reduced plasma noradrenaline and angiotensin responses to maximal exercise demanding special skill in work performance which had not been included in their training program. Training of wrestlers did not cause an exaggerated plasma adrenaline response to exercise.

  2. Unsteady flow phenomena in human undulatory swimming: a numerical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholak, Steffen; Hochstein, Stefan; Rudert, Alexander; Brücker, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    The undulatory underwater sequence is one of the most important phases in competitive swimming. An understanding of the recurrent vortex dynamics around the human body and their generation could therefore be used to improve swimming techniques. In order to produce a dynamic model, we applied human joint kinematics to three-dimensional (3D) body scans of a female swimmer. The flow around this dynamic model was then calculated using computational fluid dynamics with the aid of moving 3D meshes. Evaluation of the numerical results delivered by the various motion cycles identified characteristic vortex structures for each of the cycles, which exhibited increasing intensity and drag influence. At maximum thrust, drag forces appear to be 12 times higher than those of a passive gliding swimmer. As far as we know, this is the first disclosure of vortex rings merging into vortex tubes in the wake after vortex recapturing. All unsteady structures were visualized using a modified Q-criterion also incorporated into our methods. At the very least, our approach is likely to be suited to further studies examining swimmers engaging in undulatory swimming during training or competition.

  3. Discussion on Swimming Training Promoting Flight Attendants' Physique Beauty%游泳训练对促进空乘人员形体美的浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏穗霞

    2011-01-01

    Flight attendant is direct external window of an airline, through them the airline can show its image and service concept. But a good attendant will first give a person beautiful feeling visually, therefore the shape-up training appears especially important. This paper want to train good posture and elegant temperament of flight attendant by swimming training to make the flight attendant have the perfect professional qualily, in order to adapt to the industry requirements under the contemporary situation.%空中乘务员是一个航空公司的直接对外窗口,通过他们展现出航空公司的形象和服务理念,然而一个优秀的乘务员首先从外观上就要给人以美的感觉,因此形体训练显得尤为重要,本文从游泳训练入手,培养乘务员良好的身姿和优雅的气质,使其具备完善的职业素质,从而适应当代形势下的行业要求.

  4. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes - Results from Simulated Training Camps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hecksteden

    Full Text Available Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1, after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8 and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11. Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery. With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l, urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl, free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml. For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling

  5. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes – Results from Simulated Training Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK

  6. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes - Results from Simulated Training Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK

  7. Thermal responses and body fluid balance of competitive male swimmers during a training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Reynaldo; Echegaray, Marcos; Rivera, Miguel A

    2003-05-01

    Thermoregulatory and body fluid balance (BFB) responses of competitive swimmers were studied during a typical interval training session under natural field conditions. Subjects were 9 males (18.0 +/- 1.7 years; VO(2)max = 3.8 +/- 0.9 L x min(-1)) who covered 9,000 m in 180 minutes in an outdoor pool (mean water temperature = 26.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C; mean wet bulb globe temperature = 29.8 +/- 2.8 degrees C). Mean body weight (BWt) decreased by 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg (P WI) (0.1 +/- 0.2 kg) did not maintain BFB (-0.5 kg per hour) and plasma volume decreased 10.7 +/- 5.4%. During a typical training session, swimmers experienced significant body fluid losses, and WI was not enough to prevent involuntary dehydration. The magnitude of the fluid losses (2.5% of BWt) was sufficient to compromise convective thermoregulation because of the decreased plasma volume. Hence, to prevent involuntary dehydration, swimmers should be encouraged to consume an amount of fluids that equals losses throughout the training sessions.

  8. Ankle and knee kinetics between strike patterns at common training speeds in competitive male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.

  9. Comparison of expert and nonexpert swimmers' opinions about the value, potency, and activity of four standard swimming strokes and underwater undulatory swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, L; Oboeuf, A

    2009-04-01

    Underwater undulatory swimming (UUS) is often perceived to be a nonessential aspect of aquatic propulsion. Given their solid theoretical and practical training in swimming, physical education students should be capable of judging the true value of the "fifth stroke," since it appears to be the most efficient technique in high level, competitive swimming. To compare opinions and connotations associated with the stroke and the four official strokes (butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, and crawl), 198 students (32 of whom were expert swimmers; M age = 20.6 yr., SD = 1.2), were surveyed using the semantic differential of Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum. Although answers of expert and nonexpert swimmers differed significantly (p undulatory stroke was less attractive, less powerful, and less rapid than the four surface strokes (d = 2.88 for the expert swimmers). Putting one arm in front of the other and repeating the sequence still remains the most solidly held representation of "the right way" to swim. However, the high observed standard deviations for the underwater undulatory stimulus (SD > or = 1.1 with SD max = 3 for the expert swimmers) attests to the view being less strongly held by swimming specialists.

  10. DISCREPANCY BETWEEN TRAINING, COMPETITION AND LABORATORY MEASURES OF MAXIMUM HEART RATE IN NCAA DIVISION 2 DISTANCE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvah C. Stahlnecker IV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A percentage of either measured or predicted maximum heart rate is commonly used to prescribe and measure exercise intensity. However, maximum heart rate in athletes may be greater during competition or training than during laboratory exercise testing. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine if endurance-trained runners train and compete at or above laboratory measures of 'maximum' heart rate. Maximum heart rates were measured utilising a treadmill graded exercise test (GXT in a laboratory setting using 10 female and 10 male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA division 2 cross-country and distance event track athletes. Maximum training and competition heart rates were measured during a high-intensity interval training day (TR HR and during competition (COMP HR at an NCAA meet. TR HR (207 ± 5.0 b·min-1; means ± SEM and COMP HR (206 ± 4 b·min-1 were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than maximum heart rates obtained during the GXT (194 ± 2 b·min-1. The heart rate at the ventilatory threshold measured in the laboratory occurred at 83.3 ± 2.5% of the heart rate at VO2 max with no differences between the men and women. However, the heart rate at the ventilatory threshold measured in the laboratory was only 77% of the maximal COMP HR or TR HR. In order to optimize training-induced adaptation, training intensity for NCAA division 2 distance event runners should not be based on laboratory assessment of maximum heart rate, but instead on maximum heart rate obtained either during training or during competition

  11. Relationship between tethered forces and the four swimming techniques performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro; Keskinen, Kari L; Vilas-Boas, Joao Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the relationships between competitive performance and tether forces according to distance swam, in the four strokes, and to analyze if relative values of force production are better determinants of swimming performance than absolute values. The subjects (n = 32) performed a 30 s tethered swimming all-out effort. The competitive swimming velocities were obtained in the distances 50, 100 and 200 m using official chronometric values of competitions within 25 days after testing protocol. Mean force and velocity (50 m event) show significant correlations for front crawl (r = .92, p competitive performance than relative values (normalized to body mass). Tethered swimming test seems to be a reliable protocol to evaluate the swimmer stroking force production and a helpful estimator of competitive performance in short distance competitive events.

  12. Favourable impact of regular swimming in young people with haemophilia: experience derived from 'Desafio del Caribe' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadas, A; Osorio, M; Gibraltar, A; Rosas, M M; Berges, A; Herrera, E; Gadea, S; Gutiérrez, M Á; Salazar, F; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2015-01-01

    Swimming is beneficial for persons with haemophilia (PWH) providing good maintenance of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system and improving many psychological characteristics. In the Desafío del Caribe Project, young PWH from Venezuela and Mexico took part in an open water competition in the Gulf of Mexico under a multidisciplinary team supervision. Eight severe haemophilia A, two moderate haemophilia A, one severe haemophilia B and two moderate haemophilia B subjects were included. Haematological, musculoskeletal and psychological evaluations were carried out before and during training for the competition. Training program included physical exercise routines and swimming practices that alternated between pools and open water. Swimmers had coverage with factor concentrates before pool and open water trainings. In physiatric evaluations, the Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was used. The objective of the psychology area was to analyse self-esteem, precompetition anxiety, coping mechanisms and relaxation levels. The need of factor prophylaxis before intense trainings was confirmed. In the musculoskeletal system a decrease of elbow pain as well as an increase of muscle strength in the ankles were observed. In the psychological area significant differences between the first and second test in self-esteem levels, cognitive anxiety and group cohesion were found. PWH must be provided with orientation and encouragement to practice swimming regularly. High competition exercise must be supervised by a multidisciplinary team which must evaluate the pros and cons of the activity to make relevant recommendations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstaff, P D; Kreider, R; Bishop, R; Wilson, M; Wood, L; Alexander, C; Almada, A

    1997-12-01

    In a double-blind and randomized manner, 18 male and female junior competitive swimmers supplemented their diets with 21 g.day-1 of creatine monohydrate (Cr) or a maltodextrin placebo (P) for 9 days during training. Prior to and following supplementation, subjects performed three 100-m freestyle sprint swims (long course) with 60 s rest/recovery between heats. In addition, subjects performed three 20-s arm ergometer maximal-effort sprint tests in the prone position with 60 s rest/recovery between sprint tests. Significant differences were observed among swim times, with Cr subjects swimming significantly faster than P subjects following supplementation in Heat 1 and significantly decreasing swim time in the second 100-m sprint. There was also some evidence that cumulative time to perform the three 100-m swims was decreased in the Cr group. Results indicate that 9 days of Cr supplementation during swim training may provide some ergogenic value to competitive junior swimmers during repetitive sprint performance.

  14. Investigation of the Effect of Training on the Development of High School Teachers' Attitudes towards Scientific Research and Project Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçöltekin, Alptürk

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop positive attitudes in high school teachers towards scientific research and project competitions by training them in scientific research and project preparation subjects. The study group consists of 90 high school teachers. As a result of the study, a significant difference was found in favor of…

  15. Competitive Memory Training (COMET) for Treating Low Self-Esteem in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrelboom, Kees; de Jong, Martie; Huijbrechts, Irma; Daansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates a short stepwise cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of low self-esteem in patients with eating disorders. Competitive memory training (COMET) for low self-esteem is based on insights and findings from experimental psychology. A total of 52 patients with eating disorders and low self-esteem were treated with…

  16. Competitive Memory Training (COMET) for Treating Low Self-Esteem in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrelboom, Kees; de Jong, Martie; Huijbrechts, Irma; Daansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates a short stepwise cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of low self-esteem in patients with eating disorders. Competitive memory training (COMET) for low self-esteem is based on insights and findings from experimental psychology. A total of 52 patients with eating disorders and low self-esteem were treated with…

  17. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  18. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made.

  19. Thinking of Functional Training on Competitive Sports Training%对功能性训练在竞技体育训练中的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁明; 赵琦

    2016-01-01

    采用文献资料法和逻辑分析法,从功能性训练的概念、特性与功效出发,对功能性训练在竞技体育训练中存在的几点关系进行理论层面的思考与分析。研究认为:功能性训练与康复健身之间存在高度的互溶性;是介于一般体能训练和专项体能训练之间,三者应是一个有机过滤和循序渐进的过程;与传统体能训练存在优势互补的关系,两者应有效结合。此研究在理清功能性训练在竞技体育训练中存在几点关系的同时,以期为今后的运动训练提供一个科学的理论指导。%Using literature and logical analysis methods, this paper attempts to think and study the several relationships of functional training in competition sports training from the concept , characteristics and efficacy of functional training. It suggests that functional training has highly mutually soluble with exercise rehabilitation, which is a kind of training between general physical training and special physical training ,all of which should filterorganically and improve gradually .What’s more, functional training and traditional physical training should be combined effectively, which are complementary to each other in the advantages and disadvantages. This study not only can clarify the several relationships of functional training in competition sports training, but also provide a scientific theoretical guidance for further sports training.

  20. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  1. Airways disorders and the swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the possible detrimental effects of chlorine derivatives in indoor swimming pool environments. Indeed, a controversy has arisen regarding the possibility that chlorine commonly used worldwide as a disinfectant favors the development of asthma and allergic diseases. The effects of swimming in indoor chlorinated pools on the airways in recreational and elite swimmers are presented. Recent studies on the influence of swimming on airway inflammation and remodeling in competitive swimmers, and the phenotypic characteristics of asthma in this population are reviewed. Preventative measures that could potentially reduce the untoward effects of pool environment on airways of swimmers are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of swimming training in thermal spring on pilots' pulmonary function%温泉游泳训练对飞行员肺功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠波

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To observe the effects of swimming training in thermal spring on pilots'pulmonary function. Methods; Twenty four healthy male pilots in active service were selected as subjects. During the period of convalescence, they were arranged to perform a four - week swimming training program (700 m swimming training in thermal spring every day, 5 days/week ). The changes of their pulmonary function before and after training were measured with pulmonary function testing equipment, respectively. Results; After four - week swimming training in thermal water, pilots'FVC(L), IVC(L), MVV(L/S), VC(L), PEF(L/S) increased significantly (P0.05). Conclusion; During the convalescence, swimming training in thermal spring can increase pilots'pulmonary function. However, the training has little effect on improving the small airway function.%目的:观察健康疗养期间温泉游泳训练对飞行员肺功能指标的影响.方法:24名现役飞行员在健康疗养期间,进行每周5d、连续4周的温泉游泳训练.训练前后采用采用肺功能检测仪检测肺功能指标.结果:与训练前相比,游泳训练4周后飞行员用力肺活量(FVC)、最大自然换气量(MVV)、呼出峰值流量(PEF)、慢吸气肺活量(IVC)、慢呼出肺活量(VC)、训练前后均有显著变化(P<0.01);小气道功能训练前后没有显著变化.结论:健康疗养期间,温泉游泳锻炼可提高肺活量,但对小气道功能的改变不明显.

  3. The effect of acute swim stress and training in the water maze on hippocampal synaptic activity as well as plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats: revisiting swim-induced LTP reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Heena; Frey, Julietta U

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model of learning and memory. An early form of LTP (E-LTP) can be reinforced into its late form (L-LTP) by various behavioral interactions within a specific time window ("behavioral LTP-reinforcement"). Depending on the type and procedure used, various studies have shown that stress differentially affects synaptic plasticity. Under low stress, such as novelty detection or mild foot shocks, E-LTP can be transformed into L-LTP in the rat dentate gyrus (DG). A reinforcing effect of a 2-min swim, however, has only been shown in (Korz and Frey (2003) J Neurosci 23:7281-7287; Korz and Frey (2005) J Neurosci 25:7393-7400; Ahmed et al. (2006) J Neurosci 26:3951-3958; Sajikumar et al., (2007) J Physiol 584.2:389-400) so far. We have reinvestigated these studies using the same as well as an improved recording technique which allowed the recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and the population spike amplitude (PSA) at their places of generation in freely moving rats. We show that acute swim stress led to a long-term depression (LTD) in baseline values of PSA and partially fEPSP. In contrast to earlier studies a LTP-reinforcement by swimming could never be reproduced. Our results indicate that 2-min swim stress influenced synaptic potentials as well as E-LTP negatively.

  4. Repeated double-poling sprint training in hypoxia by competitive cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiss, Raphael; Willis, Sarah; Born, Dennis-Peter; Sperlich, Billy; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-04-01

    Repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) was recently shown to improve repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in cycling. This phenomenon is likely to reflect fiber type-dependent, compensatory vasodilation, and therefore, our hypothesis was that RSH is even more beneficial for activities involving upper body muscles, such as double poling during cross-country skiing. In a double-blinded fashion, 17 competitive cross-country skiers performed six sessions of repeated sprints (each consisting of four sets of five 10-s sprints, with 20-s intervals of recovery) either in normoxia (RSN, 300 m; FiO2, 20.9%; n = 8) or normobaric hypoxia (RSH, 3000 m; FiO2, 13.8 %; n = 9). Before (pre) and after (post) training, performance was evaluated with an RSA test (10-s all-out sprints-20-s recovery, until peak power output declined by 30%) and a simulated team sprint (team sprint, 3 × 3-min all-out with 3-min rest) on a double-poling ergometer. Triceps brachii oxygenation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. From pretraining to posttraining, peak power output in the RSA was increased (P sprints performed was enhanced in RSH (10.9 ± 5.2 vs 17.1 ± 6.8, P sprints throughout RSA rose more in RSH (P sprints improved by 11% ± 9% in RSH and 15% ± 7% in RSN. Our findings reveal greater improvement in the performance of repeated double-poling sprints, together with larger variations in the perfusion of upper body muscles in RSH compared with those in RSN.

  5. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  6. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Tayfun KIR; Zakir COBANOÐLU

    2004-01-01

    Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000): 103-104

  7. High level swimming performance and its relation to non-specific parameters: a cross-sectional study on maximum handgrip isometric strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Nuno D; Silva, António J; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Costa, Aldo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Marques, Mário C

    2012-06-01

    The relationship between handgrip isometric strength and swimming performance was assessed in the four competitive swimming strokes in swimmers of different age groups and of both sexes. 78 national-level Portuguese swimmers (39 males, 39 females) were selected for this study. Grip strength, previously used as a marker of overall strength to predict future swimming performance, was measured using a hand dynamometer. The best competitive time at 100 and 200 m in all four swimming strokes were converted into 2010 FINA points. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate differences between groups. Pearson product-moment correlations were computed to verify the association between variables. Handgrip maximum isometric strength was significantly correlated with swimming performance, particularly among female swimmers. Among female age group swimmers, the relationship between handgrip and 100-m freestyle was significant. Handgrip isometric strength seems to be related to swimming performance, especially to 100-m freestyle and in female swimmers. For all other distances and strokes, technique and training probably are more influential than semi-hereditary strength markers such as grip strength.

  8. Effect of Additional Respiratory Muscle Endurance Training in Young Well-Trained Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Lemaitre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While some studies have demonstrated that respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET improves performances during various exercise modalities, controversy continues about the transfer of RMET effects to swimming performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the added effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET; normocapnic hyperpnea on the respiratory muscle function and swimming performance of young well-trained swimmers. Two homogenous groups were recruited: ten swimmers performed RMET (RMET group and ten swimmers performed no RMET (control group. During the 8-week RMET period, all swimmers followed the same training sessions 5-6 times/week. Respiratory muscle strength and endurance, performances on 50- and 200-m trials, effort perception, and dyspnea were assessed before and after the intervention program. The results showed that ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and performances were improved only in the RMET group. Moreover, perceived exertion and dyspnea were lower in the RMET group in both trials (i.e., 50- and 200-m. Consequently, the swim training associated with RMET was more effective than swim training alone in improving swimming performances. RMET can therefore be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers.

  9. TRAINING THE COMPETITIVE GRADUATES OF PEDAGOGICAL HIGHER SCHOOLS VIA THE SYSTEM OF ADDITIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Amirova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of professional selfdetermination, which involves selection of and enrolment in a particular educational institution, as well as preparation for a job placement after graduation in the fast changing labor market. Additionally, the authors point out the related complications, caused by deformations in the professional orientation system, and leading to a professional self-identification crisis. The aim of the research is to demonstrate that fostering the competitive university graduates -the priority task of the modern higher school - requires psycho-pedagogical facilitation, and flexible alternative application of available resources of time, content, organization, and technology. However, the necessity to follow the Federal State Educational Standards and other regulatory procedures slows down the higher school’s response to changing realities, and hinders the prompt development of mobile and adaptive educational programs. As an effective tool for solving the problem of professional selfidentification, the author recommends the variational programs of additional education, regarded as an option to the major specialization. The paper discusses the “SchoolofProfessional Success” project, approbated inBashkirskyStatePedagogicalUniversity, based on the competence and person-oriented approaches, and analytical monitoring of students’ requirements for additional skills and knowledge. The above experience can be further extrapolated to different fields of training.

  10. On the existed problems of the amateur swimming team in basic training%试谈业余游泳队基础训练中存在问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃卫新

    2012-01-01

      现今大多业余游泳队存在着比较多的训练问题,未能很好地认识基础训练的重要性,训练计划不够合理,训练方法上也存在着比较多的问题,因此导致训练中不能很好的让队员掌握好基本技术,队员水感差,身体素质也差,训练积极性不高,训练效果不好。文章主要通过个人在带队中的经历和多年的训练与实践,对业余游泳队基础训练的问题进行讨论并提出建议。%  Most amateur swimming team existed some training problems which the importance of basic training did not well knowed,and training plans and training method are not reasonable, therefore,the basic technology can't be mastered in training, combined with personal experience and practice, the issues of the amateur swimming team basic training were discussed and some suggestions were put forward.

  11. Features of the training process of handball players of higher qualification between rounds in the competitive period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyshchenko V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the technology of preparation of athletes in accordance with the requirements of the system approach. Team management methodology disclosed in terms of the training process in the competitive period between rounds of the regular championship of Ukraine. Material : the experiment involved 85 athletes aged 18-32 years. Results : The recommended during pilot training to perform technical and tactical actions in lockstep future games. Testing and modeling training - at a more complete simulation of conditions of competition. Shock training to perform with significant excess volume and intensity. Shock-modeling training - close to a match where the simulated conditions and confounding factor. The most efficient and effective indicators to consider: the number of substitutions in one match - 8-12 times; residence time player on the court - 12-15 minutes; preferred time of travel players during replacement - 3-5 minutes; heart rate after a rest - 100-120 beats per minute. Conclusions : The developed model microcycle training process handball players between rounds of the Championship of Ukraine.

  12. Prolonged Practice of Swimming Is Negatively Related to Bone Mineral Density Gains in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Marcelo R.; Lynch, Kyle R.; Maillane-Vanegas, Santiago; Turi-Lynch, Bruna; Ito, Igor H.; Luiz-de-Marco, Rafael; Rodrigues-Junior, Mario A.; Fernandes, Rômulo A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The practice of swimming in "hypogravity" conditions has potential to decrease bone formation because it decreases the time engaged in weight-bearing activities usually observed in the daily activities of adolescents. Therefore, adolescents competing in national levels would be more exposed to these deleterious effects, because they are engaged in long routines of training during most part of the year. To analyze the effect of swimming on bone mineral density (BMD) gain among adolescents engaged in national level competitions during a 9-month period. Methods Fifty-five adolescents; the control group contained 29 adolescents and the swimming group was composed of 26 athletes. During the cohort study, BMD, body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) were assessed using a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanner. Body weight was measured with an electronic scale, and height was assessed using a stadiometer. Results During the follow-up, swimmers presented higher gains in FFM (Control 2.35 kg vs. Swimming 5.14 kg; large effect size [eta-squared (ES-r)=0.168]) and BMD-Spine (Swimming 0.087 g/cm2 vs. Control 0.049 g/cm2; large effect size [ES-r=0.167]) compared to control group. Male swimmers gained more FFM (Male 10.63% vs. Female 3.39%) and BMD-Spine (Male 8.47% vs. Female 4.32%) than females. Longer participation in swimming negatively affected gains in upper limbs among males (r=-0.438 [-0.693 to -0.085]), and in spine among females (r=-0.651 [-0.908 to -0.036]). Conclusions Over a 9-month follow-up, BMD and FFM gains were more evident in male swimmers, while longer engagement in swimming negatively affected BMD gains, independently of sex. PMID:27622179

  13. 吉林省青少年游泳运动员训练特征研究%Research on the Training Characteristics of Junior Swimming Athletes in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高龙; 邓凯亓; 陈思羽

    2015-01-01

    This research mainly adopts the research methods of questionnaire,literature,expert interview,etc., analyzing systematically the existing problems in the training of junior swimming athletes in Jilin Province.The result shows that the old training method and training facilities,relatively low level of educational background of coaches,lack of professional skills and advanced training are the critical factors that set limits on the improvement of the junior swimming athletes.This paper thus suggests that we should increase opportunities for the coaches to take part in professional training,step up efforts in the professional training,improve the initiatives and cultural qualities,thus promote the sustainable development of the junior swimming athletes in Jilin Province.%本研究主要采用问卷调查法、文献资料法、专家访谈法等研究方法,系统分析吉林省青少年游泳运动员训练所存在的问题,结果显示:训练方式较为老套,设施陈旧,部分教练员学历水平偏低,专业技能欠缺,培训进修较少是影响青少年游泳水平提升的重要因素;应增加教练员专业培训的机会,加强青少年业余游泳教练员专业培训的力度,提高教练员的积极性与文化素质,从而促进与提升吉林省青少年游泳运动员的可持续发展。

  14. Does a water-training macrocycle really create imbalances in swimmers' shoulder rotator muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Nuno; Marmeleira, José; Garrido, Nuno; Silva, António J

    2015-01-01

    The continuous execution of swimming techniques may cause muscle imbalances in shoulder rotators leading to injury. However, there is a lack of published research studies on this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a competitive swim period on the shoulder rotator-cuff balance in young swimmers. A randomized controlled pretest-posttest design was used, with two measurements performed during the first macrocycle of the swimming season (baseline and 16 weeks). Twenty-seven young male swimmers (experimental group) and 22 male students who were not involved in swim training (control group) with the same characteristics were evaluated. Peak torque of shoulder internal and external rotators was assessed. Concentric action at 1.04 rad s(-1) (3 repetitions) and 3.14 rad s(-1) (20 repetitions) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3). External/internal rotators strength ratios were also obtained. For both protocols, there were significant training effects on internal rotator strength and external/internal rotator ratios (p ≤ .05). This trend was the same for both shoulders. Within-group analysis showed significant changes from baseline to 16 weeks for internal rotators strength and unilateral ratios of the experimental group. Swimmers' internal rotator strength levels increased significantly. In contrast, a significant decrease of the unilateral ratios was observed. Findings suggest that a competitive swim macrocycle leads to an increase in muscular imbalances in the shoulder rotators of young competitive swimmers. Swimming coaches should consider implementing a compensatory strength-training program.

  15. Study of major factors developed among young swimmers during the practice session and competition causing interference of their performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradip Kumar; Panja, Debjit

    2013-12-01

    Swimming is a mass-oriented, well organised and health directed sport which helps to acquire good health for the participants. In our country it is started mostly in the 8-9 years of age and when compared to developed countries the children start the practices around the 3-6 years of age. In swimming like other sports, injury can happen particularly during practice and events competition. The different types of injuries like shoulder joint injury, knee joint injury, red eyes, ear-nose infections, muscle cramps, etc, so happened during swimming practice and swimming competition, affect the performances of the swimmers on many different levels, in both training and in swim meets. This is an ongoing problem for many swimmers, moreover swimming is an intense workout, so it's important to make sure for getting adequate nutrition throughout the day. Proper nutrition and dieting play a large role in optimising swimming performance. A poor diet has a negative effect on athletic performance, as it is also evident in this study where most of the swimmers are suffering from nutritional anaemia as detected by the low level of haemoglobin in their blood and so today the study work has obviously thrown some light on this aspect to highlight the problems and their solutions.

  16. Effect of swim speed on leg-to-arm coordination in unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborough, Conor; Daly, Daniel; Payton, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of swimming speed on leg-to-arm coordination in competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Thirteen well-trained swimmers were videotaped underwater during three 25-m front crawl trials (400 m, 100 m and 50 m pace). The number, duration and timing of leg kicks in relation to arm stroke phases were identified by video analysis. Within the group, a six-beat kick was predominantly used (n = 10) although some swimmers used a four-beat (n = 2) or eight-beat kick (n = 1). Swimming speed had no significant effect on the relative duration of arm stroke and leg kick phases. At all speeds, arm stroke phases were significantly different (P amputee swimmers functionally adapt their motor organisation to swim front crawl.

  17. 游泳项目电子训练诱导仪的研制与运用研究%Research on the development and application of swimming electronic training induction machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王合霞; 王勇; 唐亮

    2016-01-01

    In view of the problem in traditional swimming training that athletes have poor handling of swimming rhythm and strength and artificial training cannot solve it well,this paper designs a convenient wireless swimming training speed induction machine.Through the keyboard input of handheld devices,and according to the needs of physical ability and training of athletes, coach can set the training parameters independently,and then transmit commands to the controller through the wireless sending module on the handheld device;after receiving instructions from wireless receiving module of the controller,single-chip microcomputer deals with them,and then pass control signals to the LED lamp belt through the data line,implement the control of multiple street lamps with light speed and intermittent time, complete effective induction of multiple swimmers speed.The machine,not only being easy to operate but also playing a positive role in improving training interest and training efficiency,is a good way to improve the scientific nature of swimming training.%针对传统游泳训练中,运动员对游泳节奏和强度把握不准的问题,设计了一种无线便捷游泳训练速度诱导器。通过该诱导器手持设备的输入键盘,教练根据运动员体能及训练需要,自主设定各项训练内容参数,并通过手持设备上的无线发送模块将命令传输给控制器;控制器部分上的无线接收模块接收指令后由单片机进行处理,然后通过数据线将控制信号传给LED灯带,实现对多路灯带亮灯速及间歇时间的控制,完成对多个游泳运动员游速的有效诱导。该诱导器不仅操作简单,而且对运动员的训练兴趣和训练效率都起到积极作用,可以很好地提高游泳训练的科学性。

  18. Children Swimming Athlete Management and the Methods of Effective Training%少儿游泳运动员管理及实施有效训练课的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉; 张蔚

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys good children swimming coaches in Wuhan, and discusses attention the basic principles of teaching and management of amateur training, and implementation method of effective training course. It provides reference for grass-roots coaches.%基于对武汉市优秀少儿游泳教练员的调查访问,探讨少儿业余训练中的执教及管理的基本原则、有效训练课的实施方法,给基层教练提供参考。

  19. 温泉游泳训练对飞行员心肺功能影响的研究%Effects of swimming training in thermal spring on pilots' cardiac and pulmonary function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠波; 姚博; 程书洋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of swimming training in thermal spring on pilots' cardiorespiratory function index. Methods Twenty four healthy male pilots in active service were selected as subjects. They were arranged to perform a twenty-days swimming training program. The changes of their cardiorespiratory function index before and after training were collected. Results After twenty days swimming training in thermal water, pilots' stroke volume ( SV) and ejection fraction ( EF) significantly increased (P<0.01) , heart rate (HR) decreased significantly (P<0.01) compared with pre-training. In addition, their forced vital capacity (FVC) , maximum voluntary ventilation ( MVV) , peak expiratory flow (PEF) , inspired vital capacity (IVC) and slow vital capacity ( VC) all increased remarkably (P <0. 01) after training. Conclusion Swimming training in thermal spring can improve pilots' cardiac function and vital capacity. However, the training has little effect on improving the small airway function.%目的 探讨温泉自然因子和游泳训练对飞行员心肺功能指标的影响.方法 24名现役飞行员连续20 d室内温泉游泳训练,并采集训练前后心肺功能指标.结果 游泳训练20 d后飞行员每搏输出量(SV)和射血分数(EF)均显著增加(P<0.01),心率(HR)显著降低(P<0.01).用力肺活量(FVC)、最大自然换气量(MVV)、呼出峰值流量(PEF)、慢吸气肺活量(IVC)、慢呼出肺活量(VC)均有显著增加(P<0.01).结论 温泉游泳锻炼可提高心功能及肺活量,但对小气道功能的改变不明显.

  20. How animals drink and swim in fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghwan

    2011-10-01

    Fluids are essential for most living organisms to maintain a healthy body and also serve as a medium in which they locomote. The fluid bulk or interfaces actively interact with biological structures, which produces highly nonlinear, interesting, and complicated dynamical problems. We studied the lapping of cats and the swimming of Paramecia in various fluidic environments. The problem of the cat drinking can be simplified as the competition between inertia and gravity whereas the problem of Paramecium swimming in viscous fluids results from the competition between viscous drag and thrust. The underlying mechanisms are discussed and understood through laboratory experiments utilizing high-speed photography.

  1. Influence of the program of physical training of highly skilled hockey players (forwards on indicators of the competitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Goncharenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the efficiency of the program of physical training of highly skilled sportswomen on indicators of the competitive activity in field hockey that was offered in the first pre-season of an annual macrocycle. Material and Methods: influence of the offered program was decided with the help of testing of motive qualities and technical elements of female hockey players. Results: correlation between indicators of the competitive activity of players of attack and the level of physical preparation was found out. Conclusions: positive influence of introduction of the program on physical preparation for highly skilled female hockey players, namely – forwards, on indicators of their competitive activity is revealed.

  2. Effects of a seven day overload-period of high-intensity training on performance and physiology of competitive cyclists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Clark

    Full Text Available Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists.The study was a matched groups, controlled trial.Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min-1 were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ∼120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short or 15, 30 and 45 second (long maximal intensity efforts.Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p0.05 increases (mean ± SD in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%, lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3% and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9% with only small differences between HIT regimes.Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists.

  3. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednychenko M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  4. A method for determining critical swimming velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Wakayoshi, K; Hayashi, A; Sakaguchi, Y; Kitagawa, K

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the critical swimming velocity (Vcri) estimated by the swimming velocity for a distance of 300 m at maximal effort breaststroke reflects the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Twelve trained swimmers swam 50 m, 300 m and 2 000 m at maximal effort for determination of Vcri that averaged 1.167 +/- 0.045 m . sec (-1). Since Vcri was equivalent to 90.5 % of the mean swimming velocity over the distance of 300 m at maximal effort, the swimming velocity obtained by multiplying the swimming velocity for the distance of 300 m of each subject by 90.5 % was taken to be 100 % of the predicted critical swimming velocity (Vcri-pred). Then, in an MLSS test, the subjects were instructed to swim breaststroke 2 000 m (5 x 400 m) at three constant velocities (98 %, 100 %, and 102 % of Vcri-pred), interrupted by four short rest periods from 30 to 45 seconds for blood sampling and heart rate measurement. As a result, the blood lactate concentration at 100 % Vcri-pred showed a higher steady state than the slow velocity, but at high velocity did not show the steady state. In conclusion, we can accurately estimate the Vcri for breaststroke by a one-time 300-m maximal effort swimming test.

  5. Swimming near a deformable interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcelo; Powers, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    It is a known fact that swimmers behave differently near deformable soft tissues than when near a rigid surface. Motivated by this class of problems, we investigate swimming microorganisms near flexible walls. We calculate the speed of a n infinitely long swimmer near an interface between two viscous fluids. Part of the calculation of the speed is the calculation of the shape of the free boundary. The swimming speed is controlled by the competition between surface and viscous effects, where two limits are observed. When the surface tension vanishes, we get Taylor's result for a swimmer with no walls. When the surface tension is infinite, the problem is like that of a swimmer near a rigid wall.

  6. Team swimming in ant spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Morgan; Delescaille, Noémie; Lybaert, Pascale; Aron, Serge

    2014-06-01

    In species where females mate promiscuously, competition between ejaculates from different males to fertilize the ova is an important selective force shaping many aspects of male reproductive traits, such as sperm number, sperm length and sperm-sperm interactions. In eusocial Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants), males die shortly after mating and their reproductive success is ultimately limited by the amount of sperm stored in the queen's spermatheca. Multiple mating by queens is expected to impose intense selective pressure on males to optimize the transfer of sperm to the storage organ. Here, we report a remarkable case of cooperation between spermatozoa in the desert ant Cataglyphis savignyi. Males ejaculate bundles of 50-100 spermatozoa. Sperm bundles swim on average 51% faster than solitary sperm cells. Team swimming is expected to increase the amount of sperm stored in the queen spermatheca and, ultimately, enhance male posthumous fitness.

  7. ARC Code TI: Swim

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Swim is a software information service for the grid built on top of Pour, which is an information service framework developed at NASA. Swim provides true software...

  8. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  9. Laryngoscopy during swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil S; Swanton, Laura L; van van Someren, Ken

    2017-01-01

    that precipitates their symptoms. This report provides the first description of the feasibility of performing continuous laryngoscopy during exercise in a swimming environment. The report describes the methodology and safety of the use of continuous laryngoscopy while swimming. Laryngoscope, 2017....

  10. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to keep my child safe around swimming pools? An adult should actively watch children at ...

  11. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  12. 2012 Swimming Season Factsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  13. Comparison of training and competition opportunities in leisure time among people with intellectual disabilities in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Francova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leisure time activities are important for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID Table tennis (TT seems to be the most suitable and accessible activity in relation to motor skills and low financial requirements. The aim of the project was to investigate the opportunities for the TT training and competition among individuals with ID in the following European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, England, and Hungary. Those countries regularly participate in international TT events organized by Inas. The coaches of the mentioned countries were questioned about the TT training process of persons with ID during their leisure time. The survey was completed by 4 coaches (3 male and 1female, who work at various levels (from the lowest level in sports clubs to the top level in national teams in each country. The research findings showed that all of the surveyed couches practiced trainings frequency two times per week. In addition to national games, all the countries organize competitions at regional levels and par¬ti¬ci¬pa¬te in international events. The data reveal that training camps lasting from 5 to 14 days per year are organized in all the sur¬veyed countries. The survey found certain training options, which correspond more to the standard of the recreational sport than to the standard of the top-level sport. A positive finding was the possibility of training with the intact population, which may be con¬si¬de¬red as an important phenomenon of social inclusion.

  14. 游泳水上训练计划计算机管理软件的设计与实现%Design and realization of software wizard for swimming pool training plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白慕炜; 沈宇鹏; 张晓琳

    2012-01-01

    科学有效的游泳水上训练计划地制定和实施对提高游泳训练水平至关重要。目前,国内教练员训练计划制定和管理大都处于纸笔和word文档层次。本研究以ACCESS2003作为底层数据库,采用DELPH17.0编程,研制开发了游泳水上训练计划计算机管理软件。该软件具有辅助教练员完成训练计划制定、训练负荷统计、训练数据计算等多种功能,可帮助教练员制定、修改、查询及打印训练计划,可按年度、周期等自定义时间统计训练负荷。软件的开发弥补了国内还没有同类软件的不足,具有原创性价值,能帮助教练员在制定训练计划前掌握训练负荷信息,并在训练计划实施后,通过软件对训练负荷的统计有效的对训练计划进行评估和改进,从而提高游泳训练科学化和信息化管理水平。%The establishment and implementation of an effective and scientific training plan is of much importance for raising swimming training level. Most coaches in China establish and manage athletes training plan with traditional written documents. By taking ACCESS 2003 as database, this study adopted DELPHI 7.0 program to develop a software wizard for swimming pool training, with which the coaches could formulate, change, search and print training plans, as well as calculate training load at a user - defined term. Also, the software made up for the lack of such software in China. With the software, the coaches could learn about the training load before formulating a plan and evaluate and improve the plan after load calculation, so as to improve the management of swimming training scientifically.

  15. An Intercollegiate Competitive Public Speaking Program: Establishing a Forensic Group to Foster Training in Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Hal

    1982-01-01

    Describes a small but successful intercollegiate competitive public speaking program. Success was related to formation of good student-teacher relationships, a productive organizational psycho-environment, and careful teaching of public speaking fundamentals. (Author/RC)

  16. An Intercollegiate Competitive Public Speaking Program: Establishing a Forensic Group to Foster Training in Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Hal

    1982-01-01

    Describes a small but successful intercollegiate competitive public speaking program. Success was related to formation of good student-teacher relationships, a productive organizational psycho-environment, and careful teaching of public speaking fundamentals. (Author/RC)

  17. 运动锻炼对鲤鱼幼鱼游泳能力及代谢的影响%The Effect of Exercise Training on the Swimming Performance and Metabolic Rate in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫东娟; 闫冠杰; 曹振东; 付世建

    2012-01-01

    以鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)幼鱼为研究对象,在25℃条件下将90尾体重为(8.12±1.30)g的实验鱼平均分成0h锻炼组(对照组)、6h锻炼组和12h锻炼组,以600临界游泳速度(Ucrit)持续运动锻炼15d,每天锻炼时间分别为0、6和12 h;随后对实验鱼进行Ucrit、耗氧率(MO2)和快速启动(Fast- start)的测定.结果显示,经过运动锻炼鲤鱼幼鱼的Ucrit和Fast-start与对照组相比,均没有显著提高,但6h锻炼组的实验鱼在30和36 cm·s-1的流速下MO2显著降低,而12h运动锻炼组的MO2始终处于较高水平.研究认为可能是由于在低于Ucrit流速下的适度的运动锻炼可能会提高鱼类在该流速下的能量利用效率,而高强度的锻炼则会使它们的基础代谢处于较高水平.%To investigate the effect of exercise training on the swimming performance and metabolic rate during swimming in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 90 juvenile fish (8. 12+1. 30) g was forced to swim under 60% critical swimming speed (Ucrit) for 0 h (control), 6 h and 12 h daily for 15 d. Then three groups of fish were underwent both an Ucrit, and fast-start measurement. The oxygen consumption rate (Mo2 ) at different swimming speed was also measured. Neither Ucrit, nor fast-start performance as indicated by maximum velocity (Vmax), maximum acceleration velocity (Amax) and travel distance during first 12 ms (S120 ms) significantly changed after 15 d training in juvenile common carp. However, the Mo2 at 20 and 36 cm s ' of fish in 6 h training group were significantly lower than those in control group while the Mo, at all swimming speed of fish in 12 h training group were significantly higher than those of control group (p<0. 05). It suggested that the cost of transport decrease after moderate exercise training (6 h), however, high intensity training (12 h) may impair the cost of transport by increased basal metabolic rate.

  18. Hypoxanthine: A Universal Metabolic Indicator of Training Status in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Jacek; Kusy, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    Cardiorespiratory and biochemical indicators typically used by contemporary elite athletes seem to have limited applicability. According to some recent studies, purine metabolism better reflects exercise response and muscle adaptation in this group. We propose using purine derivatives, especially plasma hypoxanthine concentration, as indicators of training status in consecutive training phases in highly trained athletes.

  19. [200 - 400 m breaststroke event dominate among knee overuse injuries in elite swimming athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Yoon, U; Kraemer, R; Vogt, P M

    2008-12-01

    We hypothesized that pool swimming has a low risk for acute injuries; however overuse injuries are predominant, depending on exposure time and swimming discipline. 341 elite swimmers (19 +/- 11 years, BMI 20.3 +/- 3) were enrolled. Swimming was performed at mean since 10.1 +/- 8 years with 3.8 units every week during 43 weeks every year. The overall pool swimming injury rate was 0.39 / 1000 h. Overuse injuries (0.22 / 1000 h) were more frequent than acute injuries (0.17 / 1000 h). The upper extremity was involved more frequently (0.11 / 1000 h) than the trunk (0.067 / 1000 h) or the lower extremity (0.085 / 1000 h). Knee pain was predominant (0.17 / 1000 h) followed by shoulder overuse injuries (0.11 / 1000 h). Especially the 200 - 400 m breaststroke event had a fivefold higher risk for knee pain (relative risk, RR 5.1, p = 0.001). Freestyle had a reduced relative risk for knee pain (RR 0.5, p = 0.03), where shoulder overuse syndromes were predominant. Butterfly increased acute shoulder injury with RR 4.4 (p = 0.004), cervical spine injuries (RR 4.0, p = 0.03) and lower back pain (RR 2.5, p = 0.011). Swimming for more than four times a week had a higher risk for knee injuries (RR 2.1) and shoulder injuries (RR 4.0). We found that stretching was associated with a fivefold reduced risk for overuse knee injuries. Competitive swimming is a reasonable safe sport, where overuse injuries are predominant. 200 - 400 m breaststroke events increase the risk for knee overuse injuries more than other disciplines. Training for more than four times a week increases the risk twofold for knee and fourfold for shoulder overuse injuries.

  20. Principles of macro-methodic of junior female gymnasts’ training to sport exercises for gymnastic all round competitions at specialized basic stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potop V.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: working out of principles of junior female gymnasts’ macro-methodic training to sport exercises for all round competitions at stage of specialized basic training. Material: in the research 19 girl-gymnasts from reserve of combined team of Romania participated. Measurements and assessment of technical fitness at training sessions and in conditions of competitions were conducted at 120 training sessions (10 sessions a week. Results: we worked out and realized experimentally and in training sessions principles of macro-methodic training to gymnastic exercises. Macro-methodic of training is presented in structure of long-term programs of training for all round competitions. Macro-methodic is presented as combination of elements of motor, technical, didactic and technological structures of sport exercises (in the present article it was described on material of vaults of Yurchenko’s type. Conclusions: macro-methodic permits to state optimal algorithm of mastering of theoretical and practical materials at training sessions. Besides, it permits to demonstrate steady growth of sport results at competitions. With it individual-age features of junior female gymnasts, tendencies and specialists’ requirements are considered.

  1. Characteristics of muscle dysmorphia in male football, weight training, and competitive natural and non-natural bodybuilding samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghurst, Timothy; Lirgg, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in traits associated with muscle dysmorphia between collegiate football players (n=66), weight trainers for physique (n=115), competitive non-natural bodybuilders (n=47), and competitive natural bodybuilders (n=65). All participants completed demographic questionnaires in addition to the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (Rhea, Lantz, & Cornelius, 2004). Results revealed a significant main effect for group, and post hoc tests found that the non-natural bodybuilding group did not score significantly higher than the natural bodybuilding group on any subscale except for Pharmacological Use. Both the non-natural and natural bodybuilding groups scored significantly higher than those that weight trained for physique on the Dietary Behavior and Supplement Use subscales. The collegiate football players scored lowest on all subscales of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory except for Physique Protection where they scored highest. Findings are discussed with future research expounded.

  2. Thoughts on the Using of Functional Fitness Training in Syn- chronized Swimming%关于功能性体能训练在花样游泳项目中运用的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞华

    2012-01-01

    反思花样游泳项目体能训练的现状,分析对于花样游泳专项训练最为重要的体能素质:有氧能力、无氧能力、核心力量和小肌肉群力量,并结合花样游泳专项特点,分析了不同体能素质未来发展的基本思路,为花样游泳项目体能训练的安排提供了理论依据。%The article introspected the situation of fitness training in Synchronized Swimming team, analyzed the four most important as- pects of Synchronized Swimming: Aerobic ability, anaerobic capaci- ty, core capacity and fine motor capacity. Then the researchers showed different developing trends of future fitness training in this sport, and offered theoretical reference for the arrangement of fitness training in the sport.

  3. The effect of exercise training on the metabolic interaction between feeding and locomotion in the juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2010-11-01

    The southern catfish exhibits the largest decrease in critical swimming speeds (U(crit)) during digestion among the fish species that have been investigated. To test whether the maximum metabolic capacity of the southern catfish was improved after exercise training to alleviate the competitive interaction between digestion and swimming, we measured postprandial metabolic responses, U(crit) and oxygen consumption rates (MO(2)) during swimming in both fasting and digesting fish. Twenty-one days of training (50 min swimming at 60% U(crit) followed by 10 min chasing) did not produce significant differences in resting MO(2) (MO(2rest)) or postprandial peak MO(2) (MO(2peak)). However, it did result in a significant decrease in energy expenditure during digestion. Feeding caused a significant decrease in U(crit) and an increase in active MO(2) (MO(2active)), whereas training caused a significant increase in U(crit) but no significant change in MO(2active). Neither digestion nor training had a significant effect on metabolic scope (MO(2active)-MO(2rest)). Training had no interactive effect on postprandial changes in any measured variable, so we conclude that training did not alleviate the competitive interaction between digestion and swimming. Our results suggest that: (1) the metabolic capacity of nontrained fish cannot support the metabolic demands of both digestion and locomotion simultaneously, and swimming metabolism, therefore, is sacrificed to sustain digestion when feeding and locomotion are combined (digestion-prioritization mode); (2) the metabolic capacity and metabolic mode of competition did not change after training, but trained fish did exhibit improved swimming performance, possibly due to their increased rate of O(2) extraction.

  4. Swimming and Asthma: Differences between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Kristiina Päivinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Asthma is common in endurance athletes including swimmers. Our aim was to study gender differences in asthma, allergy, and asthmatic symptoms in swimmers and investigate the effects of varying intensities of physical exercise on competitive swimmers with asthma. Methods. Three hundred highly trained swimmers (156 females and 144 males were studied by a questionnaire. Their mean (±SD ages were 17±3 and 19±3 years, and they had training history of 7±2 and 7±3 years in females and males, respectively. Gender differences in asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms were examined. Special attention was focused on asthmatic swimmers, their allergies and respiratory symptoms during swimming at different intensities. Results. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 19% for females and males. No gender differences in asthma or respiratory symptoms were found. Males reported allergies significantly more often than females (P=0.007. Gender difference was found in respiratory symptoms among swimmers with physician-diagnosed asthma because females reported symptoms significantly more often (P=0.017 than males. Asthmatic females also reported symptoms significantly more often at moderate intensity swimming (P=0.003 than males especially for coughing. Discussion. Gender difference in prevalence of asthma was not found in swimmers. However, allergy was reported significantly more by male swimmers. Male swimmers with asthma reported significantly more cases having family history of asthma, which may be a sign of selection of asthma-friendly sport. Moderate intensity swimming seemed to induce significantly more symptoms especially coughing in asthmatic females.

  5. Reliability and stability of performances in 400-m swimming and 1500-m running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Graham J; Archer, David T; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Thompson, Kevin G

    2014-07-01

    To assess the reliability and stability of 400-m swimming and 1500-m running competitions to establish the number of samples needed to obtain a stable pacing profile. Coaches, athletes, and researchers can use these methods to ensure that sufficient data are collected before training and race strategies are constructed or research conclusions are drawn. Lap times were collected from 5 world and European championship finals between 2005 and 2011, resulting in the capture of data from 40 swimmers and 55 runners. A cumulative mean for each lap was calculated, starting with the most recent data, and the number of races needed for this to stabilize to within 1% was reported. Typical error for each lap was calculated for athletes who had competed in more than 1 final. International swimmers demonstrated more reproducible performances than runners in 3 of the 4 laps of the race (P swimming. Researchers and athletes can be more certain about the pacing information collected from 400-m swimming than 1500-m running races, as the swimming data are less variable, despite both events being of similar duration.

  6. 热带高校游泳特色教学心理训练初探%On Psychological Characteristics of Tropical College Swimming Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少凯

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the three stages of swimming teaching,and the combination of students' physiological and psychological characteristics,uses all sorts of effective teaching methods,which makes the students master swimming technical movements in a sho%围绕游泳教学的三个阶段,结合学生的生理、心理特点,运用各种有效的教学手段,使学生在短时间内掌握游泳技术动作,取得了良好的效果。

  7. Evolución de la natación de competencia en la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina, desde 1950 hasta el año 2000 = Evolution of the swimming competition in the province of Mendoza (Argentina, from 1950 to the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Javier Sáez

    2013-03-01

    , with a survey to collect data of the origins and evolution of the swimming of competition in Mendoza. Also evolution of the records of the tests of 100 meters in the four styles, the 400 was evaluated, 800 and 1500 meters free both sexes in sink of 25 and 50 meters. One considered the Selected amount of participant clubs, swimmers with national license in the different years and nominations for National in the different decades. One did not obtain statistically significant differences between the evolution of the records realised in sink of 25 with the one of 50 meters. It was verified that the amount of participant clubs in the matches fell as much from 1950 to year 200 like the one of federal swimmers. The study reveals to us that the competitive level of the swimmers and has elevated by the increase in the Selected nominations in National. As conclusion we obtained that possibly these obtained values must to the evolution in the techniques of I swim and the methods of training, question that can be used for next studies and that, at least in this case, the amount of sportsmen is not directly proportional to the sport profits.

  8. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  9. Exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue during swimming: the effect of race distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-05-01

    Exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) has been quantified for several sports. However, it is not yet known if, or to what extent, IMF is determined by the competition distance. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of 3 different competitive front-crawl swimming race distances on the magnitude of IMF. Ten well-trained swimmers from a local swim team participated in the study and on separate days completed maximal 100-, 200-, and 400-m time trials (TTs). Before and after each trial, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) was measured and %IMF determined from pre- and post-time-trial differences in MIP. The heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived dyspnea (RPD) was also assessed. For all distances, posttrial MIP was lower than pretrial MIP, though this was only significant for 100 m (p 0.05). There were no relationships between %IMF and mean pretrial MIP (r = -0.28, p > 0.05) or between %IMF and time for any TT (100 m, r = 0.25; 200 m, r = 0.34; 400 m r = 0.18; p > 0.05). The lack of difference between trials for posttrial absolute MIP suggests that race distance during swimming does not substantially influence the degree of IMF.

  10. Effective Psychology Training on Competition%赛前心理训练对比赛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成艳

    2011-01-01

    In the modern competitive sport,winning the key psychological factors become an important part of mental training of athletes and coaches also been much concern of researchers.Use of effective psychological training methods,can overcome the psychological%在现代竞技体育比赛中,心理因素成为胜负关键的一个重要环节,运动员的心理训练也就一直备受教练员和科研人员的关注。采用有效的心理训练方法,可以克服临场发挥的心理障碍,使运动员具有良好的比赛状态,有利于提高比赛成绩。

  11. Efficiency of the technique of the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders of the mesomorphic type of constitution in the competitive period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskіy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: foundation of efficiency of the technique of the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the competitive period. Material & Methods: 16 highly skilled bodybuilders of 22–30 years old participated in the research, the average body weight of sportsmen makes 872 – 1022 kg, which are included in the structure of the national team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Methods: method of the theoretical analysis and generalization of literature, pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment, method of mathematical statistics. Results: the comparative characteristic of the most often used techniques of the training process in bodybuilding is provided. The effective technique for highly skilled bodybuilders of the mesomorphic type of constitution, depending on the initial uniform of a sportsman at the beginning of the competitive period of training is developed and proved. Dependence of change of body weight of a bodybuilder on the training process is directed. Conclusions: on the effective training method, depending on microcycle of trainings in the competitive period precompetitive and competitive mesocycles (selection and main competitions, is offered the basis of the conducted research.

  12. Training loads of female canoeing youth national team in sprint competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslicka Miroslawa.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Long-term training process need precise, scientific management, based on recognition indicators of fitness preparation, technical, mental health status of the player. Control is treated as a collection of information allowing to organize rational technological solution. Verification should provide high reliability and information of the test results, what is achieved by standardizing test conditions, sets of samples used in any of the disciplines and measurement techniques. Objective The objective was to calculate the training loads of female canoeing youth national team (sprint. In addition, attempts to answer the following questions: What was the structure of the annual training plans and whether it is consistent with the theory of training canoeist?; What was the pace and direction of changes in the volume of work within each group of training? Materials and methods The study used records of logs implementation training loads what competitors have done in the years 2009 to 2010. The analysis included data on training loads and boot. The loads presented as the number of kilometers completed during each season training and during each period of the season and in arbitrary units. Results and conclusions Based on the collected material research analysed training of female canoeing youth national team both in terms of its subject, as well as temporary structures. Every aspect of fitness requires adequate time, necessary to make adaptive changes. Therefore, it is necessary to vary the time required for development. Comparing the training load can be seen that in 2009 competitors have done more work in the run-up than in 2010, but much smaller loads can be seen in 2009 during start season comparing the training load during startup in 2010.

  13. Analysis of swimming performance: perceptions and practices of US-based swimming coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Robert; Corley, Gavin; Godfrey, Alan; Osborough, Conor; Newell, John; Quinlan, Leo Richard; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2016-01-01

    In elite swimming, a broad range of methods are used to assess performance, inform coaching practices and monitor athletic progression. The aim of this paper was to examine the performance analysis practices of swimming coaches and to explore the reasons behind the decisions that coaches take when analysing performance. Survey data were analysed from 298 Level 3 competitive swimming coaches (245 male, 53 female) based in the United States. Results were compiled to provide a generalised picture of practices and perceptions and to examine key emerging themes. It was found that a disparity exists between the importance swim coaches place on biomechanical analysis of swimming performance and the types of analyses that are actually conducted. Video-based methods are most frequently employed, with over 70% of coaches using these methods at least monthly, with analyses being mainly qualitative in nature rather than quantitative. Barriers to the more widespread use of quantitative biomechanical analysis in elite swimming environments were explored. Constraints include time, cost and availability of resources, but other factors such as sources of information on swimming performance and analysis and control over service provision are also discussed, with particular emphasis on video-based methods and emerging sensor-based technologies.

  14. Proposal of competitive sport activities to improve the participation of children with late mental development to the systematic sport training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Caridad Veloso Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to the problematic solution dealt with in the present investigation is constituted by competitive sport activities, which respond to its totality to the integral diagnosis and therefore, to the individual and group characteristics of the selected students as it is shown, being of this form in the heat of correspondence with their real necessities. This activities were developed during the partaking sport time and three stages framed during the course to the competitions. Its organization was based on the same principles on which the Program of the Special Olympic Games is fomented, extracting from the quarries of the base sport the sport talent, it is for that reason so important the work of preparation and participation in the bases, as from the whole scale practice it is that the quality is obtained or the sport talent within the ample range of sport disciplines. The work's objective is to apply competitive sport activities to improve the participation of late mental development children in the systematic training. These activities, proposed as solution, were very effective, since it was obtained a favorable atmosphere in all the school in students, teachers, specialists, family, community, making possible these children to improved their participation in the systematic training, their technical level improved a lot and, mainly, they demonstrated that the sport is one of the fundamental routes to the formation of values in this population group. The results thrown by the investigation are considered valuable since it is the base for the profit of good results in the competence.

  15. Inspiratory muscle fatigue after race-paced swimming is not restricted to the front crawl stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Mitch; Iggleden, Colin; Tourell, Alice; Castle, Sophie; Honey, Jo

    2012-10-01

    The occurrence of inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) has been documented after front crawl (FC) swimming of various distances. Whether IMF occurs after other competitive swimming strokes is not known. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of all 4 competitive swimming strokes on the occurrence of IMF after race-paced swimming and to determine whether the magnitude of IMF was related to the breathing pattern adopted and hence breathing frequency (f(b)). Eleven, nationally ranked, youth swimmers completed four 200-m swims (one in each competitive stroke) on separate occasions. The order of the swims, which consisted of FC, backstroke (BK), breaststroke (BR), and butterfly (FLY), was randomized. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) was assessed before (after a swimming and inspiratory muscle warm-up) and after each swim with f(b) calculated post swim from recorded data. Inspiratory muscle fatigue was evident after each 200-m swim (p 0.05) was observed between f(b) and the change in MIP (FC: r = -0.456; BK: r = 0.218; BR: r = 0.218; and FLY: r = 0.312). These results demonstrate that IMF occurs in response to 200-m race-paced swimming in all strokes and that the magnitude of IMF is similar between strokes when breathing is ad libitum occurring no less than 1 breath (inhalation) every third stroke.

  16. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities.

  17. Training characteristics of paralympic swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Sacha K; Pyne, David B; Hopkins, Will G; Burkett, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    The ability to monitor training is critical to the process of quantifying training periodization plans, yet weekly patterns of volume and intensity for Paralympic swimmers before competition have not been reported. Sixteen swimmers were monitored prospectively over a 16-week training block constituting 4 training phases (early, mid, late, and taper), before a World Championship. Training volume (total and main set distance) and intensity (percentage of peak heart rate [HR], swimming velocity, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]) were quantified using an online training diary, and changes in training load were examined over the 4 training phases. For a subgroup of swimmers (n = 12), with similarities in underlying disability, change in performance between Selection Trials and World Championships was also quantified. Substantial increases in total training volume (29.6%) were observed late phase, and main set volume was reduced substantially (24.1%) during the taper phase. Small to moderate increases in training intensity (HR 2.4%, velocity 4.5%, and RPE 6.7%) were observed late phase and maintained through the taper. There were no clear associations between discrete training measures and competition performance. Swimmers competing at the Paralympic level seem to follow traditional periodized patterns of training, similar to those of swimmers at the Olympic level, before competition. Coaches of elite swimmers with a disability should review their prescribed patterns of training before major competition: A more substantial taper (larger reduction in volume) could elicit a greater improvement in performance. Training prescription should account for different disabilities and classes and individual circumstances of elite swimmers with a disability.

  18. Swimming Orientation for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    Techniques which are designed to dispel fears and promote confident learning are offered to preschool swimming instructors. Safety, class organization, water games, and class activities are discussed. (IAH)

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO ON-COURT VS RUNNING INTERVAL TRAINING IN COMPETITIVE TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernandez -Fernandez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR, blood lactate (LA and rate of perceived exertion (RPE responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court. Eight well-trained, male (n = 4 and female (n = 4 tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79, LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L-1; p = 0.14 and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50 responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players

  20. ANALYSIS OF DRAFTING EFFECTS IN SWIMMING USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António José Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drafting distance on the drag coefficient in swimming. A k-epsilon turbulent model was implemented in the commercial code Fluent® and applied to the fluid flow around two swimmers in a drafting situation. Numerical simulations were conducted for various distances between swimmers (0.5-8.0 m and swimming velocities (1.6-2.0 m.s-1. Drag coefficient (Cd was computed for each one of the distances and velocities. We found that the drag coefficient of the leading swimmer decreased as the flow velocity increased. The relative drag coefficient of the back swimmer was lower (about 56% of the leading swimmer for the smallest inter-swimmer distance (0.5 m. This value increased progressively until the distance between swimmers reached 6.0 m, where the relative drag coefficient of the back swimmer was about 84% of the leading swimmer. The results indicated that the Cd of the back swimmer was equal to that of the leading swimmer at distances ranging from 6.45 to 8. 90 m. We conclude that these distances allow the swimmers to be in the same hydrodynamic conditions during training and competitions.

  1. Analysis of drafting effects in swimming using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, António José; Rouboa, Abel; Moreira, António; Reis, Victor Machado; Alves, Francisco; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Marinho, Daniel Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drafting distance on the drag coefficient in swimming. A k-epsilon turbulent model was implemented in the commercial code Fluent(®) and applied to the fluid flow around two swimmers in a drafting situation. Numerical simulations were conducted for various distances between swimmers (0.5-8.0 m) and swimming velocities (1.6-2.0 m.s(-1)). Drag coefficient (Cd) was computed for each one of the distances and velocities. We found that the drag coefficient of the leading swimmer decreased as the flow velocity increased. The relative drag coefficient of the back swimmer was lower (about 56% of the leading swimmer) for the smallest inter-swimmer distance (0.5 m). This value increased progressively until the distance between swimmers reached 6.0 m, where the relative drag coefficient of the back swimmer was about 84% of the leading swimmer. The results indicated that the Cd of the back swimmer was equal to that of the leading swimmer at distances ranging from 6.45 to 8. 90 m. We conclude that these distances allow the swimmers to be in the same hydrodynamic conditions during training and competitions. Key pointsThe drag coefficient of the leading swimmer decreased as the flow velocity increased.The relative drag coefficient of the back swimmer was least (about 56% of the leading swimmer) for the smallest inter-swimmer distance (0.5 m).The drag coefficient values of both swimmers in drafting were equal to distances ranging between 6.45 m and 8.90 m, considering the different flow velocities.The numerical simulation techniques could be a good approach to enable the analysis of the fluid forces around objects in water, as it happens in swimming.

  2. Maternal forced swimming reduces cell proliferation in the postnatal dentate gyrus of mouse offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Ronaldo C Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mot...

  3. Skills for a Competitive Future: A Survey for the Pharmaceutical Industry National Training Organisation. IES Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Nick; Aston, Jane

    This report focuses on a study that examined skills, recruitment, and training issues covering the whole pharmaceutical industry. It presents mailed survey material complemented and enhanced by a series of telephone interviews and focus groups. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 deals with the structure of the sector and reports background…

  4. Skills for a Competitive Future: A Survey for the Pharmaceutical Industry National Training Organisation. IES Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Nick; Aston, Jane

    This report focuses on a study that examined skills, recruitment, and training issues covering the whole pharmaceutical industry. It presents mailed survey material complemented and enhanced by a series of telephone interviews and focus groups. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 deals with the structure of the sector and reports background…

  5. Student Service and SEM: Training as the Tool to Sharpen Your Competitive Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Challenge: After years of investments on structures and systems that improve and integrate student transactional experiences, we discover that we have neglected to train our staff in customer service competencies that match student expectations. The Answer: Invest in your student service staff to ensure they possess the professional skills to…

  6. Student Service and SEM: Training as the Tool to Sharpen Your Competitive Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Challenge: After years of investments on structures and systems that improve and integrate student transactional experiences, we discover that we have neglected to train our staff in customer service competencies that match student expectations. The Answer: Invest in your student service staff to ensure they possess the professional skills to…

  7. Swimming as important factor of development of physical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadin V.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state of health and physical fitness of young people, the complex of issues regarding the development of sports and mass swimming in Ukraine, in particular regarding training the ability to swim of the population and its conscripts have been analyzed. The role and place of swimming in the system of physical education of students and the compliance with the foundations of healthy lifestyle have been defined. The methodical peculiarities of swimming lessons with the students of higher educational institutions and their influence on physical abilities and capacities of human body are being studied. The results of studies for determination of the dynamics of physical abilities and physical fitness of students aged 18 and 19 years necessary for effective actions in terms of the average high school, taking into account means of physical training in swimming, have been presented.

  8. Analysis on the Factors of Making Annual Plans for Children Swimming Training%制定儿童游泳年度训练计划之诸要素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦

    2012-01-01

    Making a good training program is an important premise in implementing athletic training and cultivating elite athletes.For children's swimming program,the difficulty lies in various aspects of uncertainty in their body shape,physical function,psychological quality,etc.,as children are in the process of continuous growth and development.Whether the training schedule is appropriate or not is likely to affect his lifetime athletic performance.Therefore,more attention should be paid to scientific and reasonable arrangement in children's swimming programs.A number of factors and its complementary relationships should be taken into consideration to make its internal connecting link.%制定好训练计划是实施运动训练、培养造就优秀运动员的重要前提。对儿童游泳项目来说,少年儿童正处于可塑造时期,他们的身体形态、生理机能、心理素质等各方面都具不确定性,处于不断的发育和发展阶段。此时的训练易中有难。这个时期的训练计划安排好坏,将可能影响她一生的运动成绩。因此,儿童游泳更需注意计划安排的科学性。科学合理的安排儿童游泳计划,要考虑若干要素、各要素之间相辅相成关系,使其具有内在联系性。

  9. Combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation enhances interval swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, Antti A; Keskinen, Kari L; Malvela, Marko T; Sallinen, Janne M

    2004-05-01

    This study examined the effect of simultaneous supplementation of creatine and sodium bicarbonate on consecutive maximal swims. Sixteen competitive male and female swimmers completed, in a randomized order, 2 different treatments (placebo and a combination of creatine and sodium bicarbonate) with 30 days of washout period between treatments in a double-blind crossover procedure. Both treatments consisted of placebo or creatine supplementation (20 g per day) in 6 days. In the morning of the seventh day, there was placebo or sodium bicarbonate supplementation (0.3 g per kg body weight) during 2 hours before a warm-up for 2 maximal 100-m freestyle swims that were performed with a passive recovery of 10 minutes in between. The first swims were similar, but the increase in time of the second versus the first 100-m swimming time was 0.9 seconds less (p creatine and sodium bicarbonate enhances performance in consecutive maximal swims.

  10. 营养补剂在游泳训练中的应用%Application of Nutritional Supplements in Swimming Ttraining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓红; 杜敏

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable nutritional supplements will help keep the exercise capacity and to further improve the promotion of sport technique, is an important condition to ensure the competitive state of swimming athletes good, great significance for training and competition. This paper presents how to use nutritional supplements are reasonable nutrition supplement to provide advice swimming movement characteristics.%合理地进行营养补充将有利于保持运动能力并促进运动技术的进一步提高,是保证游泳运动员良好竞技状态的重要条件,意义重大。就游泳运动的特点提出如何利用营养补剂提供建议。

  11. Research on Relative Age in Hungarian Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Nikoletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the 19th World Swimming Championship will be organized in Hungary. Up to now, many people have already been working with swimmers to achieve good results. However, in the next period they must work even harder to ensure that the national swimmers of a country as small as Hungary can achieve the outstanding results of their predecessors. Since high-level competitions in swimming have become more intense, innovations including scientific studies are needed during preparation for the event. The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of an independent study carried out by the authors about the relative age of the best Hungarian swimmers with the aim of contributing to their preparation. The research population consisted of selected age groups of swimmers registered by the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=400. The method for data collection was an analysis of documents. To evaluate the data, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results are presented according to the period of the competitor’s date of birth, gender, and age group. The results confirm only partly the hypothesis that people born in the first quarters of the year play a dominant role in Hungarian national swimming teams. In the conclusion, the authors recommend further research on relative age in swimming and in other sports.

  12. 竞技健美操年度训练周期特征%Features of annual training cycle of competitive aerobics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 郑丽敏; 李非

    2011-01-01

    竞技健美操的训练周期是根据运动员竞技状态的形成和发展规律以及重大比赛日程而制定的,一个完整的训练周期包括准备期、竞赛期和过渡期三个相对独立而又互相联系的训练过程。准备期、竞赛期和过渡期每个训练时期都有不同的训练时间、训练内容、训练方法和负荷变化,每个时期都有其独特的周期特征。%The training cycle of the competitive aerobics is designed according to the athlete's competitive state and development rules and the schedules of the important competitions.A complete training cycle consists of preparation period,competition period and transition period.Each period has its own training time,training content,training method and load change.Each period has its own features.

  13. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  14. Comparison of swim recovery and muscle stimulation on lactate removal after sprint swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neric, Francis B; Beam, William C; Brown, Lee E; Wiersma, Lenny D

    2009-12-01

    Competitive swimming requires multiple bouts of high-intensity exercise, leading to elevated blood lactate. Active exercise recovery has been shown to lower lactate faster than passive resting recovery but may not always be practical. An alternative treatment, electrical muscle stimulation, may have benefits similar to active recovery in lowering blood lactate but to date is unstudied. Therefore, this study compared submaximal swimming and electrical muscle stimulation in reducing blood lactate after sprint swimming. Thirty competitive swimmers (19 men and 11 women) participated in the study. Each subject completed 3 testing sessions consisting of a warm-up swim, a 200-yard maximal frontcrawl sprint, and 1 of 3 20-minute recovery treatments administered in random order. The recovery treatments consisted of a passive resting recovery, a submaximal swimming recovery, or electrical muscle stimulation. Blood lactate was tested at baseline, after the 200-yard sprint, and after 10 and 20 minutes of recovery. A significant interaction (p swimming recovery were significantly lower at 10 minutes (3.50 +/- 1.57 mmol.L-1) and 20 minutes (1.60 +/- 0.57 mmol.L-1) of recovery than either of the other 2 treatments. Electrical muscle stimulation led to a lower mean blood lactate (3.12 +/- 1.41 mmol.L-1) after 20 minutes of recovery compared with passive rest (4.11 +/- 1.35 mmol.L-1). Submaximal swimming proved to be most effective at lowering blood lactate, but electrical muscle stimulation also reduced blood lactate 20 minutes postexercise significantly better than resting passive recovery. Electrical muscle stimulation shows promise as an alternate recovery treatment for the purpose of lowering blood lactate.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF TOURISM TRAINING, AS ONE OF THE MAINSTAYS OF TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Collazos PhD (C), Alexander; Castillo Palacio PhD (C), Marysol

    2012-01-01

    For Latin American countries, the tourism sector represents an opportunity for growth and economic and social development. However, in countries like Colombia, research and training of skilled personnel in this sector is still weak. The article identifies the academic programs focused on tourism offered in Colombia, and analyzes the statistical behavior of the graduates of these types of programs. The methodology for the study focuses on secondary sources such as general information system of...

  16. Training Drivers, Competitive Strategy and Clients' Needs: Case Studies of Three Business Process Outsourcing Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that drive a firm's decision to invest in training in India's IT-enabled services/business process outsourcing (ITeS/BPO) sector. It aims to consider a much-neglected area and an often-cited need to consider external factors, especially the needs of an organisation's clients in a firm's…

  17. Creatine supplementation and swim performance: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Melissa J; Graham, Kenneth; Rooney, Kieron B

    2006-03-01

    swimming performance.Creatine supplementation does improve repeated interval swim set performance.Creatine supplementation does improve power development in swimmers when measured on a swim bench ergometer.As a result of the high energy demands of the butterfly and breaststroke competitive swimming styles, potentially, the benefits associated with creatine supplementation and swimming performance could be greater when swimming butterfly or breaststroke, compared to the commonly examined freestyle swimming stroke.

  18. Contrasting morphology and training background in waterpolo teams of different competitive levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Canossa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe and compare the general morphological, somatotype and training background characteristics of Iberian waterpolo players (22 Portuguese and 22 Spanish National Teams players considering their playing positions. The International Working Group of Kinanthropometry guidelines was herein followed, and a somatochart was obtained through specific software (Somatotype, Calculation and Analysis. (c2001 SWEAT technologies. Spanish players train more hours per week (22.8 ±9.5 vs.12.2 ±5.6, are taller (187.4 cm ±6.6 vs.180.3 cm ±5.1, heavier (89.2 kg ±11.6 vs.79.1 kg ±10.0, show higher arm span (195.7 cm ±8.5 vs.185.2 cm ±7.4 and muscle mass percentage (49.0% ± 1.8 vs.46.0% ±6.0, and tend to be more mesomorphic (5.19 ±1.27 vs.4.26 ±1.32 than the Portuguese players. Concerning field positions, Spanish center forward players train more hours per week than the Portuguese (20.2 ±9.1 vs.12.2 ±3.8 and show higher arm span (204.4 cm ±7.3 vs.184.0 cm ±6.5. Spanish goal keepers and outside players show higher muscle mass percentage (49.8% ±1.5 vs.42.2% ±5.2 and 49.4% ±1.5 vs.45.5% ±4.6, respectively than the Portuguese players. These evidences should be taken into account for the improvement of waterpolo sport.

  19. Swimming and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2002-11-01

    Swimmers can be exposed to high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of chlorination disinfection. There are no published studies on the relation between swimming and birth weight. We explored this relation in a large birth cohort, the Avon (England) Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), in 1991-1992. Information on the amount of swimming per week during the first 18-20 weeks of pregnancy was available for 11,462 pregnant women. Fifty-nine percent never swam, 31% swam up to 1 hour per week, and 10% swam for longer. We used linear regression to explore the relation between birth weight and the amount of swimming, with adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, parity, maternal education level, ethnicity, housing tenure, drug use, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found little effect of the amount of swimming on birth weight. More highly educated women were more likely to swim compared with less educated women, whereas smokers were less likely to swim compared with nonsmokers. There appears to be no relation between the duration of swimming and birth weight.

  20. Swimming exercise: impact of aquatic exercise on cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2009-01-01

    Swimming is an exercise modality that is highly suitable for health promotion and disease prevention, and is one of the most popular, most practiced and most recommended forms of physical activity. Yet little information is available concerning the influence of regular swimming on coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise recommendations involving swimming have been generated primarily from unjustified extrapolation of the data from other modes of exercise (e.g. walking and cycling). Available evidence indicates that, similarly to other physically active adults, the CHD risk profile is more favourable in swimmers than in sedentary counterparts and that swim training results in the lowering of some CHD risk factors. However, the beneficial impact of regular swimming may be smaller than land-based exercises. In some cases, regular swimming does not appear to confer beneficial effects on some CHD risk factors. Moreover, swimming has not been associated with the reduced risks of developing CHD. Thus, extrapolation of research findings using land-based exercises into swimming cannot be justified, based on the available research. Clearly, more research is required to properly assess the effects of regular swimming on CHD risks in humans.

  1. Hypothesised mechanisms of swimming-related death: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Chad A; Creswell, Lawrence L

    2016-11-01

    Recent reports from triathlon and competitive open-water swimming indicate that these events have higher rates of death compared with other forms of endurance sport. The potential causal mechanism for swimming-related death is unclear. To examine available studies on the hypothesised mechanisms of swimming-related death to determine the most likely aetiologies. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1950 to present) were searched, yielding 1950 potential results, which after title and citation reviews were reduced to 83 possible reports. Studies included discussed mechanisms of death during swimming in humans, and were Level 4 evidence or higher. A total of 17 studies (366 total swimmers) were included for further analysis: 5 investigating hyperthermia/hypothermia, 7 examining cardiac mechanisms and responses, and 5 determining the presence of pulmonary edema. The studies provide inconsistent and limited-quality or disease-oriented evidence that make definitive conclusions difficult. The available evidence is limited but may suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are the most likely aetiology of swimming-related death. While symptoms of pulmonary edema may occur during swimming, current evidence does not support swimming-induced pulmonary edema as a frequent cause of swimming-related death, nor is there evidence to link hypothermia or hyperthermia as a causal mechanism. Further higher level studies are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Precision of 1-RM prediction equations in non-competitive subjects performing strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Lacio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the precision of the 1-RM prediction equations proposed by Adams (1994, Baechle and Groves (2000, Brzycki (1993, Epley (1985, Lander (1985 and O’Conner et al. (1989 for strength assessment in fitness programs. Thirty one healthy regular strength training male practitioners (mean ± SD: 21.8 ± 4.0 years of age; 75.9 ± 8.4 kg of weight; and 178.1 ± 6.4 cm of height performed two tests on the bench press exercise: (a maximum test - determination of the 1-RM load; and (b submaximum test - determination of the load matching 4 to 10 maximum repetitions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA found no significant difference (p > .05 between maximum load determination through prediction equations or through the 1-RM test. The coefficient of determination (r2 varied from .94 to .96. The prediction equations had small standard error of estimate (2.7 to 3.2 kg. Results indicate that the 1-RM prediction equations could be used to determine the maximum load at the bench press exercise in subjects with low strength training experience.

  3. Influence of the "Slingshot" bench press training aid on bench press kinematics and neuromuscular activity in competitive powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, James H; Hunter, Angus; Di Virgilio, Thomas; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hamilton, D Lee

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the acute effects of the 'Slingshot' on bench-press performance, prime-mover surface electromyographic (sEMG) amplitude, and barbell velocity during maximal and submaximal bench-pressing in competitive male powerlifters. Fifteen male powerlifters (mean ± SD age: 27.05 ± 5.94 years; mass: 94.15kg; 1RM bench-press: 139.7 ± 16.79kg) participated in the study. Bench-press strength, average barbell velocity, and sEMG amplitude of the prime mover muscles (triceps brachii, pectoralis major and anterior deltoid) were measured during two conditions; 'Raw' (without use of any assistance) and 'Slingshot' [using the 'Slingshot' to perform both the weight achieved during 'Raw' 1RM testing (Raw max/SS), and absolute 1RM using the 'Slingshot' (SS)]. The results showed that the 'Slingshot' significantly increased bench press 1RM performance by a mean ± SD of 20.67kg ± 3.4kg. Barbell velocity and stick point analysis indicate that this improvement is likely driven by an increase in peak and pre-stick barbell velocity as triceps RMS was lower throughout all rep max phases with the 'Slingshot'. The 'Slingshot' also caused reductions in RMS, specifically of the triceps at all rep ranges but barbell velocity was better maintained in the last reps of all sets. These data indicate that the 'Slingshot' specifically de-loaded the triceps muscle throughout all rep ranges and provide assistance to maintaining barbell velocity under fatigue during later repetitions of multiple-repetition sets. The 'Slingshot' training aid could therefore be used in de-load phases of bench press training or as an over-reaching and velocity training aid.

  4. Competitive versus Cooperative Exergame Play for African American Adolescents' Executive Function Skills: Short-Term Effects in a Long-Term Training Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Exergames are videogames that require gross motor activity, thereby combining gaming with physical activity. This study examined the role of competitive versus cooperative exergame play on short-term changes in executive function skills, following a 10-week exergame training intervention. Fifty-four low-income overweight and obese African American…

  5. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    separated by 25 s of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 min rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT-training in wk-1 was 152±4 m and increased (P....87±0.97 to 18.44±1.06 s) and RST by 4.3% post-intervention in the HIT-group only. Baseline RST fatigue index (FI) was 7.0±2.9 and 6.2±5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (PYo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance...

  6. EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Langfort

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

  7. 游泳训练对胰岛素抵抗大鼠肝脏抵抗素mRNA表达的影响%Effect of swimming training on expression of resistin in patients with insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽英

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察游泳训练对胰岛素抵抗大鼠肝脏抵抗素mRNA表达的影响,初步探讨游泳训练改善胰岛素抵抗的作用机制. 方法 30只8周龄正常雄性大鼠随机分为正常饮食对照组(n=9)和高脂高糖喂养造模组(n=21).喂养6周后,将造模成功的18只胰岛素抵抗大鼠再随机分为模型组(n=9):继续予高脂高糖饮食;运动组(n=9):高脂高糖喂养加游泳训练.造模6周和干预6周后采血清全自动生化分析仪测空腹血糖(FPG),放射免疫法测各组小鼠空腹胰岛素(FIN),计算胰岛素敏感指数(ISI).干预6周后留取肝脏组织RT-PCR法检测抵抗素mRNA表达水平.结果 高脂高糖饲养6周后,造模组的FPG(6.65±0.98)、FIN (31.04±6.57)均高于对照组,其ISI低于对照组(P<0.01).6周干预后,与模型组比较,运动组肝脏组织抵抗素mRNA表达均降低(P<0.05),ISI升高(P<0.05). 结论 游泳训练改善胰岛素抵抗可能与下调抵抗素的表达有关.%Objective To investigate the effect and the mechanisms of swimming training on the expression of resistin in livers of rats with insulin resistance (IR).Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal diet group (control group,n=9) and high-fat/high-sucrose diet group (n=21).Eighteen insulin resistant model rats 6 week after induced by diet were randomly subdivided into the model group (feeding with high-fat/high-sucrose diet,n=9)and the exercise group (feeding with high-fat/high-sucrose diet combined with swimming training,n=9).With high fat diet and swimming interventions for six weeks,then the fasting plasma glucose(FPG) and the fasting insulin (FIN) in these rats were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer and radioimmunoassay,respectively.Insulin sensitive index (ISI) was calculated to ascertain the establishment of insulin resistance.The resistin mRNA expression in livers was estimated by RT-PCR six weeks after intervention.Liver histopathological changes were

  8. Treinamento com natação sobre a avaliação funcional da nocicepção ciática em ratos Swimming training and functional assessment of sciatic nociception in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini

    2011-06-01

    ; low-intensity swimming group (LISG; progressive-time swimming group (PTSG. To meet the physical training protocol, the animals were placed in a water tank for six weeks, three alternate days per week. In LISG group, the animals swam ten minutes per session, and, in PTSG group, the animals began swimming for ten minutes, and had a ten-minute increase per week. In CG group, the animals swam less than one minute per day, only to get used to the water environment. After finishing the swimming training, the experimental sciatica model protocol was started with constrictive ligature of the sciatic nerve with chromic catgut. Nociception was assessed using the functional disability test, which measures, in a one-minute interval, the time during which the animal holds its hind paw (THHP in a guarded position. Assessments were performed preoperatively, and on the third, sixth, and tenth post-operative (PO days. RESULTS: All groups showed a significant increase in THHP on third, sixth, and tenth PO days, as compared to preoperative values. In CG, no significant change was observed in PO assessments, unlike what happened in LISG and PTSG groups. CONCLUSION: Exercise produced greater hyperalgesia.

  9. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  10. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Agrebi

    Full Text Available Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD, the root of aorta (Ao and left atrial (LA, while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS, the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling

  11. 从南宁市青少年游泳比赛成绩看业余训练中存在的问题%Problems of Amateur Training in Children Swimming From Nanning Juvenile Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁平

    2012-01-01

    为促进游泳业余训练更完善的发展,以南宁市游泳培训点为研究对象,采用文献资料法、问卷调查法等方法,对南宁市游泳培训的管理、教学及教练员现状等整体情况进行分析,对亟待解决的问题提出可行性的对策.

  12. 上海游泳世锦赛世界泳坛竞争格局变化特征分析%Analysis of the Evolvement of Competition Situation of World Swimming from the 14th FINA World Championships SHANGHAI 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪家云; 宋静敏; 房殿生

    2011-01-01

    对2011年第14届世界游泳锦标赛的成绩进行分析,并与第13届世锦赛和北京奥运会游泳项目进行比较.结果显示:因禁止运动员穿高科技泳衣进行比赛,上海世锦赛成为破纪录较少的世界游泳大赛,且获得奖牌的国家比上届少;美国依然是世界泳坛的霸主;中国男子项目首次获得奥运项目的冠军并打破世界纪录,亚洲三强中国女子项目称雄,女子混合泳、仰泳、蝶泳和接力项目上取得优异成绩;日本男子整体实力依然强劲.%In our report, the method of literature review, mathematical statistics and logical induction, were used to analyze the 14th FINA World Championships results, and with the 13th FINA World Championships and the Beijing Olympic Games swimming events for comparison. The results showed that because of prohibiting the athletes to wear high tech swimsuit, Shanghai World Championships had become the least in the world record breaking swimming competition, and the gold medal were more less distributed than that of last; United States remained the worlds' dominant swimming, and Chinese man project obtained champions and broke the world record at first time, Chinese woman project achieved excellent results in the medley, backstroke, butterfly and relay events; Japanese man project still maintained its traditional advantage.

  13. High-intensity high-volume swimming induces more robust signaling through PGC-1α and AMPK activation than sprint interval swimming in m. triceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to test whether high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) swimming would induce more robust signaling than sprint interval training (SIT) swimming within the m. triceps brachii due to lower metabolic and oxidation. Nine well-trained swimmers performed the two training procedures...... on separate randomized days. Muscle biopsies from m. triceps brachii and blood samples were collected at three different time points: a) before the intervention (pre), b) immediately after the swimming procedures (post) and c) after 3 h of rest (3 h). Hydroperoxides, creatine kinase (CK), and lactate...

  14. Effects of oral contraceptive use on the salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to training sessions and competitions in elite women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Hamilton, Dave; Casto, Kathleen; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses of elite women hockey players across 4 activities (light and heavy training, club and International competitions). The players formed an oral contraceptive (OC) group (n=10) and a Non-OC (n=19) group for analysis. The Non-OC group had higher T levels (by 31-52%) across all activities, whilst the OC group showed signs of reduced T and C reactivity when data were pooled. As a squad, positive T and C changes occurred with heavy training (45%, 46%), club competitions (62%, 80%) and International competitions (40%, 27%), respectively. Our results confirm that OC use lowers T levels in women athletes whilst reducing the T and C responses to training and competition activities within the sporting environment. Differences in the physical and/or psychological demands of the sporting activity could be contributing factors to the observed hormone responses. These factors require consideration when applying theoretical models in sport, with broader implications for women around exercising behaviours and stress physiology.

  15. Hydrodynamics of undulatory underwater swimming: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaboy, Chris; Coleman, Simon; Sanders, Ross H

    2009-11-01

    Undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) occurs in the starts and turns of three of the four competitive swimming strokes and plays a significant role in overall swimming performance. The majority of research examining UUS is comparative in nature, dominated by studies comparing aquatic animals' undulatory locomotion with the UUS performance of humans. More recently, research directly examining human forms of UUS have been undertaken, providing further insight into the factors which influence swimming velocity and efficiency. This paper reviews studies which have examined the hydromechanical, biomechanical, and coordination aspects of UUS performance in both animals and humans. The present work provides a comprehensive evaluation of the key factors which combine to influence UUS performance examining (1) the role of end-effector frequency and body amplitudes in the production of a propulsive waveform, (2) the effects of morphology on the wavelength of the propulsive waveform and its subsequent impact on the mode of UUS adopted, and (3) the interactions of the undulatory movements to simultaneously optimise propulsive impulse whilst minimising the active drag experienced. In conclusion, the review recommends that further research is required to fully appreciate the complexity of UUS and examine how humans can further optimise performance.

  16. Individual analysis the competitive activity indicators of elite swimmer in a distance of 200 m. breaststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyriene V.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of features of competition activity is presented one of the best sportsmen. Basic dignities of competition activity of sportsman there is ability to develop high-rate of swimming of the starting cutting-off, distance and finish cutting-off. The low rate of motions is thus marked at a very long stroke. To failings it is possible to take the enough long stay of sportsman on a starting stand, considerable falling of speed of implementation of turns on motion distance. It is well-proven that a systematic and permanent analysis of competition activity is the important mean of training process control. Information about activity of sportsman on competitions at certain terms can be foundation for raising of purpose and tasks of preparation, choice of facilities and methods of their realization.

  17. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A; Batalha, Nuno; Marques, Mário C; Morouço, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach’s Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force. PMID:25114742

  18. Critical stroke rate as a parameter for evaluation in swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Franken

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the critical stroke rate (CSR compared to the average stroke rate (SR when swimming at the critical speed (CS. Ten competitive swimmers performed five 200 m trials at different velocities relative to their CS (90, 95, 100, 103 and 105% in front crawl. The CSR was significantly higher than the SR at 90% of the CS and lower at 105% of the CS. Stroke length (SL at 103 and 105% of the CS were lower than the SL at 90, 95, and 100% of the CS. The combination of the CS and CSR concepts can be useful for improving both aerobic capacity/power and technique. CS and CSR could be used to reduce the SR and increase the SL, when swimming at the CS pace, or to increase the swimming speed when swimming at the CSR.

  19. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaro Nuno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach's Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force.

  20. Effects of Swimming on Functional Recovery after Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca R.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Baltzley, Ryan; Bunger, Michelle; Baldini, Angela; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, David S.K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most promising rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury is weight-supported treadmill training. This strategy seeks to re-train the spinal cord below the level of injury to generate a meaningful pattern of movement. However, the number of step cycles that can be accomplished is limited by the poor weight-bearing capability of the neuromuscular system after injury. We have begun to study swimming as a rehabilitation strategy that allows for high numbers of steps and a high step-cycle frequency in a standard rat model of contusive spinal cord injury. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of swimming as a rehabilitation strategy in rats with contusion injuries at T9. We used a swimming strategy with or without cutaneous feedback based on original work in the chick by Muir and colleagues. Adult female rats (n = 27) received moderately-severe contusion injuries at T9. Walking and swimming performance were evaluated using the Open-Field Locomotor Scale (BBB; Basso et al., 1995) and a novel swimming assessment, the Louisville Swimming Scale (LSS). Rats that underwent swim-training with or without cutaneous feedback showed a significant improvement in hindlimb function during swimming compared to untrained animals. Rats that underwent swim-training without cutaneous feedback showed less improvement than those trained with cutaneous feedback. Rats in the non-swimming group demonstrated little improvement over the course of the study. All three groups showed the expected improvement in over-ground walking and had similar terminal BBB scores. These findings suggest that animals re-acquire the ability to swim only if trained and that cutaneous feedback improves the re-training process. Further, these data suggest that the normal course of recovery of over-ground walking following moderately-severe contusion injuries at T9 is the result of a re-training process. PMID:16774475

  1. Practice habits and attitudes and behaviors concerning shoulder pain in high school competitive club swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Myers, Joseph B

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the practice habits, injury frequency, and attitudes and behaviors concerning shoulder pain in high school-aged competitive swimmers and describe the relationship between attitudes and behaviors. Cross-sectional research design. Local swimming clubs. One hundred two swimmers, aged 13-18 years, at the top training level of their club team were included in the study. Participants were given a survey with questions regarding swimming practice and attitudes and behaviors concerning shoulder pain. Practice habits (yards/week, practice/week, dry-land and weight/week, and months swimming/year) and attitudes and behaviors concerning shoulder pain. Subjects completed an average of 6.89 ± 1.41 swimming practices/wk of 6000 to 7000 yd/practice. The majority of swimmers believe that mild and moderate shoulder pain is normal in swimming and should be tolerated to complete practice, while a majority responded that they swim with shoulder pain. Seventy-three percent of swimmers reported using pain medication to manage their shoulder pain. There was a significant correlation between attitude and behaviors of moderate and severe shoulder pain. Club swimmers have a high frequency of practices, comparable to collegiate and professional swimmers. They believe that shoulder pain is normal and should be tolerated to complete practice. The association between the swimmers' attitudes and behaviors indicates that the interventions that educate the swimmers, coaches, and parents may be effective in changing their attitudes and ultimately their behaviors, decreasing the number of athletes who train with shoulder pain.

  2. Development of a small cruising-type AUV and training of constant altitude swimming; Kogata kokogata kaichu robot no kaihatsu to teikodo koko no kunren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Ura, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1997-08-01

    A small autonomous robot with high software development efficiency was developed to investigate the control system of an autonomous cruising-type AUV in the actual environment. This robot has a minimum of functions required as a cruising type. One researcher can make an experiment on the robot because of its compactness and lightweight. The robot can also automatically cruise around in a small pool. It was confirmed that an adaptive constant altitude swimming controller utilizing a neural network verified by simulation can also be properly adjusted by an actual robot. The switching mechanism of neural networks was introduced to classify environmental patterns. The corresponding controller is adjusted automatically. In this study, a lightweight and compact cruising-type test-bed robot that has not existed until now was developed. This robot is easy to manufacture and construct in software. Therefore, it is to be desired that the researches and development of autonomous functions are promoted using such a robot. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 男子游泳二级运动员下肢力量训练方法的实验研究--以保定市游泳业余体校为例%Experimental Study of Men's Swimming Second-class Athletes Lower Extremity Strength Training Methods--Take Baoding Swim Amateur Sports School as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚务丽

    2014-01-01

    本文以河北省保定市游泳业余体校男子二级运动员共20人为研究对象,选取下蹲、侧箭步蹲、俯卧腿弯曲、水中牵拉等具有针对性的方法与手段对游泳运动员下肢力量训练方法进行实验研究,以期能对提高运动员的竞技能力和运动成绩提供有益参考与借鉴。%In this paper, take Hebei Baoding Amateur Sports School swim second-class men a total of 20 human subjects athletes selected squat, side lunges, prone leg bent, pulling water and other targeted methods and means of Swimmers lower extremity strength training methods experimental study in order to be able to improve athletic ability and athletic performance athletes to provide useful information and reference.

  4. CAN 8-WEEKS OF TRAINING AFFECT ACTIVE DRAG IN YOUNG SWIMMERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Marinho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8-weeks of training on active drag in young swimmers of both genders. Eight girls and twelve boys' belonging to the same swimming team and with regular competitive participation in national and regional events for the previous two seasons participated in this study. Active drag measurements were conducted in two different evaluation moments: at the beginning of the season and after 8 weeks of training (6.0 ± 0.15 training units per week, 21.00 ± 3.23 km per week and 3.50 ± 0.23 km per training unit. The maximal swimming velocity at the distance of 13 m, active drag and drag coefficient were measured on both trials by the method of small perturbations with the help of an additional hydrodynamic body. After 8 weeks of training, mean active drag (drag force and drag coefficient decreased in girls and boys, although no significant differences were found between the two trials. It seems that 8 weeks of swimming training were not sufficient to allow significant improvements on swimming technique

  5. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Available! Q&A with Missy Franklin: Olympic Gold Medalist and Healthy Swimming Champion New Report on ... enter your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button What's this? Healthy Swimming Swimmers Health Benefits of ...

  6. 2008 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  7. 2007 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  8. 2006 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  9. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  10. 2009 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  11. 2010 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  12. Research on Physiological and Biochemical Monitoring of Guangdong Elite swimming Athletes during Winter Training%广东省优秀游泳运动员冬训期生理生化监控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军强; 徐朝阳

    2014-01-01

    目的:监测广东省优秀游泳运动员冬训期生理生化监控指标,探索优秀游泳运动员冬训期间身体机能变化规律,为高强度大运动量训练期的训练监控提供科学参考依据,为青少年游泳运动员的科学训练抛砖引玉。方法:监测16名广东优秀男子游泳运动员和6名女子游泳运动员,在2013-2014年度冬训期间血红蛋白(HB)、肌酸激酶(CK)、血尿素(BUN)、血睾酮(T)的变化规律,使用SPSS软件包进行数据分析。结果:(1)运动员血液生化指标随着冬训训练量及训练强度的变化,出现相应的规律性改变,整体体现出机体对训练负荷的适应,我们发现生化指标也存在一定的局限性和滞后性,我们在分析生化指标变化规律的同时,还要注重运动员心率的变化情况,运动员的主观感受及教练员的经验观察结果综合评定。(2)血红蛋白(H B)、血睾酮(T)能够及时对训练量、训练强度的变化做出反映,肌酸激酶(C K)对训练强度敏感性极高、血尿素(BUN)对训练量敏感度较高。表明这4个指标在一定条件下能够对运动员运动量,运动强度及机能状态进行科学客观的反映,对于青少年运动员的训练监控具有重要的指导意义。%Purpose:To investigate the monitoring methods of sport physiology and biochemical index in elite swimming athletes during winter training. Methods: 16 elite male swimming athletes and 6 elite female swimming athletes were summoned in the winter training to have a longitude observation and data accumulation. Hemoglobin, blood urea, creatine kinase, and testosterone were assayed to monitor and evaluate the training adaptation during the winter training. Allthe data were collected and analyzed by SPSS. Results:(1)athletes blood biochemical indexes as the change of winter training volume and training intensity, a corresponding change regularity, overall reflect the

  13. Controlled-frequency breath swimming improves swimming performance and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, K M; Guenette, J A; Smoliga, J M; Zavorsky, G S

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue can negatively impact athletic performance, but swimming has beneficial effects on the respiratory system and may reduce susceptibility to fatigue. Limiting breath frequency during swimming further stresses the respiratory system through hypercapnia and mechanical loading and may lead to appreciable improvements in respiratory muscle strength. This study assessed the effects of controlled-frequency breath (CFB) swimming on pulmonary function. Eighteen subjects (10 men), average (standard deviation) age 25 (6) years, body mass index 24.4 (3.7) kg/m(2), underwent baseline testing to assess pulmonary function, running economy, aerobic capacity, and swimming performance. Subjects were then randomized to either CFB or stroke-matched (SM) condition. Subjects completed 12 training sessions, in which CFB subjects took two breaths per length and SM subjects took seven. Post-training, maximum expiratory pressure improved by 11% (15) for all 18 subjects (P inspiratory pressure was unchanged. Running economy improved by 6 (9)% in CFB following training (P swimmers.

  14. Bioinspired swimming simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michel; Iollo, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to simulate the flow past bioinspired swimmers starting from pictures of an actual fish. The overall approach requires i) a skeleton graph generation to get a level-set function from pictures; ii) optimal transportation to obtain the velocity on the body surface; iii) flow simulations realized with a Cartesian method based on penalization. This technique can be used to automate modeling swimming motion from data collected by biologists. We illustrate this paradigm by simulating the swimming of a mackerel fish.

  15. Dynamics of volume of competition practice and facilities of training of jumpers in length and triple in the process of long-term preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovenko S.P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysed and systematized information in relation to the volume of competition practice and facilities of different primary orientation of jumpers in length and triple in the process of long-term preparation. The expert questioning is conducted 16 trainers. The documents of planning of training process are analysed, the analysis of diaries of sportsmen is carried out (n=22. The volume of competition practice of sportsmen and facilities of training of different primary orientation is certain. The results of analysis in relation to the construction of training process are reflected by the leading trainers of Ukraine on track-and-field. An approach classification of facilities of training taking into account the specific of training process of sportsmen is presented. It is set that the volume of facilities of general preparation is most on the initial stages of long-term perfection, then stabilized on the stages specialized base and preparations to higher achievements and a few diminishes on maximal implementation of individual possibilities and maintainance of higher sporting trade phases. It is related to diminishing of duration of the general preparatory stages of annual preparation.

  16. 天津市高校高水平游泳队学习及训练现状分析与对策研究%Analysis and Countermeasure Research on the Current Situation of Learning and Training for the High Level Swimming Teams in Tianjin Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强

    2012-01-01

    The key to achieve the goals of colleges and high level swim team is a good grasp of the high level of the swim team management, and advanced swimmers, learning and training coordination is the most important issue to improve the colleges and high level swim team. In this paper, the methods of literature, questionnaire, mathematical statistics method to conduct a survey of colleges and high level swim team status quo. The results show that: 1. Learning and training contradic tions still not be ignored. 2. High level swimming athletes enrollment with the poor cultural basis, difficult to complete their studies. 3. Learning pressure is one of the factors prompted them unable to concentrate training. 4. After admission a small amount of low quality, training levels were significantly decreased. 5. Employment pressure so that they turn away too much energy for training. 6. Professional teams affiliated swimmer cultural learning is also essential, otherwise contrary to the orig- inal intention of rtmning high level swim team.%实现天津市高校高水平游泳队的目标关键是抓好高水平游泳队的管理,而高水平游泳运动员的学习与训练的协调是提高天津市高校高水平游泳队的首要问题。本文采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计等研究方法对天津市高校高水平游泳队现状进行了调查。研究结果表明:(1)学训矛盾依旧是不可忽视的问题。(2)高水平游泳运动员入学后文化基础差,完成学业较吃力。(3)学习上的压力是促使他们无法集中训练因素之一。(4)入学后量小质低。训练水平明显下降。(5)就业压力使他们无心投入过多的精力用于训练上。(6)专业队挂靠的游泳运动员文化学习也是必不可少的,否则违背了办高水平游泳队的初衷。

  17. Simulations of optimized anguilliform swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Stefan; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-12-01

    The hydrodynamics of anguilliform swimming motions was investigated using three-dimensional simulations of the fluid flow past a self-propelled body. The motion of the body is not specified a priori, but is instead obtained through an evolutionary algorithm used to optimize the swimming efficiency and the burst swimming speed. The results of the present simulations support the hypothesis that anguilliform swimmers modify their kinematics according to different objectives and provide a quantitative analysis of the swimming motion and the forces experienced by the body. The kinematics of burst swimming is characterized by the large amplitude of the tail undulations while the anterior part of the body remains straight. In contrast, during efficient swimming behavior significant lateral undulation occurs along the entire length of the body. In turn, during burst swimming, the majority of the thrust is generated at the tail, whereas in the efficient swimming mode, in addition to the tail, the middle of the body contributes significantly to the thrust. The burst swimming velocity is 42% higher and the propulsive efficiency is 15% lower than the respective values during efficient swimming. The wake, for both swimming modes, consists largely of a double row of vortex rings with an axis aligned with the swimming direction. The vortex rings are responsible for producing lateral jets of fluid, which has been documented in prior experimental studies. We note that the primary wake vortices are qualitatively similar in both swimming modes except that the wake vortex rings are stronger and relatively more elongated in the fast swimming mode. The present results provide quantitative information of three-dimensional fluid-body interactions that may complement related experimental studies. In addition they enable a detailed quantitative analysis, which may be difficult to obtain experimentally, of the different swimming modes linking the kinematics of the motion with the forces

  18. 对沈阳市游泳救护培训现状的调查研究%A survey and investigation on the present situation of swimming training in Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇

    2014-01-01

    By using the methods of documents, questionnaire, expert interview and mathematical statistics , this paper researches the situation of students, teachers and sustainable development of participating in swimming rescue training in Shenyang. The result shows that:the students master the theoretical knowledge and technology well;the teachers have a high theoretical knowledge and a strong ability of practice teaching;the society statue and career prospects of lifeguard is optimistic, society and schools have more attention on rescue training, the number of the lessons of rescue training is little, yard, structure, funds of rescue is non-sufficient.%采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法、数理统计法等,对沈阳市参加游泳救护培训的学员状况、救护培训的师资状况、救护培训的可持续发展状况进行研究,结果表明:参加沈阳市游泳救护培训的学员对救护理论知识和救护技能的掌握情况较好;救护培训的师资队伍具有较高的理论知识水平和较强的实践教学能力;救生员的社会地位和就业前景比较乐观;社会和学校对救护培训的重视度逐渐提高;救护培训的课程数量较少,救护培训的场地、设施、经费不充裕。

  19. Efeitos de oito semanas de treinamento de natação no limiar anaeróbio determinado na piscina e no ergômetro de braço Effect of eight weeks of swimming training on the anaerobic threshold determined in the swimming pool and by arm ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Caputo

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do treinamento de natação na intensidade do limiar anaeróbio (LAn, determinado na piscina e no ergômetro de braço, verificando se este pode ser utilizado para avaliar os efeitos do treinamento em nadadores. Participaram do estudo sete nadadores de ambos os sexos, com nível de performance regional, que foram submetidos aos seguintes testes, antes e após oito semanas de treinamento: 1 dois tiros de 400m, um a 85% e outro a 95% do máximo, com coleta de 25mil de sangue do lóbulo da orelha no 1º, 3º e 5º minuto após cada tiro, para posterior análise do lactato sanguíneo (YSI 1500; 2 teste contínuo progressivo realizado no ergômetro de braço (UBE 2462 Cybex, com carga inicial de 33,3W e incrementos de 16,6W a cada três minutos até a exaustão voluntária, com coleta de sangue ao final de cada estágio. Um grupo controle de indivíduos não ativos (n = 9, que se manteve sedentário, realizou somente o procedimento 2 no mesmo intervalo de tempo. O LAn na natação (NLAn e no ergômetro de braço (BLAn foi encontrado através de interpolação linear, considerando uma concentração fixa de lactato de 4mM e 3,5mM, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram diferença significante para o grupo treinado, entre o pré (130,4 ± 20,4W e o pós-teste (137,7 ± 17,9W para o BLAn. Porém, não foi encontrada diferença significante para o NLAn (1,09 ± 0,1m.s-1 e 1,13 ± 0,1m.s-1, p = 0,06. No grupo controle não foi encontrada diferença para o BLAn entre o pré (93,2 ± 11,5W e o pós-teste (87,7 ± 7,2W. Pode-se concluir através desses dados que a determinação do LAn no ergômetro de braço é útil para detectar adaptações na capacidade aeróbia de nadadores com nível de performance regional.The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of swimming training on the intensity corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (AnT determined in the swimming pool and by arm ergometer, and

  20. Physics Competitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, ErzséBet SzéP, Jenö

    The following sections are included: * Description of Physics Competitions in Hungary * Training of the Hungarian Team before the International Physics Olympiad * Few Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition for 15 - 16 Year Old students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Year Old Students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * solving this equation we obtain m = 18kg * The work done is 427 joule - 80 joule 347 joule * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Pear Old Students

  1. 简论竞技健美操运动中的素质训练%On fitness training in competitive aerobics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金瑞

    2013-01-01

    With the development and popularization of aerobics, aerobics technical level continues to increase. Highly developed training level is the decisive factor of improving the ability of aerobics, and training includes physical fitness training, special technical training, ability of mental training and the training of art expression, the competitive aerobics quality training in practice are discussed.%随着健美操运动的开展和普及,竞技健美操运动的技术水平在不断提高。高度发展的素质训练水平是健美操运动员竞技能力提高的决定性因素,而素质训练主要包括身体体能训练、专项技术训练、心理训练以及艺术表现能力训练等,本文就竞技健美操运动中的素质训练进行论述。

  2. Variation of Linear and Nonlinear Parameters in the Swim Strokes According to the Level of Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Goh, Wan Xiu; Morais, Jorge E; Costa, Mário J

    2016-08-19

    The aim was to examine the variation of linear and nonlinear proprieties of the behaviour in participants with different levels of swimming expertise among the four swim strokes. Seventy-five swimmers were split into three groups (highly qualified experts, experts and non-experts) and performed a maximal 25m trial for each of the four competitive swim strokes. A speed-meter cable was attached to the swimmer's hip to measure hip speed; from which speed fluctuation (dv), approximate entropy (ApEn) and fractal dimension (D) variables were derived. Although simple main effects of expertise and swim stroke were obtained for dv and D, no significant interaction of expertise and stroke were found except in ApEn. The ApEn and D were prone to decrease with increasing expertise. As a conclusion, swimming does exhibit nonlinear properties but its magnitude differs according to the swim stroke and level of expertise of the performer.

  3. Efeitos da natação e do treinamento resistido na densidade mineral óssea de mulheres idosas Effects of swimming and resistance training on bone mineral density of older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kemper

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercícios com impacto como caminhada, saltos, corridas e exercícios resistidos são muito utilizados para prevenção da perda óssea em idosas. No entanto, poucos são os estudos que relatam os efeitos da natação na manutenção da massa óssea em mulheres idosas. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os efeitos da natação com o treinamento resistido na densidade mineral óssea (DMO de mulheres idosas. Vinte e três mulheres com idade média de 63,9 ± 6,49 anos foram divididas em dois grupos: 1 grupo natação (NAT, n = 13, que treinou em intensidade entre 60 e 90% da freqüência cardíaca de reserva; 2 grupo treinamento resistido (TR, n = 10, que treinou os principais grupamentos musculares com três séries a 80% de 1RM. Os dois grupos praticaram três vezes por semana com uma hora de duração para cada sessão, durante seis meses. A DMO do colo do fêmur e da coluna lombar (L2-L3-L4 foi mensurada através de DXA antes (T0 e após seis meses de treino (T6. Os resultados mostraram que as médias para a DMO lombar em T0 (0,9250 ± 0,1506g/cm² e T6 (0,9303 ± 0,1269g/cm² para o NAT e em T0 (0,9739 ± 0,1249g/cm² e T6 (0,9737 ± 0,1317g/cm² para o TR não foram diferentes quando comparadas intra ou intergrupos. De modo similar, não houve diferenças entre a DMO do colo do fêmur em T0 (0,7784 ± 0,1523g/cm² e T6 (0,7905 ± 0,1610g/cm² para o NAT e T0 (0,7546 ± 0,1360g/cm² e T6 (0,7522 ± 0,1421g/cm² para o TR. Os resultados deste estudo não demonstraram diferenças na DMO entre NAT e TR após seis meses de treino; e que tanto TR quanto NAT não produzem aumentos significativos na DMO de mulheres idosas nesse período.Impact exercises like walking, jumping, running and resistance exercises are largely used to prevent bone loss in older women; however, few studies report the benefits of swimming to bone tissue. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of swimming with resistance training on bone

  4. Proposal for the conclusion of a partnership agreement, without competitive tendering, for the management of medical emergencies on the CERN site and the training of CERN's medical staff and firefighters in emergency situations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the conclusion of a partnership agreement, without competitive tendering, for the management of medical emergencies on the CERN site and the training of CERN's medical staff and firefighters in emergency situations

  5. Effects of bone-conducted music on swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Angela R; Gennings, Chris; Hoffman, Regina A; Strittmatter, Andrew P; Retchin, Sheldon M

    2012-04-01

    Music has been shown to be a useful adjunct for many forms of exercise and has been observed to improve athletic performance in some settings. Nonetheless, because of the limited availability of practical applications of sound conduction in water, there are few studies of the effects of music on swimming athletes. The SwiMP3 is a novel device that uses bone conduction as a method to circumvent the obstacles to transmitting high fidelity sound in an aquatic environment. Thus, we studied the influence of music on swimming performance and enjoyment using the SwiMP3. Twenty-four competitive swimmers participated in a randomized crossover design study in which they completed timed swimming trials with and without the use of music delivered via bone conduction with the SwiMP3. Each participant swam four 50-m trials and one 800-m trial and then completed a physical enjoyment survey. Statistically significant improvements in swimming performance times were found in both the 50-m (0.32 seconds; p = 0.013) and 800-m (6.5 seconds; p = 0.031) trials with music using the SwiMP3. There was no significant improvement in physical enjoyment with the device as measured by a validated assessment tool. Bone-conducted music appears to have a salutary influence on swimming performance in a practice environment among competitive adult swimmers.

  6. Wearable inertial sensors in swimming motion analysis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhaes, Fabricio Anicio; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The use of contemporary technology is widely recognised as a key tool for enhancing competitive performance in swimming. Video analysis is traditionally used by coaches to acquire reliable biomechanical data about swimming performance; however, this approach requires a huge computational effort, thus introducing a delay in providing quantitative information. Inertial and magnetic sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, have been recently introduced to assess the biomechanics of swimming performance. Research in this field has attracted a great deal of interest in the last decade due to the gradual improvement of the performance of sensors and the decreasing cost of miniaturised wearable devices. With the aim of describing the state of the art of current developments in this area, a systematic review of the existing methods was performed using the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. Twenty-seven articles published in indexed journals and conference proceedings, focusing on the biomechanical analysis of swimming by means of inertial sensors were reviewed. The articles were categorised according to sensor's specification, anatomical sites where the sensors were attached, experimental design and applications for the analysis of swimming performance. Results indicate that inertial sensors are reliable tools for swimming biomechanical analyses.

  7. Postactivation potentiation enhances swim performance in collegiate swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Andrew P; Sparks, Kenneth E; Kullman, Emily L

    2015-04-01

    This study examined postactivation potentiation (PAP) and its effect on performance during sprint swimming. After maximal muscular contraction, the muscles are in both a potentiated and fatigued state. However, fatigue dissipates faster than potentiation, creating a window of opportunity for possible performance enhancement. We observed 30 collegiate swimmers (15 men and 15 women) performing 2 swim trials in a randomized order. The control trial involved a standard swim warm-up, followed by a 6-minute rest and by a maximal 100-m freestyle swim effort. The PAP trial involved the same protocol; however, a PAP loading protocol involved the subjects completing 4 maximal 10-m swims at a 1-minute interval while attached to a resistive power rack and was completed before the 6-minute rest. Fifty-meter splits and blood lactates were also analyzed. There was a significant improvement in 100-m freestyle swim time (0.54 seconds) for the PAP trial vs. the control trial (p = 0.029). Both men and women improved during the PAP trial compared with the control trial, and there was no significant gender interaction. We conclude that PAP substantially enhances 100-m freestyle performance in collegiate swimmers and presents a valid technique for competitive performance enhancement.

  8. 论学校体育和竞技体育训练的结合%On the Training Combination of School Sports and Competitive Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨光

    2011-01-01

    阐述体育教育学与运动训练的概念,分析体育教学与运动训练的相同点、差异性及互补原理,从中可知应通过对学校体育和竞技体育的有机结合,增进训练与教学的关联,提高体育教学的实效性。%School sports and competitive sports belong to sports,which are both identical and different.They are communicating in forms and similar in nature,but both the function and role are somewhat different.Training is the most direct form for competitive sports,but school sports and mass sports are integrated into one body.The relation between them is point and surface,popularization and improvement.The organic combination of the school sports and competitive sports can enhance the association of training and education,and then improve the effectiveness of physical education.

  9. Effectiveness of Excellent Swimmers’ Pre-competition Intensive Training%优秀游泳运动员赛前大强度训练实效性探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽雅; 张莉; 徐心浩; 刘禹; 李农战; 王崇

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Pre-match intensive training and the corresponding monitoring of excellent swimmers are con-ducted nine weeks before the National Games to explore the scientific and effective pre-game intensive training mode. Methods:Nine excellent swimmers are put in a six-week program of pre-competition intensive training of anaerobic ability. Two tests ( gas metabolism ability and anaerobic threshold of the evenness of blood lactic acid) of limit-load exercise are conducted before and after the training and hemoglobin (Нb) , serum creatine kinase ( CK) , blood urea ( BU) , testosterone ( T) and cortisol ( C) are tested under the elemental status be-fore training, during training (after 2 weeks) and after training (after 6 weeks). Results:(1), oxygen uptake (P<0. 001), the relative magnitude of the oxygen uptake (P<0. 001), respiratory frequency (P<0. 05), and other index decrease significantly compared with those before training while the respiratory quotient ( P<0. 05), the tidal volume (P<0. 05) scores (P<0. 05), and immediate blood lactic acid (P<0. 001) signifi-cantly increase. (2) After six weeks of intensive training, anaerobic threshold velocity, blood lactic acid at the anaerobic threshold inflection point appears and heart rate do not change significantly. ( 3 ) Under elemental status, BU indexes after 2 weeks of intensive training increase significantly (P<0. 05). C indicators during training significantly decrease (P<0. 001) but increases apparent in the late stage (P<0. 05), while other blood indexes change little. Conclusion:(1) Intensive anaerobic ability training before the game achieves the purpose of improving swimmers’ anaerobic ability while maintains their aerobic capacity. (2) The dynamic change of blood biochemical indicators are in line with the function change characteristics of intensive training. So intensive training before the game does not lead to swimmers’ function drops. (3) The test of the gas metab-olism ability of one limit

  10. Stirring by swimming bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jeanluc@math.wisc.ed [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 480 Lincoln Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Institute for Mathematics and Applications, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, 207 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Childress, Stephen [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2010-07-26

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  11. Mixing by Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P; Pesci, Adriana I; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate the microscale mixing enhancement of passive tracer particles in suspensions of swimming microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These biflagellated, single-celled eukaryotes (10 micron diameter) swim with a "breaststroke" pulling motion of their flagella at speeds of about 100 microns/s and exhibit heterogeneous trajectory shapes. Fluorescent tracer particles (2 micron diameter) allowed us to quantify the enhanced mixing caused by the swimmers, which is relevant to suspension feeding and biogenic mixing. Without swimmers present, tracer particles diffuse slowly due solely to Brownian motion. As the swimmer concentration is increased, the probability density functions (PDFs) of tracer displacements develop strong exponential tails, and the Gaussian core broadens. High-speed imaging (500 Hz) of tracer-swimmer interactions demonstrates the importance of flagellar beating in creating oscillatory flows that exceed Brownian motion out to about 5 cell radii from the swimm...

  12. Woman Swims Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Figge pressed her toes into the Caribbean sand, excited and exhausted as she touched land this week for the first time in almost a month. Reaching a beach in Trinidad, she became the first woman on record to s,Mm across the Atlantic Ocean-a dream she'd had since the early 1960s, when a stormy trans-Atlantic flight got her thinking she could wear a life vest and swim the rest of the way if needed.

  13. Going for a Swim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Savannah

    2016-01-01

    Is anything more refreshing than going for a nice, long swim? The math scenarios presented in this article will take the reader back to hot summer days and remind the reader what a cool dip in the water feels like. Solving these problems is enjoyable and encourages the solver to think of the many ways that math is all around--even in the middle of…

  14. 广西游泳后备人才基本情况的调查与分析%Survey and Analysis of the Swimming Reserve Talents in Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐健; 远航; 吕雉安

    2011-01-01

    The survey on the cultivation of competitive swimming reserve talents in fifteen training centers of Guangxi province is made by means of literature method, experts interviewing, questionnaire and mathematical statistics method. It shows that the number of swimming reserve talents in county becomes smaller than ever, which is a loss for the cultivation system of Guangxi swimming talents. It is hoped that this survey can offer some help for the further development of Guangxi swimming training.%采用文献资料、专家访谈、问卷调查及数理统计等方法,对广西省15个竞技游泳后备人才培养基地的人才培养情况进行调查分析.结果显示:广西各地的县级游泳训练的人数比以前少了许多,这一现象对整个广西游泳训练及人才培养体系的建设来说是一种损失.希望通过此次调查,对广西竞技游泳事业的进一步发展提供帮助.

  15. Vortices revealed: Swimming faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Josje; van de Water, Willem; Kunnen, Rudie; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2016-11-01

    Understanding and optimizing the propulsion in human swimming requires insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. Experiments and simulations addressing the hydrodynamics of swimming have been conducted in studies before, including the visualization of the flow using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main objective in this study is to develop a system to visualize the flow around a swimmer in practice inspired by this technique. The setup is placed in a regular swimming pool. The use of tracer particles and lasers to illuminate the particles is not allowed. Therefore, we choose to work with air bubbles with a diameter of 4 mm, illuminated by ambient light. Homogeneous bubble curtains are produced by tubes implemented in the bottom of the pool. The bubble motion is captured by six cameras placed in underwater casings. A first test with the setup has been conducted by pulling a cylinder through the bubbles and performing a PIV analysis. The vorticity plots of the resulting data show the expected vortex street behind the cylinder. The shedding frequency of the vortices resembles the expected frequency. Thus, it is possible to identify and follow the coherent structures. We will discuss these results and the first flow measurements around swimmers.

  16. A Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Procedures to Measure Passive Drag in Human Swimming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M Barbosa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the swimming hydrodynamics assessed with experimental and analytical procedures, as well as, to learn about the relative contributions of the friction drag and pressure drag to total passive drag. Sixty young talented swimmers (30 boys and 30 girls with 13.59±0.77 and 12.61±0.07 years-old, respectively were assessed. Passive drag was assessed with inverse dynamics of the gliding decay speed. The theoretical modeling included a set of analytical procedures based on naval architecture adapted to human swimming. Linear regression models between experimental and analytical procedures showed a high correlation for both passive drag (Dp = 0.777*Df+pr; R2 = 0.90; R2a = 0.90; SEE = 8.528; P<0.001 and passive drag coefficient (CDp = 1.918*CDf+pr; R2 = 0.96; R2a = 0.96; SEE = 0.029; P<0.001. On average the difference between methods was -7.002N (95%CI: -40.480; 26.475 for the passive drag and 0.127 (95%CI: 0.007; 0.247 for the passive drag coefficient. The partial contribution of friction drag and pressure drag to total passive drag was 14.12±9.33% and 85.88±9.33%, respectively. As a conclusion, there is a strong relationship between the passive drag and passive drag coefficient assessed with experimental and analytical procedures. The analytical method is a novel, feasible and valid way to gather insight about one's passive drag during training and competition. Analytical methods can be selected not only to perform race analysis during official competitions but also to monitor the swimmer's status on regular basis during training sessions without disrupting or time-consuming procedures.

  17. On Investigation and Strategies for Developing Children's Short-Term Swimming Training——Take the Swimming Training Class of Chongqing Urban Community as an Example%暑期儿童短期游泳培训现状调查及发展对策研究——以重庆主城区小区游泳培训班为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭召方; 范安辉

    2013-01-01

    By means of literature material, questionnaire survive, interviews and so on, an investigation has been conducted in this paper not only on the currant status of management and teaching in the swimming training classes in the urban area of Chongqing, but also on motivation and principles of children and their parents at their choice. The existed problems have been analyzed, and the suggestions and countermeas-ures. It is expected to promote our city swimming to develop and popularize, fast and efficient, and to provide a theoretical reference for a better achievement of our city National Fitness service.%通过文献资料、问卷调查、谈访等方法,对重庆市主城区小区泳池培训班的管理、教学现状、儿童及家长选择游泳培训班的动因、重要标准等进行调查,就存在的问题进行分析研究,并提出发展和改进对策与建议.以期为我市游泳运动快速、高效的发展和普及提供理论参考,为更好的实现我市全民健身运动服务.

  18. The effects of swimming fatigue on shoulder strength, range of motion, joint control, and performance in swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Martyn J; Green, Daniel; Matthews, Helen; Swanwick, Emma

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of training induced fatigue on shoulder strength, ROM, joint position sense, and stroke length in elite competitive swimmers. Seventeen national level swimmers performed maximum isometric strength (internal and external rotation), ROM, and joint position sense tests before and after a fatiguing 8 × 100 m training set. Stroke length, heart rate, blood lactate and blood glucose levels were recorded throughout. Peak blood lactate, blood glucose levels, and heart rate increased significantly (P swimming whereby a greater reduction in both external rotation range and joint position sense was observed in the dominant arm when fatigued. This has highlighted a relationship between fatigue and potential mechanism of shoulder pathology in swimmers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  20. Swimming and cardiovascular fitness in the older age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R J

    1975-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is an extraordinarily common and devastating disorder of middle aged and even young men in the United States and Western Europe. An increasing risk of developing the disease is associated with such factors as high blood pressure, obesity, high levels of cholesterol in the blood serum, cigarette smoking, certain behavioral patterns, decreased vital capacity and a low level of physical activity. There is much evidence to indicate that exercise may well help prevent heart attacks through such mechanisms as increasing heart efficiency, decreasing the level of serum cholesterol, decreasing obesity, decreasing high blood pressure and promoting psychic well-being. It is necessary, however, that the exercise be continued throughout life. Athletic activity in high school or college is of no help in later years. The exercise must be part of a regular scheduled year-round activity. It is suggested that swimming has many unique advantages for such an endeavor. The Amateur Athletic Union of the United States has developed competition in older age groups as a motivating force for the continuance of a regular training program of a healthful nature.

  1. Fluid Balance of Adolescent Swimmers During Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J D; Kavouras, Stavros A; Robillard, Joseph I; Bardis, Costas N; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; White, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Swimming, either competitively or leisurely, is a unique activity that involves prolonged exercise while immersed in stable water temperatures. This environment could have an influence on the hydration status of swimmers independently of fluid balance. Forty-six healthy adolescent swimmers (26 males and 20 females; 12.8 ± 2.3 years; 50.6 ± 13.4 kg) were studied during a typical training session in an indoor swimming pool. First morning, prepractice and postpractice urine samples were tested for osmolality and specific gravity, whereas all athletes consumed fluids ad libitum. Sixty-seven percent of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine osmolality [Uosm] ≥700 mmol·kg(-1)) based on their first morning urine sample, which increased to 78% immediately before training. During the 2-hour swimming practice, the minimal sweat loss (0.39 ± 0.27 L) combined with ad libitum fluid availability resulted in unchanged body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg). Additionally, thirst was similar (before practice: 46 ± 26, after practice: 55 ± 33 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale) at pretraining and posttraining time points (p > 0.05). Interestingly, postpractice Uosm was reduced significantly compared with the prepractice value (630 vs. 828 mmol·kg(-1); p = 0.001), without any significant change in body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg; p > 0.05). In conclusion, the present data indicated that more than two-thirds of the young swimmers appeared in their practice suboptimally hydrated. Although no changes in body mass were observed during the swimming practice, the decrease in urine hydration markers after swimming might less accurately reflect hydration state.

  2. 陕西省关中地区暑期少年儿童游泳培训班办学调查研究%Investigation and Study of Situation of School-running of Summer Young Children Swimming Training Course in Guanzhong Region of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠忠涛

    2011-01-01

    采用问卷调查法、文献资料法、专家访谈法、数理统计法对陕西省关中地区6个场所暑期少年儿童游泳培训班办学情况进行了调查研究,对少年儿童学习游泳的动机、兴趣、课时数、家长的评价、存在问题的主要原因进行了分析、探究,并根据办学的现状提出了一些建议,为暑期游泳培训科学、健康、长远发展提供一些有价值的参考.%Situation of school-running of summer young children swimming training course in six places of Guanzhong region of Shaanxi province was investigated by using questionnaire, literature data method, expert interview method, mathematical statistics method, and the motivation of young children learning swimming, interest, class number, the evaluation of parents, and the main causes of existing problems were analyzed and explored, meanwhile, according to the present situation of school-running, some suggestions were put forward to provide some valuable reference for scientific, healthy, long-term development of summer swimming training.

  3. Histomorphometric analysis of the response of rat skeletal muscle to swimming, immobilization and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.F. Nascimento

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine to what extent, if any, swimming training applied before immobilization in a cast interferes with the rehabilitation process in rat muscles. Female Wistar rats, mean weight 260.52 ± 16.26 g, were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each: control, 6 weeks under baseline conditions; trained, swimming training for 6 weeks; trained-immobilized, swimming training for 6 weeks and then immobilized for 1 week; trained-immobilized-rehabilitated, swimming training for 6 weeks, immobilized for 1 week and then remobilized with swimming for 2 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were dissected, frozen in liquid nitrogen and processed histochemically (H&E and mATPase. Data were analyzed statistically by the mixed effects linear model (P < 0.05. Cytoarchitectural changes such as degenerative characteristics in the immobilized group and regenerative characteristics such as centralized nucleus, fiber size variation and cell fragmentation in the groups submitted to swimming were more significant in the soleus muscle. The diameters of the lesser soleus type 1 and type 2A fibers were significantly reduced in the trained-immobilized group compared to the trained group (P < 0.001. In the tibialis anterior, there was an increase in the number of type 2B fibers and a reduction in type 2A fibers when trained-immobilized rats were compared to trained rats (P < 0.001. In trained-immobilized-rehabilitated rats, there was a reduction in type 2B fibers and an increase in type 2A fibers compared to trained-immobilized rats (P < 0.009. We concluded that swimming training did not minimize the deleterious effects of immobilization on the muscles studied and that remobilization did not favor tissue re-adaptation.

  4. Days-lost to training and competition in relation to workload in 263 elite show-jumping horses in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenvall, A; Tranquille, C A; Lönnell, A C; Bitschnau, C; Oomen, A; Hernlund, E; Montavon, S; Franko, M A; Murray, R C; Weishaupt, M A; Weeren, van R; Roepstorff, L

    2013-11-01

    Orthopaedic, or other, injuries in sports medicine can be quantified using the 'days-lost to training' concept. Both the training regimen and the surface used in training and racing can affect the health of racehorses. Our aim was to associate 'days-lost to training' in elite-level show-jumpers to horse characteristics, training and management strategies, and the time spent working on various training and competition surfaces. We designed a longitudinal study of professional riders in four European countries. Data were recorded using training diaries. Reasons for days-lost were classified into non-acute and acute orthopaedic, medical, hoof-related, and undefined. We produced descriptive statistics of training durations, relative to type of training, surfaces used, and days-lost. We created zero-inflated negative-binomial random-effects models using the overall days-lost as outcome. In the whole dataset, duration variables related to training surfaces were analysed as independent. The Swedish data only were also used to test whether duration variables were related to competition surfaces. Thirty-one riders with 263 horses provided data on 39,028 days at risk. Of these, 2357 (6.0%) were days-lost (55% and 22% of these were due to non-acute and acute orthopaedic injuries, respectively) in 126 horses. In the all-country model, controlling for season, a significant variable was country. Switzerland and the UK had lower incidence-rate ratios (IR) compared to Sweden (IRs 0.2 and 0.03, respectively). Horses with previous orthopaedic problems had almost a doubled IR (1.8) of days-lost due to orthopaedic injury, compared to baseline. If the horse had jumping training more than 1 min per day at risk the IRs were 6.9-7 (compared to less than this amount of time); this was, however, likely an effect of a small baseline. Variation in training was a protective factor with a dose-response relationship; the category with the highest variation had an IR of 0.1. In the Swedish model

  5. 浅探健身竞赛功法运动训练方法%On the Training Methods of Fitness Qigong Competitive Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔晓芸

    2015-01-01

    健身功法是以自身形体活动、呼吸吐纳、心理调节相结合为主要运动形式的民族传统体育项目。近年来,在国家体育总局健身气功管理中心大力的推动下,全民健身出现了“气功热”的热潮,各种大型健身气功比赛和培训接踵而至。在日益竞争激烈的赛场,健身气功运动员的高水平训练方法直接影响了比赛成绩,本研究对培养高水平健身气功运动员的相关方法做出了一定的总结。%Fitness Qgong is a kind of body activity, breathing deep breath, combining psychological adjustment as the main form of traditional ethnic sports movement. In recent years, with the vigorous driven of the State General Administration of Sports Fitness Qigong Management Center, the national fitness appeared"Qigong Hot Development", caused all kinds of large-scale health qigong competitions and training. In the increasingly fierce competition in the field, a high level of fitness qigong athletes training methods affected the results of the competitions, this study tries to propose the related approaches for training high level fitness qigong players.

  6. 75 FR 30296 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... District'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 17103). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim... recurring marine event involving a swimming competition. This action is intended to restrict vessel...

  7. 论游泳训练对不同性别大鼠Morris 水迷宫测试成绩的影响%Influence of Swimming Training on Mature Rats of Different Genders in the Test of Morris Water Maze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘华; 李强

    2012-01-01

    利用定位航行实验和空间探索实验在Morris水迷宫中对雄性、雌性大鼠进行为期9周的游泳训练,实验结果显示:游泳训练能显著提高雄性、雌性大鼠的学习和记忆能力,但雄性大鼠学习和记忆的能力优于雌性大鼠.%By means of place navigation test and spatial probe test in swimming Morris water maze on mature rats. The results show that swimming training can improve the rats' abilities to learn and to memorize. The male rats, however, prove superior to female ones in such abilities.

  8. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  9. 温州市青少年游泳培训俱乐部的运营模式%The Operation Mode of Youth Swimming Traning Club in Wenzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福运

    2016-01-01

    With the current social political and economic system reform, China has many years of "the system" athletics reserve personnel training mode limitations highlighted increasingly, and produce a series of problems, such as: project management institutions function positioning of the chaos, personnel quality and the competition format, all aspects of the problems such as these problems have seriously hindered the continuity of the Chinese competitive swimming reserve talented person development. Howto under the guidance of national administration policy,swimming training with Chinese characteristics to engage in swimming amateur and professional training of young people to provide more high quality of intensive training opportunities, so as to improve the overall level of China's competitive swimming reserve talented person and strength has become the current urgent problems amateur swimming training in our country.%随着当前社会的政治、经济体制的变革,我国实行多年的“举国体制”竞技后备人才的培养模式局限性日益突显,并产生了一系列的问题,例如:项目管理机构职能定位的混乱,人员素质以及竞赛赛制等存在各方面的问题,这些问题都严重地阻碍了我国竞技游泳后备人才的延续性发展。如何在国家行政政策的指导下,引导和鼓励社会民营力量的参与,强化与整合利用好社会资源,配合青少年游泳训练基地的建设,建立有中国特色的青少年游泳培训俱乐部,为从事业余和专业游泳训练的青少年提供更多高质量的强化训练机会,从而提高我国竞技游泳后备人才的整体水平和实力已成为当前我国业余游泳训练急需解决的问题。

  10. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.

  11. Effect of different warm-up procedures on subsequent swim and overall sprint distance triathlon performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn J; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of 3 warm-up procedures on subsequent swimming and overall triathlon performance. Seven moderately trained, amateur triathletes completed 4 separate testing sessions comprising 1 swimming time trial (STT) and 3 sprint distance triathlons (SDT). Before each SDT, the athletes completed 1 of three 10-minute warm-up protocols including (a) a swim-only warm-up (SWU), (b) a run-swim warm-up (RSWU), and (c) a control trial of no warm-up (NWU). Each subsequent SDT included a 750-m swim, a 500-kJ (∼20 km) ergometer cycle and a 5-km treadmill run, which the athletes performed at their perceived race intensity. Blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion, core temperature, and heart rate were recorded over the course of each SDT, along with the measurement of swim speed, swim stroke rate, and swim stroke length. There were no significant differences in individual discipline split times or overall triathlon times between the NWU, SWU, and RSWU trials (p > 0.05). Furthermore, no difference existed between trials for any of the swimming variables measured (p > 0.05) nor did they significantly differ from the preliminary STT (p > 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that warming up before an SDT provides no additional benefit to subsequent swimming or overall triathlon performance.

  12. 温泉游泳训练对飞行员椎-基底动脉血流动力学影响的研究%Research on the effects of swimming training in thermal spring on pilots'basilar vertebral artery hemodynamic changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠波; 李欣; 段虹; 吴燕红; 姚永杰; 李建香

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of swimming training in thermal spring on pilots' basilar vertebral artery ( BA) hemo-dynamic changes during the convalescence. Methods Twenty four healthy male pilots in active service were selected as subjects. During the period of convalescence they were arranged to perform a four-week swimming training program ( 5days/week). Their ver-tebral artery hemodynamic changes before and after training were measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound apparatus. Results After four-week swimming training in thermal water, pilots' posterior cerebral artery ( PC A) , vertebral artery ( VA) , basilar ver-tebral artery (BA) , peak systolic velocity ( Vs) , diastasis velocity ( Vd) , average maximum velocity ( Vm) , pulsatility index (PI) , resistive index (RI) were compared with pre-training, the difference showed statistical significance ( P < 0. 01). Conclu-sion During the convalescence, swimming training in thermal spring can increase the flow velocity and vascular compliance of pos-terior cerebral artery ( PCA) , vertebral artery ( VA) and basilar vertebral artery (BA) to improve the hemodynamic index.%目的 观察健康疗养期间,温泉游泳训练对飞行员椎动脉血流动力学指标的影响.方法 24名飞行员在健康疗养期间,进行连续4周,每周5d的温泉游泳训练.训练前后采用经颅多普勒超声仪检测椎动脉血流动力学指标.结果 与训练前相比,游泳训练4周后飞行员双侧大脑后动脉(PCA)、双侧大脑椎动脉(VA)、基底动脉(BA)、收缩期峰值血流速度(Vs)、舒张末期血流速度(Vd)、峰值平均血流速度(Vm),脉动指数(PI)、阻力指数(RI),训练后与训练前比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 健康疗养期间,温泉游泳训练可提高大脑后动脉、椎动脉、基底动脉的血流速度及血管顺应性,明显改善血流动力学指标.

  13. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency.

  14. Declines in swimming performance with age: a longitudinal study of Masters swimming champions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin RT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert T Rubin,1,2 Sonia Lin,3 Amy Curtis,4 Daniel Auerbach,5 Charlene Win6 1Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2UCLA Bruin Masters Swim Club, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA; 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 5University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; 6Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA, USA Introduction: Because of its many participants and thorough records, competitive Masters swimming offers a rich data source for determining the rate of physical decline associated with aging in physically fit individuals. The decline in performance among national champion swimmers, both men and women and in short and long swims, is linear, at about 0.6% per year up to age 70–75, after which it accelerates in quadratic fashion. These conclusions are based primarily on cross-sectional studies, and little is known about individual performance declines with aging. Herein we present performance profiles of 19 male and 26 female national and international champion Masters swimmers, ages 25 to 96 years, participating in competitions for an average of 23 years. Methods and results: Swimmers’ longitudinal data were compared with the fastest times of world record holders across ages 35–100 years by two regression methods. Neither method proved to accurately model this data set: compared with the rates of decline estimated from the world record data, which represent the best recorded times at given ages, there was bias toward shallower rates of performance decline in the longitudinal data, likely owing to a practice effect in some swimmers as they began their Masters programs. In swimmers’ later years, once maximum performance had been achieved, individual profiles followed the decline represented in the world records, and a few swimmers became the world record holders. In some instances

  15. 浅谈散打运动员赛前心理训练方法%On the Psychological Training of Athletes before Competitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立阳

    2013-01-01

      随着武术散打技术和战术的发展,散打运动员的心理训练也在不断提高,在各种比赛中,赛前心理训练占有非常重要的地位。武术散打运动是人体直接接触的对抗性项目,就是在攻击和防守的训练过程中来锻炼运动员的身体和意志。实践证明,运动技术的不断提高,运动水平相互接近,相互间争夺的更加激烈,被称为第二技术的心理训练已是不可缺少的组成部分,它直接影响运动员的运动生命和参赛的胜负,心理训练已成为提高运动员成绩的重要途径之一,也是摆在教练工作中的重要的任务。因此,教练员应提高重视,加强比赛前的心理训练。%With the development of Wushu's Sanda technique and tactics, the psychological training level is continuously improved. For every kind of games, the psychological training before games occupies a very important position. The sport of Sanda is an event which should contact with each other's body directly and it means the body and will training of the athletes in the course of attacking and defense is very necessary. It is proved that with the improvement of sport techniques, the levels of athletes are very close and the competition will be more serious, so the psychological taining, so called the second technique, has become one of the indispensible part, which will directly affect the sport span of an athlete and his competition result. So the psychological training has become one of the important means to improve the performance of athletes, is also an important task for coaches. Therefore, coaches need to pay more attention to psychological training before competitions.

  16. 高职教育以赛带训人才培养模式分析与探讨%Analysis and Discussion on Talents' Cultivation Mode of Replacing Training with Competition for Higher Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄忠东; 刘畅; 尹结

    2012-01-01

    抚顺职业技术学院积极参加省级和国家级职业技能竞赛,以技能竞赛带动高职教育改革,根据行业岗位技能需求制定竞赛计划,健全实施机制,将项目化教学与技能大赛项目紧密衔接,将训练项目与企业项目相融合,逐渐形成了以竞赛带动实训、以实训带动就业的办学理念,积极探索出"以赛带训"人才培养新模式。并在此阐明了"以赛带训"模式的形成及内涵,并对其做了进一步的分析与探讨。%Fushun Vocational Technology Institute actively participates in provincial and national vocational skills competition,driving reform of higher vocational education by replacing training with competition.According to the requirement of industry post skills to make competition plan and perfect implementing mechanism,it can link project teaching with skilled competition project closely,combining training project with enterprise project to form the running concept of driving practical training with competition and driving employment with practical training gradually.It can actively explore the new mode of talents' training by replacing training by competition.It clarifies the formation and connotation of the mode of replacing training with competition,and makes further analysis and discussion.

  17. On-the-Job Training and Human Resource Management: How to Improve Competitive Advantage of an Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenović Kosovka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper, the effects of four groups of factors on organizational performance are examined. Those are human resource management (HRM policies and practices, financial and business indicators, location, and firm characteristics. A review of selected literature confirmed that a similar set of factors, through its positive effects on boosting organizational performance, may significantly improve competitive advantage of firms.

  18. The Fastskin Revolution From Human Fish to Swimming Androids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Craik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The story of fastskin swimsuits reflects some of the challenges facing the impact of technology in postmodern culture. Introduced in 1999 and ratified for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, fastskin swimsuits were touted as revolutionising competitive swimming. Ten years later, they were banned by the world’s swimming regulatory body FINA (the Fédération Internationale de Natation, with the ban taking effect from January 2010 (Shipley 2009. The reason was the controversy caused by the large number of world records that were broken by competitors wearing polyurethane swimsuits, the next generation of the original fast skin suits. These suits were deemed to be providing an artificial advantage by increasing buoyancy and reducing drag. This had been an issue ever since they were introduced, yet FINA had approved the suits and, thereby, unleashed an unstoppable technological revolution of the sport of competitive swimming. Underlying this was the issue about its implications of the transformation of a sport based on the movement of the human body through water without the aid of artificial devices or apparatus. This article argues that the advent of the fastskin has not only transformed the art of swimming but has created a new image of the swimmer as a virtual android rather than a human fish. In turn, the image of the sport of swimming has been re-mapped as a technical artefact and sci-fi spectacle based on a radically transformed concept of the swimming body as a material object that has implications for the ideal of the fashionable body.

  19. Is Speed Reserve Related to Critical Speed and Anaerobic Distance Capacity in Swimming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Toubekis, Argyris G; Manou, Vasiliki; Loupos, Dimitrios; Kellis, Spiridon

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between speed reserve (SRes), critical swimming speed (CSS), and anaerobic distance capacity (ADC) and their efficacy in determining training adaptations. Swimmers with previous competitive experience participated in an 8-week aerobic training program (experimental group: E; n = 15, age: 22.29 ± 0.95 years) and a control group refrained from training during the same period (C; n = 6, age: 22.25 ± 2.22 years). Speed reserve was determined before and after training from the speed difference between the 50 and 400 m maximum tests. Both CSS and ADC were calculated using 2 different combinations of distances (50 and 400 m: CSS2/ADC2; 50, 100, and 400 m: CSS3/ADC3) by applying the distance-time linear regression model. CSS2 and CSS3 of the E group showed a negative correlation, whereas ADC2 and ADC3 showed a positive correlation, with SRes before and after the training period (r ≥ -0.66, r ≥ 0.88, p ≤ 0.05). CSS2 and CSS3 increased by 5.5 ± 3.2 and 6.0 ± 3.2%, whereas ADC2, ADC3, and SRes decreased by 12.0 ± 9.4, 9.0 ± 11.2, and 8.1 ± 8.4% with the training program (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that SRes, as calculated from distances of 50 and 400 m, shows strong relationships with CSS and ADC and may be used as an indicator of training-induced changes. This information is expected to facilitate training control and evaluation in a day-to-day basis.

  20. The key kinematic determinants of undulatory underwater swimming at maximal velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaboy, Chris; Naemi, Roozbeh; Brown, Susan; Psycharakis, Stelios; McCabe, Carla; Coleman, Simon; Sanders, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The optimisation of undulatory underwater swimming is highly important in competitive swimming performance. Nineteen kinematic variables were identified from previous research undertaken to assess undulatory underwater swimming performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine which kinematic variables were key to the production of maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity. Kinematic data at maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity were collected from 17 skilled swimmers. A series of separate backward-elimination analysis of covariance models was produced with cycle frequency and cycle length as dependent variables (DVs) and participant as a fixed factor, as including cycle frequency and cycle length would explain 100% of the maximal swimming velocity variance. The covariates identified in the cycle-frequency and cycle-length models were used to form the saturated model for maximal swimming velocity. The final parsimonious model identified three covariates (maximal knee joint angular velocity, maximal ankle angular velocity and knee range of movement) as determinants of the variance in maximal swimming velocity (adjusted-r2 = 0.929). However, when participant was removed as a fixed factor there was a large reduction in explained variance (adjusted r2 = 0.397) and only maximal knee joint angular velocity continued to contribute significantly, highlighting its importance to the production of maximal swimming velocity. The reduction in explained variance suggests an emphasis on inter-individual differences in undulatory underwater swimming technique and/or anthropometry. Future research should examine the efficacy of other anthropometric, kinematic and coordination variables to better understand the production of maximal swimming velocity and consider the importance of individual undulatory underwater swimming techniques when interpreting the data.

  1. 浅析翻转课堂在竞赛培训中的应用%A Brief Analysis on the Application of Flipped Classroom in Competition Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 刘久付

    2016-01-01

    As a new teaching model, flipped classroom has be-come a focus in the field of education. Flipped classroom has its own characteristics and advantages, but its problems in practice cannot be ignored, while the application of flipped classroom in competition training can eliminate the problems, so it is highly feasible. This paper further applies flipped classroom in the spe-cific links of competition training and preliminarily explores their integration.%作为一种新型的教学模式,翻转课堂成为教育界关注的焦点.翻转课堂具有自身的特点和优势,但在实践中出现的问题也不容忽视,而在竞赛培训中应用翻转课堂教学模式却能避免以上的问题,具有较强的可行性.进一步,将翻转课堂模式应用到竞赛培训的具体环节中,为两者结合进行一些初步探索.

  2. 汽车营销技能大赛教学与训练方式研究%Teaching and Training Mode Research on Automobile Marketing Skill Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀丽

    2015-01-01

    结合历年来的全国高职院校汽车营销职业技能大赛的赛况,提出汽车营销技能大赛教学与训练的措施和对策.要在校内培养训练汽车营销竞赛突出型选手,必须构建科学的课程体系,加强校内实训教学条件建设,重视实践教学环节,做到以赛事促学生学业成绩提升、以教学成果保障赛事成绩进步.%In this paper,combined with the situation of automobile marketing vocational skills competition over the years,it puts forward measures and strategies for automobile marketing vocational skills competition.In order to train outstanding competi-tors,reasonable curriculum system should be established,construction of training condition should be strengthened,practice teaching should be emphasized.

  3. 竞技性体操运动训练时间效益的探讨%The Discussion on the Benefit of Training Time in Competitive Gymnastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文生

    2001-01-01

    Time as an inexorable investment in competitive gymnastic training pro duces the gradation and fixed number of years of contribution. The evaluation on benefit of competitive gymnastic training can go through the gradation benefit and sustained benefit. The author proves the theory by the time benefit of the o utstanding gymnast, they include 35 male and 33 female world gymnastics champion s and 88 male world acrobatics champions.%时间作为竞技性体操运动训练活动中的一种必然的成本投入,其产出的效益就是贡献层次及其保持的年限。竞技性体操运动训练时间效益的评定可以从层次效益和持续效益2个方面进行,并以世界体坛最优秀的35名男子竞技体操世界冠军和33名女子竞技体操世界冠军以及我国88名技巧世界冠军的时间效益为例进行了论证。

  4. 短跑运动员赛前心理训练的实验研究%An Experimental Study on the Sprinters' Pre -competition Psychological Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊源

    2011-01-01

    运用了文献资料法、实验法等科研方法,对短跑运动员赛前心理训练进行实验研究.结果显示:赛前加强运动员心理训练能消除或降低运动员的紧张心理、稳定运动员的思想情绪,对提高运动成绩起到关键性的作用;系统的心理训练可以培养运动员坚忍不拔的品质,可有效地提高运动员机体适应能力,为提高短跑运动成绩提供理论基础.%Based on literature and experiments, this paper makes a study of the sprinters' pre -competition psychological training. The result shows that the pre -competition mental training of athletes is effective to eliminate or reduce the psychological tension i

  5. A pilot study on objective quantification and anatomical modelling of in vivo head and neck positions commonly applied in training and competition of sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, A E; Wijnberg, I D; Sleutjens, J; van der Kolk, J H; van Weeren, P R; Back, W

    2010-11-01

    Head and neck positions (HNP) in sport horses are under debate in the equine community, as they could interfere with equine welfare. HNPs have not been quantified objectively and no information is available on their head and neck loading. To quantify in vivo HNPs in sport horses and develop o a model to estimate loading on the cervical vertebrae in these positions. Videos were taken of 7 Warmbloods at walk on a straight line in 5 positions, representing all HNPs during Warmblood training and competition. Markers were glued at 5 anatomical landmarks. Two-dimensional angles and distances were determined from video frames for the 5 HNPs and statistically compared (P origin of C2 for all HNPs, except for the 'hyperextended' HNP5; the 'hyperflexed' HNP4 showed the largest loading values on the nuchal ligament origins at all locations. HNPs can be accurately quantified in the sagittal plane from angles and distances based on standard anatomical landmarks and home-video captured images. Nuchal ligament loading showed the largest estimated values at its origin on C2 in hyperflexion (HNP4). Modelling opens further perspectives to eventually estimate loading for individual horses and thus ergonomically optimise their HNP, which may improve the welfare of the sport horse during training and competition. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Respiratory muscle specific warm-up and elite swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma E; McKeever, Tricia M; Lobb, Claire; Sherriff, Tom; Gupta, Luke; Hearson, Glenn; Martin, Neil; Lindley, Martin R; Shaw, Dominick E

    2014-05-01

    Inspiratory muscle training has been shown to improve performance in elite swimmers, when used as part of routine training, but its use as a respiratory warm-up has yet to be investigated. To determine the influence of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) as a respiratory muscle warm-up in a randomised controlled cross-over trial. A total of 15 elite swimmers were assigned to four different warm-up protocols and the effects of IME on 100 m freestyle swimming times were assessed.Each swimmer completed four different IME warm-up protocols across four separate study visits: swimming-only warm-up; swimming warm-up plus IME warm-up (2 sets of 30 breaths with a 40% maximum inspiratory mouth pressure load using the Powerbreathe inspiratory muscle trainer); swimming warm-up plus sham IME warm-up (2 sets of 30 breaths with a 15% maximum inspiratory mouth pressure load using the Powerbreathe inspiratory muscle trainer); and IME-only warm-up. Swimmers performed a series of physiological tests and scales of perception (rate of perceived exertion and dyspnoea) at three time points (pre warm-up, post warm-up and post time trial). The combined standard swimming warm-up and IME warm-up were the fastest of the four protocols with a 100 m time of 57.05 s. This was significantly faster than the IME-only warm-up (mean difference=1.18 s, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.92, pswim-only warm-up (mean difference=0.62 s, 95% CI 0.001 to 1.23, p=0.05). Using IME combined with a standard swimming warm-up significantly improves 100 m freestyle swimming performance in elite swimmers.

  7. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika;

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... performed 6-10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate i