WorldWideScience

Sample records for competitive pcr reveals

  1. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  2. PCR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elham

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... was constructed with competitive strategy by PCR-cloning technique and the limitation range was determined. The PCR products of MTB and IAC were 245 and 660 bp, respectively on .... products' differentiation was easy.

  3. Development of a competitive PCR assay for the quantification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The E. coli malate dehydrogenase Mdh house-keeping gene was modified and used as an internal control and competitor DNA for the c-PCR. E. coli cell concentration equivalents ranging from 20 to 2 x 104 cells ml-1 could be quantified with the c-PCR. Fifty-three water samples from various sources were tested with the ...

  4. Development of a competitive PCR assay for the quantification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... quantification of total Escherichia coli DNA in water. Omar Kousar Banu, Barnard .... Thereafter the product was ligated into the pGEM®T-easy cloning ... agarose gel using the high pure PCR product purification kit. (Roche® ...

  5. Measurement of Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in whole blood and plasma by TaqMan PCR and in peripheral blood lymphocytes by competitive PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Laus, Stella; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven A; Rowe, David

    2003-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load values were measured in samples of whole blood (n = 60) and plasma (n = 59) by TaqMan PCR and in samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) (n = 60) by competitive PCR (cPCR). The samples were obtained from 44 transplant recipients. The whole-blood and PBL loads correlated highly (r(2) > 0.900), whereas the plasma and PBL loads correlated poorly (r(2) = 0.512). Testing of whole blood by TaqMan PCR is an acceptable alternative to testing of PBLs by cPCR for quantifying EBV DNA load.

  6. Revealed Competition for Greenfield Investments between European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Burger (Martijn); G.A. van der Knaap (Bert); R.S. Wall (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the modern economy, cities are assumed to be in fierce competition over attracting foreign investments in leading sectors of the world economy. Despite the rich theoretical discourse on these 'wars', it remains unclear which territories are competing with each other over which types

  7. Development of Quantitative Competitive PCR and Absolute Based Real-Time PCR Assays for Quantification of The Butyrate Producing Bacterium: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tahmoorespur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strains are presently recognized as the major butyrate-producing bacteria found in the rumen and digestive track of many animals and also in the human gut. In this study we reported the development of two DNA based techniques, quantitative competitive (QC PCR and absolute based Real-Time PCR, for enumerating Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strains. Despite the recent introduction of real-time PCR method for the rapid quantification of the target DNA sequences, use of quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR technique continues to play an important role in nucleic acid quantification since it is more cost effective. The procedure relies on the co-amplification of the sequence of interest with a serially diluted synthetic DNA fragment of the known concentration (competitor, using the single set primers. A real-time polymerase chain reaction is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. It monitors the amplification of a targeted DNA molecule during the PCR. Materials and Methods At first reported species-specific primers targeting the 16S rDNA region of the bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were used for amplifying a 213 bp fragment. A DNA competitor differing by 50 bp in length from the 213 bp fragment was constructed and cloned into pTZ57R/T vector. The competitor was quantified by NanoDrop spectrophotometer and serially diluted and co-amplified by PCR with total extracted DNA from rumen fluid samples. PCR products were quantified by photographing agarose gels and analyzed with Image J software and the amount of amplified target DNA was log plotted against the amount of amplified competitor. Coefficient of determination (R2 was used as a criterion of methodology precision. For developing the Real-time PCR technique, the 213 bp fragment was amplified and cloned into pTZ57R/T was used to draw a standard curve. Results and Discussion The specific primers of Butyrivibrio

  8. LPS-induced cytokine production in the monocytic cell line THP-1 determined by multiple quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glue, C; Hansen, J B; Schjerling, P

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying cytokines on the protein level can be problematic because of low concentrations or degradation during sample handling. Aiming towards finding a simple method by which to quantify cytokines on the mRNA level, we combined existing and established molecular biology techniques. Based on t...... on the principle of quantitative competitive RT-PCR with a DNA-competitor, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12alpha and the housekeeping enzyme GAPDH are measured at levels down to 200 copies of mRNA.......Quantifying cytokines on the protein level can be problematic because of low concentrations or degradation during sample handling. Aiming towards finding a simple method by which to quantify cytokines on the mRNA level, we combined existing and established molecular biology techniques. Based...

  9. Use of Competitive PCR to Detect and Quantify Haplosporidium nelsoni Infection (MSX disease) in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J Michael; Franklin, Dean E.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2000-09-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay that would improve the utility of PCR for detecting Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a serious parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. A competitive PCR sequence was generated from the H. nelsoni small subunit ribosomal DNA fragment, originally described by Stokes and colleagues, that was amplified by the same PCR primers and had similar amplification performance. Assays performed using competitor dilutions ranging from 0.05 to 500 pg/µl DNA were used to test oyster samples designated using histological techniques as having "light" or "heavy" MSX infections. Visual diagnoses were confirmed equally well with three methods: densitometry of ethidium-bromide-stained agarose, densitometry of SYBRGreen-stained polyacrylamide gels, and analysis by GeneScan 3.0 of fluorescent products detected in ultrathin gels. Oysters diagnosed as negative for MSX tested as negative or light by PCR. Oysters with light MSX infections generally had less than 5 pg/µl infectious DNA. Oysters with heavy infections generally corresponded to 5 pg/µl or greater competitor dilutions.

  10. Competitive PCR for quantification of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, C; Madsen, H O; Ryder, L P

    2000-01-01

    under identical conditions. After restriction enzyme cleavage, the PCR products originating from the competitor and the malignant clone can be distinguished by size in a gel electrophoresis step and the amount of residual disease can be determined. The method is very sensitive with a detection limit...

  11. Revealing the microbiota of marketed edible insects through PCR-DGGE, metagenomic sequencing and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Garofalo, Cristiana; Cardinali, Federica; Roncolini, Andrea; Sabbatini, Riccardo; De Filippis, Francesca; Ercolini, Danilo; Gabucci, Claudia; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2018-07-02

    The present study aimed to identify the microbiota present in six species of processed edible insects produced in Thailand and marketed worldwide via the internet, namely, giant water bugs (Belostoma lutarium), black ants (Polyrhachis), winged termites (alates, Termitoidae), rhino beetles (Hyboschema contractum), mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae), and silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori). For each species, two samples of boiled, dried and salted insects were purchased. The microbial DNA was extracted from the insect samples and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), high-throughput sequencing and qualitative real-time PCR assays. The microbiota of the analyzed samples were widely characterized by the presence of spore-forming bacteria mainly represented by the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Moreover, the genera Anaerobacillus, Paenibacillus, Geobacillus, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Massilia, Delftia, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Vagococcus, and Vibrio were also detected. Real-time PCR allowed for ascertainment of the absence of Coxiella burnetii, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in all samples. The results of this study confirm the importance of combining different molecular techniques to characterize the biodiversity of complex ecosystems such as edible insects. The presence of potential human pathogens suggests the need for a careful application of good manufacturing practices during insect processing. This study provides further data that will be useful in risk analyses of edible insects as a novel food source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic diversity of Nostoc microsymbionts from Gunnera tinctoria revealed by PCR-STRR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, R; Armesto, J J; Caru, M

    2002-08-01

    The cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc fix atmospheric nitrogen, both as free-living organisms and in symbiotic associations with a wide range of hosts, including bryophytes, gymnosperms (cycads), the small water fern Azolla (Pteridophyte), the angiosperm genus Gunnera, and fungi (lichens). The Gunnera-Nostoc symbiosis is the only one that involves a flowering plant. In Chile, 12 species of Gunnera have been described with a broad distribution in the temperate region. We examined the genetic diversity of Nostoc symbionts from three populations of Gunnera tinctoria from Abtao, Chiloé Island, southern Chile, and microsymbionts from other two species of Gunnera from southern Chile, using PCR amplification of STRR (short tandemly repeated repetitive) sequences of the Nostoc infected tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCR fingerprinting obtained directly from symbiotic tissue of Gunnera. Genetic analyses revealed that Nostoc symbionts exhibit important genetic diversity among host plants, both within and between Gunnera populations. It was also found that only one Nostoc strain, or closely related strains, established symbiosis with an individual plant host.

  13. Genotyping by PCR and High-Throughput Sequencing of Commercial Probiotic Products Reveals Composition Biases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Morovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microbiome research have brought renewed focus on beneficial bacteria, many of which are available in food and dietary supplements. Although probiotics have historically been defined as microorganisms that convey health benefits when ingested in sufficient viable amounts, this description now includes the stipulation well defined strains, encompassing definitive taxonomy for consumer consideration and regulatory oversight. Here, we evaluated 52 commercial dietary supplements covering a range of labeled species, and determined their content using plate counting, targeted genotyping. Additionally, strain identities were assessed using methods recently published by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention. We also determined the relative abundance of individual bacteria by high-throughput sequencing (HTS of the 16S rRNA sequence using paired-end 2x250bp Illumina MiSeq technology. Using multiple methods, we tested the hypothesis that products do contain the quantitative amount of labeled bacteria, and qualitative list of labeled microbial species. We found that 17 samples (33% were below label claim for CFU prior to their expiration dates. A multiplexed-PCR scheme showed that only 30/52 (58% of the products contained a correctly labeled classification, with issues encompassing incorrect taxonomy, missing species and un-labeled species. The HTS revealed that many blended products consisted predominantly of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. These results highlight the need for reliable methods to qualitatively determine the correct taxonomy and quantitatively ascertain the relative amounts of mixed microbial populations in commercial probiotic products.

  14. Novel multiplex PCR reveals multiple trypanosomatid species infecting North American bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Amber D; Szalanski, Allen L; Strange, James P

    2018-03-01

    Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki (Trypanosomatidae) are common parasites of bumble bees (Bombus spp.). Crithidia bombi was described in the 1980s, and C. expoeki was recently discovered using molecular tools. Both species have cosmopolitan distributions among their bumble bee hosts, but there have been few bumble bee studies that have identified infections to species since the original description of C. expoeki in 2010. Morphological identification of species is difficult due to variability within each stage of their complex lifecycles, although they can be easily differentiated through DNA sequencing. However, DNA sequencing can be expensive, particularly with many samples to diagnose. In order to reliably and inexpensively distinguish Crithidia species for a large-scale survey, we developed a multiplex PCR protocol using species-specific primers with a universal trypanosomatid primer set to detect unexpected relatives. We applied this method to 356 trypanosomatid-positive bumble bees from North America as a first-look at the distribution and host range of each parasite in the region. Crithidia bombi was more common (90.2%) than C. expoeki (21.3%), with most C. expoeki-positive samples existing as co-infections with C. bombi (13.8%). This two-step detection method also revealed that 2.2% samples were positive for trypanosmatids that were neither C. bombi nor C. expoeki. Sequencing revealed that two individuals were positive for C. mellificae, one for Lotmaria passim, and three for two unclassified trypanosomatids. This two-step method is effective in diagnosing known bumble bee infecting Crithidia species, and allowing for the discovery of unknown potential symbionts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Environmental metabarcodes for insects: in silico PCR reveals potential for taxonomic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Soubrier, Julien; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Studies of insect assemblages are suited to the simultaneous DNA-based identification of multiple taxa known as metabarcoding. To obtain accurate estimates of diversity, metabarcoding markers ideally possess appropriate taxonomic coverage to avoid PCR-amplification bias, as well as sufficient sequence divergence to resolve species. We used in silico PCR to compare the taxonomic coverage and resolution of newly designed insect metabarcodes (targeting 16S) with that of existing markers [16S and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI)] and then compared their efficiency in vitro. Existing metabarcoding primers amplified in silico 90% coverage. Furthermore, metabarcodes targeting COI appeared to introduce taxonomic PCR-amplification bias, typically amplifying a greater percentage of Lepidoptera and Diptera species, while failing to amplify certain orders in silico. To test whether bias predicted in silico was observed in vitro, we created an artificial DNA blend containing equal amounts of DNA from 14 species, representing 11 insect orders and one arachnid. We PCR-amplified the blend using five primer sets, targeting either COI or 16S, with high-throughput amplicon sequencing yielding more than 6 million reads. In vitro results typically corresponded to in silico PCR predictions, with newly designed 16S primers detecting 11 insect taxa present, thus providing equivalent or better taxonomic coverage than COI metabarcodes. Our results demonstrate that in silico PCR is a useful tool for predicting taxonomic bias in mixed template PCR and that researchers should be wary of potential bias when selecting metabarcoding markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  17. The Revealed Competitiveness of Major Ports in the East Asian Region: An Additive Market Share Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the single cargo market, the ordinary market share analysis method has been the representative tool for revealed competitiveness analysis. This paper develops and employs an applied market share index called the additive market share (AMS. Data are collected from 15 major container ports for the 1998-2013 period. In comparison to the results of an ordinary market share analysis, the highest AMS is observed for the Bohai Rim port cluster from 2008, not for the Yangtze River cluster or the Pearl River cluster. There are substitutable relationships between Yangtze River and non-Chinese ports and between Pearl River and Bohai Rim ports from 2001. Finally, there is an internal competition at Pearl River and Yangtze River ports, whereas Bohai Rim and non-Chinese ports show internally complementary relationships.

  18. Quantitative PCR Profiling of Escherichia coli in Livestock Feces Reveals Increased Population Resilience Relative to Culturable Counts under Temperature Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Bird, Clare; Burd, Emmy; Wyman, Michael

    2016-09-06

    The relationship between culturable counts (CFU) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) cell equivalent counts of Escherichia coli in dairy feces exposed to different environmental conditions and temperature extremes was investigated. Fecal samples were collected in summer and winter from dairy cowpats held under two treatments: field-exposed versus polytunnel-protected. A significant correlation in quantified E. coli was recorded between the qPCR and culture-based methods (r = 0.82). Evaluation of the persistence profiles of E. coli over time revealed no significant difference in the E. coli numbers determined as either CFU or gene copies during the summer for the field-exposed cowpats, whereas significantly higher counts were observed by qPCR for the polytunnel-protected cowpats, which were exposed to higher ambient temperatures. In winter, the qPCR returned significantly higher counts of E. coli for the field-exposed cowpats, thus representing a reversal of the findings from the summer sampling campaign. Results from this study suggest that with increasing time post-defecation and with the onset of challenging environmental conditions, such as extremes in temperature, culture-based counts begin to underestimate the true resilience of viable E. coli populations in livestock feces. This is important not only in the long term as the Earth changes in response to climate-change drivers but also in the short term during spells of extremely cold or hot weather.

  19. Sequence diversity in haloalkane dehalogenases, as revealed by PCR using family-specific primers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotík, Michael; Faměrová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 2 (2012), s. 212-217 ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0137; GA ČR GAP207/10/0135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dehalogenation * Consensus sequence * Degenerate PCR primer Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.161, year: 2012

  20. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management. PMID:27562455

  1. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  2. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  3. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  4. Quantification of 16S rRNAs in complex bacterial communities by multiple competitive reverse transcription-PCR in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felske, A; Akkermans, A D; De Vos, W M

    1998-11-01

    A novel approach was developed to quantify rRNA sequences in complex bacterial communities. The main bacterial 16S rRNAs in Drentse A grassland soils (The Netherlands) were amplified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with bacterium-specific primers and were separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). The primer pair used (primers U968-GC and L1401) was found to amplify with the same efficiency 16S rRNAs from bacterial cultures containing different taxa and cloned 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from uncultured soil bacteria. The sequence-specific efficiency of amplification was determined by monitoring the amplification kinetics by kinetic PCR. The primer-specific amplification efficiency was assessed by competitive PCR and RT-PCR, and identical input amounts of different 16S rRNAs resulted in identical amplicon yields. The sequence-specific detection system used for competitive amplifications was TGGE, which also has been found to be suitable for simultaneous quantification of more than one sequence. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied to TGGE fingerprints of soil bacteria to estimate the ratios of the bacterial 16S rRNAs.

  5. Incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in Domestic Dogs in Palestine as Revealed by Copro-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Dumaidi, Kamal; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Hanan; Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Laham, Nahed; Abdeen, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or echinococcosisis considered a neglected zoonotic disease despite its high burden in the livestock industry and the high risk of infection by humans in endemic areas. In a cross-sectional study we estimated the copro-Incidence and also genotyped Echinococcus granulosus isolates from domestic dogs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Medical archives in nine major hospitals in Palestine were reviewed to determine incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans during surgery. Faecal samples were collected from 93 domestic dogs in three districts with the highest number of human cases: Al-Khalil (Hebron), Tubas and Jenin. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog faecal samples and amplified by PCR targeting the repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III) followed by sequencing of five positive samples. Genotyping was determined by sequencing and BLAST searching of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO1). The incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans at surgery was 1.2 per 100,000 in the West Bank and 1.0 per 100,000 in Gaza Strip. Seventeen of 93 domestic dogs (18%) were positive, based upon comparison with the Echinococcus DNA control. The five sequenced samples were confirmed to be E. granulosus. Successfully genotyped sample belonged to E.granulosus sensu stricto (formerly G1-G3 complex, sheep strain). For domestic dogs, age group (13-24 months) and sex were identified as two risk factors for contracting E. granulosus. The study identified the high incidence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in dogs in Palestine. PMID:26181591

  6. Incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in Domestic Dogs in Palestine as Revealed by Copro-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Jawabreh

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis or echinococcosisis considered a neglected zoonotic disease despite its high burden in the livestock industry and the high risk of infection by humans in endemic areas. In a cross-sectional study we estimated the copro-Incidence and also genotyped Echinococcus granulosus isolates from domestic dogs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Medical archives in nine major hospitals in Palestine were reviewed to determine incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans during surgery. Faecal samples were collected from 93 domestic dogs in three districts with the highest number of human cases: Al-Khalil (Hebron, Tubas and Jenin. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog faecal samples and amplified by PCR targeting the repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III followed by sequencing of five positive samples. Genotyping was determined by sequencing and BLAST searching of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO1. The incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans at surgery was 1.2 per 100,000 in the West Bank and 1.0 per 100,000 in Gaza Strip. Seventeen of 93 domestic dogs (18% were positive, based upon comparison with the Echinococcus DNA control. The five sequenced samples were confirmed to be E. granulosus. Successfully genotyped sample belonged to E.granulosus sensu stricto (formerly G1-G3 complex, sheep strain. For domestic dogs, age group (13-24 months and sex were identified as two risk factors for contracting E. granulosus. The study identified the high incidence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in dogs in Palestine.

  7. Competitive PCR-High Resolution Melting Analysis (C-PCR-HRMA) for large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) detection: A new approach to assess quantitative status of BRCA1 gene in a reference laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minucci, Angelo; De Paolis, Elisa; Concolino, Paola; De Bonis, Maria; Rizza, Roberta; Canu, Giulia; Scaglione, Giovanni Luca; Mignone, Flavio; Scambia, Giovanni; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2017-07-01

    Evaluation of copy number variation (CNV) in BRCA1/2 genes, due to large genomic rearrangements (LGRs), is a mandatory analysis in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers families, if no pathogenic variants are found by sequencing. LGRs cannot be detected by conventional methods and several alternative methods have been developed. Since these approaches are expensive and time consuming, identification of alternative screening methods for LGRs detection is needed in order to reduce and optimize the diagnostic procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate a Competitive PCR-High Resolution Melting Analysis (C-PCR-HRMA) as molecular tool to detect recurrent BRCA1 LGRs. C-PCR-HRMA was performed on exons 3, 14, 18, 19, 20 and 21 of the BRCA1 gene; exons 4, 6 and 7 of the ALB gene were used as reference fragments. This study showed that it is possible to identify recurrent BRCA1 LGRs, by melting peak height ratio between target (BRCA1) and reference (ALB) fragments. Furthermore, we underline that a peculiar amplicon-melting profile is associated to a specific BRCA1 LGR. All C-PCR-HRMA results were confirmed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. C-PCR-HRMA has proved to be an innovative, efficient and fast method for BRCA1 LGRs detection. Given the sensitivity, specificity and ease of use, c-PCR-HRMA can be considered an attractive and powerful alternative to other methods for BRCA1 CNVs screening, improving molecular strategies for BRCA testing in the context of Massive Parallel Sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Competitive Semantic Memory Retrieval: Temporal Dynamics Revealed by Event-Related Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Hellerstedt

    Full Text Available Memories compete for retrieval when they are related to a common retrieval cue. Previous research has shown that retrieval of a target memory may lead to subsequent retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF of currently irrelevant competing memories. In the present study, we investigated the time course of competitive semantic retrieval and examined the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying RIF. We contrasted two theoretical accounts of RIF by examining a critical aspect of this memory phenomenon, namely the extent to which it depends on successful retrieval of the target memory. Participants first studied category-exemplar word-pairs (e.g. Fruit-Apple. Next, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while the participants performed a competitive semantic cued-recall task. In this task, the participants were provided with the studied categories but they were instructed to retrieve other unstudied exemplars (e.g. Fruit-Ma__?. We investigated the event-related potential (ERP correlates of retrieval success by comparing ERPs from successful and failed retrieval trials. To isolate the ERP correlates of continuous retrieval attempts from the ERP correlates of retrieval success, we included an impossible retrieval condition, with incompletable word-stem cues (Drinks-Wy__ and compared it with a non-retrieval presentation baseline condition (Occupation-Dentist. The participants' memory for all the studied exemplars was tested in the final phase of the experiment. Taken together, the behavioural results suggest that RIF is independent of target retrieval. Beyond investigating the mechanisms underlying RIF, the present study also elucidates the temporal dynamics of semantic cued-recall by isolating the ERP correlates of retrieval attempt and retrieval success. The ERP results revealed that retrieval attempt is reflected in a late posterior negativity, possibly indicating construction of candidates for completing the word-stem cue and retrieval

  9. Competitive Semantic Memory Retrieval: Temporal Dynamics Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Memories compete for retrieval when they are related to a common retrieval cue. Previous research has shown that retrieval of a target memory may lead to subsequent retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) of currently irrelevant competing memories. In the present study, we investigated the time course of competitive semantic retrieval and examined the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying RIF. We contrasted two theoretical accounts of RIF by examining a critical aspect of this memory phenomenon, namely the extent to which it depends on successful retrieval of the target memory. Participants first studied category-exemplar word-pairs (e.g. Fruit—Apple). Next, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while the participants performed a competitive semantic cued-recall task. In this task, the participants were provided with the studied categories but they were instructed to retrieve other unstudied exemplars (e.g. Fruit—Ma__?). We investigated the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of retrieval success by comparing ERPs from successful and failed retrieval trials. To isolate the ERP correlates of continuous retrieval attempts from the ERP correlates of retrieval success, we included an impossible retrieval condition, with incompletable word-stem cues (Drinks—Wy__) and compared it with a non-retrieval presentation baseline condition (Occupation—Dentist). The participants’ memory for all the studied exemplars was tested in the final phase of the experiment. Taken together, the behavioural results suggest that RIF is independent of target retrieval. Beyond investigating the mechanisms underlying RIF, the present study also elucidates the temporal dynamics of semantic cued-recall by isolating the ERP correlates of retrieval attempt and retrieval success. The ERP results revealed that retrieval attempt is reflected in a late posterior negativity, possibly indicating construction of candidates for completing the word-stem cue and retrieval

  10. Competitive Semantic Memory Retrieval: Temporal Dynamics Revealed by Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Memories compete for retrieval when they are related to a common retrieval cue. Previous research has shown that retrieval of a target memory may lead to subsequent retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) of currently irrelevant competing memories. In the present study, we investigated the time course of competitive semantic retrieval and examined the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying RIF. We contrasted two theoretical accounts of RIF by examining a critical aspect of this memory phenomenon, namely the extent to which it depends on successful retrieval of the target memory. Participants first studied category-exemplar word-pairs (e.g. Fruit-Apple). Next, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while the participants performed a competitive semantic cued-recall task. In this task, the participants were provided with the studied categories but they were instructed to retrieve other unstudied exemplars (e.g. Fruit-Ma__?). We investigated the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of retrieval success by comparing ERPs from successful and failed retrieval trials. To isolate the ERP correlates of continuous retrieval attempts from the ERP correlates of retrieval success, we included an impossible retrieval condition, with incompletable word-stem cues (Drinks-Wy__) and compared it with a non-retrieval presentation baseline condition (Occupation-Dentist). The participants' memory for all the studied exemplars was tested in the final phase of the experiment. Taken together, the behavioural results suggest that RIF is independent of target retrieval. Beyond investigating the mechanisms underlying RIF, the present study also elucidates the temporal dynamics of semantic cued-recall by isolating the ERP correlates of retrieval attempt and retrieval success. The ERP results revealed that retrieval attempt is reflected in a late posterior negativity, possibly indicating construction of candidates for completing the word-stem cue and retrieval monitoring

  11. Impact of gamma rays on the Phaffia rhodozyma genome revealed by RAPD-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, N; Hosseini, Ramin; Ahmadi, Ar

    2011-12-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma is a red yeast which produces astaxanthin as the major carotenoid pigment. Astaxanthin is thought to reduce the incidence of cancer and degenerative diseases in man. It also enhances the immune response and acts as a free-radical quencher, a precursor of vitamin A, or a pigment involved in the visual attraction of animals as mating partners. The impact of gamma irradiation was studied on the Phaffia rhodozyma genome. Ten mutant strains, designated Gam1-Gam10, were obtained using gamma irradiation. Ten decamer random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were employed to assess genetic changes. Nine primers revealed scorable polymorphisms and a total of 95 band positions were scored; amongst which 38 bands (37.5%) were polymorphic. Primer F with 3 bands and primer J20 with 13 bands produced the lowest and the highest number of bands, respectively. Primer A16 produced the highest number of polymorphic bands (70% polymorphism) and primer F showed the lowest number of polymorphic bands (0% polymorphism). Genetic distances were calculated using Jaccard's coefficient and the UPGMA method. A dendrogram was created using SPSS (version 11.5) and the strains were clustered into four groups. RAPD markers could distinguish between the parental and the mutant strains of P. rhodozyma. RAPD technique showed that some changes had occurred in the genome of the mutated strains. This technique demonstrated the capability to differentiate between the parental and the mutant strains.

  12. Insight into the bacterial diversity of fermentation woad dye vats as revealed by PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Vesna; Osimani, Andrea; Taccari, Manuela; Garofalo, Cristiana; Butta, Alessandro; Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2017-07-01

    The bacterial diversity in fermenting dye vats with woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) prepared and maintained in a functional state for approximately 12 months was examined using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent PCR-DGGE analyses and next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. An extremely complex ecosystem including taxa potentially contributing to both indigo reduction and formation, as well as indigo degradation was found. PCR-DGGE analyses revealed the presence of Paenibacillus lactis, Sporosarcina koreensis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans, while Bacillus thermolactis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium were also identified but with sequence identities lower than 97%. Dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by pyrosequencing included Clostridium ultunense, Tissierella spp., Alcaligenes faecalis, Erysipelothrix spp., Enterococcus spp., Virgibacillus spp. and Virgibacillus panthothenicus, while sub-dominant OTUs included clostridia, alkaliphiles, halophiles, bacilli, moderately thermophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, aerobes, and even photosynthetic bacteria. Based on the current knowledge of indigo-reducing bacteria, it is considered that indigo-reducing bacteria constituted only a small fraction in the unique microcosm detected in the natural indigo dye vats.

  13. Towards a molecular taxonomic key of the Aurantioideae subfamily using chloroplastic SNP diagnostic markers of the main clades genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Amel; Ollitrault, Frederique; Baraket, Ghada; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-08-18

    Chloroplast DNA is a primary source of molecular variations for phylogenetic analysis of photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, the sequencing and analysis of multiple chloroplastic regions is difficult to apply to large collections or large samples of natural populations. The objective of our work was to demonstrate that a molecular taxonomic key based on easy, scalable and low-cost genotyping method should be developed from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) diagnostic of well-established clades. It was applied to the Aurantioideae subfamily, the largest group of the Rutaceae family that includes the cultivated citrus species. The publicly available nucleotide sequences of eight plastid genomic regions were compared for 79 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily to search for SNPs revealing taxonomic differentiation at the inter-tribe, inter-subtribe, inter-genus and interspecific levels. Diagnostic SNPs (DSNPs) were found for 46 of the 54 clade levels analysed. Forty DSNPs were selected to develop KASPar markers and their taxonomic value was tested by genotyping 108 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily. Twenty-seven markers diagnostic of 24 clades were validated and they displayed a very high rate of transferability in the Aurantioideae subfamily (only 1.2 % of missing data on average). The UPGMA from the validated markers produced a cladistic organisation that was highly coherent with the previous phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence data of the eight plasmid regions. In particular, the monophyletic origin of the "true citrus" genera plus Oxanthera was validated. However, some clarification remains necessary regarding the organisation of the other wild species of the Citreae tribe. We validated the concept that with well-established clades, DSNPs can be selected and efficiently transformed into competitive allele-specific PCR markers (KASPar method) allowing cost-effective highly efficient cladistic analysis in large collections at

  14. Development of ultra-short PCR assay to reveal BRAF V600 mutation status in Thai colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chat-Uthai, Nunthawut; Vejvisithsakul, Pichpisith; Udommethaporn, Sutthirat; Meesiri, Puttarakun; Danthanawanit, Chetiya; Wongchai, Yannawan; Teerapakpinyo, Chinachote; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Poungvarin, Naravat

    2018-01-01

    The protein kinase BRAF is one of the key players in regulating cellular responses to extracellular signals. Somatic mutations of the BRAF gene, causing constitutive activation of BRAF, have been found in various types of human cancers such as malignant melanoma, and colorectal cancer. BRAF V600E and V600K, most commonly observed mutations in these cancers, may predict response to targeted therapies. Many techniques suffer from a lack of diagnostic sensitivity in mutation analysis in clinical samples with a low cancer cell percentage or poor-quality fragmented DNA. Here we present allele-specific real-time PCR assay for amplifying 35- to 45-base target sequences in BRAF gene. Forward primer designed for BRAF V600E detection is capable of recognizing both types of BRAF V600E mutation, i.e. V600E1 (c.1799T>A) and V600E2 (c.1799_1800delTGinsAA), as well as complex tandem mutation caused by nucleotide changes in codons 600 and 601. We utilized this assay to analyze Thai formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Forty-eight percent of 178 Thai colorectal cancer tissues has KRAS mutation detected by highly sensitive commercial assays. Although these DNA samples contain low overall yield of amplifiable DNA, our newly-developed assay successfully revealed BRAF V600 mutations in 6 of 93 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues which KRAS mutation was not detected. Ultra-short PCR assay with forward mutation-specific primers is potentially useful to detect BRAF V600 mutations in highly fragmented DNA specimens from cancer patients.

  15. U.S. masters track participation reveals a stable sex difference in competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaner, Robert O; Addona, Vittorio; Mead, Michael P

    2014-10-06

    It is well established that men are more likely than women to engage in direct competition, but it is unclear if this reflects social structural conditions or evolved predispositions. These hypotheses can be addressed by quantifying competitiveness in sports and testing if the sex difference is decreasing over time in the U.S., a society where social roles have converged. Study 1 assessed participation and the occurrence of relatively fast performances by masters runners (40-74 years old) at recent road races and track meets. Fast performances occurred over 20 times more often at track meets than at road races. Women comprised 55% of finishers at roads races but only 15-28% of finishers at track meets. Thus, the sex difference in masters track participation can serve as a measure of the sex difference in competitiveness. Study 2 used data from national championship meets and yearly rankings lists to test whether the sex difference in masters track participation decreased from 1988-2012. The sex difference decreased overall, but there was no evidence of change since the late 1990s. Therefore, the sex difference in the willingness to engage in direct sports competition appears to reflect both social structural conditions and evolved predispositions.

  16. Combined Metabonomic and Quantitative RT-PCR Analyses Revealed Metabolic Reprogramming Associated with Fusarium graminearum Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight disease resulting from Fusarium graminearum (FG infection causes huge losses in global production of cereals and development of FG-resistant plants is urgently needed. To understand biochemistry mechanisms for FG resistance, here, we have systematically investigated the plant metabolomic phenotypes associated with FG resistance for transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a class-I chitinase (Chi, a Fusarium-specific recombinant antibody gene (CWP2 and fused Chi-CWP2. Plant disease indices, mycotoxin levels, metabonomic characteristics, and expression levels of several key genes were measured together with their correlations. We found that A. thaliana expressing Chi-CWP2 showed higher FG resistance with much lower disease indices and mycotoxin levels than the wild-type and the plants expressing Chi or CWP2 alone. The combined metabonomic and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that such FG-resistance was closely associated with the promoted biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (phenylpropanoids, alkanoids and organic osmolytes (proline, betaine, glucose, myo-inositol together with enhanced TCA cycle and GABA shunt. These suggest that the concurrently enhanced biosyntheses of the shikimate-mediated secondary metabolites and organic osmolytes be an important strategy for A. thaliana to develop and improve FG resistance. These findings provide essential biochemical information related to FG resistance which is important for developing FG-resistant cereals.

  17. Analyzing the international competitiveness of the industry in Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain using revealed comparative advantages (RCA) indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Oelgemöller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the export structure of the four European countries Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain, the so called PIGS countries. These countries were all hit by the economic downturn in the course of the financial crisis and have been struggling with the national debt crisis and recession. One way to identify sectoral international competitiveness is provided by the revealed comparative advantage index developed by Balassa (RCA 1). This indicator evolved through several studie...

  18. The influence of response competition on cerebral asymmetries for processing hierarchical stimuli revealed by ERP recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski, Peter; Hübner, Ronald; Keil, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the left and right hemispheres differ with respect to the processing of global and local aspects of visual stimuli. Recently, behavioural experiments have shown that this processing asymmetry strongly depends on the response competition between the global and local levels of a stimulus. Here we report electrophysiological data that underline this observation. Hemispheric differences for global/local processing were mainly observed for responseincompatible stimuli an...

  19. RAP-PCR fingerprinting reveals time-dependent expression of development-related genes following differentiation process of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, T.; Yu, X.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2015), s. 683-690 ISSN 0008-4166 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * development * RNA arbitrarily primed PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2015

  20. Antibody Competition Reveals Surface Location of HPV L2 Minor Capsid Protein Residues 17–36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Bywaters

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The currently available nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine exploits the highly antigenic L1 major capsid protein to promote high-titer neutralizing antibodies, but is limited to the HPV types included in the vaccine since the responses are highly type-specific. The limited cross-protection offered by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP vaccine warrants further investigation into cross-protective L2 epitopes. The L2 proteins are yet to be fully characterized as to their precise placement in the virion. Adding to the difficulties in localizing L2, studies have suggested that L2 epitopes are not well exposed on the surface of the mature capsid prior to cellular engagement. Using a series of competition assays between previously mapped anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs (H16.V5, H16.U4 and H16.7E and novel anti-L2 mAbs, we probed the capsid surface for the location of an L2 epitope (aa17–36. The previously characterized L1 epitopes together with our competition data is consistent with a proposed L2 epitope within the canyons of pentavalent capsomers.

  1. Antibody Competition Reveals Surface Location of HPV L2 Minor Capsid Protein Residues 17-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywaters, Stephanie M; Brendle, Sarah A; Tossi, Kerstin P; Biryukov, Jennifer; Meyers, Craig; Christensen, Neil D

    2017-11-10

    The currently available nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine exploits the highly antigenic L1 major capsid protein to promote high-titer neutralizing antibodies, but is limited to the HPV types included in the vaccine since the responses are highly type-specific. The limited cross-protection offered by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine warrants further investigation into cross-protective L2 epitopes. The L2 proteins are yet to be fully characterized as to their precise placement in the virion. Adding to the difficulties in localizing L2, studies have suggested that L2 epitopes are not well exposed on the surface of the mature capsid prior to cellular engagement. Using a series of competition assays between previously mapped anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (H16.V5, H16.U4 and H16.7E) and novel anti-L2 mAbs, we probed the capsid surface for the location of an L2 epitope (aa17-36). The previously characterized L1 epitopes together with our competition data is consistent with a proposed L2 epitope within the canyons of pentavalent capsomers.

  2. Digital PCR (dPCR) analysis reveals that the homozygous c.315-48T>C variant in the FECH gene might cause erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaleoni, Valentina; Granata, Francesca; Missineo, Pasquale; Fustinoni, Silvia; Graziadei, Giovanna; Di Pierro, Elena

    2018-06-13

    Alterations in the ferrochelatase gene (FECH) are the basis of the phenotypic expressions in erythropoietic protoporphyria. The phenotype is due to the presence of a mutation in the FECH gene associated in trans to the c.315-48 T > C variant in the intron 3. The latter is able to increase the physiological quota of alternative splicing events in the intron 3. Other two variants in the FECH gene (c.1-252A > G and c.68-23C > T) have been found to be associated to the intron 3 variant in some populations and together, they constitute a haplotype (ACT/GTC), but eventually, their role in the alternative splicing event has never been elucidated. The absolute number of the aberrantly spliced FECH mRNA molecules and the absolute expression of the FECH gene were evaluated by digital PCR technique in a comprehensive cohort. The number of splicing events that rose in the presence of the c.315-48 T > C variant, both in the heterozygous and homozygous condition was reported for the first time. Also, the percentage of the inserted FECH mRNA increased, even doubled in the T/C cases, compared to T/T cases. The constant presence of variants in the promoter and intron 2 did not influence or modulate the aberrant splicing. The results of FECH gene expression suggested that the homozygosity for the c.315-48 T > C variant could be considered pathological. Thus, this study identified the homozygotes for the c.315-48 T > C variant as pathological. By extension, when the samples were categorised according to the haplotypes, the GTC haplotype in homozygosis was pathological. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Next-generation sequencing can reveal in vitro-generated PCR crossover products: some artifactual sequences correspond to HLA alleles in the IMGT/HLA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, C L; Rastrou, M; Williams, T C; Goodridge, D; Lazaro, A M; Tilanus, M; Erlich, H A

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping assay that we developed using 454 sequencing and Conexio software uses generic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for DRB exon 2. Occasionally, we observed low abundance DRB amplicon sequences that resulted from in vitro PCR 'crossing over' between DRB1 and DRB3/4/5. These hybrid sequences, revealed by the clonal sequencing property of the 454 system, were generally observed at a read depth of 5%-10% of the true alleles. They usually contained at least one mismatch with the IMGT/HLA database, and consequently, were easily recognizable and did not cause a problem for HLA genotyping. Sometimes, however, these artifactual sequences matched a rare allele and the automatic genotype assignment was incorrect. These observations raised two issues: (1) could PCR conditions be modified to reduce such artifacts? and (2) could some of the rare alleles listed in the IMGT/HLA database be artifacts rather than true alleles? Because PCR crossing over occurs during late cycles of PCR, we compared DRB genotypes resulting from 28 and (our standard) 35 cycles of PCR. For all 21 cell line DNAs amplified for 35 cycles, crossover products were detected. In 33% of the cases, these hybrid sequences corresponded to named alleles. With amplification for only 28 cycles, these artifactual sequences were not detectable. To investigate whether some rare alleles in the IMGT/HLA database might be due to PCR artifacts, we analyzed four samples obtained from the investigators who submitted the sequences. In three cases, the sequences were generated from true alleles. In one case, our 454 sequencing revealed an error in the previously submitted sequence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Selective inhibition of plant serine hydrolases by agrochemicals revealed by competitive ABPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschani, Farnusch; Nickel, Sabrina; Pandey, Bikram; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2012-01-15

    Organophosphate and -phosphonates and their thio derivatives are often used in agroindustry as herbicides and insecticides, but their potential off-targets in the plant are poorly investigated. Here, we use competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) of serine hydrolases (SHs) to detect targets of these agrochemicals and other compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using broad-range and specific probes, and by overexpression of various SHs in planta, we are able to confirm eight SH-compound interactions, including selective inhibition of carboxylesterase CXE12, prolyloligopeptidase, methylesterase MES2 and tripeptidyl peptidase TPP2. These observations can be used for the design of novel probes and selective inhibitors and may help to assess physiological effects of agrochemicals on crop plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypernetworks Reveal Compound Variables That Capture Cooperative and Competitive Interactions in a Soccer Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João; Lopes, Rui J; Marques, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte

    2017-01-01

    The combination of sports sciences theorization and social networks analysis (SNA) has offered useful new insights for addressing team behavior. However, SNA typically represents the dynamics of team behavior during a match in dyadic interactions and in a single cumulative snapshot. This study aims to overcome these limitations by using hypernetworks to describe illustrative cases of team behavior dynamics at various other levels of analyses. Hypernetworks simultaneously access cooperative and competitive interactions between teammates and opponents across space and time during a match. Moreover, hypernetworks are not limited to dyadic relations, which are typically represented by edges in other types of networks. In a hypernetwork, n-ary relations (with n > 2) and their properties are represented with hyperedges connecting more than two players simultaneously (the so-called simplex -plural, simplices ). Simplices can capture the interactions of sets of players that may include an arbitrary number of teammates and opponents. In this qualitative study, we first used the mathematical formalisms of hypernetworks to represent a multilevel team behavior dynamics, including micro (interactions between players), meso (dynamics of a given critical event, e.g., an attack interaction), and macro (interactions between sets of players) levels. Second, we investigated different features that could potentially explain the occurrence of critical events, such as, aggregation or disaggregation of simplices relative to goal proximity. Finally, we applied hypernetworks analysis to soccer games from the English premier league (season 2010-2011) by using two-dimensional player displacement coordinates obtained with a multiple-camera match analysis system provided by STATS (formerly Prozone). Our results show that (i) at micro level the most frequently occurring simplices configuration is 1vs.1 (one attacker vs. one defender); (ii) at meso level, the dynamics of simplices

  6. Hypernetworks Reveal Compound Variables That Capture Cooperative and Competitive Interactions in a Soccer Match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ramos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of sports sciences theorization and social networks analysis (SNA has offered useful new insights for addressing team behavior. However, SNA typically represents the dynamics of team behavior during a match in dyadic interactions and in a single cumulative snapshot. This study aims to overcome these limitations by using hypernetworks to describe illustrative cases of team behavior dynamics at various other levels of analyses. Hypernetworks simultaneously access cooperative and competitive interactions between teammates and opponents across space and time during a match. Moreover, hypernetworks are not limited to dyadic relations, which are typically represented by edges in other types of networks. In a hypernetwork, n-ary relations (with n > 2 and their properties are represented with hyperedges connecting more than two players simultaneously (the so-called simplex—plural, simplices. Simplices can capture the interactions of sets of players that may include an arbitrary number of teammates and opponents. In this qualitative study, we first used the mathematical formalisms of hypernetworks to represent a multilevel team behavior dynamics, including micro (interactions between players, meso (dynamics of a given critical event, e.g., an attack interaction, and macro (interactions between sets of players levels. Second, we investigated different features that could potentially explain the occurrence of critical events, such as, aggregation or disaggregation of simplices relative to goal proximity. Finally, we applied hypernetworks analysis to soccer games from the English premier league (season 2010–2011 by using two-dimensional player displacement coordinates obtained with a multiple-camera match analysis system provided by STATS (formerly Prozone. Our results show that (i at micro level the most frequently occurring simplices configuration is 1vs.1 (one attacker vs. one defender; (ii at meso level, the dynamics of simplices

  7. Preferential microRNA targeting revealed by in vivo competitive binding and differential Argonaute immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Stanislas; Leierseder, Simon; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Kuster, Bernhard; Engelhardt, Stefan

    2017-09-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been described to simultaneously inhibit hundreds of targets, albeit to a modest extent. It was recently proposed that there could exist more specific, exceptionally strong binding to a subgroup of targets. However, it is unknown, whether this is the case and how such targets can be identified. Using Argonaute2-ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation and in vivo competitive binding assays, we demonstrate for miRNAs-21, -199-3p and let-7 exceptional regulation of a subset of targets, which are characterized by preferential miRNA binding. We confirm this finding by analysis of independent quantitative proteome and transcriptome datasets obtained after miRNA silencing. Our data suggest that mammalian miRNA activity is guided by preferential binding of a small set of 3'-untranslated regions, thereby shaping a steep gradient of regulation between potential targets. Our approach can be applied for transcriptome-wide identification of such targets independently of the presence of seed complementary sequences or other predictors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Bacterial competition reveals differential regulation of the pks genes by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Rahlwes, Kathryn; Straight, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus subtilis is adaptable to many environments in part due to its ability to produce a broad range of bioactive compounds. One such compound, bacillaene, is a linear polyketide/nonribosomal peptide. The pks genes encode the enzymatic megacomplex that synthesizes bacillaene. The majority of pks genes appear to be organized as a giant operon (>74 kb from pksC-pksR). In previous work (P. D. Straight, M. A. Fischbach, C. T. Walsh, D. Z. Rudner, and R. Kolter, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104:305-310, 2007, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609073103), a deletion of the pks operon in B. subtilis was found to induce prodiginine production by Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, colonies of wild-type B. subtilis formed a spreading population that induced prodiginine production from Streptomyces lividans, suggesting differential regulation of pks genes and, as a result, bacillaene. While the parent colony showed widespread induction of pks expression among cells in the population, we found the spreading cells uniformly and transiently repressed the expression of the pks genes. To identify regulators that control pks genes, we first determined the pattern of pks gene expression in liquid culture. We next identified mutations in regulatory genes that disrupted the wild-type pattern of pks gene expression. We found that expression of the pks genes requires the master regulator of development, Spo0A, through its repression of AbrB and the stationary-phase regulator, CodY. Deletions of degU, comA, and scoC had moderate effects, disrupting the timing and level of pks gene expression. The observed patterns of expression suggest that complex regulation of bacillaene and other antibiotics optimizes competitive fitness for B. subtilis.

  9. Bacterial Competition Reveals Differential Regulation of the pks Genes by Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Rahlwes, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is adaptable to many environments in part due to its ability to produce a broad range of bioactive compounds. One such compound, bacillaene, is a linear polyketide/nonribosomal peptide. The pks genes encode the enzymatic megacomplex that synthesizes bacillaene. The majority of pks genes appear to be organized as a giant operon (>74 kb from pksC-pksR). In previous work (P. D. Straight, M. A. Fischbach, C. T. Walsh, D. Z. Rudner, and R. Kolter, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104:305–310, 2007, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609073103), a deletion of the pks operon in B. subtilis was found to induce prodiginine production by Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, colonies of wild-type B. subtilis formed a spreading population that induced prodiginine production from Streptomyces lividans, suggesting differential regulation of pks genes and, as a result, bacillaene. While the parent colony showed widespread induction of pks expression among cells in the population, we found the spreading cells uniformly and transiently repressed the expression of the pks genes. To identify regulators that control pks genes, we first determined the pattern of pks gene expression in liquid culture. We next identified mutations in regulatory genes that disrupted the wild-type pattern of pks gene expression. We found that expression of the pks genes requires the master regulator of development, Spo0A, through its repression of AbrB and the stationary-phase regulator, CodY. Deletions of degU, comA, and scoC had moderate effects, disrupting the timing and level of pks gene expression. The observed patterns of expression suggest that complex regulation of bacillaene and other antibiotics optimizes competitive fitness for B. subtilis. PMID:24187085

  10. Single-cell duplex RT-LATE-PCR reveals Oct4 and Xist RNA gradients in 8-cell embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartung Odelya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of two distinctive cell lineages in preimplantation mouse embryos is characterized by differential gene expression. The cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent and express high levels of Oct4 mRNA, which is down-regulated in the surrounding trophectoderm. In contrast, the trophectoderm of female embryos contains Xist mRNA, which is absent from cells of the inner mass. Prior to blastocyst formation, all blastomeres of female embryos still express both of these RNAs. We, thus, postulated that simultaneous quantification of Oct4 and Xist transcripts in individual blastomeres at the 8-cell stage could be informative as to their subsequent fate. Testing this hypothesis, however, presented numerous technical challenges. We overcame these difficulties by combining PurAmp, a single-tube method for RNA preparation and quantification, with LATE-PCR, an advanced form of asymmetric PCR. Results We constructed a duplex RT-LATE-PCR assay for real-time measurement of Oct4 and Xist templates and confirmed its specificity and quantitative accuracy with different methods. We then undertook analysis of sets of blastomeres isolated from embryos at the 8-cell stage. At this stage, all cells in the embryo are still pluripotent and morphologically equivalent. Our results demonstrate, however, that both Oct4 and Xist RNA levels vary in individual blastomeres comprising the same embryo, with some cells having particularly elevated levels of either transcript. Analysis of multiple embryos also shows that Xist and Oct4 expression levels are not correlated at the 8-cell stage, although transcription of both genes is up-regulated at this time in development. In addition, comparison of data from males and females allowed us to determine that the efficiency of the Oct4/Xist assay is unaffected by sex-related differences in gene expression. Conclusion This paper describes the first example of multiplex RT-LATE-PCR and its utility, when

  11. The hsp 16 Gene of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Is Differently Regulated by Salt, High Temperature and Acidic Stresses, as Revealed by Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fiocco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (sHsps are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C, bile (0.3% w/v, hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl, and low pH value (pH 4. The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group.

  12. The Pseudomonas community in metal-contaminated sediments as revealed by quantitative PCR: a link with metal bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Wauven, Corinne Vander; Billon, Gabriel; Matthijs, Sandra; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria are ubiquitous Gram-negative and aerobic microorganisms that are known to harbor metal resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps and intracellular redox enzymes. Specific Pseudomonas bacteria have been quantified in some metal-contaminated environments, but the entire Pseudomonas population has been poorly investigated under these conditions, and the link with metal bioavailability was not previously examined. In the present study, quantitative PCR and cell cultivation were used to monitor and characterize the Pseudomonas population at 4 different sediment sites contaminated with various levels of metals. At the same time, total metals and metal bioavailability (as estimated using an HCl 1 m extraction) were measured. It was found that the total level of Pseudomonas, as determined by qPCR using two different genes (oprI and the 16S rRNA gene), was positively and significantly correlated with total and HCl-extractable Cu, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn, with high correlation coefficients (>0.8). Metal-contaminated sediments featured isolates of the Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas lutea and Pseudomonas aeruginosa groups, with other bacterial genera such as Mycobacterium, Klebsiella and Methylobacterium. It is concluded that Pseudomonas bacteria do proliferate in metal-contaminated sediments, but are still part of a complex community. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative PCR analysis reveals a high incidence of large intragenic deletions in the FANCA gene in Spanish Fanconi anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, E; Tischkowitz, M D; Creus, A; Marcos, R; Bueren, J A; Casado, J A; Mathew, C G; Surrallés, J

    2004-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome fragility, multiple congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and a high predisposition to develop malignancies. Most of the Fanconi anaemia patients belong to complementation group FA-A due to mutations in the FANCA gene. This gene contains 43 exons along a 4.3-kb coding sequence with a very heterogeneous mutational spectrum that makes the mutation screening of FANCA a difficult task. In addition, as the FANCA gene is rich in Alu sequences, it was reported that Alu-mediated recombination led to large intragenic deletions that cannot be detected in heterozygous state by conventional PCR, SSCP analysis, or DNA sequencing. To overcome this problem, a method based on quantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR was proposed to detect intragenic deletions in FANCA involving the most frequently deleted exons (exons 5, 11, 17, 21 and 31). Here we apply the proposed method to detect intragenic deletions in 25 Spanish FA-A patients previously assigned to complementation group FA-A by FANCA cDNA retroviral transduction. A total of eight heterozygous deletions involving from one to more than 26 exons were detected. Thus, one third of the patients carried a large intragenic deletion that would have not been detected by conventional methods. These results are in agreement with previously published data and indicate that large intragenic deletions are one of the most frequent mutations leading to Fanconi anaemia. Consequently, this technology should be applied in future studies on FANCA to improve the mutation detection rate. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Combined metabonomic and quantitative real-time PCR analyses reveal systems metabolic changes in Jurkat T-cells treated with HIV-1 Tat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenting; Tan, Guangguo; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chen, Qiuli; Lou, Ziyang; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Wei; Chai, Yifeng

    2012-11-02

    HIV-1 Tat protein is released by infected cells and can affect bystander uninfected T cells and induce numerous biological responses which contribute to its pathogenesis. To elucidate the complex pathogenic mechanism, we conducted a comprehensive investigation on Tat protein-related extracellular and intracellular metabolic changes in Jurkat T-cells using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS) and a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS)-based metabonomics approach. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses were further employed to measure expressions of several relevant enzymes together with perturbed metabolic pathways. Combined metabonomic and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that HIV-1 Tat caused significant and comprehensive metabolic changes, as represented by significant changes of 37 metabolites and 10 relevant enzymes in HIV-1 Tat-treated cells. Using MetaboAnalyst 2.0, it was found that 11 pathways (Impact-value >0.10) among the regulated pathways were acutely perturbed, including sphingolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, inositol phosphate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, citrate cycle, phenylalanine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, glycerophospholipid metabolism, glycolysis or gluconeogenesis. These results provide metabolic evidence of the complex pathogenic mechanism of HIV-1 Tat protein as a "viral toxin", and would help obligate Tat protein as "an important target" for therapeutic intervention and vaccine development.

  15. Calibrated user-friendly reverse transcriptase-PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Rammer, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay and a calibrated user-friendly RT-PCR assay (CURT-PCR) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. A calibrator was prepared from isolated rat liver RNA, and the amount of EGFR mRNA was determined by competitive RT-PCR. In CUR...

  16. PCR-Based Analysis of ColE1 Plasmids in Clinical Isolates and Metagenomic Samples Reveals Their Importance as Gene Capture Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ares-Arroyo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ColE1 plasmids are important vehicles for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae families of bacteria. Their monitoring is essential, as they harbor important resistant determinants in humans, animals and the environment. In this work, we have analyzed ColE1 replicons using bioinformatic and experimental approaches. First, we carried out a computational study examining the structure of different ColE1 plasmids deposited in databases. Bioinformatic analysis of these ColE1 replicons revealed a mosaic genetic structure consisting of a host-adapted conserved region responsible for the housekeeping functions of the plasmid, and a variable region encoding a wide variety of genes, including multiple antibiotic resistance determinants. From this exhaustive computational analysis we developed a new PCR-based technique, targeting a specific sequence in the conserved region, for the screening, capture and sequencing of these small plasmids, either specific for Enterobacteriaceae or specific for Pasteurellaceae. To validate this PCR-based system, we tested various collections of isolates from both bacterial families, finding that ColE1 replicons were not only highly prevalent in antibiotic-resistant isolates, but also present in susceptible bacteria. In Pasteurellaceae, ColE1 plasmids carried almost exclusively antibiotic resistance genes. In Enterobacteriaceae, these plasmids encoded a large range of traits, including not only antibiotic resistance determinants, but also a wide variety of genes, showing the huge genetic plasticity of these small replicons. Finally, we also used a metagenomic approach in order to validate this technique, performing this PCR system using total DNA extractions from fecal samples from poultry, turkeys, pigs and humans. Using Illumina sequencing of the PCR products we identified a great diversity of genes encoded by ColE1 replicons, including different antibiotic resistance

  17. Short alleles revealed by PCR demonstrate no heterozygote deficiency at minisatellite loci D1S7, D7S21, and D12S11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, S.; Castro, A.; Fernandez-Fernandez, I.; Pancorbo, M.M. de [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Vizcaya (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    Short VNTR alleles that go undetected after conventional Southern blot hybridization may constitute an alternative explanation for the heterozygosity deficiency observed at some minisatellite loci. To examine this hypothesis, we have employed a screening procedure based on PCR amplification of those individuals classified as homozygotes in our databases for the loci D1S7, D7S21, and D12S11. The results obtained indicate that the frequency of these short alleles is related to the heterozygosity deficiency observed. For the most polymorphic locus, D1S7, {approximately}60% of those individuals previously classified as homozygotes were in fact heterozygotes for a short allele. After the inclusion of these new alleles, the agreement between observed and expected heterozygosity, along with other statistical tests employed, provide additional evidence for lack of population substructuring. Comparisons of allele frequency distributions reveal greater differences between racial groups than between closely related populations. 45 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Genetic variability within Fusarium solani specie as revealed by PCR-fingerprinting based on pcr markers Variabilidade genética em espécies de Fusarium solani revelada pela técnica de impressão genética baseada em marcadores PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereneuza Tavares Ramos Valente Brasileiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium solani fungus (teleomorph Haematonectria haematococca is of relevance for agriculture, producing a disease that causes significant losses for many cultivars. Moreover, F. solani is an opportunistic pathogen to animals and humans. The complexity associated to its correct identification by traditional methods justifies the efforts of using molecular markers for isolates characterization. In this work, three PCR-based methods (one PCR-ribotyping and two PCR-fingerprinting were used to investigate the molecular variability of eighteen F. solani isolates from four Brazilian States, collected from different substrates. Genetic analysis revealed the intraspecific variability within the F. solani isolates, without any correlation to their geographical origin and substrate. Its polymorphism was observed even in the very conserved sequence of rDNA locus, and the SPAR marker (GTG5 showed the highest polymorphism. Together, those results may contribute to understand the relation between fungal genetic variability and cultivars resistance phenotypes to fungal-caused diseases, helping plant-breeding programs.O fungo Fusarium solani (teleomorfo Haematonectria haematococca apresenta uma expressiva importância na agricultura por ser considerado patógeno para várias culturas de interesse econômico causando doença conhecida por podridão das raízes, além de ser patógeno aos animais e ao homem, provocando nestes últimos, micoses superficiais e sistêmicas. A complexidade associada a sua identificação correta através de métodos tradicionais justifica os esforços de usar marcadores moleculares para caracterização dos isolados. Neste trabalho, três métodos baseados na tecnologia da PCR (um por ribotipagem por PCR e dois por impressão genética por PCR foram utilizados para investigar a variabilidade molecular de dezoito isolados de F. solani de quatro Estados brasileiros, coletados de diferentes substratos. A análise genética revelou a

  19. Whole genome PCR scanning reveals the syntenic genome structure of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains in the O1/O139 population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Pang

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is commonly found in estuarine water systems. Toxigenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains have caused cholera epidemics and pandemics, whereas the nontoxigenic strains within these serogroups only occasionally lead to disease. To understand the differences in the genome and clonality between the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, we employed a whole genome PCR scanning (WGPScanning method, an rrn operon-mediated fragment rearrangement analysis and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to analyze the genome structure of different strains. WGPScanning in conjunction with CGH revealed that the genomic contents of the toxigenic strains were conservative, except for a few indels located mainly in mobile elements. Minor nucleotide variation in orthologous genes appeared to be the major difference between the toxigenic strains. rrn operon-mediated rearrangements were infrequent in El Tor toxigenic strains tested using I-CeuI digested pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis and PCR analysis based on flanking sequence of rrn operons. Using these methods, we found that the genomic structures of toxigenic El Tor and O139 strains were syntenic. The nontoxigenic strains exhibited more extensive sequence variations, but toxin coregulated pilus positive (TCP+ strains had a similar structure. TCP+ nontoxigenic strains could be subdivided into multiple lineages according to the TCP type, suggesting the existence of complex intermediates in the evolution of toxigenic strains. The data indicate that toxigenic O1 El Tor and O139 strains were derived from a single lineage of intermediates from complex clones in the environment. The nontoxigenic strains with non-El Tor type TCP may yet evolve into new epidemic clones after attaining toxigenic attributes.

  20. Meta-analysis reveals evolution in invasive plant species but little support for Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2013-03-01

    Ecological explanations for the success and persistence of invasive species vastly outnumber evolutionary hypotheses, yet evolution is a fundamental process in the success of any species. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis (Blossey and Nötzold 1995) proposes that evolutionary change in response to release from coevolved herbivores is responsible for the success of many invasive plant species. Studies that evaluate this hypothesis have used different approaches to test whether invasive populations allocate fewer resources to defense and more to growth and competitive ability than do source populations, with mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of experimental tests of evolutionary change in the context of EICA. In contrast to previous reviews, there was no support across invasive species for EICA's predictions regarding defense or competitive ability, although invasive populations were more productive than conspecific native populations under noncompetitive conditions. We found broad support for genetically based changes in defense and competitive plant traits after introduction into new ranges, but not in the manner suggested by EICA. This review suggests that evolution occurs as a result of plant introduction and population expansion in invasive plant species, and may contribute to the invasiveness and persistence of some introduced species.

  1. Analysis of proteomes released from in vitro cultured eight Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes revealed specific expression in PCR ribotypes 027 and 176 confirming their genetic relatedness and clinical importance at the proteomic level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dresler, J.; Krůtová, M.; Fučíková, A.; Klimentová, J.; Hrůzová, V.; Ďuráčová, M.; Houdková, K.; Salovská, B.; Matějková, J.; Hubálek, Martin; Pajer, P.; Píša, L.; Nyč, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, Aug 14 (2017), č. článku 45. ISSN 1757-4749 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Clostridium difficile * label-free quantification * proteome * PCR ribotype 027 * PCR ribotype 176 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.756, year: 2016 https://gutpathogens.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13099-017-0194-9

  2. Use of spontaneously mutated human DNA as competitive internal standard for nucleic acid quantification by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicka, L.; Diaz, A.; Varga, J.; Jimenez, S.A.; Christiano, A.; Uitto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantification of gene expression is of increasing interest in many medical sciences. Methods based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) are timesaving and require only very small amounts of RNA. A limiting factor, however, is the significant fluctuation in the efficacy of reverse transcription as well in the polymerase chain reactions. Various external and internal standards have been suggested for correcting these fluctuations. We describe a novel way of creating an internal standard for assessing the expression of type VII collagen in human cells. The total RNA of a patient with hereditary 'epidermilysis bulosa dystrophica' associated with a homozygous T to A point mutation in type VII collagen gene was reverse transcribed and a 382bp fragment of type VII collagen cDNA containing the mutation was amplified. The mutated cDNA, unlike normal type VII collagen cDNA could be cleaved by 'Ear I' endonuclease into 244bp and 138bp fragments. Semiquantitative PCR was performed with the mutated cDNA as internal standard and the studied cDNA sample in the same tube in the presence of α 32 P-labelled dCTP. The reaction was followed by 'Ear I' digestion, electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel and exposure to a X-ray film. In conclusion, we describe a timesaving method for creating internal standards for semiquantitative RT-PCR. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  3. Spatial structure and nest demography reveal the influence of competition, parasitism and habitat quality on slavemaking ants and their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Fischer-Blass, Birgit; Foitzik, Susanne

    2011-03-28

    Natural communities are structured by intra-guild competition, predation or parasitism and the abiotic environment. We studied the relative importance of these factors in two host-social parasite ecosystems in three ant communities in Europe (Bavaria) and North America (New York, West Virginia). We tested how these factors affect colony demography, life-history and the spatial pattern of colonies, using a large sample size of more than 1000 colonies. The strength of competition was measured by the distance to the nearest competitor. Distance to the closest social parasite colony was used as a measure of parasitism risk. Nest sites (i.e., sticks or acorns) are limited in these forest ecosystems and we therefore included nest site quality as an abiotic factor in the analysis. In contrast to previous studies based on local densities, we focus here on the positioning and spatial patterns and we use models to compare our predictions to random expectations. Colony demography was universally affected by the size of the nest site with larger and more productive colonies residing in larger nest sites of higher quality. Distance to the nearest competitor negatively influenced host demography and brood production in the Bavarian community, pointing to an important role of competition, while social parasitism was less influential in this community. The New York community was characterized by the highest habitat variability, and productive colonies were clustered in sites of higher quality. Colonies were clumped on finer spatial scales, when we considered only the nearest neighbors, but more regularly distributed on coarser scales. The analysis of spatial positioning within plots often produced different results compared to those based on colony densities. For example, while host and slavemaker densities are often positively correlated, slavemakers do not nest closer to potential host colonies than expected by random. The three communities are differently affected by biotic and

  4. Spatial structure and nest demography reveal the influence of competition, parasitism and habitat quality on slavemaking ants and their hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer-Blass Birgit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural communities are structured by intra-guild competition, predation or parasitism and the abiotic environment. We studied the relative importance of these factors in two host-social parasite ecosystems in three ant communities in Europe (Bavaria and North America (New York, West Virginia. We tested how these factors affect colony demography, life-history and the spatial pattern of colonies, using a large sample size of more than 1000 colonies. The strength of competition was measured by the distance to the nearest competitor. Distance to the closest social parasite colony was used as a measure of parasitism risk. Nest sites (i.e., sticks or acorns are limited in these forest ecosystems and we therefore included nest site quality as an abiotic factor in the analysis. In contrast to previous studies based on local densities, we focus here on the positioning and spatial patterns and we use models to compare our predictions to random expectations. Results Colony demography was universally affected by the size of the nest site with larger and more productive colonies residing in larger nest sites of higher quality. Distance to the nearest competitor negatively influenced host demography and brood production in the Bavarian community, pointing to an important role of competition, while social parasitism was less influential in this community. The New York community was characterized by the highest habitat variability, and productive colonies were clustered in sites of higher quality. Colonies were clumped on finer spatial scales, when we considered only the nearest neighbors, but more regularly distributed on coarser scales. The analysis of spatial positioning within plots often produced different results compared to those based on colony densities. For example, while host and slavemaker densities are often positively correlated, slavemakers do not nest closer to potential host colonies than expected by random. Conclusions The

  5. The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Darzi

    Full Text Available Strain NI1060 is an oral bacterium responsible for periodontitis in a murine ligature-induced disease model. To better understand its pathogenicity, we have determined the complete sequence of its 2,553,982 bp genome. Although closely related to Pasteurella pneumotropica, a pneumonia-associated rodent commensal based on its 16S rRNA, the NI1060 genomic content suggests that they are different species thriving on different energy sources via alternative metabolic pathways. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that strain NI1060 is distinct from the genera currently described in the family Pasteurellaceae, and is likely to represent a novel species. In addition, we found putative virulence genes involved in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, adhesins and bacteriotoxic proteins. These genes are potentially important for host adaption and for the induction of dysbiosis through bacterial competition and pathogenicity. Importantly, strain NI1060 strongly stimulates Nod1, an innate immune receptor, but is defective in two peptidoglycan recycling genes due to a frameshift mutation. The in-depth analysis of its genome thus provides critical insights for the development of NI1060 as a prime model system for infectious disease.

  6. Network succession reveals the importance of competition in response to emulsified vegetable oil amendment for uranium bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Zhang, Ping; Qin, Yujia; Tu, Qichao; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Discerning network interactions among different species/populations in microbial communities has evoked substantial interests in recent years, but little information is available about temporal dynamics of microbial network interactions in response to environmental perturbations. Here, we modified the random matrix theory-based network approach to discern network succession in groundwater microbial communities in response to emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) amendment for uranium bioremediation. Groundwater microbial communities from one control and seven monitor wells were analysed with a functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) at different time points were reconstructed. Our results showed that the network interactions were dramatically altered by EVO amendment. Dynamic and resilient succession was evident: fairly simple at the initial stage (Day 0), increasingly complex at the middle period (Days 4, 17, 31), most complex at Day 80, and then decreasingly complex at a later stage (140-269 days). Unlike previous studies in other habitats, negative interactions predominated in a time-series fMEN, suggesting strong competition among different microbial species in the groundwater systems after EVO injection. Particularly, several keystone sulfate-reducing bacteria showed strong negative interactions with their network neighbours. These results provide mechanistic understanding of the decreased phylogenetic diversity during environmental perturbations. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Elbing, K.; Andrade-Garda, J.M.; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 170 (2008), s. 1-41 ISSN 1471-2164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Expression Profiling * Real-time PCR * Yeast Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2008

  9. Malaria diagnosis by PCR revealed differential distribution of mono and mixed species infections by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwal, Nisha; Singh, Upasana Shyamsunder; Dash, Manoswini; Kar, Sonalika; Rani, Swati; Rawal, Charu; Singh, Rajkumar; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Pande, Veena; Das, Aparup

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease, caused by five different species of the genus Plasmodium, and is endemic to many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the globe. At present, malaria diagnosis at the primary health care level in India is conducted by either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT). In recent years, molecular diagnosis (by PCR assay), has emerged as the most sensitive method for malaria diagnosis. India is highly endemic to malaria and shoulders the burden of two major malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Previous studies using PCR diagnostic assay had unraveled several interesting facts on distribution of malaria parasites in India. However, these studies had several limitations from small sample size to limited geographical areas of sampling. In order to mitigate these limitations, we have collected finger-prick blood samples from 2,333 malaria symptomatic individuals in nine states from 11 geographic locations, covering almost the entire malaria endemic regions of India and performed all the three diagnostic tests (microscopy, RDT and PCR assay) and also have conducted comparative assessment on the performance of the three diagnostic tests. Since PCR assay turned out to be highly sensitive (827 malaria positive cases) among the three types of tests, we have utilized data from PCR diagnostic assay for analyses and inferences. The results indicate varied distributional prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum according to locations in India, and also the mixed species infection due to these two species. The proportion of P. falciparum to P. vivax was found to be 49:51, and percentage of mixed species infections due to these two parasites was found to be 13% of total infections. Considering India is set for malaria elimination by 2030, the present malaria epidemiological information is of high importance.

  10. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andean valleys of Bolivia are the only reported location of sylvatic Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in this country, and the high human prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this region is hypothesized to result from the ability of vectors to persist in domestic, peri-domestic, and sylvatic environments. Determination of the rate of Trypanosoma infection in its triatomine vectors is an important element in programs directed at reducing human infections. Traditionally, T. cruzi has been detected in insect vectors by direct microscopic examination of extruded feces, or dissection and analysis of the entire bug. Although this technique has proven to be useful, several drawbacks related to its sensitivity especially in the case of small instars and applicability to large numbers of insects and dead specimens have motivated researchers to look for a molecular assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative for parasitic detection of T. cruzi infection in vectors. In the work presented here, we have compared a PCR assay and direct microscopic observation for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans collected in the field from five localities and four habitats in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. The efficacy of the methods was compared across nymphal stages, localities and habitats. Methods We examined 152 nymph and adult T. infestans collected from rural areas in the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. For microscopic observation, a few drops of rectal content obtained by abdominal extrusion were diluted with saline solution and compressed between a slide and a cover slip. The presence of motile parasites in 50 microscopic fields was registered using 400× magnification. For the molecular analysis, dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification was performed using the TCZ1 (5' – CGA GCT CTT GCC CAC ACG GGT GCT – 3

  11. Hospital-based Clostridium difficile infection surveillance reveals high proportions of PCR ribotypes 027 and 176 in different areas of Poland, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pituch, Hanna; Obuch-Woszczatyński, Piotr; Lachowicz, Dominika; Wultańska, Dorota; Karpiński, Paweł; Młynarczyk, Grażyna; van Dorp, Sofie M; Kuijper, Ed J

    2015-01-01

    As part of the European Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net), which aims to build capacity for CDI surveillance in Europe, we constructed a new network of hospital-based laboratories in Poland. We performed a survey in 13 randomly selected hospital-laboratories in different sites of the country to determine their annual CDI incidence rates from 2011 to 2013. Information on C. difficile laboratory diagnostic testing and indications for testing was also collected. Moreover, for 2012 and 2013 respectively, participating hospital-laboratories sent all consecutive isolates from CDI patients between February and March to the Anaerobe Laboratory in Warsaw for further molecular characterisation, including the detection of toxin-encoding genes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ribotyping. Within the network, the mean annual hospital CDI incidence rates were 6.1, 8.6 and 9.6 CDI per 10,000 patient-days in 2011, 2012, and 2013 respectively. Six of the 13 laboratories tested specimens only on the request of a physician, five tested samples of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea or samples from patients who developed diarrhoea more than two days after admission (nosocomial diarrhoea), while two tested all submitted diarrhoeal faecal samples. Most laboratories (9/13) used tests to detect glutamate dehydrogenase and toxin A/B either separately or in combination. In the two periods of molecular surveillance, a total of 166 strains were characterised. Of these, 159 were toxigenic and the majority belonged to two PCR-ribotypes: 027 (n=99; 62%) and the closely related ribotype 176 (n=22; 14%). The annual frequency of PCR-ribotype 027 was not significantly different during the surveillance periods (62.9% in 2012; 61.8% in 2013). Our results indicate that CDIs caused by PCR-ribotype 027 predominate in Polish hospitals participating in the surveillance, with the closely related 176 ribotype being the second most common agent of infection.

  12. 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region polymorphism of Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus raffinolactis and Lactococcus lactis as revealed by PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Pepe, Olimpia; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Andolfi, Rosamaria; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2002-12-01

    The intergenic spacer region (ISR) between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes was tested as a tool for differentiating lactococci commonly isolated in a dairy environment. 17 reference strains, representing 11 different species belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Leuconostoc, and 127 wild streptococcal strains isolated during the whole fermentation process of "Fior di Latte" cheese were analyzed. After 16S-23S rDNA ISR amplification by PCR, species or genus-specific patterns were obtained for most of the reference strains tested. Moreover, results obtained after nucleotide analysis show that the 16S-23S rDNA ISR sequences vary greatly, in size and sequence, among Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Lactococcus lactis as well as other streptococci from dairy environments. Because of the high degree of inter-specific polymorphism observed, 16S-23S rDNA ISR can be considered a good potential target for selecting species-specific molecular assays, such as PCR primer or probes, for a rapid and extremely reliable differentiation of dairy lactococcal isolates.

  13. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Elbing, Karin; Andrade-Garda, José Manuel; Sjögreen, Björn; Forootan, Amin; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-04-16

    The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains.

  14. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Garda José

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. Results We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Conclusion Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains.

  15. PCR screening reveals considerable unexploited biosynthetic potential of ansamycins and a mysterious family of AHBA-containing natural products in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-X; Chen, Y-Y; Ge, L; Fang, T-T; Meng, J; Liu, Z; Fang, X-Y; Ni, S; Lin, C; Wu, Y-Y; Wang, M-L; Shi, N-N; He, H-G; Hong, K; Shen, Y-M

    2013-07-01

    Ansamycins are a family of macrolactams that are synthesized by type I polyketide synthase (PKS) using 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA) as the starter unit. Most members of the family have strong antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer and/or antiviral activities. We aimed to discover new ansamycins and/or other AHBA-containing natural products from actinobacteria. Through PCR screening of AHBA synthase gene, we identified 26 AHBA synthase gene-positive strains from 206 plant-associated actinomycetes (five positives) and 688 marine-derived actinomycetes (21 positives), representing a positive ratio of 2·4-3·1%. Twenty-five ansamycins, including eight new compounds, were isolated from six AHBA synthase gene-positive strains through TLC-guided fractionations followed by repeated column chromatography. To gain information about those potential ansamycin gene clusters whose products were unknown, seven strains with phylogenetically divergent AHBA synthase genes were subjected to fosmid library construction. Of the seven gene clusters we obtained, three show characteristics for typical ansamycin gene clusters, and other four, from Micromonospora spp., appear to lack the amide synthase gene, which is unusual for ansamycin biosynthesis. The gene composition of these four gene clusters suggests that they are involved in the biosynthesis of a new family of hybrid PK-NRP compounds containing AHBA substructure. PCR screening of AHBA synthase is an efficient approach to discover novel ansamycins and other AHBA-containing natural products. This work demonstrates that the AHBA-based screening method is a useful approach for discovering novel ansamycins and other AHBA-containing natural products from new microbial resources. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. High Throughput qPCR Expression Profiling of Circulating MicroRNAs Reveals Minimal Sex- and Sample Timing-Related Variation in Plasma of Healthy Volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mooney

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs have been identified in various body fluids under normal conditions and their stability as well as their dysregulation in disease opens up a new field for biomarker study. However, diurnal and day-to-day variation in plasma microRNA levels, and differential regulation between males and females, may affect biomarker stability. A QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System was used to profile plasma microRNA levels using OpenArray in male and female healthy volunteers, in the morning and afternoon, and at four time points over a one month period. Using this system we were able to run four OpenArray plates in a single run, the equivalent of 32 traditional 384-well qPCR plates or 12,000 data points. Up to 754 microRNAs can be identified in a single plasma sample in under two hours. 108 individual microRNAs were identified in at least 80% of all our samples which compares favourably with other reports of microRNA profiles in serum or plasma in healthy adults. Many of these microRNAs, including miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-191-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-451a are highly expressed and consistent with previous studies using other platforms. Overall, microRNA levels were very consistent between individuals, males and females, and time points and we did not detect significant differences in levels of microRNAs. These results suggest the suitability of this platform for microRNA profiling and biomarker discovery and suggest minimal confounding influence of sex or sample timing. However, the platform has not been subjected to rigorous validation which must be demonstrated in future biomarker studies where large differences may exist between disease and control samples.

  17. High abundance of JS-1- and Chloroflexi-related Bacteria in deeply buried marine sediments revealed by quantitative, real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Sequences of members of the bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi are frequently found in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from marine sediments. Using a newly designed quantitative, real-time PCR assay, these bacterial groups were jointly quantified in samples from near-surface and deeply buried marine sediments from the Peru margin, the Black Sea, and a forearc basin off the island of Sumatra. In near-surface sediments, sequences of the JS-1 as well as Anaerolineae- and Caldilineae-related Bacteria were quantified with significantly lower 16S rRNA gene copy numbers than the sequences of total Bacteria. In contrast, in deeply buried sediments below approximately 1 m depth, similar quantities of the 16S rRNA gene copies of these specific groups and Bacteria were found. This finding indicates that JS-1 and Anaerolineae- and Caldilineae-related Bacteria might dominate the bacterial community in deeply buried marine sediments and thus seem to play an important ecological role in the deep biosphere.

  18. Thermophilic Alkaline Fermentation Followed by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion for Efficient Hydrogen and Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge: Dynamics of Bacterial Pathogens as Revealed by the Combination of Metagenomic and Quantitative PCR Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Rao, Yue; Zhang, Shicheng; Luo, Gang

    2018-03-15

    Thermophilic alkaline fermentation followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (TM) for hydrogen and methane production from waste-activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The TM process was also compared to a process with mesophilic alkaline fermentation followed by a mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MM) and one-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion (M) process. The results showed that both hydrogen yield (74.5 ml H 2 /g volatile solids [VS]) and methane yield (150.7 ml CH 4 /g VS) in the TM process were higher than those (6.7 ml H 2 /g VS and 127.8 ml CH 4 /g VS, respectively) in the MM process. The lowest methane yield (101.2 ml CH 4 /g VS) was obtained with the M process. Taxonomic results obtained from metagenomic analysis showed that different microbial community compositions were established in the hydrogen reactors of the TM and MM processes, which also significantly changed the microbial community compositions in the following methane reactors compared to that with the M process. The dynamics of bacterial pathogens were also evaluated. For the TM process, the reduced diversity and total abundance of bacterial pathogens in WAS were observed in the hydrogen reactor and were further reduced in the methane reactor, as revealed by metagenomic analysis. The results also showed not all bacterial pathogens were reduced in the reactors. For example, Collinsella aerofaciens was enriched in the hydrogen reactor, which was also confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. The study further showed that qPCR was more sensitive for detecting bacterial pathogens than metagenomic analysis. Although there were some differences in the relative abundances of bacterial pathogens calculated by metagenomic and qPCR approaches, both approaches demonstrated that the TM process was more efficient for the removal of bacterial pathogens than the MM and M processes. IMPORTANCE This study developed an efficient process for bioenergy (H 2 and CH 4 ) production from WAS and elucidates the

  19. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  20. Bacteria abundance and diversity of different life stages of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), revealed by bacteria culture-dependent and PCR-DGGE methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Pan, Qin-Jian; Tian, Hong-Gang; Douglas, Angela E; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Microbial abundance and diversity of different life stages (fourth instar larvae, pupae and adults) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., collected from field and reared in laboratory, were investigated using bacteria culture-dependent method and PCR-DGGE analysis based on the sequence of bacteria 16S rRNA V3 region gene. A large quantity of bacteria was found in all life stages of P. xylostella. Field population had higher quantity of bacteria than laboratory population, and larval gut had higher quantity than pupae and adults. Culturable bacteria differed in different life stages of P. xylostella. Twenty-five different bacterial strains were identified in total, among them 20 strains were presented in larval gut, only 8 strains in pupae and 14 strains in adults were detected. Firmicutes bacteria, Bacillus sp., were the most dominant species in every life stage. 15 distinct bands were obtained from DGGE electrophoresis gel. The sequences blasted in GenBank database showed these bacteria belonged to six different genera. Phylogenetic analysis showed the sequences of the bacteria belonged to the Actinobacteri, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Serratia sp. in Proteobacteria was the most abundant species in larval gut. In pupae, unculturable bacteria were the most dominant species, and unculturable bacteria and Serratia sp. were the most dominant species in adults. Our study suggested that a combination of molecular and traditional culturing methods can be effectively used to analyze and to determine the diversity of gut microflora. These known bacteria may play important roles in development of P. xylostella. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Dissemination of the highly expressed Bx7 glutenin subunit (Glu-B1al allele) in wheat as revealed by novel PCR markers and RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, B J; Gale, K R; Ikea, J; Juhász, A; Bedö, Z; Tamás, L; Gianibelli, M C

    2004-11-01

    Increased expression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) Bx7 is associated with improved dough strength of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. Several cultivars and landraces of widely different genetic backgrounds from around the world have now been found to contain this so-called 'over-expressing' allelic form of the Bx7 subunit encoded by Glu-B1al. Using three methods of identification, SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC and PCR marker analysis, as well as pedigree information, we have traced the distribution and source of this allele from a Uruguayan landrace, Americano 44D, in the mid-nineteenth century. Results are supported by knowledge of the movement of wheat lines with migrants. All cultivars possessing the Glu-B1al allele can be identified by the following attributes: (1) the elution of the By sub-unit peak before the Dx sub-unit peak by RP-HPLC, (2) high expression levels of Bx7 (>39% Mol% Bx), (3) a 43 bp insertion in the matrix-attachment region (MAR) upstream of the gene promoter relative to Bx7 and an 18 bp nucleotide duplication in the coding region of the gene. Evidence is presented indicating that these 18 and 43 bp sequence insertions are not causal for the high expression levels of Bx7 as they were also found to be present in a small number of hexaploid species, including Chinese Spring, and species expressing Glu-B1ak and Glu-B1a alleles. In addition, these sequence inserts were found in different isolates of the tetraploid wheat, T. turgidum, indicating that these insertion/deletion events occurred prior to hexaploidization.

  2. The analysis of novel microRNA mimic sequences in cancer cells reveals lack of specificity in stem-loop RT-qPCR-based microRNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winata, Patrick; Williams, Marissa; McGowan, Eileen; Nassif, Najah; van Zandwijk, Nico; Reid, Glen

    2017-11-17

    MicroRNAs are frequently downregulated in cancer, and restoring expression has tumour suppressive activity in tumour cells. Our recent phase I clinical trial investigated microRNA-based therapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Treatment with TargomiRs, microRNA mimics with novel sequence packaged in EGFR antibody-targeted bacterial minicells, revealed clear signs of clinical activity. In order to detect delivery of microRNA mimics to tumour cells in future clinical trials, we tested hydrolysis probe-based assays specific for the sequence of the novel mimics in transfected mesothelioma cell lines using RT-qPCR. The custom assays efficiently and specifically amplified the consensus mimics. However, we found that these assays gave a signal when total RNA from untransfected and control mimic-transfected cells were used as templates. Further investigation revealed that the reverse transcription step using stem-loop primers appeared to introduce substantial non-specific amplification with either total RNA or synthetic RNA templates. This suggests that reverse transcription using stem-loop primers suffers from an intrinsic lack of specificity for the detection of highly similar microRNAs in the same family, especially when analysing total RNA. These results suggest that RT-qPCR is unlikely to be an effective means to detect delivery of microRNA mimic-based drugs to tumour cells in patients.

  3. Reconstruction and analysis of the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network based on competitive endogenous RNA reveal functional lncRNAs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Ma, Rong; Zou, Shubiao; Wang, Yongzhong; Li, Zhuqing; Li, Weiping

    2017-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with an unknown etiology, occurring in approximately 1.0% of general population. More and more studies have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) could play important roles in various biological processes and be associated with the pathogenesis of different kinds of diseases including RA. Although a large number of lncRNAs have been found, our knowledge of their function and physiological/pathological significance is still in its infancy. In order to reveal functional lncRNAs and identify the key lncRNAs in RA, we reconstructed a global triple network based on the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) theory using the data from National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus and our previous paper. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were performed using Cytoscape plug-in BinGO and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integration Discovery (DAVID), respectively. We found that the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was composed of 7 lncRNA nodes, 90 mRNA nodes, 24 miRNA nodes, and 301 edges. The functional assay showed that 147 GO terms and 23 pathways were enriched. In addition, three lncRNAs (S5645.1, XR_006437.1, J01878) were highly related to RA, and therefore, were selected as key lncRNAs. This study suggests that specific lncRNAs are associated with the development of RA, and three lncRNAs (S5645.1, XR_006437.1, J01878) could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  4. Oxidative stress provokes distinct transcriptional responses in the stress-tolerant atr7 and stress-sensitive loh2 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants as revealed by multi-parallel quantitative real-time PCR analysis of ROS marker and antioxidant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehterov, Nikolay; Balazadeh, Salma; Hille, Jacques; Toneva, Valentina; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko

    2012-10-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana atr7 mutant is tolerant to oxidative stress induced by paraquat (PQ) or the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (AT), while its original background loh2 and wild-type plants are sensitive. Both, AT and PQ, which stimulate the intracellular formation of H₂O₂ or superoxide anions, respectively, trigger cell death in loh2 but do not lead to visible damage in atr7. To study gene expression during oxidative stress and ROS-induced programmed cell death, two platforms for multi-parallel quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 217 antioxidant and 180 ROS marker genes were employed. The qRT-PCR analyses revealed AT- and PQ-induced expression of many ROS-responsive genes mainly in loh2, confirming that an oxidative burst plays a role in the activation of the cell death in this mutant. Some of the genes were specifically regulated by either AT or PQ, serving as markers for particular types of ROS. Genes significantly induced by both AT and PQ in loh2 included transcription factors (ANAC042/JUB1, ANAC102, DREB19, HSFA2, RRTF1, ZAT10, ZAT12, ethylene-responsive factors), signaling compounds, ferritins, alternative oxidases, and antioxidant enzymes. Many of these genes were upregulated in atr7 compared to loh2 under non-stress conditions at the first time point, indicating that higher basal levels of ROS and higher antioxidant capacity in atr7 are responsible for the enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress and suggesting a possible tolerance against multiple stresses of this mutant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Competitiveness of tomato production in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Qureshi, A.H.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study measures competitiveness at farm level and economic efficiency at country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic efficiency results i.e. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio remained 0.39 and 0.51 in Central and Southern Punjab, respectively with positive social profitability indicating strong comparative advantage under importable scenario. The above results implied that Central Punjab has greater economic efficiency than Southern Punjab in domestic resources use for production of tomato as import substitute commodity. Results of Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) indicated that combine effects of policies on output and tradable input market did not pass any protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies for farmers to expand tomato production as import substitute crop. Present study recommended competitiveness and economic efficiency analysis in other tomato producing regions of the country for year round tomato supply on the basis of resource efficiency and to curtail tomato imports to save the precious foreign exchange. To enhance the competitiveness there is need to increase farmer's incentives through increase of farm level price up to

  6. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  7. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  8. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  9. Towards equitable access to medicines for the rural poor: analyses of insurance claims reveal rural pharmacy initiative triggers price competition in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waning, Brenda; Maddix, Jason; Tripodis, Yorghos; Laing, Richard; Leufkens, Hubert Gm; Gokhale, Manjusha

    2009-12-14

    A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI) designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI) private pharmacies located in the region. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70%) medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57%) medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13%) medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30%) medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74%) competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47%) decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26%) increasing in price. The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the potential to leverage medicine price competition as a means

  10. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3-4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates.

  11. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  12. Towards equitable access to medicines for the rural poor: analyses of insurance claims reveal rural pharmacy initiative triggers price competition in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufkens Hubert GM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI private pharmacies located in the region. Methods We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Results Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70% medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57% medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13% medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30% medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74% competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47% decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26% increasing in price. Conclusions The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the

  13. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)-specific Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assay for Analyzing Competition and Emergence of the Military Hypersporulating Strains of Bacillus Atrophaeous var. Globigii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    than 120 genes (22). The Spo0F protein of BG is identical to the same protein of Bacillus subtilis except for two amino acids. Similar directed...Competition experiments using antibiotic resistant strains have been performed for B. subtilis strains obtained from directed evolution experiments (36...K. H.; Valentine, N. B.; Golledge, S. L.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wunschel, D. S. et al. Differentiation of Spores of Bacillus subtilis Grown in Different

  15. Absolute quantification by droplet digital PCR versus analog real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, Christopher M; Chevillet, John R; Briggs, Hilary A; Gallichotte, Emily N; Ruf, Ingrid K; Hindson, Benjamin J; Vessella, Robert L; Tewari, Muneesh

    2014-01-01

    Nanoliter-sized droplet technology paired with digital PCR (ddPCR) holds promise for highly precise, absolute nucleic acid quantification. Our comparison of microRNA quantification by ddPCR and real-time PCR revealed greater precision (coefficients of variation decreased by 37–86%) and improved day-to-day reproducibility (by a factor of seven) of ddPCR but with comparable sensitivity. When we applied ddPCR to serum microRNA biomarker analysis, this translated to superior diagnostic performance for identifying individuals with cancer. PMID:23995387

  16. A PCR-aided transcript titration assay revealing very low expression of a gene at band 3p21 in 33 cells lines derived from all types of lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K; Buchhagen, D L; Carritt, B; Buys, C H; van den Berg, Anke

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a general PCR-based method to quantify the amount of a specific mRNA present in a given cell line or tissue. We applied this quantitative PCR to analyse the expression of D8, a human gene which we recently identified in the chromosomal region 3p21, the common deletion region of

  17. Altered Fermentation Performances, Growth, and Metabolic Footprints Reveal Competition for Nutrients between Yeast Species Inoculated in Synthetic Grape Juice-Like Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rollero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sequential inoculation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice is becoming an increasingly popular practice to diversify wine styles and/or to obtain more complex wines with a peculiar microbial footprint. One of the main interactions is competition for nutrients, especially nitrogen sources, that directly impacts not only fermentation performance but also the production of aroma compounds. In order to better understand the interactions taking place between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S. cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, sequential inoculations of three yeast species (Pichia burtonii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Zygoascus meyerae with S. cerevisiae were performed individually in a synthetic medium. Different species-dependent interactions were evidenced. Indeed, the three sequential inoculations resulted in three different behaviors in terms of growth. P. burtonii and Z. meyerae declined after the inoculation of S. cerevisiae which promptly outcompeted the other two species. However, while the presence of P. burtonii did not impact the fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae, that of Z. meyerae rendered the overall kinetics very slow and with no clear exponential phase. K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae both declined and became undetectable before fermentation completion. The results also demonstrated that yeasts differed in their preference for nitrogen sources. Unlike Z. meyerae and P. burtonii, K. marxianus appeared to be a competitor for S. cerevisiae (as evidenced by the uptake of ammonium and amino acids, thereby explaining the resulting stuck fermentation. Nevertheless, the results suggested that competition for other nutrients (probably vitamins occurred during the sequential inoculation of Z. meyerae with S. cerevisiae. The metabolic footprint of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts determined after 48 h of fermentation remained until the end of fermentation and combined with that of S. cerevisiae. For

  18. Altered Fermentation Performances, Growth, and Metabolic Footprints Reveal Competition for Nutrients between Yeast Species Inoculated in Synthetic Grape Juice-Like Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stephanie; Bloem, Audrey; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Camarasa, Carole; Divol, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    The sequential inoculation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice is becoming an increasingly popular practice to diversify wine styles and/or to obtain more complex wines with a peculiar microbial footprint. One of the main interactions is competition for nutrients, especially nitrogen sources, that directly impacts not only fermentation performance but also the production of aroma compounds. In order to better understand the interactions taking place between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S. cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, sequential inoculations of three yeast species (Pichia burtonii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Zygoascus meyerae) with S. cerevisiae were performed individually in a synthetic medium. Different species-dependent interactions were evidenced. Indeed, the three sequential inoculations resulted in three different behaviors in terms of growth. P. burtonii and Z. meyerae declined after the inoculation of S. cerevisiae which promptly outcompeted the other two species. However, while the presence of P. burtonii did not impact the fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae, that of Z. meyerae rendered the overall kinetics very slow and with no clear exponential phase. K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae both declined and became undetectable before fermentation completion. The results also demonstrated that yeasts differed in their preference for nitrogen sources. Unlike Z. meyerae and P. burtonii, K. marxianus appeared to be a competitor for S. cerevisiae (as evidenced by the uptake of ammonium and amino acids), thereby explaining the resulting stuck fermentation. Nevertheless, the results suggested that competition for other nutrients (probably vitamins) occurred during the sequential inoculation of Z. meyerae with S. cerevisiae. The metabolic footprint of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts determined after 48 h of fermentation remained until the end of fermentation and combined with that of S. cerevisiae. For instance

  19. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  20. A Non-Competitive Inhibitor of VCP/p97 and VPS4 Reveals Conserved Allosteric Circuits in Type I and II AAA ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Robert; Krahn, Jan H; van den Boom, Johannes; Dobrynin, Grzegorz; Kaschani, Farnusch; Eggenweiler, Hans-Michael; Zenke, Frank T; Kaiser, Markus; Meyer, Hemmo

    2018-02-05

    AAA ATPases have pivotal functions in diverse cellular processes essential for survival and proliferation. Revealing strategies for chemical inhibition of this class of enzymes is therefore of great interest for the development of novel chemotherapies or chemical tools. Here, we characterize the compound MSC1094308 as a reversible, allosteric inhibitor of the type II AAA ATPase human ubiquitin-directed unfoldase (VCP)/p97 and the type I AAA ATPase VPS4B. Subsequent proteomic, genetic and biochemical studies indicate that MSC1094308 binds to a previously characterized drugable hotspot of p97, thereby inhibiting the D2 ATPase activity. Our results furthermore indicate that a similar allosteric site exists in VPS4B, suggesting conserved allosteric circuits and drugable sites in both type I and II AAA ATPases. Our results may thus guide future chemical tool and drug discovery efforts for the biomedically relevant AAA ATPases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  2. Eliminating PCR contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.C.; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Webster, Alison; Emery, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can mean that even very low levels of contamination with the target DNA will result in a positive signal. At present this aspect is a major limitation in the use of PCR as a routine diagnostic method. By exposing PCR reagents to UV light, contaminating DNA can be inactivated, thus providing an opportunity to eradicate false positive reactions. UV irradiation was applied to PCR systems used for detection of human cytomegalovirus CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and shown to be effective in eradicating both laboratory encountered contamination and plasmid DNA (below 100 pg) added to PCR systems prior to UV exposure. Sensitivity of a PCR system to amplify the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of HIV-1 was not affected by the irradiation procedure; however, ultimate sensitivity of a PCR system for the amplification of an early gene pro-motor sequence of the CMV genome was reduced 1000-fold. UV irradiation did not affect the size of the PCR product as determined by strand separating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a 32 P-labelled amplimer. Thus, a simple pre-exposure to UV light would seem a worth-wile step to incorporate into PCR protocols provided that the effects on sensitivity have been determined empirically for each PCR system. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  3. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  4. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  5. External PCR, ASN's decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The French law imposes in some situations the presence of a person skilled in radiation protection (PCR). This article describes the cases when this person must belong to the staff of the enterprise or when this person may be sub-contracted. For instance in most nuclear facilities the PCR must be on the payroll, for enterprises dedicated to nuclear transport the PCR's job can be sub-contracted. A decision given by the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority) sets the minimal requests (in terms of training, job contract, activities) of the sub-contracted PCR. (A.C.)

  6. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  7. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  8. Export competitiveness of pakistani horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Akmal, N.; Shah, H.; Tahir, A.; Niazi, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Pakistan's competitiveness in export of selected horticulture commodities by employing set of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and revealed competitive advantage indices with respect to global trade. Results demonstrate that Pakistan has comparative and competitive advantage over the period under analysis and indicates a transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive advantage during the period under analysis. Tangerines, mandarins, clem have maintained relatively higher revealed comparative advantage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export has revealed comparative advantage with some fluctuations over time. The research indicates that Pakistan's comparative and competitive advantages have been increasing in all the selected commodities during period under analysis which indicates the potential of horticulture exports for foreign exchange earnings. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders. (author)

  9. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  10. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  11. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  12. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  13. Expression patterns of WRKY genes in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra in response to salinity stress revealed by quantitative real-time PCR and RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengji; Wang, Jiying; Yao, Wenjing; Zhou, Boru; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-10-01

    Spatio-temporal expression patterns of 13 out of 119 poplar WRKY genes indicated dynamic and tissue-specific roles of WRKY family proteins in salinity stress tolerance. To understand the expression patterns of poplar WRKY genes under salinity stress, 51 of the 119 WRKY genes were selected from di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We used qRT-PCR to profile the expression of the top 13 genes under salinity stress across seven time points, and employed RNA-Seq platforms to cross-validate it. Results demonstrated that all the 13 WRKY genes were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, but their expression levels and overall patterns varied notably in these tissues. Regarding overall gene expression in roots, the 13 genes were significantly highly expressed at all six time points after the treatment, reaching the plateau of expression at hour 9. In leaves, the 13 genes were similarly up-regulated from 3 to 12 h in response to NaCl treatment. In stems, however, expression levels of the 13 genes did not show significant changes after the NaCl treatment. Regarding individual gene expression across the time points and the three tissues, the 13 genes can be classified into three clusters: the lowly expressed Cluster 1 containing PthWRKY28, 45 and 105; intermediately expressed Clusters 2 including PthWRKY56, 88 and 116; and highly expressed Cluster 3 consisting of PthWRKY41, 44, 51, 61, 62, 75 and 106. In general, genes in Cluster 2 and 3 displayed a dynamic pattern of "induced amplification-recovering", suggesting that these WRKY genes and corresponding pathways may play a critical role in mediating salt response and tolerance in a dynamic and tissue-specific manner.

  14. Brokers and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Ryall; Olav Sorenson

    2007-01-01

    The broker profits by intermediating between two (or more) parties. Using a biform game, we examine whether such a position can confer a competitive advantage, as well as whether any such advantage could persist if actors formed relations strategically. Our analysis reveals that, if one considers exogenous the relations between actors, brokers can enjoy an advantage but only if (1) they do not face substitutes either for the connections they offer or the value they can create, (2) they interm...

  15. The Literature Review of a New Form of Competitiveness Called City Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman EROĞLU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With globalization, the rapid development of information technologies and the rapid changes in the economic structure, the country’s borders at a time increasingly depreciate and the importance of city competitiveness reveals. Although it is an ongoing debate around the world whether cities compete with each other, city competitiveness is a new form of competitiveness. Cities compete with each other to increase their competitiveness. City competitiveness is defined as having better values compared to other cities. In this study, a new form of competitiveness called city competitiveness is examined.

  16. Development of competitive PCR for detection of Butyrivibrio fibrosolvens isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Kopečný, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 63-65 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : butyrivibrio fibrosolvens * strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  17. Molecular diagnostic PCR handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viljoen, G.J.; Crowther, J.R.; Nel, L.H.

    2005-01-01

    The uses of nucleic acid-directed methods have increased significantly in the past five years and have made important contributions to disease control country programmes for improving national and international trade. These developments include the more routine use of PCR as a diagnostic tool in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. However, there are many problems associated with the transfer and particularly, the application of this technology. These include lack of consideration of: the establishment of quality-assured procedures, the required set-up of the laboratory and the proper training of staff. This can lead to a situation where results are not assured. This book gives a comprehensive account of the practical aspects of PCR and strong consideration is given to ensure its optimal use in a laboratory environment. This includes the setting-up of a PCR laboratory; Good Laboratory Practice and standardised PCR protocols to detect animal disease pathogens. Examples of Standard Operating Procedures as used in individual specialist laboratories and an outline of training materials necessary for PCR technology transfer are presented. The difficulties, advantages and disadvantages in PCR applications are explained and placed in context with other test systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of PCR for detection of pathogens, with a particular focus on diagnosticians and scientists from the developing world. It is hoped that this book will enable readers from various disciplines and levels of expertise to better judge the merits of PCR and to increase their skills and knowledge in order to assist in a more logical, efficient and assured use of this technology

  18. Improved Culture Medium (TiKa) for Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP) Matches qPCR Sensitivity and Reveals Significant Proportions of Non-viable MAP in Lymphoid Tissue of Vaccinated MAP Challenged Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Tim J.; Munshil, Tulika; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative detection of viable pathogen load is an important tool in determining the degree of infection in animals and contamination of foodstuffs. Current conventional culture methods are limited in their ability to determine these levels in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis......Ka culture equates well with qPCR and provides important evidence that accuracy in estimating viable MAP load using DNA tests alone may vary significantly between samples of mucosal and lymphatic origin....... (MAP) due to slow growth, clumping and low recoverability issues. The principle goal of this study was to evaluate a novel culturing process (TiKa) with unique ability to stimulate MAP growth from low sample loads and dilutions. We demonstrate it was able to stimulate a mean 29-fold increase...

  19. The quantification of spermatozoa by real-time quantitative PCR, spectrophotometry, and spermatophore cap size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jacqueline M; McCormick, Cory R; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many animals, such as crustaceans, insects, and salamanders, package their sperm into spermatophores, and the number of spermatozoa contained in a spermatophore is relevant to studies of sexual selection and sperm competition. We used two molecular methods, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and spectrophotometry, to estimate sperm numbers from spermatophores. First, we designed gene-specific primers that produced a single amplicon in four species of ambystomatid salamanders. A standard curve generated from cloned amplicons revealed a strong positive relationship between template DNA quantity and cycle threshold, suggesting that RT-qPCR could be used to quantify sperm in a given sample. We then extracted DNA from multiple Ambystoma maculatum spermatophores, performed RT-qPCR on each sample, and estimated template copy numbers (i.e. sperm number) using the standard curve. Second, we used spectrophotometry to determine the number of sperm per spermatophore by measuring DNA concentration relative to the genome size. We documented a significant positive relationship between the estimates of sperm number based on RT-qPCR and those based on spectrophotometry. When these molecular estimates were compared to spermatophore cap size, which in principle could predict the number of sperm contained in the spermatophore, we also found a significant positive relationship between sperm number and spermatophore cap size. This linear model allows estimates of sperm number strictly from cap size, an approach which could greatly simplify the estimation of sperm number in future studies. These methods may help explain variation in fertilization success where sperm competition is mediated by sperm quantity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Winning a competition predicts dishonest behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Amos; Ritov, Ilana

    2016-02-16

    Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners.

  1. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  2. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  3. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  4. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  5. Transgene detection by digital droplet PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk A Moser

    Full Text Available Somatic gene therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of severe diseases. Because of its abuse potential for performance enhancement in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA included the term 'gene doping' in the official list of banned substances and methods in 2004. Several nested PCR or qPCR-based strategies have been proposed that aim at detecting long-term presence of transgene in blood, but these strategies are hampered by technical limitations. We developed a digital droplet PCR (ddPCR protocol for Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1 detection and demonstrated its applicability monitoring 6 mice injected into skeletal muscle with AAV9-IGF1 elements and 2 controls over a 33-day period. A duplex ddPCR protocol for simultaneous detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1 and Erythropoietin (EPO transgenic elements was created. A new DNA extraction procedure with target-orientated usage of restriction enzymes including on-column DNA-digestion was established. In vivo data revealed that IGF1 transgenic elements could be reliably detected for a 33-day period in DNA extracted from whole blood. In vitro data indicated feasibility of IGF1 and EPO detection by duplex ddPCR with high reliability and sensitivity. On-column DNA-digestion allowed for significantly improved target detection in downstream PCR-based approaches. As ddPCR provides absolute quantification, it ensures excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Therefore, we expect this technique to be used in diagnosing and monitoring of viral and bacterial infection, in detecting mutated DNA sequences as well as profiling for the presence of foreign genetic material in elite athletes in the future.

  6. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  7. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  8. Evaluation of PCR and multiplex PCR in relation to nested PCR for diagnosing Theileria equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Leal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional PCR (PCRTeq for diagnosing Theileria equi and multiplex PCR (M/PCRTeq-Bc for diagnosing T. equi and Babesia caballi were comparatively evaluated with nested PCR (N/PCR-Teq for diagnosing equine piroplasmosis. In DNA sensitivity determinations, in multiple dilutions of equine blood that had tested positive for T. equi, PCR-Teq and N/PCR-Teq detected hemoparasite DNA in the larger dilutions (1:128, but did not differ significantly from the M/PCRTeq-Bc (1:64. In analyses on equine serum tested by ELISA, there was high agreement between this serological test and PCR-Teq (k = 0.780 and moderate agreement with N/PCR-Teq (k = 0.562 and M/PCRTeq-Bc (k = 0.488. PCR-Teq found a higher frequency of T. equi both in extensively and intensively reared horses, but this was not significant in relation to N/PCR-Teq (P>0.05, and both PCRs indicated that there was an endemic situation regarding T. equi in the population of horses of this sample. PCR-Teq was only significantly different from M/PCR-Teq-Bc (P<0.05. PCR-Teq presented high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to N/PCR-Teq, but with the advantage of higher speed in obtaining results and lower costs and risks of laboratory contamination. This accredits PCR-Teq for epidemiological studies and for determinations on affected horses.

  9. Putting competition into perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L. III.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the current level of competition in the electric industry in the context of the history of the industry and the development of electric markets in other counties. The topics of the paper include competition in the history of the American electric industry, the current state of competition, the competitive situation in Texas, competition in other electric markets, and competitive changes in the US market

  10. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  11. Competitive advantage, what does it really mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan; Hongjue Yan

    2013-01-01

    Competitive advantage is probably the most popular business concept today (Mooney, 2007). This article aims to investigate critically the discourse on competitive advantage, as expressed by business literature, by locating its meanings in the public higher education sector. This research reveals

  12. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of company competitiveness is proposed, on its basis, the concept of “competitive enterprise” is defined. The most well-known approaches for assessing the company competitiveness are analyzed. The author’s method of the company competitiveness assessment based on the dynamics of the integral index of competitiveness is provided. For those cases, when it is impossible to determine the proportion of products on the market, it is proposed to evaluate the company competitiveness on the profitability of its production. The article shows the experience in calculating of the company competitiveness on the proposed author’s methods.

  13. PCR, exit stage left ...

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989. The Prévessin Control Room (PCR) was recently engulfed in a wave of nostalgia. The PCR, scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul. In February 2006, a new combined control centre for all the accelerators will open its doors on the same site, together with a new building currently under construction (see Bulletin issue 27/2004 of 28 June 2004). This marks the end of an important chapter in CERN's history. The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event 28 years ago when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world. Today the 80 terminals and PCs have b...

  14. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  15. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  16. RT-PCR Protocols - Methods in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “The first record I have of it, is when I made a computer file which I usually did whenever I had an idea, that would have been on the Monday when I got back, and I called it Chain Reaction.POL, meaning polymerase. That was the identifier for it and later I called the thing the Polymerase Chain Reaction, which a lot of people thought was a dumb name for it, but it stuck, and it became PCR”. With these words the Nobel prize winner, Kary Mullis, explains how he named the PCR: one of the most important techniques ever invented and currently used in molecular biology. This book “RT-PCR Protocols” covers a wide range of aspects important for the setting of a PCR experiment for both beginners and advanced users. In my opinion the book is very well structured in three different sections. The first one describes the different technologies now available, like competitive RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR or RT-PCR for cloning. An important part regards the usage of PCR in single cell mouse embryos, stressing how important...........

  17. Competitiveness of Halal Industry in Maghreb Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rizki Moi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure that the countries produce halal products in order to remain in the international market, then they must make sure that they remain competitive in the market. Therefore, this study was to measure the competitiveness of the halal industry in the Maghreb countries which consist of five countries, namely Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The methodology of this study was using halal market share in the country and revealed comparative advantage (RCA. The study found that Mauritania is the most competitive country for halal industry because of it has the highest RCA value and followed by Morocco and Tunisia. While the countries that have lower competitiveness are Algeria and Libya. Therefore, the government and industry should plays a role to improve the competitiveness of their national halal industry and to ensure they remain competitive in the international halal market.

  18. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  19. Fly Diversity Revealed by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asraoui, Jimmy F.; Sayar, Nancy P.; Knio, Khouzama M.; Smith, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe an inexpensive, two-session undergraduate laboratory activity that introduces important molecular biology methods in the context of biodiversity. In the first session, students bring tentatively identified flies (order Diptera, true flies) to the laboratory, extract DNA, and amplify a region of the mitochondrial gene…

  20. Apparent competition and native consumers exacerbate the strong competitive effect of an exotic plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Dutra, Humberto P; Marquis, Robert J; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species. Although effects of direct competition and consumption were more pervasive, richness of native plants was also reduced through apparent competition, as small-mammal consumers reduced richness only when L. maackii fruits were present. Our experiment reveals the multiple, interactive pathways that affect the success and impact of an invasive exotic plant: exotic plants may directly benefit from reduced attack by native consumers, may directly exert strong competitive effects on native plants, and may also benefit from apparent competition.

  1. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later

  2. Analytical Performance of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and Real Time PCR (qPCR Assays for the Detection of Six Leishmania Species DNA in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielo M. León

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis comprises a spectrum of parasitic diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. Molecular tools have been widely employed for the detection of Leishmania due to its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the analytical performance of molecular platforms as PCR and real time PCR (qPCR including a wide variety of molecular markers has never been evaluated. Herein, the aim was to evaluate the analytical performance of 4 PCR-based assays (designed on four different targets and applied on conventional and real-time PCR platforms. We evaluated the analytical performance of conventional PCR and real time PCR, determining exclusivity and inclusivity, Anticipated Reportable Range (ARR, limit of detection (LoD and accuracy using primers directed to kDNA, HSP70, 18S and ITS-1 targets. We observed that the kDNA was the most sensitive but does not meet the criterion of exclusivity. The HSP70 presented a higher LoD in conventional PCR and qPCR in comparison with the other markers (1 × 101 and 1 × 10-1 equivalent parasites/mL respectively and had a higher coefficient of variation in qPCR. No statistically significant differences were found between the days of the test with the four molecular markers. The present study revealed that the 18S marker presented the best performance in terms of analytical sensitivity and specificity for the qPCR in the species tested (species circulating in Colombia. Therefore, we recommend to explore the analytical and diagnostic performance in future studies using a broader number of species across America.

  3. Analytical Performance of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Real Time PCR (qPCR) Assays for the Detection of Six Leishmania Species DNA in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Cielo M.; Muñoz, Marina; Hernández, Carolina; Ayala, Martha S.; Flórez, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Cubides, Juan R.; Ramírez, Juan D.

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis comprises a spectrum of parasitic diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. Molecular tools have been widely employed for the detection of Leishmania due to its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the analytical performance of molecular platforms as PCR and real time PCR (qPCR) including a wide variety of molecular markers has never been evaluated. Herein, the aim was to evaluate the analytical performance of 4 PCR-based assays (designed on four different targets) and applied on conventional and real-time PCR platforms. We evaluated the analytical performance of conventional PCR and real time PCR, determining exclusivity and inclusivity, Anticipated Reportable Range (ARR), limit of detection (LoD) and accuracy using primers directed to kDNA, HSP70, 18S and ITS-1 targets. We observed that the kDNA was the most sensitive but does not meet the criterion of exclusivity. The HSP70 presented a higher LoD in conventional PCR and qPCR in comparison with the other markers (1 × 101 and 1 × 10-1 equivalent parasites/mL respectively) and had a higher coefficient of variation in qPCR. No statistically significant differences were found between the days of the test with the four molecular markers. The present study revealed that the 18S marker presented the best performance in terms of analytical sensitivity and specificity for the qPCR in the species tested (species circulating in Colombia). Therefore, we recommend to explore the analytical and diagnostic performance in future studies using a broader number of species across America. PMID:29046670

  4. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  5. One-stop polymerase chain reaction (PCR): An improved PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... membrane filtration was carried out with a commercial PCR product purification kit (Generay, Shanghai), according to the manufacture's instruction. In brief, 50 µl PCR product was mixed thoroughly with binding buffer, and the resultant mixture was loaded directly onto a silica membrane Gelclean column.

  6. Evaluating competition in the loan and deposit market using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Competition was more intense in the market for loans than in the deposit market. There was more competition among domestic banks than among foreign banks. The study also reveals that there was marginal differences in the intensity of competition for loans and deposits among domestic banks. On the aggregate level, ...

  7. Competition Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cassey

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia does not have a national competition law. Competition is regulated at the sectoral level in the country. Two economic sectors have legal provisions for competition law but these have been relatively ineffectively enforced. The benefits of Malaysia's industrial policy as well as the policy reforms in regulation and trade have been compromised by the lack of a formal institution to address competition related issues. Hence, the future priority and direction of regulatory reform is obvi...

  8. Competitive strategy : Sorrin Puutarha

    OpenAIRE

    Haaristo, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The thesis handles the fresh food product industry in Finland and especially one company operating in the industry and its competitive position. Sorrin Puutarha manufactures ready-to-use fresh cut salad bag, which is sold in the grocery stores. The objective of the thesis was to find competitive advantages of the case company. Once the competitive advantages were identified the purpose was to choose a fitting competitive strategy that would strengthen those advantages. The field study was con...

  9. Can competition reduce quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-01-01

    In a spatial competition setting there is usually a non-negative relationship between competition and quality. In this paper we offer a novel mechanism whereby competition leads to lower quality. This mechanism relies on two key assumptions, namely that the providers are motivated and risk-averse. We show that the negative relationship between competition and quality is robust to any given number of firms in the market and whether quality and price decisions are simultaneous or sequential. We...

  10. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  11. Competition for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is EPA policy to promote competition in the award of assistance agreements to the maximum extent practicable.When assistance agreements are awarded competitively, it is EPA policy that the competitive process be fair and open & that no applicant receive

  12. Comparison of ELISA, nested PCR and sequencing and a novel qPCR for detection of Giardia isolates from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Yang, Rongchang; Hatmal, Ma'mon; Yassin, Yasmeen; Mharib, Taghrid; Mukbel, Rami; Mahmoud, Sameer Alhaj; Al-Shudifat, Abdel-Ellah; Ryan, Una

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in human patients in Jordan and all previous studies have used direct microscopy, which lacks sensitivity. The present study developed a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay at the β-giardin (bg) locus and evaluated its use as a frontline test for the diagnosis of giardiasis in comparison with a commercially available ELISA using nested PCR and sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus (gdh nPCR) as the gold standard. A total of 96 human faecal samples were collected from 96 patients suffering from diarrhoea from 5 regions of Jordan and were screened using the ELISA and qPCR. The analytical specificity of the bg qPCR assay revealed no cross-reactions with other genera and detected all the Giardia isolates tested. Analytical sensitivity was 1 Giardia cyst per μl of DNA extract. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 64.6%. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the bg qPCR was 89.9% and 82.9% respectively compared to 76.5 and 68.0% for the ELISA. This study is the first to compare three different methods (ELISA, bg qPCR, nested PCR and sequencing at the gdh locus) to diagnose Jordanian patients suffering from giardiasis and to analyze their demographic data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical aspects of competitive advantage and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hudakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competitive advantage is well-known for many of us and a number of literary resources focused on entrepreneurship and functioning of economies deal with it, either directly or indirectly. The understanding of the term competitive advantage though sometimes varies. One can only perceive it when looking at it as a whole, a live organism that is constantly developing in a complex dynamic entrepreneurial environment, the individual parts of which do not function when separated from...

  14. COMPETITIVE SOCIAL POSITION OF THE COUNTRY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chornodid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the country's competitive position, a comparative analysis according to international indexes and indicators is provided. Also the competitive social benefits of the country are described. The real situation of the competitive social benefits is considered on international standards and assessments. The estimation of the position of Ukraine is given in terms of freedom, network readiness index, the index of competitiveness of travel and tourism.

  15. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  16. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  17. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  18. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Digital PCR: A brief history

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital PCR for quantification of a target of interest has been independently developed several times, being described in 1990 and 1991 using the term “limiting dilution PCR” and in 1999 using the term “digital PCR”. It came into use in the decade following its first development but its use was cut short by the description of real-time PCR in 1996. However digital PCR has now had a renaissance due to the recent development of new instruments and chemistry which have made it a much simpler and...

  20. Changes in Subjective Sleep Quality Before a Competition and Their Relation to Competitive Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Erlacher, Daniel; Ziegler, Matthias

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of competitions on subjective sleep quality. Previous studies have been inconclusive and lack differentiated and standardized measurements of subjective sleep quality. Furthermore the temporal relation between precompetitive anxiety and sleep quality was investigated. Anxiety and nervousness associated with competitions are considered to cause sleep impairments. A convenience sample of N = 79 elite male athletes from various sports participated. In a time-to-event paradigm, sleep quality and competitive anxiety were assessed via standardized self-report measurements 4 days before a competition and on the day of the competition. Univariate analyses were used to examine differences between time points. To examine cross-lagged effects between anxiety and sleep quality a latent change score model (LCSM) was specified that tested an effect of anxiety on changes in sleep quality. Evaluations of nocturnal sleep deteriorated significantly from 4 days before competition to the day of competition, but there were no differences regarding perceptions of the restorative value of sleep. LCSM revealed that athletes who reported more intense worry symptoms 4 days before competition also reported greater deterioration in evaluations of nocturnal sleep. The findings support earlier reports of impaired subjective sleep quality before competitions. Precompetitive sleep impairments appear also to be preceded by cognitive anxiety. Whereas interventions should thus address worry-cognitions associated with competition and sleep, research should address the practical importance of these perceptions of sleep impairments.

  1. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  2. Discovering the Nature of Competitive Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Klyueva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “competitiveness” has been most thoroughly developed in theframework of modern economics and management. Apart from economic factors,this concept also embraces social and psychological factors, but economic modelsdo not reveal the psychological essence of the concept of “competitive personality.”Analytical review of the psychological and educational case studies of the competitive-personality problem has brought to light the ambiguity in this concept alongwith a multitude of models that distinguish individual aspects of a competitivepersonality. Most creators of the various models emphasize the quality of the conditionsnecessary for forming and developing a competitive personality.In economics, competition is an essential, inherent feature of various types of activitywhere conflicts of interest occur. However, the established economic modelof competitive personality reduces and replaces the psychological content of theconcept.Theoretically and experimentally the authors of this article substantiate their disclosureof the competitive-personality concept via its creative potential. Results ofan in-depth study confirm that the ability to achieve success through one’s owninitiative, anticipating the demands of competition, appears to be the backbonefor competitiveness of personality.

  3. The organization and conducting of paratriathlon competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vodlozerov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the system of the organization and conducting of competitions among paratriathletes concerning compliance with specifics of this sport – the consecutive overcoming of the combined distance by means of different types of physical activity. Material & Methods: the analysis of conditions of the organization and conducting of competitions of paratriathletes in six competitive categories was made on the basis of studying of articles of the UNO Convention on the Rights of physically disabled people, the regulatory base of the international federations of triathlon and Federation of triathlon of Ukraine. Results: the compliance of the organization and conducting of paratriathlon competitions concerning specifics of continuous triathlon with certain modifications of passing of stages of the combined distance by sportsmen with limited physical capacities is revealed. Conclusions: competition rules on paratriathlon, which allow conducting the fair competitive competition in the spirit of fair, competitive and safe rivalry to athletes with different physical deviations, are developed for more active attraction to sports activities, and also for the purpose of removal of discrimination barriers from physically disabled people.

  4. Competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines expanded wholesale and retail competition and the effect that they are likely to have on the electric power industry. The author believes that expanded wholesale competition is good and will bring immediate benefit to all electric consumers; however, based on the experience of the natural gas industry and the electric power industry in California and other parts of the world, the author counsels caution in moving toward expanded retail competition

  5. The Competitive Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, João Tiago

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne’s phenomenological analysis of the art spectator’s experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.

  6. Quality and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Inder Khosla; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the practitioner literature in operations management has seen a dramatic surge in articles on quality management. It reflects the increased emphasis on quality by U.S. firms, which has been attributed largely to increased competition faced by them. The question of how quality is influenced by competitive intensity, however, has not received much attention, either in the practitioner or the academic research literatures. The notion of competitive intensity itself has not been ...

  7. Competitive versus comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2002-01-01

    I explore the interactions between comparative, competitive and absolute advantage in a two-country model of oligopoly in general equilibrium. Comparative advantage always determines the direction of trade, but both competitive and absolute advantage affect resource allocation, trade patterns and trade volumes. Competitive advantage in the sense of more home firms drives foreign firms out of marginal sectors but also makes some marginal home sectors uncompetitive. Absolute advantage in the se...

  8. Price competition on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

  9. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  10. The competitive challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the strategies necessary to succeed in the increasingly competitive independent power industry. The topics of the article include the factors encouraging mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, the availability of financing, changes in the market, regulatory climate changes, competition and power planning, Not In My Back Yard and project siting, and the road ahead

  11. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  12. Competitiveness in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of interrelated research advances in the field of technological entrepreneurship from the perspective of competition in emerging markets. Featuring contributions by scholars from different fields of interest, it provides a mix of theoretical developments, insights...... and research methods used to uncover the unexplored aspects of competitiveness in emerging markets in an age characterized by disruptive technologies....

  13. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  14. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  15. Unraveling the intraguild competition between Oscheius spp. nematodes and entomopathogenic nematodes: Implications for their natural distribution in Swiss agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Půža, Vladimir; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Blanco-Pérez, Rubén; Čepulytė-Rakauskienė, Rasa; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-11-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are excellent biological control agents to fight soil-dwelling insect pests. In a previous survey of agricultural soils of Switzerland, we found mixtures of free-living nematodes (FLN) in the genus Oscheius, which appeared to be in intense competition with EPN. As this may have important implications for the long-term persistence of EPN, we studied this intraguild competition in detail. We hypothesized that (i) Oscheius spp. isolates act as scavengers rather than entomopathogens, and (ii) cadavers with relatively small numbers of EPN are highly suitable resources for Oscheius spp. reproduction. To study this, we identified Oscheius spp. isolated from Swiss soils, quantified the outcome of EPN/Oscheius competition in laboratory experiments, developed species-specific primers and probe for quantitative real-time PCR, and evaluated their relative occurrence in the field in the context of the soil food web. Molecular analysis (ITS/D2D3) identified MG-67/MG-69 as Oscheius onirici and MG-68 as O. tipulae (Dolichura-group). Oscheius spp. indeed behaved as scavengers, reproducing in ∼64% of frozen-killed cadavers from controlled experiments. Mixed infection in the laboratory by Oscheius spp. with low (3 IJs) or high (20 IJs) initial EPN numbers revealed simultaneous reproduction in double-exposed cadavers which resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of EPN progeny from the cadaver. This effect depended on the number of EPN in the initial inoculum and differed by EPN species; Heterorhabditis megidis was better at overcoming competition. This study reveals Oscheius spp. as facultative kleptoparasites that compete with EPN for insect cadavers. Using real-time qPCR, we were able to accurately quantify this strong competition between FLN and EPN in cadavers that were recovered after soil baiting (∼86% cadavers with >50% FLN production). The severe competition within the host cadavers and the intense management of the soils in

  16. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  17. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  18. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...... an early-season competitive advantage to the crop and (3) maximising resource capture by the crop using competitive species, competitive cultivars, high sowing densities, optimal spatial arrangement, intercropping complimentary species or transplanting....

  19. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel COSER

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  20. Economic essence of competitiveness of agro-food products and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coser Cornel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  1. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN AND AUSTRALIAN FLOWER INDUSTRIES: An application of three methodologies.

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooyen, I.M.; Kirsten, Johann F.; van Rooyen, C.J.; Collins, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Competitiveness is defined to include both comparative and competitive advantage. Three different methodologies are applied in the analysis of the flower industries of South Africa and Australia: "Determinants of competitive advantage" methodology of Michael Porter (1990) describes the factors influencing competitive advantage; "Revealed comparative advantage" states the relative importance of flower trade in each country; and the "Policy Analyses Matrix" calculates the comparative advantage ...

  2. Highly efficient PCR assay to discriminate allelic DNA methylation status using whole genome amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously developed a simple method termed HpaII-McrBC PCR (HM-PCR to discriminate allelic methylation status of the genomic sites of interest, and successfully applied it to a comprehensive analysis of CpG islands (CGIs on human chromosome 21q. However, HM-PCR requires 200 ng of genomic DNA to examine one target site, thereby precluding its application to such samples that are limited in quantity. Findings We developed HpaII-McrBC whole-genome-amplification PCR (HM-WGA-PCR that uses whole-genome-amplified DNA as the template. HM-WGA-PCR uses only 1/100th the genomic template material required for HM-PCR. Indeed, we successfully analyzed 147 CGIs by HM-WGA-PCR using only ~300 ng of DNA, whereas previous HM-PCR study had required ~30 μg. Furthermore, we confirmed that allelic methylation status revealed by HM-WGA-PCR is identical to that by HM-PCR in every case of the 147 CGIs tested, proving high consistency between the two methods. Conclusions HM-WGA-PCR would serve as a reliable alternative to HM-PCR in the analysis of allelic methylation status when the quantity of DNA available is limited.

  3. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  4. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  5. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  6. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  7. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  8. Innovation and strategic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Mile B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discussed relationships of innovation to achieving strategic competitiveness in today globalized economic environment. Special attention is devoted to the nature of competitive advantages on global industries as well national level. Competitive advantage is a firm's ability to transform inputs into goods and services at a profit on a sustained basis, better than competitors. Comparative advantage resides in the factor endowments and created endowments of particular regions. Beside the traditional endowment approach (land, natural resources, labor and the size of the local population it is emphasized the importance of created one such as skilled labor, the technology and knowledge base, government support and culture. Creating corporate or country competitiveness roadmap there are no substantial difference - innovative as well strategic approach is essential.

  9. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  10. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  11. Competition and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ensure that judges receive specialized training in competition law . .... ensure good coverage and quality of service; banks are subject to prudential and other .... vendors who offer the best value do the most business and the customers benefit.

  12. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  13. More competition, less staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Staffing at US nuclear plants has been sharply reduced in recent years, as nuclear plants strive for aggressive cost reduction in a deregulating energy market. These steps have proved necessary to make nuclear plant production competitive with alternative sources. (author)

  14. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  15. ANALYSIS OF COMPETITION INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed and systematized the definition of "competition" proposed by domestic and foreign scholars in the field of strategic management, based on these discovered and refined essence of the concept of "competition". We consider the price and non-price competition. Examples are given of the methods of competition used in the practice of industrial activities. Substantiated that the forms and methods of competition must be constantly improved through the search for new competitive advantages.

  16. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  17. Sperm competition in bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and ...

  18. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  19. Competition between bank regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  20. Costing and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K; Brignall, S

    1994-01-01

    Working for patients established a new system of contracts between providers and purchasers of healthcare, with prices based on full costs, avoiding cross-subsidization. The new regime necessitates greatly improved costing systems, to improve the efficiency of service provision by creating price competition between providers. Ken Bates and Stan Brignall argue that non-price competition also occurs, with providers 'differentiating' on quality of service/product, flexibility or innovation.

  1. pcr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, Diagnosis, Bacteria, Infections. INTRODUCTION ... used to amplify a piece of DNA by in-vitro enzymatic replication (David and .... receiving antimicrobial treatment, or when the causative agents are small ...

  2. Competition in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Warren

    1995-01-01

    With changes occurring within both the gas and electricity industries and both sectors undergoing simultaneous reforms at the State and national levels it is timely to look at some major aspects of the energy-reform processes in Australia and to attempt to offer some perspectives from the viewpoint of an industry user of energy. From an industry user's viewpoint there is quantifiable evidence that competition in the energy sector will deliver major economic benefits to industry and the nation. The reform process currently in train will increase Australia's international competitiveness. Commonwealth-State collaboration is useful on economic issues which require a national consistent approach. Many significant and complex arrangement apply to the gas and electricity sectors which add to the complexity of the respective reform processes. More competitive arrangements are therefore required more quickly at several stages of the gas-sector reform process, such as in the commercialization of government utilities, resolving the issue of third-party transmission pricing, and the removal of State governments' impediments to competitive trading. The Hilmer Report on National Competition Policy will help deal with some difficult structural and transitional issues, e.g. third-party access, competitive structures, regulatory regimes, and a consistent national approach.(author). 1 fig., 1 photo

  3. Competition-colonization trade-offs, competitive uncertainty, and the evolutionary assembly of species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Pillai

    Full Text Available We utilize a standard competition-colonization metapopulation model in order to study the evolutionary assembly of species. Based on earlier work showing how models assuming strict competitive hierarchies will likely lead to runaway evolution and self-extinction for all species, we adopt a continuous competition function that allows for levels of uncertainty in the outcome of competition. We then, by extending the standard patch-dynamic metapopulation model in order to include evolutionary dynamics, allow for the coevolution of species into stable communities composed of species with distinct limiting similarities. Runaway evolution towards stochastic extinction then becomes a limiting case controlled by the level of competitive uncertainty. We demonstrate how intermediate competitive uncertainty maximizes the equilibrium species richness as well as maximizes the adaptive radiation and self-assembly of species under adaptive dynamics with mutations of non-negligible size. By reconciling competition-colonization tradeoff theory with co-evolutionary dynamics, our results reveal the importance of intermediate levels of competitive uncertainty for the evolutionary assembly of species.

  4. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  5. Mechanism of management of competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryak E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the concept of competitiveness and mechanisms of management of competitiveness of production is considered. Major factors of ensuring competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex are allocated. The main problems of production of wheat in the Republic of Crimea making negative impact on the level of her competitiveness are revealed. The mechanism of management of competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex is developed.

  6. Reflections on Competition, Competition Regulation and the Current Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Wigger, Angela

    2013-01-01

    competition came to enjoy such an exalted status in Europe and then challenges conventional wisdom by bringing into focus the downsides of competition. It argues that excessive competition and neoliberal competition regulation have contributed to intensify the economic, political, social and environmental...

  7. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  8. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova A. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions of the existence of every organization, every enterprise is to insure the long-term sustainable development, one of the conditions of which is the increase of an organizational competitiveness. In modern economic conditions, social aspects of competitiveness are now in the foreground of interest, because just the strategy of social responsibility (SSR of modern enterprises can assure some commercial benefits, in responding, at the same time, to the social demands and in creating its well-being. Such an approach is in the basis of the notion of competitiveness. Along with «rigid parameters», such as price characteristics, the capability to deal with competitors, effective financial and production policies, «flexible factors» of competitiveness are of a big importance: a personnel potential, individual and collective competencies, organizational and managerial capabilities. As a result, we have formulated a research hypothesis: the organizational competitiveness is defined by individual and collective competencies of an organization, is based on socially responsible actions, confirms the demand for the object and insures its sustainable long-term development. Any organization should base all its actions aimed to increase its competitiveness on its intellectual potential, or on the management of individual and collective competencies that assure the sustainable development and the goal achievement. For every organizational strategic action, an effective combination of these competencies exists. So, we suggest a new definition of competitiveness: it is a social and economic category of understanding of the social responsibility, having as a central element individual and collective competencies, based on socially responsible actions of an enterprise, insuring its long-term sustainable development.

  9. COMPETITIVENESS OF INDONESIAN TEA IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Indonesian tea has experienced a lot of problems such as land use change of plantation, lower selling prices, and low productivity. The objectives of this study are to analyze the competitiveness of tea in Indonesia and formulate priority improvements that can support the increasing competitiveness of Indonesian tea. The methods used to analyze the competitiveness were the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and the Export Product Dynamics (EPD, and to formulate strategies to increase competitiveness, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA was applied. Based on RCA, the types of Indonesian tea which have strong competitiveness are HS 090 210 and HS 090240. The EPD analysis showed that only tea of HS 090210 is in the rising star position, while the HS 090220, HS 090230 and HS090240 tea types are on the retreat position. Based on IPA, sub-determinants which are priority to improve are in quadrant A (under act consisting of five sub-factors, namely the availability of human resources with the capbility of production management, marketing and possess an entrepreneurial spirit; availability and ease of access to capital; strengthening of the structure of Indonesian tea agribusiness; the government policies in improving domestic demand conditions and in encouraging the development of tea processing industry.Keywords: competitiveness, tea, RCA, EPD, IPA

  10. DNA microarray-based PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberg, Alexander; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Baier, Vico; Neubauer, Heinrich; Zimmermann, Stefan; Rabold, Denise; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Seyboldt, Christian

    2015-02-01

    This study presents a DNA microarray-based assay for fast and simple PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile strains. Hybridization probes were designed to query the modularly structured intergenic spacer region (ISR), which is also the template for conventional and PCR ribotyping with subsequent capillary gel electrophoresis (seq-PCR) ribotyping. The probes were derived from sequences available in GenBank as well as from theoretical ISR module combinations. A database of reference hybridization patterns was set up from a collection of 142 well-characterized C. difficile isolates representing 48 seq-PCR ribotypes. The reference hybridization patterns calculated by the arithmetic mean were compared using a similarity matrix analysis. The 48 investigated seq-PCR ribotypes revealed 27 array profiles that were clearly distinguishable. The most frequent human-pathogenic ribotypes 001, 014/020, 027, and 078/126 were discriminated by the microarray. C. difficile strains related to 078/126 (033, 045/FLI01, 078, 126, 126/FLI01, 413, 413/FLI01, 598, 620, 652, and 660) and 014/020 (014, 020, and 449) showed similar hybridization patterns, confirming their genetic relatedness, which was previously reported. A panel of 50 C. difficile field isolates was tested by seq-PCR ribotyping and the DNA microarray-based assay in parallel. Taking into account that the current version of the microarray does not discriminate some closely related seq-PCR ribotypes, all isolates were typed correctly. Moreover, seq-PCR ribotypes without reference profiles available in the database (ribotype 009 and 5 new types) were correctly recognized as new ribotypes, confirming the performance and expansion potential of the microarray. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Analysis of ELA-DQB exon 2 polymorphism in Argentine Creole horses by PCR-RFLP and PCR-SSCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Castagnasso, E E; Díaz, S; Giovambattista, G; Dulout, F N; Peral-García, P

    2003-08-01

    The second exon of equine leucocyte antigen (ELA)-DQB genes was amplified from genomic DNA of 32 Argentine Creole horses by PCR. Amplified DNA was analysed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two HaeIII patterns, four RsaI patterns, five MspI patterns and two HinfI patterns. EcoRI showed no variation in the analysed sample. Additional patterns that did not account for known exon 2 DNA sequences were observed, suggesting the existence of novel ELA-DQB alleles. PCR-SSCP analysis exhibited seven different band patterns, and the number of bands per animal ranged from four to nine. Both methods indicated that at least two DQB genes are present. The presence of more than two alleles in each animal showed that the primers employed in this work are not specific for a unique DQB locus. The improvement of this PCR-RFLP method should provide a simple and rapid technique for an accurate definition of ELA-DQB typing in horses.

  12. The dynamics of the global competitiveness of Chinese industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Ebbers, H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional multi-variable approach, this article investigates the competitiveness and dynamics of Chinese industries from the perspective of the international marketplace. The study reveals the step-by-step transformation of the degree of global competitiveness across 97 Chinese

  13. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a "cybercycle;" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.

  14. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  15. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  16. Price competition in procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market's competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs

  17. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  18. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  19. The power of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuqua, G.L.; Pratt, J.H.; Elliot, J.

    1995-01-01

    The change-over from regulated monopolies to a non-regulated competitive market in the electric utility industry was discussed in terms of marketing and survival strategies for utilities it the newly competitive marketplace. The impact of low natural gas prices was prominently discussed as a danger to hydroelectricity generators because high efficiency turbine generators that are now available. Surplus power capacity in both the Canadian and US markets were discussed. The effects of independent power producers selling electricity wholesale to private utilities was also debated on account of its potential to change the role of the electric utility. The situation of the Bonneville Power Association (BPA), a self-financed government agency, as owner of 15 000 miles of transmission grid that is not allowed to own generation plants, was described. Strategies developed by BPA in an effort to adapt to the competitive market were described and were successful

  20. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan R. Soetevent

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand may occur. I show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs. I conjecture that this non-existence result holds...

  1. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pim Heijnen; Adriaan Soetevent

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

  2. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  3. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  4. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  5. Competitive strategy for providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, M C

    1996-01-01

    National Health Service (NHS) Trusts are struggling to determine a long-term strategic direction for their organizations in response to the competitive pressures generated by the NHS reforms. The development of long-term strategic direction and the methods to implement this are presenting real challenges to the Trusts which have inherited service configurations based on bureaucratic planning frameworks rather than service configurations suited to a more competitive environment. Examines the strategic choices available to these organizations; explores the importance of identifying positive strategic choices; and discusses the advantages and disadvantages in the context of the NHS internal market.

  6. VIRTUAL COMPETITIVENESS: YOUTHS’ VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Semenov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT has become an integral part both of every individual’s life and of the society in general. It is no longer possible to deny the impact of virtual environment on socialisation and development of the identity of young people. In this regard, the investigation of young people’s view on virtual social networks, and the possibility of students’ own competitiveness realization through various web services. The aim of the research presented in the article is to study the factors of students’ assessment of virtual social networks as a tool of personal fulfillment. Methodology and research methods. Content analysis and synthesis of scientific publications studies were carried out at a theoretical stage of the research; secondary sampling analysis of sociologic data material sources was conducted. The empirical research stage involved the instrument of questionnaire surveys, statistical data processing and interpretation of the results. Results and scientific novelty. The social survey conducted in 2017 with the participation of 1087 high school students and 1196 college students of the Tyumen Region shown that the more competitive students consider themselves, the more competitive they perceive the people having great popularity on the Internet. At that, compared to girls, young people are more inclined to consider the people having great popularity on the Internet competitive. It is determined that having a popular virtual media account for the young person is less worthwhile than for female respondents. The author explains this fact: male representatives regard it as “social capital” which can contribute to growth of their competitiveness in society as well as to achieve some profit. The author concludes that youth views on competitiveness are not directly related to the activity in virtual social networks. Frequent use by respondents of the Internet and

  7. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  8. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  9. The need for transparency and good practices in the qPCR literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bustin, Stephen A; Benes, Vladimir; Garson, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Two surveys of over 1,700 publications whose authors use quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) reveal a lack of transparent and comprehensive reporting of essential technical information. Reporting standards are significantly improved in publications that cite the Minimum Information for Publication...

  10. Positive Streptobacillus moniliformis PCR in guinea pigs likely due to Leptotrichia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Ron; Van de Berg, Lia; Reubsaet, Frans A G; Vlemminx, Maurice J

    2008-04-30

    Streptobacillus moniliformis is a zoonotic bacterium. We obtained positive S. moniliformis PCR results in oral swab samples from guinea pigs from an experimental colony and the breeding colony of origin. Comparison of the DNA sequence of an amplicon with deposited 16S rDNA sequences revealed that Leptotrichia sp. can be the source of a false positive S. moniliformis PCR outcome.

  11. Two-temperature PCR for Microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-05-01

    Since its invention in 1983, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been the method of choice for DNA amplification. Successful PCR depends on the optimization of several parameters, which is a cumbersome task due to the many variables (conditions and compon

  12. Two-temperature PCR for Microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Chang, Donald Choy; Sheng, Ping; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yu, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    Since its invention in 1983, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been the method of choice for DNA amplification. Successful PCR depends on the optimization of several parameters, which is a cumbersome task due to the many variables (conditions and compon

  13. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  14. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  15. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  16. Facing competitive pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count

  17. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  18. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  19. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  20. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  1. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  2. Catalogers and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a literature review and a survey of catalogers which were conducted to study the problem of the decline in quantity and quality of applications for entry-level cataloging jobs. Factors studied included: competition between types of library professionals, automation, library education, the women's movement, and library…

  3. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...

  4. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  5. Pathogen Causing Disease of Diagnosis PCR Tecnology

    OpenAIRE

    SEVİNDİK, Emre; KIR, A. Çağrı; BAŞKEMER, Kadir; UZUN, Veysel

    2013-01-01

    Polimerase chain reaction (PCR) with which, the development of recombinant DNA tecnology, a technique commonly used in field of moleculer biology and genetic. Duplication of the target DNA is provided with this technique without the need for cloning. Some fungus species, bacteria, viruses constitutent an important group of pathogenicity in human, animals and plants. There are routinely applied types of PCR in the detection of pathogens infections diseases. These Nested- PCR, Real- Time PCR, M...

  6. Principles and technical aspects of PCR amplification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelt-Verkuil, Elizabeth van; Belkum, Alex van; Hays, John P

    2008-01-01

    ... to illustrate any particularly important concepts or comments. Indeed, all commercial PCR biotechnology companies offer information about their products on internet sites and in online technical manuals. These online resources will be invaluable for any readers requiring more detailed PCR protocols. The authors have provided references for many PCR co...

  7. The PCR revolution: basic technologies and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bustin, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    ... by leading authorities on the many applications of PCR and how this technology has revolutionized their respective areas of interest. This book conveys the ways in which PCR has overcome many obstacles in life science and clinical research and also charts the PCR's development from time-consuming, low throughput, nonquantitative proced...

  8. PCR-based plasmid typing in Enterococcus faecium strains reveals widely distributed pRE25-, pRUM-, pIP501-and pHT beta-related replicons associated with glycopeptide resistance and stabilizing toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosvoll, T.C.S.; Pedersen, T.; Sletvold, H.

    2010-01-01

    A PCR-based typing scheme was applied to identify plasmids in an epidemiologically and geographically diverse strain collection of Enterococcus faecium (n=93). Replicon types of pRE25 (n=56), pRUM (n=41), pIP501 (n=17) and pHT beta (n=14) were observed in 83% of the strains, while pS86, pCF10, pA...

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in extrapulmonary biopsy samples using PCR targeting IS6110, rpoB, and nested-rpoB PCR Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghdadi, Hossein; Khosravi, Azar D; Ghadiri, Ata A; Sina, Amir H; Alami, Ameneh

    2015-01-01

    Present study was aimed to examine the diagnostic utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR techniques for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA in samples from patients with extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). In total 80 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples comprising 70 samples with definite diagnosis of EPTB and 10 samples from known non- EPTB on the basis of histopathology examination, were included in the study. PCR amplification targeting IS6110, rpoB gene and nested PCR targeting the rpoB gene were performed on the extracted DNAs from 80 FFPE samples. The strong positive samples were directly sequenced. For negative samples and those with weak band in nested-rpoB PCR, TA cloning was performed by cloning the products into the plasmid vector with subsequent sequencing. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the estimates of sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each method. Fourteen (20%), 34 (48.6%), and 60 (85.7%) of the 70 positive samples confirmed by histopathology, were positive by rpoB-PCR, IS6110-PCR, and nested-rpoB PCR, respectively. By performing TA cloning on samples that yielded weak (n = 8) or negative results (n = 10) in the PCR methods, we were able to improve their quality for later sequencing. All samples with weak band and 7 out of 10 negative samples, showed strong positive results after cloning. So nested-rpoB PCR cloning revealed positivity in 67 out of 70 confirmed samples (95.7%). The sensitivity of these combination methods was calculated as 95.7% in comparison with histopathology examination. The CI for sensitivity of the PCR methods were calculated as 11.39-31.27% for rpoB-PCR, 36.44-60.83% for IS6110- PCR, 75.29-92.93% for nested-rpoB PCR, and 87.98-99.11% for nested-rpoB PCR cloning. The 10 true EPTB negative samples by histopathology, were negative by all tested methods including cloning and were used to calculate the specificity of the applied methods. The CI for 100

  10. Competition and rural primary care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, T C

    1990-04-01

    Rural primary care programs were established in areas where there was thought to be no competition for patients. However, evidence from site visits and surveys of a national sample of subsidized programs revealed a pattern of competitive responses by the clinics. In this study of 193 rural primary care programs, mail and telephone surveys produced uniform data on the organization, operation, finances, and utilization of a representative sample of clinics. The programs were found to compete in terms of: (1) price, (2) service mix, (3) staff availability, (4) structural accessibility, (5) outreach, and (6) targeting a segment of the market. The competitive strategies employed by the clinics had consequences that affected their productivity and financial stability. The strategies were related to the perceived missions of the programs, and depended heavily upon the degree of isolation of the program and the targeting of the services. The competitive strategy chosen by a particular program could not be predicted based on service area population and apparent competitors in the service area. The goals and objectives of the programs had more to do with their competitive responses than with market characteristics. Moreover, the chosen strategies may not meet the demands of those markets.

  11. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  12. Rapid diagnosis of aneuploidy using segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was use a simple and rapid procedure, called segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (SD-QF-PCR, for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. This method is based on the co-amplification of segmental duplications located on two different chromosomes using a single pair of fluorescent primers. The PCR products of different sizes were subsequently analyzed through capillary electrophoresis, and the aneuploidies were determined based on the relative dosage between the two chromosomes. Each primer set, containing five pairs of primers, was designed to simultaneously detect aneuploidies located on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y in a single reaction. We applied these two primer sets to DNA samples isolated from individuals with trisomy 21 (n = 36; trisomy 18 (n = 6; trisomy 13 (n = 4; 45, X (n = 5; 47, XXX (n = 3; 48, XXYY (n = 2; and unaffected controls (n = 40. We evaluated the performance of this method using the karyotyping results. A correct and unambiguous diagnosis with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, was achieved for clinical samples examined. Thus, the present study demonstrates that SD-QF-PCR is a robust, rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of common aneuploidies, and these analyses can be performed in less than 4 hours for a single sample, providing a competitive alternative for routine use.

  13. Authentication of Meat Species in Sucuk by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman İrfan İLHAK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of meat species used in meat products is important by reason of economic considerations, religious factors, verification of label, and prevention of unfair-market competition. In this paper, multiplex PCR method was experienced for routine detection of equine (horse and donkey, poultry (chicken and turkey, pig and cattle meat in sucuk (sausage. The primers used for these animals generated specific fragments, and they did not show cross reactions with the DNA from the other genus of animal. After multiplex PCR was successfully optimized, a field study was carried out to investigate the presence of horse, donkey, chicken, turkey and pig meat in 50 sucuks (30 beef and 20 beef + poultry collected from markets. The result of the field study indicated that 23.3% of 30 beef sucuk samples were containing poultry meat. None of the 50 sucuk samples was containing pig meat, but one (2% of the samples generated equine fragment. The present study showed that the multiplex PCR method can be used for routine analysis of meat species identification, verification and control of label information of meat products.

  14. Dancing in the Dark: Competition over the "Meaning of Competition"

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe John Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Competing concepts of competition provide a sharp divide between theories of economic order and theories of economic transformation. The shift from competition as a state of affairs and competition as a creative process provides the divergence of perspective that is the topic of this paper. We link the Smith Marshall approach of rivalry and open competition to the more modern evolutionary view based on variation cum selection perspectives on innovation and the adaptive role of market processe...

  15. Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design Using Free Online Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most…

  16. Detection of adenoviruses in shellfish by means of conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture PCR (ICC/PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, C; Sincero, T C M; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2005-01-01

    We tested three PCR based methodologies to detect adenoviruses associated with cultivated oysters. Conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture-PCR (ICC/PCR) were first optimized using oysters seeded with know amounts of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). The maximum sensitivity for Ad5 detection was determined for each method, and then used to detect natural adenovirus contamination in oysters from three aquiculture farms in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, over a period of 6 months. The results showed that the nested-PCR was more sensitive (limit of detection: 1.2 PFU/g of tissue) than conventional-PCR and ICC-PCR (limit of detection for both: 1.2 x 10(2)PFU/g of tissue) for detection of Ad5 in oyster extracts. Nested-PCR was able to detect 90% of Ad5 contamination in harvested oyster samples, while conventional-PCR was unable to detect Ad5 in any of the samples. The present work suggests that detection of human adenoviruses can be used as a tool to monitor the presence of human viruses in marine environments where shellfish grow, and that nested-PCR is the method of choice.

  17. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression.

  18. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  19. Power industry and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, H.

    1988-01-01

    A task group on antritrust law has been set in by the Federal Ministry of Economics in order to again investigate the position of the utilities within the framework of the law against restraints on competition, (GWB). The task group's report states that from the power industry's perspective, there is no reason to modify the existing system created by sections 103, 103a of the GWB. The EC internal market to come, and enhanced use of coal for power generation to be continued beyond the year 1995 are topics that will keep politicians, utilities, and lawmakers in this field busy enough. In such a situation, the legislator cannot afford a discovery trip into unexplored, theoretical impacts of enhanced competition on the power industry. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  1. Competitiveness and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.

    2006-01-01

    The author addresses the relationship between competitiveness and climate policy beyond the issue of emission quota trading, and with taking into account links between different activities. For some sectors, demand may depend on measures undertaken to reduce emissions in the transport and building sectors. According to the author, these interactions could transform the industry on a middle term, more than the required technical changes aimed at the reduction of emissions. After a detailed analysis on these issues, this paper discusses the results of several studies dealing with the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness, and with global assessments of carbon leakages. Then, the author discusses the European directive which introduces the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS)

  2. CORPORATE CULTURE AND COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGOJANU Angela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. Many articles have been written in recent years about corporate culture, which can be looked at as a system. Inputs include feedback from society, professions, laws, stories, heroes, values on competition or service, etc. Outputs are organizational behaviors, technologies, strategies, image, products, services, appearance, etc. Most organizations don't consciously try to create a certain culture, as it is typically created unconsciously, based on the values of the top management or the founders of an organization. In this paper we try to see whether corporate culture has any influence on competition and if it has, whether it is a positive one or a negative one.

  3. Development and evaluation of a nested-PCR assay for Senecavirus A diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feronato, Cesar; Leme, Raquel A; Diniz, Jaqueline A; Agnol, Alais Maria Dall; Alfieri, Alice F; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2018-02-01

    Senecavirus A (SVA) has been associated with vesicular disease in weaned and adult pigs and with high mortality of newborn piglets. This study aimed to establish a nested-PCR assay for the routine diagnosis of SVA infection. Tissue samples (n = 177) were collected from 37 piglets of 18 pig farms located in four different Brazilian states. For the nested-PCR, a primer set was defined to amplify an internal VP1 fragment of 316 bp of SVA genome. Of the 37 piglets, 15 (40.5%) and 23 (62.2%) were positive for the SVA in the RT-PCR and nested-PCR assays, respectively. The SVA RNA was detected in 61/177 (34.5%) samples with the RT-PCR, while the nested-PCR assay showed 84/177 (47.5%) samples with the virus (p PCR and nested-PCR assays, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed similarities of 98.7-100% among SVA Brazilian strains and of 86.6-98% with SVA strains from other countries. The nested-PCR assay in this study was suitable to recover the SVA RNA in biological specimens, piglets, and/or herds that were considered as negative in the RT-PCR assay, and is proposed for the routine investigation of the SVA infection in piglets, especially when other techniques are not available or when a great number of samples has to be examined.

  4. International network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Tåg, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    We analyse network competition in a market with international calls. National regulatory agencies (NRAs) have incentives to set regulated termination rates above marginal cost to extract rent from international call termination. International network ownership and deregulation are alternatives to combat the incentives of NRAs to distort termination rates. We provide conditions under which each of these policies increase efficiency and aggregate welfare. Our findings provide theoretical suppor...

  5. Competition and dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, J; Sørensen, R

    2000-07-01

    Dental services for adults are different from all other Norwegian health services in that they are provided by private producers (dentists) who have full freedom to establish a practice. They have had this freedom since the end of World War II. A further liberalization of the market for dental services occurred in November 1995, when the so-called normal tariff was repealed. The system changed from a fixed fee system to a deregulated fee system. In principle, the market for dental services for adults operates as a free competitive market, in which dentists must compete for a market share. The aim of this study was to study the short-term effects of competition. A comprehensive set of data on fees, practice characteristics, treatment profiles and factors that dentists take into account when determining fees was analysed. The main finding was that competition has a weak effect. No support was found for the theory that the level of fees is the result of monopolistic competition or monopoly. The results also provided some evidence against the inducement hypothesis. At this stage, it is interesting to notice that dentists do not seem to exploit the power they have to control the market. One explanation, which is consistent with the more recent literature, is that physicians' behaviour to a large extent is influenced by professional norms and caring concerns about their patients. Financial incentives are important, but these incentives are constrained by norms other than self-interest. The interpretation of the results should also take into account that the deregulation has operated for a short time and that dentists and patients may not yet have adjusted to changes in the characteristics of the market. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  7. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  8. Strategic Accessibility Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchiega, Emanuele; Randon, Emanuela; Zirulia, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the effect of competition in market-accessibility enhancement among quality-differentiated firms. Firms are located in regions with different ex-ante transport costs to reach the final market. We characterize the equilibrium of the two-stage game in which firms first invest to improve market accessibility and then compete in prices. Efforts in accessibility improvement crucially depend on the interplay between the willingness to pay for the quality premium of the median consumer an...

  9. Economic competitiveness of windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapin, E E

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which windmills become competitive with the generation of electric power from fossil fuels are examined. The influence of cost of construction, financing arrangements, and the future cost of fuels is shown. Energy storage and network arrangements for mills are considered briefly, as are alternate uses for mills, e.g., the utilization of mill output directly for heating or for the production of a fuel.

  10. Energy and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau , Dominique; Fontagné , Lionel; Martin , Philippe

    2013-01-01

    When energy prices are expected to rise over the next twenty years, it is essential that industrial innovation efforts and the supply of goods and service off erings be directed towards energy-efficient technologies. However, a more significant increase in energy prices in France than in other countries would be detrimental to the short-term competitiveness of French industry. The present Note outlines the terms of the trade-off France has to confront between reserving a significant part of i...

  11. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    In view of the current high cost of coal and nuclear plants and the unfavorable regulatory and financial conditions under which they've been built in the last decade, the Atomic Industrial Forum assembled a Study Group, with extensive experience in economic analysis to examine future cost possibilities. This paper summarizes the first phase of a two-phase study to address the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets

  12. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  13. Energy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.; Flaman, L.; Beigie, C.

    1992-01-01

    Energy efficiency-related programs in two Canadian provinces are reviewed. The Ontario Ministry of Energy has implemented programs to improve industrial energy efficiency in order to contribute to future economic growth. Since 1987, the Industrial Energy Services Program provides energy audits, feasibility analysis grants, and project engineering grants for energy efficiency improvements. Results show that an industrial plant can cut its energy costs by an average of 10% with the proper help. To minimize electricity costs, Ontario Hydro has a demand management program that offers a combination of financial assistance for energy conservation measures, rate incentives, standards and regulation, and fuel substitution. Results in 1992 show 250 MW in saved and shifted load. In Alberta, a TransAlta Utilities program in supply side management has the objective of maximizing the production potential of existing plants. The resulting benefit is improved electric power production efficiency that leads to increased competitiveness. Side benefits include delay of new plant construction, reduced coal consumption, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Canada's economic competitiveness is reviewed historically and measures to improve this competitiveness are suggested. A new national policy strategy would include gradual elimination of all import tariffs, optimization of natural resources, securing energy availability at prices at or below world levels, and becoming a leader in transportation and communications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Endogeneous Risk in Monopolistic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Damjanovic

    2012-01-01

    We consider a model of financial intermediation with a monopolistic competition market structure. A non-monotonic relationship between the risk measured as a probability of default and the degree of competition is established.

  15. Corporate competitiveness and sustainability risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Braendle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a theoretical analysis of the existing research on corporate competition and sustainability risks that occur when companies aspire to reach maximum competitive advantages and gain competitive benefits compared to their rivals. Competitiveness has been described as a multidimensional, theoretical and relative concept linked with the market mechanism. The concept of competitiveness may refer to different levels of aggregation: national, regional, industrial and individual companies. This paper contributes to the theoretical research on corporate competitiveness by the analysis of old and new definitions of this category. It also notes that the sustainability risks connected to competition can be divided into several groups where the authors highlight environmental, legal, financial risks, behaviour risks and state-related risks as the most crucial ones. For companies to be fit for the competitive challenge, the paper identifies main characteristics of such risks and gives policy guidance for their avoidance

  16. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  17. Competitiveness and Management of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ming Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper delves into competition and technology management as a means of economic development. Expanding from Porter's framework on competitiveness and using a novel framework of PTGE(People, Technology, Government and Environment), this paper argues that three types of competitive advantage could be created. These competitive advantages range from passive to active advantages, i.e. natural advantage, duplicated advantage and niche advantage. Technology and effective management of technolog...

  18. LENIENCY POLICY FOR COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie Moga

    2013-01-01

    A market driven economy is inconceivable without competition. In this system, the competition is beneficial firstly for consumers, but also for producers. The former have the ability to satisfy their needs according to taste and financial ability, while the latter are incentivized to innovate and increase efficiency. Competition induces natural selection among companies. This selection must adhere to strictly abiding by competition law regulation, while regulation must benefit both consumers ...

  19. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  20. Competitive differentiation through brand extensions in the era of hyper competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Catalin Munteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of hyper competition, competitive differentiation has become increasingly important. Brand extensions are used by companies across various industries for competitive differentiation. But in the era of hyper competition, a successful differentiation strategy requires that a brand emphasizes on uniqueness rather than commoditization. In this article, we make a case for creating a meaningful differentiation strategy. We emphasize the role of brand extensions for competitive differentiation and highlight the main perils of using brand extensions as a primary differentiation strategy. By using qualitative research, we identify primary objectives for brand extensions in practice. This investigation uses in-depth interviews with 14 senior brand managers across various industries to highlight brand portfolio strategies in relation to the brand differentiation strategy. Findings reveal that for business at the base of the pyramid, in markets such as Romania, brand managers are using brand extensions to increase sales or to boost short-term revenue rather than to implement a coherent differentiation strategy. We conclude with multiple recommendations for improving brand extension usage as a strategic instrument for creating meaningful differentiation in the era of hyper competition.

  1. Competition in a Business Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J

    Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards...... research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation....

  2. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  3. Intensity of competition in the market of greenhouse vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the competitive environment of the market greenhouse vegetables. Revealed specific features of the industry, determining the level of intensity of competition in the market greenhouse vegetables. Classified factors internal and external environment, identify indicators that affect the state of the market. The factors that determine the intensity of competition in the market greenhouse vegetables.The main competitors on the Russian market of greenhouse production.Identified indicators of the intensity level of competition, in particular: the level of monopolization of the market greenhouse vegetables, the level of concentration of production in the industry, the generalized index of the intensity of the competitive environment.Shows a comparative analysis of competitors’ market greenhouse vegetables in Udmurtia.Revealed competitive advantages which can help local producers to reduce the pressure of competition and intra-industry to occupy a leading position in the Russian market of greenhouse vegetable production.The dynamics of economic performance of Russian producers. Ways of improving the competitiveness of enterprises for the production of greenhouse vegetables

  4. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  5. Experimental evolution of sperm competitiveness in a mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Leigh W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice.

  6. A longitudinal analysis of women's salivary testosterone and intrasexual competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Cobey, Kelly D; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-02-01

    Research on within-subject changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness has generally focused on possible relationships between women's intrasexual competitiveness and estimates of their fertility. While this approach is useful for testing hypotheses about the adaptive function of changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness, it offers little insight into the proximate mechanisms through which such changes might occur. To investigate this issue, we carried out a longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of changes in intrasexual competitiveness in a large sample of heterosexual women (N=136). Each woman provided saliva samples and completed an intrasexual competitiveness questionnaire in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data revealed a significant, positive within-subject effect of testosterone on intrasexual competitiveness, indicating that women reported greater intrasexual competitiveness when testosterone was high. By contrast, there were no significant effects of estradiol, progesterone, estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, or cortisol and no significant effects of any hormones on reported relationship jealousy. This is the first study to demonstrate correlated changes in measured testosterone levels and women's reported intrasexual competitiveness, implicating testosterone in the regulation of women's intrasexual competitiveness. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  8. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  9. How to develop patent work research in the enterprise competitive intelligence environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nansheng; Ren Xiaorong

    2014-01-01

    with the enterprise competitive environment rapid change, the importance of competitive intelligence becomes suddenly to reveal day by day. The patent is one of the most important information sources of competitive intelligence. This article describes the present status of the enterprise patent work, proposes the patent work strategy, point out that if it wants to enhance the enterprise competitive power, it will pay attention to the patent work. (authors)

  10. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

  11. Application of reverse transcription-PCR and real-time PCR in nanotoxicity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Wan, Rong; Zhang, Qunwei

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a relatively simple and inexpensive technique to determine the expression level of target genes and is widely used in biomedical science research including nanotoxicology studies for semiquantitative analysis. Real-time PCR allows for the detection of PCR amplification in the exponential growth phase of the reaction and is much more quantitative than traditional RT-PCR. Although a number of kits and reagents for RT-PCR and real-time PCR are commercially available, the basic principles are the same. Here, we describe the procedures for total RNA isolation by using TRI Reagent, for reverse transcription (RT) by M-MLV reverse transcriptase, and for PCR by GoTaq(®) DNA Polymerase. And real-time PCR will be performed on an iQ5 multicolor real-time PCR detection system by using iQ™ SYBR Green Supermix.

  12. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  13. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  14. Entrepreneurship and corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics reforms are not enough for long-range stability. Transition enterprises in domestic economy hasn't prepare itself for the market economy. It has some specific characteristics which are analyzed in this paper. Entrepreneurship is the corner stone for enterprise development in the sense of achieving sustainable competitiveness in the contemporary globalized world economy. There are two possibilities to introduce it in transition enterprises: (a self-development (development by itself or evolution and (b create partnerships or alliance with some reputable competitor. In current situation, author proposal is for the second solution.

  15. Competitive Moves over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    its viability to survive in the marketplace. The study begins with a review of sourcing literature to position the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies changed over time in response...... the firm; (c) organizations are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes....

  16. Energy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The members of the Enquete Commission ''Future Energy Policy'' of the German Bundestag are introduced as well as the list of participants from industry and other organizations in the public heaving on 18 th December 1981. Then the catalogue of questions of the Enquete Commission is presented. The written answers of the 11 representatives of industry form the main part of the report. In the following the minutes of the public hearing of the Enquete Commission 'Future Energy Policy' of the German Bundestag on Friday, 18 th December 1981 on the topic of 'The Competitiveness of German economy in various energy supply structures' is presented. (UA) [de

  17. Competition in nonmarket environments

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve González, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Aquesta tesi doctoral avalua les institucions públiques en situacions competitives des de tres perspectives diferents. La primera contribució analitza una activitat ordinària de les institucions públiques, la contractació de serveis, on hi ha un problema de risc moral potencial. Una institució pública hauria d’esbiaixar les competicions futures a favor del guanyador passat si aquest va realitzar un servei d’alta qualitat, i aquest biaix hauria de ser additiu. Quan la linearitat es redueix lle...

  18. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  19. Competition and confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of the new situation of the energy sector with the opening of European energy markets to competition, the author recalls the role of the French government in the organisation and operation of this market: reliable information and protection of consumers, security of supplies with reasonable gas prices, sound relations and partnerships with producing and transit countries. France agrees with the diagnostic of the European Commission about the necessity to improve the operation of the domestic energy markets but differs with the projects of the Commission on the means to be implemented to ensure transparency, non-discrimination, and efficiency in the operation of these markets. (J.S.)

  20. Application of bioinformatics on the detection of pathogens by Pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezig, Slim; Sakhri, Saber

    2007-01-01

    Salmonellas are the main responsible agent for the frequent food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. Their detection using classical methods are laborious and their results take a lot of time to be revealed. In this context, we tried to set up a revealing technique of the invA virulence gene, found in the majority of Salmonella species. After amplification with PCR using specific primers created and verified by bioinformatics programs, two couples of primers were set up and they appeared to be very specific and sensitive for the detection of invA gene. (Author)

  1. Pitfalls in PCR troubleshooting: Expect the unexpected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Schrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PCR is a well-understood and established laboratory technique often used in molecular diagnostics. Huge experience has been accumulated over the last years regarding the design of PCR assays and their set-up, including in-depth troubleshooting to obtain the optimal PCR assay for each purpose. Here we report a PCR troubleshooting that came up with a surprising result never observed before. With this report we hope to sensitize the reader to this peculiar problem and to save troubleshooting efforts in similar situations, especially in time-critical and ambitious diagnostic settings.

  2. Quantification bias caused by plasmid DNA conformation in quantitative real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the gold standard for the quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences. However, a serious concern has been revealed in a recent report: supercoiled plasmid standards cause significant over-estimation in qPCR quantification. In this study, we investigated the effect of plasmid DNA conformation on the quantification of DNA and the efficiency of qPCR. Our results suggest that plasmid DNA conformation has significant impact on the accuracy of absolute quantification by qPCR. DNA standard curves shifted significantly among plasmid standards with different DNA conformations. Moreover, the choice of DNA measurement method and plasmid DNA conformation may also contribute to the measurement error of DNA standard curves. Due to the multiple effects of plasmid DNA conformation on the accuracy of qPCR, efforts should be made to assure the highest consistency of plasmid standards for qPCR. Thus, we suggest that the conformation, preparation, quantification, purification, handling, and storage of standard plasmid DNA should be described and defined in the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) to assure the reproducibility and accuracy of qPCR absolute quantification.

  3. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The first phase of a two-phase study of the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets concludes that, with few exceptions throughout the country, overall levelized nuclear generating cost could be lower than coal generating costs by more than 40%. The study shows a wider margin of economic superiority for nuclear than has been seen in other recent studies. Capital and fuel costs are the major determinants of relative nuclear and coal economics. The only substantial difference in the input assumptions has related to a shorter lead time for both coal and nuclear units, which reduces capital costs. The study gives substance to the charge that delaying tactics by intervenors and an unstable licensing environment drove up lifetime costs of both coal and nuclear plants. This caused an increase in electric rates and affected the entire economy. The study shows that nuclear power is competitive when large baseload capacity is required. 14 figures

  4. Does competition influence safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamme, H.

    2000-01-01

    Competition in the deregulated electricity market does not leave nuclear power plants unaffected. Operators seek to run their plants at maximum availability and with optimized cost structures so that specific generating costs are minimized. The 'costs of safety', with their fixed-cost character, are elements of this cost structure. Hence the question whether safety is going to suffer under the cost pressure on the market. The study shows that the process of economic optimization does not permit cost minimization for its own sake in the area of operating costs which can be influenced by management or are 'avoidable'. The basis of assessment rather must be potential risks which could entail losses of availability. Prophylactic investments made in order to avoid losses of availability to a large extent also imply unchanged or even higher levels of safety. Economic viability and safety thus are closely correlated. Competition in a deregulated marekt so far has not done any direct harm to plant safety. An even more efficient use of scarce funds and, hopefully, a tolerable political environment should allow the safety level of nuclear power plants to be upheld, and safety culture to be maintained, also in the future. (orig.) [de

  5. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  6. Placebo effects in competitive sport: qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedie, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the placebo effect in sports performance. The possibility that the placebo effect is a more common phenomenon than the quantity of published research would suggest is briefly addressed. It is suggested that the placebo control design often used in sports performance research masks any placebo effects and thus presents a false picture of the mechanisms underlying performance-enhancing interventions in the real world. An electronic survey was sent to 48 competitive, international and professional athletes. Questions related to the placebo effect in competitive sport. Thirty responses were received. Data indicate that the majority (97%) of respondents believe that the placebo effect can exert an influence on sports performance, and that a significant number (73%) have experienced what they defined as a placebo effect. Inductive content analysis reveals that these experiences fall into several categories such as explicit placebo effects, inadvertent false beliefs, ritual and reverse placebo effects. Furthermore, 10 respondents (33%) offer explanations as to the nature of the placebo effect. Again, inductive content analysis reveals that these explanations fall into several categories including deliberate changes in competitive strategy, belief/expectancy, faith in a third party, and marketing. Overall, responses support previous experimental research and anecdotal reports that have found a relationship between belief and sports performance. It is suggested that further research be structured to not simply control for the placebo effect, but to elucidate it. Key pointsA survey of 30 athletes revealed that 73% have experienced a placebo effect in sport.Athletes suggest several potential explanations for these effects.Findings support the idea that placebo effects might be common in sport.Researchers and practitioners should be aware of the possible impact of these effects on research findings and competitive performance.

  7. Strategies for the inclusion of an internal amplification control in conventional and real time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    To illustrate important issues in optimization of a PCR assay with an internal control four different primer combinations for conventional PCR, two non-competitive and two competitive set-ups for real time PCR were used for detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken faecal samples....... In the conventional PCR assays the internal control was genomic DNA from Yersinia ruckeri, which is not found in chicken faeces. This internal control was also used in one of the set LIPS in real time PCR. In the three other set-ups different DNA fragments of 109 bp length prepared from two oligos of each 66 bp...... by a simple extension reaction was used. All assays were optimized to avoid loss of target sensitivity due to the presence of the internal control by adjusting the amount of internal control primers in the duplex assays and the amount of internal control in all assays. Furthermore. the assays were tested...

  8. The competitiveness of national tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rūtelionė, Aušra

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the scientific research is to suggest the model of national tourism industry competitiveness and determine the main factors that increase national tourism industry competitiveness basing on fundamental national competitiveness theories and national tourism industry competitiveness conceptions.

  9. Transatlantic Integration and Developed Countries Competitiveness Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey. A. Sidorov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors and possible consequences of transatlantic integration are elaborated in the article. An overview of the history of transatlantic cooperation is provided. The author highlights the paramount goal of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP - strengthening the positions of its parties in the world economy against the backdrop of global competition. Stalemate in Doha round of WTO trade negotiations as well as depressed state of the European economy also contributed to transatlantic integration. Validity of the EU Commission conclusion on TTIP benefits is examined. Results of TTIP econometric modelling are critically assessed. Problems of the EU-US non-tariff liberalization are analyzed. Efficiency of the EU and US labor markets is compared. Low competitiveness of the EU in comparison to the USA and underlying risks for TTIP economic growth and employment are outlined. High unemployment, difficulties of manufacturing (including high-tech industries thereof recovery, adverse general business situation in the EU are among such risks. Various modes of regulatory cooperation and possibility of their adoption in TTIP are considered. Harmonization, erga omnes mutual recognition of regulations, bilateral mutual recognition of regulations, mutual recognition of conformity testing are distinguished. Possible implications of the modes of regulatory cooperation on TTIP members competitiveness, competition with emerging economies and global standard setting are examined. Conflict of TTIP goals and motivations is revealed. The existence of economic factors of transatlantic integration as well as overestimation of TTIP benefits (primarily for the EU economy is concluded.

  10. Some problems with pro-competition reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agich, G J; Begley, C E

    1985-01-01

    As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage.

  11. A fully sealed plastic chip for multiplex PCR and its application in bacteria identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youchun; Yan, He; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Kewei; Lu, Ying; Ren, Yonghong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Shan; Xing, Wanli

    2015-07-07

    Multiplex PCR is an effective tool for simultaneous multiple target detection but is limited by the intrinsic interference and competition among primer pairs when it is performed in one reaction tube. Dividing a multiplex PCR into many single PCRs is a simple strategy to overcome this issue. Here, we constructed a plastic, easy-to-use, fully sealed multiplex PCR chip based on reversible centrifugation for the simultaneous detection of 63 target DNA sequences. The structure of the chip is quite simple, which contains sine-shaped infusing channels and a number of reaction chambers connecting to one side of these channels. Primer pairs for multiplex PCR were sequentially preloaded in the different reaction chambers, and the chip was enclosed with PCR-compatible adhesive tape. For usage, the PCR master mix containing a DNA template is pipetted into the infusing channels and centrifuged into the reaction chambers, leaving the infusing channels filled with air to avoid cross-contamination of the different chambers. Then, the chip is sealed and placed on a flat thermal cycler for PCR. Finally, amplification products can be detected in situ using a fluorescence scanner or recovered by reverse centrifugation for further analyses. Therefore, our chip possesses two functions: 1) it can be used for multi-target detection based on end-point in situ fluorescence detection; and 2) it can work as a sample preparation unit for analyses that need multiplex PCR such as hybridization and target sequencing. The performance of this chip was carefully examined and further illustrated in the identification of 8 pathogenic bacterial genomic DNA samples and 13 drug-resistance genes. Due to simplicity of its structure and operation, accuracy and generality, high-throughput capacity, and versatile functions (i.e., for in situ detection and sample preparation), our multiplex PCR chip has great potential in clinical diagnostics and nucleic acid-based point-of-care testing.

  12. Advantages and limitations of quantitative PCR (Q-PCR)-based approaches in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy J; Osborn, A Mark

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR or real-time PCR) approaches are now widely applied in microbial ecology to quantify the abundance and expression of taxonomic and functional gene markers within the environment. Q-PCR-based analyses combine 'traditional' end-point detection PCR with fluorescent detection technologies to record the accumulation of amplicons in 'real time' during each cycle of the PCR amplification. By detection of amplicons during the early exponential phase of the PCR, this enables the quantification of gene (or transcript) numbers when these are proportional to the starting template concentration. When Q-PCR is coupled with a preceding reverse transcription reaction, it can be used to quantify gene expression (RT-Q-PCR). This review firstly addresses the theoretical and practical implementation of Q-PCR and RT-Q-PCR protocols in microbial ecology, highlighting key experimental considerations. Secondly, we review the applications of (RT)-Q-PCR analyses in environmental microbiology and evaluate the contribution and advances gained from such approaches. Finally, we conclude by offering future perspectives on the application of (RT)-Q-PCR in furthering understanding in microbial ecology, in particular, when coupled with other molecular approaches and more traditional investigations of environmental systems.

  13. A Newly Developed Nested PCR Assay for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori in the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hawazen; Morgan, Claire; Griffiths, Paul; Williams, John; Jenkins, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    To develop a new nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for identifying Helicobacter pylori DNA from dental plaque. H. pylori is one of the most common chronic bacterial pathogens in humans. The accurate detection of this organism is essential for proper patient management and for the eradication of the bacteria following treatment. Forty-nine patients (24 males and 25 females; mean age: 51; range, 19 to 94 y) were investigated for the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque by single-step PCR and nested PCR and in the stomach by single-step PCR, nested PCR, and histologic examination. The newly developed nested PCR assay identified H. pylori DNA in gastric biopsies of 18 patients who were histologically classified as H. pylori-positive and 2 additional biopsies of patients who were H. pylori-negative by histologic examination (20/49; 40.8%). Dental plaque samples collected before and after endoscopy from the 49 patients revealed that single-step PCR did not detect H. pylori but nested PCR was able to detect H. pylori DNA in 40.8% (20/49) patients. Nested PCR gave a higher detection rate (40.8%, 20/49) than that of histology (36.7%, 18/49) and single-step PCR. When nested PCR results were compared with histology results there was no significant difference between the 2 methods. Our newly developed nested PCR assay is at least as sensitive as histology and may be useful for H. pylori detection in patients unfit for endoscopic examination.

  14. Competitive Priorities and Competitive Advantage in Jordanian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Awwad, Abdulkareem S.; Al Khattab, Adel A.; Anchor, J.R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore and predict the relationship between the competitive priorities (quality, cost, flexibility and delivery) and the competitive advantage of firms in the Jordanian Industrial Sector. A population of 88 Jordanian manufacturing firms, registered on the Amman Stock Exchange, was targeted using a cross-sectional survey employing a questionnaire method of data collection. The results of the data analysis indicate a significant relationship between competit...

  15. New, Improved Version of the mCOP-PCR Screening System for Detection of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Gene (SMN1) Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Masakazu; Ar Rochmah, Mawaddah; Nakanishi, Kenta; Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Niba, Emma Tabe Eko; Saito, Toshio; Saito, Kayoko; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Bouike, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Hisahide

    2017-09-07

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a frequent autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by lower motor neuron loss in the spinal cord. More than 95% of SMA patients show homozygous survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) deletion. We previously developed a screening system for SMN1 deletion based on a modified competitive oligonucleotide priming-PCR (mCOP-PCR) technique. However, non-specific amplification products were observed with mCOP-PCR, which might lead to erroneous interpretation of the screening results. To establish an improved version of the mCOP-PCR screening system without non-specific amplification. DNA samples were assayed using a new version of the mCOP-PCR screening system. DNA samples had already been genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), showing the presence or absence of SMN1 exon 7. The new mCOP-PCR method contained a targeted pre-amplification step of the region, including an SMN1-specific nucleotide, prior to the mCOP-PCR step. mCOP-PCR products were electrophoresed on agarose gels. No non-specific amplification products were detected in electrophoresis gels with the new mCOP-PCR screening system. An additional targeted pre-amplification step eliminated non-specific amplification from mCOP-PCR screening.

  16. Competitive Advantage in Tourism of Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akarapong Untong

    2013-01-01

    The competitive advantage in tourism of the countries in Southeast Asia was assessed by using coverage ratio and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Static and dynamic analyses were applied to the data of tourism services export during 2002-2010. The results show that Cambodia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had competitive advantages, i.e. these countries gain the surpluses more than that of the region’s. Thailand had the highest specialization in Southeast Asia but declining. M...

  17. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Bojnec; Imre Fertő

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27) member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparativ...

  18. Increase in competitiveness of housing-and-communal services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnik, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    The problems, interfering effective activity of housing-and-communal complex are considered in the article. Some factors of the increase in competitiveness and the importance of transactional expenses are revealed. The assessment of competitiveness of the organizations of the sphere of housing-and-communal services is considered as the set of the following basic elements organizational and administrative, marketing, financial, production, indicators of quality, indicators of development, labor indicators interconnected with processes of the organization. The author proves that the increase in competitiveness is possible by carrying out organizational and administrative, innovative, technological, economic transformations, increasing quality of services, reducing costs for production and realization of services, providing new services.

  19. PLACEBO EFFECTS IN COMPETITIVE SPORT: QUALITATIVE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Beedie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the placebo effect in sports performance. The possibility that the placebo effect is a more common phenomenon than the quantity of published research would suggest is briefly addressed. It is suggested that the placebo control design often used in sports performance research masks any placebo effects and thus presents a false picture of the mechanisms underlying performance-enhancing interventions in the real world. An electronic survey was sent to 48 competitive, international and professional athletes. Questions related to the placebo effect in competitive sport. Thirty responses were received. Data indicate that the majority (97% of respondents believe that the placebo effect can exert an influence on sports performance, and that a significant number (73% have experienced what they defined as a placebo effect. Inductive content analysis reveals that these experiences fall into several categories such as explicit placebo effects, inadvertent false beliefs, ritual and reverse placebo effects. Furthermore, 10 respondents (33% offer explanations as to the nature of the placebo effect. Again, inductive content analysis reveals that these explanations fall into several categories including deliberate changes in competitive strategy, belief/expectancy, faith in a third party, and marketing. Overall, responses support previous experimental research and anecdotal reports that have found a relationship between belief and sports performance. It is suggested that further research be structured to not simply control for the placebo effect, but to elucidate it

  20. Forming of Sustainable City Competitiveness in the PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvydanenko Oleg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes theoretical principles of international competitiveness of cities. The main methodological grounds of modern models of countries sustainable competitive development are studied. Taking into account the key trends in globalization, the main determinants of forming high competitive status of cities are comprehensively described. Benchmarking of sustainable competitiveness of PRC cities and provinces has been performed, and up-to-date priorities of balanced development of the People's Republic of China PRC have been analyzed. Chinese competitive development strategies has been investigated, and the benchmarking of sustainable competitiveness of Chinese cities has been accomplished. The nature and scale of urbanization processes in China are revealed. The main priorities in the structure of contemporary urbanization strategy of the PRC are defined, being focused on such areas as demographic planning, land management, financial security, residential construction in cities, ecology and environmental protection. The essence of smart cities in the context of their role in formation of local competitive development systems is determined. On the basis of qualitative indicators, the balanced competitiveness of cities of the PRC and the development of smart cities in Chinese provinces has been analyzed. The principles of government influence on the growth of sustainable competitiveness of Chinese megacities is investigated. The supporting evidence is provided for that the main objectives of Chinese megacities development for the next 5 years are to maintain sustainable rates of economic development, to increase the living standards of a specific city population, and to modernize the industrial sector. The strategic priorities for developing individual plans of competitive development for certain cities of the PRC and forming the sustainable competitiveness thereof, are specified.

  1. Bioinformatic tools for PCR Primer design

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES

    reaction (PCR), oligo hybridization and DNA sequencing. Proper primer design is actually one of the most important factors/steps in successful DNA sequencing. Various bioinformatics programs are available for selection of primer pairs from a template sequence. The plethora programs for PCR primer design reflects the.

  2. [E-MTAB-587] PCR_artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muino Acuna, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    WARNING: This library was yield low amount of material and it was over-amplified by PCR. This libraries are used study the robustness of several statitical methods against PCR artifacts. ChIP experiments were performed on Arabidopsis wildtype inflorescences using an antibody raised against a

  3. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  4. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  5. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to verify...

  6. PCR specific for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    , but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266 strains...

  7. Integrated model of destination competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armenski Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the weakest point of Serbian destination competitiveness as a tourist destination in comparation with its main competitors. The paper is organized as follows. The short introduction of the previous research on the destination competitiveness is followed by description of the Integrated model of destination competitiveness (Dwyer et al, 2003 that was used as the main reference framework. Section three is devoted to the description of the previous studies on competitiveness of Serbian tourism, while section four outlines the statistical methodology employed in this study and presents and interprets the empirical results. The results showed that Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and created resources than in destination management while, according to the Integrated model, Serbia is less competitive in demand conditions that refer to the image and awareness of the destination itself.

  8. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...... to that without competition. We further find that boys and girls are equally likely to self-select into competition in a verbal task, but that boys are significantly more likely to choose to compete in a mathematical task. This gender gap diminishes and becomes nonsignificant when we control for actual...... performance, beliefs about relative performance, and risk preferences, or for beliefs only. Girls are also more altruistic and less risk taking than boys....

  9. COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA MĂDĂLINA OPRIȚESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and diversification of the economic activities, the stimulation of investments both in the public sector, but mainly in the private one, the reduction of unemployment, the improvement of living standards are just some of the concepts aimed at by the regional development. The main method which can lead to a balanced development of the regions is financing them differentially so that the underdeveloped regions would obtain proportionally more funds that the developed ones. At a region level, the main objective is represented by the more accelerated growth of the less developed regions, in an effort to diminish the inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities. A key role is played by the sustainable economic growth concept, while also analyzing the competitiveness at a regional level, as well as the main development factors.

  10. Evaluation of quantitative PCR measurement of bacterial colonization of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Myszka, Kamila; Borkowska, Monika; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-01-01

    Microbial colonization is an important step in establishing pathogenic or probiotic relations to host cells and in biofilm formation on industrial or medical devices. The aim of this work was to verify the applicability of quantitative PCR (Real-Time PCR) to measure bacterial colonization of epithelial cells. Salmonella enterica and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model. To verify sensitivity of the assay a competition of the pathogen cells to probiotic microorganism was tested. The qPCR method was compared to plate count and radiolabel approach, which are well established techniques in this area of research. The three methods returned similar results. The best quantification accuracy had radiolabel method, followed by qPCR. The plate count results showed coefficient of variation two-times higher than this of qPCR. The quantitative PCR proved to be a reliable method for enumeration of microbes in colonization assay. It has several advantages that make it very useful in case of analyzing mixed populations, where several different species or even strains can be monitored at the same time.

  11. Estimation of the competitive conditions in the Czech banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stavárek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses New Empirical Industrial Organization approach, especially Panzar-Rosse model to estimates the level of competition of the banking industry in the Czech Republic during the period 2001–2009. We apply Panzar-Rosse model to estimate H statistic for a panel of 15 banks, which represent almost 90 % of the market. This paper also measures and compares the degree of banking competition in two sub-periods, 2001–2005 and 2005–2009, in order to investigate development of the competitive structure of the Czech banking industry. We found that the market was in equilibrium during most of the estimation period, which is a necessary condition for sound evaluation of the competition level. While the market can be described as perfectly competitive in 2001–2005, the intensity of competition decreased after joining the EU in 2004 and the market can be characterized as one of monopolistic competition in 2005–2009. The monopolistic competition in the Czech banking market was also revealed if the full sample 2001–2009 is considered.

  12. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S. These results suggest that at least in cultures that emphasize academic competition and in contexts where competition is salient, hiding effort is often about attempting to gain strategic advantage. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Competitive PCR for quantification of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, C; Madsen, H O; Ryder, L P

    2000-01-01

    to parts of the highly specific rearranged T-cell receptor delta (TCR-delta), T-cell receptor gamma (TCR-gamma), or immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes of the malignant clone. Using primers located externally to the restriction site the competitor and the DNA from the malignant clone will be amplified...

  14. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  15. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  16. Innovation strategies and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Gërguri, Shqipe; Rexhepi, Gadaf; Ramadani, Veland

    2013-01-01

    Companies today operate in a very dynamic, uncertain and competitive environment. They compete in "nicety" that are so small but so important. Companies are trying to achieve competitive advantage in order to help them obtain a better and a stable position in the marketplace. The best way for companies to achieve a competitive advantage is through innovation. This paper addresses the meaning of innovation what does innovation present, types of innovation specifically discussing the right way ...

  17. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what...

  18. Does Competition Destroy Ethical Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Shleifer

    2004-01-01

    Explanations of unethical behavior often neglect the role of competition, as opposed to greed, in assuring its spread. Using the examples of child labor, corruption, "excessive" executive pay, corporate earnings manipulation, and commercial activities by universities, this paper clarifies the role of competition in promoting censured conduct. When unethical behavior cuts costs, competition drives down prices and entrepreneurs' incomes, and thereby reduces their willingness to pay for ethical ...

  19. Assessing Competition in Philippine Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current empirical literature on competition and market structure of Philippine industries. It shows that weak competition is one of the fundamental factors that explain limited growth, productivity, and employment in the economy. Philippine experience has shown that reforms such as trade liberalization, deregulation, and privatization, while necessary, are not sufficient to foster effective competition. The success of these reforms depends on the creation of a competiti...

  20. Polymerase chain reaction methods (PCR in agrobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taški-Ajduković Ksenija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural biotechnology applies polymerase chain reaction (PCR technology at numerous steps throughout product development. The major uses of PCR technology during product development include gene discovery and cloning, vector construction, transformant identification, screening and characterization as well as seed quality control. Commodity and food companies as well as testing laboratories rely on PCR technology to verify the presence or absence of genetically modification (GM in a product or to quantify the amount of GM material present in the product. This article describes the fundamental elements of PCR analysis and its application to the testing of grains and highlights some of areas to which attention must be paid in order to produce reliable test results. The article also discuses issues related to the analysis of different matrixes and the effect they may have on the accuracy of the PCR analytical results.

  1. Mathematical analysis of the real time array PCR (RTA PCR) process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, Johan Frederik; Pierik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Real time array PCR (RTA PCR) is a recently developed biochemical technique that measures amplification curves (like with quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT PCR)) of a multitude of different templates in a sample. It combines two different methods in order to profit from the

  2. Real-time PCR in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-03-15

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product during real-time PCR. These are the DNA binding fluorophores, the 5' endonuclease, adjacent linear and hairpin oligoprobes and the self-fluorescing amplicons, which are described in detail. We also discuss factors that have restricted the development of multiplex real-time PCR as well as the role of real-time PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. Both amplification hardware and the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved rapidly as the understanding of real-time PCR has developed and this review aims to update the scientist on the current state of the art. We describe the background, advantages and limitations of real-time PCR and we review the literature as it applies to virus detection in the routine and research laboratory in order to focus on one of the many areas in which the application of real-time PCR has provided significant methodological benefits and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology discussed has been applied to other areas of microbiology as well as studies of gene expression and genetic disease.

  3. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  4. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications for competitive advantage of firms. The paper focuses on competitive advantage and the link among strategy, reputation and corporate communications.

  5. Sport competitions in Antique Chersoneses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutiev A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is examined the content of physical education in Chersoneses in the ancient period. It is shown the participation of citizens in the Chersoneses competitions at various levels. Stressed the importance of physical culture, sports, sports training, organizing and conducting athletic competitions. Show the direction of physical education of youth, training for local and Panhellenic competitions, military service. The role of the teacher of gymnastics in physical education students in public schools. It is noted that the study involved in Chersoneses pedagogical methods and techniques. It is established that the citizens of Chersoneses actively participated in Panhellenic competitions and they became the victors.

  6. Competitive edge through technological innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, M.

    1997-01-01

    The vital role of advanced technology in natural gas cost reduction has been described. Among advanced technologies, seismic, drilling and fracturing technologies have been singled out as being the most important. Access to new supply frontiers (aided by the application of advanced technology), and more effective business strategies were considered as the other most influential factors in efficiently exploiting oil and gas resources. In view of predictions of substantially increased demand, advanced technology is poised to be even more important in the future. With this as background, an examination of the level of investment for the development of advanced technology revealed that energy industry R and D expenditures were lowest among industries in the U.S. (only 0.7 per cent of sales). It was concluded that notwithstanding industry's ability to improve output per R and D dollar invested, the achievement of the necessary technological advancements is a strategic imperative for both the industry and the U.S. as a whole. As far as the industry is concerned, its ability to maintain a competitive edge over competing energy forms, will be determined largely on the basis of its willingness to invest in future advanced technology development. 2 refs., 14 figs

  7. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  8. Fluctuating asymmetry, sociosexuality, and intrasexual competitive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J A; Gangestad, S W; Christensen, P N; Leck, K

    1999-01-01

    Heterosexual men and women were told they were competing with another same-sex individual for a date with an attractive opposite-sex interviewer. After answering 6 questions, participants were asked to tell the competitor why the interviewer should choose them over the competitor. Participants' videotaped behavior was coded for different behavioral tactics. Men who were more symmetrical and who had a more unrestricted sociosexual orientation were more likely to use direct competition tactics than were less symmetrical and restricted men. Restricted men accentuated their positive personal qualities, presenting themselves as "nice guys." Structural equation modeling revealed that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was directly associated with the use of direct competition tactics. However, the link between FA and presenting oneself as a nice guy was mediated through sociosexuality. No effects were found for women.

  9. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The socialist regime's economic policies are further compounding the problems that businesses face. ... This project seeks to investigate the barriers to competition, the potential gaps in Ethiopia's revised competition law (Trade Practices Proclamation), and the possible challenges that ... Bulletin de BRAS - Janvier 2018.

  10. A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Melissococcus pluton in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, V A; Brözel, V; Allsopp, M H; Davison, S

    1998-05-01

    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed as originating from M. pluton by sequencing in both directions. Detection was highly specific, and the probes did not hybridize with DNA from other bacterial species tested. This method enabled the rapid and specific detection and identification of M. pluton from pure cultures and infected bee larvae.

  11. Assessment of the real-time PCR and different digital PCR platforms for DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavšič, Jernej; Žel, Jana; Milavec, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR) is beginning to supersede real-time PCR (qPCR) for quantification of nucleic acids in many different applications. Several analytical properties of the two most commonly used dPCR platforms, namely the QX100 system (Bio-Rad) and the 12.765 array of the Biomark system (Fluidigm), have already been evaluated and compared with those of qPCR. However, to the best of our knowledge, direct comparison between the three of these platforms using the same DNA material has not been done, and the 37 K array on the Biomark system has also not been evaluated in terms of linearity, analytical sensitivity and limit of quantification. Here, a first assessment of qPCR, the QX100 system and both arrays of the Biomark system was performed with plasmid and genomic DNA from human cytomegalovirus. With use of PCR components that alter the efficiency of qPCR, each dPCR platform demonstrated consistent copy-number estimations, which indicates the high resilience of dPCR. Two approaches, one considering the total reaction volume and the other considering the effective reaction size, were used to assess linearity, analytical sensitivity and variability. When the total reaction volume was considered, the best performance was observed with qPCR, followed by the QX100 system and the Biomark system. In contrast, when the effective reaction size was considered, all three platforms showed almost equal limits of detection and variability. Although dPCR might not always be more appropriate than qPCR for quantification of low copy numbers, dPCR is a suitable method for robust and reproducible quantification of viral DNA, and a promising technology for the higher-order reference measurement method.

  12. Competitive bidding in Medicare: who benefits from competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    To conduct the first empirical study of competitive bidding in Medicare. We analyzed 2006-2010 Medicare Advantage data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services using longitudinal models adjusted for market and plan characteristics. A $1 increase in Medicare's payment to health maintenance organization (HMO) plans led to a $0.49 (P service plans included, higher Medicare payments increased bids less ($0.33 per dollar), suggesting more competition among these latter plans. As a market-based alternative to cost control through administrative pricing, competitive bidding relies on private insurance plans proposing prices they are willing to accept for insuring a beneficiary. However, competition is imperfect in the Medicare bidding market. As much as half of every dollar in increased plan payment went to higher bids rather than to beneficiaries. While having more insurers in a market lowered bids, the design of any bidding system for Medicare should recognize this shortcoming of competition.

  13. Competitive Strategies and Improved Performance of Selected Nigeria Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waidi Adeniyi Akingbad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of globalization in telecommunication companies has greatly increased the level of competition in the industry and they are forced to be competitive to survive. Different types of strategies are put in place in order to be profitable and competitive. All these strategies are directed to attract, retain and maintain customers for continuous profitability. However, majority of them hardly measure the impact of their strategic innovation on their customers. The paper seeks to explore the influence of competitive strategies embarked upon by selected telecommunication companies in Nigeria on their performance. The paper also examines how competitive strategies could be implemented for improved customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. Three null hypotheses were postulated to test the relationship between lower prices and customer satisfaction, uninterrupted trunk services and customer loyalty, and customer complaint handling and retention. Only customers using telephone service were selected as respondents from Lagos State. The state was stratified in to 20 local government council area and questionnaires were distributed to 125 respondents in each of them. The completion rate of the questionnaire in each of them is between 103 and 110. Survey research design was adopted to carry out the study. A structured questionnaire was designed and validated through the construct validity and tested for confirmation using the KMO measure of sampling adequacy. It was also made reliable using Cronbach’s Alpha test. From the study, findings revealed relationship between competitive strategies and customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. The findings revealed that there is a relationship between competitive strategies, its constituents and performance of telecommunication companies. It is recommended that universal mobile telecommunication services (UMTS operators should adopt the culture of competitive strategies since it can

  14. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Chang, Donald Choy; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yi, Xin

    2010-01-01

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  15. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-04-23

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  16. Comparison between digital PCR and real-time PCR in detection of Salmonella typhimurium in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Junjie; Gai, Zhongtao; Huo, Shengnan; Zhu, Jianhua; Li, Jun; Wang, Ranran; Xing, Sheng; Shi, Guosheng; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Lei

    2018-02-02

    As a kind of zero-tolerance foodborne pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium poses a great threat to quality of food products and public health. Hence, rapid and efficient approaches to identify Salmonella typhimurium are urgently needed. Combined with PCR and fluorescence technique, real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (ddPCR) are regarded as suitable tools for detecting foodborne pathogens. To compare the effect between qPCR and ddPCR in detecting Salmonella typhimurium, a series of nucleic acid, pure strain culture and spiking milk samples were applied and the resistance to inhibitors referred in this article as well. Compared with qPCR, ddPCR exhibited more sensitive (10 -4 ng/μl or 10 2 cfu/ml) and less pre-culturing time (saving 2h). Moreover, ddPCR had stronger resistance to inhibitors than qPCR, yet absolute quantification hardly performed when target's concentration over 1ng/μl or 10 6 cfu/ml. This study provides an alternative strategy in detecting foodborne Salmonella typhimurium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  18. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  19. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  20. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  1. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  2. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  3. Environmental protection and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrlaender, H.

    1993-01-01

    The area 'Environmental protection and competition policy' follows the introductory guideline by Sir Leon Brittan, vice-president of the EC-Commission: 'We must seek the most market driven, dynamic approach to solutions, such that competition and technological advance bring the maximum economic and environmental benefits'. From this concrete measures are derived. (HSCH) [de

  4. Measuring competition in civil aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Markets in civil aviation are characterized by large differences in the level of competition, both between time periods as between regions. To measure competition, several indicators are available, such as the number of competitors, the C4-index and the Herfindahl index. We use these measures in

  5. Competitive Effects of Mass Customization

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova

    2010-01-01

    Earlier theoretical literature on mass customization maintains that customization reduces product differentiation and intensifies price competition. In contrast, operations management studies argue that customization serves primarily to differentiate a company from its competitors. Interactive involvement of the customer in product design creates an affective relationship with the firm, relaxing price competition. This paper provides a model that incorporates consumer involvement to explain t...

  6. How (Not) to Measure Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.; van der Wiel, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new measure of competition: the elasticity of a firm’s profits with respect to its cost level. A higher value of this profit elasticity (PE) signals more intense competi- tion. Using firm-level data we compare PE with the most popular competition measures such as the price cost margin

  7. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  8. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage.

  9. Anti- versus Pro-Competitive Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof

    2007-01-01

    In a framework where mergers are mutually excluding, I show that firms pursue anti- rather than (alternative) pro-competitive mergers. Potential outsiders to anti-competitive mergers refrain from pursuing pro-competitive mergers if the positive externalities from anti-competitive mergers are strong enough. Potential outsiders to pro-competitive mergers pursue anti-competitive mergers if the negative externalities from the pro-competitive mergers are strong enough. Potential participants in an...

  10. Improving competitive ability of chickpea with sowthistle

    OpenAIRE

    Cici, S.-Z.-H.; Kristiansen, P.; Sindel, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the extent of root and canopy interference of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). Sowthistle was surrounded with either two or eight chickpea plants. There were different types of competition: no competition, shoot competition, root competition and full competition (root and shoot). The performance of sowthistle grown in full competition with two chickpea plants was the same as that grown with root competition only. Al...

  11. Real-time PCR in virology

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Ian M.; Arden, Katherine E.; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of P...

  12. Assertiveness of meat-borne Lactococcus piscium strains and their potential for competitive exclusion of spoilage bacteria in situ and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgarth, M; Nani, M; Vogel, R F

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate intraspecies assertiveness of meat-borne Lactococcus piscium isolates, inhibitory effects on unwanted and harmful meat spoilers, and the prevalence on beef deliberately inoculated with Lc. piscium. Co-inoculation of Lc. piscium isolates and spoilers (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum, Carnobacterium divergens, Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Hafnia alvei) were conducted in sterile meat simulation medium. Differentiation of Lc. piscium strains was carried out with colony-based RAPD-PCR. Selective cultivation was used to differentiate spoilers from Lc. piscium. Intraspecies assertiveness revealed Lc. piscium TMW2.1614 as most assertive strain. Co-inoculation of selected Lc. piscium strains caused substantial growth reduction of spoilers while the extent was strain- and spoiler dependent. Monitoring the microbiota on beef steaks deliberately inoculated with Lc. piscium revealed prevalence over the endogenous microbiota while maintaining a ripened sensory impression without undesired alterations. This study reveals Lc. piscium strains TMW2.1612/2.1614/2.1615 as highly competitive against spoilers in vitro while beef deliberately inoculated with these strains maintained acceptable organoleptics. Selected Lc. piscium strains exhibit high potential for application as bioprotective cultures for competitive exclusion on beef in order to extend minimum shelf life and enhance product safety of meat. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Rapid PCR-mediated synthesis of competitor molecules for accurate quantification of beta(2) GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, J; Vitorica, J; Ruano, D

    2001-12-01

    We describe a fast and easy method for the synthesis of competitor molecules based on non-specific conditions of PCR. RT-competitive PCR is a sensitive technique that allows quantification of very low quantities of mRNA molecules in small tissue samples. This technique is based on the competition established between the native and standard templates for nucleotides, primers or other factors during PCR. Thus, the most critical parameter is the use of good internal standards to generate a standard curve from which the amount of native sequences can be properly estimated. At the present time different types of internal standards and methods for their synthesis have been described. Normally, most of these methods are time-consuming and require the use of different sets of primers, different rounds of PCR or specific modifications, such as site-directed mutagenesis, that need subsequent analysis of the PCR products. Using our method, we obtained in a single round of PCR and with the same primer pair, competitor molecules that were successfully used in RT-competitive PCR experiments. The principal advantage of this method is high versatility and economy. Theoretically it is possible to synthesize a specific competitor molecule for each primer pair used. Finally, using this method we have been able to quantify the increase in the expression of the beta(2) GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA that occurs during rat hippocampus development.

  14. Foreign launch competition growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  15. Customer-driven competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Ontario Hydro`s customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro`s Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro`s franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro`s system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation.

  16. Efficiency of competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.

    2007-08-01

    League competition is investigated using random processes and scaling techniques. In our model, a weak team can upset a strong team with a fixed probability. Teams play an equal number of head-to-head matches and the team with the largest number of wins is declared to be the champion. The total number of games needed for the best team to win the championship with high certainty T grows as the cube of the number of teams N , i.e., Ttilde N3 . This number can be substantially reduced using preliminary rounds where teams play a small number of games and subsequently, only the top teams advance to the next round. When there are k rounds, the total number of games needed for the best team to emerge as champion, Tk , scales as follows, Tk˜Nγk with γk=[1-(2/3)k+1]-1 . For example, γk=9/5,27/19,81/65 for k=1,2,3 . These results suggest an algorithm for how to infer the best team using a schedule that is linear in N . We conclude that league format is an ineffective method of determining the best team, and that sequential elimination from the bottom up is fair and efficient.

  17. Energy levy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdowski, P.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The principle of regulating levies is that the consumption of products that have negative effects on the environment will be reduced. The income of the levies can be reimbursed to the civilians and companies via tax reduction. One of the impacts of the implementation of energy levies is the negative effect on the competitive position of the Dutch industry and businesses. In this report attention is paid to the micro-economic consequences of energy levies. The flows of fifteen production processes and the position of these processes in the market have been analyzed systematically. The impacts of energy levies on these product flows are investigated. The sectors that have been analyzed are the services sector (mainly determined by households), the agricultural food sector, the transportation sector, and the basic industry (mostly energy-intensive industries). In order to determine the sensitivity of the height of the energy levy three variants were investigated: 25%, 50% and 100% surcharge on the present energy costs. The variants are combined with three geographic levy ranges: national, European and global. 21 figs., 9 tabs

  18. Customer-driven competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro's Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro's franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro's system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation

  19. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  20. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  1. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  2. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  3. A Choice Prediction Competition for Market Entry Games: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Erev

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A choice prediction competition is organized that focuses on decisions from experience in market entry games (http://sites.google.com/site/gpredcomp/ and http://www.mdpi.com/si/games/predict-behavior/. The competition is based on two experiments: An estimation experiment, and a competition experiment. The two experiments use the same methods and subject pool, and examine games randomly selected from the same distribution. The current introductory paper presents the results of the estimation experiment, and clarifies the descriptive value of several baseline models. The experimental results reveal the robustness of eight behavioral tendencies that were documented in previous studies of market entry games and individual decisions from experience. The best baseline model (I-SAW assumes reliance on small samples of experiences, and strong inertia when the recent results are not surprising. The competition experiment will be run in May 2010 (after the completion of this introduction, but they will not be revealed until September. To participate in the competition, researchers are asked to E-mail the organizers models (implemented in computer programs that read the incentive structure as input, and derive the predicted behavior as an output. The submitted models will be ranked based on their prediction error. The winners of the competition will be invited to publish a paper that describes their model.

  4. Competitive intelligence practice in the South African property sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilidzi E. Nenzhelele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The South African property sector contributes highly to creating jobs, skills development, poverty reduction and economic growth. Although South Africa dropped in the global competitiveness ranking, the property sector of South Africa remains very competitive. To survive in a competitive sector, firms around the world practice competitive intelligence(CI. Although the use of CI has been examined in other sectors in South Africa, no study on CI practice has been conducted in the property sector. Objectives: The objective of this research was to establish the extent to which the property sector of South Africa practices CI. Method: This research was quantitative in nature and a web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from estate agencies in the South African property sector. Results: The results indicate that the South African property sector is very competitive and estate agencies practice CI to gain competitive advantage and make quality decisions.Moreover, the results reveal that the property sector practice CI legally and ethically. The results indicate that the majority of estate agencies are very small employing at most five employees and make at most 5 million Rands annual turnover. Conclusion: The South African property sector ethically and legally practices CI to gain competitive advantage and to aid in making quality decisions.

  5. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after an Extreme Conditioning Competition: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramires Alsamir Tibana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an instance of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by an extreme conditioning program (ECP competition. A 35-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and soreness, which began one day after she completed two days of ECPcompetition composed of five workouts. Three days after competition, creatine kinase (CK was 77,590 U/L accompanied by myalgia and abnormal liver function tests, while renal function was normal and this resulted in a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. A follow-up examination revealed that her serum level of CK was still elevated to 3034 U/L on day 10 and 1257 U/L on day 25 following the ECP competition. The subject reported myalgia even up to 25 days after the ECP competition. Exertional rhabdomyolysis can be observed in ECP athletes following competition and highlights a dangerous condition, which may be increasing in recent years due to the massive expansion of ECP popularity and a growing number of competitions. Future research should investigate the causes of rhabdomyolysis that occur as a result of ECP, especially training methods and/or tasks developed specifically for these competitions.

  6. A very competitive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamarche, Myrtille; Cahuzac, Adrien; Cognasse, Olivier; Dupin, Ludovic; Fleitour, Gaelle; James, Olivier; Stassi, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Drop in oil barrel prices results in 8 to 10 billions in savings for French companies, i.e. as much as the tax credit for competitiveness and employment. This article analyses how the different sectors take benefit of this saving due to lower oil prices. It outlines that this decrease has been very profitable for the refining sector which exhibited historic margins. As far as the chemistry sector is concerned, costs are reduced but profits are less important as this decrease compensates the decrease of the euro with respect to the dollar. The plastic industry does not take profit as it comes at the end of value chain where other actors already took their benefits. Therefore, there is no profit in agriculture as far as plastic products and fertilizers are concerned. On the opposite, the decrease of marine fuel has been profitable to the fishing sector as well as to the sea transport sector. As far as road transport is concerned the fuel price decrease is reflected in resale prices, and the oil price decrease had therefore no impact, or only for few days. It's not the case for air transport where companies took benefit of this decrease. In this respect, a second article outlines that airline companies have learned lessons from previous oil price counter-shock to adapt their strategies. The last article addresses the general situation of industry which exhibits a better financial health, could be boosted by a recovery of consumption. But growth is still to be confirmed by investments. A brief article notices that the profit is less important at the world level, i.e. more important in Europe than in Asia and even more than in Africa

  7. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or occupational...

  8. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of the...

  9. Diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, R.M.; Shalaby, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity of PCR, wet preparation and culture in detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in urine and vaginal fluid. A PCR targeting the beta-tubulin genes of T. vaginalis was used for the detection of the organism in both vaginal swab and urine specimens from infected patients. Random urine samples were collected from 30 patients (23 females and 7 males), and tested for T. vaginalis by wet preparation and the Inpouch T. vaginalis culture systeme. Two vaginal swabs were collected by each woman. PCR detection. was carried out on samples negative by first methods. The positive result was found in 28.57% in male urine and 39.13% in female urine samples, 65.21% in 1st swab and 78.26 % in 2nd swab by wet preparation. By culture, the male urine samples showed 42.85% positive, female urine 69.56% while 1st swab showed 86.95% positive and 2nd swab 91.30% positive. All negative cases by culture in urine and vaginal samples were tested by PCR, which showed 2 cases to be positive in male urine samples and 5 cases positive in female urine sample. PCR assay was as good as or more sensitive than wet preparation and culture and resulted in practical advantage of providing results in shorter time. However, PCR test is still very expensive. (author)

  10. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  11. Competitiveness and Exports Sustainability of the Indonesian Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumbiati Kamaludin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Indonesian competitiveness in export of natural rubber commodities by employing set of revealed comparative advantage (RCA and Export competitive index (ECI with respect to global trade. The market structure that is formed on natural rubber commodities is calculated using Herfindahl Index and Concentration Ratio analysis tools shows the oligopoly-shaped market structure. Calculation of comparative advantage with RCA analysis shows that the four countries exporting natural rubber, namely Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam each have a comparative advantage. Where Indonesia has a better comparative advantage than Thailand in the period 2011 to 2015. This result is different from the calculations made on competitive advantage (ECI in which Indonesia's natural rubber commodities are not more competitive than Thailand

  12. National and Regional Competitiveness in the Crisis Context. Successful Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of national and regional competitiveness in the context of socio-economic and financial crisis. Competitiveness is a complex concept which can be studied at both the firm and the local and national level.Thus, in economic terms the competitiveness is most often associated with the productivity or efficiency with which inputs are transformed into goods and services. As for the regional competitiveness it should be analyzed in terms of results (revenue, employment and in relation to its determinants: ranging from the classical production factors (capital, labour, technological progress to the “soft” factors (human capital, research and development, dissemination of knowledge.The current economic environment has revealed that countries such as China, India, Brazil and also the Czech Republic and Poland, following prudent economic policies, have managed to make from macroeconomic stability, investment in education and research some of their major drivers of economic growth.

  13. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-08-14

    Ethiopia has made progress toward market-oriented economic management, but the state of domestic competition remains weak, ... These policies are still in place in Ethiopia, even though they clash with market principles. ... August 14, 2015 ...

  14. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  15. Aviation Competition: Challenges in Enhancing Competition in Dominated Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hecker, Jayetta

    2001-01-01

    ... reductions in fares and expansion of service. These benefits are largely attributable to increased competition--by the entry of both new airlines into the industry and established airlines into new markets...

  16. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  17. Competitive Pressure: Competitive Dynamics as Reactions to Multiple Rivals

    OpenAIRE

    Zucchini, Leon; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Competitive dynamics research has focused primarily on interactions between dyads of firms. Drawing on the awareness-motivation-capability framework and strategic group theory we extend this by proposing that firms’ actions are influenced by perceived competitive pressure resulting from actions by several rivals. We predict that firms’ action magnitude is influenced by the total number of rival actions accumulating in the market, and that this effect is moderated by strategic group membership...

  18. Price Competition or Tacit Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Makoto; Komatsubara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Every now and then, we observe a fierce price war in a real world market, through which competing firms end up with a Bertrand-like price competition equilibrium. Despite this, very little has been known in the existing literature as to why a price competition market is formed. We address this question in the context of a choice between engaging in price competition and holding a price leader. Focusing on a duopoly market, we demonstrate that if supply is tight relative to demand, and if the ...

  19. Energy's role in industrial competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on the role of energy in industrial competitiveness, papers were presented on the energy consumer's perspective on energy issues in the mineral and food industries, global perspectives on the role of energy in industrial competitiveness, a supplier's perspective on energy issues in the oil/gas and electric industries, perspectives on environmental issues including climate change, and international partnerships for industrial competitiveness, notably in the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 papers from this conference

  20. Interstate competition and political stability

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh-Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    Previous theories of globalization have examined factor mobility’s effect on the political conflict\\ud between social classes. But factor mobility also increases competition between state rulers in provid-\\ud ing services for citizens. I ask how this interstate competition affects the process of political change.\\ud In a simple model, interstate competition substitutes for democracy, by forcing rulers to invest in pub-\\ud lic goods so as to avoid capital and labor leaving the country. As a re...

  1. Utility regulation and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Colin

    2002-03-01

    Contents: 1. The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in England and Wales: A Review - David Currie, 2. A Critique of Rail Regulation - Dieter Helm, 3. Moving to a Competitive Market in Water - Colin Robinson, 4. The New Gas Trading Arrangements - George Yarrow, 5. A Review of Privatization and Regulation Experience in Britain - Irwin M. Stelzer, 6. Converging Communications: Implications for Regulation - Mark Armstrong, 7. Opening European Electricity and Gas Markets - Graham Shuttleworth, 8. Concurrency or Convergence? Competition and Regulation Under the Competition Act 1998 - Tom Sharpe QC, 9. Ten Years of European Merger Control - Paul Seabright. (Author)

  2. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  3. Competitive Dynamics in Micro: Analysis of Perception About Competition in Unitomo Street Food Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Raditya Purnomo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study this is to explore small and micro businesses in their connections with competitors and the competitive force in the market. This study uses the information processing approach to examine three activities, scanning the competitive environment, the interpretation of competitive actions, and reactions based on that assessment. This research is motivated by the lack of competitiveness of micro businesses, especially those engaged in the culinary field. This study uses qualitative approach with phenomenological methods, in which researchers try to explain or reveal the meaning of a concept or phenomenon of experience based on the awareness that occurs in some individuals. In this study, researchers collect, summarize and interpret the data obtained, which is then processed back in order to obtain a clear, directed and thorough pictures of the problem which become the object of research. Phenomenological approach is used to analyze the original data collected from interview with the informant. Structural interpretation of the experience described by researchers in the description of the participants.

  4. Trypanosoma rangeli: RAPD-PCR and LSSP-PCR analyses of isolates from southeast Brazil and Colombia and their relation with KPI minicircles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, D S; Ramírez, L E; Moreno, J; Pedrosa, A L; Lages-Silva, E

    2007-09-01

    This study presents the first genetic characterization of five Trypanosoma rangeli isolates from Minas Gerais, in the southeast of Brazil and their comparison with Colombian populations by minicircle classification, RAPD-PCR and LSSP-PCR analyses. Our results demonstrated a homogenous T. rangeli population circulating among Didelphis albiventris as reservoir host in Brazil while heterogeneous populations were found in different regions of Colombia. KP1(+) minicircles were found in 100% isolates from Brazil and in 36.4% of the Colombian samples, whereas the KP2 and KP3 minicircles were detected in both groups. RAPD-PCR and LSSP-PCR profiles revealed a polymorphism within KP1(+) and KP1(-) T. rangeli populations and allowed the division of T. rangeli in two branches. The Brazilian KP1(+) isolates were more homogenous than the KP1(+) isolates from Colombia. The RAPD-PCR were entirely consistent with the distribution of KP1 minicircles while those obtained by LSSP-PCR were associated in 88.9% and 71.4% with KP1(+) and KP1(-) populations, respectively.

  5. SASqPCR: robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijun Ling

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR is a key method for measurement of relative gene expression. Analysis of RT-qPCR data requires many iterative computations for data normalization and analytical optimization. Currently no computer program for RT-qPCR data analysis is suitable for analytical optimization and user-controllable customization based on data quality, experimental design as well as specific research aims. Here I introduce an all-in-one computer program, SASqPCR, for robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS. This program has multiple macros for assessment of PCR efficiencies, validation of reference genes, optimization of data normalizers, normalization of confounding variations across samples, and statistical comparison of target gene expression in parallel samples. Users can simply change the macro variables to test various analytical strategies, optimize results and customize the analytical processes. In addition, it is highly automatic and functionally extendable. Thus users are the actual decision-makers controlling RT-qPCR data analyses. SASqPCR and its tutorial are freely available at http://code.google.com/p/sasqpcr/downloads/list.

  6. The competitive challenge in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.

    2005-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment poses challenges to bankers. This paper emphasizes relationship banking as a prime source of the banks' comparative advantage. The proliferation of transaction-oriented banking (trading and financial market activities) does however seriously challenge

  7. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  8. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  9. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  10. Regional Competitiveness and Its Implications for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Daryono Soebagyo; Triyono Triyono; Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify regional competitiveness in some areas of Central Java. Regional competitiveness became one of the issues in regional development policy since the enactment of local autonomy.Measurement of regional competitiveness has been mostly done through ranking as a benchmark the competitiveness of the region. Mapping regional competitiveness in Indonesia has been made to all counties and cities, which shows the competitiveness ranking of each region. Competitivenes...

  11. Fiscal competition and regional differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Justman, Moshe; Thisse, Jacques-François; Van Ypersele, Tanguy

    2001-01-01

    Regions can benefit by offering infrastructure services that are differentiated. Competition between regions over potential investors is then less direct, allowing them to realize greater benefits from external investors. The two polar cases of full and incomplete information about investors' needs are studied. In both cases, there is regional differentiation. However, fiscal competition is efficient in the former case but not in the latter. Finally, it is shown that free entry in the loc...

  12. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  13. Perceived versus Actual Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Langemeier, Michael R.; Yeager, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between farm characteristics and perceived sources of competitive advantage, and cost-based and revenue-based efficiency indices. Gross farm income and the percentage of labor devoted to crop production were significant and positively correlated with cost and revenue efficiency while the perception of the cowherd being the most important part of the operation was negatively correlated with efficiency. In general, perceived sources of competitive advantage ...

  14. Competition, Takeovers, and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Heyman; Helena Svaleryd; Jonas Vlachos

    2013-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  15. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    OpenAIRE

    Mitić Sanja; Ognjanov Galjina

    2013-01-01

    Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications ...

  16. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Angelkova, Tanja; Koteski, Cane; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Mitreva, Elizabeta

    2011-01-01

    Tourism is an activity that can have a really big impact on sustainable development. Sustainability of tourism involves extensive cooperation between tourist companies, tourist destinations and national, regional and local authorities in order to cover a broad group of challenges and at the same time to remain competitive. Opportunities for sustainable tourism development and preservation of its competitiveness, largely influenced by the quality of the environment, preserved and attractive...

  17. STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Jusuf ZEKIRI; Alexandru NEDELEA

    2011-01-01

    This paper is organized in three parts. A brief overview of the importance of strategies within companies, as well as literature review is presented along with traditional approaches on strategies for achieving competitive advantage, and new approaches for gaining a competitive advantage. The main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible strategy formulation of companies in order to achieve a com...

  18. Limited Memory, Categorization, and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Chen; Ganesh Iyer; Amit Pazgal

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of a limited consumer memory on the price competition between firms. It studies a specific aspect of memory--namely, the categorization of available price information that the consumers may need to recall for decision making. This paper analyzes competition between firms in a market with uninformed consumers who do not compare prices, informed consumers who compare prices but with limited memory, and informed consumers who have perfect memory. Consumers, aw...

  19. Tort law under oligopolistic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Mondello, Gérard; Salies, Evens

    2016-01-01

    This article extends the unilateral accident standard model to allow for Cournot competition. Assuming risk-neutrality for the regulator and injurers, it analyzes three liability regimes: strict liability, negligence rule, and strict liability with administrative authorization or permits systems. Under competition the equivalence between negligence rule and strict liability no longer holds, and negligence insures a better level of social care. However, enforcing both a permit system and ...

  20. Regulatory competition in partnership law.

    OpenAIRE

    Siems, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory competition in company law has been extensively debated in the last few decades, but it has rarely been discussed whether there could also be regulatory competition in partnership law. This article fills this gap. It addresses the partnership law of the US, the UK, Germany, and France, and presents empirical data on the different types of partnerships and companies established in these jurisdictions. The main focus is on the use of a limited liability partnership (LLP) outside its ...

  1. Development and application of a universal Hemoplasma screening assay based on the SYBR green PCR principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Lüthy, Ruedi; Honegger, Hanspeter; Wengi, Nicole; Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Reusch, Claudia E; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2009-12-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are the causative agents of infectious anemia in several mammalian species. Their zoonotic potential has recently been substantiated by the identification of a feline hemoplasma isolate in an immunocompromised human patient. Although species-specific diagnostic molecular methods have been developed, their application as screening tools is limited due to the species diversity of hemoplasmas. The goals of this study were to develop a universal hemoplasma screening assay with broad specificity based on the SYBR green PCR principle, to compare the assay with hemoplasma-specific TaqMan PCR, and to analyze potential tick vectors and human blood samples to address the zoonotic potential. The newly developed PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene amplified feline, canine, bovine, porcine, camelid, and murine hemoplasmas, as well as Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The lower detection limit for feline and canine hemoplasmas was 1 to 10 copies/PCR. The assay exhibited 98.2% diagnostic sensitivity and 92.1% diagnostic specificity for feline hemoplasmas. All 1,950 Ixodes ticks were PCR negative, suggesting that Ixodes ticks are not relevant vectors for the above-mentioned hemoplasma species in Switzerland. None of the 414 blood samples derived from anemic or immunocompromised human patients revealed a clear positive result. The SYBR green PCR assay described here is a suitable tool to screen for known and so-far-undiscovered hemoplasma species. Positive results should be confirmed by specific TaqMan PCR or sequencing.

  2. High-throughput STR analysis for DNA database using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jeong Eun; Park, Su Jeong; Lee, Han Chul; Kim, Se-Yong; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Since the Korean criminal DNA database was launched in 2010, we have focused on establishing an automated DNA database profiling system that analyzes short tandem repeat loci in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner. We established a DNA database profiling system without DNA purification using a direct PCR buffer system. The quality of direct PCR procedures was compared with that of conventional PCR system under their respective optimized conditions. The results revealed not only perfect concordance but also an excellent PCR success rate, good electropherogram quality, and an optimal intra/inter-loci peak height ratio. In particular, the proportion of DNA extraction required due to direct PCR failure could be minimized to <3%. In conclusion, the newly developed direct PCR system can be adopted for automated DNA database profiling systems to replace or supplement conventional PCR system in a time- and cost-saving manner. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  3. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-02-27

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.ufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  4. A New Tool to Explore Children’s Social Competencies: The Preschool Competition Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paquette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the validation of Preschool Competition Questionnaire (PCQ. The PCQ was completed by the childcare teachers of 780 French-speaking children between the ages of 36 and 71 months. The results of exploratory factor analysis suggest three dimensions involving neither physical nor relational aggression: other-referenced competition, task-oriented competition, and maintenance of dominance hierarchy. The three dimensions are positively correlated with dominance ratings and are linked to social adjustment. Girls are just as competitive as boys in the dimensions of other-referenced competition and dominance hierarchy maintenance. Task-oriented competition is relatively more important in older children and girls. Classification analysis reveals that the children who obtain the highest dominance ratings are the ones who employ a variety of competition strategies.

  5. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractor performance and eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop or draft... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a...

  6. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  7. Virology: The Next Generation from Digital PCR to Single Virion Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard A.; Brazelton De Cardenas, Jessica N.; Hayden, Randall T.

    2015-10-01

    In the past 25 years, virology has had major technology breakthroughs stemming first from the introduction of nucleic acid amplification testing, but more recently from the use of next-generation sequencing, digital PCR, and the possibility of single virion genomics. These technologies have and will improve diagnosis and disease state monitoring in clinical settings, aid in environmental monitoring, and reveal the vast genetic potential of viruses. Using the principle of limiting dilution, digital PCR amplifies single molecules of DNA in highly partitioned endpoint reactions and reads each of those reactions as either positive or negative based on the presence or absence of target fluorophore. In this review, digital PCR will be highlighted along with current studies, advantages/disadvantages, and future perspectives with regard to digital PCR, viral load testing, and the possibility of single virion genomics.

  8. PCR artifact in testing for homologous recombination in genomic editing in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Won

    Full Text Available We report a PCR-induced artifact in testing for homologous recombination in zebrafish. We attempted to replace the lnx2a gene with a donor cassette, mediated by a TALEN induced double stranded cut. The donor construct was flanked with homology arms of about 1 kb at the 5' and 3' ends. Injected embryos (G0 were raised and outcrossed to wild type fish. A fraction of the progeny appeared to have undergone the desired homologous recombination, as tested by PCR using primer pairs extending from genomic DNA outside the homology region to a site within the donor cassette. However, Southern blots revealed that no recombination had taken place. We conclude that recombination happened during PCR in vitro between the donor integrated elsewhere in the genome and the lnx2a locus. We conclude that PCR alone may be insufficient to verify homologous recombination in genome editing experiments in zebrafish.

  9. HEAD INJURIES IN FULL CONTACT KARATE COMPETITION! IS THE PREJUDICE IN MANAGEMENT MINIMISING THE REQUIRED INVESTIGATION?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Graham; Bruce Davies; Julien S. Baker

    2007-01-01

    A 33 year old male karate practitioner presented himself for a full-contact national karate competition. This individual competed for approximately 2 minutes and received a kick to the head. He collapsed in the competitive arena, and suffered a tonic-clonic seizure, lasting for 3 minutes 25 seconds. Examination in the competitive arena revealed an individual who was unconscious. First aid, and paramedic support was provided immediately. Medical assessment identified the presence of vital sign...

  10. Peranan Strategic Leadership terhadap Competitive Positioning melalui Organization Learning pada Perusahaan Non Manufaktur di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Lydia Kartika

    2015-01-01

    This study was accomplished to reveal the role of strategic leadership to competitive positioning through organization learning. Strategic leadership and organization learning owned and implemented within an organization can create even strengthen the competitive positioning of the organization. Through the dimensions each variable can indicate how far the role of strategic leadership and organization learning to competitive positioning.The analysis technique used was outer and inner model by...

  11. Competitiveness Benchmarking of Tourist Destinations in the Czech Republic and Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ricková, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the benchmarking method and its practical use in continuous process of destinations' competitiveness enhancement. It describes the importance of tourism for destination's development and increasing need of its management, in order to become more competitive. Revealing the key factors of success that are created by destinations' competitive advantages enables destinations to keep or even to strengthen their position on the international tourism market. The main g...

  12. Comparison of three multiplex PCR assays for the detection of respiratory viral infections: evaluation of xTAG respiratory virus panel fast assay, RespiFinder 19 assay and RespiFinder SMART 22 assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabisch-Ruthe Mareike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A broad spectrum of pathogens is causative for respiratory tract infections, but symptoms are mostly similar. Therefore, the identification of the causative viruses and bacteria is only feasible using multiplex PCR or several monoplex PCR tests in parallel. Methods The analytical sensitivity of three multiplex PCR assays, RespiFinder-19, RespiFinder-SMART-22 and xTAG-Respiratory-Virus-Panel-Fast-Assay (RVP, were compared to monoplex real-time PCR with quantified standardized control material. All assays include the most common respiratory pathogens. Results To compare the analytical sensitivity of the multiplex assays, samples were inoculated with 13 different quantified viruses in the range of 101 to 105 copies/ml. Concordant results were received for rhinovirus, whereas the RVP detected influenzavirus, RSV and hMPV more frequently in low concentrations. The RespiFinder-19 and the RespiFinder-SMART-22 showed a higher analytical sensitivity for adenoviruses and coronaviruses, whereas the RVP was incapable to detect adenovirus and coronavirus in concentrations of 104 copies/ml. The RespiFinder-19 and RespiFinder-SMART-22A did not detect influenzaviruses (104 copies/ml and RSV (103 copies/ml. The detection of all 13 viruses in one sample was only achieved using monoplex PCR. To analyze possible competitive amplification reactions between the different viruses, samples were further inoculated with only 4 different viruses in one sample. Compared to the detection of 13 viruses in parallel, only a few differences were found. The incidence of respiratory viruses was compared in tracheal secretion (TS samples (n = 100 of mechanically ventilated patients in winter (n = 50 and summer (n = 50. In winter, respiratory viruses were detected in 32 TS samples (64% by RespiFinder-19, whereas the detection rate with RVP was only 22%. The most frequent viruses were adenovirus (32% and PIV-2 (20%. Multiple infections were detected

  13. Development of Real-Time PCR to Monitor Groundwater Contaminated by Fecal Sources and Leachate from the Carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused about 4,054 carcass burial sites to dispose the carcasses. Potential environmental impacts by leachate of carcass on groundwater have been issued and it still needs to be studied. Therefore, we tried to develop robust and sensitive tool to immediately determine a groundwater contamination by the leachate from carcass burial. For tracking both an agricultural fecal contamination source and the leachate in groundwater, competitive real-time PCR and PCR method were developed using various PCR primer sets designed to detect E. Coli uidA gene and mtDNA(cytochrome B, cytB) of the animal species such as ovine, porcine, caprine, and bovine. The designed methods were applied to tract the animal species in livestock wastewater and leachate of carcass under appropriate PCR or real-time PCR condition. In the result, mtDNA primer sets for individual (Cow or Pig) and multiple (Cow and Pig) amplification, and E. Coli uidA primers for fecal source amplification were specific and sensitive to target genes. To determine contamination source, concentration of amplified mtDNA and uidA was competitively quantified in Livestock wastewater, leachate of carcass, and groundwater. The highest concentration of mtDNA and uidA showed in leachate of carcass and livestock wastewater, respectively. Groundwater samples possibly contaminated by leachate of carcass were analyzed by this assay and it was able to prove contamination source.

  14. From the 'PCR' function to the 'PCR' profession; de la fonction 'PCR' au metier 'PCR'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, L. [CERAP, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled the legal context concerning the appointment and training of a radiation protection expert (PCR for 'personne competente en radioprotection'), the author outlines that the PCR's role has notably evolved: his function is now of primary importance in the company and his activity does not correspond to the legal framework any longer. Moreover, with the application of a European directive, some small establishments possessing ionizing radiation sources are disadvantaged, and the PCR is now facing an increasing number of missions and tasks. The author gives a list of them and assesses a needed time of 146 days per year: this means PCRs cannot have an other activity within their company

  15. PCR melting profile (PCR MP - a new tool for differentiation of Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Magdalena

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported the use of PCR Melting Profile (PCR MP technique based on using low denaturation temperatures during ligation mediated PCR (LM PCR for bacterial strain differentiation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this method for intra-species differentiation of Candida albicans strains. Methods In total 123 Candida albicans strains (including 7 reference, 11 clinical unrelated, and 105 isolates from patients of two hospitals in Poland were examined using three genotyping methods: PCR MP, macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques. Results The genotyping results of the PCR MP were compared with results from REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques giving 27, 26 and 25 unique types, respectively. The results showed that the PCR MP technique has at least the same discriminatory power as REA-PFGE and RAPD. Conclusion Data presented here show for the first time the evaluation of PCR MP technique for candidial strains differentiation and we propose that this can be used as a relatively simple and cheap technique for epidemiological studies in short period of time in hospital.

  16. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  17. Detection of Leishmania infantum in animals and their ectoparasites by conventional PCR and real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Rayana Carla Silva; Gonçalves, Suênia da Cunha; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Kamila Gaudêncio; da Silva, Fernando José; Silva, Rômulo Pessoa E; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Paiva-Cavalcanti, Milena

    2013-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, which is primarily transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. However, there has been much speculation on the role of other arthropods in the transmission of VL. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of L. infantum in cats, dogs and their ectoparasites in a VL-endemic area in northeastern Brazil. DNA was extracted from blood samples and ectoparasites, tested by conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) targeting the L. infantum kinetoplast DNA. A total of 280 blood samples (from five cats and 275 dogs) and 117 ectoparasites from dogs were collected. Animals were apparently healthy and not previously tested by serological or molecular diagnostic methods. Overall, 213 (76.1 %) animals and 51 (43.6 %) ectoparasites were positive to L. infantum, with mean parasite loads of 795.2, 31.9 and 9.1 fg in dogs, cats and ectoparasites, respectively. Concerning the positivity between dogs and their ectoparasites, 32 (15.3 %) positive dogs were parasitized by positive ectoparasites. The overall concordance between the PCR protocols used was 59.2 %, with qPCR being more efficient than cPCR; 34.1 % of all positive samples were exclusively positive by qPCR. The high number of positive animals and ectoparasites also indicates that they could serve as sentinels or indicators of the circulation of L. infantum in risk areas.

  18. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  19. Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heiat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually, more than 14 million people are reported to be infected with Leishmaniasis all over the world. In Iran, this disease is seen in the form of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, of which the cutaneous form is more wide spread. In recent years, cutaneous leishmaniaisis is diagnosed by PCR utilizing specific primers in order to amplify different parasite genes including ribosomal RNA genes, kinetoplast DNA or tandem repeating sequences. The aim of this research was to detect early stage cutaneous leishmaniasis using Multiplex-PCR technique. Methods: In this study, 67 samples were prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA was extracted with phenolchloroform. Each specimen was analyzed using two different pairs of PCR primers. The sensitivity of each PCR was optimized on pure Leishmania DNA prior to use for diagnosis. Two standard parasites L. major and L. tropica were used as positive control. Results: DNA amplification fragments were two 115 bp and 683 bp for AB and UL primers, respectively. The sensitivity of two primers was not equal for detection of L. major and L. tropica. The sensivity of PCR with AB primer was 35 cells, while that for UL primer was 40 cells. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that PCR is a sensitive diagnostic assay for cutaneous leishmaniasis and could be employed as the new standard for routine diagnosis when species identification is not required. However, the ability to identify species is especially important in prognosis of the disease and in deciding appropriate therapy, especially in regions where more than one type of species and disease are seen by clinicians.

  20. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction of heteroduplex formation in PCR amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michu, Elleni; Mráčková, Martina; Vyskot, Boris; Žlůvová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2010), s. 173-176 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600040801; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600040801; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : polymerase chain reaction * reconditioning PCR * mixed-template PCR Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2010

  2. A naked-eye colorimetric "PCR developer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Paola; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Despite several advances in molecular biology and diagnostics, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is currently the gold standard for nucleic acids amplification and detection, due to its versatility, low-cost and universality, with estimated genetically modified organisms, and pathogens). The PCR developer proved to be highly specific and ultra-sensitive, discriminating down to few copies of HIV viral DNA, diluted in an excess of interfering human genomic DNA, which is a clinically relevant viral load. Hence, it could be a valuable tool for both academic research and clinical applications.

  3. Competitive ability, stress tolerance and plant interactions along stress gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Man; Sun, Tao; Xue, SuFeng; Yang, Wei; Shao, DongDong; Martínez-López, Javier

    2018-04-01

    Exceptions to the generality of the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) may be reconciled by considering species-specific traits and stress tolerance strategies. Studies have tested stress tolerance and competitive ability in mediating interaction outcomes, but few have incorporated this to predict how species interactions shift between competition and facilitation along stress gradients. We used field surveys, salt tolerance and competition experiments to develop a predictive model interspecific interaction shifts across salinity stress gradients. Field survey and greenhouse tolerance tests revealed tradeoffs between stress tolerance and competitive ability. Modeling showed that along salinity gradients, (1) plant interactions shifted from competition to facilitation at high salinities within the physiological limits of salt-intolerant plants, (2) facilitation collapsed when salinity stress exceeded the physiological tolerance of salt-intolerant plants, and (3) neighbor removal experiments overestimate interspecific facilitation by including intraspecific effects. A community-level field experiment, suggested that (1) species interactions are competitive in benign and, facilitative in harsh condition, but fuzzy under medium environmental stress due to niche differences of species and weak stress amelioration, and (2) the SGH works on strong but not weak stress gradients, so SGH confusion arises when it is applied across questionable stress gradients. Our study clarifies how species interactions vary along stress gradients. Moving forward, focusing on SGH applications rather than exceptions on weak or nonexistent gradients would be most productive. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Concentration and Competition in the Banking Sector of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Řepková

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimates the competitive conditions and concentration in the Turkish banking industry during the period 2002-2010. The period starts after implementation of the comprehensive reform in the banking sector and lasts until culmination of the global financial crisis. The concentration ratio and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index are applied to measure level of concentration. We found the banking sector to be almost non-concentrated with exemption of deposit market where we revealed a slight concentration. However, there is a clear trend of increasing concentration at all segments of the Turkish banking sector over the analysed period. The Panzar-Rosse model is used for estimation of competitive conditions in the banking market. Specifically, we use a panel with data for most of the Turkish banks to estimate the H statistics. We concluded that the Turkish banking sector can be characterized as an industry with monopolistic competition that closely approaches monopoly. The results imply that banks in Turkey do not operate in a competitive environment and enjoy monopoly rents. Moreover, we revealed decreasing level of competition during the entire period of estimation. Such a market structure can pose a threat for efficient intermediation of funds through the banking sector and promoting of economic growth.

  5. No arousal-biased competition in focused visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2017-11-01

    Arousal sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs perception and memory. A recent theory attempts to reconcile these findings by proposing that arousal amplifies the competition between stimulus representations, strengthening already strong representations and weakening already weak representations. Here, we report a stringent test of this arousal-biased competition theory in the context of focused visuospatial attention. Participants were required to identify a briefly presented target in the context of multiple distractors, which varied in the degree to which they competed for representation with the target, as revealed by psychophysics. We manipulated arousal using emotionally arousing pictures (Experiment 1), alerting tones (Experiment 2) and white-noise stimulation (Experiment 3), and validated these manipulations with electroencephalography and pupillometry. In none of the experiments did we find evidence that arousal modulated the effect of distractor competition on the accuracy of target identification. Bayesian statistics revealed moderate to strong evidence against arousal-biased competition. Modeling of the psychophysical data based on Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention corroborated the conclusion that arousal does not bias competition in focused visuospatial attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The competitiveness of medicinal plants in Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, R. A.; Fajarningsih, R. U.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia hold a potential opportunity to be a pharmaceutical production country. In the other side, Indonesia facing agriculture product and market competition internationally and domestically. Improving competitiveness of specific products are aimed to hit the export market and also to be able to compete with import products in domestic market. Considering Indonesian market opportunity, therefore we perform this study aiming to examine the competitiveness of medicinal plants in Central Java area. The basic method applied in this study was descriptive and data sources are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Trade Specialization Index (TSI) approaches. According to the study, we reveal that medicinal plant commodities in Central Java province have average score 8.52, indicating a strong comparative advantage in global markets, while the commodities appear to have average score of 0.97 at 0 to 1 range, representing a strong competitiveness. Those results are attributed to natural and environmental condition, as well as high demand of global market. This competitiveness will encourage traditional/modern medicinal industries in global market.

  7. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, E.; Lundgren, K.; Maartensson, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  8. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  9. SMA Diagnosis: Detection of SMN1 Deletion with Real-Time mCOP-PCR System Using Fresh Blood DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niba, Emma Tabe Eko; Ar Rochmah, Mawaddah; Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Awano, Hiroyuki; Morioka, Ichiro; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saito, Toshio; Saito, Kayoko; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Lai, Poh San; Bouike, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Hisahide; Shinohara, Masakazu

    2017-12-18

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders. The symptoms are caused by defects of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. More than 95% of SMA patients are homozygous for survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) deletion. We previously developed a screening system for SMN1 deletion based on a modified competitive oligonucleotide priming-PCR (mCOP-PCR) technique using dried blood spot (DBS) on filter paper. This system is convenient for mass screening in the large population and/or first-tier diagnostic method of the patients in the remote areas. However, this system was still time-consuming and effort-taking, because it required pre-amplification procedure to avoid non-specific amplification and gel-electrophoresis to detect the presence or absence of SMN1 deletion. When the fresh blood samples are used instead of DBS, or when the gel-electrophoresis is replaced by real-time PCR, we may have a simpler and more rapid diagnostic method for SMA. To establish a simpler and more rapid diagnostic method of SMN1 deletion using fresh blood DNA. DNA samples extracted from fresh blood and stored at 4 ℃ for 1 month. The samples were assayed using a real-time mCOP-PCR system without pre-amplification procedures. DNA samples had already been genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), showing the presence or absence of SMN1 exon 7. The DNA samples were directly subjected to the mCOP-PCR step. The amplification of mCOP-PCR was monitored in a real-time PCR apparatus. The genotyping results of the real-time mCOP-PCR system using fresh blood DNA were completely matched with those of PCR-RFLP. In this real-time mCOP-PCR system using fresh blood-DNA, it took only four hours from extraction of DNA to detection of the presence or absence of SMN1 deletion, while it took more than 12 hours in PCR-RFLP. Our real-time mCOP-PCR system using fresh blood DNA was rapid and accurate, suggesting it may be useful for the first

  10. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  11. Can simulation models help design rice cultivars that are more competitive against weeds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.; Kempuchetty, N.; Rajan, A.; Migo, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    Differences in competitive ability between rice cultivars IR8 and Mahsuri, grown in well-fertilised irrigated conditions, were analysed by means of a mechanistic simulation model (INTERCOM) for crop-weed interaction. The analysis revealed that the greater competitive ability of Mahsuri was due

  12. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  13. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  14. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Jörg G; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-10-10

    Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an offensive and competitive stance are quite

  15. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  16. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept...

  17. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive process...

  18. Analysis of the competitiveness of small business

    OpenAIRE

    KUČEROVÁ, Iveta

    2011-01-01

    The bachalorś thesis is described and characterized by a particular small business. Furthermore, its competitiveness, competitiveness analysis, and analysis of its major competitors. Based on a comparison of the chosen company to the competition is based on a proposal to improve business competitiveness and market position.

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F; Dadang-Sudrajat; Maria-Lina, R.

    1996-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure using three primary set derived from repetitive DNA sequence specific to mycobacteria was used to diagnose pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The assay was specific for M. tuberculosis and could be used to detect the amount DNA less than 10 -9 g

  20. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  1. Real-time PCR gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubista, Mikael; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří; Andrade, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 56-60 ISSN 1360-8606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500520601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : real - time PCR, * expression profiling * statistical analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. FEATURES OF EVALUATION OF THE COMPETITIVE STATUS OF TOURIST ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrylo Mykolaychuk

    2017-09-01

    consequences of sustainable development is the increase in life expectancy. It is influenced by human confidence in the future, which depends on employment of the population. Accordingly, the contribution to employment of the population is divided into employment directly in the field of tourism and general employment, taking into account the use of labour suppliers of products and services in other fields of activity. In assessing the competitive status of the tourist business of the regions, statistical indicators should be used, which reflect the results of tourism activity and factors influencing them. The economic results are influenced by revenues from the provision of tourist services and the structure of tourist flows. The social component should take into account employment, education, and remuneration of the subjects of tourism activity. It is worth taking into account the proportion of women and young people. Methodological approaches to assessing the competitive status of tourism enterprises should be coordinated with the assessment of the competitive status of the tourism business in the region. Based on this, the indicator of the competitive status of a tourist enterprise (IСSTЕ should also be determined by two components that characterize the impact on the economic and social development of the region. But in this indicator, it makes no sense to evaluate tourist flows, because they form integrated tourism services and distribute them mainly to different subjects of tourism activity. Practical implications. The results of the comparative assessment of the competitive status of the regions of Ukraine, as well as enterprises of the region, can reveal promising directions for the development of tourism business. Value/originality. The model of estimation of the competitive status of tourist enterprises as a component of the system of evaluation of achievements in the development of tourism business of the country and regions, which is proposed, has a scientific

  3. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well......: production versus production (e.g., food vs. fuel), production versus conservation (e.g., food production vs. conservation), and built-up environment versus production or conservation (e.g., food vs. urban). Sustainability impacts that result from land-use competition are analyzed and found to differ...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts....

  4. Game on: creating competitive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patricia; Foreman, M Shane

    2004-01-01

    Whether you are opening a new imaging center or trying to keep an existing center competitive, there are 3 critical factors: customer service, marketing, and a "what's next?" attitude. Customer service: Outstanding customer service is what sticks in the minds of referring physicians and patients. Not only does providing better service differentiate you from the competition, but it also boosts employee morale and motivates people to acquire new skills. Marketing: From the front office staff to the radiologists,promoting the center should be part of every employee's job description. Simply paying lip service to the concept of marketing will not cut it. A "what's next?" attitude: Complacency is a luxury that does not exist in today's competitive health care arena. Three facilities provide examples of how these factors applied to their success.

  5. Retail competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defeuilley, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions

  6. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  7. Retail competition in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defeuilley, Christophe [LARSEN and EDF R and D, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2009-02-15

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions. (author)

  8. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    a social science / leadership perspective - not from the perspective of a journalist or from the ideologically critical perspective of the license payer. Thirdly, we consider competition in the media market as an institutional phenomenon that is not solely conditioned by economic considerations. We aim...... emerged from a tradition based upon ideals of freedom of expression, democracy and the enlightenment of the general public. At the same time we stress the fact that the media worldwide is Big Business - and that this reality has an increasing effect on Danish competitiveness and business development......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...

  9. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  10. Competition on European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Speck, S; Mulder, M.

    2003-01-01

    The launch of the Directives on Electricity and Gas in the late 1990s was the starting point for creating common and competitive energy markets in the European Union. The main goal of this process was to increase efficiency of allocation of resources and, hence,enhance consumer welfare. More specifically, increasing competition within the energy markets should lead to a reduction of energy prices and to a convergence of prices among EU member states. Within a year from now, end-users in the Netherlands will be free to choose their own supplier, thus finalising the deregulation of Dutch energy markets. What lessons may be learned from the experience thus far? What are the results of the liberalisation process up to now? How have prices developed,and can these developments be explained? How afraid should we be for the lights to go out in a competitive electricity market?

  11. A survey of tools for the analysis of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabinger, Stephan; Rödiger, Stefan; Kriegner, Albert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) is a standard technique in most laboratories used for various applications in basic research. Analysis of qPCR data is a crucial part of the entire experiment, which has led to the development of a plethora of methods. The released tools either cover specific parts of the workflow or provide complete analysis solutions. Here, we surveyed 27 open-access software packages and tools for the analysis of qPCR data. The survey includes 8 Microsoft Windows, 5 web-based, 9 R-based and 5 tools from other platforms. Reviewed packages and tools support the analysis of different qPCR applications, such as RNA quantification, DNA methylation, genotyping, identification of copy number variations, and digital PCR. We report an overview of the functionality, features and specific requirements of the individual software tools, such as data exchange formats, availability of a graphical user interface, included procedures for graphical data presentation, and offered statistical methods. In addition, we provide an overview about quantification strategies, and report various applications of qPCR. Our comprehensive survey showed that most tools use their own file format and only a fraction of the currently existing tools support the standardized data exchange format RDML. To allow a more streamlined and comparable analysis of qPCR data, more vendors and tools need to adapt the standardized format to encourage the exchange of data between instrument software, analysis tools, and researchers.

  12. Quantitative Real-Time PCR using the Thermo Scientific Solaris qPCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrean, Christy; Jackson, Ben; Covino, James

    2010-01-01

    The Solaris qPCR Gene Expression Assay is a novel type of primer/probe set, designed to simplify the qPCR process while maintaining the sensitivity and accuracy of the assay. These primer/probe sets are pre-designed to >98% of the human and mouse genomes and feature significant improvements from previously available technologies. These improvements were made possible by virtue of a novel design algorithm, developed by Thermo Scientific bioinformatics experts. Several convenient features have been incorporated into the Solaris qPCR Assay to streamline the process of performing quantitative real-time PCR. First, the protocol is similar to commonly employed alternatives, so the methods used during qPCR are likely to be familiar. Second, the master mix is blue, which makes setting the qPCR reactions easier to track. Third, the thermal cycling conditions are the same for all assays (genes), making it possible to run many samples at a time and reducing the potential for error. Finally, the probe and primer sequence information are provided, simplifying the publication process. Here, we demonstrate how to obtain the appropriate Solaris reagents using the GENEius product search feature found on the ordering web site (www.thermo.com/solaris) and how to use the Solaris reagents for performing qPCR using the standard curve method. PMID:20567213

  13. Pneumocystis PCR: It Is Time to Make PCR the Test of Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Laura; Vogel, Sherilynn; Procop, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    The testing strategy for Pneumocystis at the Cleveland Clinic changed from toluidine blue staining to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We studied the differences in positivity rates for these assays and compared each with the detection of Pneumocystis in companion specimens by cytology and surgical pathology. We reviewed the results of all Pneumocystis test orders 1 year before and 1 year after the implementation of a Pneumocystis -specific PCR. We also reviewed the corresponding cytology and surgical pathology results, if performed. Finally, we reviewed the medical records of patients with rare Pneumocystis detected by PCR in an effort to differentiate colonization vs true disease. Toluidine blue staining and surgical pathology had similar sensitivities and negative predictive values, both of which were superior to cytology. There was a >4-fold increase in the annual detection of Pneumocystis by PCR compared with toluidine blue staining (toluidine blue staining: 11/1583 [0.69%] vs PCR: 44/1457 [3.0%]; chi-square P < .001). PCR detected 1 more case than surgical pathology and was far more sensitive than cytology. Chart review demonstrated that the vast majority of patients with rare Pneumocystis detected were immunosuppressed, had radiologic findings supportive of this infection, had no other pathogens detected, and were treated for pneumocystosis by the clinical team. PCR was the most sensitive method for the detection of Pneumocystis and should be considered the diagnostic test of choice. Correlation with clinical and radiologic findings affords discrimination of early true disease from the far rarer instances of colonization.

  14. Real-time PCR (qPCR) primer design using free online software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most commonly used fluorescent chemistries are SYBR® Green dyes and TaqMan®, Molecular Beacon or Scorpion probes. SYBR® Green is very simple to use and cost efficient. As SYBR® Green dye binds to any double-stranded DNA product, its success depends greatly on proper primer design. Many types of online primer design software are available, which can be used free of charge to design desirable SYBR® Green-based qPCR primers. This laboratory exercise is intended for those who have a fundamental background in PCR. It addresses the basic fluorescent chemistries of real-time PCR, the basic rules and pitfalls of primer design, and provides a step-by-step protocol for designing SYBR® Green-based primers with free, online software. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Intrasexual competition among males : Competitive towards men, prosocial towards women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    In a study among 40 males and 56 females, participants engaged in a series of decomposed social games in which they had to divide resources between themselves and either a same-sex or an opposite sex other. As predicted on the basis of theorizing on sexual selection, males behaved more competitively

  17. Competitive consensus: bargaining on employment and competitiveness in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, M.J.; Huiskamp, Rien; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    This article shows how bargaining on the conflicting issues of fighting unemployment and increasing competitiveness has evolved. It offers an empirical insight into the degree to which the national framework agreements that form part of the now famous Dutch polder model are implemented. At the

  18. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...... on the aspects of the problem, the data, and a summary of the methods used by selected top entries. We also discuss the lessons learned from this competition from the organizers’ perspective. The complete data set, including the solution data, is published along with this paper, in an effort to establish...

  19. Electricity market dynamics: Oligopolistic competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G.; Sheble, Gerald B.

    2006-01-01

    Presently, electricity markets are characterized by a small number of suppliers with distributed resources. These market suppliers can easily be identified because their geographic location is known. Essentially, two or three of them compete for leading the market whereas the rest of them follow. Hence, it is necessary to study the market structure as ologopolistic competition rather than perfect competition. This paper studies market producer decisions in a dynamic sequential framework by using discrete event system simulation (DESS) also known as discrete control theory. Two-player ologopolistic market structure is presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Digital PCR for direct quantification of viruses without DNA extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Pav?i?, Jernej; ?el, Jana; Milavec, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    DNA extraction before amplification is considered an essential step for quantification of viral DNA using real-time PCR (qPCR). However, this can directly affect the final measurements due to variable DNA yields and removal of inhibitors, which leads to increased inter-laboratory variability of qPCR measurements and reduced agreement on viral loads. Digital PCR (dPCR) might be an advantageous methodology for the measurement of virus concentrations, as it does not depend on any calibration mat...

  1. The Competitive Potential of the Belorussian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Migranyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article is an attempt to study the factors of the competitive capacity of Belorussian economy. There are two groups of factors of competitive potential and competitive advantages' formation: internal (changes in resource allocation) and external factors (adaptation to external shocks). The study found that the main source of the increase of competitive capacity of the Belorussian economy were foreign. The competitive potential of Belarus was formed on the basis of the increased exports. H...

  2. Ireland’s Competitiveness Challenge 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ireland’s Competitiveness Challenge 2014, which is produced under the Action Plan for Jobs 2014, outlines the National Competitiveness Council’s view of the main competitiveness issues confronting the business sector in Ireland over the medium term, and sets out a series of policy responses required to address these challenges. Building on their earlier benchmarking of Irish competitiveness, the Council focus on six major themes in the 2014 report: addressing cost competitiveness; broadening ...

  3. Dynamics of vaginal bacterial communities in women developing bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, or no infection, analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Beatrice; Pugliese, Ciro; Biagi, Elena; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Bellen, Gert; Donders, Gilbert G G; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2007-09-01

    The microbial flora of the vagina plays a major role in preventing genital infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis (CA). An integrated approach based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR was used to study the structure and dynamics of bacterial communities in vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients developing BV and CA. Universal eubacterial primers and Lactobacillus genus-specific primers, both targeted at 16S rRNA genes, were used in DGGE and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. The DGGE profiles revealed that the vaginal flora was dominated by Lactobacillus species under healthy conditions, whereas several potentially pathogenic bacteria were present in the flora of women with BV. Lactobacilli were the predominant bacterial population in the vagina for patients affected by CA, but changes in the composition of Lactobacillus species were observed. Real-time PCR analysis allowed the quantitative estimation of variations in lactobacilli associated with BV and CA diseases. A statistically significant decrease in the relative abundance of lactobacilli was found in vaginal fluids of patients with BV compared to the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients with CA.

  4. The five competitive forces that shape strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    In 1979, a young associate professor at Harvard Business School published his first article for HBR, "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy." In the years that followed, Michael Porter's explication of the five forces that determine the long-run profitability of any industry has shaped a generation of academic research and business practice. In this article, Porter undertakes a thorough reaffirmation and extension of his classic work of strategy formulation, which includes substantial new sections showing how to put the five forces analysis into practice. The five forces govern the profit structure of an industry by determining how the economic value it creates is apportioned. That value may be drained away through the rivalry among existing competitors, of course, but it can also be bargained away through the power of suppliers or the power of customers or be constrained by the threat of new entrants or the threat of substitutes. Strategy can be viewed as building defenses against the competitive forces or as finding a position in an industry where the forces are weaker. Changes in the strength of the forces signal changes in the competitive landscape critical to ongoing strategy formulation. In exploring the implications of the five forces framework, Porter explains why a fast-growing industry is not always a profitable one, how eliminating today's competitors through mergers and acquisitions can reduce an industry's profit potential, how government policies play a role by changing the relative strength of the forces, and how to use the forces to understand complements. He then shows how a company can influence the key forces in its industry to create a more favorable structure for itself or to expand the pie altogether. The five forces reveal why industry profitability is what it is. Only by understanding them can a company incorporate industry conditions into strategy.

  5. Comparison of simultaneous splenic sample PCR with blood sample PCR for diagnosis and treatment of experimental Ehrlichia canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, Shimon; Kenny, Martin; Miara, Limor; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Waner, Trevor; Shaw, Susan

    2004-11-01

    This report presents evidence that dogs recover from acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) after 16 days of doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h). Blood PCR was as valuable as splenic aspirate PCR for early diagnosis of acute CME. Splenic aspirate PCR was, however, superior to blood PCR for the evaluation of ehrlichial elimination.

  6. PCR-based detection of gene transfer vectors: application to gene doping surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Irene C; Le Guiner, Caroline; Ni, Weiyi; Lyles, Jennifer; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O

    2013-12-01

    Athletes who illicitly use drugs to enhance their athletic performance are at risk of being banned from sports competitions. Consequently, some athletes may seek new doping methods that they expect to be capable of circumventing detection. With advances in gene transfer vector design and therapeutic gene transfer, and demonstrations of safety and therapeutic benefit in humans, there is an increased probability of the pursuit of gene doping by athletes. In anticipation of the potential for gene doping, assays have been established to directly detect complementary DNA of genes that are top candidates for use in doping, as well as vector control elements. The development of molecular assays that are capable of exposing gene doping in sports can serve as a deterrent and may also identify athletes who have illicitly used gene transfer for performance enhancement. PCR-based methods to detect foreign DNA with high reliability, sensitivity, and specificity include TaqMan real-time PCR, nested PCR, and internal threshold control PCR.

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel tospovirus species using a new RT-PCR approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortez, I.; Saaijer, J.; Wonjkaew, K.S.; Pereira, A.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.; Kormelink, R.

    2001-01-01

    Summary. A novel tospovirus serologically distinct from all established tospo- virus species was found in Thailand in Physalis minima L. The S RNA of this virus was cloned by a new RT-PCR approach revealing a nucleotide sequence of 3257 nucleotides. The ambisense RNA segment encoded a nonstructural

  8. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  9. Technical aspects and recommendations for single-cell qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Kubista, Mikael

    2018-02-01

    Single cells are basic physiological and biological units that can function individually as well as in groups in tissues and organs. It is central to identify, characterize and profile single cells at molecular level to be able to distinguish different kinds, to understand their functions and determine how they interact with each other. During the last decade several technologies for single-cell profiling have been developed and used in various applications, revealing many novel findings. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is one of the most developed methods for single-cell profiling that can be used to interrogate several analytes, including DNA, RNA and protein. Single-cell qPCR has the potential to become routine methodology but the technique is still challenging, as it involves several experimental steps and few molecules are handled. Here, we discuss technical aspects and provide recommendation for single-cell qPCR analysis. The workflow includes experimental design, sample preparation, single-cell collection, direct lysis, reverse transcription, preamplification, qPCR and data analysis. Detailed reporting and sharing of experimental details and data will promote further development and make validation studies possible. Efforts aiming to standardize single-cell qPCR open up means to move single-cell analysis from specialized research settings to standard research laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic hubs show competitive and static hubs non-competitive regulation of their interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurv Goel

    Full Text Available Date hub proteins have 1 or 2 interaction interfaces but many interaction partners. This raises the question of whether all partner proteins compete for the interaction interface of the hub or if the cell carefully regulates aspects of this process? Here, we have used real-time rendering of protein interaction networks to analyse the interactions of all the 1 or 2 interface hubs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. By integrating previously determined structural and gene expression data, and visually hiding the nodes (proteins and their edges (interactions during their troughs of expression, we predict when interactions of hubs and their partners are likely to exist. This revealed that 20 out of all 36 one- or two- interface hubs in the yeast interactome fell within two main groups. The first was dynamic hubs with static partners, which can be considered as 'competitive hubs'. Their interaction partners will compete for the interaction interface of the hub and the success of any interaction will be dictated by the kinetics of interaction (abundance and affinity and subcellular localisation. The second was static hubs with dynamic partners, which we term 'non-competitive hubs'. Regulatory mechanisms are finely tuned to lessen the presence and/or effects of competition between the interaction partners of the hub. It is possible that these regulatory processes may also be used by the cell for the regulation of other, non-cell cycle processes.

  11. Towards a universal competitive intelligence process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Pellissier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Competitive intelligence (CI provides actionable intelligence, which provides a competitive edge in enterprises. However, without proper process, it is difficult to develop actionable intelligence. There are disagreements about how the CI process should be structured. For CI professionals to focus on producing actionable intelligence, and to do so with simplicity, they need a common CI process model.Objectives: The purpose of this research is to review the current literature on CI, to look at the aims of identifying and analysing CI process models, and finally to propose a universal CI process model.Method: The study was qualitative in nature and content analysis was conducted on all identified sources establishing and analysing CI process models. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability, only peer-reviewed articles were used.Results: The findings reveal that the majority of scholars view the CI process as a cycle of interrelated phases. The output of one phase is the input of the next phase.Conclusion: The CI process is a cycle of interrelated phases. The output of one phase is the input of the next phase. These phases are influenced by the following factors: decision makers, process and structure, organisational awareness and culture, and feedback.

  12. Pay attention to the enterprise competitive intelligence analysis research promotion enterprise scientific research production and product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yan

    2014-01-01

    This article covers the competitive intelligence content and five characteristics, and on the American Competitive intelligence Outstanding Company's place situation, shows fully the competitive intelligence constructs the core competitive power regarding the enterprise to have the significant function, Its contribution has already hold the pivotal status in the world famous enterprise. It is an important cornerstone for enterprises which construct the core competitive power. Along with the enterprise competition environment rapid change, the competitive intelligence importance suddenly to reveal day by day. Just like the world richest family Microsoft Corporation president Bill. Gates asserted that, How to collect, How to analysis, how to manage and how to use information, lt will decide the enterprise victory and loss. And unified the enterprise scientific research production the special details, take 'To develop the SF_6 New Product' to introduce as the example how did the enterprise competition intelligence, as well as how did the information development and using in it. (author)

  13. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA: comparison of one-stage polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with nested-set PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Gretch, D R; Wilson, J J; Carithers, R L; dela Rosa, C; Han, J H; Corey, L

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated a new hepatitis C virus RNA assay based on one-stage PCR followed by liquid hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe and compared it with nested-set PCR. The one-stage and nested-set PCR assays had identical sensitivities in analytical experiments and showed 100% concordance when clinical specimens were used. One-stage PCR may be less prone to contamination than nested-set PCR.

  14. The rd LAK data competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Dietze, Stefan; Herder, Eelco; d'Aquin, Mathieu; Taibi, Davide; Scheffel, Maren

    2017-01-01

    The LAK Data Challenge 2015 continues the research efforts of the previous data competitions in 2013 and 2014 by stimulating research on the evolving fields Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM). Building on a series of activities of the LinkedUp project, the challenge aims to

  15. Competitiveness of the mining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Arango, Jairo; Gamba Saavedra, Gloria Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the upgraded study of the evaluation of competitiveness of the Colombian mining sector, carried out for the UPME, in the year 2005, with base in this study, the conditions were examined offered for Colombia for the mining industry

  16. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  17. Entry deterrence and hidden competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrutich, Maria; Huisman, Kuno; Kort, Peter

    This paper studies strategic investment behavior of firms facing an uncertain demand in a duopoly setting. Firms choose both investment timing and the capacity level while facing additional uncertainty about market participants, which is introduced via the concept of hidden competition. We focus on

  18. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  19. Competition for cores in remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulmus, Serra Caner; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    We study competition between an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and an independently operating remanufacturer (IO). Different from the existing literature, the OEM and IO compete not only for selling their products but also for collecting returned products (cores) through their acquisition

  20. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, I.; Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf