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Sample records for competitive indirect elisa

  1. Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Thomas O; Ascoli, Carl A

    2017-07-05

    The indirect competitive ELISA (indirect cELISA) pits plate-immobilized antigen against antigens in solution for binding to antigen-specific antibody. The antigens in solution are in the test sample and are first incubated with antigen-specific antibody. These antibody-antigen complexes are then added to microtiter plates whose wells have been coated with purified antigen. The wells are washed to remove unbound antigen-antibody complexes and free antigen. A reporter-labeled secondary antibody is then added followed by the addition of substrate. Substrate hydrolysis yields a signal that is inversely proportional to antigen concentration within the sample. This is because when antigen concentration is high in the test sample, most of the antibody is bound before adding the solution to the plate. Most of the antibody remains in solution (as complexes) and is thus washed away before the addition of the reporter-labeled secondary antibody and substrate. Thus, the higher the antigen concentration in the test sample, the weaker the resultant signal in the detection step. The indirect cELISA is often used for competitive detection and quantification of antibodies against viral diseases in biological samples. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Serological response to an indirect and a competitive elisa in heifers vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E.A.; Uzal, F.A.; Echaide, S.

    1998-01-01

    The different serologic techniques for bovine brucellosis diagnosis have different abilities to detect antibodies after vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19. The humoral response in heifers vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 was evaluated by using several serologic techniques. In the experimental field of INTA, Pilcaniyeu, Rio Negro province, sixteen 5 months old heifers were vaccinated subcutaneously with a standard dose (2ml, containing 20x10 9 to 10x10 9 living organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19. Sera from all the heifers were obtained on 18 occasions (one 87 days before vaccination, one immediately before vaccination and on 16 occasions after vaccination, during 488 days) and analyzed by buffered plate antigen test, rose bengal test, standard tube agglutination test, 2-mercaptoetanol test, complement fixation test, indirect ELISA, and competitive ELISA. Prior vaccination, 100% of the heifers gave negative results in all the techniques used, while 100% of them gave positive reaction in the first sampling after vaccination to all the techniques, with the exception of standard tube agglutination test that showed agglutinating titters of 1/100 or higher (positive threshold) in only 71.4% of the heifers. The indirect ELISA technique showed a reducing percentage of positive animals up until 316 days after vaccination, after which positive results were obtained. The competitive ELISA gave positive results in a variable number of heifers up to 253 days after vaccination when 100% of the sera were negative to this technique. Buffered plate antigen test was the technique that gave positive results for a longest period, being 100% of the animals negative to this technique at 450 days after vaccination. The other serological techniques assayed gave positive results during variable periods of time, intermediate between standard tube agglutination test and buffered plate antigen test. Although the present results were obtained from a limited number of

  3. Field trial of brucellosis competitive ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, B.; Rojas, M.

    1998-01-01

    2990 sera samples from cattle were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using 8 serological tests for. The tests used were Rose Bengal (RBT), Buffer Plate Agglutination Test (BPAT), Complement Fixation (CFT), 2 Indirect and 2 Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Bacteriological evaluation from milk was done also. All tests were compared with respect to diagnostic specificity in vaccinated herds which were considered to be Brucella-free. The diagnostic specificity of the Indirect and Competitive ELISA was greater than 99,8%. Estimates of relative sensitivity were obtained from infected herds. The diagnostic sensitivity of the Indirect ELISA was greater than 95,8% and for the Competitive ELISA between 98,8 and 100 %, the last value refers to the Competitive ELISA Prototype II (SLPS antigen/M84 Mab), which was found highly suitable to differentiate vaccinated from brucella-infected cattle. The use of C-ELISA II for monitoring bovine populations under an eradication programme is recommended. (author)

  4. TOXOCARIASIS: SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS BY INDIRECT ANTIBODY COMPETITION ELISA Diagnóstico sorológico da toxocaríase através do método de ELISA indireto de competição

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    Cáris Maroni NUNES

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is caused by infection of man by Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. Non specific reactions are observed mainly due to cross-reactivity with Ascaris sp antigens. This investigation aimed at developing and evaluating an indirect antibody competition ELISA (IACE employing a specific rabbit IgG anti-Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens as the competition antibody, in order to improve indirect ELISA specificity performed for toxocariasis diagnosis. For that, the rabbit IgG was previously absorbed by Ascaris suum adult antigens. Sensitivity and specificity of IACE were first evaluated in 28 serum samples of mice experimentally infected with T. canis embryonated eggs. Adopting cut-off value established in this population before infection, sensitivity and specificity were 100% after 20 days post-inoculation. For human population IACE was evaluated using sera from 440 patients with clinical signs of toxocariasis and the cut-off value was established with 60 serum samples from apparently healthy individuals. Using as reference test the indirect ELISA performed by Adolfo Lutz Institute, sensitivity was 60.2%, specificity was 98% and concordance was 77.3%. Repeatability of IACE was evaluated by the inter-reactions variation coefficient (2.4%.A toxocaríase, uma emergente zoonose, é uma síndrome clínica decorrente da infecção humana por larvas de Toxocara canis e Toxocara cati, parasitas intestinais de cães e gatos, respectivamente. A dificuldade de detecção das larvas nos tecidos e a inespecificidade dos sinais clínicos tornam os testes sorológicos os meios diagnósticos mais adequados. Os antígenos excretores-secretores de T. canis empregados nos testes sorológicos, embora tenham contribuído para melhorar a especificidade destes, apresentam reações cruzadas com diversos parasitas

  5. Comparative evaluation of competitive ELISA test in Colombian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, O.; Rueda, E.; Sedano, L.; Zuniga, I.; Calderon, C.; Ortega, A.; Puentes, A.

    1998-01-01

    In order to contribute to the definition of the best ELISA test for screening and differential diagnosis of Brucella abortus to be applied for control programmes, a total of 2971 sera from Colombian cattle were tested for brucellosis. Conventional agglutination tests, Buffered Plate antigen test (BPAT) and Rose Bengal (RB) as well as Complement Fixation test (CFT) (Alton, et al. 1988) were used comparatively. Radial immunodiffusion test (RID) was also performed to all sera. The sera were also tested using four different ELISAs: indirect ELISA from FAO/IAEA and the indirect ELISA modified by Nielsen, et al. 1992 as well as two competitive ELISAs: one competitive ELISA used B. abortus O-polysaccharide antigen and an enzyme conjugated monoclonal to the O-polysaccharide for competition and detection. The second competitive ELISA used lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) antigen, a different monoclonal antibody for competition but also specific for the O-polysaccharide and a commercially available goat anti-mouse IgG enzyme conjugate for detection. The sera were analyzed based on its population status, 987 positive obtained from Brucella abortus infected herds based on clinical and/or bacteriological evidence and a high prevalence of brucellosis, CFT percentage of positive animals in the herd was greater than 5%. Eight hundred sixty six (866) negative sera from non-vaccinated cattle from a brucellosis free area and 1118 negative sera obtained from reglamentary vaccinated areas under a free herd program. Initial cut-off values were derived using negative serum samples. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was defined from frequency histograms based on this cut-off values and using 2x2 tables, corresponding confidence limits (95%) were calculated. The data were also analysed using signal detection analysis (ROC). Kappa statistics was determined for all tests and populations, accuracy was used as index of comparison to evaluate different assays. The data support the initial

  6. Direct Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Thomas O; Ascoli, Carl A

    2017-07-05

    The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (cELISA; also called an inhibition ELISA) is designed so that purified antigen competes with antigen in the test sample for binding to an antibody that has been immobilized in microtiter plate wells. The same concept works if the immobilized molecule is antigen and the competing molecules are purified labeled antibody versus antibody in a test sample. Direct cELISAs incorporate labeled antigen or antibody, whereas indirect assay configurations use reporter-labeled secondary antibodies. The cELISA is very useful for determining the concentration of small-molecule antigens in complex sample mixtures. In the direct cELISA, antigen-specific capture antibody is adsorbed onto the microtiter plate before incubation with either known standards or unknown test samples. Enzyme-linked antigen (i.e., labeled antigen) is also added, which can bind to the capture antibody only when the antibody's binding site is not occupied by either the antigen standard or antigen in the test samples. Unbound labeled and unlabeled antigens are washed away and substrate is added. The amount of antigen in the standard or the test sample determines the amount of reporter-labeled antigen bound to antibody, yielding a signal that is inversely proportional to antigen concentration within the sample. Thus, the higher the antigen concentration in the test sample, the less labeled antigen is bound to the capture antibody, and hence the weaker is the resultant signal. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. A novel indirect ELISA for diagnosis of dengue fever

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    Rohan Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dengue fever (DF is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Since there are no effective antiviral drugs for treatment, clinicians often rely on the accurate diagnosis of dengue fever to begin supportive therapy at early stages of the illness. The objective of this study was to develop an in-house dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2 non-structural protein- 5 (NS5 based indirect ELISA. Methods: DENV-2 was raised in Vero cells and the viral proteins were separated and subsequently the NS5 protein was eluted. Serum samples from primary and secondary dengue fever patients; and acute and convalescent samples from Japanese encephalitis (JE and West Nile virus (WNV cases were used to validate the ELISA. Results: The assay was found to be 100 per cent specific in detecting DENV-2 specific antibodies from patient′s serum. However, in terms of sensitivity, the assay could detect IgM antibodies only from 90 per cent of the primary dengue samples. The IgM/IgG ratio of the primary and secondary samples was 7.24 and 0.64, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The results indicate that the DENV-2 NS5 ELISA is dengue group specific and can be used to differentiate dengue infection from other circulating Flavivirus infections. This NS5 ELISA can also be used to distinguish between primary and secondary dengue fever on the basis of IgM/IgG ratios. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different DENV serotypes are required to validate the ELISA.

  8. Field trial of a brucellosis competitive enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samartino, L.E.; Gregoret, R.J.; Sigal, G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a competitive ELISA system for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in comparison to conventional aerological tests routinely used in Argentina. A total of 2.500 serum samples, comprising Brucella-free herds, vaccinated cattle and naturally infected animals, was tested by the following tests: buffered plate agglutination, Rose Bengal, 2-mercaptoethanol, complement fixation, and indirect and competitive ELISAs. Specificity and relative sensitivity at each test were determined. The competitive ELISA was considered suitable for detection of vaccinated animals and had higher specificity than the other tests. The results point to the potential use of the test as a complementary assay in the brucellosis control programme in Argentina. (author)

  9. Comparison of monomeric and polymeric horseradish peroxidase as labels in competitive ELISA for small molecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongyang; Ying, Yibin; Wu, Jian; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple and sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine aflatoxin B1 (as a model small analyte) and using streptavidin-polymeric horseradish peroxidase complex (SApolyHRP) as a label for signal amplification. The performance of the assay was evaluated by comparing it with the classical indirect competitive ELISA using HRP labeled anti-mouse IgG as the tracer antibody. The results indicate that the SApolyHRP-based competitive ELISA exhibits a typically 2.4-fold steeper slope of the linear working range of the calibration curve compared to the monomeric HRP based classical ELISA, i.e., the sensitivity was increased. The SApolyHRP conjugate causes a typically 19-fold stronger signal generation in comparison to the traditional HRP labeled anti-mouse IgG at the same concentration (25 ng mL −1 ). Moreover, the SApolyHRP-based assay has a much wider linear range and a 3.8-fold better signal-to-noise ratio. Considering its simplicity, sensitivity and ease of operation, this competitive ELISA is considered to be a promising tool for small molecule immuno detection. (author)

  10. Comparison of viral RNA electrophoresis and indirect ELISA methods in the diagnosis of human rotavirus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avendano, L F; Dubinovsky, S; James, Jr, H D

    1984-01-01

    A total of 177 stool samples from Chilean diarrhea patients under two years of age were tested for rotavirus by two methods - the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) and viral RNA electrophoresis in agarose gels (v RNA EPH). Fifty of the specimens came from patients with acute diarrhea and 127 came from patients with protracted diarrhea. The indirect ELISA testing was performed at the National Institutes of Health in the United States: the electrophoretic testing was carried out in Santiago, Chile by the authors. The electrophoretic method detected rotavirus in 36% of the acute samples and 25% of the samples from protracted cases, while the indirect ELISA method detected rotavirus in higher percentages of samples - 46% and 38%, respectively. These results support the conclusion that v RNA EPH is a less sensitive method for detecting rotavirus than the indirect ELISA. Nevertheless, the former method's high specificity, ease of application, and low cost make it a worthwhile alternative to indirect ELISA. Thus, considering the important role played by rotavirus in infant diarrhea and the need for a diagnostic technique that can be incorporated into the routines of medical center laboratories in developing countries, there is good reason to conclude that v RNA EPH is a useful tool for studying rotavirus diarrhea. 18 refs, 3 tabs. Also published in the Bol. Oficina Sanit. Panam. (1984) v. 97(1), p. 1-7 (In Spanish).

  11. Comparison of viral RNA electrophoresis and indirect ELISA methods in the diagnosis of human rotavirus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avendano, L.F.; Dubinovsky, S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 177 stool samples from Chilean diarrhea patients under two years of age were tested for rotavirus by two methods - the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) and viral RNA electrophoresis in agarose gels (v RNA EPH). Fifty of the specimens came from patients with acute diarrhea and 127 came from patients with protracted diarrhea. The indirect ELISA testing was performed at the National Institutes of Health in the United States: the electrophoretic testing was carried out in Santiago, Chile by the authors. The electrophoretic method detected rotavirus in 36% of the acute samples and 25% of the samples from protracted cases, while the indirect ELISA method detected rotavirus in higher percentages of samples - 46% and 38%, respectively. These results support the conclusion that v RNA EPH is a less sensitive method for detecting rotavirus than the indirect ELISA. Nevertheless, the former method's high specificity, ease of application, and low cost make it a worthwhile alternative to indirect ELISA. Thus, considering the important role played by rotavirus in infant diarrhea and the need for a diagnostic technique that can be incorporated into the routines of medical center laboratories in developing countries, there is good reason to conclude that v RNA EPH is a useful tool for studying rotavirus diarrhea. (author)

  12. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was used for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) types O1, A23, C3 which occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil during 1984-1994. The samples were randomly selected and tested by ELISA, Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and in tissue culture. Out of 106 samples 78 (73,5%) were positive by ELISA and 39 (36,8%) were found positive in CFT, when original suspensions were used. Once these samples were inoculated onto tissue culture both tests gave similar results, although ELISA picked up more positive samples during the 1st passage in tissue culture. The negative samples (16) included in this study were negative in all tests. The ELISA was more sensitive than and as specific as CFT. ELISA and tissue culture together were shown to be a better system for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen than CFT. (author)

  13. Development of indirect sandwich ELISA for determination of excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica

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    Libertad Alzamora-Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis medical-veterinary importance caused by Fasciola hepatica, which affects sheep, goats and cattle; and it affects man accidentally causing an epidemic-endemic infection difficult to diagnose. The aim was to develop an indirect sandwich ELISA with 3 antibodies for detecting excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica (ESFh. For the development of indirect sandwich ELISA were used, as capture antibody, mouse polyclonal antibodies anti ESFh and polyclonal antibodies rabbit anti-ESFh as detection antibody, at the concentrations of 10 and 5 µg/mL respectively. The conjugate used was mouse monoclonal anti- total immunoglobulins rabbit linked to peroxidase (1/1000. Were analized 31 sheep fecal samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct coproparasitological examination (DC and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. The detection limit obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 100 ng/mL. The test had a 100% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 50% and 96.6% respectively, in relation to DC test. Comparing with CIEP the specificity obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 93.5% and a negative predictive value of 100%. We concluded that indirect sandwich ELISA designed is able to detect metabolic antigens in ovine feces samples and can be used for Fasciola hepatica diagnosis.

  14. Methodology for determination of plasma cortisol in fish using Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To determine plasma cortisol procedure in fish using competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Materials and methods. Two plasma samples of juveniles rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were analized by using ELISA human kit for cortisol assay. For standard curve calibration...

  15. Evaluation of four indirect ELISA systems for the detection of trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Yomo, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Four indirect-ELISA systems developed by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division for the detection of trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum were evaluated in the field. Internal quality control data obtained were good showing that pre-coating plates with antigen increase the robustness of the assay and contribute to its standardisation. ELISA systems derived from Trypanosoma vivax antigen lysates gave a better performance than ELISA systems using T. congolense antigens. Sensitivity and specificity corresponding to the highest accuracy were 86-87% and 83-85% respectively. When comparing the two ELISA systems utilising T. vivax antigens, there was no significant difference between native and denatured antigens and diagnostic threshold was higher for denatured antigens. (author)

  16. The use of monoclonal antibodies in competitive ELISA for the detection of antibodies to rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.; McKay, J.A.; Butcher, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody against the haemagglutinin of rinderpest virus has been used in a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to rinderpest virus in cattle, sheep, goat and game sera. Unlike the indirect ELISA and the virus neutralisation test (VNT), the C-ELISA detects only antibodies to rinderpest virus and gives no cross-reactivity with antibodies to peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus. Antibodies to a wide range of strains of rinderpest virus have been detected using this assay, suggesting its suitability for both sero-monitoring and sero-surveillance. Analysis of C-ELISA results from the examination of field sera shows a much greater separation of negative and positive populations as compared to the indirect ELISA. A further monoclonal antibody against the H protein of PPR has also been found suitable for use in a C-ELISA for the detection of antibodies to PPR virus. The use of these two C-ELISA's has made possible rapid differential sero-diagnosis without recourse to cross-VNT testing. The use of monoclonal antibody-based assays will allow much greater standardisation of rinderpest and PPR diagnosis, and following field-trials the C-ELISA will replace the indirect ELISA for sero-monitoring throughout the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  17. Improved detection of canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection using real-time PCR and indirect ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Helm, Jenny; Robinson, Matthew; Shaw, Susan E

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the development of a real-time PCR assay and an indirect ELISA to improve on current detection of canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. A highly specific fluorescent probe-based, real-time PCR assay was developed to target the A. vasorum second internal transcribed spacer region and detected DNA in EDTA blood, lung tissue, broncho-alveolar larvage fluid, endotracheal mucus, pharyngeal swabs and faecal samples. PCR was fast (∼1 h), highly efficient when using EDTA blood samples, consistently detected a single molecule of parasite DNA and did not amplify DNA from other parasitic nematodes or definitive host species. An indirect ELISA was also developed using the soluble protein fraction from adult A. vasorum worms. Some cross-reactive antigen recognition was observed when tested against sera from dogs infected with Crenosoma vulpis (n = 8), Toxocara canis (n = 5) and Dirofilaria immitis (n = 5). This was largely overcome by setting the cut-off for a positive result at an appropriately high level. Field evaluation of the real-time PCR and ELISA was conducted by testing sera and EDTA blood from dogs with suspected A. vasorum infection (n = 148) and compared with the Baermann's larval migration test in faeces. Thirty-one dogs were positive by at least one test. Of these, 20 (65%) were detected by the Baermann method, 18 (58%) by blood PCR, 24 (77%) by ELISA and 28 (90%) by blood PCR and ELISA together. Combined testing using real-time PCR and ELISA therefore improved the detection rate of A. vasorum infection and holds promise for improved clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

  18. Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples

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    Samira Moraes Cunha de Mesquita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mesquita S.M.C., Mansur F.J., Nascimento E.R., Barreto M.L. & Kimura L.M.S. [Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples.] Padroniza- ção e aplicação de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico de Mycoplasma bovis em amostras de soro sanguíneo bovino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:101-107, 2015. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Veteriná- ria, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: samira.veterinaria@gmail.com International researchers presented results indicating frequent involvement of Mycoplasma spp. as a causative agent of mastitis in cattle, associating its presence with significant economic losses to farmers. Mycoplasma bovis is the species most reported and relevant, because it causes more severe disease. The level of antibodies against M. bovis remains high for several months and can be detected by ELISA. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect ELISA with whole cell antigen of M. bovis (strain Donetta PG 45 with subsequent application in bovine blood serum samples for detection of antibodies against M. bovis. The immunization of cows A and B by inoculating an immunogen against M. bovis to obtain hyperimmune blood serum was the first stage of this work, then the stage of standardization of ELISA was proceeded. The concentration of 2 mg of antigen/mL for coating the microtiter plates was decided by statistical analyses. The optical density value 0,2 was determined as the limit of reactivity discrimination of samples (the cut-off point. The hyperimmune blood serum sample of the cow A (collected 30 days after immunization was chosen as the positive control and, the fetal calf serum was chosen as negative control of the assay. In addition, the ideal optimal dilutions found for blood serum samples was 1:400 and for conjugate was 1:10.000 and the substrate used was the ortho

  19. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, H.; Solari, M.A.; Etchebarne, J.

    1992-01-01

    In initially establishing the FAO/IAEA indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis, the optical density (OD) values of sera from known positive or negative local cattle were compared to the OD values obtained from the negative and positive reference sera provided with the ELISA kit. The percentage of false positive and negative sera were 2.53% and 2.97% respectively. The cut-off values for the negative reference serum in the kit were compared with those of a local negative population. These values were found to be similar. The specificity of the test was evaluated by testing 30 sera from animals experimentally infected with Anaplasma marginale and 30 sera from animals infected with Babesia bigemina. These were no cross-reaction either between A. marginale and B. bovis or between B. bigemina and B. bovis. A serological survey using this ELISA kit was carried out on animals from an enzootic area and an area free from the vecot Boophilus microplus. 53 out of 282 animals (18.8%) in the enzootic area were positive whilst all the animals (113) from the free area were negative. This study would indicate that the FAO/IAEA ELISA kit has a sensitivity of around 98% and specificity of 97%. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Validation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in cattle in Yucatan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, A.J.L.; Rodriguez, V.R.I.; Oura, C.; Cob, G.L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The ELISA kit provided by the FAO/IAEA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis was validated. In order to determine the appropriate ELISA cut-off point that would serve as the threshold between positive and negative samples, 119 serum samples from a Mexican Babesia-free zone were analyzed. The optimal cut-off point chosen was at 12% of the reactivity of the high positive control serum sample (PP) which resulted in a specificity of 97%. One hundred and ninety-six cattle from Wisconsin, USA, were introduced into Yucatan, Mexico, of which 181 were vaccinated with an attenuated live Babesia bovis vaccine; 15 animals remained as unvaccinated controls. Before and after vaccination all animals were bled and tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Both tests showed a high degree of correlation in their results. To evaluate an immune response to vaccination the optimal cut-off point chosen was 12% PP resulting in a sensitivity 99% and a specificity 95%. We concluded that the ELISA test has proved to be useful in Yucatan, Mexico for serological surveys and monitoring the efficiency o vaccination programmes. (author)

  1. Evaluation of an indirect elisa for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzal, F.A.; Carrasco, E.A.; Robles, C.A.; Echaide, S.

    1998-01-01

    Control and eradication of bovine brucellosis is usually based on the serological detection of antibodies. In Argentina, the Rose Bengal test (RB) and the Buffered Plate antigen test (BPA) are the two screening test officially recognized, while the 2-mercaptoethanol test (2ME) and the Tube Agglutination test (SAT) are the confirmatory assays currently in use. In order to improve the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Patagonia, Argentina, an indirect ELISA kit produced by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was evaluated. Sera from negative non-vaccinated, negative but vaccinated and positive animals were tested by all the above techniques. The specificity of the I-ELISA (99.6% and 99.7%) was similar to that of the BPA, RB, 2ME and Complement Fixation test (CF) when used to test sera from non-vaccinated, negative and vaccinated, negative animals, respectively. The sensitivity of the I-ELISA (98%) was higher than the BPA test (96%) and the CF test (95,2%). The I-ELISA kit evaluated in this study was thought to be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Patagonia region where little epidemiological information is available about this disease and where large numbers of sera should be tested to obtain such information. (author)

  2. Antigenisitas, Sensitivitas, dan Spesifisitas Protein Toxocara canis pada Pemeriksaan Antibodi Serum Mencit dengan Indirect-ELISA

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    Sri Subekti Bendryman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research were to determine antigenicity, sensitivity, and specificity of Toxocara canisprotein used as antigen in indirect-ELISA for the detection antibody against the worm in the infected hostin order to proper diagnose kit. The design used was true experimental, with Post-test Only ControlGroups Design. Mouse was immunized with various worm homogenates used to antigenicity, sensitivityand specificity tests of T. canis protein with indirect-ELISA technique. The independence variable werevarious immunogens (homogenates; the dependence variables were antigenicity, sensitivity and specificityvalues interpreted by optical density (OD value of mouse sera; and controlled variable were mouse strain,feed and retrieval time of sera. The result showed that OD values of mouse sera immunized with T. canisand T.cati homogenate were signicantly difference (p<0.01 as compared to those immunized withAncylostoma spp., Dipylidium caninum and control sera. Using the diagnosis based on the finding ofToxocara, the sensitivity of OD value by ELISA result from mouse sera immunized with Toxocara spp.homogenate were 100%. Using negative OD value by ELISA from mouse sera immunized with Ancylostomaspp. and D. caninum homogenate, the specificity of the test was 87.5%. In conclusion, protein of T.canishas the same antigenicity against anti-T. canis and anti-T. cati sera, but they had the lower antigenicityagainst anti-Ancylostoma spp. and anti-D.caninum sera. As the sensitivity value of 100% and specificityvalue of 87.5%, in detecting antibody against toxocariasis, the possibility of obtaining false positive was12.5%.

  3. Comparison of a direct and indirect ELISA for quantitating antisperm antibody in semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D M; Howe, S E

    1987-01-01

    A direct and an indirect quantitative ELISA for antisperm antibody were compared using the spermatozoa and cell-free seminal fluid of 66 infertile males. The normal concentration of sperm binding immunoglobulin was less than or equal to 1.5 fg Ig per spermatozoon for the indirect seminal plasma assay and less than or equal to 1.5 fg Ig per spermatozoon by the direct assay. Of the 66 infertile males, 21% (14/66) had elevated levels of antisperm antibody in their seminal plasma and 26% (17/66) had elevated levels bound directly to their spermatozoa. The direct correlation between the results of these assays was 94%. A simple linear regression analysis between the indirect and direct measurements of antisperm antibody resulted in a correlation coefficient of r = 0.907. There was no statistically significant difference between results from the direct and indirect methods of the patients as a group. However, there was evidence of autospecificity in a small percentage of males who had elevated levels of antisperm antibody by the direct assay that was not detected by the indirect assay using pooled donor spermatozoa.

  4. A comparative study of an elisa test and an indirect immunofluorescence test for serological diagnosis of Babesia bovis infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.R.; Cheong, F.H.; Correa, B.L.; Radley, D.E.; Cereser, V.H.

    1998-01-01

    Detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis in cattle is essential for the understanding of the epidemiology of babesiosis and this study was concerned with comparing the indirect fluorescent antibody with the ELISA. Both assays gave rise to 100% sensitivity whilst the ELISA was shown to be marginally more specific at 98%. The ease of use and low cost of the ELISA would make it the more obvious choice in conducting future serological surveys for this parasite. (author)

  5. Validation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.; Cardona, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Validation and a preliminary serological study of Babesia bovis was made in El Salvador, using the indirect ELISA kit provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Sera were collected from 545 cattle involving 10 regions of the country and various ages of cattle between 8 and 16 months. These were tested from May 1993 to February 1994. A 79.5% prevalence was found, but with a wide range from (5.8-100%), explained by different farm managing systems and different breeds. (author)

  6. Validation of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Trypanosoma congolense antibodies in Ethiopian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Y.; Kefyalew, H.; Kembata, G.; Nega, A.

    2000-01-01

    Control and eradication of African Animal Trypanosomosis can be achieved if the reliability of the methods to diagnose the disease could be improved. The techniques currently used in the diagnosis of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia are not sufficiently sensitive to detect all infected animals. In order to improve disease diagnosis the indirect antibody detection ELISA, developed by FAO/IAEA, was evaluated under field conditions. Accordingly, reference serum samples were collected from trypanosomosis free and endemic areas. Serum samples negative for trypanosomes were collected from the Central highlands of Ethiopia where there is no previous record of trypanosomosis. The samples were used to establish the threshold and the specificity of the test. Trypanosoma congolense positive sera (based on thin and thick smears and BCT) were collected from endemic areas in the Southwestern part of the country to estimate the sensitivity of the test. Out of 701 negative serum samples, 690 were identified as negative with the indirect antibody ELISA, whereas the remaining 11 were detected as positive. Moreover, of the 282 infected samples the ELISA detected 155 sera as positive, but the remaining 127 cases fell in the negative range. The positive/negative threshold established from negative reference sera was found to be 81.38%. Based on this threshold the specificity of the test was 98.43%, whilst the sensitivity was calculated as 54.96%. Thus, the complementary use of both the ELISA and parasitological methods is encouraged. Since the internal quality controls (IQC) did not fall in the ranges prescribed in the protocol provided by FAO/IAEA precision was achieved by comparing the plate to plate variation of the IQC based on the means plot. Accordingly the assay process indicated that there was no significant difference between individual mean of each plate regarding the strong positive (C++) and moderate positive (C+) controls. Nevertheless, considerable discrepancies were

  7. Establishment of an indirect ELISA for detection of the novel antifibrotic peptide M10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjina Akter

    Full Text Available M10 is a ten amino acid peptide generated from the intracellular cytoplasmic tail of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor c-Met following cleavage by caspase-3. Recently we reported that M10 interacts with Smad2 and demonstrates antifibrotic properties in vitro and in vivo and can be advanced into a novel antifibrotic remedy. The current study was undertaken to develop an immunoassay to measure M10 concentration in biological specimens.An Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for detection of M10 in biological fluids was developed using pharmaceutical grade synthetic M10 as a calibrator and commercially available anti-c-Met C12 antibody.M10 ELISA specifically detected in plasma M10, but not a scrambled peptide, following a single intraperitoneal administration of M10 (1mg/kg to mice. The detection limit was 9.6 ng/ml, and the measuring limit was between 15 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. The recovery limits of M10 were between 80% and 120%; intra-assay coefficient of variation was between 5.3% and 6.3%; inter-assay coefficient of variation was between 5.0% and 8.0% over the buffer concentration tested in the range from 15 ng /ml to 250 ng /ml. The peak of M10 concentration following a single intraperitoneal injection (1mg/kg was achieved within 6 hours and declined to minimal levels by 48 hours. The experimentally obtained half-life for M10 was comparable to the theoretically predicted half-life for M10.We have established a highly sensitive ELISA to detect the antifibrotic peptide M10 in plasma samples, which should prove to be a novel tool to study the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of M10 in the treatment of fibroproliferative disorders.

  8. Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouma, J.O.; Mwangi, J.M.; Mdachi, R.; Njiru, Z.K.; Ndung'u, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

  9. Novel indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect Total E. coli in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Na; He Miao; Shi Hanchang

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method to detect Total E. coli in water environment, E. coli multi-characters antigens in water environment were prepared according to the characters of kinds of E. coli serotypes, including antigen of whole cell, antigen of disrupted whole cell, somatic antigen, flagellar antigen and fimbrial antigen. Total E. coli polyclonal antibodies were obtained from the New Zealand rabbits immunized with these five antigens, respectively. Antibodies generated in this research are with high titers and good purity, can conjugate with antigens, specifically, stably and strongly. Indirect ELISA shows the titers of antibody of whole cell and antibody of disrupted whole cell are both over 1 x 10 5 . The cross-reactivity of the antibody is from 12 to 30% which indicate the specificity of the antibody against Total E. coli. Based on these antibodies, we established indirect ELISA method to detect Total E. coli in water environment. The matrix effects were studied and the results show that there is no significant influence by all the factors. The ELISA result shows that the detection limitation could be 10 4 CFU (colony forming units) L -1 . The indirect ELISA method developed in this study is well suited for Total E. coli analysis in real water samples as a rapid screen method

  10. Surveillance of bluetongue virus antibody in goats using a recombinant VP7-based indirect ELISA in the coastal saline area of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the serological surveillance of bluetongue virus (BTV group-specific antibody in goats of the coastal saline (Sunderban area of West Bengal, India. A recombinant viral protein 7 (rVP7-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the antibody in sera. The bacterially expressed rVP7 was purified by affinity chromatography. The diagnostic performance of the assay was assessed by comparing it to the commercially available previously validated competitive ELISA. Using the control and 1 202 test sera, the cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity as well as other performance characteristics e.g. the Youden index, efficiency, positive and negative predictive value and prevalence were estimated. Field-collected goat sera (n = 1 202 were tested and a serological prevalence rate of 47% was observed in the study area.

  11. Development & standardization of an in-house IgM indirect ELISA for the detection of parvovirus B19 infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Vadivel

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The in-house IgM indirect ELISA was found to be simple with high sensitivity and specificity when compared with nPCR and could be used as an alternative to expensive commercial kits in resource-poor settings.

  12. Antibodies to UV irradiated DNA: the monitoring of DNA damage by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, A A; Gibson-D' Ambrosio, R E; D' Ambrosio, S M [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1984-10-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was modified to (1) characterize antibodies raised in rabbits against UV-irradiated single-stranded DNA (UVssDNA) complexed with methylated BSA and (2) directly detect pyrimidine dimers in irradiated DNA. The antisera specifically bound to UVssDNA, UVpoly(dT) and to a limited extent to UVdsDNA and UVpoly(dC). Fifty per cent of the maximum antibody binding was observed at a 1-5000 dilution against UVssDNA. Binding to ssDNA and poly(dT) was observed only at much higher concentrations of antibody, whereas no binding to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) was observed. The extent of binding of the antibody was dependent on the UV dose to DNA and the concentration of antigen immobilized on the plate. The ability of various irradiated molecules, DNA, homopolymers and linkers to act as inhibitors of antibody binding establishes that the antigenic determinants are mainly thymine homodimers with lower affinity for cytosine dimers. Potential usefulness of the antibodies to directly quantitate pyrimidine dimers in cells exposed to UV radiation was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Flow cytometric analysis of immunostained human lymphocytes irradiated with 254 nm radiation indicated that greater than 50% of the population had significantly higher fluorescent intensity than unirradiated cells.

  13. A monoclonal antibody to inclusion body disease of cranes virus enabling specific immunohistochemistry and competitive ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, G.J.; Fishel, J.R.; Hansen, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes (IBDC) herpesvirus kills some infected cranes and persists in convalescent animals. To enable further study and rapid identification of carrier animals, we developed a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to IBDC virus and used it in immunohistochemistry and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We used conventional techniques to make murine MAbs directed against IBDC virus purified from infected duck embryo cells. Hybridomas reacting in an ELISA with IBDC virus but not uninfected duck embryo cells were characterized by radioimmunoprecipitation, in situ immunohistochemistry, and competitive ELISA with neutralizing and nonneutralizing crane sera. MAb 2C11 immunoprecipitated 59-, 61-, and 110-kD proteins from IBDC virus-infected but not uninfected cells and stained glutaraldehyde-fixed IBDC virus plaques but not surrounding uninfected duck embryo cells in vitro. Antibody 2C11 did not react with duck embryo cells infected with falcon herpesvirus, psittacine herpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis, pigeon herpesvirus, or duck plague virus. A competitive ELISA using antibody 2C11 identified most sera that were positive in the neutralization test. This antibody will be useful in further characterizing IBDC virus, its pathogenesis, and its natural history.

  14. Evaluation of a serological test (indirect ELISA) for the diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Set; Frössling, Jenny; Näslund, Katarina; Zakrisson, Göran; Mörner, Torsten

    2006-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in many parts of the world and is common in populations of domestic and wild canids, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). In recent years, an indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with higher sensitivity and specificity than traditional diagnostic methods, has been successfully applied in the diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in dogs. The same ELISA has also demonstrated specific antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in experimentally infected red foxes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indirect ELISA when used to detect antibodies to S. scabiei in field sera from Swedish red foxes. One cohort of both infected and non-infected red foxes (cohort 1; n = 88), and one cohort of apparently non-infected foxes (cohort 2; n = 67) were examined for skin lesions and presence of S. scabiei by thorough visual examination at autopsy and skin scrapings. Samples of blood-tinted body liquid from the abdomen or thorax cavity were collected and analysed by the indirect ELISA. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA at different cut-offs (OD values) were estimated by comparing the test results to the infection status as determined by examination and skin scrapings. The highest combination of relative sensitivity and specificity, calculated based on cohort 1, was 95.4 and 100.0%, respectively. These estimates were constant for cut-offs 0.150-0.225, which included the cut-off based on the mean plus three standard deviations of test results from cohort 2 (0.165). It is concluded that this test can be useful in diagnosis and epidemiological studies of S. scabiei infection in red foxes.

  15. Development of sensitive direct and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for monitoring bisphenol-A in canned foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Peterson, Joshua Richard; Gooding, John Justin; Lee, Nanju Alice

    2012-06-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are investigated in this work for the detection of bisphenol-A (BPA), a plastic monomer and a critical contaminant in food and environment. A series of polyclonal antibodies generated in vivo using BPA-butyrate-protein conjugate and BPA-valerate-protein conjugate were evaluated on direct and indirect competitive assay formats with five competing haptens (BPA-butyrate, BPA-valerate, BPA-crotonate, BPA-acetate, and BPA-2-valerate). Two indirect ELISAs and one direct ELISA exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity for BPA were developed. The 50 % inhibition of antibody binding (IC(50)) values were 0.78 ± 0.01-1.20 ± 0.26 μg L(-1), and the limits of detection as measured by the IC(20) values were 0.10 ± 0.03-0.20 ± 0.04 μg L(-1). The assays were highly specific to BPA, only displaying low cross-reactivity (3-8 % for the indirect assays and 26 % for the direct assay) for 4-cumylphenol (4-CP), at pH 7.2. The degree of cross-reaction of 4-CP was influenced by the antibody/hapten conjugate combination, assay conditions, and the assay format. The assays were optimized for the analysis of BPA in canned vegetables, bottled water and carbonated drinks. The limits of quantification for these three evaluated sample types, based on the spike and recovery data, were 0.5, 2.5, and 100 μg L(-1), respectively.

  16. A novel approach for osteocalcin detection by competitive ELISA using porous silicon as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Fereshteh; Mohammadnejad Arough, Javad; Yaghoobi, Mona; Davoodi, Hadi; Sepehri, Fatemeh; Amirabadizadeh, Masood

    2017-11-01

    In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was utilized instead of prevalent polystyrene platforms, and its capability in biomolecule screening was examined. Here, two types of porous structure, macroporous silicon (Macro-PSi) and mesoporous silicon (Meso-PSi), were produced on silicon wafers by electrochemical etching using different electrolytes. Moreover, both kinds of fresh and oxidized PSi samples were investigated. Next, osteocalcin as a biomarker of the bone formation process was used as a model biomarker, and the colorimetric detection was performed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both Macro-PSi and Meso-PSi substrates in the oxidized state, specifically the Meso-porous structure, were reported to have higher surface area to volume ratio, more capacitance of surface-antigen interaction, and more ability to capture antigen in comparison with the prevalent platforms. Moreover, the optical density signal of osteocalcin detected by the ELISA technique was notably higher than the common platforms. Based on the findings of this study, PSi can potentially be used in the ELISA to achieve better results and consequently more sensitivity. A further asset of incorporating such a nanometer structure in the ELISA technique is that the system response to analyte concentration could be maintained by consuming lower monoclonal antibody (or antigen) and consequently reduces the cost of the experiment. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Performance of an ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay in Serological Diagnosis of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Sarkari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological assays have been extensively evaluated for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL and considered as a routine method for diagnosis of VL while these methods are not properly evaluated for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. This study aimed to assess the performance of indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Sixty-one sera samples from parasitologically confirmed CL patients and 50 sera from healthy controls along with 50 sera from non-CL patients were collected. Antigen was prepared from promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania major. IFA was used to detect anti-Leishmania IgG while ELISA was used to detect anti-Leishmania IgM, total IgG, or IgG subclasses (IgG1 and 4. ELISA, for detection of total IgG and IgM, showed sensitivity of 83.6% and 84.7% and specificity of 62.7% and 54.6%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA for detecting IgG1 and IgG4 were 64%, 75% and 85%, 49%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of IFA were 91.6% and 81%. Conclusion. Findings of this study demonstrated that serological test, especially IFA, can be used for proper diagnosis of CL.

  18. Development of an Indirect ELISA Based on a Recombinant Chimeric Protein for the Detection of Antibodies against Bovine Babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Ortiz, José Manuel; Montenegro, Valeria Noely; de la Fournière, Sofía Ana María; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-01-23

    The current method for Babesia spp. serodiagnosis based on a crude merozoite antigen is a complex and time-consuming procedure. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on a recombinant multi-antigen of Babesia bovis (rMABbO) was developed for detection of antibodies in bovines suspected of infection with this parasite. The multi-antigen comprises gene fragments of three previously characterized B. bovis antigens: MSA-2c, RAP-1 and the Heat Shock protein 20 that are well-conserved among geographically distant strains. The cutoff value for the new rMABbo-iELISA was determined using 75 known-positive and 300 known-negative bovine sera previously tested for antibodies to B. bovis by the gold-standard ELISA which uses a merozoite lysate. A cutoff value of ≥35% was determined in these samples by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, showing a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 94.3%. The rMABbo-iELISA was further tested in a blind trial using an additional set of 263 field bovine sera from enzootic and tick-free regions of Argentina. Results showed a good agreement with the gold standard test with a Cohen's kappa value of 0.76. Finally, the prevalence of bovine babesiosis in different tick enzootic regions of Argentina was analyzed where seropositivity values among 68-80% were obtained. A certain level of cross reaction was observed when samples from B. bigemina infected cattle were analyzed with the new test, which can be attributed to shared epitopes between 2 of the 3 antigens. This new rMABbo-iELISA could be considered a simpler alternative to detect anti Babesia spp. antibodies and appears to be well suited to perform epidemiological surveys at the herd level in regions where ticks are present.

  19. Validation of a commercially available indirect ELISA using a nucleocapside recombinant protein for detection of Schmallenberg virus antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bréard

    Full Text Available A newly developed Enzym Like Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (N of Schmallenberg virus (SBV was evaluated and validated for the detection of SBV-specific IgG antibodies in ruminant sera by three European Reference Laboratories. Validation data sets derived from sheep, goat and bovine sera collected in France and Germany (n = 1515 in 2011 and 2012 were categorized according to the results of a virus neutralization test (VNT or an indirect immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA. The specificity was evaluated with 1364 sera from sheep, goat and bovine collected in France and Belgium before 2009. Overall agreement between VNT and ELISA was 98.9% and 98.3% between VNT and IFA, indicating a very good concordance between the different techniques. Although cross-reactions with other Orthobunyavirus from the Simbu serogroup viruses might occur, it is a highly sensitive, specific and robust ELISA-test validated to detect anti-SBV antibodies. This test can be applied for SBV sero-diagnostics and disease-surveillance studies in ruminant species in Europe.

  20. Development and evaluation of an indirect ELISA for detection of exfoliative toxin ExhA, ExhB or ExhC produced by Staphylococcus hyicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole

    1999-01-01

    Immunoblot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed previous reports that the Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxins ExhA and ExhB are metalloproteins, and further indicated that ExhC is also a metalloprotein. An indirect ELISA. was developed for the detection of toxigenic...... strains as an alternative method to the use of phage typing for selection of S. hyicus isolates to be used in autogenous vaccine against exudative epidermitis in pigs. The indirect ELISA was evaluated by investigating the presence of toxin among a total of 655 S. hyicus isolates from 69 pig skin samples......, one from each of the 69 pig herds with outbreak of exudative epidermitis. Toxigenic S. hyicus were detected in 74% of the cases by ELISA. From each of the five cases, in which initially no toxigenic S. hyicus were found, a further 40 S. hyicus-like colonies were tested in ELISA. Testing of this number...

  1. Non-competitive ELISA with broad specificity for microcystins and nodularins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Akter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple and cost-effective methods with sufficient sensitivities for preliminary screening of cyanobacterial toxins are in high demand for assessing water quality and safety. We have recently developed a highly sensitive and rapid time-resolved fluorometry based non-competitive immunoassay for detection of microcystins and nodularins. The assay is based on a synthetic broad-specific anti-immunocomplex antibody SA51D1 capable of recognizing the immunocomplex formed by a generic anti-Adda monoclonal antibody (mAb bound to either microcystins or nodularins. Using the same antibody pair, here we describe a very simple and cost-efficient non-competitive ELISA test for microcystins and nodularins based on conventional alkaline phosphatase (AP activity measurement. The recombinant SA51D1 single-chain fragment of antibody variable domain (scFv was produced as a fusion with bacterial alkaline phosphatase in Escherichia coli. After one step affinity purification through His-tag, the scFv-AP fusion protein could directly be used in the assay. For the assay, toxin standard/sample, biotinylated anti-Adda mAb and the scFv-AP were incubated together for one hour on streptavidin-coated microtiter wells, washed and AP activity was then measured by incubating (1 h at 37 ˚C with chromogenic substrate para-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP. The assay was capable of detecting all the eleven tested toxin variants (microcystin-LR, -dmLR, -RR, -dmRR, -YR, LA -LY, -LF -LW, -WR, and nodularin-R below WHO guide line value of 1 µg L-1. The detection limit (based on blank+3SD response for microcystin-LR was ~0.2 µg L-1. The assay was verified using spiked (0.25 - 4 µg L-1 of microcystin-LR tap, river and lake water samples with recoveries from 64 to 101%. The assay showed good correlation (r2>0.9 with four reference methods for its performance in detecting extracted intracellular microcystin/nodularin from 17 natural surface water samples. The described easy-to-perform assay

  2. GP50 as a promising early diagnostic antigen for Taenia multiceps infection in goats by indirect ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Chen, Lin; Gu, Xiaobin; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2016-12-01

    Coenurosis is caused by coenurus, the metacestode of Taenia multiceps, which mainly parasitizes the brain and spinal cord of cattle, sheep and goats. To date, no widely-approved methods are available to identify early coenurus infection. In this study, we identified a full-length cDNA that encodes GP50 (TmGP50) from the transcriptome of T. multiceps, and then cloned and expressed in E. coli. The native proteins in adult stage and coenurus were located via immunofluorescence assays, while the potential of recombinant TmGP50 protein (rTmGP50) for indirect ELISA-based serodiagnostics was assessed using native goat sera. In addition, we orally infected 20 goats with mature T. multiceps eggs. Praziquantel (10%) was given to 10 of the goats 45 days post-infection (p.i.). Blood samples were collected for 17 weeks p.i. from the 20 goats and anti-rTmGP50 antibodies were evaluated using the indirect ELISA established here. The TmGP50 contains an 897 bp open reading frame, in which signal sequence resides in 1 ~ 48 sites and mature polypeptide consists of 282 amino acid residues. Immunofluorescence staining showed that native TmGP50 was localized to the microthrix and parenchymatous zone of the adult parasite and coenurus, and the coenurus cystic wall. The indirect ELISA based on rTmGP50 exhibited a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 92.6% when detecting GP50 antibodies in sera of naturally infected goats and sheep. In goats experimentally infected with T. multiceps, anti-TmGP50 antibody was detectable from 2 to 17 weeks p.i. in the control group, while the antibody fell below the cut-off value about 3 weeks after praziquantel treatment. Our results indicate that recombinant TmGP50 is a suitable early diagnostic antigen for coenurus infection in goats.

  3. Detection of NP, N3 and N7 antibodies to avian influenza virus by indirect ELISA using yeast-expressed antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammayappan Arun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses, belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, possess distinct combinations of hemagglutinin (H and the neuraminidase (N surface glycoproteins. Typing of both H and N antigens is essential for the epidemiological and surveillance studies. Therefore, it is important to find a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for their assay, and ELISA can be useful for this purpose, by using recombinant proteins. Results The nucleoprotein (NP and truncated neuraminidase subtype 3 and 7 of avian influenza virus (AIV were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection. The developed assays were evaluated with a panel of 64 chicken serum samples. The performance of NP-ELISA was compared with the commercially available ProFlok® AIV ELISA kit. The results showed comparable agreement and sensitivity between the two tests, indicating that NP-ELISA assay can be used for screening the influenza type A antibody in AIV infected birds. The N3 and N7- ELISAs also reacted specifically to their type specific sera and did not exhibit any cross-reaction with heterologous neuraminidase subtype specific sera. Conclusion The study demonstrates the expression of the NP, N3, and N7 proteins of AIV in yeast (S. cerevisiae and their application in developing an indirect ELISA for detecting NP, N3 and N7 antibodies from AIV-infected chicken sera. The described indirect ELISAs are rapid, sensitive, specific and can be used as promising tests during serological surveillance.

  4. Hapten design and indirect competitive immunoassay for parathion determination: Correlation with molecular modeling and principal component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yihua [Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jin Maojun [Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Gui Wenjun [Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Cheng Jingli [Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Guo Yirong [Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhu Guonian [Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)]. E-mail: zhugn@zju.edu.cn

    2007-05-22

    A novel procedure for parathion hapten design is described. The optimal antigen for parathion was selected after molecular modeling studies of six types of potentially immunizing haptens with the aim to identify the best mimicking target analyte. Heterologous competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed after screening a battery of competitors as coating antigens. The relationship between the heterology degree of the competitor and the resulting immunoassay detectability was investigated according to the electronic similarities of the competitor haptens and the target analyte. Molecular modeling and principal component analysis were performed to understand the electronic distribution and steric parameters of the haptens at their minimum energetic levels. The results suggested that the competitors should have a high heterology to produce assays with good detectability values. An indirect competitive ELISA was finally selected for further investigation. The immunoassay had an IC{sub 50} value of 4.79 ng mL{sup -1} and a limit of detection of 0.31 ng mL{sup -1}. There was little or no cross-reactivity to similar compounds tested except for the insecticide parathion-methyl, which showed a cross-reactivity of 7.8%.

  5. Detection of Ganoderic Acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi by an Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Kohno, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushroom traditionally used for treating various diseases. Ganoderic acid A is one of the major bioactive Ganoderma triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma species. Herein, we produced a highly specific monoclonal antibody against ganoderic acid A (MAb 12 A) and developed an indirect competitive ELISA for the highly sensitive detection of ganoderic acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi, with a limit of detection of 6.10 ng/mL. Several validation analyses support the accuracy and reliability of the developed indirect competitive ELISA for use in the quality control of Ganoderma based on ganoderic acid A content. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of ganoderic acid A in G. lingzhi revealed that the pileus exhibits the highest ganoderic acid A content compared with the stipe and spore of the fruiting body; the best extraction efficiency was found when 50 % ethanol was used, which suggests the use of a strong liquor to completely harness the potential of Ganoderma triterpenoids in daily life. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Detection of Candida albicans Sap2 in cancer patient serum samples by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yicun Wang; Xiang Gao; J U Zhi gang; Jingyuan Liu; Shuai Dong; Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Background: The secreted aspartyl proteinases 2 (Sap2) of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a potential marker of candididasis. It is a virulence factor associated with adherence and tissue invasion. Aim: In order to detect Sap2 in clinical sera, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Materials and Methods: Polyclonal antibodies were produced for Sap2 by injecting Sap2 into a New Zealand White inbred rabbit. They could be used at a dilution exceeding 1...

  7. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Ag85A Antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Application in a Competitive ELISA for Serodiagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhong Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ag85 complex functions as the main secretory protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis and BCG. This complex is composed of the proteins, Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C, with Ag85A thought to play the largest role within the complex. However, the lack of commercially available monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against Ag85A still hinders the biological and applicative research on this protein. In this study, we developed and identified anti-Ag85A mAbs, and five hybridoma cells were established. Using the indirect immunofluorescence test, we found that two anti-Ag85A mAbs did not cross-react with Ag85B and/or Ag85C. In addition, we showed that all of the mAbs tested in this study are able to react with endogenous Ag85A protein in BCG and rBCG:Ag85A using indirect ELISA and Western blot analyses. A competitive ELISA (cELISA based on mAb 3B8 was developed, the analyses of clinic serum samples from cattle with bovine tuberculosis (TB and healthy cattle demonstrated that the sensitivity of the cELISA was 54.2% (26/48 and the specificity was 83.5% (167/200. This study demonstrated that the mAbs against Ag85A will provide useful reagents for further investigation into the function of the Ag85 complex and can be used for serodiagnosis of bovine TB.

  8. A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, Mark F.; Vleck, Carol M; Farrar, Eugenia S.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived stress activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation. Glucocorticoids cause the elevation of blood glucose, providing the necessary energy for the organism to cope with stress. Here, we outline a laboratory exercise that uses a competitive ELISA kit to…

  9. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Behaviourally mediated indirect effects : interference competition increases predation mortality in foraging redshanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderman, J; Lind, J; Cresswell, W

    The effect of competition for a limiting resource on the population dynamics of competitors is usually assumed to operate directly through starvation, yet may also affect survival indirectly through behaviourally mediated effects that affect risk of predation. Thus, competition can affect more than

  11. Detection of Candida albicans Sap2 in cancer patient serum samples by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The secreted aspartyl proteinases 2 (Sap2 of Candida albicans (C. albicans is a potential marker of candididasis. It is a virulence factor associated with adherence and tissue invasion. Aim: In order to detect Sap2 in clinical sera, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Materials and Methods: Polyclonal antibodies were produced for Sap2 by injecting Sap2 into a New Zealand White inbred rabbit. They could be used at a dilution exceeding 1:1200 in an indirect ELISA, and detected Sap2 concentration up to 1 ng/mL. Results: Of the 286 cancer serum samples tested, 16.8% were found as candidiasis. The test was simple and economical to perform and had a level of sensitivity for detection of low-titer positive sera; thus, it may be proven to be of value in epidemiological studies on candidiasis.

  12. Detection of Candida albicans Sap2 in cancer patient serum samples by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yicun; Gao, Xiang; Zhi Gang, J U; Liu, Jingyuan; Dong, Shuai; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    The secreted aspartyl proteinases 2 (Sap2) of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a potential marker of candididasis. It is a virulence factor associated with adherence and tissue invasion. In order to detect Sap2 in clinical sera, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyclonal antibodies were produced for Sap2 by injecting Sap2 into a New Zealand White inbred rabbit. They could be used at a dilution exceeding 1:1200 in an indirect ELISA, and detected Sap2 concentration up to 1 ng/mL. Of the 286 cancer serum samples tested, 16.8% were found as candidiasis. The test was simple and economical to perform and had a level of sensitivity for detection of low-titer positive sera; thus, it may be proven to be of value in epidemiological studies on candidiasis.

  13. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Jenny; Dunn, J Lawrence; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Smith, Cynthia R; Sidor, Inga; Jensen, Eric D; Van Bonn, William G; Pugh, Roberta; Ficht, Thomas; Adams, L Garry; Nielsen, Klaus; Romano, Tracy A

    2012-12-03

    Marine-origin Brucella infections and serologic evidence of exposure have been documented in multiple cetacean species. A dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen bottlenose dolphin sera for anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 131 serum samples collected over a 2 to 18 yr period from 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with confirmed Brucella infections were analyzed for the presence and magnitude of antibody titers against marine-origin Brucella to compare individual antibody responses to various disease manifestations. Additionally, an epidemiologic serologic survey of a managed population of 64 bottlenose dolphins was performed to evaluate for the presence of antibodies and to determine whether there were any clinical pathology predictors for exposure or infection. The serologic results revealed that the dolphins with Brucella-associated abortions were seronegative for 7 to 18 yr until after the abortion and maintained positive titers for several years, with 2 of 3 animals returning to seronegative status. In contrast, the dolphins with Brucella-associated pulmonary or bone lesions maintained persistent positive titers for 2 to 18 yr. The population serosurvey revealed no significant differences in antibody levels among males and females, and dolphins between the ages of 17 and 25 yr were 6.8 times more likely to be Brucella antibody positive compared to those that were younger or older. Seropositive dolphins did not have significant inflammation compared to seronegative dolphins but were more likely to have higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Among 16 dolphins that tested seropositive, 13 (81.3%) had previously been seropositive for at least 3 to 5 yr.

  14. Development and validation of a quantitative competitive ELISA for potency testing of equine anti rabies sera with other potential use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korimbocus, Jehanara; Dehay, Nicolas; Tordo, Noël; Cano, François; Morgeaux, Sylvie

    2016-06-14

    In case of a bite by a rabies infected animal, the World Health Organisation recommends a prophylactic treatment including the administration of Human Rabies Immunoglobulins (HRIGs) or highly purified F(ab')2 fragments produced from Equine Rabies Immunoglobulin (F(ab')2 - ERIGs). According to international regulation, quality control of F(ab')2 - ERIGs lots requires potency testing by the in vivo Mouse Neutralisation Test (MNT) prior marketing. However, the strategy of the 3Rs (Reduce, Refine, Replace) for animal testing required by the European Directive encourages the replacement of the in vivo potency test by an in vitro assay. In this context, a competitive ELISA method (c-ELISA) has been developed by the Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé where F(ab')2 - ERIGs are in competition with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the trimeric native form of the rabies glycoprotein. After a full validation study, the c-ELISA has been applied to commercial batches of F(ab')2 - ERIGs. A correlation study with the MNT demonstrated a similarity between the two methods (r=0.751). Moreover, the c-ELISA method which does not need any species specific reagent has been applied to HRIGs potency testing as an alternative method to Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT), thus avoiding the handling of live rabies virus in BSL3 containment. In conclusion, the c-ELISA has shown its potential to replace MNT and possibly RFFIT for the quantification of rabies immunoglobulin. After optimisation it may be used for the quantification of rabies immunoglobulin in any animal species, notably for rabies immunogenicity assay in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Broad spectrum reactivity versus subtype specificity-trade-offs in serodiagnosis of influenza A virus infections by competitive ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, A; Ziller, M; Rudolf, M; Letzel, T; Ehricht, Ralf; Pourquier, P; Dauber, M; Grund, C; Beer, Martin; Harder, T C

    2011-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of the H5 and H7 subtypes can cause substantial economic losses in the poultry industry and are a potential threat to public health. Serosurveillance of poultry populations is an important monitoring tool and can also be used for control of vaccination campaigns. The purpose of this study was to develop broadly reactive, yet subtype-specific competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) for the specific detection of antibodies to the notifiable AIV subtypes H5 and H7 as an alternative to the gold standard haemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). Broadly reacting monoclonal competitor antibodies (mAbs) and genetically engineered subtype H5 or H7 haemagglutinin antigen, expressed and in vivo biotinylated in insect cells, were used to develop the cELISAs. Sera from galliform species and water fowl (n=793) were used to evaluate the performance characteristics of the cELISAs. For the H5 specific cELISA, 98.1% test sensitivity and 91.5% test specificity (97.7% and 90.2% for galliforms; 98.9% and 92.6% for waterfowl), and for the H7 cELISA 97.3% sensitivity and 91.8% specificity (95.3% and 98.9% for galliforms; 100% and 82.7% for waterfowl) were reached when compared to HI. The use of competitor mAbs with broad spectrum reactivity within an AIV haemagglutinin subtype allowed for homogenous detection with high sensitivity of subtype-specific antibodies induced by antigenically widely distinct isolates including antigenic drift variants. However, a trade-off regarding sensitivity versus nonspecific detection of interfering antibodies induced by phylo- and antigenically closely related subtypes, e.g., H5 versus H2 and H7 versus H15, must be considered. The observed intersubtype antibody cross-reactivity remains a disturbance variable in AIV subtype-specific serodiagnosis which negatively affects specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Teste de ELISA indireto para o diagnóstico sorológico de pitiose Indirect ELISA for the serodiagnostic of pythiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janio M. Santurio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose, doença granulomatosa de eqüinos causada pelo oomiceto Pythium insidiosum, tem como característica a evolução rápida seguida de morte dos animais. Estas mortes muitas vezes são causadas por diagnósticos errôneos ou demorados quando os doentes já não respondem ao tratamento. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para diagnóstico sorológico de pitiose em eqüinos e coelhos, visando a diminuição de erros e de tempo necessário para o diagnóstico. Para o desenvolvimento e validação do teste foram utilizadas 72 amostras de soro de eqüinos saudáveis e 44 soros de eqüinos com pitiose confirmada. Os resultados da validação do ELISA para eqüinos foram: sensibilidade 97,72%, especificidade 90,27%, valor preditivo positivo 86%, valor preditivo negativo 98,4% e eficiência de 93,1%. Para coelhos, o teste foi padronizado com 48 amostras de soro de animais saudáveis e 24 amostras de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de P. insidiosum. Os resultados foram: sensibilidade 91,66%, especificidade 95,83%, valor preditivo positivo 91,66%, valor preditivo negativo 95,83% e eficiência de 94,44%. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que o ensaio imunoenzimático indireto é um método seguro e eficaz para o diagnóstico sorológico da pitiose.Pythiosis is a granulomatous disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum that affects humans and animals, especially horses. Deaths are very often the consequence of incorrect or late diagnosis when animals no longer respond to treatment. This study aimed standardization of the ELISA assay for the serodiagnostic of pythiosis in horses and rabbits, in order to minimize errors and delays in the diagnosis of the disease. Sera of 72 healthy and 44 of by pythiosis affected horses were used for development and evaluation of the test. The ELISA for equine diagnostic showed 97.72% sensitivity, 90.27% specificity, 86% positive predictive value

  17. A Direct, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for Small Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina

    2012-01-01

    ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of small molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…

  18. USE OF AN INDIRECT ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA TO DETECT ANTIBODIES IN AYU (Plecogiossus altivelis VACCINATED BY IMMERSION ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sukenda

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect serum antibody in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, immunized against Pseudomonasplecoglossicida by immersion vaccination.  First, the procedure of the ELISA was optimized and the sensitivity was checked.  Secondly, the formalin-killed cells (FKC of P. plecoglossicida was administered to ayu by immersion vaccination.  Two weeks after vaccination, fish were divided into two groups, one group was given booster.  The level of specific antibody production of both boostered and vaccinated only fish were statistically higher than unvaccinated control fish at the time of each blood collection.  However, the differences between the boostered and vaccinated only fish were not statistically significant.Keywords :  immunization, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, ayu, ELISA ABSTRAKIndirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA digunakan untuk mendeteksi antibodi pada ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, yang diimunisasi dengan cara perendaman untuk melawan infeksi Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.  Pertama, prosedur ELISA dioptimasikan dan sensitivitas dari metode ini juga diperiksa.  Kemudian, bakteri Plecoglossus altivelis yang sudah dimatikan dengan formalin diberikan ke ikan ayu dengan vaksinasi perendaman.  Dua minggu setelah vaksinasi, ikan dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, satu kelompok diberi vaksinasi kedua.  Produksi antibodi spesifik dari ikan-ikan yang divaksinasi satu kali dengan vaksinasi dua kaii secara statistik lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan control.  Akan tetapi, tidak ada perbedaan produksi antibodi antara ikan yarig divaksanisi satu kali dengan divaksinasi dua kali.Kata kunci :  imunisasi, Pseudomonasplecoglossicida, ayu, ELISA

  19. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

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    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  20. Development of an indirect ELISA to detect Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep employing T1 strain culture supernatant as antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Rebouças

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, a chronic disease that affects goats and sheep, characterized by granuloma formation in subcutaneous and internal lymph nodes. CLA causes significant economic losses to commercial goat herds. In this study, we aimed to test secreted antigens secreted from T1 strain bacteria grown in brain heart infusion (BHI broth in an indirect ELISA system to determine the presence of specific immunoglobulins against C. pseudotuberculosis. We analyzed the BHI antigen electrophoretic profile and the recognition pattern by infected sheep sera samples. The ELISA results were compared with multiplex PCR assay and IFN-gamma production. The ELISA was able to discriminate between negative and positive animals, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 99%, using microbiological isolation as gold standard. When this assay was compared with multiplex PCR and specific IFN-gamma quantification, six discrepant results were found among thirty-two samples. We concluded that the ELISA using antigens secreted from C. pseudotuberculosis T1 strain growth in BHI broth culture can be used for the serodiagnosis of CLA in sheep.

  1. Development and evaluation of a truncated recombinant NS3 antigen-based indirect ELISA for detection of pestivirus antibodies in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Behera, Sthita Pragnya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect ELISA using the helicase domain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) NS3 protein instead of full-length NS3 protein for detection of BVDV and BDV antibodies in sheep and goats and its validation by comparing its sensitivity and specificity with virus neutralization test (VNT) as the reference test. The purified 50 kDa recombinant NS3 protein was used as the coating antigen in the ELISA. The optimal concentration of antigen was 320 ng/well at a serum dilution of 1:20 and the optimal positive cut-off optical density value was 0.40 based on test results of 418 VNT negative sheep and goat sera samples. When 569 serum samples from sheep (463) and goats (106) were tested, the ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.71% and specificity of 94.59% with BVDV VNT. A good correlation (93.67%) was observed between the two tests. It showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 86.6% with VNT in detecting BDV antibody positive or negative samples. This study demonstrates the efficacy of truncated recombinant NS3 antigen based ELISA for seroepidemiological study of pestivirus infection in sheep and goats.

  2. Control charts for identifying systematic errors using control sera to detect antibody to Salmonella in an indirect ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, H.; Barfod, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the preparation of Shewhart's control charts using the concept of rational subgroups for monitoring the Salmonella antibody ELISA used for surveillance of Danish pig herds. Control charts were prepared for a buffer control sample, a negative serum sample and a positive serum...

  3. ELISA indireto para detecção de IgG antivírus da doença de Newcastle em soro de codorna Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was observed between the ELISA and the HI, being the ELISA efficient in the identification of positive and negative sera, with high sensitivity and specificity (100%. These results validate the use of the indirect ELISA as an alternative for the detection of NDV-specific IgG in japanese quail sera, with the advantage of high sensitivity and automation.

  4. Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests

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    Pace Umberto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. Results In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual data in some model systems. Conclusion The data suggest that the peptides bind to the plastic substratum in more than one conformation and that, once bound, the peptide displays different affinities for the antibody, depending on how it has bound to the plate

  5. Seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA in pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia

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    Annytha Detha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Encephalitis (JE, a vector-borne zoonotic viral disease, is mostly prevalent in Asian countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurence of JE virus (JEV among pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia. Blood samples (n=52 were randomly collected from 52 apparantly healthy pigs where pig population was high in East Sumba. The samples were subjected for seroprevalence study for the presence of antibodies against JEV using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA. Results showed that 53% (n=28/52 blood samples from the pigs contained antibodies against JEV. This finding is suggestive that the JEV is circulating among pig population in East Sumba, Indonesia. The data may help in designing control strategies of the JEV in the East Sumba, Indonesia.

  6. Indirect ELISA based on Hendra and Nipah virus proteins for the detection of henipavirus specific antibodies in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Fischer

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV belong to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Henipavirus infections were first reported in the 1990's causing severe and often fatal outbreaks in domestic animals and humans in Southeast Asia and Australia. NiV infections were observed in humans in Bangladesh, India and in the first outbreak in Malaysia, where pigs were also infected. HeV infections occurred in horses in the North-Eastern regions of Australia, with singular transmission events to humans. Bats of the genus Pteropus have been identified as the reservoir hosts for henipaviruses. Molecular and serological indications for the presence of henipa-like viruses in African fruit bats, pigs and humans have been published recently. In our study, truncated forms of HeV and NiV attachment (G proteins as well as the full-length NiV nucleocapsid (N protein were expressed using different expression systems. Based on these recombinant proteins, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA were developed for the detection of HeV or NiV specific antibodies in porcine serum samples. We used the NiV N ELISA for initial serum screening considering the general reactivity against henipaviruses. The G protein based ELISAs enabled the differentiation between HeV and NiV infections, since as expected, the sera displayed higher reactivity with the respective homologous antigens. In the future, these assays will present valuable tools for serosurveillance of swine and possibly other livestock or wildlife species in affected areas. Such studies will help assessing the potential risk for human and animal health worldwide by elucidating the distribution of henipaviruses.

  7. Indirect competitive immunoassay for the detection of fungicide Thiabendazole in whole orange samples by Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, M-Carmen; Belenguer, Jose; Gomez-Montes, Silvia; Miralles, Javier; Escuela, Alfonso M; Montoya, Angel; Lechuga, Laura M

    2012-12-07

    A highly sensitive and specific SPR-based competitive immunoassay for the detection of Thiabendazole (TBZ) has been developed. An indirect format where a TBZ-protein conjugate is immobilized onto gold surfaces has been selected. Under the optimal conditions, a LOD of 0.67 nM (0.13 μg L(-1)) and an IC(50) of 3.2 nM (0.64 μg L(-1)) have been achieved which are comparable to the values obtained by conventional ELISA. Analysis of real samples has been attempted by first evaluating the influence of complex matrix samples coming from whole oranges and secondly measuring samples containing TBZ previously evaluated by chromatographic methods. A methanolic extraction procedure followed by a simple dilution in assay buffer has proven to be sufficient to measure orange samples using the developed immunoassay with an excellent recovery percentage. The sensitivity and the feasibility of measuring whole orange samples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the SPR biosensor, which can be useful for the determination of TBZ in food at concentrations below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established by the European legislation.

  8. Teste de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres Indirect ELISA for the serological diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in wild canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.B. Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    assay (ELISA for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazilian species of wild canids is described. Serum and plasma samples from 12 captive wild canids were studied: seven from maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus, and two from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous. Samples from C. brachyurus and L. vetulus, both captive in an endemic area for VL, presenting clinical disease and positivity in Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction and Polymerase Chain Reaction tests were used as positive controls. The antibody anti-dog IgG and Protein A, both conjugated with horseradish peroxidase, were compared in indirect ELISA tests which detected four (04/12 and three (03/12 seropositive C. brachyurus for anti-Leishmania antibodies, respectively. The ELISA tests were able to clearly distinguish negative from positive samples, as the mean optical density (OD of the negative samples was 4.8 and 15.5 times lower than those of the positive ones either using anti-dog IgG and Protein A, respectively. Samples from three ELISA - positive C. brachyurus were analyzed by Western blotting and identified immunodominant bands of 19, 22, 24, 45 and 66 kDa, among 22 protein bands detected. The ELISAs with protein A and anti-dog IgG showed respectively excellent (Kappa = 1.0; p<0.001 and moderate (Kappa = 0.8; p<0.0015 agreement with the Western blotting assay. The ELISA tests showed to be adequate for screening studies to identify antibody responses, thus indicating contact with Leishmania infection by wild canids.

  9. Spatial distribution, risk factors and haemato-biochemical alterations associated with Theileria equi infected equids of Punjab (India) diagnosed by indirect ELISA and nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbria, Deepak; Singla, L D; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Amrita; Dahiya, Rajesh K; Setia, Raj

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a febrile, tick-borne disease of equids predominately caused by obligatory intra-erythrocytic protozoa Theileria equi in the Indian sub-continent. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 464 equids (426 horses and 38 donkeys/mules) in Punjab, India to assess the level of exposure to equine piroplasmosis by 18S rRNA gene nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and equine merozoite antigen-2 (EMA2) indirect-ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), to investigate risk factors and haemato-biochemical alterations associated with the infection. The endemicity of the disease was confirmed by positive PCR amplification in 21.77% and positive antibody titers in 49.78% equid samples. There was a fair agreement between these two diagnostic techniques (Kappa coefficient=0.326). The spatial distribution analysis revealed an increasing trend of T. equi prevalence from north-eastern to south-western region of Punjab by both the techniques correspondingly, which proffered a direct relation with temperature and inverse with humidity variables. The relatively prominent risk factor associated with sero-positivity was the presence of other domestic animals in the herd, while the propensity of finding a positive PCR amplification was higher in donkeys/mules, animal kept at unorganised farm or those used for commercial purposes as compared to their counterparts. There was a significant increase in globulins, gamma glutamyl-transferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, glucose levels and decrease in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume by animals, which were revealed positive by nPCR (may or may not positive by indirect-ELISA) and increase in creatinine, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, glucose and decrease in total erythrocytes count by animals, which were revealed positive by indirect-ELISA (alone). To our knowledge, this study, for the first time, brings out a comprehensive report on the status on spatial

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF AN INDIRECT ELISA FOR THE DIAGNOSIS MAEDI-VISNA IN SHEEP DESENVOLVIMENTO E PADRONIZAÇÃO DE UM ELISA INDIRETO PARA DIAGNÓSTICO DE MAEDI VISNA EM OVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Valeska Medeiros Dantas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop and standardize an indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Maedi Visna (MV infection. The antigen was produced from the supernatants of caprine synovial membrane (CSM cell monolayers inoculated with Maedi Visna virus (MVV, strain K1514, by cycles of freezing and thawed, and clarified by centrifugation at 3000 g for 40 min. The clarified suspension was precipitated with PEG 8000 and centrifugated at 12000 g for 60 min; the pellet was resuspended in buffer TNE and layered onto a sucrose cushion by centrifugation at 42000 g for 105 min. The pellet was resuspended in PBS containing phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF. The ELISA was performed in 96 wells plates, incubated for 1 h at 37 ºC. The reaction was detected by incubation with the enzyme substrate and o-phenylenediamine (OPD during 15 min.  The tests were compared using 175 sera samples. The concentration of the antigen was 2 µg/mL and the best dilution of the sera was 1:100. ELISA detected more positive samples (22.9% than AGID (6.3% and presented a better sensitivity than AGID and, although the specificity was below the expected, it could already be recomended in the diagnosis of MVV infection.KEY WORDS: ELISA, MaediVisna, serologic diagnosis, sheep lentivirus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e padronizar um ELISA indireto para diagnóstico de Maedi Visna (MV. Produziu-se o antígeno em sobrenadantes de cultivo celular de membrana sinovial caprina (MSC inoculado com o Maedi Visna Vírus (MVV cepa K1514, que passou por ciclos de congelamento e descongelamento, sendo logo após clarificado

  11. Characterization of novel monoclonal antibodies against the MERS-coronavirus spike protein and their application in species-independent antibody detection by competitive ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Shuetsu; Fukuma, Aiko; Kurosu, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shumpei; Shimojima, Masayuki; Shirato, Kazuya; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Nagata, Noriyo; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Ato, Manabu; Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Saijo, Masayuki

    2018-01-01

    Since discovering the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as a causative agent of severe respiratory illness in the Middle East in 2012, serological testing has been conducted to assess antibody responses in patients and to investigate the zoonotic reservoir of the virus. Although the virus neutralization test is the gold standard assay for MERS diagnosis and for investigating the zoonotic reservoir, it uses live virus and so must be performed in high containment laboratories. Competitive ELISA (cELISA), in which a labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) competes with test serum antibodies for target epitopes, may be a suitable alternative because it detects antibodies in a species-independent manner. In this study, novel MAbs against the spike protein of MERS-CoV were produced and characterized. One of these MAbs was used to develop a cELISA. The cELISA detected MERS-CoV-specific antibodies in sera from MERS-CoV-infected rats and rabbits immunized with the spike protein of MERS-CoV. The MAb-based cELISA was validated using sera from Ethiopian dromedary camels. Relative to the neutralization test, the cELISA detected MERS-CoV-specific antibodies in 66 Ethiopian dromedary camels with a sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 100%, respectively. The cELISA and neutralization test results correlated well (Pearson's correlation coefficients=0.71-0.76, depending on the cELISA serum dilution). This cELISA may be useful for MERS epidemiological investigations on MERS-CoV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV in Mardan, Hangu and Kohat District of Pakistan; Comparative Analysis of PPRV Suspected serum samples using Competitive ELISA (cELISA and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Aslam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits Ruminants (PPR is an acute, febrile, highly contagious and economically important viral disease of small ruminants. However PPR is more prevalent in sheep and goat. Competitive ELISA, Virus neutrilization test, and RT-PCR are the available techniques for diagnosis of PPR which give rapid detection where as Agar gel immunodiffusion and Counter immunoelectrophoresis were previously used for PPR detection. In this study two serological techniques were compared for PPR diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative sensitivity of both techniques for PPR detection. For this purpose one hundred and sixty PPR suspected serum samples collected from goats and sheep flocks (unvaccinated from three Districts of NWFP including Mardan, Hangu and Kohat were analyzed in National Veterinary Laboratories, Islamabad. Out of these 160 samples, fifty (50 were found positive for PPR antibodies with cELISA (Prevalence = 31.25%. The cELISA positive serum samples however gave negative results when tested with AGID although the control well was always positive. Thus it was concluded that cELISA technique is more sensitive and specific than AGID for PPR antibody detection. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 89-92

  13. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected non-human primates by Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA and indirect ELISA Detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii por meio das técnicas de Imunofluorescência Indireta e ELISA Indireto em primatas experimentalmente e naturalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bouer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA and the indirect ELISA were comparatively used to detect IgG and IgM antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally and naturally infected primates. In the experimentally infected group, antibodies of diagnostic value were detected at day 9 post-infection (PI with the IFA (IgG and IgM and with IgG-ELISA. IgM-ELISA detected antibodies for T. gondii starting at day 3 PI until the end of the experiment (102 days PI. Of the 209 naturally infected sera tested, from many zoos of State of Sao Paulo, 64.59 and 67.94% were positive in the IgG-IFA test and IgG-ELISA respectively. IgM-ELISA test detected seropositivity in 52.63% of the sera although IgM-IFA test detected it in only in 0.96% of the samples. The differential toxoplasmosis diagnosis was accomplished with Neospora caninum by IFA, observing 61 (29.2% seropositive animals for this parasite and 149 (70.8% negative. Sixty animals were positive for both T. gondii and N. caninum. Pneumonia, splenomegaly, and intestinal ulcers were macroscopically observed. Unremarkable interstitial pneumonia, enteritis, colitis, splenitis, and glomerulitis were microscopically observed. The immunohistochemical stain could not detect the presence of T. gondii in the tissues of the animals infected experimentally.Detectou-se anticorpos das classes IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii em primatas experimentalmente e naturalmente infectados, utilizando-se como técnicas comparativas a RIFI e o ELISA-teste. No grupo dos primatas experimentalmente infectados, anticorpos de valor diagnóstico foram detectados a partir do 9º dia de infecção tanto na RIFI (IgG e IgM como no ELISA-IgG. O ELISA IgM detectou anticorpos a partir do 3º dia de infecção até o final do experimento (102 dias pós-infecção. Dos 209 soros dos primatas naturalmente infectados, de diversos zoológicos do Estado de São Paulo, 64,59 e 67,94% mostraram-se positivos na RIFI-IgG e no ELISA-IgG, respectivamente. O

  14. Competitive-IgY- Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (CIgY-ELISA to detect the cytokinins in Gerbera jamesonii plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Mateus Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A competitive hyper-immune yolk Immunoglobulin Y - Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (CIgY-ELISA, was developed as an alternative method to detect zeatin and 2ip in plantlets of gerbera. The endogenous level of hormones in the plantlets in vitro of gerbera with one or six weeks after replication was determined with competitive IgY-ELISA set to detect between 1 and 100 pmoles of plant hormone for each 1.0 g tissue. The plantlets of six weeks presented sprouts and root, while the plantlets of one week presented only sprouts. The CIgY-ELISA was set with high independent variables values of sensitivity/specificity of 96/89 % for zeatin and 94/78 % for 2ip, with high values of reproducibility (up to 90 % for both the cytokinins. Zeatin content varied from 2.2 to 2.8 pmoles.g-1 and from 2.7 to 3.3 pmoles.g-1 on the plantlet with one and six weeks, respectively. The 2ip content did not vary and was detected near the detection limit in all the assays. It was concluded that the observed capabilities of CIgY-ELISA were putative and the competitive assay was a highly robust and stable method, which could be used for the studies on plant physiology for endogenous cytokinins.

  15. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt–100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels.

  16. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Onodera, Takeshi [Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toko, Kiyoshi, E-mail: toko@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-05-30

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt–100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels.

  17. Detection of hidden hazelnut protein in food by IgY-based indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Kemmers - Voncken, A.E.M.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Banks, J.; Reece, P.; Danks, C.; Tomkies, V.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    The development of an indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay for the detection of hidden hazelnut protein in complex food matrices is described. A sensitive and selective polyclonal antibody was raised by immunisation of laying hens with protein extracts from roasted hazelnuts. In contrast to

  18. Comparison of indirect ELISA based on recombinant protein NcSRS2 and IFAT for detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep Comparação entre ELISA baseado no antígeno recombinante NcSRS2 e RIFI para detecção de anticorpos de Neospora caninum em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum, an Apicomplexan parasite that can causes abortion, is responsible for considerable economic and reproductive losses in livestock. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether recombinant NcSRS2 is a suitable indirect ELISA antigen for determining specific immune response to N. caninum in sheep. A total of 441 serum samples were subjected to IFAT and rNcSRS2 based-ELISA, with both tests performing similarly. The sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA were 98.6 and 98.3%, respectively. The kappa index shows 0.98 concordance between the two tests, which is considered excellent. Seroprevalences of 30.8 and 32.0% were detected by IFAT and indirect ELISA, respectively, showing these tests did not differ significantly on this measure (p > 0.05. Serological analysis showed that HisG tag was detected by Western Blotting recognizing rNcSRS2 protein. The potential value of rNcSRS2-based ELISA as a highly specific and sensitive tool for serological diagnosis is also supported by the strong agreement found between IFAT and ELISA. The results support the potential use of recombinant protein NcSRS2 as an antigen in indirect ELISA in sheep.Neospora caninum é um parasito Apicomplexa que pode causar abortos e é reconhecido como agente importante responsável por perdas econômicas e reprodutivas. Este estudo avaliou a proteína recombinante NcSRS2 como antígeno para ELISA indireto na determinação de resposta imune para N. caninum em ovinos. 441 amostras de soro foram analisadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto com rNcSRS2 e ambos os testes revelaram comportamento similar. A sensibilidade e especificidade de ELISA indireto foram 98,6 e 98,3%, respectivamente. O índice kappa mostrou uma concordância entre os dois testes com valor de 0,98, que é considerado excelente. Prevalências de 30,8 e 32,0% detectadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto, respectivamente, mostraram que os testes não diferiram significativamente nesse aspecto (P

  19. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to the Apx toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ragnhild; van den Bosch, Johannes F.; Plambeck, Tamara

    2000-01-01

    The reference strains of the 12 serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae express one or two of three different RTX exotoxins designated Apr I, Apr II and Apr III. The toxins are important virulence factors. In the present study, ELISAs with purified Apr I, Apr II and Apr III, respectively...... of exotoxin is not revealed serologically in the ELISA test....

  20. Development of monoclonal antibodies bearing the internal image of the gizzerosine epitope and application in a competitive ELISA for fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Headdy; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2004-02-01

    Gizzerosine (GZ), a derivative of histamine, is a biogenic amine found in fish meal, and one of the causative agents of black vomit, a poultry disease. We describe here the preparation of anti-idiotype antibodies to the anti-GZ monoclonal antibody (anti-GZ 3H4) and their possible application to an immunoassay. BALB-c mice were immunized with anti-GZ 3H4 antibody coupled to hemocyanin from Concholepas concholepas. Using somatic cell fusion between NSO/2 cells and splenic lymphocytes from the immunized mice, we obtained 34 potential anti-idiotype antibodies. They were characterized by passive agglutination with supernatants from hybridoma cultures and latex particles conjugated to the idiotype. Anti-idiotype antibodies were analyzed by a competitive RIA, to determine their ability to dissociate the interaction between (125)I-GZ and the anti-GZ 3H4-idiotype antibody. They were also characterized by GZ inhibition of latex passive agglutination assay. Three anti-idiotypes named 2D11, 2H6, and 3A12, all of the IgG isotype, were obtained. They were evaluated by a competitive ELISA, in which GZ competes with the tracer (HRP-idiotype). All presented sensitivity in the range of 0.1-10 microg/mL of GZ; and the 3A12 anti-idiotype antibody showed the best performance. An ELISA was developed using the idiotype bound to the solid phase and the anti-idiotype 3A12-HRP as the tracer. The assay showed a similar sensitivity and cross-reactivity with histamine was only observed at concentrations over 10 microg/mL. Lysine and histidine did not interfere with the assay up to 500 microg/mL. An experiment was conducted with fish meal contaminated with synthetic GZ. The results are promising, and showed that no other compounds of the fish meal interfere with the ELISA system; however the extraction procedure of the sample needs to be improved. From the results presented here, we conclude that the idiotype anti-idiotype ELISA would be an appropriate method to determine GZ in fish meal.

  1. Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to differentiate antibodies against wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome from the vaccine strain TJM-F92 based on a recombinant Nsp2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Wang, F X; Li, Z G; Wen, Y J; Wang, X; Song, N; Wu, H

    2018-01-01

    An accurate ELISA method to differentiate pigs infected with wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV) strains from vaccinated ones would help to monitor PRRSV vaccination compliance. The recombinant protein GST-d120aa derived from the continuous deletion of 120 amino acids in the non-structural protein 2 region of the modified-live vaccine strain TJM-F92 was used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (d120-ELISA) for differentiating serum antibodies against TJM-F92 from other PRRSV strains. At the optimized cut-off value which was calculated at an S/P of 0.25, it yielded a sensitivity of 90.7% and a specificity of 95.1%. Cross-reactivity tests suggested that the d120-ELISA was PRRSV-specific. Coefficient of variations of the repeatability tests ranged between 1.41-17.02%. The results suggest that the d120-ELISA is suitable for differentiating animals infected with wild-type strains from those immunized with MLV TJM-F92. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay applied to the Botrytis cinerea quantification in tissues of postharvest fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raba Julio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for the disease known as gray mold, which causes substantial losses of fruits at postharvest. This fungus is present often as latent infection and an apparently healthy fruit can deteriorate suddenly due to the development of this infection. For this reason, rapid and sensitive methods are necessary for its detection and quantification. This article describes the development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for quantification of B. cinerea in apple (Red Delicious, table grape (pink Moscatel, and pear (William's tissues. Results The method was based in the competition for the binding site of monoclonal antibodies between B. cinerea antigens present in fruit tissues and B. cinerea purified antigens immobilized by a crosslinking agent onto the surface of the microtiter plates. The method was validated considering parameters such as selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and sensibility. The calculated detection limit was 0.97 μg mL-1 B. cinerea antigens. The immobilized antigen was perfectly stable for at least 4 months assuring the reproducibility of the assay. The fungus was detected and quantified in any of the fruits tested when the rot was not visible yet. Results were compared with a DNA quantification method and these studies showed good correlation. Conclusions The developed method allowed detects the presence of B. cinerea in asymptomatic fruits and provides the advantages of low cost, easy operation, and short analysis time determination for its possible application in the phytosanitary programs of the fruit industry worldwide.

  3. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs. PMID:27429469

  4. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongge Yuan

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC, a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3 with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  5. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  6. Validation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) specific antibodies in individual milk samples of Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramps, J.A.; Maanen, van K.; Mars, M.H.; Popma, J.K.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2008-01-01

    recently developed indirect ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV)-specific antibodies in bovine milk samples was compared to that of the routinely used competitive ELISA on serum samples. During the bluetongue outbreak in the Netherlands in 2006, caused by BTV serotype 8, coupled serum

  7. Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ju, Huanyu; Li, Yanwei; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Junwei

    2014-12-01

    An assay protocol based on a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-based C-ELISA) for detecting antibodies against goose parvovirus (GPV) and its virus-like particles (VLPs) is described. The assay was developed using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 virus-like particles (rVP2-VLPs) as antigens and a monoclonal antibody against GPV as the competitive antibody. Of the four anti-GPV MAbs that were screened, MAb 1G3 was selected as it was blocked by the GPV positive serum. Based on the distribution of percent inhibition (PI) of the known negative sera (n=225), a cut-off value was set at 36% inhibition. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was 93.3% and the specificity was 95.8%, as compared with the gold standard (virus neutralization assay). The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies. The assay was then validated with serum samples from goslings vaccinated with several VLPs (rVP1-VLPs, rVP2-VLPs, rVP3-VLPs, and rCGV-VLPs) and other vaccines (inactivated and attenuated). The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of an indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against BoHV-1 in bovine and guinea-pig serum samples using ISO/IEC 17025 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreño, Viviana; Romera, S Alejandra; Makek, Lucia; Rodriguez, Daniela; Malacari, Darío; Maidana, Silvina; Compaired, Diego; Combessies, Gustavo; Vena, María Marta; Garaicoechea, Lorena; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Marangunich, Laura; Fernandez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    Two ELISAs to quantify antibodies to BoHV-1 in the sera of cattle and immunized guinea pigs were developed and validated using ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The cut-off value of the assay was established at 20% positivity of a high positive control for screening of cattle. Using this threshold, the assay properly classified the OIE bovine reference sera EU1, EU2 and EU3. For vaccine potency testing, a cut-off of 40% was selected for both species. The reliability of the assays, given by their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, using the threshold of 40% was 89.7% and 100%, respectively, for bovines and 94.9% and 100% for guinea pigs, respectively. There was almost perfect agreement between the ELISA and virus neutralization results. In addition, after vaccination, there was a good correlation between the neutralizing and ELISA antibody titers of the serum from the same bovine or guinea pig, sampled at 60 and 30 days post-vaccination, respectively (R(bovine)=0.88, R(guinea pig)=0.92; p<0.0001). A similar correlation was observed when analyzing the mean antibody titers of groups of vaccinated animals (R(bovine)=0.95 and R(guinea pig)=0.97; p<0.0001), indicating the relevance of the ELISAs for batch to batch vaccine potency testing in the target species and in the laboratory animal model. The intermediate precision of the assays expressed as the relative coefficient of variation (CV) of the positive control assayed over a 3-year period in the same laboratory was 22.2% for bovines and 23.1% for guinea pigs. The reproducibility of both techniques obtained in inter-laboratory assays was CV=12.4% for bovines and CV approximately 0 for guinea pigs, which met the requirements of the OIE (CV<30%). The validated ELISAs represent important methods for vaccine potency testing and for controlling BoHV-1 infections. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk against two indirect ELISAs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Toft, Nils; Stokstad, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in cattle worldwide. The Norwegian control program against these infections is based on herd-level diagnosis using a new multiplex immunoassay. The objective of this study...... was to estimate sensitivity and specificity across different cut-off values for the MVD-Enferplex BCV/BRSV multiplex, by comparing them to a commercially available ELISA, the SVANOVIR® BCV-Ab and SVANOVIR® BRSV-Ab, respectively. We analyzed bulk tank milk samples from 360 herds in a low- and 360 herds in a high...

  10. Preparation of anti-Sudan red monoclonal antibody and development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Sudan red in chilli jam and chilli oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyang; Yi, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wan, Yuping; Feng, Caiwei; Wang, Shanliang; Lu, Xiao; Xi, Rimo

    2010-10-01

    Sudan dyes are banned to be used in food additives because of the carcinogenicity of their metabolites. A rapid and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the residues of Sudan dyes. Novel immunogen and coating antigen were synthesized via glutaraldehyde linking. The hapten-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was applied as immunogen and the hapten-ovalbumin (OVA) was served as coating antigen. The monoclonal antibody obtained showed high sensitivity to Sudan I with an IC(50) value of 1.7 μg L(-1) in buffer and was suitable to detect the residues of Sudan red in food products. The specificity of the assay was studied by measuring cross-reactivity of the antibody with the structurally related compounds of Sudan II (red (120%). Chilli jam and chilli oil samples spiked with Sudan dyes were analyzed by the method. The detection limit (LOD) of the ELISA method applied in chilli jam and chilli oil was 9.0 μg L(-1) and 19.6 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery rates of Sudan-I in chilli oil and chilli jam were in the range of 80%-110% with coefficients of variation <25%. The intra-assay variation and inter-assay variation in buffer were both <9%.

  11. Direct and indirect effects of a dense understory on tree seedling recruitment in temperate forests: habitat-mediated predation versus competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2008-01-01

    In forests characterized by a dense woody and herbaceous understory layer, seedling recruitment is often directly suppressed via interspecific competition. Alternatively, these dense layers may indirectly lower tree recruitment by providing a haven for seed and seedling predators that prey on neighboring plant species. To simultaneously...

  12. Detección de anticuerpos anti-Brucella spp. en cerdos mediante técnicas de aglutinación y ELISA indirecto en las provincias de Buenos Aires y La Pampa: Argentina Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces: Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Castro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país no existe un programa de control sobre brucelosis porcina y su verdadera situación epidemiológica es desconocida. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue detectar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Brucella spp. en porcinos provenientes de criaderos del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires y del este de la provincia de La Pampa. La toma de muestras de sangre se realizó en el momento del faenado de los animales. La detección de anticuerpos se efectuó mediante las técnicas de aglutinación con antígeno tamponado en placa (BPA, seroaglutinación en tubo (SAT, aglutinación con 2-ME (2-ME y ELISA indirecto, con dos antígenos diferentes: el antígeno CYT (fracción citoplasmática de B. abortus S19 y el antígeno CP (extracto citoplasmático libre de lipopolisacárido. Del total de las muestras analizadas (n=325, el 17,8% fue positivo para BPA, el 13,8% fue positivo para SAT y sólo el 8,0% fue positivo para 2-ME. Mediante ELISA-CYT, este porcentaje se elevó a 21,0%, mientras que a través del ELISA-CP sólo se halló un 10,0% de muestras reactivas. Estos resultados son compatibles con los informados en los escasos reportes previos para todo el país y sugieren la necesidad de extender los estudios a otras zonas, donde sea habitual la cría de cerdos.Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA, the tube agglutination test (SAT, the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19

  13. Does the European natural gas market pass the competitive benchmark of the theory of storage? Indirect tests for three major trading points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronzik, Marcus; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe; Neumann, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the first comparative analysis of the relationship between natural gas storage utilization and price patterns at three major European trading points. Using two indirect tests developed by that are applied in other commodity markets, we impose the no arbitrage condition to model the efficiency of the natural gas market. The results reveal that while operators of European storage facilities realize seasonal arbitrage profits, substantial arbitrage potentials remain. We suggest that the indirect approach is well suited to provide market insights for periods with limited data. We find that overall market performance differs substantially from the competitive benchmark of the theory of storage. (author)

  14. Elisa Miller | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa Miller Photo of Elisa Miller Elisa Link-Miller Researcher III-Chemistry Elisa.Miller@nrel.gov | 303-384-6777 Dr. Elisa Miller-Link studies the surface of semiconductors that are applicable for , and other nanocrystalline films. Elisa came to NREL in 2013 as an NREL Director's Fellowship recipient

  15. An ELISA test for the detection of antibodies to Legionella pneumophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreghitt, T G; Nagington, J; Gray, J

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test has been developed to detect antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. There is good correlation between indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and ELISA titres but ELISA is more sensitive.

  16. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  17. Underground friends or enemies: model plants help to unravel direct and indirect effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facelli, Evelina; Smith, Sally E; Facelli, José M; Christophersen, Helle M; Andrew Smith, F

    2010-03-01

    *We studied the effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, singly or together, on the outcome of competition between a host (tomato cultivar, wild-type (WT)) and a surrogate nonhost (rmc, a mycorrhiza-defective mutant of WT) as influenced by the contributions of the direct and AM phosphorus (P) uptake pathways to plant P. *We grew plants singly or in pairs of the same or different genotypes (inoculated or not) in pots containing a small compartment with (32)P-labelled soil accessible to AM fungal hyphae and determined expression of orthophosphate (P(i)) transporter genes involved in both AM and direct P uptake. *Gigaspora margarita increased WT competitive effects on rmc. WT and rmc inoculated with Glomus intraradices both showed growth depressions, which were mitigated when G. margarita was present. Orthophosphate transporter gene expression and (32)P transfer showed that the AM pathway operated in single inoculated WT, but not in rmc. *Effects of AM fungi on plant competition depended on the relative contributions of AM and direct pathways of P uptake. Glomus intraradices reduced the efficiency of direct uptake in both WT and rmc. The two-fungus combination showed that interactions between fungi are important in determining outcomes of plant competition.

  18. Evidence for a bubble-competition regime in indirectly driven ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D A; Smalyuk, V A; Kane, J O; Casner, A; Liberatore, S; Masse, L P

    2015-05-29

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. This extended tailored drive allows a distance traveled in excess of 1 mm for a 130  μm thick foil. Measurements of the modulation optical density performed by x-ray radiography show that a bubble-merger regime for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at an ablation front is achieved for the first time in indirect drive. The mutimode modulation amplitudes are in the nonlinear regime, grow beyond the Haan multimode saturation level, evolve toward the longer wavelengths, and show insensitivity to the initial conditions.

  19. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  20. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  1. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  2. Development of an ELISA and Immunochromatographic Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody for microcystin–leucine–arginine (MC-LR was produced by cell fusion. The immunogen was synthesized in two steps. First, ovalbumin/ bovine serum albumin was conjugated with 6-acetylthiohexanoic acid using a carbodiimide EDC (1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride/ NHS (N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide reaction. After dialysis, the protein was reacted with MC-LR based on a free radical reaction under basic solution conditions. The protein conjugate was used for immunization based on low volume. The antibodies were identified by indirect competitive (icELISA and were subjected to tap water and lake water analysis. The concentration causing 50% inhibition of binding of MC-LR (IC50 by the competitive indirect ELISA was 0.27 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity to the MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-WR was good. The tap water and lake water matrices had no effect on the detection limit. The analytical recovery of MC-LR in the water samples in the icELISA was 94%–110%. Based on this antibody, an immunochromatographic biosensor was developed with a cut-off value of 1 ng/mL, which could satisfy the requirement of the World Health Organization for MC-LR detection in drinking water. This biosensor could be therefore be used as a fast screening tool in the field detection of MC-LR.

  3. ELISA for Detection of Soya Proteins in Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Renčová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect competitive ELISA method for the detection of soya proteins in meat products was developed. The detection limit of the method is 0.5% of the weight of added soya protein. A total of 131 meat product samples such as salamis or sausages from the Czech Republic market were investigated for the presence of soya proteins. Soya proteins were detected in 84% of the investigated samples without any declaration on the package of the product. The use of vegetable additives, namely soya in meat products in the market of the Czech Republic is very frequent and the restriction of its usage by legislation relates only to some kinds of durable products and ham (Act 264/2003 Coll.. The need for sensitive inspecting methods for soya protein detection is not only associated with the economic aspect (adulteration, but mainly with consumer health protection in case of allergy to soya proteins.

  4. A competition chloramphenicol ELISA technique for residue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wesonga B

    5 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Nairobi,. P.O.Box 30197-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which has ... a limited sensitivity and lack of specificity. For this reason various methods have been developed, such as gas chromatography [3] and high.

  5. Development of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur-Ghai, J; Kaur, M; Goel, P

    2014-09-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are obligate, sedentary plant endoparasites that are extremely polyphagous in nature and cause severe economic losses in agriculture. Hence, it is essential to control the parasite at an early stage. For any control strategy to be effective, an early and accurate diagnosis is of paramount importance. Immunoassays have the inherent advantages of sensitivity and specificity; have the potential to identify and quantify these plant-parasitic nematodes. Hence, in the present studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the detection of M.incognita antigens. First an indirect ELISA was developed for detection and titration of anti-M.incognita antibodies. Results indicated as high as 320 K titre of the antisera. Finally competitive inhibition ELISA was developed employing these anti-M.incognita antibodies for detection of M.incognita antigens. Sensitivity of ELISA was 10 fg. Competitive inhibition ELISA developed in the present studies has the potential of being used as an easy, rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of M.incognita infection.

  6. Evaluation of the radioimmunoassay, indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blot assay for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, E; Belden, E L; Roth, D

    1985-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA), an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a dot-blot modification of the ELISA were evaluated for detection and identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (X. c. pv. phaseoli). RIA and the dot blot tests were specific for X. c. pv. phaseoli; however, significant cross reactions occurred in the indirect competitive ELISA when using anti-X. c. pv. phaseoli antiserum against other closely related bacteria. The sensitivity level of all procedures for X. c. pv. phaseoli was approximately l0/sup 5/ colony forming unitsmL. All procedures were unsatisfactory in reliably detecting low levels of X. c. pv. phaseoli directly from extracts of bean seed. However when used in conjunction with ilution plating the dot blot assay and the RIA would be useful in specifically identifying X. c. pv. phaseoli. The relative merits of these tests for identification of X. c. pv. phaseoli are discussed.

  7. Specificity of Toxocara ELISA in tropical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, N R; Wilkes, L K; Hodgen, A N; Turner, K J

    1988-05-01

    The diagnosis of human infection by Toxocara canis relies heavily upon serological tests, the specificity of which can be inadequate in regions of endemic helminthiasis. When different population groups of tropical Venezuela were evaluated using ELISA based upon Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen (TcESA), solid-phase adsorption of the sera with extracts of a wide variety of non-homologous parasites revealed the existence of significant cross-reactivity. This was effectively and conveniently overcome when the test sera were incubated in the presence of the soluble parasite extracts in a competitive inhibition ELISA. The mean reduction of ELISA values caused by pre-adsorption of the sera tested was 32.2%, and that caused by competitive inhibition was 42.3%, the effects of these two procedures being strongly correlated (r = 0.83). The magnitude of the reduction was inversely proportional to the actual ELISA value (r = -0.55), and ranged from a mean of 68.0% in sera from apparently healthy individuals of medium-high socio-economic level, down to 28.1% in heavily parasitized Amazon indians. Ascaris showed the greatest degree of cross-reactivity in these tests, although under conditions of competitive inhibition even sera with high levels of antibody against this parasite could be negative in Toxocara ELISA. Western blotting revealed a major 81,400 D component that was shared between Ascaris and TcESA. Our results indicate that the competitive inhibition of cross-reactivity by soluble non-homologous parasite extracts provides a convenient and economical means of increasing the specificity of ELISA for the determination of the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in tropical populations.

  8. Detection of Francisella tularensis-Specific Antibodies in Patients with Tularemia by a Novel Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Osamu; Uda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Akio

    2013-01-01

    A novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in humans. The assay is based on the ability of serum antibodies to inhibit the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide antigens. The assay was evaluated using serum samples of tularemia patients, inactivated F. tularensis-immunized rabbits, and F. tularensis-infected mice. Antibodies against F. tularensis were successfully detected in serum samples of tularemia patients as well as the immunized and infected animals. The cELISA method was compared to indirect ELISA (iELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination test (MA) using serum samples of 19 tularemia patients and 50 healthy individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of cELISA were 93.9 and 96.1%, respectively, in comparison to the iELISA. MA was less sensitive than cELISA with a sensitivity and specificity of only 81.8 and 98.0%, respectively. A high degree of correlation (R2 = 0.8226) was observed between cELISA and iELISA results. The novel cELISA developed in this study appears to be highly sensitive and specific for serodiagnosis of human tularemia. The potential of the MAb-based cELISA to be used in both human and animal samples emphasizes its usefulness for serological survey of tularemia among multiple animal species. PMID:23114700

  9. Selection of specific inhibitor peptides in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of cardiac troponin I using immuno-dominant epitopes as competitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Majid Asiabanha; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadnejad, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Human cardiac troponin I (cTni) is the gold marker for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. In this regard, four immune-dominant epitopes of cTni were predicted and their 3D structures were determined. Thereafter, the competitive performance of the peptides was monitored with the developed polyclonal antibody-based indirect competitive ELISA; a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.49 (µg/mL) and detection limit of 0.037 (µg/mL) were achieved for recombinant cTni. The competitive ELISA determined sensitivity levels of 0.306, 0.141, 0.960, and 0.155 (µg/mL), respectively, for each peptide as competitor. We indicated that two of the selected epitopes have significant sensitivity scales and inhibition ability.

  10. DETERMINATION OF HISTAMINE IN FISH USING ELISA TECHNIQUE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUGER, C; SEWING, U; STENGEL, G; KEMA, [No Value; WESTERMANN, J; MANZ, B

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of histamine in fish and fish products via competitive ELISA is described. The advantages of this method are easy sample preparation and handling, screening capabilities, and low costs. Automation enables the performance of the assay with higher series of samples. The Histamine-ELISA is

  11. The time course of the specific antibody response by various ELISAs in pigs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Peter; Haugegaard, J.; Wingstrand, Anne

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of developing routine serological tests for monitoring the Toxoplasma infection status of Danish swine herds, four ELISAs based on tachyzoite antigen were set up: (1) an indirect ELISA for IgG-antibody; (2) a blocking ELISA for antibody to the membrane antigen, P-30; (3) an indirect ...

  12. Cornelius Elisa Bertus Bremekamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1969-01-01

    Cornelis Elisa Bertus Bremekamp was born at Dordrecht on February 7th 1888. He is therefore now just past eighty, and he has been a member of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Botanische Vereniging for sixty years. He studied at the Utrecht State University and, like many of his contemporaries, was

  13. Cloning and expression of nucleocapsid protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus and establishment of an indirect ELISA for EIPV%猫传染性腹膜炎病毒核衣壳蛋白的表达及间接ELISA法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊炜; 林颖峥; 王艳; 魏晓锋; 王巧全; 黄忠荣; 胡建华; 李健

    2014-01-01

    本研究对猫传染性腹膜炎病毒(FIPV)N蛋白的编码基因进行克隆和原核表达,并在纯化重组N蛋白的基础上,建立了FIPV抗体间接ELISA检测方法。研究结果显示,该重组纯化的N蛋白具有良好的抗原反应性,可用于FIPV阳性血清的筛查,为我国出入境检疫部门监控FIPV疫情提供技术支撑。%In this study,the gene of nucleocapsid protein(N protein)of feline infectious peritonitis virus(FIPV) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. And an indirect ELISA method was established with the purified recombi-nant N protein. The results showed this recombinant N protein had perfect antigen reactivity of FIPV and could be used to screen FIPV positive serum,and the study was helpful to monitor the FIPV infection status.

  14. Evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct ELISA (MSD-ELISA for antigen detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Morioka

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct ELISA (MSD-ELISA method was previously developed for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD viral antigen detection. Here we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of two FMD viral antigen detection MSD-ELISAs and compared them with conventional indirect sandwich (IS-ELISA. The MSD-ELISAs were able to detect the antigen in saliva samples of experimentally-infected pigs for a longer term compared to the IS-ELISA. We also used 178 RT-PCR-positive field samples from cattle and pigs affected by the 2010 type-O FMD outbreak in Japan, and we found that the sensitivities of both MSD-ELISAs were about 7 times higher than that of the IS-ELISA against each sample (P<0.01. In terms of the FMD-positive farm detection rate, the sensitivities of the MSD-ELISAs were about 6 times higher than that of the IS-ELISA against each farm (P<0.01. Although it is necessary to conduct further validation study using the other virus strains, MSD-ELISAs could be appropriate as a method to replace IS-ELISA for FMD antigen detection.

  15. Evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct ELISA (MSD-ELISA) for antigen detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Kazuki; Fukai, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kanno, Toru

    2014-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct ELISA (MSD-ELISA) method was previously developed for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viral antigen detection. Here we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of two FMD viral antigen detection MSD-ELISAs and compared them with conventional indirect sandwich (IS)-ELISA. The MSD-ELISAs were able to detect the antigen in saliva samples of experimentally-infected pigs for a longer term compared to the IS-ELISA. We also used 178 RT-PCR-positive field samples from cattle and pigs affected by the 2010 type-O FMD outbreak in Japan, and we found that the sensitivities of both MSD-ELISAs were about 7 times higher than that of the IS-ELISA against each sample (P<0.01). In terms of the FMD-positive farm detection rate, the sensitivities of the MSD-ELISAs were about 6 times higher than that of the IS-ELISA against each farm (P<0.01). Although it is necessary to conduct further validation study using the other virus strains, MSD-ELISAs could be appropriate as a method to replace IS-ELISA for FMD antigen detection.

  16. Effect of processing on the detectability of peanut protein by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Amjad; Ateeq, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Chicken IgY was used for the detection and quantification of peanut proteins by indirect competitive ELISA. The method was optimized by using a checker board approach to determine the optimal concentration of coating antigen, primary antibody and secondary antibody. Peanut protein could be detected in foods down to levels of 10 ppm. The effect of physical (heat treatment at 80 °C and 100 °C) and chemical (acid, alkali and reducing sugar) treatments on the IgY binding of peanut proteins was investigated. The optimized assay was relatively sensitive for the roasted peanut proteins. However, the binding ability of chicken IgYs to peanut proteins was found to be significantly altered by denaturation and hydrolysis of proteins. It was also observed that the effect of Millard chemistry on the detectability of peanut protein was less pronounced at high temperatures than at low temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a blocking ELISA for screening of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    A blocking Elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus with a view to satisfying the need for examination of blood samples on a large scale. The test was evaluated in comparison with an indirect Elisa and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The blocking Elisa...... was sensitive and specific. It had a higher capacity and was cheaper to perform than the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa. It was comparable to the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and better than the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies formed early after infection, and it was superior...... to both the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies at a late stage of infection....

  18. Fasciola hepatica saposin-like-2 protein based ELISA for the serodiagnosis of chronic human fascioliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Santiago, Olgary; Delgado, Bonnibel; Espino, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and evaluated for its diagnostic ability to detect human IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica saposin-like protein-2. The assay was compared with an indirect ELISA with excretory-secretory products (FhES) from adult F. hepatica. In an analysis of the sera of 37 patients infected with F. hepatica, 40 patients with other parasitic infections, and 50 healthy controls, the sensitivity of both ELISA assays was 100%. However, the FhSAP2-based ELISA was more specific (95.6%) than the FhES-ELISA (91.9%). These results demonstrated that FhSAP2 can be used in the serodiagnosis of chronic human fascioliasis with additional advantage that is relative cheap and easy to produce. Studies are in progress to evaluate this FhSAP2-ELISA assay in a large-scale prevalence surveys in endemic areas. PMID:21683266

  19. Comparsion of an immunochromatographic strip with ELISA for simultaneous detection of thiamphenicol, florfenicol and chloramphenicol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lingling; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Liqiang; Peng, Juan; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-09-01

    Rapid and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ic-ELISA) and gold nanoparticle immunochromatographic strip tests were developed to detect thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk and honey samples. The generic monoclonal antibody for TAP, FF and CAP was prepared based on a hapten [D-threo-1-(4-aminophenyl)-2- dichloroacetylamino-1,3-propanediol], and the haptenwas linked to a carrier protein using the diazotization method. After the optimization of several parameters (coating, pH, sodium chloride content and methanol content), the ic-ELISA was established. The quantitative working range for TAP was 0.11-1.36 ng/mL, with an IC50 of 0.39 ng/mL. The optimized ELISA showed cross-reactivity to CAP (300%) and FF (15.6%), with IC50 values of 0.13 and 2.5 ng/mL, respectively. The analytical recovery of TAP, FF and CAP in milk and honey samples in the ic-ELISA ranged from 81.2 to 112.9%. Based on this monoclonal antibody, a rapid and sensitive immunochromatographic test strip was also developed. This strip had a detection limit of 1 ng/mL for TAP, FF and CAP in milk and honey samples. Moreover, the test was completed within 10 min. Our results showed that the proposed ic-ELISA and immunochromatographic test strip method are highly useful screening tools for TAP, FF and CAP detection in milk and honey samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Elisa Biagini (Florencia, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta González Saavedra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elisa Biagini vive en Italia tras haber estudiado y enseñado en los Estados Unidos durante varios años. Sus poesías han sido publicadas en varias revistas y antologías italianas y americanas, entre otras. Algunas de las más recientes son Nuovissima poesia italiana (Mondadori, 2004 y Parola plurale (Sosselam 2005. Ha publicado siete colecciones poéticas, algunas bilingües, entre las que figuran  L'Ospite (Einaudi, 2004, Fiato. Parole per musica (Edizionidif, 2006, Nel bosco (Einaudi, 2007, The guest in the wood (Chelsea editions, 2013 – 2014 Best Translated Book Award, y la reciente Da una crepa (Einaudi, 2014. Sus poesías han sido traducidas al inglés, español, francés, portugués, japonés, croata, eslovaco, alemán, albanés, ruso, árabe y chino. Ha participado en importantes festivales italianos e internacionales (entre otros, en Italia “Festival della Letteratura” de Mantua, “Festival Poesia” de Parma, “RomaPoesia” de Roma, y en el extranjero “Stanza- Scotland's International Poetry Festival” en St. Andrews, Escocia, “Dubai International Poetry Festival” en Emiratos Árabes Unidos, “PoesieFestivalBerlin” en Berlín, “International Writers Workshop” en Hong Kong, “Struga Poetry Festival” en Struga, Macedonia, “Poetry Parnassus” en Londres, “Printemps des poètes” en Luxemburgo, “Queensland Poetry Festival” en Brisbane, Australia, “Festival Internacional de Poesía de Granada” en Nicaragua, “Xu Zhimo Poetry and Art Festival” en el King's College de Cambridge. Asimismo es traductora de poesía americana y, además de editar algunas colecciones de poetisas americanas contemporáneas, se ha encargado de la edición del volumen Nuovi poeti americani (Einaudi, 2006. Infine, insegna Scrittura Creativa (poesia, Travel Writing e Storia dell'Arte in Italia e all’estero, además de colaborar con artistas visules, coreógrafos y músicos. Entre otras actividades, es artista visual. www.elisabiagini.it

  1. A new ELISA for determination of potency in snake antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, A; Morais, V; Rossi, S; Massaldi, H

    2006-09-15

    A competitive ELISA for potency determination of bothropic equine antivenom was developed and compared to the conventional in vivo ED(50) assay, with the aim of partially substituting the in vivo assay in the monitoring of antivenom immunoglobulin levels. On this purpose, blood samples were taken at different times during and after the immunization protocol of the lot of horses used for production of snake antivenom at the Instituto de Higiene, Uruguay. Both the competitive ELISA and the ED(50) assay were performed on those samples. In addition, a group of five commercial pepsin-digested antivenoms were tested by both methods. A significant (P<0.001) correlation (Pearson's r=0.957) was found between the ELISA titres and the corresponding ED(50) values, indicating that the in vitro test can estimate the neutralizing antibody capacity of the sera as well as the in vivo assay. By means of this new ELISA, it was found that the immunized animals maintained good venom antibody titres, in the order of 20-50% of the maximum achieved, even 10 month after the end of the immunization schedule. The main advantage of our ELISA design is its ability to correctly estimate the neutralization capacity of crude hyperimmune plasma and antivenom sera independently of their antibody composition in terms of whole IgG or F(ab')(2) fragment.

  2. Elisa for the diagnosis and epidemiology of Brucella abortus infection in cattle in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, X.; Alonso, O.

    1998-01-01

    A serum bank of 1251 adult cows sera was prepared. The sera originated from animals of three different epidemiological groups: 1) 244 from infected cows, strain 19 vaccinated when calves; 2) 507 from herds free of infection but all cows were strain 19 vaccinated when calves and 3) the last group, 500 sera from cows free of infection and non-vaccinated. All the sera where tested with the routine Rose Bengal (RB) Rivanol (RIV) and Complement Fixation (CF) tests and additionally three enzyme immunoassays were performed. They included two indirect Elisa both using the kit from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna, Austria. One assay used a polyclonal conjugated antibody (I-ELISAp) and the other a monoclonal conjugated antibody (I-ELISAm). The third assay was a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) performed with sLPS, plus monoclonal antibody, M84, and goat anti-mouse antibody-HRPO. Using the CFT as 'gold standard' the sensitivities of all the methods were: RB 87.1%, RIV 87.1%, I-ELISAp 100% I-ELISAm 100%. The calculated specificity was: RB 100%, RIV 100%, I-ELISAp 96.4% and I-ELISAm 100%. In the group of infected animals (244) the following results were obtained: RB 13.5%, RIV 11.9%, CF 12.7%, I-ELISAp 50.8% and I-ELISAm 22.9%. Results for the non-vaccinated group were: RB 0.2%, RIV 0%, CFT 0.2%, I-ELISAp 6.9% and I-ELISAm 2.9%. The C-ELISA was performed on samples from the positive group or with positivity values close to the cut-off value in the I-ELISAm. In the infected group 28 out of 63 animals were detected as infected and from the non-vaccinated herds none of 15 I-ELISAm positive samples were detected as infected in the C-ELISA. (author)

  3. Mobile phone based ELISA (MELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Arsenii; Keefe, Jordan; Franco-Waite, Luis; Konnaiyan, Karthik Raj; Pyayt, Anna

    2018-04-30

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most important technologies for biochemical analysis critical for diagnosis and monitoring of many diseases. Traditional systems for ELISA incubation and reading are expensive and bulky, thus cannot be used at point-of-care or in the field. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new miniature mobile phone based system for ELISA (MELISA). This system can be used to complete all steps of the assay, including incubation and reading. It weighs just 1 pound, can be fabricated at low cost, portable, and can transfer test results via mobile phone. We successfully demonstrated how MELISA can be calibrated for accurate measurements of progesterone and demonstrated successful measurements with the calibrated system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel sensitive monoclonal antibody based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of raw and processed bovine beta-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniela S; Cassola, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common childhood food allergy, which can sometimes persist or can newly develop in adulthood with severe symptoms. CMPA's treatment is complete dietary avoidance of milk proteins. To achieve this task, patients have to be aware of milk proteins found as "hidden allergens" in food commodities. In regard to milk proteins, it has been reported that allergenicity of caseins remains unaffected upon heat treatment. For these reasons, we aimed to obtain monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against native and denatured β-casein, one of the most abundant and antigenic caseins, in order to develop an indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA) to detect and quantify traces of this milk allergen in raw and processed foodstuffs. We developed two specific hybridoma clones, 1H3 and 6A12, which recognized β-casein in its denatured and native conformations by indirect ELISA (iELISA). Cross-reaction analysis by Western blot and iELISA indicated that these mAbs specifically recognized β-casein from bovine and goat milk extracts, while they did not cross-react with proteins present in other food matrixes. These highly specific mAbs enabled the development of sensitive, reliable and reproducible icELISAs to detect and quantify this milk protein allergen in food commodities. The extraction of β-casein from foodstuff was efficiently carried out at 60°C for 15 minutes, using an extraction buffer containing 1% SDS. The present study establishes a valid 1H3 based-icELISA, which allows the detection and quantification -0.29 ppm and 0.80 ppm, respectively- of small amounts of β-casein in raw and processed foods. Furthermore, we were able to detect milk contamination in incurred food samples with the same sensitivity as a commercial sandwich ELISA thus showing that this icELISA constitutes a reliable analytical method for control strategies in food industry and allergy prevention.

  5. Competitive photometric enzyme immunoassay for fullerene C60 and its derivatives using a fullerene conjugated to horseradish peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, Olga D.; Smirnova, Natalya I.; Zherdev, Anatoly V.; Dzantiev, Boris B.; Sveshnikov, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a highly sensitive single-step microplate enzyme immunoassay of the ELISA type for fullerene C 60 and its derivatives. Monoclonal anti-fullerene antibodies and a conjugate between fullerene and horseradish peroxidase were used as specific reagents. A direct competitive ELISA was carried out that was based on antibodies immobilized in the well of a microtiter plate, a peroxidase-labeled antigen, and detection via the dye formed from 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine and hydrogen peroxide. Both pristine fullerene C 60 and its water-soluble forms can be determined. The detection limits are 1.5 ng∙mL −1 for fullerene C 60 , and between 0.1 and 1.3 ng∙mL −1 for its derivatives. This ELISA format allows for almost two-fold reduction of the time needed for the assay in comparison to indirect scheme with labeled antibodies. (author)

  6. ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results ... and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than ...

  7. Development and evaluation of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the 20S proteasome in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutaud, Dominique; Aubry, Laurent; Henry, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    Because quantification of the 20S proteasome by functional activity measurements is difficult and inaccurate, we have developed an indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for quantification of the 20S proteasome in human plasma. This sandwich ELISA uses a combination...

  8. ELISA-BASE: an integrated bioinformatics tool for analyzing and tracking ELISA microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    White, Amanda M.; Collett, James R.; Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; Daly, Don S.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary:ELISA-BASE is an open source database for capturing, organizing and analyzing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray data. ELISA-BASE is an extension of the BioArray Software Environment (BASE) database system.

  9. Development of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based icELISA for the Detection of Ustiloxin B in Rice False Smut Balls and Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice false smut is an emerging and economically-important rice disease caused by infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. Ustiloxin B is an antimitotic cyclopeptide mycotoxin isolated from the rice false smut balls that formed in the pathogen-infected rice spikelets. A monoclonal antibody (mAb designated as mAb 1B5A10 was generated with ustiloxin B—ovalbumin conjugate. A highly-sensitive and specific indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA was then developed. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50 of the icELISA was 18.0 ng/mL for the detection of ustiloxin B; the limit of detection was 0.6 ng/mL, and the calibration range was from 2.5 to 107.4 ng/mL. The LOD/LOQ values of the developed ELISA used for the determination of ustiloxin B in rice false smut balls and rice grains were 12/50 μg/g and 30/125 ng/g, respectively. The mAb 1B5A10 cross-reacted with ustiloxin A at 13.9% relative to ustiloxin B. Average recoveries of ustiloxin B ranged from 91.3% to 105.1% for rice false smut balls at spiking levels of 0.2 to 3.2 mg/g and from 92.6% to 103.5% for rice grains at spiking levels of 100 to 5000 ng/g. Comparison of ustiloxin B content in rice false smut balls and rice grains detected by both icELISA and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC demonstrated that the developed icELISA can be employed as an effective and accurate method for the detection of ustiloxin B in rice false smut balls, as well as rice food and feed samples.

  10. Evaluation of immunoradiometric and ELISA versions of a microtitre plate assay for Bacillus anthracis spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, A P; Martin, K L; Cross, N L [Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton (UK); Drake, R G [Glasgow Univ. (UK). Inst. of Biochemistry

    1984-05-11

    Solid-phase indirectly-labelled antibody assays for Bacillus anthracis spores heat-fixed on polystyrene microtitre plates were compared as immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) versions. Signal-to-noise ratios were usually higher in the IRMA than in the ELISA performed under parallel conditions but replicates were more varied in the IRMA. The antigen detection threshold and resolution limit calculated after regression analysis were broadly comparable in the 2 types of assay.

  11. Theoretical aspects of competitive advantage and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hudakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competitive advantage is well-known for many of us and a number of literary resources focused on entrepreneurship and functioning of economies deal with it, either directly or indirectly. The understanding of the term competitive advantage though sometimes varies. One can only perceive it when looking at it as a whole, a live organism that is constantly developing in a complex dynamic entrepreneurial environment, the individual parts of which do not function when separated from...

  12. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  13. Elisa technology consolidation study overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, E. D.; Brandt, N.; Johann, U.; Kemble, S.; Schulte, H.-R.; Weise, D.; Ziegler, T.

    2017-11-01

    The eLISA (evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) mission is an ESA L3 concept mission intended to detect and characterise gravitational radiation emitted from astrophysical sources [1]. Current designs for eLISA [2] are based on the ESA study conducted in 2011 to reformulate the original ESA/NASA LISA concept [3] into an ESA-only L1 candidate named NGO (New Gravitational Observatory) [4]. During this brief reformulation period, a number of significant changes were made to the baseline LISA design in order to create a more costeffective mission. Some of the key changes implemented during this reformulation were: • A reduction in the inter satellite distance (the arm length) from 5 Gm to 1 Gm. • A reduction in the diameter of the telescope from 40 cm to 20 cm. • A reduction in the required laser power by approximately 40%. • Implementation of only 2 laser arms instead of 3. Many further simplifications were then enabled by these main design changes including the elimination of payload items in the two spacecraft (S/C) with no laser-link between them (the daughter S/C), a reduction in the size and complexity of the optical bench and the elimination of the Point Ahead Angle Mechanism (PAAM), which corrects for variations in the pointing direction to the far S/C caused by orbital dynamics [4] [5]. In the run-up to an L3 mission definition phase later in the decade, it is desirable to review these design choices and analyse the inter-dependencies and scaling between the key mission parameters with the goal of better understanding the parameter space and ensuring that in the final selection of the eLISA mission parameters the optimal balance between cost, complexity and science return can be achieved.

  14. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  15. Comparative Diagnosis of Serum IgG1 and Coproantigen ELISA for Fasciolosis Detection of Goats in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Pedro; Hernández-Guzmán, Karina; Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Zumaquero-Ríos, José

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the prevalence of natural caprine fasciolosis in the Mixteca region of Mexico using coproantigen and serum IgG1 ELISA tests for comparative purposes. A total of 1070 serum and faecal samples were analyzed for IgG1 antibodies and coproantigens, using ELISA with E/S products as antigen and a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. Prevalence of 73.46% was found using the serological ELISA and a percentage of 77.20 was found for coproantigen ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for serum ELISA were 86.7% and 96.4%, and for the coproantigen ELISA they were 93.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The seropositive samples were further categorized as low, medium, or high positivity. Results show a great proportion of low and medium positive goats when the serum ELISA test was used. Correlation coefficients between coproantigens and seropositivity were statistically significant (P < 0.01) for low seropositivity (r = 0.93) and medium seropositivity (r = 0.84). The accuracy of faecal antigen ELISA was higher compared to indirect ELISA serological test. Two ELISAs were shown to be useful for demonstrating the current status of F. hepatica infection in the endemic areas and can be employed in studies on epidemiology as well as anthelmintics treatment for preventing economic loss and the risk of transmission to humans. PMID:27563665

  16. A Simple and Specific Noncompetitive ELISA Method for HT-2 Toxin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri O. Arola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed an HT-2 toxin-specific simple ELISA format with a positive read-out. The assay is based on an anti-immune complex (IC scFv antibody fragment, which is genetically fused with alkaline phosphatase (AP. The anti-IC antibody specifically recognizes the IC between a primary anti-HT-2 toxin Fab fragment and an HT-2 toxin molecule. In the IC ELISA format, the sample is added together with the scFv-AP antibody to the ELISA plate coated with the primary antibody. After 15 min of incubation and a washing step, the ELISA response is read. A competitive ELISA including only the primary antibody recognizes both HT-2 and T-2 toxins. The anti-IC antibody makes the assay specific for HT-2 toxin, and the IC ELISA is over 10 times more sensitive compared to the competitive assay. Three different naturally contaminated matrices: wheat, barley and oats, were used to evaluate the assay performance with real samples. The corresponding limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL (13 µg/kg, 0.1 ng/mL (4 µg/kg and 0.3 ng/mL (16 µg/kg, respectively. The IC ELISA can be used for screening HT-2 toxin specifically and in relevant concentration ranges from all three tested grain matrices.

  17. His-tag ELISA for the detection of humoral tumor-specific immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disis Mary L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of high throughput molecular techniques such as SEREX are resulting in the identification of a multitude of tumor associated antigens. As newly identified antigens are incorporated into a variety of clinical trials, standardization of immunologic monitoring methods becomes increasingly important. We questioned whether mammalian cell expression of a histadine-linked human protein could be used to produce antigen suitable for detecting tumor-specific humoral immunity and whether such an assay could be amenable to standardization for clinical use. Methods We designed a his-tagged capture ELISA based on lysate from genetically engineered CHO cells for detection of antibodies to insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, a novel tumor antigen. We performed technical and preliminary clinical validation studies, including comparison to a standard indirect ELISA based on commercially prepared recombinant antigen. Results The his-tagged capture ELISA could be standardized. Precision experiments resulted in CVs 2 values of 0.99. In comparison to Western blot analysis, his-tag and indirect ELISA accurately identified 88% and 93% of samples, respectively. Sample concordance between capture and indirect assays was highly significant (p = 0.003. Furthermore, significantly greater levels of IGFBP-2 antibody immunity were found in cancer patients compared to normal controls (p = 0.008. Conclusion A genetically engineered cell lysate based ELISA can be amenable to standardization and can detect increased levels of antibody immunity to tumor-associated antigen in cancer patients compared to non tumor-bearing healthy controls.

  18. Description of a nanobody-based competitive immunoassay to detect tsetse fly exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the main vectors of human and animal African trypanosomes. The Tsal proteins in tsetse fly saliva were previously identified as suitable biomarkers of bite exposure. A new competitive assay was conceived based on nanobody (Nb technology to ameliorate the detection of anti-Tsal antibodies in mammalian hosts.A camelid-derived Nb library was generated against the Glossina morsitans morsitans sialome and exploited to select Tsal specific Nbs. One of the three identified Nb families (family III, TsalNb-05 and TsalNb-11 was found suitable for anti-Tsal antibody detection in a competitive ELISA format. The competitive ELISA was able to detect exposure to a broad range of tsetse species (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes and did not cross-react with the other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao. Using a collection of plasmas from tsetse-exposed pigs, the new test characteristics were compared with those of the previously described G. m. moristans and rTsal1 indirect ELISAs, revealing equally good specificities (> 95% and positive predictive values (> 98% but higher negative predictive values and hence increased sensitivity (> 95% and accuracy (> 95%.We have developed a highly accurate Nb-based competitive immunoassay to detect specific anti-Tsal antibodies induced by various tsetse fly species in a range of hosts. We propose that this competitive assay provides a simple serological indicator of tsetse fly presence without the requirement of test adaptation to the vertebrate host species. In addition, the use of monoclonal Nbs for antibody detection is innovative and could be applied to other tsetse fly salivary biomarkers in order to achieve a multi-target immunoprofiling of hosts. In addition, this approach could be broadened to other pathogenic organisms for which accurate serological diagnosis remains a bottleneck.

  19. On the Relative Size of Direct and Indirect Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatos, Gerasimos T.

    2014-01-01

    Modifying the standard analytical apparatuses for direct and indirect tax evasion to incorporate forward indirect tax shift in a monopolistically competitive environment, this paper maintains that indirect tax evasion would exceed for sure direct tax evasion only under consumer risk neutrality and a tax policy zeroing the tax shift. Also, in the presence of tax evasion, there cannot be optimal direct-indirect tax mix, because tax evasion is accompanied by uncertainty and hence, nonlinearities...

  20. Generation of polyclonal antibody with high avidity to rosuvastatin and its use in development of highly sensitive ELISA for determination of rosuvastatin in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Malaq Hamoud A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a polyclonal antibody with high avidity and specificity to the potent hypocholesterolaemic agent rosuvastatin (ROS has been prepared and used in the development of highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of ROS in plasma. ROS was coupled to keyhole limpt hemocyanin (KLH and bovine serum albumin (BSA using carbodiimide reagent. ROS-KLH conjugate was used for immunization of female 8-weeks old New Zealand white rabbits. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct ELISA using ROS-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and avidity to ROS was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by avidity chromatography on protein A column. The purified antibody showed high avidity to ROS; IC50 = 0.4 ng/ml. The specificity of the antibody for ROS was evaluated by indirect ELISA using various competitors from the ROS-structural analogues and the therapeutic agents used with ROS in a combination therapy. The proposed ELISA involved a competitive binding reaction between ROS, in plasma sample, and the immobilized ROS-BSA for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-ROS antibody. The bound anti-ROS antibody was quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labeled second anti-rabbit IgG antibody (HRP-IgG and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme. The concentration of ROS in the sample was quantified by its ability to inhibit the binding of the anti-ROS antibody to the immobilized ROS-BSA and subsequently the color intensity in the assay wells. The assay enabled the determination of ROS in plasma at concentrations as low as 40 pg/ml.

  1. Efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines by double antigen ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, U; Noeske, K; Werner, E

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a double antigen ELISA (DAE) for rapid, specific and reliable assessment of the antitetanus immune status of horses and sheep. Compared with the indirect ELISA, the double antigen ELISA has the advantage of species-independent testing of sera. Thanks to its test design, it is more specific since the detected antibodies are forced to bind tetanus toxoid twice. In addition, it is very sensitive to tetanus antibodies, enabling the detection of low antibody titres, in range which is relevant for the assessment of the protective status (tetanus toxin neutralising antibodies). The detection limit of the DAE for tetanus antibodies is in the order of 10(-4) EU/ml. A comparison of in vitro results of individual sera with in vivo titres showed that horse sera with titres of 0.04 and 0.05 EU/ml in the DAE showed titres of > 0.05 IU and 0.034 IU/ml respectively during in vivo testing thus indicating good agreement. For tested sheep sera which were rated > 0.05 IU/ml in vivo, the corresponding titre in the DAE was 0.24 EU/ml. Clear tetanus antitoxin establishment of protective ELISA limits requires further comparative examination of sera with low titres (tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. As a consequence, the toxin neutralisation test (still being the standard method of choice for quantifying tetanus toxin neutralising antitoxin titres) could be replaced, since it requires too great a number of animals per test and involves considerable suffering for the animals. The test described here reduces the use of mice and guinea pigs within vaccine efficacy testing. In addition, it involves less exposure of the laboratory personnel to toxin.

  2. A Simple ELISA Exercise for Undergraduate Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy R.

    Understanding of immunological techniques such as the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) is an important part of instructional units in human health, developmental biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. This paper describes a simple ELISA exercise for undergraduate biology that effectively simulates the technique using a paper model.…

  3. Highly sensitive and specific determination of mercury(II) ion in water, food and cosmetic samples with an ELISA based on a novel monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Yuan [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Yang, Hong [Soochow University, College of Pharmacy, Suzhou (China); Pschenitza, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar [Technical University Munich, Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chemical Balneology, Munich (Germany); Deng, Anping [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Suzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} was developed. A new bifunctional ligand, 6-mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA), which contains a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic group and a mercapto group, was selected for the preparation of immunogen. After immunization of mice and performing the hybridoma technique, the obtained mAb was characterized for its binding affinity and selectivity for Hg{sup 2+}. Based on this novel mAb, an ELISA was established. At optimal experimental conditions, the standard curve of the ELISA for Hg{sup 2+} was constructed in concentration range of 0.1-100 ng mL{sup -1}. The values of IC{sub 50} and LOD of the assay were found to be 1.12 and 0.08 ng mL{sup -1}. The cross-reactivity was lower than 2 % with MNA, CH{sub 3}Hg, and CH{sub 3}Hg-MNA and was 11.5 % and 4.4 % for Hg{sup +} and Au{sup 3+}, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with other metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and anions such as Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3} {sup -}, NO{sub 2} {sup -}, HCO{sub 3} {sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, indicating that the assay displays not only high sensitivity but also high selectivity. Different kinds of samples including water, milk, green vegetable, kelp, facial cleanser, and night cream were spiked with Hg{sup 2+} and the extracts were analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 80.0-113.0 % and coefficients of variation of 1.9-18.6 % were obtained. A linear relationship between ELISA and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for liquid samples (water samples) and 0.98 for other samples was obtained. The proposed mAb-based ELISA provides a

  4. Development of a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of phenylethanolamine A in tissue and feed samples and confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Biyun; He, Guangzhao; Yang, Hong; Chang, Huafang; Li, Shuqun; Deng, Anping

    2013-10-15

    Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a new emerged β-adrenergic agonist illegally used as feed additives for growth promotion. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of PA in tissue and feed samples was developed and confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By reduction of nitryl group to amino group, the PA derivative was synthesized and coupled to carrier proteins with diazobenzidine method. The antisera obtained from four immunized rabbits were characterized in terms of sensitivity and specificity. All antisera displayed high sensitivity with IC50 values lower than 0.48 ng mL(-1). The most sensitive ELISA was established with IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.049 ng mL(-1) and 0.003 ng mL(-1), respectively. The cross-reactivity (CR) values of the antisera with three frequently used β-adrenergic agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol and ractopamine) were lesser than 0.39%; there was no CR of the antisera with other six compounds including two structurally related substances (isoproterenol, phenylephrine). To investigate the accuracy and precision of the assay, swine kidney, liver, meat and feed samples were fortified with PA at different content and analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 92.2-113.7% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 3.8-10.9% (n=3) were achieved. Seven spiked samples were simultaneously analyzed by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. There was a high correlation coefficient of 0.9956 (n=7) between the two methods. The proposed ELISA proven to be a feasible quantitative/screening method for PA analysis in tissue and feed samples with the properties of high sensitivity and specificity, high sample throughput and low expensive. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An ELISA-inhibition test using monoclonal antibody for the serology of leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatser, P. R.; de Wit, M. Y.; Kolk, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    In this study a mouse monoclonal antibody (47-9) is described, which recognized an epitope on the 36 kD protein antigen of M. leprae. The monoclonal antibody showed specificity for M. leprae. An ELISA-inhibition test based on the competitive inhibition by antibodies from human test sera of the

  6. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  7. Interaction of nitroaromatic radiosensitizers with irradiated polyadenylic acid as measured by an indirect immunochemical assay with specificity for the 8,5'-cycloadenosine moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuciarelli, A F; Mele, F G; Raleigh, J A

    1987-04-01

    The relative reactivity of a series of nitroaromatic radiosensitizers toward the C(5') radical intermediate leading to 8,5'-cycloadenosine formation in deoxygenated solutions of irradiated polyadenylic acid (poly A) was assessed using standard competition kinetic analysis. Formation of 8,5'-cycloadenosine was assayed by an indirect, competitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) described in an earlier report. In the absence of oxygen, the nitroaromatics inhibit 8,5'-cyclonucleoside formation in a way which generally increases with radiosensitizer electron affinity. Although hydroxyl radical scavenging by the nitroaromatics may account for a relatively small decrease in 8,5'cyclonucleoside formation, the data suggest that oxidation of the C(5') radical intermediate is the more plausible explanation for the decreased yield of the 8,5'-cyclonucleoside with increasing nitroaromatic electron affinity.

  8. Validation and use of an ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandino, T.; Alonso, M.; Barrera, M.; Mendoza, E.

    1998-01-01

    Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)

  9. Hyperglucagonaemia analysed by glucagon sandwich ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Hartmann, Bolette; Veedfald, Simon

    2014-01-01

    the extent to which the hyperglucagonaemia measured in clinical samples was caused by authentic glucagon. METHODS: We examined the performance of three commercial glucagon 'sandwich' ELISAs. The ELISA with the best overall performance was selected to compare glucagon measurements in clinical samples...... sensitivity for glucagon in plasma (>10-20 pmol/l). Thus, only the third assay was suitable for measuring glucagon concentrations in clinical samples. The ELISA and RIA measured similar glucagon levels in healthy individuals. Measurements of samples from individuals with abnormally high (type 2 diabetes...... or obese) or very elevated (post vagotomy with pyloroplasty, post-RYGB) glucagon levels were also similar in both assays. However, glucagon levels in participants with ESRD were much lower when measured by ELISA than by RIA, indicating that the apparent hyperglucagonaemia is not caused by fully processed...

  10. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  11. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  12. Immunodiagnosis of Human Fascioliasis by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and a Micro-ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevale, Silvana; Rodríguez, Mónica I.; Santillán, Graciela; Labbé, Jorge H.; Cabrera, Marta G.; Bellegarde, Enrique J.; Velásquez, Jorge N.; Trgovcic, Jorge E.; Guarnera, Eduardo A.

    2001-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and micro-ELISA were evaluated for their ability to detect anti-Fasciola hepatica antibodies in humans by using excretory-secretory antigen. The sensitivity of each method was 100%, but the specificity was 100% for ELISA and 97% for micro-ELISA. The micro-ELISA could be used as a screening assay and ELISA could be used as a confirmatory method for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  13. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of milk handling procedures on Ostertagia ostertagi antibody ELISA test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Stryhn, Henrik

    2010-04-19

    The impact of various milk handling stressors were analyzed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test measuring Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk from dairy cattle (Svanovir). An indirect ELISA has the ability to determine the amount of milk production losses related to intestinal parasitism. The ELISA test recommends fresh defatted milk, however, milk collected from Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs in North America undergo many stressors, including, heating, freezing and are not defatted. Normalized optical density ratios (ODRs) were compared between fresh defatted milk and milk subjected to one or more stressors with a linear mixed model accounting for differences in variation between the fresh and the frozen samples. Concordance correlation coefficients were also analyzed for comparisons to other similar studies. After accounting for random cow and container effects, the treatment factors interacted with each other (p<0.001). Biologically interesting contrasts were created to explain the interaction. The estimated difference in ODR between the milk samples handled according to recommendations of the manufacturers of Svanovir and the whole milk samples that were subjected to the most extreme treatment (heated, frozen, thawed, and re-frozen for 4 weeks) was 0.062 (p<0.001). This difference represented less than 5% of the range, and was thus considered biologically negligible. Frozen whole milk processed by DHI programs, the most likely method of collecting on-farm samples in North America, will likely yield reliable results for the indirect ELISA tests, particularly, Svanovir.

  15. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, George N

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a public health concern especially after recognizing its constantly increased prevalence and severity. Despite careful reading of food ingredient statements, food allergic individuals may experience reactions caused by "hidden", "masked", or "contaminated" proteins that are known major allergens. Many techniques have been developed to detect even small traces of food allergens, for clinical or laboratory purposes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the best validated and most routinely used immunoassay in allergy research, in allergy diagnosis in allergy-related quality control in various industries. Although as a technique it has been implemented for the last 45 years, the evolution in biochemistry allowed the development of ultrasensitive ELISA variations that are capable of measuring quantities in the scale of picograms, rendering ELISA attractive, robust, and very famous.

  16. An ELISA using recombinant TmHSP70 for the diagnosis of Taenia multiceps infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Nie, Huaming; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-09-15

    Infections with the tapeworm Taenia multiceps are problematic for ruminant farming worldwide. Here we develop a novel and rapid method for serodiagnosis of T. multiceps infections via an indirect ELISA (iELISA) that uses a heat shock protein, namely, TmHSP70. We extracted the total RNA of T. multiceps from the protoscoleces of cysts dissected from the brains of infected goats. Subsequently, we successfully amplified, cloned and expressed the TmHSP70 gene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant protein (∼34 kDa molecular weight) was recognized by the coenurosis positive serum. Given these initial, robust immunogenic properties for recombinant TmHSP protein, we assessed the ELISA-based serodiagnostic potential of this gene. The indirect ELISA was then optimized to 2.70 μg/well dilution for antigen and 1:80 dilution for serum,while the cut-off value is 0.446. We report that our novel TmHSP ELISA detected T. multiceps sera with a sensitivity of 1:10240 and a specificity of 83.3% (5/6). In a preliminary application, this assay correctly confirmed T. multiceps infection in 30 infected goats, consistent with the clinical examination. This study has revealed that our novel iELISA, which uses the rTmHSP protein, provides a rapid test for diagnosing coenurosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Padronização de ensaio imunoenzimático para pesquisa de anticorpos das classes IgM e IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii e comparação com a técnica de imunofluorescência indireta Standardization of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies, and comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Antunes Uchôa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A sorologia tem sido o método de escolha para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose. Devido a isto, padronizamos um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA e comparamos seus resultados com a técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. A técnica padronizada apresentou na pesquisa de IgG sensibilidade (S de 96,7% e especificidade (E de 75%, com valor de predição de positividade (VPP de 83,3% e de negatividade (VPN de 94,7%, com uma concordância ajustada (K de 73,5%. A IFI apresentou S de 83,8%, E de 79,1% com VPP de 83,8 % e VPN de 79,1% com K de 63%. A concordância bruta entre os dois testes (ELISA/IFI foi de 88,3% para pesquisa de IgG e de 81,5% para pesquisa de IgM, sendo o K de 70,8% para IgG e de 1,3% para IgM, sendo o índice de correlação (r de 0,556 para IgG e de -0,023 para IgM. Podemos concluir que a ELISA-IgG padronizada é indicada nos processos de triagem sorológica, sendo a ELISA-IgM desaconselhada uma vez que apresentou baixos índices de concordância ajustada com a técnica de referência, sugerindo pouca confiabilidade dos resultados.Serology has been the most popular method to diagnose toxoplasmosis. Accordingly, this study standardizes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and compares its results with the IFI technique. In the IgG detection test, the standardized technique presented a sensibility (S of 96.77%, a specificity (SP of 75%, with a positive predictive value (PPV of 83.33%, a negative predictive value (NPV of 94.74%, and an adjusted concordance (K of 73.50%. The IFI exhibited 83.87% for S, 79.16% for SP, 83.81% for PPV, 79.16% for NPV, and 63% for K. The rough concordance between these two tests (ELISA/IFI was 88.35% for the IgG detection test and 81.55% for the IgM detection test. K was 70.82% and 1.31% for IgG and IgM, respectively, the correlation index (r being 0.556 for IgG and -0.023 for IgM. We can conclude that standardized ELISA-IgG is indicated in serologic selection processes, whereas the ELISA-IgM is

  18. Galactic binaries with eLISA

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...

  19. A Monoclonal Antibody-Based ELISA for Multiresidue Determination of Avermectins in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiao Jiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widespread use and potential toxicity of avermectins (AVMs, multi-residue monitoring of AVMs in edible tissues, especially in milk, has become increasingly important. With the aim of developing a broad-selective immunoassay for AVMs, a broad-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab was raised. Based on this Mab, a homologous indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the rapid detection of AVMs in milk was developed. Under the optimized conditions, the IC50 values in assay buffer were estimated to be 3.05 ng/mL for abamectin, 13.10 ng/mL for ivermectin, 38.96 ng/mL for eprinomectin, 61.00 ng/mL for doramectin, 14.38 ng/mL for emamectin benzoate. Detection capability (CCβ of the ELISA was less than 5 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in milk samples prepared by simple dilution and solvent extraction, respectively. The optimized ELISA was used to quantify AVMs in milk samples spiked at different amounts. The mean recovery and coefficient of variation (CV were 95.90% and 15.42%, respectively. The Mab-based ELISA achieved a great improvement in AVMs detection. Results proved this broad-selective ELISA would be useful for the multi-residue determination of AVMs in milk without purification process.

  20. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M...

  1. Use of an indirect elisa for Brucella abortus diagnosis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraza, C.; Valdes, O.; Fonseca, N.; Garcia, M.; Alvarez, M.; Izquierdo, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Introducing immunoassays in Brucella diagnosis requires a comparative study with reference techniques such as the complement fixation reaction (CFR). Sensitivity and relative specificity studies allowed us to observe the behaviour of this immunoassay, using samples from free of disease, free by vaccination and affected areas. Sensitivity results for a cut-off point of 40PP and a confidence interval of 95% ranged from 94.8 to 99.5% and the specificity between 94.1 and 97.5%. For free of disease areas a cut-off point of 22 PP was calculated that reached a 99% specificity. This immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus must be used with two different cut-off points, depending on the epidemiologic conditions of the country, with CFR in affected or vaccinated areas as a confirmative method. (author)

  2. Radiolinja, Vodafone või Elisa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Jüri Kaljundi, Tarvo Ulejev ning Anne Mere vastavad küsimusele, kas Radiolinja peaks jätma alles olemasoleva nime, võtma nimeks Soomes peagi Radiolinjat asendama hakkava Elisa või rahvusvaheliselt tuntud kaubamärgi Vodafone

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Novel ELISA for Detection of Antibodies against HTLV-I Using Chimeric Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghi, Parvin; Heydari-Zarnagh, Hafez

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to develope a peptide-based indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Two chimeric peptides (CP-1 and CP-2) were designed using linear immunodominant epitopes of gp-46-I, and gp21-I proteins, according to the sequence from Uniprot database. These peptides were studied initially in the ELISA using infected sera. The most promising peptideCP-1, was used to develop a peptide ELISA for detection of HTLV-I infected sera. The optimal conditions for CP-1ELISA were: the optimum coating buffer was 100mM NaHCO3, pH 9.6; coating peptide concentration was 10 µg/mL; the optimal blocking buffer was5% fetal bovine serum (FBS); the secondary antibody concentration was 1:2000; and serum dilution was 1:20. 20serum samples from HTLV-I infected patients were evaluated by ELISA developed. CP-1 showed high antigenicity while lacking any cross-reactivity with normal human sera. The results of evaluations indicated that in comparison with commercial ELISA, CP-1 ELISA showed good sensitivity and specificity. With further validation, CP-1as described in the present study could be introduced as novel reliable and cost-effective candidates for the high-specific screening of HTLV-I/-II infections in endemic regions.

  4. Elisa Studio showroom = Elisa Studio showroom / Jan Joonas Graps ; kommenteerinud Tiina Kuusisto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graps, Jan Joonas, 1972-

    2015-01-01

    Elisa Studio showroom Helsingis Lasiplatsi, Mannerheimintie 22-24. Sisekujunduse autorid Jan Joonas Graps, Ken-Kristjan Ruut, Anne Määrmann (JanKen Wisespace). Lühidalt loovstuudiost JanKen Wisespace

  5. A membrane-based ELISA assay for the herbicide Isoproturon in soil samples

    OpenAIRE

    Baskeyfield, Damian E. H.; Davis, Frank; Magan, Naresh; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2012-01-01

    A membrane based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA) for the detection of a common herbicide, isoproturon is described. A heterogeneous competitive ELISA was the format chosen for isoproturon detection. An immunoassay system with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled polyclonal antibody preparation was developed and characterized before suitable sensitivity and selectivity for isoproturon were attained. After development as a microtiter plate immunoassay, the system was transferred to...

  6. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  7. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  8. Development of ELISA kit for rat albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhigang; Han Shiquan; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge; Jia Juanjuan

    2009-01-01

    The Anti-rat albumin serum was prepared by immunized the sheep with rat albumin. A ELISA method was established for rat albumin. The measurement range of the assay was 1-50 mg/L, sensitivity of the assay was 0.42 mg/L, recovery rate was 85.0%-106.0%. Intra-and inter-assay variation coefficients were <8.9% and <12.8% respectively. The correlation coefficients between measured and expected values were 0.999 after serial dilution of the urine samples with high concentrations of rat albumin. A good correlation was observed between the ELISA and RIA methods, and the kit for rat albumin might provide a convenience in exploitation of renal drugs and experimental injury of the kidney. (authors)

  9. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  10. ELISA technique standardisation for human toxocariasis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Y.; Suarez, R.; Huiza, A.

    2003-01-01

    To standardise ELISA technique for toxocara canis human infection diagnosis by using excreted-secreted antigen prepared in our country. T. canis eggs were collected by incubation with formalin (2%) at 28 o C in order to obtain third stage larvae that were freed and incubated in RPMI at 37 o C for 7 days; the medium was replaced by a similar one and stored at -20 o C. Antigen was concentrated and protein dosage was made. Sera from patients with toxocariasis and newborns were used as positive and negative controls by ELISA technique, dilutions 1/4 to 1/1024. Polystyrene plates were sensitised with antigen in several concentrations and conjugated peroxidase with horseradish IgG, anti human IgG and substrate OPD were used. Absorbance was read with spectrophotometer (Multiskan plus labsystems) at 492 nm. Cut off point was determined by negative sera absorbencies arithmetic mean plus 3 standard deviations. Antigen concentration was 50 ug/mL, sera dilution 1/128, conjugate dilution 1/1000 with optical density above 0,241. ELISA technique for serologic diagnosis of human infection by toxocara canis could be used in epidemiological studies in our country. Its efficacy will be determined in future studies

  11. Development and application of radioimmunoassays and enzyme immunoassays in microbiological and immunological diagnosis. 2. Comparative studies for the detection of toxoplasma antibodies with ELISA, RIA and other serological methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W A; Struy, H; Holzwarth, F [Medizinische Akademie, Magdeburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1982-06-01

    Comparative studies of indirect immunofluorescence test (IT), complement binding reaction (CBR), enzyme- and radioimmunoassay (ELISA, RIA) for the detection of toxoplasma antibodies in sera of 513 patients are reported. The precision dependent on time, showed coefficients of variation from 3% to 12% (IFT 3%, CBR 10%, ELISA 12%, RIA 7%). The correlation of IFT and ELISA as well as RIA was relatively unfavourable (coefficient of correlation IFT/ELISA r = 0.52, IFT/RIA r = 0.54, RIA/ELISA r = 0.60). The ELISA is the most sensitive method for the detection of antibodies. The specificity of the Toxo-ELISA has to be improved by application of suitable fractions of antigens.

  12. No serological evidence for Zika virus infection and low specificity for anti-Zika virus ELISA in malaria positive individuals among pregnant women from Madagascar in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Mertens, Eva; Winter, Doris; Maiga-Ascofaré, Oumou; Dekker, Denise; Jansen, Stephanie; Tappe, Dennis; Randriamampionona, Njary; May, Jürgen; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    It was previously reported that a malaria infection may interfere with the specificity of a commercial ELISA test against Zika virus (ZIKV). We analyzed 1,216 plasma samples from healthy, pregnant women collected in two sites in Madagascar in 2010 for ZIKV antibodies using a commercial ELISA and for Plasmodium infection by PCR. This screen revealed six putative ZIKV-positive samples by ELISA. These results could not be confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assays or virus neutralization tests. Four of these six samples were also positive for P. falciparum. We noted that the frequency of malaria positivity was higher in ZIKV-ELISA positive samples (50% and 100% in the two study sites) than ZIKV-negative samples (17% and 10%, respectively), suggesting that malaria may have led to false ZIKV-ELISA positives.

  13. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae

    1994-01-01

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes

  14. Jatobal virus antigenic characterization by ELISA and neutralization test using EIA as indicator, on tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu M. Figueiredo

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A virus antigenic characterization methodology using an indirect method of antibody detection ELISA with virus-infected cultured cells as antigen and a micro virus neutralisation test using EIA (NT-EIA as an aid to reading were used for antigenic characterization of Jatobal (BeAn 423380. Jatobal virus was characterized as a Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus genus, Simbu serogroup virus. ELISA using infected cultured cells as antigen is a sensitive and reliable method for identification of viruses and has many advantages over conventional antibody capture ELISA's and other tests: it eliminates solid phase coating with virus and laborious antigen preparation; it permits screening of large numbers of virus antisera faster and more easily than by CF, HAI, or plaque reduction NT. ELISA and NT using EIA as an aid to reading can be applicable to viruses which do not produce cytopathogenic effect. Both techniques are applicable to identification of viruses which grow in mosquito cells.A caracterização antigênica do vírus Jatobal (BeAn 423380 foi efetuada utilizando uma técnica de ELISA para deteccão de anticorpos que utiliza culturas celulares infectadas como antígeno e um micro teste de neutralização para vírus que utiliza o método imunoenzimático como auxiliar para a leitura dos resultados (NT-EIA. O vírus Jatobal foi caracterizado como um Bunyaviridae, gênero Bunyavirus, pertencente ao sorogrupo Simbu. A técnica de ELISA, utilizando culturas celulares infectadas como antígeno, trata-se de método sensível e confiável na identificação de agentes virais, possuindo muitas vantagens sobre ELISA convencionais e outros testes: elimina a preparação laboriosa de antígenos para o revestimento em fase sólida; permite que se teste de forma mais rápida e fácil que por CF, HAI e neutralização por redução de plaques um grande número de antisoros de vírus. ELISA e NT-EIA podem ser utilizados para a classificação de vírus que não produzem

  15. Validation of an improved anaplasma antibody cELISA kit for detection of anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Dubois, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    An accurate and simple-to-perform new version of a competitive ELISA (cELISA) kit that became commercially available in 2015 for testing of cattle for antibody to Anaplasma marginale was validated for detection of Anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep. True positives and negatives were identifie...

  16. ELISA technique standardization for strongyloidiasis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huapaya, P.; Espinoza, I.; Huiza, A.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sevilla, C.

    2002-01-01

    To standardize ELISA technique for human Strongyloides stercoralis infection diagnosis a crude antigen was prepared using filariform larvae obtained from positive stool samples cultured with charcoal. Harvested larvae were crushed by sonication and washed by centrifugation in order to obtain protein extracts to be used as antigen. Final protein concentration was 600 μg/mL. Several kinds of ELISA plates were tested and antigen concentration, sera dilution, conjugate dilution and cut off were determined to identify infection. Sera from patients with both hyper-infection syndrome and intestinal infection demonstrated by parasitological examination were positive controls and sera from people living in non-endemic areas with no infection demonstrated by parasitological examination were negative controls. Best values were 5 μg/mL for antigen, 1/64 for sera, 1/1000 for conjugate; optical density values for positive samples were 1,2746 (1,1065 - 1,4206, DS = 0,3284) and for negative samples 0,4457 (0,3324 - 0,5538, DS = 0,2230). Twenty sera samples from positive subjects and one hundred from negative subjects were examined, obtaining 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The results show this technique could be useful as strongyloidiasis screening test in population studies

  17. [Effect evaluation of three ELISA kits in detection of fasciolasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lin; Chen, Mu-Xin; Chen, Shao-Hong; Chu, Yan-Hong; Cai, Yu-Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3 ELISA kits on detection of human fasciolasis. Twenty-six serum samples from patients with fasciolasis, 180 serum samples from patients with other parasitic diseases as well as 26 serum samples from healthy people were detected by ELISA kits which using soluble antigen of Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica (Fg-ELISA and Fh-ELISA) as well as IgG antigen ELISA detection kits made by DRG company in Germany. The effects of the 3 kits were evaluated. The sensitivities of Fg-ELISA, Fh-ELISA, and DRG-ELISA were 100.0%, 80.8% (95% CI: 65.7%-95.9%) and 100.0%, respectively; the specificities of the three were 87.9% (95% CI: 83.5%-92.4%), 85.0%(95% CI: 80.1%-89.9%) and 83.5% (95% CI: 78.4%-88.6%), respectively, and Youden indexes of them were 0.88, 0.66 and 0.84, respectively. The detection rate of Fg-ELISA (100%) was significantly higher than that of Fh-ELISA (80.8%) (P DRG-ELISA for clinical sample tests as well as massive screening in fasciolasis endemic areas in southwest China.

  18. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  19. AN EVALUATION STUDY OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA USING RECOMBINANT PROTEIN GRA1 FOR DETECTION OF IGG ANTIBODIES AGAINTS TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Difla Muflikhah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite that live inside the cells of the reticulo endothelial and parenchymal cells of human and animals (mammals and birds. Some cases of toxoplasmosis usually have no symptoms, but in any cases caused severe symptoms, such as hydrocephalus, microcephalus, intracranial calcification, retinal damage, brain abscess, mental retardation, lymphadenopathy, and others. Its severe symptoms usually showed a long time after first exposure, except symptoms showed by congenital transmission caused by infected mother. Early diagnosis is important to prevent the illness but methods for toxoplasmosis screening are still too expensive for developing country. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA allow the testing of a large number samples within short time frame and based on antibody or antigen detection. This study aimed to know the sensitivity and specificity of recombinat protein GRA1 as antigen using ELISA methods. We tested the sensitivity and spesificity of GRA1 protein as antigen in ELISA methods to diagnose toxoplasmosis and compared with ELISA Kit Commercial. Reliable laboratory testing is important to detect Toxoplasma gondii infection, and focused to improving the low cost and easy-to-use diagnostic instrument. Seventy sera collected and tested using both indirect ELISA, commercial ELISA kit and GRA1 protein coated as antigen. Fourty eight and fifty one samples showed positive IgG antibody result of ELISA-GRA1 and ELISA kit. Negative sample tested by ELISA-GRA1 was 22 samples and 19 sample tested by ELISA Kit. The sensitivity and specificity of GRA1-based on ELISA were 100% and 86.36%, positive prediction value (ppv was 94.11%. These data indicate that the recombinant protein GRA1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human toxoplasmosis and become a promising marker for the screening of toxoplasmosis.

  20. Mycotoxin determination using RIA and ELISA methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukal, L; Sova, Z

    1985-12-01

    Experience is summed up of various authors with the determination of some mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, rubratoxin, zearalenon, sterigmatocystine) using radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay. For RIA purposes, tritium or sometimes iodine 125 is frequently used for labelling mycotoxins. Mycotoxins do not show immunogenic properties and must thus be conjugated with a high-molecular compound (serum albumin, polylysine) prior to immunozation. Factors are discussed making mycotoxin determination in foods difficult. Specificity of the obtained antisera is total between the individual mycotoxin groups while cross reactions are always recorded within the groups. RIA makes it possible to determine down to 200 pg (labelled with /sup 3/H) or 5 pg (labelled with /sup 125/I) of mycotoxins in a standard solution. In addition to high sensitivity and specificity, immunoassays of mycotoxins minimize the quantities of samples and solvents needed for extraction. Large series of samples can be processed using automatic analyzers. ELISA generally is more advantageous than RIA.

  1. Indirect solid-phase immunosorbent assay for detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A P; Rezapkin, G V; Dzagurova, T K; Tkachenko, E A [Institute of Poliomyelitis anU Viral Encephalities of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow

    1984-05-01

    Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) using either enti-human or anti-mouse IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I, respectively, were developed for the detection of Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amapari, Tamiami, Lassa and LCM arenaviruses. Both methods allow high sensitivity detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies.

  2. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  3. Development and evaluation of an avian influenza, neuraminidase subtype 1, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for poultry using the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Mundt, E; Mundt, A; Sylte, M; Suarez, D L; Swayne, D E; García, M

    2010-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using baculovirus, purified, recombinant N1 protein from A/chicken/Indonesia/PA7/2003 (H5N1) virus. The N1-ELISA showed high selectivity for detection of N1 antibodies, with no cross-reactivity with other neuraminidase subtypes, and broad reactivity with sera to N1 subtype isolates from North American and Eurasian lineages. Sensitivity of the N1-ELISA to detect N1 antibodies in turkey sera, collected 3 wk after H1N1 vaccination, was comparable to detection of avian influenza antibodies by the commercial, indirect ELISAs ProFLOK AIV Plus ELISA Kit (Synbiotics, Kansas City, MO) and Avian Influenza Virus Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME). However, 6 wk after vaccination, the Synbiotics ELISA kit performed better than the N1-ELISA and the IDEXX ELISA kit. An evaluation was made of the ability of the N1-ELISA to discriminate vaccinated chickens from subsequently challenged chickens. Two experiments were conducted, chickens were vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 and H5N9 viruses and challenged with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, and chickens were vaccinated with recombinant poxvirus vaccine encoding H7 and challenged with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. Serum samples were collected at 14 days postchallenge and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), quantitative neuraminidase inhibition (NI), and N1-ELISA. At 2 days postchallenge, oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virus isolation (VI) to confirm infection. The N1-ELISA was in fair agreement with VI and HI results. Although the N1-ELISA showed a lower sensitivity than the NI assay, it was demonstrated that detection of N1 antibodies by ELISA was an effective and rapid assay to identify exposure to the challenge virus in vaccinated chickens. Therefore, N1-ELISA can facilitate a vaccination strategy with differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals using a neuraminidase heterologous approach.

  4. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  5. Comparative evaluation of antibody positive titer by ELISA and IFA in Theileria annulata vaccinated cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Fesharki R.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to evaluate antibody positive titer in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle using schizont infected myeloid cells as an antigen. The result was compared with indirect fluorescent antibody level in the same animals. For this study 116 milking cows, 95 vaccinated and 21 non-vaccinated, were bleeded in order to prepare sera. They were tested with both ELISA and IFA tests. 94 sera had positive antibody titer and 22 sera were negative through ELISA test but, with IFA test, only 89 sera showed positive antibody titer and 27 were negative. Thereby, it was concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test in comparison with IFA test was 95.5 % and 66.6 % respectively. This study generally indicated that ELISA could be an effective test for seroepidemiological investigations of bovine tropical theileriosis, and it is considered to be valid as an additional test to distinguish the vaccinated from the non vaccinated cattle in order to schedule vaccination programs.

  6. Comparative diagnostic efficacy of recombinant LLO and PI-PLC-based ELISAs for detection of listeriosis in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul D; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Jayarao, Bhushan; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Savage, Emily; Vergis, Jess; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Rawool, Deepak B

    2017-06-01

    The present study for the first time evaluates the serodiagnostic efficacy of two recombinant antigens namely, listeriolysin O (rLLO) and phosphatidyl-inositol phospholipase C (rPI-PLC). Indirect ELISA with the above recombinant antigens was used on samples collected from bovines (n=106), goats (n=138) and pigs (n=92) having either a history of abortion, emaciation and/or apparently healthy animals. Isolation of Listeria was attempted from the blood samples using USDA-FSIS method. On screening of test sera by rLLO-based ELISA, antibodies against anti-listeriolysin O (ALLO) were observed in goats (22.46%), bovines (15.10%) and pigs (16.31%). As advocated, after adsorption of positive serum samples with streptolysin O (SLO), the seropositivity for ALLO was marginally reduced (p>0.05) in goats (21.73%) and bovines (10.38%), whereas, in pigs the reduction (5.43%) was significant (pPLC-based ELISA revealed higher non-specific seropositivity for antilisterial antibodies in goats (45.65%), bovines (31.13%) and pigs (8.69%). Further, on comparing the seropositivity with isolation rate, of the 16 animals that were culturally-positive for L. monocytogenes, 15 showed ALLO positivity in unadsorbed as well as SLO-adsorbed sera by rLLO-based ELISA, however, rPI-PLC-based ELISA could detect seropositivity in only 5 animals. Moreover, rPI-PLC-based ELISA also showed seropositivity in those animals (7/30) that were culturally positive for other Listeria spp. In conclusion, rLLO can serve as a better antigen than rPI-PLC in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of listeriosis in animals; however, prior adsorption of test sera with SLO is required to avoid false positive results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on a Rhoptry-Associated Protein 1 Epitope Specifically Identifies Babesia bovis-Infected Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Will L.; McElwain, Terry F.; Suarez, Carlos E.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Brown, Wendy C.; Norimine, Junzo; Knowles, Donald P.

    2003-01-01

    The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) format has proven to be an accurate, reliable, easily standardized, and high-throughput method for detecting hemoparasite infections. In the present study, a species-specific, broadly conserved, and tandemly repeated B-cell epitope within the C terminus of the rhoptry-associated protein 1 of the hemoparasite Babesia bovis was cloned and expressed as a histidine-tagged thioredoxin fusion peptide and used as antigen in a cELISA. The assay was optimized with defined negative and positive bovine sera, where positive sera inhibited the binding of the epitope-specific monoclonal antibody BABB75A4. The cELISA accurately differentiated animals with B. bovis-specific antibodies from uninfected animals and from animals with antibodies against other tick-borne hemoparasites (98.7% specificity). In addition, B. bovis-specific sera from Australia, Argentina, Bolivia, Puerto Rico, and Morocco inhibited the binding of BABB75A4, confirming conservation of the epitope. The assay first detected experimentally infected animals between 13 and 17 days postinfection, and with sera from naturally infected carrier cattle, was comparable to indirect immunofluorescence (98.3% concordance). The assay appears to have the characteristics necessary for an epidemiologic and disease surveillance tool. PMID:12522037

  8. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  9. LISA Pathfinder and eLISA news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James Ira; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Two important gatherings of the space-based gravitational-wave detector community were held in Zurich, Switzerland this past March. The first was a meeting of the Science Working Team for LISA Pathfinder (LPF), a dedicated technology demonstrator mission for a future LISA-like gravitational wave observatory. LPF is entering an extremely exciting phase with launch less than 15 months away. All flight components for both the European science payload, known as the LISA Technology Package (LTP), and the NASA science payload, known as the Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS), have been delivered and are undergoing integration. The final flight component for the spacecraft bus, a cold-gas thruster based on the successful GAIA design, will be delivered later this year. Current focus is on completing integration of the science payload (see Figures 1 and 2) and preparation for operations and data analysis. After a launch in Summer 2015, LPF will take approximately 90 days to reach its operational orbit around the Earth-Sun Lagrange point (L1), where it will begin science operations. After 90 days of LTP operations followed by 90 days of DRS operations, LPF will have completed its prime mission of paving the way for a space-based observatory of gravitational waves in the milliHertz band. Immediately following the meeting of the LPF team, the eLISA consortium held its third progress meeting. The consortium (www.elisascience.org) is the organizing body of the European space-based gravitational-wave community, and it was responsible for the "The Gravitational Universe" whitepaper that resulted in the November 2013 election of a gravitational-wave science theme for ESA's Cosmic Visions L3 opportunity. In preparation for an L3 mission concept call, which is expected later this decade, and for launch in the mid 2030s, the eLISA consortium members are coordinating technology development and mission study activities which will build on the LPF results. The final

  10. Bulk tank milk ELISA for detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis: Correlation between repeated tests and within-herd antibody-prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Detection of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies using ELISA (BTM-ELISA) may constitute an inexpensive test for surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds provided that the test is accurate and consistent. The objectives of this study were...... Danish Holstein herds over a period of one year. All samples were tested using a commercial indirect ELISA for detection of MAP specific antibodies. The individual cow's results were dichotomised and used to estimate the within-herd antibody prevalence at each test-date. These prevalences were...... to 0.60 when corrected for the within-herd antibody prevalence. Although the test-results were relatively consistent and correlated with the within-herd prevalence, the magnitude of the test-values makes it difficult to use the BTM-ELISA for surveillance of MAP infections in practice....

  11. A chromogranin A ELISA absent of an apparent high-dose hook effect observed in other chromogranin A ELISAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J Alan; Grenache, David G

    2016-01-15

    Routine testing for chromogranin A (CgA) using an established commercial ELISA revealed an apparent high-dose hook effect in approximately 15% of specimens. Investigations found the same effect in two additional ELISAs. We hypothesized that a CgA derived peptide(s) at high concentrations was responsible but experiments were inconclusive. Here we describe the analytical performance characteristics of the Chromoa™ CgA ELISA that did not display the apparent high-dose hook effect. Performance characteristics of the Chromoa ELISA were assessed. The reference interval was established utilizing healthy volunteers. Specimens producing the apparent high-dose hook effect in other assays were evaluated using the Chromoa ELISA. The limit of detection was 8ng/ml. Linearity was acceptable (slope=1.04, intercept=18.1 and r(2)=0.997). CVs were ≤4.6 and ≤9.3% for repeatability and within-laboratory imprecision, respectively. CgA was stable at ambient and refrigerated temperatures for a minimum of two and 14days, respectively. An upper reference interval limit of 95ng/ml was established. Specimens demonstrating the apparent high-dose hook effect in other ELISAs did not exhibit the phenomenon using the Chromoa ELISA. The Chromoa ELISA demonstrates acceptable performance for quantifying serum CgA. The apparent high-dose hook effect exhibited in other ELISAs was absent using the Chromoa assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  13. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  14. (ELISA) kit for diagnosis copro-antigens of Giardia lamblia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... methods based on antigen scanning of parasites such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ... samples. To design this method, a pure antibody against parasite as well as an antibody conjugated to a ..... school children in Santiago, Chile by capture ELISA for the detection of fecal Giardia ...

  15. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. ELISA for epidemiology of brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a travel report of a three-week mission (from October 13 to November 1, 1991) to Indonesia within the framework of ''The implementation of ELISA technology for the sero-diagnosis of important livestock diseases''. The mission evaluated the implementation of ELISA technology at the Regional Laboratories and its role in the surveillance and control of bovine brucellosis

  16. Multi-Laboratory Validation of Estrone (E1) ELISA Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project is a round-robin evaluation of commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technology to quantitatively or qualitatively measure the hormone estrone (E1) in combined animal feeding operation (CAFO) receiving streams. ELISA is meant to be a simpl...

  17. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l ) Abstract A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  18. Positive indirect interactions between neighboring plant species via a lizard pollinator.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, D M; Kiesbüy, H C; Jones, C G; Müller, C B

    2007-01-01

    In natural communities, species are embedded in networks of direct and indirect interactions. Most studies on indirect interactions have focused on how they affect predator-prey or competitive relationships. However, it is equally likely that indirect interactions play an important structuring role in mutualistic relationships in a natural community. We demonstrate experimentally that on a small spatial scale, dense thickets of endemic Pandanus plants have a strong positive trait-mediated ind...

  19. Ducks as a potential reservoir for Pasteurella multocida infection detected using a new rOmpH-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Cuiteng; Cheng, Longfei; Lu, Ronghui; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Jiansheng; Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-28

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844-0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.

  20. Biomimetic ELISA detection of malachite green based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Lin, Zheng-Zhong; Peng, Ai-Hong; Zhong, Hui-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-11-01

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for the detection of malachite green (MG) with a high sensitivity and selectivity using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as a bionic antibody. MMIPs were prepared through emulsion polymerization using Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles as magnetic nuclei, MG as a template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinking agent and span-80/tween-80 as mixed emulsifiers. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron micrographs (SEM), thermal-gravimetric analyzer (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. A high magnetic saturation value of 54.1emug -1 was obtained, resulting in rapid magnetic separation of MMIPs with an external magnet. The IC 50 of the established ELISA method was 20.1μgL -1 and the detection limit (based on IC 85 ) was 0.1μgL -1 . The MMIPs exhibited high selective binding capacity for MG with cross-reactivities less than 3.9% for MG structural analogues. The MG spiking recoveries were 85.0%-106% with the relative standard deviations less than 4.7%. The results showed that the biomimetic ELISA method by using MMIPs as bionic antibody could be used to detect MG rapidly in fish samples with a high sensitivity and accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  2. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  3. Three principles of competitive nonlinear pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Page Junior, Frank H.; Monteiro, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    We make three contributions to the theory of contracting under asymmetric information. First , we establish a competitive analog to the revelation principle which we call the implementation principle. This principle provides a complete characterization of all incentive compatible, indirect contracting mechanisms in terms of contract catalogs (or menus), and allows us to conclude that in competitive contracting situations, firms in choosing their contracting strategies can restrict attention, ...

  4. The neo-epitope specific PRO-C3 ELISA measures true formation of type III collagen associated with liver and muscle parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette J; Nedergaard, Anders F; Sun, Shu

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The present study describes the assessment of true formation of type III collagen in different pathologies using a neo-epitope specific competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) towards the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PRO-C3). METHODS: The monoclonal antibody...... was raised against the N-protease mediated cleavage site of the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen and a competitive ELISA was developed using the selected antibody. The assay was evaluated in relation to neo-epitope specificity, technical performance, and as a marker for liver fibrosis and muscle...... mass using the rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model and a study of immobilization induced muscle loss in humans, respectively. RESULTS: The ELISA was neo-epitope specific, technically stable and can be assessed in serum and plasma samples. In the CCl4 liver fibrosis model it was observed that serum...

  5. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  6. Titration ELISA as a Method to Determine the Dissociation Constant of Receptor Ligand Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eble, Johannes A

    2018-02-15

    The dissociation constant describes the interaction between two partners in the binding equilibrium and is a measure of their affinity. It is a crucial parameter to compare different ligands, e.g., competitive inhibitors, protein isoforms and mutants, for their binding strength to a binding partner. Dissociation constants are determined by plotting concentrations of bound versus free ligand as binding curves. In contrast, titration curves, in which a signal that is proportional to the concentration of bound ligand is plotted against the total concentration of added ligand, are much easier to record. The signal can be detected spectroscopically and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This is exemplified in a protocol for a titration ELISA that measures the binding of the snake venom-derived rhodocetin to its immobilized target domain of α2β1 integrin. Titration ELISAs are versatile and widely used. Any pair of interacting proteins can be used as immobilized receptor and soluble ligand, provided that both proteins are pure, and their concentrations are known. The difficulty so far has been to determine the dissociation constant from a titration curve. In this study, a mathematical function underlying titration curves is introduced. Without any error-prone graphical estimation of a saturation yield, this algorithm allows processing of the raw data (signal intensities at different concentrations of added ligand) directly by mathematical evaluation via non-linear regression. Thus, several titration curves can be recorded simultaneously and transformed into a set of characteristic parameters, among them the dissociation constant and the concentration of binding-active receptor, and they can be evaluated statistically. When combined with this algorithm, titration ELISAs gain the advantage of directly presenting the dissociation constant. Therefore, they may be used more efficiently in the future.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy study of a factor VIII ELISA for detection of factor VIII antibodies in congenital and acquired haemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Paul; Moore, Gary W; Platton, Sean; Maloney, James C; Palmer, Ben; Bowles, Louise; Pasi, K John; Rangarajan, Savita; Hart, Daniel P

    2015-10-01

    Antibody formation to factor VIII (FVIII) remains the greatest clinical and diagnostic challenge to the haemophilia-treating physician. Current guidance for testing for inhibitory FVIII antibodies (inhibitors) recommends the functional Nijmegen-Bethesda assay (NBA). A FVIII ELISA offers a complementary, immunological approach for FVIII antibody testing. It was the aim of this study to retrospectively evaluate the performance of a FVIII ELISA (index) for detection of FVIII antibodies, compared with the NBA (reference). All samples sent for routine FVIII antibody testing at two haemophilia Comprehensive Care Centres, were tested in parallel using the NBA and a solid-phase, indirect FVIII ELISA kit (Immucor). A total of 497 samples from 239 patients (severe haemophilia A=140, non-severe haemophilia A=85, acquired haemophilia A=14) were available for analysis. Sixty-three samples tested positive by the NBA (prevalence 12.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9-15.9 %), with a median inhibitor titre of 1.2 BU/ml (range 0.7-978.0). The FVIII ELISA demonstrated a specificity of 94.0% (95%CI, 91.3-96.0), sensitivity of 77.8% (95%CI, 65.5-87.3), negative predictive value of 96.7% (95%CI, 94.5-98.2), positive predictive value 65.3% (95%CI, 53.5-76.0), negative likelihood ratio 0.2 (95%CI, 0.1-0.4), positive likelihood ratio 13.0 (95%CI, 8.7-19.3) and a diagnostic odds ratio of 54.9 (95%CI, 27.0-112.0). Strong positive correlation (r=0.77, pNBA (log adjusted) and FVIII ELISA optical density. In conclusion, FVIII ELISA offers a simple, specific, surveillance method enabling batch testing of non-urgent samples for the presence of FVIII antibodies.

  8. Detecting diclofenac in livestock carcasses in India with an ELISA: A tool to prevent widespread vulture poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Mohini; Taggart, Mark A.; Knopp, Dietmar; Upreti, Suchitra; Swarup, Devendra; Das, Asit; Gupta, Praveen K.; Niessner, Reinhard; Prakash, Vibhu; Mateo, Rafael; Cuthbert, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has caused catastrophic vulture declines across the Indian sub-continent. Here, an indirect ELISA is used to detect and quantify diclofenac in 1251 liver samples from livestock carcasses collected across India between August 2007 and June 2008, one to two years after a ban on diclofenac manufacture and distribution for veterinary use was implemented. The ELISAs applicability was authenticated with independent data obtained using LC–ESI/MS. Of 1251 samples, 1150 (91.9%) were negative for diclofenac using both methods, and 60 (4.8%) were positive at 10–4348 and 10–4441 μg kg −1 when analysed by ELISA and LC–ESI/MS, respectively. The residue level relationship in the 60 positive samples was highly significant (p 2 = 0.644). Data suggest that this immunological assay could be used not only for cost effective sample screening, but also for residue level semi-quantification. - Highlights: ► An ELISA is validated for use in diclofenac monitoring. ► We compare ELISA and LC–ESI/MS data for 1251 samples. ► Results indicate the ELISA can be reliably used for screening and semi-quantification. ► In 2007–2008, in India, around 1 in 20 ungulate carcasses contained detectable diclofenac. - The prevalence of diclofenac in carcasses available to vultures in India has declined from around 1:10 to 1:20 since restrictions on veterinary use were first put in place in 2006.

  9. Analysis of fenbendazole residues in bovine milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, David L; Bates, Anne H; Binder, Ronald G; Montague, William C; Whitehand, Linda C; Barker, Steven A

    2002-10-09

    Fenbendazole residues in bovine milk were analyzed by ELISAs using two monoclonal antibodies. One monoclonal antibody (MAb 587) bound the major benzimidazole anthelmintic drugs, including fenbendazole, oxfendazole, and fenbendazole sulfone. The other (MAb 591) was more specific for fenbendazole, with 13% cross-reactivity with the sulfone and no significant binding to the sulfoxide metabolite. The limit of detection of the ELISA method in the milk matrix was 7 ppb for MAb 587 and 3 ppb for MAb 591. Fenbendazole was administered in feed, drench, and paste form to three groups of dairy cattle. Milk was collected immediately before dosing and then every 12 h for 5 days. The ELISA indicated that residue levels varied widely among individual cows in each group. Fenbendazole levels peaked at approximately 12-24 h and declined rapidly thereafter. Metabolites were detected at much higher levels than the parent compound, peaked at approximately 24-36 h, and declined gradually. Residue levels were undetectable by 72 h. The ELISA data correlated well with the total residues determined by chromatographic analysis, but the use of the two separate ELISAs did not afford an advantage over ELISA with the single, broadly reactive MAb 587. The ELISA method could be used to flag high-residue samples in on-site monitoring of fenbendazole in milk and is a potential tool for studying drug pharmacokinetics.

  10. Apparent competition and native consumers exacerbate the strong competitive effect of an exotic plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Dutra, Humberto P; Marquis, Robert J; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species. Although effects of direct competition and consumption were more pervasive, richness of native plants was also reduced through apparent competition, as small-mammal consumers reduced richness only when L. maackii fruits were present. Our experiment reveals the multiple, interactive pathways that affect the success and impact of an invasive exotic plant: exotic plants may directly benefit from reduced attack by native consumers, may directly exert strong competitive effects on native plants, and may also benefit from apparent competition.

  11. Summary of field trials using the direct and competitive enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibody to brucella abortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.; Gall, D.

    1998-01-01

    Two indirect and two competitive enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus, validated elsewhere, were field tested in five different Latin American laboratories. Testing was performed according to standardised protocols using sera obtained in each area. Sera from B. abortus infected herds, from vaccinated (but serologically negative in a screening test) and non-vaccinated cattle were tested in each assay and compared to the results obtained with conventional diagnostic tests used for diagnosis of brucellosis in each country. Relative sensitivity and specificity values were calculated for each country as well as a weighted summary combining the data from all the participating laboratories. The result demonstrate that all ELISAs performed as well as, or better than, the conventional aerological tests. Given the inherent errors in the use of the latter in the diagnosis of brucellosis, it is recommended that the ELISAs described here be considered as replacements for the conventional tests. The CELISA using the lipopolysaccharide antigen with the competing monoclonal antibody M84, should be considered as the most useful because of cross-species and vaccination considerations. (author)

  12. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  13. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  14. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  15. Diagnostic Value of ELISA Tests for the Detection of Specific Antibodies in Cats and Rabbits with Dermatophytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka Drobnič-Košorok

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two indirect ELISA tests developed for the detection of specific IgG in cats and rabbits, infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively, were evaluated and compared. The levels of specific antibodies were determined in sera of 20 cats and 25 rabbits naturally infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively. Infection was confirmed by the results of fungal culture. Blood samples from 12 cats and 17 rabbits, previously unexposed to dermatophytes, served as negative controls. A significant increase in the level of specific antibodies in groups of infected animals was demonstrated. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a positive and a negative test were determined to evaluate the diagnostic potential. ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies in cats infected with M. canis (ELISA-cats test exhibited 75.0 % of sensitivity at 91.7 % of specificity, whereas the test for the detection of specific antibodies in rabbits, infected with T. mentagrophytes (ELISA-rabbits test is highly sensitive (96.0 % and highly specific (94.1 %, confirming its encouraging diagnostic potential. The cross-reactivity of fungal antigens was tested by performing the assays with antigens M. canis, T. mentagrophytes, M. pachydermatis and A. fumigatus. There were no significant indications of cross-reactions in the test T. mentagrophytes-rabbits, whereas strong cross-reaction between dermatophyte antigens was observed in the test M. canis-cats.

  16. Use of a novel serum ELISA method and the tonsil-carrier state for evaluation of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae distributions in pig herds with or without clinical arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Friis, Niels Filskov

    2005-01-01

    on porcine serum following experimental Mycoplasma infections as well as by analysis of samples from one Danish herd known to be free of M. hyosynoviae and samples from two Norwegian herds without clinical suspicion of M. hyosynoviae infections since their establishment. The epidemiology of M. hyosynoviae...... determined by culture of cross-sectional samples of whole-blood (n = 238) and tonsil scrapings (n = 322), respectively. Levels of serum antibodies (n = 396) were measured by the novel indirect ELISA test. There was no significant difference in the ELISA results between the MhA and the MhC herds. Pigs...

  17. Comparison of dot-ELISA and standard ELISA for detection of Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex-specific antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza FT Belo

    Full Text Available Dot-ELISA using the outer membrane complex antigens of Neisseria meningitidis as a target was standardized for rapid detection of meningococcal-specific antibodies in human serum. We investigated the level of meningococcal-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM in serum using dot-ELISA with outer membrane antigens prepared from Neisseria meningitidis serotype B:4.19:P1.15,3,7,9 (a strain isolated from a Brazilian epidemic. The dot-ELISA is based on the same principles as the standard ELISA and is useful for detection of anti-N. meningitidis B antibodies in serum of patients with meningococcal infections. For the assay, outer membrane complexes (OMCs were absorbed by nitrocellulose membrane and blocked with a 5% skim milk solution. Serum samples were drawn upon hospital admission and during convalescence from patients with meningococcal septicemia, and single samples were drawn from uninfected controls. We retrospectively examined a total of 57 serum samples: 35 from patients infected with N. meningitidis B, 12 from patients infected with Haemophilus influenzae b, and 10 from health individuals. When performed at room temperature, dot-ELISA took approximately four hours to perform, and the optimum antigen concentration was 0.42 µg per dot. The specificity of IgG, IgM, and IgA demonstrates that dot-ELISA using OMCs from N. meningitidis B as a target is suitable for serologic verification of clinically suspected meningococcal disease in patients and for titer determination of antibodies produced during different phases of natural infection. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dot-ELISA was comparable to that of standard ELISA. Overall, dot-ELISA is simple to perform, rapid, and low cost. Further validation of the test as a screening tool is required.

  18. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  19. Evaluation of antigen and antibody ELISA's for epidemiological surveys of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, M.C.; Hopkins, J.S.; Machila, N.; Bossche, P. van den; Peregrine, A.S.; Luckins, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity of the FAO/IAEA antigen-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis were investigated using sera from experimental cattle infected by tsetse challenge with cloned populations of Trypanosoma congolense (3 populations) or T. vivax (1 population). The kits are based on monoclonal antibodies that recognise internal antigens of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes. Ten cattle were infected with each trypanosome population for at least 60 days, and in combination with uninfected cohorts (n=16) were used in a double-blind study design. Sensitivity and specificity of the tests depended on the choice of positive-negative thresholds expressed as percent positivity with respect to the median OD of 4 replicates of the strong positive reference serum provided with the kit. In general, while overall specificities were high, sensitivities of the antigen-ELISA's were poor. For example, at a cut-off of 5% positivity, the sensitivities of the antigen-ELISA's were 11% for samples (n=1162) from T. congolense infected cattle (n=30), and 24% for samples (n=283) from T. vivax infected cattle (n=10). The corresponding specificity values were 95% and 79%, respectively. There were no values of the positive-negative threshold at which both sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory. Trypanosome species-specificities of the antigen-ELISA's were also poor. Sensitivity and species-specificity of the antigen-ELISA for T. brucei infections were not investigated. The indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum was adapted for use with dried blood spots on filter paper, and standardised using a strong positive reference serum and the percent positivity system of data expression. The antibody-ELISA was evaluated in Zambia for use in epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of tsetse-transmitted bovine trypanosomosis. Known negative samples (sera, n=209; blood spots, n=466) were

  20. Grantee Spotlight: Elisa Rodriguez, Ph.D., M.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Elisa M. Rodriguez tests the feasibility of community-based participatory research approaches to engaging Hispanics, African Americans, and the medically underserved in the Buffalo, NY area in biospecimen donation for cancer research.

  1. Search engine competition with network externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenton, C.; Prüfer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The market for Internet search is not only economically and socially important, it is also highly concentrated. Is this a problem? We study the question of whether “competition is only a free click away.” We argue that the market for Internet search is characterized by indirect network externalities

  2. Search Engine Competition with Network Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenton, C.; Prüfer, J.

    2011-01-01

    The market for Internet search is not only economically and socially important, it is also highly concentrated. Is this a problem? We study the question whether "competition is only a free click away". We argue that the market for Internet search is characterized by indirect network externalities

  3. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  4. Validation of Geno-Sen's scrub typhus real time polymerase chain reaction kit by its comparison with a serological ELISA Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Anitharaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent past, scrub typhus (ST has been reported from different parts of India, based on Weil-Felix/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA/indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Molecular tests are applied only by a few researchers. Aims: Evaluation of a new commercial real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR kit for molecular diagnosis of ST by comparing it with the commonly used IgM ELISA is our aim. Settings and Design: ST has been reported all over India including Puducherry and surrounding Tamil Nadu and identified as endemic for ST. This study was designed to correlate antibody detection by IgM ELISA and Orientia tsutsugamushi DNA in real time PCR. Materials and Methods: ST IgM ELISA (InBios Inc., USA was carried out for 170 consecutive patients who presented with the symptoms of acute ST during 11 months (November, 2015– September, 2016. All 77 of these patients with IgM ELISA positivity and 49 of 93 IgM ELISA negative patients were subjected to real time PCR (Geno-Sen's ST real time PCR, Himachal Pradesh, India. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis for clinical and laboratory results was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 17 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. Chi-square test with Yates correction (Fisher's test was employed for a small number of samples. Results and Conclusion: Among 77 suspected cases of acute ST with IgM ELISA positivity and 49 IgM negative patients, 42 and 7 were positive, respectively, for O. tsutsugamushi 56-kDa type-specific gene in real time PCR kit. Until ST IFA, the gold standard diagnostic test, is properly validated in India, diagnosis of acute ST will depend on both ELISA and quantitative PCR.

  5. Constraining early and interacting dark energy with gravitational wave standard sirens: the potential of the eLISA mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Chiara; Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We perform a forecast analysis of the capability of the eLISA space-based interferometer to constrain models of early and interacting dark energy using gravitational wave standard sirens. We employ simulated catalogues of standard sirens given by merging massive black hole binaries visible by eLISA, with an electromagnetic counterpart detectable by future telescopes. We consider three-arms mission designs with arm length of 1, 2 and 5 million km, 5 years of mission duration and the best-level low frequency noise as recently tested by the LISA Pathfinder. Standard sirens with eLISA give access to an intermediate range of redshift 1 ∼< z ∼< 8, and can therefore provide competitive constraints on models where the onset of the deviation from ΛCDM (i.e. the epoch when early dark energy starts to be non-negligible, or when the interaction with dark matter begins) occurs relatively late, at z ∼< 6. If instead early or interacting dark energy is relevant already in the pre-recombination era, current cosmological probes (especially the cosmic microwave background) are more efficient than eLISA in constraining these models, except possibly in the interacting dark energy model if the energy exchange is proportional to the energy density of dark energy.

  6. Application of 60Co γ-ray irradiated polystyrene microplate for anti-HCV ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Zeng Hongyan; Tang Yufang; Wang Lu

    2005-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation on minor polypeptides absorption of polystyrene microplate, an indirect ELISA detection of anti-HCV was established, 60 Co γ-ray irradiated polystyrene microplates and the controls (without irradiation or UV-irradiated) were applied to absorb recombinant HCV antigens respectively. Cooperated with Bovine antihuman IgG labelled HRP, their related indices of sensitivity, specificity, homogeneity and stability were determinate. The results indicated that, optimum dose of the γ-ray irradiation is 8 kGy, and compared with the controls, detection sensitivity and homogeneity of the polystyrene microplate irradiated to 8 kGy could be improved markedly. (authors)

  7. Validation of a KHV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, S M; Wang, Q; Zeng, W; Li, Y; Wang, Y; Matras, M; Reichert, M; Fichtner, D; Lenk, M; Morin, T; Olesen, N J; Skall, H F; Lee, P-Y; Zheng, S; Monaghan, S; Reiche, S; Fuchs, W; Kotler, M; Way, K; Bräuer, G; Böttcher, K; Kappe, A; Kielpinska, J

    2017-11-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes KHV disease (KHVD). The virus is highly contagious in carp or koi and can induce a high mortality. Latency and, in some cases, a lack of signs presents a challenge for virus detection. Appropriate immunological detection methods for anti-KHV antibodies have not yet been fully validated for KHV. Therefore, it was developed and validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect KHV antibodies. The assay was optimized with respect to plates, buffers, antigens and assay conditions. It demonstrated high diagnostic and analytical sensitivity and specificity and was particularly useful at the pond or farm levels. Considering the scale of the carp and koi industry worldwide, this assay represents an important practical tool for the indirect detection of KHV, also in the absence of clinical signs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Production of recombinant flagellin to develop ELISA-based detection of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mirhosseini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food-borne diseases, caused by the pathogenic bacteria, are highly prevalent in the world. Salmonella is one of the most important bacterial genera responsible for this. Salmonella Enteritidis (SE is one of the non-typhoid Salmonellae that can be transmitted to human from poultry products, water, and contaminated food. In recent years, new and rapid detection methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR have been developed. In this study, recombinant FliC (rFliC was produced to be used as an antigen. The immunization was conducted in mice with the purified recombinant FliC (rFliC. The mice were subcutaneously immunized with rFliC and elicited significant rFliC specific serum IgG antibodies. An indirect ELISA system was established for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis. Our results confirmed that the recombinant flagellin can be one of the excellent indicators for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis.

  9. Evaluation of an ELISA kit in the serological diagnosis of Babesia bovis for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.R.; Correa, B.L.; Cereser, V.H.; Artiles, J.M.; Alves-Branco, F.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for detect antibodies to Babesia bovis, an intraerytrocitic bovine parasite was evaluated using known negative and positive samples and the results were compared with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Results obtained with field samples were used to estimate seroprevalence of B. bovis in an endemic area to the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) vector of bovine babesiosis. Percentage of positivity (PP) values (optical density of tested serum/mean optical density of positive control) on 274 negative samples, had major values ranged in the frequency of 4.0 to 7.0 PP. Comparison between ELISA and IFAT showed an agreement of 93.3% on field sera samples, collected in areas of low, good and high soil fertility in the region of Bage (31 degree 20 min 13 sec S, 54 degree 06 min 21 sec W), RS, Brazil. From 5,082 tested sera, 3,751 (73%) were positive for B. bovis antibodies. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between results from calves living in areas of low and good soil fertility (80 and 82% of seroprevalence, respectively). However, calves living in soil of high fertility showed a minor inoculation rate for B. bovis (63% of seroprevalence), indicating needs of measures to prevent losses due to babesiosis. (author)

  10. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  11. Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335

  12. Design of indirect solid-phase immunosorbent methods for detecting arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A P; Rezapkin, G V; Dzagurova, T K; Tkachenko, E A

    1984-05-01

    Specifications have been elaborated for formulating indirect solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) methods that employ anti-human and anti-mice G class immunoglobulin (IgG), conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I for detecting the arenaviruses Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amalpari, Tamiami, Lassa, and LCM (lymphocytic choriomeningitis). These methods make it possible to identify with a high degree of sensitivity arenavirus antigens and antibodies in various kinds of material.

  13. Comparing validation of four ELISA-systems for detection of Salmonella derby- and Salmonella infantis-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Uwe; Szabo, Istvan; Matthies, Claudia; Albrecht, Kerstin; Leffler, Martin; Scherer, Kathrin; Nöckler, Karsten; Lehmann, Jörg; Methner, Ulrich; Hensel, Andreas; Truyen, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the comparative evaluation of four indirect Salmonella ELISA tests at study time approved in Germany to detect Salmonella infection in pigs.Three tests are based on a LPS-antigen mix and directed against specific IgG antibodies. The fourth test is based on a purified S. Typhimurium whole-cell lysate antigen and discriminates between Salmonella-specific IgM-, IgA-, and IgG- antibodies. In a longitudinal study, two groups of six weeks old hybrid piglets were orally infected with a porcine S. Infantis or S. Derby strain. Clinical and bacteriological parameters were monitored weekly during an observation period of 130 days after infection and serum samples were investigated in parallel with the respective ELISAs. Apparently, the LPS-based ELISA systems used in this study failed to recognize S. Infantis-infected pigs although those animals shed the pathogen in high amounts throughout the study until day 81 post infection (p. i.). In contrast, the isotype-specific Salmonella Typhimurium whole-cell-lysate based ELISA was capable of detecting Salmonella-infected pigs from day ten p. i. at all tested serotypes and revealed the highest sensitivity in detection of S. Infantis-infected pigs. Furthermore, it became apparent that the often used surveillance cut-off value of 40 OD% is not appropriate for intra-vitam detection of S. Infantis- and S. Derby-infected pigs. In contrast, the cut-off values of the ELISAs given by the suppliers result in considerable higher detection rates.

  14. PREPARATION OF CONJUGATE FOR USE IN AN ELISA FOR HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS IN LAYER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mansoor, S. U. Rahman, I. Hussain, M. H. Rasool and M. A. Zahoor

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed for the detection of antibodies against Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS virus. Virus identification was done through haemaggluti- nation inhibition (HI test using known antisera. Antichicken immunoglobulins were raised in goats and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation technique. These goat-antichicken immunoglobulins were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Twenty-seven serum samples were collected from a layers flock vaccinated against EDS and specific antibodies were determined by using a horseradish conjugate.

  15. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Tribble, R.E.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Kroha, V.; Nunes, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the anthropogenic marker isolithocholic acid in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldofski, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Holger; Lehmann, Andreas; Breitfeld, Stefan; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2016-11-01

    Bile acids are promising chemical markers to assess the pollution of water samples with fecal material. This study describes the optimization and validation of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the bile acid isolithocholic acid (ILA). The quantification range of the optimized assay was between 0.09 and 15 μg/L. The assay was applied to environmental water samples. Most studies until now were focused on bile acid fractions in the particulate phase of water samples. In order to avoid tedious sample preparation, we undertook to evaluate the dynamics and significance of ILA levels in the aqueous phase. Very low concentrations in tap and surface water samples made a pre-concentration step necessary for this matrix as well as for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Mean recoveries for spiked water samples were between 97% and 109% for tap water and WWTP influent samples and between 102% and 136% for WWTP effluent samples. 90th percentiles of intra-plate and inter-plate coefficients of variation were below 10% for influents and below 20% for effluents and surface water. ILA concentrations were quantified in the range of 33-72 μg/L in influent, 21-49 ng/L in effluent and 18-48 ng/L in surface water samples. During wastewater treatment the ILA levels were reduced by more than 99%. ILA concentrations of influents determined by ELISA and LC-MS/MS were in good agreement. However, findings in LC-ELISA experiments suggest that the true ILA levels in concentrated samples are lower due to interfering effects of matrix compounds and/or cross-reactants. Yet, the ELISA will be a valuable tool for the performance check and comparison of WWTPs and the localization of fecal matter input into surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of an ELISA for serodiagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in a Cuban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ayala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the serodiagnostic potential of the five recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens CFP-10 (Rv3874, ESAT-6 (Rv3875, APA (Rv1860, PstS-1 (Rv0934, Ag85A (Rv3804c and their combination in a Cuban population with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: The serodiagnostic potential of the recombinant antigens rESAT-6, rCFP-10, rAPA, rPstS-1 produced in Escherichia coli, rAg85A produced in Streptomyces lividans and the combination of the five proteins was evaluated by an indirect ELISA. Humoral immune response was analysed in a group of 140 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (smear-, Mantoux- and culture-positive and in a control group consisting of 34 bacillus CalmetteGuerin vaccinated, Mantoux-negative, healthy subjects. Results: With the exception of CFP-10, the use of the separate recombinant antigens or the antigenic cocktail in ELISA-based serodiagnosis resulted in a significant difference in the mean optical densitiy values between sera of patients and healthy subjects. The highest sensitivity of the assay using single antigens, being 58.57%, was achieved with rPstS-1 compared to 27.14% with rCFP-10, 31.65% with Ag85A, 42.86% with rAPA and 44.29% with rESAT-6. Single antigen ELISAs provided high specificity values ranging from 94.12% to 97.06%. A cocktail of the aforementioned antigens increased the sensitivity to 87.14% and the specificity to 97.06%. Conclusions: An ELISA using a multi-antigen mix containing recombinant immuno-dominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, namely, rCFP-10, rESAT-6, rAPA, rPstS-1 and rAg85, increases the sensitivity and specificity compared with that using the single antigens and shows potential as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuba.

  18. Biomimetic ELISA detection of malachite green based on molecularly imprinted polymer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Peng, Ai-Hong; Lin, Zheng-Zhong; Zhong, Hui-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Yong

    2017-08-15

    A highly selective and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of malachite green (MG) using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film as bionic antibody. The MIP film, based on the self-polymerization of dopamine, was fabricated on the surfaces of a 96-well microplate. It showed specific recognition for MG in aqueous solution. A direct competitive ELISA method was established with the sensitivity reaching 10.31μgL -1 and the detection limit being 0.3μgL -1 . The cross-reactivity of two structural analogues to MG was less than 10%. The average recovery tested by MG standard spiking was 88.8% for bass and 90.4% for water, and the relative standard deviations were less than 3.6%. All the above results indicated that the developed method could be used to detect MG in fish and water samples rapidly, specifically and accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040

  20. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  1. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  2. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  3. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  4. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  5. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  6. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  7. Indirect Reciprocity : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, J.; Schram, A.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has

  8. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test against double ELISA with SD H. pylori Ag ELISA and EZ-STEP H. pylori Ag ELISA tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Markos; Kassu, Afework; Amare, Bemnet; Yismaw, Gizachew; Moges, Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibody titters fall very slowly even after successful treatment. Therefore, tests detecting H. pylori antibody lack specificity and sensitivity. On the other hand, H. pylori stool antigen tests are reported as an alternative assay because of their reliability and simplicity. However, the comparative performance of H. pylori stool antigen tests for detecting the presence of the bacterium in clinical specimens in the study area is not assessed. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test with reference to the commercially available EZ- STEP ELISA and SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag ELISA tests. Stool samples were collected to analyse the diagnostic performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test kit using SD H. pylori Ag ELISA kit and EZ- STEP ELISA tests as a gold standard. Serum samples were also collected from each patient to test for the presence of H. pylori antibodies using dBest H. pylori Test Disk. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa value are assessed. P values H. pylori Ag rapid test were: 95.6% (95% CI, 88.8-98.8), 92.5% (95%CI, 89-94.1%), 86.7% (95% CI, 80.5-89.6), and 97.6% (95% CI, 993.9-99.3) respectively. The performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test was better than the currently available antibody test in study area. Therefore, the SD BIOLINE Ag rapid stool test could replace and be used to diagnose active H. pylori infection before the commencement of therapy among dyspeptic patients.

  10. An ELISA for the quantitation of von Willebrand Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Overgaard, Martin; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2013-01-01

    for measurement of von Willebrand factor-osteoprotegerin complex (VWF:OPG) in human plasma. Furthermore, the significance of VWF:OPG complex as a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was evaluated. PATIENTS/METHODS: A sandwich ELISA for quantification of VWF:OPG was developed using a polyclonal rabbit anti...... with and without documented coronary calcification (total n=118). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The assay detected VWF:OPG complexes in human plasma, while no significant signal was observed when testing solutions containing VWF or recombinant OPG alone. Importantly, the ELISA assay was able to detect in vitro formed...

  11. Evaluation of the antibody-detection ELISA using plates precoated with denatured T. congolense and T. vivax antigens for monitoring tsetse and trypanosomosis control in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machila, N.; Sinyangwe, L.; Eisler, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    An evaluation of the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum was conducted using ELISA plates pre-coated with denatured T. congolense and T. vivax antigen. The study was conducted on 280 samples from a parasitologically positive cattle population and 200 samples from a negative cattle population. The overwhelming majority of trypanosome infections in the parasitologically positive cattle were T. congolense. The Ab-ELISA was able to discriminate between the negative and positive cattle populations, at an optimum cut-off point of 40% positivity (T. congolense antigen), with 89% sensitivity and 86% specificity; and for the T. vivax antigen, the optimum cut-off point was at 30%, with 81% sensitivity and 70% specificity. However, the optical densities (OD) and percentage positivity (PP) values for sera from both the reference positive and negative cattle populations were unacceptably high particularly in the ELISA using T. congolense antigen. Furthermore the quality control sera used in the assay appear to have inappropriately low OD and PP values by comparison to typical sera from the reference positive and negative cattle populations. It is suggested that these ELISA's be re-titrated using more appropriate quality assurance sera. This should result in OD and PP values for sera from the reference populations failing within acceptable ranges. (author)

  12. Seroprevalence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis in Canada as determined by a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J; Chilton, Neil B; Pearl, David L; Lohmann, Katharina L

    2015-06-01

    Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are an emerging concern in Canada. We estimated the seroprevalence of EGA and equine LB by testing 376 convenience serum samples from 3 provinces using a point-of-care SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA), and investigated the agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and laboratory-based serologic tests. The estimated seroprevalence for EGA was 0.53% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 0.71% in Manitoba), while the estimated seroprevalence for LB was 1.6% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 2.86% in Manitoba). There was limited agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test for EGA (kappa 0.1, PABAK 0.47) and an ELISA/Western blot combination for LB (kappa 0.23, PABAK 0.71). While the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA yielded expected seroprevalence estimates, further evaluation of serologic tests for the purposes of disease exposure recognition may be needed.

  13. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  14. A repA-based ELISA for discriminating cattle vaccinated with Brucella suis 2 from those naturally infected with Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Ning; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Qiu, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Chi-Young; Chang, Ching-Dong; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The commonest ways of diagnosing brucellosis in animals include the Rose-Bengal plate agglutination test, the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the slide agglutination test, the complement fixation test, and the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). However, these methods cannot discriminate the Brucella vaccine strain (Brucella suis strain 2; B. suis S2) from naturally acquired virulent strains. Of the six common Brucella species, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and B. suis are the commonest species occurring in China. To develop an ELISA assay that can differentiate between cows inoculated with B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis, genomic sequences from six Brucella spp. (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, Brucella canis, Brucella neotomae and Brucella ovis) were compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. One particular gene, the repA-related gene, was found to be a marker that can differentiate B. suis from B. abortus and B. melitensis. The repA-related gene of B. suis was PCR amplified and subcloned into the pET-32a vector. Expressed repA-related protein was purified and used as an antigen. The repA-based ELISA was optimized and used as specific tests. In the present study, serum from animals inoculated with the B. suis S2 vaccine strain had positive repA-based ELISA results. In contrast, the test-positive reference sera against B. abortus and B. melitensis had negative repA-based ELISA results. The concordance rate between B. abortus antibody-negative (based on the repA-based ELISA) and the Brucella gene-positive (based on the 'Bruce ladder' multiplex PCR) was 100%. Therefore, the findings suggest that the repA-based ELISA is a useful tool for differentiating cows vaccinated with the B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Indirect taxation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ene, Sebastian; Micuda, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Indirect taxes are levied on the production and consumption of goods and services. They influence the retail price, and hence affect patterns of trade and consumption. Indirect taxes are ultimately paid by the final consumer. Sales and turnover taxes, excise duties and tariffs are the basic indirect taxes. In contrast with direct taxes, indirect taxes are seldom progressive. The principles for the levying of these taxes will be considered before the analysis of indirect taxes.

  16. Putting competition into perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L. III.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the current level of competition in the electric industry in the context of the history of the industry and the development of electric markets in other counties. The topics of the paper include competition in the history of the American electric industry, the current state of competition, the competitive situation in Texas, competition in other electric markets, and competitive changes in the US market

  17. Comparison of the performance of IFA, CFA, and ELISA assays for the serodiagnosis of acute Q fever by quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, Tineke; Hogema, Boris M; Nabuurs, Marrigje; Peeters, Marcel; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn; Schneeberger, Peter; Nijhuis, Carla; Notermans, Daan W; Galama, Joep; Horrevorts, Anton; van Loo, Inge H M; Vlaminckx, Bart; Zaaijer, Hans L; Koopmans, Marion P; Berkhout, Hanneke; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Stenos, John; Nicholson, William; Bijlmer, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is considered the reference method for diagnosing Q fever, but serology is also performed by complement fixation assay (CFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, comparability between these assays is not clear, and therefore a quality assessment was performed. A total of 25 serum samples from negative controls, Q fever patients, and a serial diluted high-positive sample were analyzed in 10 Dutch laboratories. Six laboratories performed CFA, 5 performed IFA, and 5 performed ELISAs. Three international reference laboratories from Australia, France, and the USA also participated in this study. Qualitative values between laboratories using the same methods were within close range, and all 3 methods correctly identified acute Q fever patients. The IFA, ELISA, and CFA are all suitable serodiagnostic assays to diagnose acute Q fever, but the IFA remains an important tool in the follow-up of patients and in identifying patients at risk for developing chronic Q fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elisa development for detection of glyphosat resistant gm soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Геннадійович Спиридонов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During research we have utilized recombinant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS, conferring resistance to glyphosate for GM soybean, for the hen immunization and obtaining specific yolk antibodies IgY. Stages of ELISA development that can detect at least 0,1 % of GM-soybean resistant to glyphosate were present

  19. Detection of antibodies to the 20s proteasome by ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karin Meinike; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup

    2013-01-01

    The presence of antibodies against the 20S proteasome has been correlated with diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but no definite association has been established. In order to investigate this further, we optimized an ELISA for proteasome antibodies...

  20. An experiment to test in-field pointing for Elisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Christina; Broll, Bernhard; Fitzsimons, Ewan; Johann, Ulrich; Jonke, Wouter; Lucarelli, Stefano; Nikolov, Susanne; Voert, Martijn; Weise, Dennis; Witvoet, Gert

    2017-11-01

    The evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) Mission is being developed to detect and characterise gravitational waves by measuring pathlength changes between free flying inertial test masses over a baseline of order 1 Gm. Here the observed astrophysical events and objects lie in a frequency range between 30 μHz and 1 Hz (the LISA measurement band, LMB).

  1. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes...

  2. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance. However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors.

  3. Indirect evolution of social fitness inequalities and facultative social exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramith R; Fiegna, Francesca; Velicer, Gregory J

    2018-03-28

    Microbial genotypes with similarly high proficiency at a cooperative behaviour in genetically pure groups often exhibit fitness inequalities caused by social interaction in mixed groups. Winning competitors in this scenario have been referred to as 'cheaters' in some studies. Such interaction-specific fitness inequalities, as well as social exploitation (in which interaction between genotypes increases absolute fitness), might evolve due to selection for competitiveness at the focal behaviour or might arise non-adaptively due to pleiotropy, hitchhiking or genetic drift. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus sporulates during cooperative development of multicellular fruiting bodies. Using M. xanthus lineages that underwent experimental evolution in allopatry without selection on sporulation, we demonstrate that interaction-specific fitness inequalities and facultative social exploitation during development readily evolved indirectly among descendant lineages. Fitness inequalities between evolved genotypes were not caused by divergence in developmental speed, as faster-developing strains were not over-represented among competition winners. In competitions between ancestors and several evolved strains, all evolved genotypes produced more spores than the ancestors, including losers of evolved-versus-evolved competitions, indicating that adaptation in non-developmental contexts pleiotropically increased competitiveness for spore production. Overall, our results suggest that fitness inequalities caused by social interaction during cooperative processes may often evolve non-adaptively in natural populations. © 2018 The Authors.

  4. Does size matter? Study of performance of pseudo-ELISAs based on molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles prepared for analytes of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, C; Canfarotta, F; Chianella, I; Pereira, E; Moczko, E; Esen, C; Guerreiro, A; Piletska, E; Whitcombe, M J; Piletsky, S A

    2016-02-21

    The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the size of the analyte used as template for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) can affect their performance in pseudo-enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (pseudo-ELISAs). Successful demonstration of a nanoMIPs-based pseudo-ELISA for vancomycin (1449.3 g mol(-1)) was demonstrated earlier. In the present investigation, the following analytes were selected: horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 44 kDa), cytochrome C (Cyt C, 12 kDa) biotin (244.31 g mol(-1)) and melamine (126.12 g mol(-1)). NanoMIPs with a similar composition for all analytes were synthesised by persulfate-initiated polymerisation in water. In addition, core-shell nanoMIPs coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and imprinted for melamine were produced in organics and tested. The polymerisation of the nanoparticles was done using a solid-phase approach with the correspondent template immobilised on glass beads. The performance of the nanoMIPs used as replacement for antibodies in direct pseudo-ELISA (for the enzymes) and competitive pseudo-ELISA for the smaller analytes was investigated. For the competitive mode we rely on competition for the binding to the nanoparticles between free analyte and corresponding analyte-HRP conjugate. The results revealed that the best performances were obtained for nanoMIPs synthesised in aqueous media for the larger analytes. In addition, this approach was successful for biotin but completely failed for the smallest template melamine. This problem was solved using nanoMIP prepared by UV polymerisation in an organic media with a PEG shell. This study demonstrates that the preparation of nanoMIP by solid-phase approach can produce material with high affinity and potential to replace antibodies in ELISA tests for both large and small analytes. This makes this technology versatile and applicable to practically any target analyte and diagnostic field.

  5. Electronic Commerce and Indirect Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the reason why indirect tax issues arise in the context of electronic commerce and discusses relevant issues. To do so, the paper presents a simple framework to understand and examine these issues in the international context. It also identifies common and different issues of the VAT system and the RST system. It demonstrates that an emerging solution proposed in the context of the VAT system can be affected with difficult problems that were regarded to be problems of the...

  6. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  7. Development and Application of an Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Recombinant Mag1 for Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii In Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Xunhui; Sun, Hongchao; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Jiaqing; Shan, Ying; Du, Aifang

    2017-06-01

    Serologic tests are widely accepted and applied as means to detect anti- Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. In this study, recombinant matrix antigen (rMAG1) was induced by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid purification system. We then developed and optimized an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) through checkerboard assays using serial dilutions of antigens and sera to assess the potential use of rMAG1 in serologic detection of T. gondii infection in dogs. Serum samples from 93 domestic dogs were analyzed by western blot and rMAG1-ELISA. The results were compared with those obtained from an ELISA with the soluble Toxoplasma lysate antigens (TLA). We found that although yielding an excellent agreement (96.7%) with western blot data (κ = 0.9659), rMAG1-ELISA produced higher sensitivity (93.9% vs. 87.8%) and specificity (98.3% vs. 96.7%) than TLA-ELISA. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis also revealed that rMAG1-ELISA is in more agreement with western blot (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.985) relative to TLA-ELISA (AUC = 0.955). These results indicated that the rMAG1-ELISA established in this study provides a promising and reliable tool for serologic detection of T. gondii infection in dogs.

  8. E.L.I.S.A. en coccidioidomicosis humana E.L.I.S.A. in human coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Nora Tiraboschi

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó E.L.I.S.A. con exoantígeno de Coccidioides immitis para la detectión de anticuerpos, en 67 sueros humanos diluidos 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000 y 1/8000. De los 18 sueros de enfermos de coccidioidomicosis comprobada por examen directo, cultivo y/o histología, 5 fueron negativos, en otros 13 fueron positivos en una o varias diluciones. 3/26 sueros de personas sanas, coccidioidino positivas, fueron positivos en títulos de 1/1000 y el resto no tuvo anticuerpos detectables. No presentaron reacciones positivas ninguno de los sueros controles de personas sanas, pero sí lo hicieron 4/8 pacientes con otras micosis. Se concluye que E.L.I.S.A. es útil para la detección de mínimas cantidades de anticuerpos o en sueros que no pueden ser procesados por fijación de complemento. No es recomendable el uso de la técnica en forma aislada por al presencia de reacciones cruzadas.An E.L.I.S.A. test for antibody detection, with an exo-antigen of Coccidioides immitis was standardized in 67 humans sera diluited in 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000 and 1/8000. Eightheen sera from mycologically proved cases of coccidioidomycosis were studied: 5 were negative and 13 were positive in some dilutions. 3/26 sera of healthy persons who presented positive skin tests with coccidioidin were positive and the other 23 sera did not have positive reactions. None of the 15 sera of healthy human exhibited positive E.L.I.S.A. Serum samples of 8 patients suffering other deep mycosis were studied, 4 of them presented cross-reactions in E.L.I.S.A. tests. E.L.I.S.A. test seems to be a useful Serologic technique for antibody detection in anticomplementary serum samples or when a low concentration of antibodies should be detected. As it is very sensitive, cross-reactions with other mycoses are frequent, thus the use other more specific serologic technique together E.L.I.S.A. is recommended.

  9. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  10. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies sheep in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and comparison using IFA and ELISA Anticorpos toxoplásmicos em ovinos de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil, e comparação utilizando RIFI e ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Bragagnolo Liz Stefen Sakata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis in sheep is a disease of great importance in veterinary medicine, which causes economic losses in livestock and has a great impact on human health, since consumption of infected meat facilitates transmission of zoonotic infections. Blood samples from sheep (n = 360 were collected from 13 farm properties in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina, to estimate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identify risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection. T. gondii, antibodies were investigated by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Animals infected with T. gondii were found on 100% of the farms. IFA detected 56.9% (205/360 and ELISA 42.5% of the infected sheep. Breed was the only risk factor associated with the presence of T. gondii antibodies. ELISA showed sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 82% and kappa of 0.41, which was considered moderate. This allows use of ELISA as an alternative technique for diagnosing T. gondii in sheep.A toxoplasmose ovina é uma doença parasitária de elevada importância em medicina veterinária e em saúde pública, acarretando prejuízos na produção animal, gerados pelas perdas reprodutivas e econômicas, além de sua implicação na saúde humana, já que o consumo de carne infectada facilita a transmissão zoonótica. Para determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco para a infecção por T. gondii em ovinos de Lages, Santa Catarina, amostras de sangue (n = 360 foram coletadas em 13 propriedades. Cada criador respondeu a um questionário para permitir a identificação dos fatores de risco da infecção. A pesquisa de anticorpos foi realizada por meio da Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI > 64 e do Ensaio Imunoenzimático Indireto (ELISA. Em 100% das propriedades foram encontrados animais positivos. Pela RIFI, 205 (56,94% ovinos apresentaram anticorpos contra T. gondii e pelo ELISA, 153 (42

  12. Direct replacement of antibodies with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles in ELISA – development of a novel assay for vancomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Moczko, Ewa; Caygill, J. Sarah; Piletska, Elena V.; Perez De Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel M.; Whitcombe, Michael J.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and straightforward technique for coating microplate wells with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) to develop ELISA type assays is presented here for the first time. NanoMIPs were synthesized by a solid phase approach with immobilized vancomycin (template) and characterized using Biacore 3000, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Immobilization, blocking and washing conditions were optimized in microplate format. The detection of vancomycin was achieved in competitive binding experiments with a HRP-vancomycin conjugate. The assay was capable of measuring vancomycin in buffer and in blood plasma within the range 0.001-70 nM with a detection limit of 0.0025 nM (2.5 pM). The sensitivity of the assay was three orders of magnitude better than a previously described ELISA based on antibodies. In these experiments nanoMIPs have shown high affinity and minimal interference from blood plasma components. Immobilized nanoMIPs were stored for 1 month at room temperature without any detrimental effects to their binding properties. The high affinity of nanoMIPs and the lack of a requirement for cold chain logistics make them an attractive alternative to traditional antibodies used in ELISA. PMID:23947402

  13. Direct replacement of antibodies with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles in ELISA--development of a novel assay for vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Moczko, Ewa; Caygill, J Sarah; Piletska, Elena V; De Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel M Perez; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-09-03

    A simple and straightforward technique for coating microplate wells with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) to develop assays similar to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is presented here for the first time. NanoMIPs were synthesized by a solid-phase approach with an immobilized vancomycin (template) and characterized using Biacore 3000, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Immobilization, blocking, and washing conditions were optimized in microplate format. The detection of vancomycin was achieved in competitive binding experiments with a horseradish peroxidase-vancomycin conjugate. The assay was capable of measuring vancomycin in buffer and in blood plasma within the range of 0.001-70 nM with a detection limit of 0.0025 nM (2.5 pM). The sensitivity of the assay was 3 orders of magnitude better than a previously described ELISA based on antibodies. In these experiments, nanoMIPs have shown high affinity and minimal interference from blood plasma components. Immobilized nanoMIPs were stored for 1 month at room temperature without any detrimental effects to their binding properties. The high affinity of nanoMIPs and the lack of a requirement for cold chain logistics make them an attractive alternative to traditional antibodies used in ELISA.

  14. From Hitting to Tattling to Gossip: An Evolutionary Rationale for the Development of Indirect Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon P. D. Ingram

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult humans are characterized by low rates of intra-group physical aggression. Since children tend to be more physically aggressive, an evolutionary developmental account shows promise for explaining how physical aggression is suppressed in adults. I argue that this is achieved partly through extended dominance hierarchies, based on indirect reciprocity and linguistic transmission of reputational information, mediated by indirectly aggressive competition. Reviewing the literature on indirect and related forms of aggression provides three pieces of evidence for the claim that evolutionarily old impulses towards physical aggression are socialized into indirect aggression in humans: (i physical aggression falls in early childhood over the same age range at which indirect aggression increases; (ii the same individuals engage in both direct and indirect aggression; and (iii socially dominant individuals practice indirect aggression more frequently. Consideration of the developmental course of indirect aggression is complemented by analysis of similar developments in verbal behaviors that are not always thought of as aggressive, namely tattling and gossip. An important puzzle concerns why indirect aggression becomes more covert, and tattling more derogated, in preadolescence and adolescence. This may be due to the development of new strategies aimed at renegotiating social identity and friendship alliances in the peer group.

  15. From hitting to tattling to gossip: an evolutionary rationale for the development of indirect aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Gordon P D

    2014-04-29

    Adult humans are characterized by low rates of intra-group physical aggression. Since children tend to be more physically aggressive, an evolutionary developmental account shows promise for explaining how physical aggression is suppressed in adults. I argue that this is achieved partly through extended dominance hierarchies, based on indirect reciprocity and linguistic transmission of reputational information, mediated by indirectly aggressive competition. Reviewing the literature on indirect and related forms of aggression provides three pieces of evidence for the claim that evolutionarily old impulses towards physical aggression are socialized into indirect aggression in humans: (i) physical aggression falls in early childhood over the same age range at which indirect aggression increases; (ii) the same individuals engage in both direct and indirect aggression; and (iii) socially dominant individuals practice indirect aggression more frequently. Consideration of the developmental course of indirect aggression is complemented by analysis of similar developments in verbal behaviors that are not always thought of as aggressive, namely tattling and gossip. An important puzzle concerns why indirect aggression becomes more covert, and tattling more derogated, in preadolescence and adolescence. This may be due to the development of new strategies aimed at renegotiating social identity and friendship alliances in the peer group.

  16. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  17. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  18. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the Cold Dark Matter scenario, the Dark Matter particle candidate may be a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (Wimp). Annihilation of two Wimps in local or cosmological structures would result in the production of a number of standard model particles such as photons, leptons and baryons which could be observed with the presently available or future experiments such as the Pamela or Glast satellites or the Cherenkov Telescopes. In this work we review the status-of-the-art of the theoretical and phenomenological studies about the possibility of indirect detection of signals coming from Wimp annihilation.

  19. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J; Lamanna, G; Lavalle, J

    2006-01-01

    This article is an experimental review of the status and prospects of indirect searches for dark matter. Experiments observe secondary particles such as positrons, antiprotons, antideuterons, gamma-rays and neutrinos which could originate from annihilations of dark matter particles in various locations in the galaxy. Data exist from some experiments which have been interpreted as hints of evidence for dark matter. These data and their interpretations are reviewed together with the new experiments which are planned to resolve the puzzles and make new measurements which could give unambiguous results

  20. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  1. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  2. Identification of heme oxygenase-1 stimulators by a convenient ELISA-based bilirubin quantification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Hannelore; Amslinger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has proven to be a useful tool for fighting inflammation. In order to identify new HO-1 inducers, an efficient screening method was developed which can provide new lead structures for drug research. We designed a simple ELISA-based HO-1 enzyme activity assay, which allows for the screening of 12 compounds in parallel in the setting of a 96-well plate. The well-established murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 is used and only about 26µg of protein from whole cell lysates is needed for the analysis of HO-1 activity. The quantification of HO-1 activity is based on an indirect ELISA using the specific anti-bilirubin antibody 24G7 to quantify directly bilirubin in the whole cell lysate, applying a horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibody together with ortho-phenylenediamine and H2O2 for detection. The bilirubin is produced on the action of HO enzymes by converting their substrate heme to biliverdin and additional recombinant biliverdin reductase together with NADPH at pH 7.4 in buffer. This sensitive assay allows for the detection of 0.57-82pmol bilirubin per sample in whole cell lysates. Twenty-three small molecules, mainly natural products with an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl unit such as polyphenols, including flavonoids and chalcones, terpenes, an isothiocyanate, and the drug oltipraz were tested at typically 6 or 24h incubation with RAW264.7 cells. The activity of known HO-1 inducers was confirmed, while the chalcones cardamonin, flavokawain A, calythropsin, 2',3,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (THMC), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone (DHDMC) were identified as new potent HO-1 inducers. The highest inductive power after 6h incubation was found at 10µM for DHDMC (6.1-fold), carnosol (3.9-fold), butein (3.1-fold), THMC (2.9-fold), and zerumbone (2.5-fold). Moreover, the time dependence of HO-1 protein production for DHDMC was compared to its enzyme activity, which was further evaluated in the presence of

  3. Development of an ELISA assay for screening inhibitors against divalent metal ion dependent alphavirus capping enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramanjit; Mudgal, Rajat; Narwal, Manju; Tomar, Shailly

    2018-06-26

    Alphavirus non-structural protein, nsP1 has a distinct molecular mechanism of capping the viral RNAs than the conventional capping mechanism of host. Thus, alphavirus capping enzyme nsP1 is a potential drug target. nsP1 catalyzes the methylation of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by transferring the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a GTP molecule at its N7 position with the help of nsP1 methyltransferase (MTase) followed by guanylylation (GT) reaction which involves the formation of m 7 GMP-nsP1 covalent complex by nsP1 guanylyltransferase (GTase). In subsequent reactions, m 7 GMP moiety is added to the 5' end of the viral ppRNA by nsP1 GTase resulting in the formation of cap0 structure. In the present study, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) nsP1 MTase and GT reactions were confirmed by an indirect non-radioactive colorimetric assay and western blot assay using an antibody specific for the m 7 G cap, respectively. The purified recombinant CHIKV nsP1 has been used for the development of a rapid and sensitive non-radioactive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to identify the inhibitors of CHIKV nsP1. The MTase reaction is followed by GT reaction and resulted in m 7 GMP-nsP1 covalent complex formation. The developed ELISA nsP1 assay measures this m 7 GMP-nsP1 complex by utilizing anti-m 7 G cap monoclonal antibody. The mutation of a conserved residue Asp63 to Ala revealed its role in nsP1 enzyme reaction. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to determine the presence of magnesium ions (Mg 2+ ) in the purified nsP1 protein. The divalent metal ion selectivity and investigation show preference for Mg 2+ ion by CHIKV nsP1. Additionally, using the developed ELISA nsP1 assay, the inhibitory effects of sinefungin, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) and ribavirin were determined and the IC 50 values were estimated to be 2.69 µM, 5.72 µM and 1.18 mM, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Purification, characterization and ELISA detection of mink immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2008-01-01

    the estimated molecular weights of the immunoglobulin gamma, alpha and mu heavy chains were found to be 54 kDa, 69 kDa and 83 kDa respectively. The purities of purified IgG, IgM and IgA were estimated by immunoglobulin class specific ELISAs to be more than 90% for IgG and IgM, and more than 80% for IgA....

  5. ELISA techniques for the determination of methanogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryniok, D; Troesch, W [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-12-01

    Easy-to-handle enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques have been developed suitable for quantitative species-specific determination of very low numbers of methanogens in complex bacterial populations. The amount and the distribution of different species of methanogens in anaerobic digestors is a reflection of the functional status of the degradation process; this can be recognized with these tests and hence may be used for process control. (orig.).

  6. Influence of affinity on antibody determination in microtiter ELISA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, J.H.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Butler, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretically, all immunoassays are affinity (Ka) dependent when the product of the antibody (Ab) Ka and the free epitope concentration is less than 10. Thus, the degree of dependence on Ka depends on the concentration of available antigen in the system. The authors examined the binding of 125 I-anti-fluorescein (a-FLU) monoclonal antibodies of different affinities to FLU-gelatin adsorbed on Immunlon 2 microtiter plates. Data obtained were in general agreement with our theoretical predictions; the percent of 125 I-a-FLU which bound correlated with Ka, as did the shape of the titration curves. Measurement of 5 a-FLU monoclonals by the ELISA showed that the determination of Ab concentrations depends on the FLU-gelatin concentration, epitope density, and on the relationship between the Kas of test samples and the reference standard Ab preparation. Thus the ELISA is Ka dependent and should not be used routinely to estimate the absolute amount to Ab in unknown samples. However, the Ka dependency of the ELISA might provide a convenient assay for the estimation of the relative functional Ka (rfKa) of antibody preparations

  7. Quantitative sandwich ELISA for the determination of fish in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeste, Christiane K; Plassen, Christin

    2008-01-01

    Allergy to fish represents one of the most prevalent causes for severe food-allergic reactions. Therefore, food authorities in different countries have implemented mandatory labeling of fish in pre-packed foods. Detection of fish proteins in food has previously been based on the use of patient serum. In the present study, a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of fish in food matrixes has been developed and validated, using a polyclonal rabbit anti-cod parvalbumin antibody for capture and a biotinylated conjugate of the same antibody for detection. By employing the ubiquitous muscle protein parvalbumin as target the method succeeds to detect a variety of fish. However, the ELISA is specific for fish and does not cross-react with other species. Recoveries ranged from 68-138% in typical food matrixes, while the intra- and inter-assay precisions were parvalbumin ELISA with a limit of detection of 0.01 mg parvalbumin/kg food, about 5 mg fish/kg food, seems sufficient to detect fish protein traces in foods at levels low enough to minimize the risk for fish allergic consumers.

  8. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raciborski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%. According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  9. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indirect Cost Reimbursement: An Industrial View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The meaning of indirect costs in an industrial environment is discussed. Other factors considered are corporate policies; nature of work being supported; the uniqueness of the work; who is doing the negotiating for industry; and indirect rates. Suggestions are offered for approaches to indirect cost reimbursement. (Author/MLW)

  12. Language shifts in free indirect discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Emar

    Free indirect discourse is a way of reporting what a protagonist thinks or says that is distinct from both direct and indirect discourse. In particular, while pronouns and tenses are presented from the narrator's perspective, as in indirect discourse, other indexical and expressive elements reflect

  13. Directe en indirecte werknemersparticipatie in Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Gijs; Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo; Vermeylen, Greet

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at different forms of direct and indirect employee participation in the EU. The research questions are: (1) which forms of direct and indirect employee participation can we distinguish?; (2) to what extent do forms of direct and indirect employee participation coincide within

  14. Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheiry Mona K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of active Fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes. Methods From a panel of MoAbs raised against F. gigantica excretory/secretory antigens (ES Ags, a pair (12B/11D/3F and 10A/9D/10G was chosen due to its high reactivity and strict specificity to F. gigantica antigen by indirect ELISA. Results The two MoAbs were of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, respectively. Using SDS-PAGE and EITB, the selected MoAbs recognized 83, 64, 45 and 26 kDa bands of ES Ags. The lower detection limit of ELISA assay was 3 ng/ml. In stool, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of ELISA was 96%, 98.2 and 97.1%; while in serum they were 94%, 94.6% and 94.3%, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of F. gigantica infected patients and the OD readings of ELISA in both stool and serum samples (r = 0.730, p Conclusions These data showed that the use of MoAb-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica coproantigens in stool specimens was superior to serum samples; it provides a highly efficient, non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of active F. gigantica infection.

  15. A novel marker for assessment of liver matrix remodeling: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detecting a MMP generated type I collagen neo-epitope (C1M)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana Julie; He, Y.; Veidal, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of a type I collagen fragment generated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2, -9 and -13, was developed (CO1-764 or C1M). The biomarker was evaluated in two preclinical rat models of liver fibrosis: bile duct ligation (BDL) an...

  16. Development and validation of an indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for the detection of antibodies against Schmallenberg virus in blood samples from ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der H.M.J.F.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Mars, M.H.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Wellenberg, G.J.; Maanen, van C.

    2013-01-01

    To detect Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infections in ruminants and to perform SBV epidemiological studies a cost-effective serological test is required. For these purposes an indirect whole virus Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection of SBV specific antibodies in ruminant blood

  17. Modification the ELISA Kit for diagnosis of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa and comparing it with ordinary ELISA kit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed A. Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of the present study was to diagnosis Pseudomonas  aeruginosa by many tests. This study consisted "200 patients " who suffered from burn wound and compare with 100 health individuals (male and female as a control group, Vitek test was used to diagnose  118 (87 "local isolate  ATCC 15692" with 31 other isolate of Pseudomonas  aeruginosa  ((ATCC 15690, ATCC 15688  from 200 samples which were taken from burn patients. This result was similar to Analytical profile index ( API   test (118 isolates of  P. aeruginosa with 82 isolations of  other bacteria. Then the detection P. aeruginosa isolate  ATCC 15692 by new ELISA Technique and comparing its with modify the ordinary ELISA kit.

  18. Infectious diseases in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R A; Thacker, S B; Solomon, S L; Osterholm, M T; Hughes, J M

    1994-03-16

    Participation in competitive sports is popular and widely encouraged throughout the United States. Reports of infectious disease outbreaks among competitive athletes and recent publicity regarding infectious disease concerns in sports underscore the need to better characterize the occurrence of these problems. To identify reports of infectious diseases in sports, we performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature (MEDLINE) and newspaper databases in two on-line services (NEXIS and DIALOG PAPERS). Articles selected from the literature review included those describing cases or outbreaks of disease in which exposure to an infectious agent was likely to have occurred during training for competitive sports or during actual competition. Articles from the newspaper review included reports of outbreaks, exposures, or preventive measures that directly or indirectly involved teams or spectators. The literature review identified 38 reports of infectious disease outbreaks or other instances of transmission through person-to-person (24 reports), common-source (nine reports), or airborne (five reports) routes; the newspaper search identified 28 reports. Infectious agents included predominantly viruses but also a variety of fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings indicate that strategies to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in sports must recognize risks at three levels: the individual athlete, the team, and spectators or others who may become exposed to infectious diseases as a result of sports-related activities. Team physicians and others who are responsible for the health of athletes should be especially familiar with the features of infectious diseases that occur in sports and measures for the prevention of these problems.

  19. A noise simulator for eLISA: Migrating LISA Pathfinder knowledge to the eLISA mission

    OpenAIRE

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, Michael; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, I.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technical simulator for the eLISA mission, based on state space modeling techniques and developed in MATLAB. This simulator computes the coordinate and velocity over time of each body involved in the constellation, i.e. the spacecraft and its test masses, taking into account the different disturbances and actuations. This allows studying the contribution of instrumental noises and system imperfections on the residual acceleration applied on the TMs, the latter reflecting the ...

  20. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  1. [Importance of perceived competition and motivation to the mental health of college athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Molina-García, Javier; Alvarez, Octavio

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes the direct and indirect relationships among self-motivation, perceived competition and psychological well-being and ill-being. Data from 491 Spanish college students (299 men and 192 women) who practice sports were collected using a cross-sectional design. Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modeling. Psychological well-being was directly fostered by perceived competition and indirectly by self- motivation. Furthermore, perceived competition was negatively associated with psychological ill-being. Perceived competition and self-motivation are important to the psychological well-being of college students and to avoiding ill-being.

  2. Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, M D; Stubbins, J M; Warnock, D W

    1982-01-01

    A rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) where component incubation periods were shortened to one hour, was compared with agar gel double diffusion (AGDD) and a standard ELISA procedure for detecting antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus in 28 asthmatic patients with suspected allergic aspergillosis. Using two A fumigatus antigens the rapid ELISA compared well with AGDD and the standard ELISA method. Eleven sera that reacted with both antigens in AGDD were all positive against antigen ...

  3. Detection of toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin G in human sera: performance comparison of in house Dot-ELISA with ECLIA and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Aref; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Mohebali, Mehdi; Zouei, Nima; Rezaian, Mostafa; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2018-05-08

    In the current study, performance of electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) in detection of anti-toxoplasma IgG in human sera was compared with that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, performance of an in house Dot-ELISA in detection of anti-toxoplasma IgG was compared with that of ECLIA and ELISA. In total, 219 human sera were tested to detect anti-toxoplasma IgG using Dynex DS2® and Roche Cobas® e411 Automated Analyzers. Discordant results rechecked using immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Then, sera were used in an in house Dot-ELISA to assess toxoplasma-specific IgG. Of the 219 samples, two samples were found undetermined using ECLIA but reactive using ELISA. Using IFA, the two sera were reported unreactive. Furthermore, two samples were found reactive using ECLIA and unreactive using ELISA. These samples were reported reactive using IFA. The overall agreement for the two former methods was 98% (rZ0.98.1; P house Dot-ELISA included sensitivity of 79.5, specificity of 78.2, and accuracy of 78.9%, compared to ECLIA and ELISA. Positive and negative predictive values included 82.9 and 74.2%, respectively. A 100% sensitivity was found in in house Dot-ELISA for highly reactive sera in ECLIA and ELISA. ECLIA is appropriate for the first-line serological screening tests and can replace ELISA due to high speed, sensitivity, and specificity, particularly in large laboratories. Dot-ELISA is a rapid, sensitive, specific, cost-effective, user-friendly, and field-portable technique and hence can be used for screening toxoplasmosis, especially in rural fields or less equipped laboratories.

  4. Are competition and extrinsic motivation reliable predictors of academic cheating?

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor eOrosz; Gábor eOrosz; Gábor eOrosz; Dávid eFarkas; Dávid eFarkas; Dávid eFarkas; Christine eRoland-Levy

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast,...

  5. Are Competition and Extrinsic Motivation Reliable Predictors of Academic Cheating?

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, G?bor; Farkas, D?vid; Roland-L?vy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast,...

  6. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  7. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  8. Comparison of DOT-ELISA and Standard-ELISA for Detection of the Vibrio cholerae Toxin in Culture Supernatants of Bacteria Isolated from Human and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Lucas, Antonio; Pérez-Villagómez, María-Fernanda; Martínez-López, José-Patricio; García-Rodea, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelán, María-Guadalupe; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis; Villanueva-Zamudio, Altagracia

    2016-09-01

    A comparison of DOT-ELISA and Standard-ELISA was made for detection of Vibrio cholerae toxin in culture supernatants of bacteria isolated from human and environmental samples. A total of 293 supernatants were tested in a double blind assay. A correlation of 100 % was obtained between both techniques. The cholera toxin was found in 20 Inaba and 3 Ogawa strains. Positive samples were from seafood (17 samples), potable water (1 sample) and sewage (5 samples). The DOT-ELISA was useful as the standard-ELISA to confirm the presence of cholera toxin in the environmental samples.

  9. The quantitation of parasite-specific human IgG and IgE in sera: evaluation of solid-phase RIA and ELISA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have developed a non-competitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) to quantitate both human IgE and IgG antibodies against soluble adult antigens of Brugia malayi (B.m.), a filarial parasite causing extensive infection throughout the tropics. Previously enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) had been used to detect μg/ml levels of IgG anti-B.m., but IgE antibodies were difficult to detect in this system. Since the SPRIA successfully quantitates both IgG and IgE anti-B.m., they sought to examine the reasons for the SPRIA's apparent superiority in detecting IgE anti-B.m. by extracting specific IgG from sera with high levels of IgE and IgG anti-B.m. antibodies. IgE anti-B.m. was then quantitated in these sera using both the SPRIA and ELISA methods. Results indicate that IgG anti-B.m. does not interfere with detection of specific IgE antibody in the SPRIA but does interfere in the ELISA. While ELISA permits detection of IgE anti-B.m. in the absence of competing IgG anti-B.m., as levels of specific IgG increase, the IgE is no longer detectable. These differences between SPRIA and ELISA can be explained by the SPRIA's antigen excess conditions which assure that there are sufficient antigens both to detect all anti-B.m. antibodies present in the serum and to adequately represent all antigen specificities in the crude B.m. extract. Their findings commend the use of SPRIA methods over ELISA in assessment of B.m.-specific IgE antibody in filariasis and indicate a potential role for SPRIA methods in absolute quantitation of specific serum antibodies. (Auth.)

  10. Quantitation of parasite-specific human IgG and IgE in sera: evaluation of solid-phase RIA and ELISA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R G [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Medicine; Hussain, R; Ottesen, E A [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA); Adkinson, Jr, N F [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-07-17

    The authors have developed a non-competitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) to quantitate both human IgE and IgG antibodies against soluble adult antigens of Brugia malayi (B.m.), a filarial parasite causing extensive infection throughout the tropics. Previously enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) had been used to detect ..mu..g/ml levels of IgG anti-B.m., but IgE antibodies were difficult to detect in this system. Since the SPRIA successfully quantitates both IgG and IgE anti-B.m., they sought to examine the reasons for the SPRIA's apparent superiority in detecting IgE anti-B.m. by extracting specific IgG from sera with high levels of IgE and IgG anti-B.m. antibodies. IgE anti-B.m. was then quantitated in these sera using both the SPRIA and ELISA methods. Results indicate that IgG anti-B.m. does not interfere with detection of specific IgE antibody in the SPRIA but does interfere in the ELISA. While ELISA permits detection of IgE anti-B.m. in the absence of competing IgG anti-B.m., as levels of specific IgG increase, the IgE is no longer detectable. These differences between SPRIA and ELISA can be explained by the SPRIA's antigen excess conditions which assure that there are sufficient antigens both to detect all anti-B.m. antibodies present in the serum and to adequately represent all antigen specificities in the crude B.m. extract. Their findings commend the use of SPRIA methods over ELISA in assessment of B.m.-specific IgE antibody in filariasis and indicate a potential role for SPRIA methods in absolute quantitation of specific serum antibodies.

  11. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for glutathione S-transferase (GST-S) protein in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus and its application for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-11-01

    To utilize the GST-S protein as a useful biomarker for environmental contamination, we developed a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Two polyclonal antibodies, TJ-GST-S1 and TJ-GST-S2, were raised against two TJ-GST-S synthetic peptides. Also a recombinant TJ-GST-S protein was purified as a standard for ELISA development. Each polyclonal antibody was tested by Western blot analysis and indirect ELISA. Of two polyclonal antibodies, TJ-GST-S2 ELISA was further employed due to its wide range of detection and the limit of specificity compared to those of TJ-GST-S1 ELISA system. After exposure to 4 metals (Ag, As, Cd, and Cu) to T. japonicus, the amount of TJ-GST-S protein was significantly elevated in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, TJ-GST-S protein was upregulated at relative high concentrations of B[α]P, PCB, and TBT. In this paper, we suggest that T. japonicas ELISA for TJ-GST-S2 is useful as a potential indicator system for marine contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Competition Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cassey

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia does not have a national competition law. Competition is regulated at the sectoral level in the country. Two economic sectors have legal provisions for competition law but these have been relatively ineffectively enforced. The benefits of Malaysia's industrial policy as well as the policy reforms in regulation and trade have been compromised by the lack of a formal institution to address competition related issues. Hence, the future priority and direction of regulatory reform is obvi...

  13. Competitive strategy : Sorrin Puutarha

    OpenAIRE

    Haaristo, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The thesis handles the fresh food product industry in Finland and especially one company operating in the industry and its competitive position. Sorrin Puutarha manufactures ready-to-use fresh cut salad bag, which is sold in the grocery stores. The objective of the thesis was to find competitive advantages of the case company. Once the competitive advantages were identified the purpose was to choose a fitting competitive strategy that would strengthen those advantages. The field study was con...

  14. Can competition reduce quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-01-01

    In a spatial competition setting there is usually a non-negative relationship between competition and quality. In this paper we offer a novel mechanism whereby competition leads to lower quality. This mechanism relies on two key assumptions, namely that the providers are motivated and risk-averse. We show that the negative relationship between competition and quality is robust to any given number of firms in the market and whether quality and price decisions are simultaneous or sequential. We...

  15. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  16. Comportamento do método quimioluminescente-ELISA em relação a resultados considerados discordantes por meio de três técnicas convencionais para diagnóstico da doença de Chagas Behavior of the chemiluminescent ELISA method in relation to results considered discordant via three conventional techniques for diagnosing Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina De Marchi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Quando utilizadas, em conjunto, a hemaglutinação indireta, a imunofluorescência indireta e ELISA para diagnóstico sorológico da doença de Chagas por vezes ocorrem resultados considerados discordantes, por não haver concordância entre o que indicam essas técnicas. A disponibilidade do método quimioluminescente-ELISA permitiu executá-lo com 200 soros que examinados pelos três testes citados que motivaram a obtenção de resultados discordantes. Com o método quimioluminescente-ELISA sucederam 193 negativos e sete positivos. O emprego desse novo procedimento trouxe mais um subsídio para compreensão do assunto, mas avanço mais concreto dependerá de documentação com soros de pessoas infectadas ou não pelo Trypanosoma cruzi conforme comprovação parasitológica.When indirect hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are used together for serologically diagnosing Chagas disease, results that are considered discordant sometimes occur because there is disagreement between what these tests indicate. The availability of the chemiluminescent ELISA method enabled tests on 200 serum samples that had previously produced discordant results from the three abovementioned methods. CL-ELISA revealed that 193 of these samples were negative and seven were positive. The use of this new procedure provides further support for understanding this subject, but more concrete advances will depend on documentation with blood analyses from people previously demonstrated to be unquestionably infected or uninfected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

  17. Competition for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is EPA policy to promote competition in the award of assistance agreements to the maximum extent practicable.When assistance agreements are awarded competitively, it is EPA policy that the competitive process be fair and open & that no applicant receive

  18. The Diagnostic Value of ELISA Method for Pertussis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low effectiveness of laboratory methods for diagnosing pertussis it is important to look for new ways of verification of this infection. The article presents the analysis of the diagnostic value of ELISA method, which involves the identification of antibodies of different isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA to pertussis toxoid (PT and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA. The study included 279 children: 114 were under 1 year of age, 165 — older than 1 year. The pertussis was confirmed in 74.3 ± 2.6% of patients by using ELISA method. A significant proportion of seronegative patients (46.1 ± 6.2 per cent was revealed in the group of patients under 1 year. The pattern of production of antibodies in unvaccinated children was different. It depended on the age of the children and timing of illness. A low proportion of diagnostically significant indicators of IgM-antibodies at 2—3 weeks of illness was typical for patients under 1 year of age (e.g. 6.7 ± 6.5% as compared to 20.0 ± 7.9% and 50.0 ± 15.3 — 1—3 and 4—6 years of age. The diagnosis of pertussis in children under 1 year of age was confirmed mainly by the detection of IgG, starting from the 4th week of the disease. In the examination of vaccinated children diagnostically significant levels of IgA and IgG were identified (even in the late stages of the disease. Thus, the results of the analysis show special significance of using ELISA method for the diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children.

  19. Elisa Live -palvelu : Laajentuminen Ison-Britannian markkinoilla

    OpenAIRE

    Heimolinna, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tuottaa Elisan liiketoimintatiimille tietoa, joka liittyy Elisa Live -palvelun vuonna 2015 alkaneeseen kansainväliseen laajentumiseen. Työn tavoitteita olivat asiakasymmärryksen lisääminen ja tiedon kerääminen Elisan kilpailijoista valitussa myyntikanavassa Amazon-verkkokaupassa. Teoriaosuudessa selvitettiin kilpailutekijöitä, markkinointiviestintää ja kansainvälistymistä. Nykytilanneanalyysissä tutkittiin Isoa-Britanniaa markkina-alueena ja Amazon-ve...

  20. Rubella virus detection by ELISA method in exposed radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianmei; Zhu Bo; Zhu Youming; Shao Jinhui; Wu Weiping; Han Jinxiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A rapid diagnosis method was developed to detect Rubella virus infection in radiation workers. Methods: Modified ELISA method was used to detect the level of lgG and lgM antibodies in 514 in Jinan district. Results: 90.47% of 514 cases was shown to be resistant against Rubella virus; 6.42% were sensitive type; 0.78% belonged to be reinfected. Conclusion: Detection of Rubella virus in exposed radiation workers was imperative, and vaccine against Rubella virus was also needed to eliminate the infection risk. (authors)

  1. Evaluation Of Antibody Elisa, Coproscopy And Serum Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le titrage avec immunoadsorbant lié à une enzyme (ELISA), la sédimentation fécale et les tests de l'action de l'enzyme du sérum ont été faits sur des échantillons de fèces et de sérum recueillis de 134 bovins (55 positifs et 79 négatifs pour les lésions dues à la douve du foie) lors de l'inspection de viande en Ethiopie.

  2. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species.

  3. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  4. Standardization of the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Porta, A.J.; Young, J.; Hansson, E.; Spencer, T.

    1994-01-01

    Newcastle disease is the major viral disease of poultry causing significant economic losses in most countries except Australia and New Zealand. Serological monitoring of poultry has traditionally been carried out using the haemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) test. More recently, ELISA has been used for the same purpose. This paper described the use of an indirect ELISA for assay of antibodies in chickens against Newcastle disease viruses and compares some of the parameters for this test. The sucrose density gradient purified, inactivated, antigen enabled performance of the test without the addition of any blocking agents other than the usual Tween 20. A range of plates was compared and the most suitable plate was found to be a polystyrene haemagglutination plate giving an excellent positive to negative ratio of 33.2, compared with some expensive ELISA plates which gave very low +ve/-ve ratios. Various incubation conditions for the steps in the ELISA were compared and incubation with shaking at room temperature (24 to 28 deg. C) gave adequate reactivity whilst simplifying incubation conditions and speeding up the test. The negative cut-off value was determined by testing 1632 HI negative specific pathogen free sera from birds of a wide age range. The reactivity of sera in the ELISA was standardized using a standard curve on every plate and converting the readings to ELISA units (EUs) in the range of 16 to 512 EUs. The EU values of these sera were not normally distributed and so the 95% cut-off was determined by ranking the values in descending order and retaining only the top 5% of the values as false positives. This resulted in a cut-off value of 33.6 EUs, with few of HI positive sera having values lower than this cut-off. The use of a standard curve on each plate is recommended in order to standardize the assay and to determine the ELISA units for the test sera. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  6. ELISA, a demonstrator environment for information systems architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panem, Chantal

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach of reusability of software engineering technology in the area of ground space system design. System engineers have lots of needs similar to software developers: sharing of a common data base, capitalization of knowledge, definition of a common design process, communication between different technical domains. Moreover system designers need to simulate dynamically their system as early as possible. Software development environments, methods and tools now become operational and widely used. Their architecture is based on a unique object base, a set of common management services and they host a family of tools for each life cycle activity. In late '92, CNES decided to develop a demonstrative software environment supporting some system activities. The design of ground space data processing systems was chosen as the application domain. ELISA (Integrated Software Environment for Architectures Specification) was specified as a 'demonstrator', i.e. a sufficient basis for demonstrations, evaluation and future operational enhancements. A process with three phases was implemented: system requirements definition, design of system architectures models, and selection of physical architectures. Each phase is composed of several activities that can be performed in parallel, with the provision of Commercial Off the Shelves Tools. ELISA has been delivered to CNES in January 94, currently used for demonstrations and evaluations on real projects (e.g. SPOT4 Satellite Control Center). It is on the way of new evolutions.

  7. PM1-Alpha ELISA: the assay of choice for the detection of anti-PM/Scl autoantibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Michael; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2009-03-01

    A characteristic serological feature of patients suffering from the overlap polymyositis and scleroderma (PM/Scl) syndrome are antibodies to the human counterpart of the yeast exosome referred to as the PM/Scl complex. Historically, the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies was laborious and relied largely on indirect immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion techniques. In 1992 the major autoantigen PM/Scl-100 was identified and cloned. Subsequently, the major epitopes were mapped and one of these, termed PM1-Alpha, became the antigen for a novel ELISA exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies. Comparative studies with other methods using other PM/Scl autoantigens have shown that the PM1-Alpha ELISA has higher sensitivity and specificity than assays that employed recombinant PM/Scl-75c and PM/Scl-100. Anti-PM1-Alpha antibodies were identified in 55.0% of sera from PM/Scl overlap syndrome patients, but were also seen in 7.9% of SSc and in 7.5% of PM patients. The frequency in other systemic autoimmune diseases and in infectious diseases was significant lower. In summary, the data derived from individual studies suggest that PM1-Alpha may become the "gold standard" for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies.

  8. Quality control using a multilevel logistic model for the Danish pig Salmonella surveillance antibody-ELISA programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Hanne; Ekeroth, Lars; Houe, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, the level of Salmonella infection in pig herds is monitored with a surveillance programme using an indirect antibody ELISA. Our purpose with the present study was to determine whether sample results from the programme were useful in the quality control of this ELISA. Test results from...... throughout. Analysis of the test results from the wells with test samples gave good information on systematic errors across the microtitre plates, and severe errors appeared significant even when data from short time periods were used....... the year 2003, in which the laboratory experienced a technical problem with an automatic microtitre-plate washing machine, were examined statistically. We chose 3 months for the analysis: January, where the problem was moderate, June with the problem more serious, and November, where the problem had been...... solved. A logistic analysis was carried out with outcome 0 for a negative test result and I for a positive test result. Row and column on the microtitre plates, multiprobe robot, and their interactions were included as fixed effects, and date, plate, and slaughterhouse were included as random effects...

  9. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  10. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SIMPLIFIED DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA INFECTION: GFM/PCR/ELISA A SIMPLIFIED NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION TECHNIQUE BY PCR/ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Dantas MACHADO

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an adaptation of a technique for the blood sample collection (GFM as well as for the extraction and amplification of Plasmodium DNA for the diagnosis of malaria infection by the PCR/ELISA. The method of blood sample collection requires less expertise and saves both time and money, thus reducing the cost by more than half. The material is also suitable for genetic analysis in either fresh or stored specimens prepared by this method.Relatamos a adaptação de uma técnica para coleta de amostras (MFV e outra para extração, amplificação de DNA de parasitas da malária para diagnóstico por PCR/ELISA. O método de coleta de amostras requer menos habilidade e economisa tempo e dinheiro, assim reduzindo a mais da metade o custo. O material é também adequado para análise genética em especimens frescos ou estocados, preparados por este método.

  12. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  13. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  14. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An experimental study. Amit Sharma Manish Dev Shrimali. Synchronization, Coupled Systems and Networks Volume 77 Issue 5 November 2011 pp 881-889 ... The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev ...

  15. Indirect search for dark matter with AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goy, Corinne

    2006-01-01

    This document summarises the potential of AMS in the indirect search for Dark Matter. Observations and cosmology indicate that the Universe may include a large amount of Dark Matter of unknown nature. A good candidate is the Ligthest Supersymmetric Particle in R-Parity conserving models. AMS offers a unique opportunity to study Dark Matter indirect signature in three spectra: gamma, antiprotons and positrons

  16. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  17. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  18. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0031] Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The authority...

  19. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  20. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  1. Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Gorter, J.

    This paper investigates competition in the Dutch non-life insurance industry indirectly by measuring scale economies and X-inefficiency, assuming that strong competition would force insurance firms to exploit unused scale economies and to push down inefficiencies. We observe substantial economies of

  2. Winning the competition for supplier resources: The role of preferential resource allocation from suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the competition between buying firms for the supplier’s competitive resources. The purpose of this paper is to examine how indirect capabilities – the ability to access external resources – can help in obtaining preferential resource allocation from suppliers.

  3. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Light Source Assembly of PTB - ELISA

    CERN Document Server

    Gruebling, P; Ulm, G

    1999-01-01

    In the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische,Bundesanstalt at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY I, radiation sources for radiometric applications in industry and basic research in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range are developed, characterized and calibrated. Established sources such as deuterium lamps, Penning and hollow cathode discharge sources have limited spectral ranges and in particular their stability and life time suffers from the erosion of the cathode material. To overcome these limitations we have developed a radiation source based on the principle of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. ELISA is a 10 GHz monomode source with a compact design featuring a tunable cavity and axially positionable permanent magnets. The radiation emission of the source can be detected simultaneously in the VUV and X-ray spectral range via a toroidal grating monochromator and a Si(Li)-detector. The special design of the source allows spectroscopic investigations of the plasma in dep...

  4. Elisa Mújica: verdadera vocación por la escritura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Rocío Amaya Méndez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Son excepcionales las escritoras colombianas de las que puede decirse que con su obra han conquistado las más altas cimas del valor literario en géneros como la novela, el cuento y el ensayo, y obtenido al mismo tiempo su consagración dentro del ámbito de las letras hispanoamericanas. Es el caso de doña Elisa Mújica, considerada modelo en el arte de escribir en Colombia gracias a su dedicación y disciplina durante decenios de continuo quehacer literario, siendo la primera mujer en ser admitida en la Academia Colombiana de la Lengua y como miembro correspondiente de la Real Academia Española

  5. Competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines expanded wholesale and retail competition and the effect that they are likely to have on the electric power industry. The author believes that expanded wholesale competition is good and will bring immediate benefit to all electric consumers; however, based on the experience of the natural gas industry and the electric power industry in California and other parts of the world, the author counsels caution in moving toward expanded retail competition

  6. The Competitive Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, João Tiago

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne’s phenomenological analysis of the art spectator’s experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.

  7. Quality and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Inder Khosla; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the practitioner literature in operations management has seen a dramatic surge in articles on quality management. It reflects the increased emphasis on quality by U.S. firms, which has been attributed largely to increased competition faced by them. The question of how quality is influenced by competitive intensity, however, has not received much attention, either in the practitioner or the academic research literatures. The notion of competitive intensity itself has not been ...

  8. Competitive versus comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2002-01-01

    I explore the interactions between comparative, competitive and absolute advantage in a two-country model of oligopoly in general equilibrium. Comparative advantage always determines the direction of trade, but both competitive and absolute advantage affect resource allocation, trade patterns and trade volumes. Competitive advantage in the sense of more home firms drives foreign firms out of marginal sectors but also makes some marginal home sectors uncompetitive. Absolute advantage in the se...

  9. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...... using a gold-standard, modified Tissot bell-spirometer method in mechanically ventilated patients who were hemodynamically, respiratory, and metabolically stable. Methods: We studied 30 patients undergoing general anesthesia and major gynecological surgery. We measured oxygen consumption ((Formula...... of 77 (167) with limits of agreement −249 to 404 kcal/d. Conclusions: The QUARK RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter compared better with the gold standard for values of (Formula presented.) O2 and REE than did the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter in mechanically ventilated patients who were circulatory...

  10. Comparison of electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and indirect immunofluorescence for detection of human rotavirus antigen in faeces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, C J; Lehmann, N I; Hawker, A J; Marshall, J A; Gust, I D [Fairfield Hospital for Communicable Diseases, Victoria (Australia). Virology Dept.

    1979-07-01

    Four techniques were compared for their practicability, speed, and sensitivity for the detection of human rotavirus. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were found to be the most sensitive means of identifying rotavirus and, once processed, up to 40 specimens could be examined daily. Electron microscopy, although less sensitive than these techniques, had the advantage of being able to detect other viral agents present in faecal extracts. Indirect immunofluorescence failed to detect rotavirus as often as the other three methods. In laboratories where routine examination of faecal specimens from patients with gastroenteritis is required, ELISA and RIA are useful alternatives to electron microscopy.

  11. Comparison of electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and indirect immunofluorescence for detection of human rotavirus antigen in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, C.J.; Lehmann, N.I.; Hawker, A.J.; Marshall, J.A.; Gust, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    Four techniques were compared for their practicability, speed, and sensitivity for the detection of human rotavirus. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were found to be the most sensitive means of identifying rotavirus and, once processed, up to 40 specimens could be examined daily. Electron microscopy, although less sensitive than these techniques, had the advantage of being able to detect other viral agents present in faecal extracts. Indirect immunofluorescence failed to detect rotavirus as often as the other three methods. In laboratories where routine examination of faecal specimens from patients with gastroenteritis is required, ELISA and RIA are useful alternatives to electron microscopy. (author)

  12. Peptidomic Approach to Developing ELISAs for the Determination of Bovine and Porcine Processed Animal Proteins in Feed for Farmed Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Anne-Catherine; Charlier, Caroline; Deckers, Elise; Marbaix, Hélène; Raes, Martine; Mauro, Sergio; Delahaut, Philippe; Gillard, Nathalie

    2016-11-30

    The European Commission (EC) wants to reintroduce nonruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) safely into the feed chain. This would involve replacing the current ban in feed with a species-to-species ban which, in the case of nonruminants, would only prohibit feeding them with proteins from the same species. To enforce such a provision, there is an urgent need for species-specific methods for detecting PAPs from several species in animal feed and in PAPs from other species. Currently, optical microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction are the officially accepted methods, but they have limitations, and alternative methods are needed. We have developed immunoassays using antibodies raised against targets which are not influenced by high temperature and pressure. These targets were identified in a previous study based on an experimental approach. One optimized competitive ELISA detects bovine PAPs at 2% in plant-derived feed. The detection capability demonstrated on blind samples shows a good correlation with mass spectrometry results.

  13. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  14. [A double antibody sandwich ELISA based assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Shun; Wu, Wei; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    To develop an assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) based on double antibody sandwich ELISA. A double antibody sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of SFTSV based on SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein specific poly- and monoclonal antibodies, procedures were optimized and evaluated. This ELISA based titration assay was compared with fluorescence assasy and plaque assay based titration method. The results suggested that the titers obtained by ELISA based method are consistent with those obtained by IFA based method (R = 0.999) and the plaque assay titration method (R = 0.949). The novel ELISA based titration method with high sensitivity and specificity is easy to manage and perform, and can overcome the subjectivity associated with result determination of the fluorescence assay and plaque assay based methods. The novel ELISA based titration method can also be applied to high throughput detection.

  15. detection of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk for Syrian market using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of a biotransformation process of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which is produced in food and feed by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. paraciticus. AFM1 has been shown to be excreted in milk following exposure to AFB1 contaminated feed. Since milk is consumed in large quantities by human populations, particularly among infants and young children the occurrence of AFM1 in this product is constitutes and health hazard since it is carcinogenic and has been listed as Class 2B carcinogen. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk samples from the Syrian market was investigated by the competitive ELISA technique. A total of 126 samples consisting of fresh cow milk (74), locally processed pasteurized cow milk (10), sheep milk (23), goat milk (11) and powdered milk and infant formula (8) showed that the incidence of contamination, i.e. above the detection limit of the ELISA assay, was 80%. 18% of the tested samples contained higher than the acceptable level of AFM1 adopted in Syria, which is 200 ng/kg; whereas, 17% and 54% of all tested samples contained AFM1 higher than the acceptable level in the US, (500 ng/kg) and in the European Union (50 ng/kg), respectively. The range of contamination with AFM1 was higher in cow milk samples than in sheep milk and goat milk samples. 30% of the analyzed cow fresh milk samples contained levels of AFM1 exceeding that of the European Communities (Codex Alimentarius) recommended limits (50 ng/l); whereas, 13% of the analyzed sheep milk samples (23) exceeded the latter limit, and only 9% of the analyzed goat milk samples exceeded same limit. Pasteurized milk, which is collected from various locations, showed particularly high level of contamination, with 80% and 50% of tested samples showing levels of contamination higher than the European and US acceptable levels, respectively. Powdered milk and infant formula, which are imported and only dispensed locally, were free of contamination. The above result

  16. Price competition on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

  17. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  18. The competitive challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the strategies necessary to succeed in the increasingly competitive independent power industry. The topics of the article include the factors encouraging mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, the availability of financing, changes in the market, regulatory climate changes, competition and power planning, Not In My Back Yard and project siting, and the road ahead

  19. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  20. Competitiveness in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of interrelated research advances in the field of technological entrepreneurship from the perspective of competition in emerging markets. Featuring contributions by scholars from different fields of interest, it provides a mix of theoretical developments, insights...... and research methods used to uncover the unexplored aspects of competitiveness in emerging markets in an age characterized by disruptive technologies....

  1. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  2. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  3. Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S. Gervasi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  4. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  5. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  6. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...... an early-season competitive advantage to the crop and (3) maximising resource capture by the crop using competitive species, competitive cultivars, high sowing densities, optimal spatial arrangement, intercropping complimentary species or transplanting....

  7. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  8. The evaluation of CLIA, RIA and MSP-ELISA for measurement of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Hua; Li Dan; Chen Yiguang; Zhou Huiqin; Xu Liyan

    2005-01-01

    To compare the characteristics of chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), RIA and magnetic solid phase enzyme-linked immnosorbent assay (MSP-ELISA) in measuring thyroid hormones, TT 3 , TT 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH were tested in 40 samples of human serum and in standard samples of thyroid hormones by CLIA, RIA and MSP-ELISA respectively. The linearity, relativiy, precision, recovery of these three met hods were compared. The result showed that there were no statistical differences between CLIA, RIA and MSP-ELISA in linearity and relativity. CLIA was better than RIA and MSP-ELISA in precision and accuracy. (authors)

  9. A multi-purpose ultrasonic streaming mixer for integrated magnetic bead ELISAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhoff, Lukas; Lang, Walter; Vellekoop, Michael J; Zirath, Helene; Peham, Johannes; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert; Salas, Mariugenia; Haller, Anna; Spittler, Andreas; Schnetz, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    We present an ultrasonic streaming mixer for disposable and on-chip magnetic bead ELISAs. The ultrasonic transducer is placed at system-level to keep cost per chip as low as possible, and is coupled to the chip by means of a solid ultrasonic horn. The system provides mixing of liquids, as well as dispersion of the superparamagnetic beads in the ELISA. Additionally it can be used clean the chamber surface from nonspecifically bound proteins during the washing steps in the ELISA protocol. Using our system the time for the ELISA protocol has been greatly reduced down to 30 min. (paper)

  10. Prospects of eLISA for Detecting Galactic Binary Black Holes Similar to GW150914

    OpenAIRE

    Seto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of eLISA for detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from Galactic binary black holes (BBHs) similar to GW150914. For a comoving merger rate that is consistent with current observation, eLISA is likely to identify at least one BBH with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, eLISA has a potential to measure the eccentricity of the BBH as small as $e\\sim 0.02$, corresponding to the residual value $e\\sim 10^{-6}$ at 10Hz. Therefore, eLISA could provide us with a cr...

  11. Are competition and extrinsic motivation reliable predictors of academic cheating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor eOrosz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356. Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast, extrinsic motivation had no significant effect. Indirect positive influence on cheating, based on some characteristics of hypercompetition, was also found, whereas attitudes towards self-developmental competition had a mediated negative influence. Neither constructive nor destructive competitive classroom climate had a significant impact on academic dishonesty. Acceptance of cheating and guilt has significant and direct effect on self-reported cheating. In comparison with them, the effects of motivational and competition-related variables are relatively small, even negligible. These results suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are not amongst the most reliable predictors of academic cheating behavior.

  12. Are competition and extrinsic motivation reliable predictors of academic cheating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Farkas, Dávid; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast, extrinsic motivation had no significant effect. Indirect positive influence on cheating, based on some characteristics of hypercompetition, was also found, whereas attitudes toward self-developmental competition had a mediated negative influence. Neither constructive nor destructive competitive classroom climate had a significant impact on academic dishonesty. Acceptance of cheating and guilt has significant and direct effect on self-reported cheating. In comparison with them, the effects of motivational and competition-related variables are relatively small, even negligible. These results suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are not amongst the most reliable predictors of academic cheating behavior.

  13. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verin, B.C.; Arvesu, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    The establishment and use of the indirect sandwich ELISA for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus antigen sero-types O, A and C and the liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA) for antibody levels against similar FMD sero-types has been adopted for routine diagnosis at the FMD diagnostic laboratory, PAHC. A total of 552 epithelial samples and 4401 serum samples were tested starting 1995 to 1998. Out of 552, 84 (17.9%) were found negative and 468 (84.78%) diagnosed as positive for sero-types O and C (42% of the total positives). Within 4 years, 62 representative samples were sent to WRL for FMD for confirmation diagnosis. From 62 samples sent 54 (87%) were diagnosed as positive and 8 (12.9%) were negative. Serum samples received were either for diagnosis (71 samples), surveillance (3002 serum), post vaccination titre (1303 serum) and for the FAO/IAEA external quality assurance programme (25 samples) by the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on FMD. The assay has been a useful tool in the fast diagnosis and confirmation of FMD suspect cases and in the measurement of antibodies against FMDV in serum samples from all animals either vaccinated or infected. In the future, the assay will be use for potency testing of imported vaccines and for monitoring and surveillance purposes to show freedom from disease for the support documentation from OIE. (author)

  14. Unreliability of three commercial Coxiella burnetii phase II IgM ELISA kits for the seroscreening of acute Q fever in human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Selvaraj; Ambroise, Stanley; Pradeep, Jothimani; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany; Sangeetha, Balakrishnan; Sarangapani, Kengamuthu

    2017-09-01

    Seroprevalence of Q fever (QF) caused by Coxiella burnetii has been reported from different parts of India. Usually serological/molecular tests are employed for detection of infection. The present study was undertaken to verify the validity of three different QF phase II IgM ELISA kits for acute QF diagnosis by comparing with the gold standard indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA). Fifty eight serum samples collected from 42 patients (26 patients provided acute sample only and 16 both acute and convalescent samples) which were examined by all three commercial kits, were cross-checked with QF Phase II IgM IFA for confirmation. Eleven patients were positive for C. burnetii antibodies by IFA in acute and/or convalescent serum samples. Taking IFA as a reference, percentages of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for Virion-Serion/Vircell/NovaTec were 36.36, 61.29, 25.00, 73.08; 81.82, 35.48, 31.03, 84.62 and 100, 25.81, 32.35, 100 per cent, respectively. The three different ELISA kits exhibited poor agreement amongst them and unacceptable level of false positivity. IFA remains to be the only option for diagnosing acute QF. Discrepancy between the clinical findings and IFA/ELISA results needs confirmation by C. burnetii DNA detection in real-time polymerase chain reaction.

  15. The development and characterization of a competitive ELISA for measuring active ADAMTS-4 in a bovine cartilage ex vivo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yi; Zheng, Qinlong; Simonsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    of osteoarthritis stained strongly for active ADAMTS-4 where surface fibrillation and clustered chondrocytes were observed. This assay could be an effective tool for studying ADAMTS-4 activity and for screening drugs regulating ADAMTS-4 activation. Moreover, it could be a potential biomarker for degenerative joint...

  16. Probiotics and the Gut Immune System: Indirect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fata, Giorgio; Weber, Peter; Mohajeri, M Hasan

    2018-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host. Among others, probiotics have immunomodulatory properties that usually act directly by (a) increasing the activity of macrophages or natural killer cells, (b) modulating the secretion of immunoglobulins or cytokines, or indirectly by (c) enhancing the gut epithelial barrier, (d) altering the mucus secretion, and (e) competitive exclusion of other (pathogenic) bacteria. This review focuses on specific bacteria strains with indirect immunomodulatory properties. Particularly, we describe here the mechanisms through which specific probiotics enhance the gut epithelial barrier and modulate mucus production. Moreover, we describe the antimicrobial properties of specific bacteria strains. Recent data suggest that multiple pathologies are associated with an unbalanced gut microflora (dysbiosis). Although the cause-effect relationship between pathology and gut microflora is not yet well established, consumption of specific probiotics may represent a powerful tool to re-establish gut homeostasis and promote gut health.

  17. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.; Yan, Hengjing

    2014-01-01

    by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate

  18. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribble, R E; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Spitaleri, C

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. (review article)

  19. ELISA analysis of soybean trypsin inhibitors in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, D L; Bates, A H; Friedman, M

    1991-01-01

    Soybean proteins are widely used in human foods in a variety of forms, including infant formulas, flour, protein concentrates, protein isolates, soy sauces, textured soy fibers, and tofu. The presence of inhibitors of digestive enzymes in soy proteins impairs the nutritional quality and possibly the safety of soybeans and other legumes. Processing, based on the use of heat or fractionation of protein isolates, does not completely inactivate or remove these inhibitors, so that residual amounts of inhibitors are consumed by animals and humans. New monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays can measure low levels of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and the Bowman-Birk trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BBI) and the Bowman-Birk foods. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the inhibitor content of soy concentrates, isolates, and flours, both heated and unheated; a commercial soy infant formula; KTI and BBI with rearranged disulfide bonds; browning products derived from heat-treatment of KTI with glucose and starch; and KTI exposed to high pH. The results indicate that even low inhibitor isolates contain significant amounts of specific inhibitors. Thus, infants on soy formula consume about 10 mg of KTI plus BBI per day. The immunoassays complement the established enzymatic assays of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and have advantages in (a) measuring low levels of inhibitors in processed foods; and (b) differentiating between the Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitors. The significance of our findings for food safety are discussed.

  20. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  1. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  2. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  3. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  4. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  5. Monetary and fiscal policy aspects of indirect tax changes in a monetary union

    OpenAIRE

    von Thadden, Leopold; Lipińska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a number of European countries have shifted their tax structure more strongly towards indirect taxes, motivated, inter alia, by the intention to foster competitiveness. Against this background, this paper develops a tractable two-country model of a monetary union, characterised by national fiscal and supranational monetary policy, with price-setting firms and endogenously determined terms of trade. The paper discusses a number of monetary and fiscal policy questions which emer...

  6. Development and validation of an epitope-blocking ELISA using an anti-haemagglutinin monoclonal antibody for specific detection of antibodies in sheep and goat sera directed against peste des petits ruminants virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodjo, Sanne Charles; Baziki, Jean-de-Dieu; Nwankpa, Nick; Chitsungo, Ethel; Koffi, Yao Mathurin; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Diop, Mariame; Gizaw, Daniel; Tajelser, Idris Badri Adam; Lelenta, Mamadou; Diallo, Adama; Tounkara, Karim

    2018-07-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious and economically important disease affecting production of small ruminants (i.e., sheep and goats). Taking into consideration the lessons learnt from the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP), PPR is now targeted by the international veterinary community as the next animal disease to be eradicated. To support the African continental programme for the control of PPR, the Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre of the African Union (AU-PANVAC) is developing diagnostics tools. Here, we describe the development of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) that allows testing of a large number of samples for specific detection of antibodies directed against PPR virus in sheep and goat sera. The PPR bELISA uses an anti-haemagglutinin (H) monoclonal antibody (MAb) as a competitor antibody, and tests results are interpreted using the percentage of inhibition (PI) of MAb binding generated by the serum sample. PI values below or equal to 18% (PI ≤ 18%) are negative, PI values greater than or equal to 25% (PI ≥ 25%) are positive, and PI values greater than 18% and below 25% are doubtful. The diagnostic specificity (DSp) and diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) were found to be 100% and 93.74%, respectively. The H-based PPR-bELISA showed good correlation with the virus neutralization test (VNT), the gold standard test, with a kappa value of 0.947. The H-based PPR-bELISA is more specific than the commercial kit ID Screen® PPR Competition (N-based PPR-cELISA) from IDvet (France), but the commercial kit is slightly more sensitive than the H-based PPR-bELISA. The validation process also indicated good repeatability and reproducibility of the H-based PPR-bELISA, making this new test a suitable tool for the surveillance and sero-monitoring of the vaccination campaign.

  7. Evaluation of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and related ELISA for respective induction and assessment of acquired immunity to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea in Awassi Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Assi, Chibli A Abou; Shaib, Houssam; Hamadeh, Shadi; Murtada, Muhammad; Mahmoud, Ghassan; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Iyer, Archana; Harakeh, Steve; Kumosani, Taha

    2015-05-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an experimental Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) bacterin and an indirect ELISA system to assess quantitatively the acquired immunity in Awassi ewes to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea (EP) dried roots. Four treatments of the ewes were included in the experimental design, with 6 ewes/treatment. The first treatment (T1) had the controls that were non-vaccinated and non-treated with EP. The T2 ewes were only treated with EP. The T3 and T4 ewes were vaccinated at D1 (initiation of trial) and D10, while the T4 ewes were additionally administered the EP dried roots. Blood was collected from the jugular vein of all ewes at D1, D10, D21 and D45. The construction of the vaccine and the ELISA are detailed within the manuscript. The ELISA was able to detect quantitatively the significant acquired primary and secondary immunity to the vaccine in T3 and T4 ewes, compared to their low level of background immunities at initiation of the experiment (p0.05) in T1 control ewes, and in the T2 ewes that were given only the (EP) (p>0.05). Moreover, the ELISA was able to uncover the significant seroconversion of secondary immune response in T4 ewes at D21 compared to that at D10 (pewes. This is the first work in literature that reports the need to supplement the vaccination by the experimental SE bacterin with daily oral intake of 250mg of EP-dried roots, effective the first vaccination day and up to 21 days, for obtaining a statistically significant seroconversion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Elisabetta; Lucchese, Laura; Grazioli, Santina; Facchin, Sonia; Realdon, Nicola; Brocchi, Emiliana; Morpurgo, Margherita; Nardelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS) is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA sensitivity limits

  9. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Casarin

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA

  10. Innovation and strategic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Mile B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discussed relationships of innovation to achieving strategic competitiveness in today globalized economic environment. Special attention is devoted to the nature of competitive advantages on global industries as well national level. Competitive advantage is a firm's ability to transform inputs into goods and services at a profit on a sustained basis, better than competitors. Comparative advantage resides in the factor endowments and created endowments of particular regions. Beside the traditional endowment approach (land, natural resources, labor and the size of the local population it is emphasized the importance of created one such as skilled labor, the technology and knowledge base, government support and culture. Creating corporate or country competitiveness roadmap there are no substantial difference - innovative as well strategic approach is essential.

  11. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  12. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  13. Competition and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ensure that judges receive specialized training in competition law . .... ensure good coverage and quality of service; banks are subject to prudential and other .... vendors who offer the best value do the most business and the customers benefit.

  14. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  15. More competition, less staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Staffing at US nuclear plants has been sharply reduced in recent years, as nuclear plants strive for aggressive cost reduction in a deregulating energy market. These steps have proved necessary to make nuclear plant production competitive with alternative sources. (author)

  16. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  17. Undergraduate Laboratory Module for Implementing ELISA on the High Performance Microfluidic Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Basant; Peesara, Ravichander R.; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Implementing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in microchannels offers several advantages over its traditional microtiter plate-based format, including a reduced sample volume requirement, shorter incubation period, and greater sensitivity. Moreover, microfluidic ELISA platforms are inexpensive to fabricate and allow integration of…

  18. A sandwich ELISA for measurement of the primary glucagon-like peptide-1 metabolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Asmar, Ali; Jensen, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    developed a sandwich ELISA recognizing both GLP-1 9-36NH2 and nonamidated GLP-1 9-37. The ELISA was validated using analytical assay validation guidelines and by comparing it to a subtraction-based method, hitherto employed for estimation of GLP-1 9-36NH2 Its accuracy was evaluated from measurements...

  19. Elisa ja EMT kemplevad, kumb pakub paremat levi / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2007-01-01

    Mobiilifirma Elisa väitel on Tartus kõige kvaliteetsem leviala Elisal. EMT võrgujuhi Margus Malvi hinnangul on EMT ja Elisa võrgud Tartus samaväärsed, ainus erinevus on kliendi kaugus tugijaamast. Lisa: Mobiililevi kvaliteet

  20. Early antihepatitis C virus response with second-generation C200/C22 ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, C. L.; Bresters, D.; Reesink, H. W.; Plaisier, A. A.; Schaasberg, W.; Leentvaar-Kuypers, A.; Choo, Q. L.; Quan, S.; Polito, A.; Houghton, M.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of early antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) by a new second-generation C200/C22 anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a four-antigen recombinant immunoblot assay (4-RIBA) was compared with the first-generation anti-HCV C100 ELISA using sequential serum samples of 9

  1. EMT nurjas Rate.ee ostuga Elisa kõnekaardiplaani / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. apr. lk. 2. Elisa juhatuse esimehe Sami Seppäneni sõnul ostis EMT suhtlusportaali Rate.ee, kuna sai teada, et Elisa ning portaal plaanivad koos uue kõnekaardi turule tuua

  2. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  3. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  4. ANALYSIS OF COMPETITION INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed and systematized the definition of "competition" proposed by domestic and foreign scholars in the field of strategic management, based on these discovered and refined essence of the concept of "competition". We consider the price and non-price competition. Examples are given of the methods of competition used in the practice of industrial activities. Substantiated that the forms and methods of competition must be constantly improved through the search for new competitive advantages.

  5. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  6. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  7. Sperm competition in bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and ...

  8. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  9. Competition between bank regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  10. Costing and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K; Brignall, S

    1994-01-01

    Working for patients established a new system of contracts between providers and purchasers of healthcare, with prices based on full costs, avoiding cross-subsidization. The new regime necessitates greatly improved costing systems, to improve the efficiency of service provision by creating price competition between providers. Ken Bates and Stan Brignall argue that non-price competition also occurs, with providers 'differentiating' on quality of service/product, flexibility or innovation.

  11. Growth performance and carcass traits in pigs selected for indirect genetic effects on growth rate in two environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Duijvesteijn, N.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Production traits such as growth rate may depend on the social interactions between group members. These social interactions might be partly heritable and are referred to as indirect genetic effects (IGE), social-, associative-, or competitive genetic effects. IGE may contribute to heritable

  12. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on a prairie plant community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Adler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change directly affects species by altering their physical environment and indirectly affects species by altering interspecific interactions such as predation and competition. Recent studies have shown that the indirect effects of climate change may amplify or counteract the direct effects. However, little is known about the the relative strength of direct and indirect effects or their potential to impact population persistence.We studied the effects of altered precipitation and interspecific interactions on the low-density tiller growth rates and biomass production of three perennial grass species in a Kansas, USA mixed prairie. We transplanted plugs of each species into local neighborhoods of heterospecific competitors and then exposed the plugs to a factorial manipulation of growing season precipitation and neighbor removal. Precipitation treatments had significant direct effects on two of the three species. Interspecific competition also had strong effects, reducing low-density tiller growth rates and aboveground biomass production for all three species. In fact, in the presence of competitors, (log tiller growth rates were close to or below zero for all three species. However, we found no convincing evidence that per capita competitive effects changed with precipitation, as shown by a lack of significant precipitation x competition interactions.We found little evidence that altered precipitation will influence per capita competitive effects. However, based on species' very low growth rates in the presence of competitors in some precipitation treatments, interspecific interactions appear strong enough to affect the balance between population persistence and local extinction. Therefore, ecological forecasting models should include the effect of interspecific interactions on population growth, even if such interaction coefficients are treated as constants.

  13. Competition in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Warren

    1995-01-01

    With changes occurring within both the gas and electricity industries and both sectors undergoing simultaneous reforms at the State and national levels it is timely to look at some major aspects of the energy-reform processes in Australia and to attempt to offer some perspectives from the viewpoint of an industry user of energy. From an industry user's viewpoint there is quantifiable evidence that competition in the energy sector will deliver major economic benefits to industry and the nation. The reform process currently in train will increase Australia's international competitiveness. Commonwealth-State collaboration is useful on economic issues which require a national consistent approach. Many significant and complex arrangement apply to the gas and electricity sectors which add to the complexity of the respective reform processes. More competitive arrangements are therefore required more quickly at several stages of the gas-sector reform process, such as in the commercialization of government utilities, resolving the issue of third-party transmission pricing, and the removal of State governments' impediments to competitive trading. The Hilmer Report on National Competition Policy will help deal with some difficult structural and transitional issues, e.g. third-party access, competitive structures, regulatory regimes, and a consistent national approach.(author). 1 fig., 1 photo

  14. Development of a monoclonal antibody to urinary degradation products from the C-terminal telopeptide alpha 1 chain of type I collagen. Application in an enzyme Immunoassay and comparison to CrossLaps(TM) ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C, Fledelius; I, Kolding; P, Quist

    1997-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody MAbA7 was raised against a synthetic peptide having a sequence (EKAHDGGR) specific for a part of the C-telopeptide alpha 1 chain of type I collagen. MAbA7 was labelled with horseradish peroxide and used in a competitive one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...... concentrations decreased 88% (pantibody and the new assay may be useful for further investigations of the physiological...

  15. Evaluation of CSFV Antibody ELISAs for the differentiation of infected from vacci-nated animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Sabine; Blome, Sandra; Koenen, Frank

    countries and out-breaks occurred recently e.g. in Germany, France, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Slovak Republic. Preventive vaccination is prohibited within the EU, but emergency vaccination can be part of the strategy in case of a contingency. Using conventional vaccines, differentiation...... of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA) is not possible. Newly developed modified live marker vaccines allow a DIVA strategy based on the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSF virus (CSFV) Antibody ELISAs, com-mercially available in Europe......, for their diagnostic sensitivity as well as for their potential in differentiating between infected and marker vaccinated animals. Two newly available ELISAs were included into the tests, the Priocheck® CSFV Erns ELISA, a special DIVA test, and the LDL Pigtype® CSFV Antibody ELISA. An inter-laboratory comparison test...

  16. Cystatin capture elisa immunodiagnosis of human fasciolosis at Chupaca-Junin Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, W.; Alva, P.; Sevilla, C.; Huiza, A.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of human fasciolosis in an endemic area by means of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using cystatin as a capture agent for the detection of specific antibodies to fasciola hepatica cysteine proteinases. An ELISA plate was sensitized with cystatin, incubated with excretory-secretory products of adult flukes, and followed by standard ELISA procedures. Clinical applicability of the cystatin capture ELISA for the immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis was tested with 200 serum samples of children and adults from an endemic area in Chupaca province, Junin department. Serum samples from the endemic area tested by cystatin capture ELISA showed 27/200 (13,5%) of positive cases. Fasciolosis remains a major health problem at Chupaca province, Junin department

  17. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. III: probing the expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Caprini, Chiara [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barausse, Enrico [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sesana, Alberto [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Klein, Antoine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Petiteau, Antoine, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: chiara.caprini@cea.fr, E-mail: barausse@iap.fr, E-mail: asesana@star.sr.bham.ac.uk, E-mail: aklein@physics.montana.edu, E-mail: antoine.petiteau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the capability of various configurations of the space interferometer eLISA to probe the late-time background expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens. We simulate catalogues of standard sirens composed by massive black hole binaries whose gravitational radiation is detectable by eLISA, and which are likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart observable by future surveys. The main issue for the identification of a counterpart resides in the capability of obtaining an accurate enough sky localisation with eLISA. This seriously challenges the capability of four-link (2 arm) configurations to successfully constrain the cosmological parameters. Conversely, six-link (3 arm) configurations have the potential to provide a test of the expansion of the universe up to z ∼ 8 which is complementary to other cosmological probes based on electromagnetic observations only. In particular, in the most favourable scenarios, they can provide a significant constraint on H{sub 0} at the level of 0.5%. Furthermore, (Ω{sub M}, Ω{sub Λ}) can be constrained to a level competitive with present SNIa results. On the other hand, the lack of massive black hole binary standard sirens at low redshift allows to constrain dark energy only at the level of few percent.

  18. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  19. Analysis of indirect taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodyakova Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the structure and dynamics of indirect taxes for the previous five years and also the influence of indirect taxation upon formation of income of the State Budget of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of indirect taxation in Ukraine. Specific weight of the value added tax, excise tax and customs duty are considered in the structure of tax receipts of the consolidated budget of Ukraine as indirect taxes. The article shows that receipts of the State Budget of Ukraine are mostly provided by indirect taxes. The Ukrainian taxation system is mostly a factor of reduction of the level of economic growth and investment activity in the country and the existing system of administering is not completely capable of excluding the possibility of tax evasion. The prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of organisation of tax control in Ukraine and differentiation of the value added tax rates depending on the level of consumption of goods and level of income of consumers.

  20. Reflections on Competition, Competition Regulation and the Current Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Wigger, Angela

    2013-01-01

    competition came to enjoy such an exalted status in Europe and then challenges conventional wisdom by bringing into focus the downsides of competition. It argues that excessive competition and neoliberal competition regulation have contributed to intensify the economic, political, social and environmental...

  1. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  2. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova A. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions of the existence of every organization, every enterprise is to insure the long-term sustainable development, one of the conditions of which is the increase of an organizational competitiveness. In modern economic conditions, social aspects of competitiveness are now in the foreground of interest, because just the strategy of social responsibility (SSR of modern enterprises can assure some commercial benefits, in responding, at the same time, to the social demands and in creating its well-being. Such an approach is in the basis of the notion of competitiveness. Along with «rigid parameters», such as price characteristics, the capability to deal with competitors, effective financial and production policies, «flexible factors» of competitiveness are of a big importance: a personnel potential, individual and collective competencies, organizational and managerial capabilities. As a result, we have formulated a research hypothesis: the organizational competitiveness is defined by individual and collective competencies of an organization, is based on socially responsible actions, confirms the demand for the object and insures its sustainable long-term development. Any organization should base all its actions aimed to increase its competitiveness on its intellectual potential, or on the management of individual and collective competencies that assure the sustainable development and the goal achievement. For every organizational strategic action, an effective combination of these competencies exists. So, we suggest a new definition of competitiveness: it is a social and economic category of understanding of the social responsibility, having as a central element individual and collective competencies, based on socially responsible actions of an enterprise, insuring its long-term sustainable development.

  3. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  4. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  5. Ballistic fractures: indirect fracture to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; Sherman, Don; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2011-11-01

    Two mechanisms of injury, the temporary cavity and the sonic wave, have been proposed to produce indirect fractures as a projectile passes nearby in tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal relationship of pressure waves using strain gauge technology and high-speed video to elucidate whether the sonic wave, the temporary cavity, or both are responsible for the formation of indirect fractures. Twenty-eight fresh frozen cadaveric diaphyseal tibia (2) and femurs (26) were implanted into ordnance gelatin blocks. Shots were fired using 9- and 5.56-mm bullets traversing through the gelatin only, passing close to the edge of the bone, but not touching, to produce an indirect fracture. High-speed video of the impact event was collected at 20,000 frames/s. Acquisition of the strain data were synchronized with the video at 20,000 Hz. The exact time of fracture was determined by analyzing and comparing the strain gauge output and video. Twenty-eight shots were fired, 2 with 9-mm bullets and 26 with 5.56-mm bullets. Eight indirect fractures that occurred were of a simple (oblique or wedge) pattern. Comparison of the average distance of the projectile from the bone was 9.68 mm (range, 3-20 mm) for fractured specimens and 15.15 mm (range, 7-28 mm) for nonfractured specimens (Student's t test, p = 0.036). In this study, indirect fractures were produced after passage of the projectile. Thus, the temporary cavity, not the sonic wave, was responsible for the indirect fractures.

  6. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  7. Indirect effects in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Rossi, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The basic aim in this paper is to establish the link between indirect effects of radiation action and the spatial distribution of radicals at the time of energy deposition as well as throughout subsequent diffusion and interaction. The fact that radicals diffuse for a finite distance before damaging a biomolecule has dramatic effects on their subsequent probability to result in lesions. Thus at very low DMSO concentrations, where p = 0.5, one expects - all other things being equal - some 75% of the lesions to result from indirect or semidirect lesions. The number calculated here is lower (15%), a direct result of the fact that such lesions involve proximity functions modulated by diffusion. At higher DMSO concentrations this percentage becomes progressively smaller, as expected. It appears thus that for low-LET radiation, the relative amount of indirect damage in single tracks (also termed intratrack or single events) action is very small. By contrast, intertrack (or two-event) contributions will have the ratio between direct and (indirect + semidirect) contributions given by p 2 /(1-p 2 ). The reason for this is that sublesions from different tracks are uniformly distributed throughout the cell nucleus; their probability of interaction should not depend on any previous diffusional processes. For the example given above (p = 0.5) they do expect 65% of intertrack (two-hit) lesions to have resulted from indirect or semidirect mechanisms. This contrast between the almost exclusively direct character of intratrack lesions and the dominant role of indirect action in intertrack lesions produced by low-LET radiation is an important conclusion of this study

  8. Validation of an IgM antibody capture ELISA based on a recombinant nucleoprotein for identification of domestic ruminants infected with Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roy; Ellis, Charlotte Elizabeth; Smith, Shirley Jacqueline; Potgieter, Christiaan Abraham; Wallace, David; Mareledwane, Vuyokazi Epipodia; Majiwa, Phelix Antipas Ochola

    2011-11-01

    The presence of competent vectors in some countries currently free of Rift Valley fever (RVF) and global changes in climate, travel and trade have increased the risk of RVF spreading to new regions and have emphasised the need for accurate and reliable diagnostic tools for early diagnosis during RVF outbreaks. Highly sensitive viral detection systems like PCR have a limited use during outbreaks because of the short duration of viraemia, whereas antibodies like specific IgM which are serological indicators of acute infection, can be detected for up to 50 days after infection. Using the highly conserved and immunogenic recombinant nucleoprotein of RVF virus in an IgM capture ELISA, the risk of laboratory infection associated with traditional serological methods is avoided. The use of pre-coated/pre-blocked ELISA plates and the conjugation of the recombinant nucleoprotein with horseradish peroxidase simplified and shortened the assay procedure. Results showed the assay to be highly reproducible with a lower detection limit equal to that of a commercial competition ELISA. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis the area under curve (AUC) index was determined as 1.0 and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at a PP cut-off value of 4.1 as 100% and 99.78% respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that the IgM capture ELISA is a safe, reliable and highly accurate diagnostic tool which can be used on its own or in parallel with other methods for the early diagnosis of RVF virus infection and also for monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated domestic ruminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global indirect aerosol effects: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

  10. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  11. The power of indirect social ties

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Xiang; Blackburn, Jeremy; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Skvoretz, John; Iamnitchi, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    While direct social ties have been intensely studied in the context of computer-mediated social networks, indirect ties (e.g., friends of friends) have seen little attention. Yet in real life, we often rely on friends of our friends for recommendations (of good doctors, good schools, or good babysitters), for introduction to a new job opportunity, and for many other occasional needs. In this work we attempt to 1) quantify the strength of indirect social ties, 2) validate it, and 3) empiricall...

  12. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  13. Detection of Fusarium verticillioides by PCR-ELISA based on FUM21 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Aline Myuki; Ono, Elisabete Yurie Sataque; Bordini, Jaqueline Gozzi; Hirozawa, Melissa Tiemi; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2018-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a primary corn pathogen and fumonisin producer which is associated with toxic effects in humans and animals. The traditional methods for detection of fungal contamination based on morphological characteristics are time-consuming and show low sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a PCR-ELISA based on the FUM21 gene for F. verticillioides detection. The DNA of the F. verticillioides, Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. isolates was analyzed by conventional PCR and PCR-ELISA to determine the specificity. The PCR-ELISA was specific to F. verticillioides isolates, showed a 2.5 pg detection limit and was 100-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR. In corn samples inoculated with F. verticillioides conidia, the detection limit of the PCR-ELISA was 1 × 10 4 conidia/g and was also 100-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR. Naturally contaminated corn samples were analyzed by PCR-ELISA based on the FUM21 gene and PCR-ELISA absorbance values correlated positively (p PCR-ELISA developed in this study can be useful for F. verticillioides detection in corn samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification of a polyclonal antibody against CD147 for ELISA using antigen-immunoaffinity chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuangshuang; Li, Shasha; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Ye; Zhu, Yumeng; Wang, Bin; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2017-01-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD147 is a widely expressed glycoprotein that occurs in both a membrane-spanning and soluble form. Sandwich ELISA is a powerful tool for analyzing soluble antigens. The aim of the present study was to obtain a highly specific polyclonal antibody against human CD147 that can be used for sandwich ELISA analysis. Expression of recombinant CD147 by a eukaryotic expression system was used to immunize rabbits to obtain antiserum. A highly specific polyclonal antibody that was able to detect soluble CD147 in sandwich ELISA was obtained by antigen-immunoaffinity chromatography purification. The purity of rabbit anti-CD147 polyclonal antibodies was ~99%, and ELISA analysis was able to determine the titer of the rabbit anti-CD147 polyclonal antibodies at 1:512,000. The lowest concentration of the standard CD147 antigen that the sandwich ELISA was able to detect was 31.25 pg/ml. The sandwich ELISA system was composed of anti-hepatoma HAb18 monoclonal antibodies and purified rabbit anti-CD147 polyclonal antibodies. The present study demonstrated that antigen-immunoaffinity chromatography may be a good technique for the purification of polyclonal antibodies, which may be used to detect antigen in sandwich ELISAs. PMID:28487989

  15. Homologous ELISA for detection of oligomeric human TNF: properties of the assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petyovka, N; Lyach, L; Voitenok, N N

    1995-10-26

    In order to quantify oligomeric human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), we have developed a sensitive homologous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Hm-ELISA) using the same monoclonal antibody (MoAb) for both solid and liquid phase. Different anti-TNF MoAb have been compared in terms of their efficacy in the Hm-ELISA, affinity, neutralization capacity and epitope specificity. The data suggest, that effectiveness in the Hm-ELISA may represent a novel characteristic of MoAb. Of the MoAbs tested, 5 N was capable of recognizing oligomeric TNF in the Hm-ELISA with a detection limit of 15 pg/ml. Furthermore, using Hm-ELISA against human TNF, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and lymphotoxin, we have demonstrated that these cytokines are oligomeric in physiological solutions, but are converted into monomeric forms in the presence of the non-ionic detergent Tween 20. High salt buffer was employed to abrogate a nonspecific false positive reaction in the Hm-ELISA found in nearly half of the plasma samples obtained from healthy subjects. Finally, a good correlation between the Hm-ELISA and the L929 bioassay was observed for natural and recombinant TNF measured in human plasma.

  16. Evaluation of serum and milk ELISAs for paratuberculosis in Danish dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Joan; Huda, A.; Ekeroth, Lars

    2003-01-01

    concurrently from six dairy herds infected with MAP and from two dairy herds without history of infection with MAP. A cut-off value of 7 OD% was used in the ELISAs. At this cut-off value, all six culture-positive herds were positive in the serum ELISA but one was negative in the milk ELISA. All six culture......-positive herds were positive in the CFT. In the two culture-negative herds, the serum and the milk ELISA deemed all serum samples negative at this cut-off value, whereas four serum samples from one of these herds were positive in the CFT. The highest cut-off value enabling the milk ELISA to record all six...... culture-positive herds as positive was 4 OD%. The highest cut-off value enabling the serum ELISA to record all six culture-positive herds as positive was 17 OD%. Individual-sample relative sensitivities of the ELISAs ranged from 49 to 64% and relative specificities were 80-96% at the cut-off values of 4...

  17. [Use of new immunoglobulin isotype-specific ELISA-systems to detect Salmonella infections in pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Joachim; Alt, Michael; Trepnau, Daniela; Lehmann, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    In Germany, the program for controlling salmonella infections in pigs is based on tests detecting salmonella-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced antibodies in meat-juice or blood. These conventional tests which are based on the technology of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detect exclusively or mainly immunoglobulin(lg)G antibodies. Meanwhile, novel ELISA systems (WCE-ELISA, 3-Isotype-Screening-ELISA) have been developed, which additionally detect the antibody classes IgM and IgA.This fact enables the registration of fresh salmonella infections (starting with day 5 p.i.) and thus, the distinction between early and older infections. The results show that animals with early salmonella infections appear significantly more often in herds with a high than with a low prevalence. With the newly developed tests this group of animals can be detected much more efficiently and precisely than with the tests used so far. Due to their clearly improved sensitivity the application of the WCE-ELISA and the 3-Isotype-Screening-ELISA in terms of the QS-Salmonella-Monitoring program can therefore significantly improve the selection of farms with potential salmonella excretors. Additionally, the WCE-ELISA can be applied very suitable for the examination of individual animals.

  18. Microchip ELISA coupled with cell phone to detect ovarian cancer HE4 biomarker in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuQi; Akbas, Ragip; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in the USA, and early diagnosis can potentially increase 5-year survival rate. Detection of biomarkers derived from hyperplasia of epithelial tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) proves to be a practical way of early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, ELISA is commonly performed in a laboratory setting, and it cannot be used in a clinical setting for on-site consultation. We have shown a microchip ELISA that detects HE4, an ovarian cancer biomarker, from urine using a cell phone integrated with a mobile application for imaging and data analysis. In microchip ELISA, HE4 from urine was first absorbed on the surface; the primary and secondary antibodies were subsequently anchored on the surface via immuno-reaction; and addition of substrate led to color development because of enzymatic labeling. The microchip after color development was imaged using a cell phone, and the color intensity was analyzed by an integrated mobile application. By comparing with an ELISA standard curve, the concentration of HE4 was reported on the cell phone screen. The presented microchip ELISA coupled with a cell phone is portable as opposed to traditional ELISA, and this method can facilitate the detection of ovarian cancer at the point-of-care (POC).

  19. EVALUATION OF AN O-ANTIGEN ELISA FOR SCREENING CATTLE HERDS FOR SALMONELLA-TYPHIMURIUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Bitsch, V.

    1995-01-01

    A total of 2585 serum samples from 62 dairy herds located in four different regions of Denmark were tested in an O-antigen (0:1,4,5,12)-based ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium. Ten closed herds from an island with no reported occurrence of salmonellosis for seve......A total of 2585 serum samples from 62 dairy herds located in four different regions of Denmark were tested in an O-antigen (0:1,4,5,12)-based ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium. Ten closed herds from an island with no reported occurrence of salmonellosis...... for several years, and 12 herds from a salmonella enzootic area which had had clinical outbreaks of S typhimurium were used to define a herd ELISA cut-off value. When herds with at least 5 per cent of the serum samples having an optical density of >0.5 were considered ELISA-positive, all 10 herds from...... the salmonellosis-free island were ELISA-negative, and all but one of the 12 S typhimurium-infected herds were ELISA-positive, which resulted in a herd test sensitivity of 0.92 and herd test specificity of 1.0. Eleven of the 12 S typhimurium-infected herds were negative in a blocking ELISA based on a monoclonal...

  20. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  1. Municipal Competition for Inhabitants under Population Decrease. Zusammenfassung: Kommunale Konkurrenz um Einwohner bei Bevölkerungsrückgang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Friedrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The shrinking population during the break-down, adaptation and recovery phase in Estonian social and political development enforces municipal competition among the municipalities. Competition for inhabitants is embedded in regional competition showing horizontal and vertical competition relations. Inhabitants’ competition prevails indirectly through municipal business promotion competition and directly through competition for inhabitants. The competition shows three phases. A phase concerns zoning and long-term planning; a second one refers to negotiations with settlement firms and short-term actions to attract inhabitants followed by a phase of revisions of zoning and measures. The oligopolistic industrial zoning model of business promotion policy points to the consequences of horizontal municipal competition also on population. Vertical influences on business promotion policy demonstrate a game-theoretic example of intergovernmental intervention from higher government on zoning. The negotiation phase in business promotion policy is modelled by a bilateral monopoly model between a municipality and a settlement firm. Horizontal regional competition highlights the implications on inhabitants’ competition. An oligopoly model of direct inhabitant competition concerns the zoning in particular for housing. Furthermore, a model of public enterprise service and fee formation and of horizontal public firm competition shows inhabitants’ competition in the second phase. Forms of inhabitant competition concerning suburbanisation and using public debt, revenues such as taxes, fees and expenditures are mentioned. Finally, follows a discussion of possible instruments to regulate inhabitant competition.

  2. Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness in achievement situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Jury, Mickaël; Murayama, Kou

    2018-06-01

    Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness are typically studied separately, but they undoubtedly have a joint influence on goal pursuit and behavior in achievement situations. The present research was designed to study them together. We tested the relation between trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, and we tested these variables as separate and sequential predictors of both performance-based goals and performance attainment. In Studies 1a (N = 387 U.S. undergraduates) and 1b (N = 322 U.S. undergraduates), we assessed participants' trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, as well as third variable candidates. In Study 2 (N = 434 MTurk workers), we sought to replicate and extend Study 1 by adding reports of performance-based goal pursuit. In Study 3 (N = 403 U.S. undergraduates), we sought to replicate and extend Study 2 by adding real-world performance attainment. The studies focused on both the classroom and the workplace. Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness were shown to be positively related and to positively predict separate variance in performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal pursuit. Perceived environmental competitiveness and performance-based goal pursuit were shown to be sequential mediators of the indirect relation between trait competitiveness and performance attainment. These studies highlight the importance of attending to the interplay of the person and the (perceived) situation in analyses of competitive striving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  4. Price competition in procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market's competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs

  5. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  6. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  7. The power of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuqua, G.L.; Pratt, J.H.; Elliot, J.

    1995-01-01

    The change-over from regulated monopolies to a non-regulated competitive market in the electric utility industry was discussed in terms of marketing and survival strategies for utilities it the newly competitive marketplace. The impact of low natural gas prices was prominently discussed as a danger to hydroelectricity generators because high efficiency turbine generators that are now available. Surplus power capacity in both the Canadian and US markets were discussed. The effects of independent power producers selling electricity wholesale to private utilities was also debated on account of its potential to change the role of the electric utility. The situation of the Bonneville Power Association (BPA), a self-financed government agency, as owner of 15 000 miles of transmission grid that is not allowed to own generation plants, was described. Strategies developed by BPA in an effort to adapt to the competitive market were described and were successful

  8. Acute Myocardial Infarction and Pulmonary Diseases Result in Two Different Degradation Profiles of Elastin as Quantified by Two Novel ELISAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Skjøt-Arkil

    Full Text Available Elastin is a signature protein of the arteries and lungs, thus it was hypothesized that elastin is subject to enzymatic degradation during cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The aim was to investigate if different fragments of the same protein entail different information associated to two different diseases and if these fragments have the potential of being diagnostic biomarkers.Monoclonal antibodies were raised against an identified fragment (the ELM-2 neoepitope generated at the amino acid position '552 in elastin by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -9/-12. A newly identified ELM neoepitope was generated by the same proteases but at amino acid position '441. The distribution of ELM-2 and ELM, in human arterial plaques and fibrotic lung tissues were investigated by immunohistochemistry. A competitive ELISA for ELM-2 was developed. The clinical relevance of the ELM and ELM-2 ELISAs was evaluated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, no AMI, high coronary calcium, or low coronary calcium. The serological release of ELM-2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF was compared to controls.ELM and ELM-2 neoepitopes were both localized in diseased carotid arteries and fibrotic lungs. In the cardiovascular cohort, ELM-2 levels were 66% higher in serum from AMI patients compared to patients with no AMI (p<0.01. Levels of ELM were not significantly increased in these patients and no correlation was observed between ELM-2 and ELM. ELM-2 was not elevated in the COPD and IPF patients and was not correlated to ELM. ELM was shown to be correlated with smoking habits (p<0.01.The ELM-2 neoepitope was related to AMI whereas the ELM neoepitope was related to pulmonary diseases. These results indicate that elastin neoepitopes generated by the same proteases but at different amino acid sites provide different tissue-related information depending on the disease in question.

  9. RT-PCR-ELISA as a tool for diagnosis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Munch, Mette; Handberg, Kurt Jensen

    2003-01-01

    A one-tube reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens. A total of 419 swab pools were analyzed from chickens experimentally infected wit...... of the twenty-three VI-positive specimens were negative when tested by RT-PCR-ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR-ELISA was 91% and 97%, respectively, using VI in SPF eggs as the gold reference standard....

  10. Use of a trypanosomal antigen ELISA to monitor tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaho-Mukani, W; Munga, L K; Nyanga` O, J N.M.; Ouma, J O; Masika, P; Okech, G; Ndungu, J M [Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Inst., Kikuyu (Kenya)

    1997-02-01

    The capture Antigen-ELISA was used to monitor serum samples originating from three study areas in Kenya. At the Galana ranch the test was used to assess re-invasion of an area previously cleared of Glossina pallidipes. In Busia district the Ag-ELISA is being used to monitor the progress of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control programme. At Taita and Tara ranches the capture Antigen ELISA and the buffy coat technique (BCT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial Cypermethrin dip for the control of Glossina pallidipes. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  11. Development and evaluation of an ELISA for human trefoil factor 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Grønbaek, Henning

    2002-01-01

    are warranted. METHODS: An ELISA was developed that uses two antibodies from rabbits immunized with recombinant human TFF3 and a calibrator (3-100 pmol/L) prepared from recombinant human TFF3. RESULTS: The ELISA had a detection limit of 3.0 pmol/L. The imprecision (CV) was 5-9% for mean concentrations of 13...... exacerbation of chronic inflammatory bowel disease restricted to the colon, normal concentrations and only minor variations during treatment and tapering were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA measures TFF3 in human serum and represents a specific and precise method for measurement of TFF3, which...

  12. DETECTION OF SERIAL SERUM P-185 LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANCY USING ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-hui; WU Ping; LI Li; MIAO Yi-meng; LI Jun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate P-185 contents in serum of the normal person and cancer patients and it's the significance on prognosis of diseases. Methods: We used ELISA method to evaluate P-185 levels in 193 normal persons, 133 malignancies and 34 hepatocirrhosises were evaluated using ELISA method. Results: Normal person had lower expression of P-185. However, malignancy and hepatocirrhosis patients had a significantly higher expression level of P-185 than normal (P<0.05). Conclusion: ELISA method is an easy and reliable way to measure the level of P-185 in serum. Being a cancer marker, P-185 overexpression can be used for early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients.

  13. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan R. Soetevent

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand may occur. I show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs. I conjecture that this non-existence result holds...

  14. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pim Heijnen; Adriaan Soetevent

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

  15. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  16. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  17. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  18. Competitive strategy for providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, M C

    1996-01-01

    National Health Service (NHS) Trusts are struggling to determine a long-term strategic direction for their organizations in response to the competitive pressures generated by the NHS reforms. The development of long-term strategic direction and the methods to implement this are presenting real challenges to the Trusts which have inherited service configurations based on bureaucratic planning frameworks rather than service configurations suited to a more competitive environment. Examines the strategic choices available to these organizations; explores the importance of identifying positive strategic choices; and discusses the advantages and disadvantages in the context of the NHS internal market.

  19. VIRTUAL COMPETITIVENESS: YOUTHS’ VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Semenov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT has become an integral part both of every individual’s life and of the society in general. It is no longer possible to deny the impact of virtual environment on socialisation and development of the identity of young people. In this regard, the investigation of young people’s view on virtual social networks, and the possibility of students’ own competitiveness realization through various web services. The aim of the research presented in the article is to study the factors of students’ assessment of virtual social networks as a tool of personal fulfillment. Methodology and research methods. Content analysis and synthesis of scientific publications studies were carried out at a theoretical stage of the research; secondary sampling analysis of sociologic data material sources was conducted. The empirical research stage involved the instrument of questionnaire surveys, statistical data processing and interpretation of the results. Results and scientific novelty. The social survey conducted in 2017 with the participation of 1087 high school students and 1196 college students of the Tyumen Region shown that the more competitive students consider themselves, the more competitive they perceive the people having great popularity on the Internet. At that, compared to girls, young people are more inclined to consider the people having great popularity on the Internet competitive. It is determined that having a popular virtual media account for the young person is less worthwhile than for female respondents. The author explains this fact: male representatives regard it as “social capital” which can contribute to growth of their competitiveness in society as well as to achieve some profit. The author concludes that youth views on competitiveness are not directly related to the activity in virtual social networks. Frequent use by respondents of the Internet and

  20. Development of an indirect spectrophotometric method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and rapid indirect spectrophotometric method for determination of ... of the colored product was measured at 405 nm and pH 3 against a reagent blank. ... The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 0.20±0.03 and ...

  1. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  2. Indirect effects of recreation on wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres

    1995-01-01

    Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the indirect influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....

  3. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene...

  4. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  5. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in retail property...

  6. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in a retail license...

  7. Indirect Costs: Daily Bread, Cake, or Cracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    The tradition of negotiating indirect costs in grants should be abandoned, and research administrators should instead offer different levels of service depending on what the sponsor wants to spend. Three levels of overhead rate are suggested (super, regular, and economy) and their corresponding levels of service are defined. (MSE)

  8. Epidemic spreading through direct and indirect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Niloy; Krueger, Tyll; Mukherjee, Animesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic dynamics, considering a specialized setting where popular places (termed passive entities) are visited by agents (termed active entities). We consider two types of spreading dynamics: direct spreading, where the active entities infect each other while visiting the passive entities, and indirect spreading, where the passive entities act as carriers and the infection is spread via them. We investigate in particular the effect of selection strategy, i.e., the way passive entities are chosen, in the spread of epidemics. We introduce a mathematical framework to study the effect of an arbitrary selection strategy and derive formulas for prevalence, extinction probabilities, and epidemic thresholds for both indirect and direct spreading. We also obtain a very simple relationship between the extinction probability and the prevalence. We pay special attention to preferential selection and derive exact formulas. The analysis reveals that an increase in the diversity in the selection process lowers the epidemic thresholds. Comparing the direct and indirect spreading, we identify regions in the parameter space where the prevalence of the indirect spreading is higher than the direct one.

  9. Indirect Determination of the sigma - omega

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Brincker, Rune

    . The beams where submitted to three-point bending in a servo-controlled materials testing system. The constitutive parameters in the fictitious crack model were determined by using three different indirect techniques, which are described and evaluated. The results show that the fracture energy is increasing...

  10. Comprehension Process of Second Language Indirect Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satomi; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the comprehension of English conventional indirect requests by native English speakers and Japanese learners of English. Subjects read stories inducing either a conventional or a literal interpretation of a priming sentence. Results suggest that both native and nonnative speakers process both meanings of an ambiguous conventional request.…

  11. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fiscal year used for financial reporting purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same...

  12. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  13. Prevalence of entamoeba histolytica and entamoeba dispar by means of microscopy and ELISA in a suburb of Lima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, W.; Alva, P.; Suarez, R.; Espinoza, Y.; Huiza, A.; Sevilla, C.; Naquira, C.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar in a marginal population of Callao, Lima, using ELISAs. Two ELISAs were used, one of them for both Entamoeba species (Entamoeba-ELISA), and an E. histolytica-specific ELISA. 128 stool samples from randomized Callao inhabitants were microscopically examined. Thirteen (10%) were microscopically diagnosed as having E. histolytica or E. dispar infection; and 7 (6%) were positive to Entamoeba-ELISA (sensitivity= 54%). Five of the 115 samples without cysts of E. histolytica or E. dispar were Entamoeba ELISA positive (specificity= 96%). All samples were negative to the E. histolytica-specific ELISA. The correlation between the microscopical identification and Entamoeba-ELISA was not good, it may be due to an overvaluation of the of the morphological diagnosis. (authors)

  14. Performance of the multitarget Mikrogen Chlamydia trachomatis IgG ELISA in the prediction of tubal factor infertility (TFI) in subfertile women : Comparison with the Medac MOMP IgG ELISA plus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ess, Eleanne F.; Ouburg, Sander; Spaargaren, Joke; Land, Jolande A.; Morre, Servaas A.

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for more accurate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG antibody tests for tubal factor infertility (TFI) diagnostics. We evaluated the predictive value for TFI of Medac ELISA plus (MOMP) and multitarget Mikrogen ELISA (MOMP-CPAF-TARP). Based on Medac ELISA plus results, 183 subfertile

  15. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  16. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  17. Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects revisited: a quantitative assessment of competition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ian; Denno, Robert F

    2007-10-01

    The importance of interspecific competition is a highly controversial and unresolved issue for community ecology in general, and for phytophagous insects in particular. Recent advancements, however, in our understanding of indirect (plant- and enemy-mediated) interactions challenge the historical paradigms of competition. Thus, in the context of this rapidly developing field, we re-evaluate the evidence for interspecific competition in phytophagous insects using a meta-analysis of published studies. Our analysis is specifically designed to test the assumptions underlying traditional competition theory, namely that competitive interactions are symmetrical, necessitate spatial and temporal co-occurrence, and increase in intensity as the density, phylogenetic similarity, and niche overlap of competing species increase. Despite finding frequent evidence for competition, we found very little evidence that plant-feeding insects conform to theoretical predictions for interspecific competition. Interactions were highly asymmetrical, similar in magnitude within vs. between feeding guilds (chewers vs. sap-feeders), and were unaffected by the quantity of resources removed (% defoliation). There was mixed support for the effects of phylogeny, spatial/temporal separation, and the relative strength of intra- vs. interspecific competition. Clearly, a new paradigm that accounts for indirect interactions and facilitation is required to describe how interspecific competition contributes to the organization of phytophagous insect communities, and perhaps to other plant and animal communities as well.

  18. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... lactating cows is relatively easy, non-invasive and inexpensive and hence milk ELISA may be a better option for screening lactating cows. But, blood ELISA is an option for screening non-lactating cattle....

  19. Changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform and the fact that new trends bring about vital social changes, the research in this area could add to the understanding of economic development of these countries. In the EU with its decentralized tax policy, changes in direct and indirect taxation are permanently implemented in the process of tax system reform. Harmonization of direct and indirect taxation in the EU is conducted by means of the adopted community law regulations. In the harmonization of direct taxation there is a tendency towards an increase of the level of fiscal coordination and elimination of barriers to the common market. Thus direct taxation reforms are limited to achieving higher level of coordination and preventing evasion and double taxation. The current policy is the result of the principle according to which fiscal competition has positive effects on reducing consumption and on the EU economic development. In the harmonization process the systems of indirect taxation are aligned particularly with excise duty and value added tax. Fiscal strategies in the reform process are mostly aimed at fiscal coordination, modernization, informative cooperation, evasion reduction and elimination of malpractices in fulfilling a VAT payment liability. Within the excise tax system minimal excise rates are determined and an environmentally-friendly policy is pursued. The main priorities of taxation changes within the harmonization process are in respect of evasion reduction and irrational fiscal competition on the EU market. A study of direct and indirect taxation changes in the process of the tax system reform is highly significant both from the aspect of efficient tax-system functioning, which results in achieving EU macroeconomic goals, and from the aspect of single states' interests in the process of transition and accession.

  20. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Michael

    2011-11-01

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  1. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Michael

    2011-11-15

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  2. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  3. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  4. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  5. Facing competitive pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count

  6. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  7. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  8. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  9. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  10. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  11. Catalogers and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a literature review and a survey of catalogers which were conducted to study the problem of the decline in quantity and quality of applications for entry-level cataloging jobs. Factors studied included: competition between types of library professionals, automation, library education, the women's movement, and library…

  12. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...

  13. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  14. The use of filter paper plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde in ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H.T.S. Barbosa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available F1-antigen purified from Yersinia pestis was covalently linked to 5-mm diameter filter paper discs plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde. These discs were used both for ELISA and dot-ELISA for the detection of anti-F1 IgG in rabbits. The best conditions were achieved using 1.25 µg of F1 antigen/disc, 3% w/v skim milk in PBS as blocking agent, anti-IgG peroxidase conjugate diluted 12,000 times, and serum from rabbits immunized or not against Y. pestis, diluted 6,400 times. The absorbance values obtained from the comparative study between this procedure and conventional ELISA were not significantly different but the low cost of the reagents employed in ELISA using the filter paper discs plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde makes this method economically attractive.

  15. A liquid phase blocking ELISA for the detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA was developed for the detection and measurement of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. The purified and nonpurified virus used as antigen, the capture and detector antibodies, and the chicken hyperimmune sera were prepared and standardized for this purpose. A total of 156 sera from vaccinated and 100 from specific pathogen-free chickens with no recorded contact with the virus were tested. The respective serum titers obtained in the serum neutralization test (SNT were compared with those obtained in the LPB-ELISA. There was a high correlation (r2 = 0.8926 between the two tests. The LPB-ELISA represents a single test suitable for the rapid detection of antibodies against bronchitis virus in chicken sera, with good sensitivity (88%, specificity (100% and agreement (95.31%.

  16. The use of the antigen ELISA for monitoring tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R; Nqindi, J [Central Veterinary Lab., Causeway, Harare (Zimbabwe)

    1997-02-01

    Blood and serum samples from cattle originating from tsetse free and tsetse infested areas were analyzed using the Buffy Coat technique and an ELISA to detect trypanosomes and trypanosomal antigens, respectively. The results of the two tests were compared and apparent sensitivity and trypanosomal prevalence were calculated. The BCT seemed to be the most suitable test to detect acute infections, while the antigen capture ELISA (Ag-ELISA) was able to detect more chronic infections. The specificity of the Ag-ELISA was found to be very good, but the sensitivity of the test should be improved. One way to detect more T. congolense and T. vivax infections was to lower the cut-off point of percent positivity from 10 to 5%. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. ELISA with double antigen sandwich for screening specific serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiqing; Shi Zhixu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To select a sensitive and specific laboratory examination suitable for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors. Methods: The serum anti-TP antibody in 11271 blood donors were detected using ELISA with double antigen sandwich and the outcomes were compared with those using RPR assay. The conflicting specimen were confirmed by repeating the test with TPHA assay. Results: The positive rates of serum anti-TP antibody by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR was 0.36% (41/11271) and 0.26% (29/11271), respectively. The coincidence of the detecting outcomes by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR with TPHA was 97.5% (40/41) and 63.41%(26/41) respectively. Conclusion: Compared with RPR assay, ELISA with double antigen sandwich has higher sensibility and specificity for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

  18. Inkassofirma ähvardab tuhandeid Elisa kliente aegunud nõuetega / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Julianus Inkasso nõuab Elisa praegustelt ja kunagistelt klientidelt aegunud võlgade tasumist koos intressidega. Kommenteerib Urmas Volens. Vt. samas: Julianus Inkasso: aegumist saab tõlgendada mitmeti

  19. Comparison of three commercial fecal calprotectin ELISA test kits used in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Bachmann Holmetoft, Ulla; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fecal calprotectin is a noninvasive marker of intestinal inflammation used to distinguish between functional and organic bowel diseases and to evaluate disease activity among patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to compare three different ELISA tests...... and 18 to 67 years, respectively. Disease activity in the patients was established using the following clinical activity indices: the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI), the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI) and the Modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (MPDAI). Three ELISA calprotectin tests...... (EK-CAL, CALPRO and HK325) were performed on fecal specimens and results compared. RESULTS: The CALPRO calprotectin ELISA test was shown to have the best specificity of 96% compared to the HK325 and the EK-CAL calprotectin ELISA tests with 28% specificity and 74% specificity, respectively...

  20. Development and evaluation of porcine cysticercosis QuickELISA in Triturus EIA analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Silva-Ibanez, Maria; Kovalenko, Victor A; Levin, Andrew E; Gonzalez, Armando E; Roberts, Jacquelin M; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Hancock, Kathy; Tsang, Victor C W

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated three diagnostic antigens (recombinant GP50, recombinant T24H, and synthetic Ts18var1) for cysticercosis and found that all three performed well in detecting cysticercosis in humans and pigs in several assay formats. These antigens were adapted to a new antibody detection format (QuickELISA). With one single incubation step which involves all reactants except the enzyme substrate, the QuickELISA is particularly suited for automation. We formatted the QuickELISA for the Triturus EIA analyzer for testing large numbers of samples. We found that in QuickELISA formats rGP50 and rT24H have better sensitivity and specificity than sTs18var1 for detecting porcine cysticercosis.