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Sample records for compartment indications techniques

  1. Dynamic MR defecography of the posterior compartment: Indications, techniques and MRI features

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    Mortele, Koenraad J. [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: kmortele@partners.org; Fairhurst, Janice [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston MA 02115 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Pelvic floor weakness is characterized by abnormal symptomatic displacement of pelvic organs. It represents a complex clinical problem most commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly parous women. Its diagnosis remains difficult in many cases, since these disorders typically present with nonspecific symptoms, such as pelvic pain, incontinence and constipation. Fluoroscopic colpocystodefecography has been proven to surpass physical examination in the detection and characterization of functional abnormalities of the anorectum and surrounding pelvic structures. Similarly, MR defecography, performed either with an open- or closed-configuration unit, appears to be an accurate imaging technique to assess clinically relevant pelvic floor abnormalities. Moreover, MR defecography negates the need to expose the patient to harmful ionizing radiation and allows excellent depiction of the surrounding soft tissues of the pelvis. In this manuscript, we review the techniques and indications of MR defecography, and illustrate the MRI features of a vast array of morphologic and functional pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on the posterior pelvic compartment (anorectum)

  2. COMPARTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Janos X; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    Information on protein subcellular localization is important to understand the cellular functions of proteins. Currently, such information is manually curated from the literature, obtained from high-throughput microscopy-based screens and predicted from primary sequence. To get a comprehensive vi...... based on the type and source of the localization evidence. Finally, we visualize the unified localization evidence for a protein on a schematic cell to provide a simple overview. Database URL: http://compartments.jensenlab.org....

  3. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morey, A. Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg-Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models.

  4. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

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    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  5. Arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint-technique and indications.

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    Holmlund, A B

    1989-09-01

    Temporomandibular joint arthroscopy has gained wide interest in reviews of recent literature. With this technique a proper understanding of the anatomical landmarks is important to ensure success. The technique for anesthesia, puncture and the arthroscopic examination are fully described. An inferior lateral approach to the joint compartment is advocated. A description of the equipment used for this procedure together with the functional elements of the instruments are emphasised. Indications for diagnostic arthroscopy together with the possible postoperative complications are presented.

  6. Endoscopic Fascia Release for Forearm Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Case Report and Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Cobb, Anna L; Cobb, Tyson K

    2017-09-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm is traditionally treated with open compartment release requiring large incisions that can result in less than optimal esthetic results. The purpose of this study is to describe a case report of 2 professional motocross patients with forearm CECS treated endoscopically using a minimally invasive technique. Two professional motocross racers presented with a history of chronic proximal volar forearm pain when motocross riding. Other symptoms included paresthesia and weakness, which, at times, led to an inability to continue riding. Both failed conservative management. Compartment pressure measurements were performed before and after provocative exercises to confirm diagnosis of CECS. Release of both the volar and dorsal compartments was performed endoscopically through a single incision. Symptoms resolved after surgery. The first patient resumed riding at 1 week, competing at 3 weeks, and continues to ride competitively without symptoms at 3 years postoperative. The second patient began riding at 1 week and won second place in the National Supercross finals 5 weeks after simultaneous bilateral release. This technique is simple and effective. The cannula used protects the superficial nerves while allowing release through a small, cosmetically pleasing incision.

  7. Staged urethroplasty: indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, Charles L

    2002-05-01

    There is still a place for staged urethroplasty. There are some indications for staged urethral reconstruction such as strictures associated with chronic inflammation, fistula, false passage, urethral stones, urethral diverticula, abscess, failed prior repair, complicated hypospadias, severe trauma, neurologic diseases, extensive BXO strictures and long strictures. Staging a urethroplasty should not be considered a step backwards rather instead we should learn from experience and realize there are some patients who are too complex to reconstruct in a single stage.

  8. The ultrasound guided psoas-compartment-block fundamentals and technique for a new regional anaesthetic procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchmair, L P M

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has proven to be an useful adjunct during the performance of peripheral nerve blocks. This study is the first dealing with the application of US guidance for the psoas-compartment-block which is used to achieve lumbar plexus blockades. A pilot study was carried out to establish the US anatomy of the lumbar paravertebral region and its blood vessels. Moreover, suitable transducers and US frequencies were assessed. The feasibility of US imaging of the psoas-compartment was studied on healthy volunteers (N=21) of varying body types (normal weight: N= 13; overweight: N=5; obese: N=3) in a first volunteer study. Additionally, the skin-plexus distances were measured. A second volunteer study (N=21) was carried out to investigate the US anatomy of the paravertebral blood vessels by means of power Doppler sonography. The technique of an US guided approach to the psoas-compartment was tested on embalmed cadavers (N=10) at the levels L2/L3, L3/L4 and L4/L5. Accuracy and safety of this technique were ver...

  9. Effectiveness of Serial Measurement of Differential Pressure in Closed Tibial Diaphyseal Fractures in Diagnosing Acute Compartment Syndrome using Whiteside's Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, D R; Thirunarayanan, V; David, J; Anbazhagan, S

    2016-03-01

    Acute Compartment Syndrome is a limb-threatening emergency and it occurs most commonly after fractures. The aim of our study is to find out the effectiveness of serial measurement of differential pressure in closed tibial diaphyseal fractures, in diagnosing acute compartment syndrome, using Whiteside's technique. A total of 52 cases in the age group of 15 to 55 years admitted with closed fractures were studied for serial compartment pressure as well as serial differential pressure. Eight patients had persistent compartment pressure > 40mmHg, out of which only two patients had persistent differential pressure compartment pressure serially and calculating differential pressure serially, acute compartment syndrome can be diagnosed or ruled out with higher precision, so that unnecessary fasciotomies can be avoided.

  10. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...

  11. Pancreatic sphincterotomy: Technique, indications, and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan M Buscaglia; Anthony N Kalloo

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic sphincterotomy serves as the cornerstone of endoscopic therapy of the pancreas. Historically,its indications have been less well-defined than those of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, yet it plays a definite and useful role in diseases such as chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic-type sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. In the appropriate setting, it may be used as a single therapeutic maneuver, or in conjunction with other endoscopic techniques such as pancreatic stone extraction or stent placement. The current standard of practice utilizes two different methods of performing pancreatic sphincterotomy: a pull-type sphincterotome technique without prior stent placement, and a needleknife sphincterotome technique over an existing stent. The complications associated with pancreatic sphincterotomy are many, although acute pancreatitis appears to be the most common and the most serious of the early complications. As such, it continues to be reserved for those endoscopists who perform a relatively high-volume of therapeutic pancreaticobiliary endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography.

  12. Monitoring solute fluxes: Integrating electrical resistivity with multi-compartment sampler techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Esther; Fernandez, Perrine; French, Helen K.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of agriculture, industry, airport activities on soil and water quality is strongly influenced by soil heterogeneity. To improve risk assessment, monitoring, and treatment strategies, we require a better understanding of the effect of soil heterogeneity on contaminant movement and better methods for monitoring heterogeneous contaminated transport. Sufficient characterization of spatial and temporal distribution of contaminant transport requires measurements of water and solute fluxes at multiple locations with a high temporal resolution. During this presentation, we will show a newly developed instrument, which combines multi-compartment sampling with electrical resistivity measurements, to observe spatial and temporal fluxes of contaminants. Solute monitoring is often limited to observations of resident concentrations, while flux concentrations govern the movement of solutes in soils. Bloem et al. (2010) developed a multi-compartment sampler (MCS) which is capable of measuring fluxes at a high spatial resolution under natural conditions. The sampler is divided into 100 separate compartments of 31 by 31 mm. Flux data can be recorded at a high time resolution (every 5 minutes). Tracer leaching can be monitored by frequently sampling the collected leachate while leaving the sampler buried in situ. To optimize the monitoring of tracer leaching and measure real solute fluxes the multi-compartment sampler has been extended with 121 electrodes. The electrodes are mounted at each corner of each compartment to measure the electrical conductivity above each compartment while water percolates through the compartments. By using different electrode couples, the setup can also be used to image above the multi-compartment sampler. The instrument can be used for detailed studies both in the laboratory and in the field. For laboratory experiments a transparent column is used which fits perfect on top of the MCS. We present a selection of the integrated electrical

  13. Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy: Indication and Techniques.

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    Grawe, Brian; Stein, Beth Shubin

    2015-08-01

    Osteotomy of the tibial tubercle is a versatile procedure that can be utilized for several common pathologies about the patellofemoral joint. Most commonly, tuberosity transfer is employed for the treatment of patellar instability or symptomatic overload of the patella. The osteotomy can be combined with soft tissue realignment procedures or cartilage reconstructive techniques. A precise understanding of the surgical anatomy and the biomechanics of the patellofemoral articulation is essential for producing a successful outcome during surgery. Tailoring the direction of transfer to the pathoanatomy of each patient is critical for producing a durable and lasting result following a tibial tubercle osteotomy. When evaluating a patient for a possible transfer, a thorough history and physical evaluation must be undertaken, along with imaging to the patellofemoral joint. Several useful advanced imaging techniques can also be used to guide the surgeon toward the most appropriated osteotomy for the patient. The purpose of this article is to review the indications for performing a tibial tubercle osteotomy, and highlighting the various techniques for transfer.

  14. Drilling: medical indications and surgical technique

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    Cristina Kallás Hueb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: anovulation is a major cause of female infertility, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the leading cause of anovulation. While undergoing drug-induced ovulation, women with PCOS usually have a satisfactory response recruiting follicles, but some are unable to recruit follicles or often produce an excessive number of follicles, which can result in ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and/or multiple pregnancy. Surgical laparoscopy with ovarian "drilling" may prevent or reduce the need for drug-induced ovulation. Objective: to identify the current indications of laparoscopic ovarian drilling and the best surgical technique. Method: a review of the medical literature based on systematic search in the Medline, Lilacs and Cochrane databases, using as keywords laparoscopy, polycystic ovary syndrome, and drilling. Results: we found 105 articles in the literature, 27 of these highly relevant, describing findings on ovarian drilling. Conclusion: laparoscopic drilling is indicated for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome with ovulatory resistance to the use of clomiphene citrate, body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 and preoperative luteinizing hormone above 10 IU/L. The preferred surgical technique should be the realization of 5 to 10 perforations on the surface of each ovary bilaterally using monopolar energy.

  15. [Plasma exchange in nephrology: Indications and technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Christophe; Kissling, Sébastien; Mesnard, Laurent; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Éric

    2017-02-01

    Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive. The treatment goal for a plasma exchange session should be between one and one and one-half times the patient's plasma volume estimated at 40 mL/kg body weight. The anticoagulation is best ensured by the citrate. Complications of plasma exchange are quite rare according to the French hemapheresis registry. The level of evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange in nephrology varies from one pathology to another. Main indications of plasma exchange in nephrology are Goodpasture syndrome, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when plasma creatinine is greater than 500 μmol/L, and thrombotic microangiopathies. During renal transplantation, plasma exchange may be proposed in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization protocols or ABO-incompatible graft. After renal transplantation, plasma exchange is indicated as part of the treatment of acute humoral rejection or recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on the graft. Plasma exchanges are also proposed in the management of cryoglobulinemia or polyarteritis nodosa. Hemodialysis with membranes of very high permeability tends to replace plasma exchange for myeloma nephropathy. The benefit from plasma exchange has not been formally demonstrated for the treatment of severe lupus or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There is no indication of plasma exchange in the treatment of scleroderma or nephrogenic

  16. Transjugular liver biopsy: indications, technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Guerrache, Y; Boudiaf, M; Gavini, J-P; Kaci, R; Soyer, P

    2014-01-01

    Transjugular liver biopsy is a safe, effective and well-tolerated technique to obtain liver tissue specimens in patients with diffuse liver disease associated with severe coagulopathies or massive ascites. Transjugular liver biopsy is almost always feasible. The use of ultrasonographic guidance for percutaneous puncture of the right internal jugular vein is recommended to decrease the incidence of local cervical minor complications. Semiautomated biopsy devices are very effective in obtaining optimal tissue samples for a precise and definite histological diagnosis with a very low rate of complication. The relative limitations of transjugular liver biopsy are the cost, the radiation dose given to the patient, the increased procedure time by comparison with the more common percutaneous liver biopsy, and the need of a well-trained interventional radiologist.

  17. Elbow arthroscopy: indications, techniques, outcomes, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie E; King, Graham J W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cohen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a tool useful for the treatment of a variety of pathologies about the elbow. The major indications for elbow arthroscopy include débridement for septic elbow arthritis, synovectomy for inflammatory arthritis, débridement for osteoarthritis, loose body extraction, contracture release, treatment of osteochondral defects and selected fractures or instability, and tennis elbow release. To achieve favorable outcomes after elbow arthroscopy, the surgeon should be aware of contraindications, technical considerations, anatomic principles, and the need for proper patient positioning and portal selection. Elbow arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lateral epicondylitis.

  18. The retreatment: Indications, technique and results

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    Islak, Civan, E-mail: cislak@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Kocamustafapasa, Istanbul 34098 (Turkey)

    2013-10-01

    Durability of endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms has always been an issue and a very strong point of criticism. Although studies on long-term results have made it clear that endovascular treatment safe and effective they, nonetheless showed retreatment after endovascular treatment is nearly 5–10 times more frequent than surgical clipping. Risk factors predisposing high probability of retreatment are aneurysm with dissecting nature, incomplete coiling, sac size larger than 10 mm and localization at the bifurcations such as basilar tip. The indications for retreatment after endovascular treatment are not clear yet, although certain morphologic criteria can be used. Retreatment appears not to negate the initial advantage of endovascular treatment over surgical treatment and can be performed very small morbi-mortality numbers.

  19. Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results

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    Sesenna Enrico

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate. Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO. All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%. Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the

  20. Dynamic imaging of posterior compartment pelvic floor dysfunction by evacuation proctography: Techniques, indications, results and limitations

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    Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, University Hospital and Outpatient Center, 550 N. University Blvd. UH 0279, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)]. E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu; Bartram, Clive [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Consulting Radiology, St. Mark' s Hospital, Northwick Park, Harrow HA1 3UJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    The clinical management of patients with anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction is often difficult. Evacuation proctography has evolved from a method to evaluate the anorectum for functional disorders to its current status as a practical method for evaluating anorectal dysfunction and pelvic floor prolapse. It has a high observer accuracy and yield of positive diagnosis. Clinicians find it of major benefit and has altered management from surgical to medical and vice versa in a significant number of cases.

  1. Dynamic imaging of posterior compartment pelvic floor dysfunction by evacuation proctography: techniques, indications, results and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglinte, Dean D T; Bartram, Clive

    2007-03-01

    The clinical management of patients with anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction is often difficult. Evacuation proctography has evolved from a method to evaluate the anorectum for functional disorders to its current status as a practical method for evaluating anorectal dysfunction and pelvic floor prolapse. It has a high observer accuracy and yield of positive diagnosis. Clinicians find it of major benefit and has altered management from surgical to medical and vice versa in a significant number of cases.

  2. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  3. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  4. Skin rolling technique as an indicator of spinal joint dysfunction *

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Perry; Tole, Gerald; Vernon, Howard

    1990-01-01

    The use of the skin roll technique as an indicator of spinal joint dysfunction (fixations) has not previously been subjected to validity testing. This study was undertaken to determine the degree of correlation between the skin roll technique and spinal joint dysfunction in the thoracic spine.

  5. Blood flow rate measurements with indicator techniques revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, Per; Bülow, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In view of the emerging role, disturbances in regional blood flow rate seem to play in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome; we review the concepts of the classical indicator dilution and washout techniques used for determinations of regional blood flow rate. Prerequisites, assumptions......, necessary precautions for the application of these experimental techniques are emphasized. Special attention has been carried out to elucidate the consequence of a choice of indicators having a large distribution volume in the tissues....

  6. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: techniques, interpretation, indications and reporting.

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    Fathala, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion single photon emission-computed tomography (MPS) has been one of the most important and common non-invasive diagnostic cardiac test. Gated MPS provides simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion and function with only one study. With appropriate attention to the MPS techniques, appropriate clinical utilization and effective reporting, gated MPS will remain a useful diagnostic test for many years to come. The aim of this article is to review the basic techniques of MPS, a simplified systematic approach for study interpretation, current clinical indications and reporting. After reading this article the reader should develop an understanding of the techniques, interpretation, current clinical indications and reporting of MPS studies.

  7. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome associated with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome. Use of transpulmonary thermodilution technique for volume management

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    Schmid Roland M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS is a rare disorder characterized by increased capillary hyperpermeability leading to hypovolemic shock due to a markedly increased shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia and a monoclonal gammopathy are characteristic laboratory findings. Here we present a patient who suffered from SCLS with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome of both lower legs and thighs. Volume and catecholamine management was guided using transpulmonary thermodilution. Extended hemodynamic monitoring for volume and catecholamine management as well as monitoring of muscle compartment pressure is of crucial importance in SCLS patients.

  8. Compartment syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aly Saber

    2014-01-01

    Body compartments bound by fascia and limited by bony backgrounds are found in the extremities, buttocks, abdomen and thoracic cavity; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss.Although compartment syndromes are described in all body regions from head to toe, the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are best characterized for three key body regions: the first is extremity, the second is abdominal, and the third is thoracic compartment syndromes.Thoracic compartment syndrome usually occurs as a result of pathological accumulation of air, fluid or blood in the mediastinum and has traditionally been described in trauma.As the intracranial contents are confined within a rigid bony cage, any increase in volume within thiscompartment as a result of brain oedema or an expanding traumatic intracranial haematoma, leads to a reciprocal decrease in the volume of cerebrospinal fluid and intracranial venous blood volume.Limb compartment syndromes may present either in acute or chronic clinical forms.Intra-abdominal pressure can be measured by direct or indirect methods.While the direct methods are quite accurate, theyare impractical and not feasible for routine practice.Indirect measurement is done through inferior vena cava, gastric, rectal and urinary bladder.Indirect measurement through urinary bladder is the simplest and is considered the method of choice for intra-abdominal pressure measurement.The management of patients with intra-abdominal hypertension is based on four important principles: the first is related to the specific procedures aiming at lowering intra-abdominal pressure and the consequences of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome; the second is for general support and medical management of the critically ill patient; while the third is surgical decompression and the fourth is optimization after surgical decompression.

  9. Fluoroscopic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: techniques and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carpintero de la Vega, M; García Villar, C

    Fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasing less common due to the introduction of other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and to the increased availability of endoscopy. Nevertheless, fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract continue to appear in clinical guidelines and some of their indications are still valid. These studies are dynamic, operator-dependent examinations that require training to obtain the maximum diagnostic performance. This review aims to describe the technique and bring the indications for this imaging modality up to date. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term results and comparison of the three different high tibial osteotomy and fixation techniques in medial compartment arthrosis.

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    Polat, Gökhan; Balcı, Halil İbrahim; Çakmak, Mehmet Fevzi; Demirel, Mehmet; Şen, Cengiz; Aşık, Mehmet

    2017-03-16

    The purpose of this study is to report and analyze the long-term outcomes of the patients who underwent high tibial osteotomy (HTO) with three different techniques for the treatment of medial compartment arthrosis. A total of 187 patients (195 knees) who underwent HTO between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Eighty-eight knees, opening-wedge osteotomy with Puddu plate (group A); 51 knees, transverse osteotomy below the tubercle with external fixator (group B); and 29 knees, closing-wedge osteotomy with staple fixation (group C) were included in the study. The patients (mean age 44.9 ± 10.6 years, mean follow-up of 12.4 ± 3.2 years) were called for final controls and survival rates of the knees, and functional evaluations of the patients were performed using Knee Society Score (KSS) and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score assessments. In the comparison of the three groups, there were no differences regarding the mean age, preoperative arthrosis levels, or preoperative deformity analyses (n.s.). The main finding of these comparisons showed that the closing-wedge osteotomy has the greatest lateralization effect on mechanical axis deviation (MAD) (p = 0.024), the greatest valgization effect on medial proximal tibial angles (MPTA) (p = 0.026), and the lowest posterior tibial slope (PTS) angles (p = 0.032) in comparison to the other groups. There were no functional differences between the three groups in the long-term assessment of patients with KSS and HSS knee scores. According to the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the probability of the survival of the native knee joint after HTO was 93.4% in 5 years and 71.2% in 10 years in our study group. During the follow-up of the 168 knees, revision surgery with total knee replacement was needed in 27 knees (16%). The mean time from HTO to total knee replacement was 8.9 years in these patients. HTO has acceptable long-term clinical and functional results that should not be

  11. Subtalar joint arthrodesis: open and arthroscopic indications and surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roster, Brent; Kreulen, Christopher; Giza, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Arthrodesis of the subtalar joint can be performed via both open and arthroscopic techniques. Both groups of procedures have their own relative indications and contraindications, as well as complications. Good results have been reported for both general procedures, although some studies suggest superiority with arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HISTOGRAM TECHNIQUE WITH PIXEL INDICATOR FOR HIGH FIDELITY STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Meiamai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this current world of increasing technology trends and the “internet age”, the security of our personal information has become more important than it has ever been there are media reports ofidentity theft and fraud and the numbers of innocent victims are increasing exponentially. Steganography plays an important role in preventing such information destruction by implementing a principle ofimperceptible secret sharing. By this security can be established by clearly embedding data in such a way that the quality of the image is not affected. The existing methodology prevailing now is based on pixel indicator and number of data to be embedded is by pixel value differencing technique. A limitation in this methodology is that the pixel indicator channel is manually selected. The proposed methodology uses pixel indicator channel which is decided using histogram technique and the secret message file has to be embedded in the plane which has the highest color intensity.

  13. Evolution of technique and indications for the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunig, Michael; Ganz, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    Acetabular dysplasia is among the most frequent causes of secondary osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. While hip arthrolasty is a valid option in elderly patients, young and active patients are likely to outlive their implants and therefore may require a different approach. During the last 20 years, the emphasis of these osteotomies shifted from the femoral to the acetabular side, with the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy being one of the most frequently and successfully used techniques today. The procedure combines a polygonal juxta-articular osteotomy using a modified Smith-Peterson approach. During refinement of the technique, the principle osteotomy steps remained unchanged, while the soft-tissue dissection has been modified, in that the abductors are not detached from the iliac wing. Due to a better appreciation of hip deformities, other indications for this technique have continuously evolved over time.

  14. Identifying indicators through modified Delphi technique in polytechnics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashir, Irdayanti Mat; Mustapha, Ramlee; Yusoff, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to examine how the panel has been selected as experts in assessing indicators of innovative instructional leadership (IIL) administrator in polytechnics based on 222 items were obtained through previous studies. A total of eleven people were selected as the expert panels in a study where expert selection criteria based on their background in the leadership. Experts were interviewed separately. Interviews were carried out for a half hour in their offices. The data obtained were analyzed using Atlas Ti. Overall findings indicate experts agree that a total of 188 items and 14 indicators should be maintained in this innovative instructional leadership instruments and next by using Modified Delphi Technique. The instrument will then be analyzed to obtain findings on the perception of lecturers on every administrator innovative instructional leadership in their respective polytechnics.

  15. Percutaneous embolization of varicocele: technique, indications, relative contraindications, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Halpern

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several options for the treatment of varicocele, including surgical repair either by open or microsurgical approach, laparoscopy, or through percutaneous embolization of the internal spermatic vein. The ultimate goal of varicocele treatment relies on the occlusion of the dilated veins that drain the testis. Percutaneous embolization offers a rapid recovery and can be successfully accomplished in approximately 90% of attempts. However, the technique demands interventional radiologic expertise and has potential serious complications, including vascular perforation, coil migration, and thrombosis of pampiniform plexus. This review discusses the common indications, relative contraindications, technical details, and risks associated with percutaneous embolization of varicocele.

  16. Crown lengthening: basic principles, indications, techniques and clinical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Simon; Andreana, Sebastiano

    2004-11-01

    Sometimes, in order to properly restore teeth, surgical intervention in the form of a crown-lengthening procedure is required. Crown lengthening is a periodontal resective procedure, aimed at removing supporting periodontal structures to gain sound tooth structure above the alveolar crest level. Periodontal health is of paramount importance for all teeth, both sound and restored. For the restorative dentist to utilize crown lengthening, it is important to understand the concept of biologic width, indications, techniques and other principles. This article reviews these basic concepts of clinical crown lengthening and presents four clinical cases utilizing crown lengthening as an integral part of treatments, to restore teeth and their surrounding tissues to health.

  17. Vibrant soundbridge middle ear implant in otosclerosis: technique - indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Thibaud

    2007-01-01

    With our growing experience with the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant, the question emerged of its indication in mixed hearing loss due to advanced otosclerosis. We describe the VSB implantation technique in primary otosclerosis performed together with a stapedotomy piston procedure. Hearing results under headphone and free-field conditions show that the stapedotomy piston procedure closes the air-bone gap as expected and that the VSB provides comparable gain to that usually recorded for pure sensorineural hearing loss. The gains of the two procedures add up. These results open the field of mixed hearing loss to the VSB middle ear implant.

  18. Season, Transport Duration and Trailer Compartment Effects on Blood Stress Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to Environmental, Behavioral and Other Physiological Factors, and Pork Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sommavilla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK, lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT, behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02, after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001 and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002. In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04 in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01 concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001, and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001, truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001, and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001. In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress.

  19. Analysis of the changes in keratoplasty indications and preferred techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Lang

    Full Text Available Recently, novel techniques introduced to the field of corneal surgery, e.g. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK and corneal crosslinking, extended the therapeutic options. Additionally contact lens fitting has developed new alternatives. We herein investigated, whether these techniques have affected volume and spectrum of indications of keratoplasties in both a center more specialized in treating Fuchs' dystrophy (center 1 and a second center that is more specialized in treating keratoconus (center 2.We retrospectively reviewed the waiting lists for indication, transplantation technique and the patients' travel distances to the hospital at both centers.We reviewed a total of 3778 procedures. Fuchs' dystrophy increased at center 1 from 17% (42 to 44% (150 and from 13% (27 to 23% (62 at center 2. In center 1, DMEK increased from zero percent in 2010 to 51% in 2013. In center 2, DMEK was not performed until 2013. The percentage of patients with keratoconus slightly decreased from 15% (36 in 2009 vs. 12% (40 in 2013 in center 1. The respective percentages in center 2 were 28% (57 and 19% (51. In both centers, the patients' travel distances increased.The results from center 1 suggest that DMEK might increase the total number of keratoplasties. The increase in travel distance suggests that this cannot be fully attributed to recruiting the less advanced patients from the hospital proximity. The increase is rather due to more referrals from other regions. The decrease of keratoconus patients in both centers is surprising and may be attributed to optimized contact lens fitting or even to the effect corneal crosslinking procedure.

  20. [Rehabilitation of female urinary incontinence. Techniques and indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, P; Mauroy, B

    1997-09-01

    Female uro-gynaecological retraining was initially confined to prophylactic management during the post-partum period. It has gradually been extended to other diseases, either alone or as a complement to medical or surgical treatment. The results of clinical examination and complementary investigations, especially urodynamic studies, now allow the application of increasingly precise retraining techniques. This progress essentially concerns the three types of technique most frequently used: Manual retraining concerns the bulbospongiosus muscles, as well as the levator ani muscles. Biofeedback is increasingly used to qualitatively improve muscle contraction. Electrostimulation can promote the action of various groups of tonic or phasic muscle fibres. Apart from these endocavitary techniques, retraining is also evolving towards a global management of the abdominopelvic sphere., where it is indicated in the management of the post-partum period and various gynaecological and urinary diseases. However, concomitant diseases such as perineo-abdominodiaphragmatic imbalance, an anorectal problem, a sexual problem or finally painful symptoms, must also be taken into account in some cases. Retraining must be very precisely prescribed, confirming application of all of these techniques and adapting them to the national health refund classification. The number of sessions varies according to the disease, but rarely exceeds 30 sessions in the initial prescription. On the other hand, like any muscle system, the pelvic floor must be maintained by means of several sessions per year. The success of this retraining treatment essentially depends on several factors: the quality of the therapist, his training, his spirit of integration in a multidisciplinary team, but also the patient's motivation.

  1. Acute compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure - ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS.

  2. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vascular clamping in liver surgery: physiology, indications and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherqui Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews the historical evolution of hepatic vascular clamping and their indications. The anatomic basis for partial and complete vascular clamping will be discussed, as will the rationales of continuous and intermittent vascular clamping. Specific techniques discussed and described include inflow clamping (Pringle maneuver, extra-hepatic selective clamping and intraglissonian clamping and outflow clamping (total vascular exclusion, hepatic vascular exclusion with preservation of caval flow. The fundamental role of a low Central Venous Pressure during open and laparoscopic hepatectomy is described, as is the difference in their intra-operative measurements. The biological basis for ischemic preconditioning will be elucidated. Although the potential dangers of vascular clamping and the development of modern coagulation devices question the need for systemic clamping; the pre-operative factors and unforseen intra-operative events that mandate the use of hepatic vascular clamping will be highlighted.

  4. Percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade ureteral stenting: technique - indications - complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, Klaus A. [Klagenfurt General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Klagenfurt (Austria); Portugaller, Horst R. [University Hospital of Graz, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    In this review the technique, indication for and complications of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade ureter stent insertion are described. In the majority of the cases PCN is performed to relieve urinary obstruction, which can be of benign or malignant nature. Another indication for PCN is for treatment of urinary fistulas. PCN can be performed under ultrasound and/or fluoroscopic guidance, with a success rate of more than 90%. The complication rate is approximately 10% for major and minor complications together and 4-5% for major complications only. Percutaneous antegrade double-J stent insertion usually is performed if retrograde ureter stenting has not been successful. However, especially in malignant obstructions, the success rate for antegrade stenting is higher than for retrograde transvesical double-J stent insertion. In the case of severe infection and bleeding after PCN JJ-stent insertion may be contraindicated so long as there is no sufficient concomitant drainage via a PCN. Lower urinary tract dysfunction should be excluded before stent placement. The complication rate is 2-4%. Consequent stent surveillance with regular stent exchange is mandatory. (orig.)

  5. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse: modification of the forgotten "Garm technique".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan A; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith E; Lepage, Olivier M

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the lateral compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pouch (GP) using a modified Garm's technique (MGT). In an ex vivo study (study 1), six cadaver heads were examined to assess the anatomical limits of the surgical approach and whether vital structures might be damaged. This was followed by an in vivo study (study 2) in which a lavage/drainage tube was placed for 3 days into each LC of four standing horses using the MGT. In both studies, the procedure offered direct access into the LC and indirect access into the medial compartments of the GP. In study 1, the MGT provided a rostroventral point of access allowing drainage of the LC, with no obvious iatrogenic damage. In study 2, the MGT permitted lavage of the entire GP in three healthy horses and one horse with mild GP empyema. The only major complication was development of emphysema of the lateral wall of one LC, with secondary collapse of the mucous membrane. The time for secondary wound healing was 12-14 days. The MGT can be performed safely in standing horses and may be of value in providing access for lavage and drainage in horses with mild GP empyema.

  6. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony James, E-mail: consultant@radiologist.co.uk [The Imaging Clinic (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure.

  7. Kyphoplasty: indications, contraindications and technique; Chifoplastica: indicazioni, controindicazioni e tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Massari, Francesco; Simonetti, Giovanni [Tor Vergata Univ., Roma (Italy). Dipartimento di diagnostica per immagini e radiologia interventistica

    2005-07-15

    Purpose. Percutaneous Kyphoplasty is an emerging Interventional Radiology technique consisting in injecting polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into collapsed vertebral bodies under fluoroscopic guidance, after compaction of the cancellous bone with two dedicated balloon catheters. The purpose of our study was to assess the indications, contraindications, technique and results of our initial study. Materials and methods. Between January and May 2003 we treated 11 patients (5 men, 6 women) with vertebral collapse occurred up to three months earlier and osteoporosis or myeloma (mean age: 68.9), with pain refractory to medical therapy. All patients underwent treatment on a single vertebra (1 D7; 1 D8; 2 D12; 3 L1; 3 L2; 1 l4). Patient selection was based on clinical and instrumental criteria: conventional radiography, CT and MR were performed on all patients before the procedure. The Visual Analogue scale (VAS) for pain assessment was used to evaluate the post-procedure results. Results. All patients showed an increase in the height of the collapsed vertebral body, associated with partial or complete pain relief (VAS score decreasing from a pre-treatment score of 8 to a score of 2 after treatment). No complications related to the procedure were recorded. Conclusions. The indications for kyphoplasty include recent vertebral compression fractures due to osteoporosis, myeloma, metastasis and vertebral angioma with intractable pain and with no neurological symptoms. The main contraindications are coagulation disorders, unstable fractures or complete vertebral collapse (vertebra plana). Kyphoplasty proved to be a safe and effective method for the treatment of intractable pain due to vertebral collapse that allows for shorter hospital stays and an immediate improvement in the patient's quality of life. [Italian] Scopo. La Chifoplastica percutanea e una nuova ed emergente metodica di Radiologia Interventistica che consiste nella somministrazione di Polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA

  8. Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy: Techniques, Interpretation, Indications and Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Fathala, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion single photon emission-computed tomography (MPS) has been one of the most important and common non-invasive diagnostic cardiac test. Gated MPS provides simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion and function with only one study. With appropriate attention to the MPS techniques, appropriate clinical utilization and effective reporting, gated MPS will remain a useful diagnostic test for many years to come. The aim of this article is to review the basic techniques of MP...

  9. Central venous access: techniques and indications in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Antoine Lacassagne Anticancer Research Institute, Department of Radiodiagnostics and Interventional Radiology, Nice, Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-10-15

    Long lines can be inserted centrally or peripherally through patent veins into the central venous system down to the atrial caval junction. Traditionally surgeons, anesthetists, cardiologists and more recently interventional radiologists have been placing them using vein cutdown or percutaneous needle puncture techniques. Typical candidates for implanted venous catheters are cancer patients undergoing long-term chemotherapy. The most important issues, in addition to the patency of central veins and the history of previous indwelling catheters, pacewires or venous thrombosis, are the patient's performance status, body mass index, medical history and respiratory status, and the relevant technique. The present article will give an overview of the radiological and surgical implantation techniques and will highlight the impact of imaging means on the technical feasibility, assessment and treatment of device-related complications. (orig.)

  10. [Magnetic resonance enterography: technique and indications. Findings in Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A; Pallardó, Y; Hinojosa, J; Insa, S; Molina, R

    2013-09-01

    Radiology with oral contrast, or enteroclysis, have traditionally been the techniques of choice in the examination of the small intestine, due to the excellent visualisation of the mucosal pattern. However, the absence of extra-luminal information and the use of ionising radiation have replaced these examinations with sectional techniques which enable the abdominal cavity to be viewed with good resolution. Magnetic resonance enterography is a simple technique, with no ionising radiation, provided quality images, distends the intestinal lumen well by the administration of non-reabsorbable oral substances, minimises peristalsis, and establishes a protocol which includes sequences with intravenous contrast. These properties can be used in patients with Crohn's disease, achieving good diagnostic precision in the assessment of activity and monitoring of treatment, in intestinal obstruction, in the suspicion of small intestine tumours, and in paediatric patients due to it being harmless. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. [Compartment syndrome following adder bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Bayer, Lasse; Lebech, Anne-Mette Kjaer; Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Katzenstein, Terese

    2009-01-26

    Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, can have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. Meanwhile, the local swelling calls for attention as well. Two cases of seven- and eleven-year-old boys are reported. The first patient was bitten in the 5th toe, the second in the thumb. Both developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the lower and upper limb, respectively. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgery. However, compartment pressure measurement can be helpful in the assessment of children.

  12. [News on single needle dialysis: technique, indications, precautions and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The technique of single needle dialysis (SN) was invented in the 1960s and enjoyed great success during the 1970s and '80s in northern Europe, particularly in Belgium. In recent years, the double needle mode has awakened new interest in this technique, as it may represent a good alternative to the use of a central venous catheter at the beginning of dialysis, while waiting for the growth of the arteriovenous fistula. For today's dialysis patients, mostly elderly with ever greater numbers of co-morbid conditions, in particular vascular disease, treatments have become ever more flexible and individually tailored. A single needle approach can be also used in the case of native fistula dislocation. The single needle technique requires careful control of dialysis dose, keeping recirculation into account. If the technique is used for long periods of time, there is the risk of inadequate dialysis dose and it is necessary to pay particular attention to the sampling of post dialysis urea for the KT/V calculation (always 20 minutes after the end of dialysis). Modern dialysis machines have greatly reduced the risk of hemolysis (which can be evaluated with the control of LDH pre and post dialysis) and of back-filtration which no longer represents a problem thanks to ultrapure dialysate. The probability of of blood circuit coagulation has also been greatly reduced thanks to citrate dialysis baths and membranes treated with heparin or vitamin E, and systems often do not require an increase of anticoagulants. The technique is, therefore, particularly reliable and easy to use thanks to its simplicity.

  13. Density gradient multilayered polymerization (DGMP): a novel technique for creating multi-compartment, customizable scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V; Ner, Yogesh; Wen, Jessica H; Engler, Adam J; Almutairi, Adah

    2013-02-12

    Complex tissue culture matrices, in which types and concentrations of biological stimuli (e.g. growth factors, inhibitors, or small molecules) or matrix structure (e.g. composition, concentration, or stiffness of the matrix) vary over space, would enable a wide range of investigations concerning how these variables affect cell differentiation, migration, and other phenomena. The major challenge in creating layered matrices is maintaining the structural integrity of layer interfaces without diffusion of individual components from each layer. Current methodologies to achieve this include photopatterning, lithography, sequential functionalization5, freeze drying, microfluidics, or centrifugation, many of which require sophisticated instrumentation and technical skills. Others rely on sequential attachment of individual layers, which may lead to delamination of layers. DGMP overcomes these issues by using an inert density modifier such as iodixanol to create layers of varying densities. Since the density modifier can be mixed with any prepolymer or bioactive molecule, DGMP allows each scaffold layer to be customized. Simply varying the concentration of the density modifier prevents mixing of adjacent layers while they remain aqueous. Subsequent single step polymerization gives rise to a structurally continuous multilayered scaffold, in which each layer has distinct chemical and mechanical properties. The density modifier can be easily removed with sufficient rinsing without perturbation of the individual layers or their components. This technique is therefore well suited for creating hydrogels of various sizes, shapes, and materials. A protocol for fabricating a 2D-polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, in which alternating layers incorporate RGDS-350, is outlined below. We use PEG because it is biocompatible and inert. RGDS, a cell adhesion peptide, is used to demonstrate spatial restriction of a biological cue, and the conjugation of a fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350) enables

  14. Frontofacial surgery in children and adolescents: techniques, indications, outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, J A; Greig, A; Abela, C; Hearst, D; Dunaway, D J; Evans, R D

    2014-08-01

    The techniques of frontofacial surgery are most valuable in the clinical management of complex craniofacial deformity to achieve a range of functional and aesthetic gains in children from infancy to maturity. A variety of complex craniofacial osteotomies that can be used to separate the orbits from the skull base have been described. In addition, the combination of circumorbital release and pterygomaxillary disjunction allows advancement of the orbitomaxillary segment for powerful clinical benefit. For the purpose of this article, the principal frontofacial strategies include the monobloc frontofacial advancement by distraction (MBD), frontofacial bipartition advancement by distraction (BpD), orbital box osteotomy (FFBx), and frontofacial bipartition (FFBp). These techniques are broadly used for two purposes: to allow for the translocation of one or both orbits to correct orbitofacial disproportion (hypertelorism, vertical orbital dystopia, or a combination of both), or to advance the orbitomaxillary segment for orbital volume expansion and protection of the eye in syndromes featuring severe exorbitism (oculo-orbital disproportion). Here we describe aspects of our experience of frontofacial surgery in the Craniofacial Centre at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, with reference to the principles underpinning frontofacial surgical techniques, their challenges, and their impact on function and aesthetics.

  15. Arthrography of the TMJ. Indications, technique and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jend, H.H.; Triebel, H.J.; Jend-Rossmann, I.

    1986-09-01

    Articular dysfunction of the TMJ with anterior displacement of the disc ('internal derangement') is an entity which has been separated from other types of the 'myofascial pain syndromes' and which can be treated conservatively or by surgery. Arthrography of the TMJ has contributed greatly to an understanding of normal and abnormal function and, in many cases, it can provide a diagnosis. On the basis of our experience with 80 investigations we discuss technical problems and the clinical indications. The indications for arthrography are in the pre-operative diagnosis, when clinical findings are uncertain, in order to demonstrate perforation, in order to confirm a suspected diagnosis and to assist in prosthetic treatment.

  16. Operative Fixation of Rib Fractures Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, David; Taylor, Benjamin; McLaurin, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are extremely common injuries and vary in there severity from single nondisplaced fractures to multiple segmental fractures resulting in flail chest and respiratory compromise. Historically, rib fractures have been treated conservatively with pain control and respiratory therapy. However this method may not be the best treatment modality in all situations. Operative fixation of select rib fractures has been increasing in popularity especially in patients with flail chest and respiratory compromise. Newer techniques use muscle sparing approaches and precontoured locking plate technology to obtain stable fixation and allow improved respiration. Current reports shows that rib fracture fixation offers the benefits of improved respiratory mechanics and improved pain control in the severe chest wall injury with resultant improvement in patient outcomes by decreasing time on the ventilator, time in the intensive care unit, and overall hospital length of stay.

  17. Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia: Surgical technique and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Atul F

    2016-05-18

    For young, active patients with healthy hip cartilage, pelvic osteotomy is a surgical option in to address hip pain and to improve mechanical loading conditions related to dysplasia. Hip dysplasia may lead to arthrosis at an early age due to poor coverage of the femoral head and abnormal loading of the joint articulation. In patients with symptomatic dysplasia and closed triradiate cartilage (generally over age 10), including adolescents and young adults (generally up to around age 40), the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a durable technique for addressing underlying structural deformity. The PAO involves a modified Smith-Petersen approach. Advantages of the Bernese osteotomy include preservation of the weight-bearing posterior column of the hemi-pelvis, preservation of the acetabular blood supply, maintenance of the hip abductor musculature, and the ability to effect powerful deformity correction about an ideal center of rotation. There is an increasing body of evidence that preservation of the native hip can be improved through pelvic osteotomy. In contrast to hip osteotomy and joint preservation, the role of total hip arthroplasty in young, active patients with correctable hip deformity remains controversial. Moreover, the durability of hip replacement in young patients is inherently limited. Pelvic osteotomy should be considered the preferred method to address correctable structural deformity of the hip in the young, active patient with developmental dysplasia. The Bernese PAO is technically demanding, yet offers reproducible results with good long-term survivorship in carefully selected patients with preserved cartilage and the ability to meet the demands of rehabilitation.

  18. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures-Indications and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, J; Hohendorff, B; Alt, V; Thormann, U; Schnettler, R

    2016-02-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard procedure for surgical treatment of closed and Gustilo-Anderson Grade I-II° open fractures of the tibial shaft. The use of intramedullary nailing for the treatment of proximal metaphyseal tibia fractures is frequently followed by postoperative malalignment, whereas plate osteosynthesis is associated with higher rates of postoperative infection. Intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures is generally performed through an infrapatellar approach. The injured extremity must be positioned at a minimum of 90° of flexion in the knee joint to achieve optimal exposure of the correct entry point. The tension of the quadriceps tendon causes a typical apex anterior angulation of the proximal fragment. The suprapatellar approach improves reduction of the fracture and reduces the occurrence of malalignment during intramedullary nailing of extra-articular proximal tibial fractures. The knee is positioned in 20° of flexion to neutralise traction forces secondary to the quadriceps muscle, thus preventing an apex anterior angulation of the proximal fragment. An additional advantage of the technique is that it allows the surgeon to avoid or minimise further soft tissue damage because of the distance between the optimal incision point and the usual area of soft tissue damage.

  19. [Osteoplastic decompressive craniotomy--indication and surgical technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, J; Choc, M; Mracek, Z

    2010-02-01

    Decompressive craniotomy is usually carried out using decompressive craniectomy (osteoclastic decompressive craniotomy) when the bone flap is removed. In situations when the level of expansion does not call for decomopressive craniectomy, we do not remove the bone flap and we perform osteoplastic decompressive craniotomy. The indication is based on assessment and cross correlation of the following parameters: intracranial pressure,midline shift and the number of pathologies on CT, actual influence of antiedematous therapy, expected cerebral oedema progression and especially according to the size of the dural defect after duratomy. In the course of osteoplastic decompressive craniotomy, decompression is secured by the elevation of the unfixed bone flap during cerebral tissue expansion. After the oedema regression, the elevated bone flap spontaneously drops to its original position and is reattached. The danger of bone plate depression is eliminated with the use of a bevel bone cut using a Gigli saw. Osteoplastic decompressive craniotomy is an effective method of treating brain oedema when the degree of expansion does not require decompressive craniectomy.

  20. [Facial epitheliomas: general considerations, surgical techniques and indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D; Barthélémy, I; Mondie, J M; Grangier, Y; Pélissier, P; Loddé, J P

    1998-08-01

    Carcinoma of the face is the skin disease most frequently encountered by plastic surgeons in everyday practice. Although basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are generally easy to recognize, their treatment remains subject to various schools of thought, or even individual practices, which are often difficult to define. This article defines a general plan of management of these tumours; their histological duality corresponds to a therapeutic duality. Resection of a basal cell carcinoma requires safety margins of 3 to 4 mm, versus at least 5 mm for a squamous cell carcinoma. In a high-risk subject, with a sclerodermiform carcinoma or undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, this safety margin may be as much as 10 mm or more. Frozen section examination is preferable in these situations. Six anatomical regions are studied selectively to define the main rules of reconstruction: nasal region, orbitopalpebral region, labial region, malar region, frontal region and auricular region. Each region will be subdivided into several subterritories, each requiring different strategies. The objectives, methods and indications of each reconstruction are selectively defined. The final strategy proposed is based not only on the author's personal experience, but also on the results of the national survey on carcinomas. As a complement to these therapeutic guidelines, the authors raise the problem of incomplete resection, which requires the definition of a peripheral infiltration index predictive of the recurrence rate. Surgery obviously cannot constitute exclusive treatment carcinomas, hence the value of presenting other methods currently available in the therapeutic armamentarium. Surveillance is essential in every case, determined by the patient's risk of recurrence or even metastatic dissemination.

  1. Monitoring fetal maturation - objectives, techniques and indices of autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Zebrowski, Jan; Cysarz, Dirk; Goncalves, Hernani; Pytlik, Adelina; Amorim-Costa, Celia; Bernardes, Joao; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Witte, Otto; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Stroux, Lisa; Redman, Christopher; Georgieva, Antoniya; Payne, Stephen; Clifford, Gari; Signorini, Maria; Magenes, Giovanni; Andreotti, Fernando; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Lakhno, Igor; Schneider, Uwe

    2017-02-10

    Monitoring the fetal behavior does not only have implications for acute care but also for identifying developmental disturbances that burden the entire later life. The concept, of "fetal programming", also known as "developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis", e.g. applies for cardiovascular, metabolic, hyperkinetic, cognitive disorders. Since the autonomic nervous system is involved in all of those systems, cardiac autonomic control may provide relevant functional diagnostic and prognostic information. The fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) are one of the few functional signals in the prenatal period that relate to autonomic control and, therefore, is predestinated for its evaluation. The development of sensitive markers of fetal maturation and its disturbances requires the consideration of physiological fundamentals, recording technology and HRP parameters of autonomic control. Based on the ESGCO2016 special session on monitoring the fetal maturation we herein report the most recent results on: (i) functional fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS), Recurrence Quantitative Analysis and Binary Symbolic Dynamics of complex HRP resolve specific maturation periods, (ii) magnetocardiography (MCG) based fABAS was validated for cardiotocography (CTG), (iii) 30 min recordings are sufficient for obtaining episodes of high variability, important for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) detection in handheld Doppler, (iv) novel parameters from PRSA to identify Intra IUGR fetuses, (v) Electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings allowed a stable heart beat detection in the maturation periods between 20 to 28 weeks of gestation only, (vi) correlation between maternal and fetal HRV is disturbed in pre-eclampsia. The reported novel developments significantly extend the possibilities for the established CTG methodology. Novel HRP indices improve the accuracy of assessment due to their more appropriate consideration of complex autonomic processes across the recording technologies

  2. Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

  3. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Sanjit R; Kester, Benjamin S; Fisher, Nina; Behery, Omar A; Crespo, Alexander M; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is well known among orthopaedic surgeons. The timely diagnosis and management of ACS is crucial to avoiding its sequelae, including renal failure, ischemic contractures, and limb loss. Despite its relative importance, ACS poses a challenge to many residents and clinicians as diagnosis relies largely on clinical judgment. Timely diagnosis and thorough compartment release are essential to optimizing outcomes in ACS. This video highlights a clinical case in which compartment syndrome of the leg was considered, diagnosed, and surgically managed. This video will present the indications for compartment release and a video-guided demonstration of compartment checks using an arterial line transducer, a 4-compartment fasciotomy with 2 incisions, and temporizing vessel loop closure. Compartment syndrome can be a devastating complication of common fractures. It is essential that orthopaedic practitioners understand the immediacy of intervention. We have a responsibility to provide timely, accurate diagnosis along with expedient surgical management.

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome due to OHSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Veisi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome is a dangerous clinical situation, usually following abdominal injuries&operations. It is seldom observed in patients with gynecologic and obstetric problems. Abdominalcompartment syndrome may be consequence ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. A 28-year-old womanpresented as a sever ovarian hyperstimulation.The increased IAP indicated that OHSS may beconsidered a compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome needs laparotomy orparacentesis for reduction of pressure.

  5. Accuracy of loss of resistance technique for location of fascia iliaca compartment : evaluation using ultrasound technique%阻力消失法定位髂筋膜间隙的准确性:超声法评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亮婧; 伊军; 许莉; 杨庆国

    2013-01-01

    目的 应用超声技术评价阻力消失法定位髂筋膜间隙的准确性.方法 拟行髋部手术患者175例,在髂前上棘和耻骨结节间连线中外1/3交界处向尾端旁开2 cm处进针,当感觉到2次突破感后,给予0.5%罗哌卡因30 ml,经超声辨认药液扩散部位确定准确穿刺情况,并记录给药后20min感觉阻滞有效情况.结果 经超声确定,应用阻力消失法定位髂筋膜间隙准确率56.6%.穿刺错误部位构成情况:髂筋膜浅层25例、髂腰肌内51例;准确定位于髂筋膜间隙的阻滞有效率为98.0%,而定位错误时阻滞有效率为82.9%.结论 阻力消失法不能准确定位髂筋膜间隙.%Objective The evaluate the accuracy of loss of resistance technique for location of fascia iliaca compartment using ultrasound technique.Methods One hundred and seventy-five patients undergoing hip surgery were enrolled in the study.A line was drawn on the skin from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine and divided in three equal parts.The site of puncture was marked 2 cm distal to the point at which the lateral met the middle third of the line.The needle was inserted until a loss of resistance was felt twice (fascia lata and fascia iliaca),at which point 0.5 % ropivacaine 30 ml was infused.Correct puncture was identified by visualized spread of local anesthetic solution under the guidance of ultrasound technique.The effective sensory block was recorded within 20 min after administration.Results The accuracy of loss of resistance method for locating the fascia iliac compartment was 56.6 % using ultrasound technique.There were 80 patients in whom fault site of puncture occurred:25 cases in the superficial layer of the fascia iliac and 51 cases in the iliopsoas muscle.The rate of effective block was 98.0 % for correct location and 82.9 % for fault location.Conclusion Loss of resistance technique cannot accurately locate the fascia iliac compartment.

  6. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

  7. Compartment Syndrome in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Hayes, Christopher B

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome in children can present differently than adults. Increased analgesic need should be considered the first sign of evolving compartment syndrome in children. Children with supracondylar humerus fractures, floating elbow injuries, operatively treated forearm fractures, and tibia fractures are at high risk for developing compartment syndrome. Elbow flexion beyond 90° in supracondylar humerus fractures and closed treatment of forearm fractures in floating elbow injuries are associated with increased risk of compartment syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with fasciotomy in children result in excellent long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Can intramuscular glucose levels diagnose compartment syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, Christopher J; Sitzman, Thomas J; O'Toole, Robert V

    2014-02-01

    Compartment syndrome is difficult to diagnose, particularly in patients who are not able to undergo adequate clinical examination. Current methods rely on pressure measurements within the compartment, have high false-positive rates, and do not reliably indicate presence of muscle ischemia. We hypothesized that measurement of intramuscular glucose and oxygen can identify compartment syndrome with high sensitivity and specificity. Compartment syndrome was created in 12 anesthetized adult mixed-sex beagles, in the craniolateral compartment of a lower leg, by infusion of lactated Ringer's solution with normal serum concentration of glucose. The contralateral leg served as a control. Hydrostatic pressure, oxygen tension, and glucose concentration were recorded with commercially available probes. Compartment syndrome was maintained for 8 hours, and the animals were recovered. Two weeks later, compartment and control legs underwent muscle biopsy. Specimens were reviewed by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 minutes of creating compartment syndrome, glucose concentration and oxygen tension in the experimental limb were significantly lower than in the control limb (glucose, p = 0.02; oxygen, p = 0.007; two-tailed t test). Intramuscular glucose concentration of less than 97 mg/dL was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 73-100%) and 75% specific (95% CI, 40-94%) for the presence of compartment syndrome. Partial pressure of oxygen less than 30 mm Hg was 100% sensitive (95% CI, 72-100%) and 100% specific (95% CI, 69-100%) for the presence of compartment syndrome. Pathology confirmed compartment syndrome in all experimental limbs. Our results show that intramuscular glucose concentration and partial pressure of oxygen rapidly identify muscle ischemia with high sensitivity and specificity after experimentally created compartment syndrome in this animal model.

  9. Multi-compartment microscopic diffusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Enrico; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Carson, Robert P; Does, Mark D; Alexander, Daniel C

    2016-10-01

    This paper introduces a multi-compartment model for microscopic diffusion anisotropy imaging. The aim is to estimate microscopic features specific to the intra- and extra-neurite compartments in nervous tissue unconfounded by the effects of fibre crossings and orientation dispersion, which are ubiquitous in the brain. The proposed MRI method is based on the Spherical Mean Technique (SMT), which factors out the neurite orientation distribution and thus provides direct estimates of the microscopic tissue structure. This technique can be immediately used in the clinic for the assessment of various neurological conditions, as it requires only a widely available off-the-shelf sequence with two b-shells and high-angular gradient resolution achievable within clinically feasible scan times. To demonstrate the developed method, we use high-quality diffusion data acquired with a bespoke scanner system from the Human Connectome Project. This study establishes the normative values of the new biomarkers for a large cohort of healthy young adults, which may then support clinical diagnostics in patients. Moreover, we show that the microscopic diffusion indices offer direct sensitivity to pathological tissue alterations, exemplified in a preclinical animal model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a genetic multi-organ disorder which impacts brain microstructure and hence may lead to neurological manifestations such as autism, epilepsy and developmental delay. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the pain; that can lead to permanent muscle or nerve damage. Sometimes chronic exertional compartment syndrome is mistaken for shin splints, a more common cause of leg pain in young people who do a lot of vigorous weight- ...

  11. Atraumatic painless compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Scott; Griffin, Gregory D; Simon, Erin L

    2013-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a time-sensitive diagnosis and surgical emergency because it poses a threat to life and the limbs. It is defined by Matsen et al (Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1978;147(6):943–949) as "a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the tissues within that space." The most common cause of compartment syndrome is traumatic injury. A variety of other conditions such as vascular injuries, bleeding disorders, thrombosis, fasciitis, gas gangrene, rhabdomyolysis, prolonged limb compression, cellulitis, and nephrotic syndrome may also cause compartment syndrome. Patients who are elderly, have preexisting nerve damage, or have psychopathology may have an atypical presentation. This case highlights the first report of a 75-year-old woman who developed painless bilateral compartment syndrome in the absence of traumatic injury.

  12. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikov V.А.; Sokolov V.А.

    2013-01-01

    We considered one of the most complicated problems of surgery and intensive care — abdominal compartment syndrome. It is a severe, and in some cases lethal complication developing in major injuries and pathology of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space, as well as in extra-abdominal pathology. In addition, compartment syndrome can be the complication of a number of surgical procedures accompanied primarily by laparotomy wound closure with tissue tension. We demonstrated the classificatio...

  13. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  14. US of the elbow: indications, technique, normal anatomy, and pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konin, Gabrielle P; Nazarian, Levon N; Walz, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The elbow, a synovial hinge joint, is a common site of disease. Ultrasonography (US) has become an important imaging modality for evaluating pathologic conditions of the elbow. This powerful imaging tool has the advantages of outstanding spatial resolution, clinical correlation with direct patient interaction, dynamic assessment of disease, and the ability to guide interventions. Unlike most other imaging modalities, US allows the contralateral elbow to be imaged simultaneously, providing an internal control and comparison with normal anatomy. A useful approach to US evaluation of the elbow is to divide it into four compartments: anterior, lateral, medial, and posterior. US of the elbow has varied clinical applications, including evaluation and treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis, imaging of biceps and triceps musculotendinous injuries, evaluation of ulnar collateral ligament laxity, diagnosis of joint effusions and intraarticular bodies, and evaluation of peripheral nerves for neuropathy and subluxation. US can also be used to evaluate soft-tissue masses about the elbow. Knowledge of the normal US anatomy of the elbow, familiarity with the technique of elbow US, and awareness of the US appearances of common pathologic conditions of the elbow along with their potential treatment options will optimize radiologists' diagnostic assessment and improve patient care. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.334125059/-/DC1.

  15. [Orbital decompression for dysthyroid orbitopathy: a review of techniques and indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S; Ben Ayed, H

    2004-09-01

    Orbital bony decompression has a definite place in the management of severe manifestations of dysthyroid orbitopathy such as optic neuropathy, exposure keratitis, and exophthalmos. This surgical procedure can be undertaken when medication and radiation therapy fail. Esthetic and functional results are globally satisfying and explain the interest taken in this technique. This article will describe the development of this procedure and will outline the surgical techniques and their complications. It emphasizes the multifactor indications for this procedure.

  16. Psoas compartment block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D M

    2000-05-01

    The psoas compartment acts as a conduit for the nerve roots of the lumbar plexus. Originating at approximately the 12th thoracic vertebrae, this potential compartment continues on caudally, bordered posterolaterally by fascia of the quadratus lumborum and iliacus muscles, medially by the fascia of the psoas major muscle, and anteriorly by the transversalis fascia. This natural "gutter" acts as a repository for local anesthetic agents and provides an excellent method of unilateral anterior lower extremity anesthesia. After elicitation of a motor evoked response in the muscles of the anterior thigh, 30 to 40 milliliters of local anesthetic is incrementally injected into the compartment. Spread of the anesthetic to all roots of the plexus occurs in 15 to 20 minutes. Profound sensory and motor blockade can be achieved providing surgical anesthesia as well as long duration postoperative pain relief.

  17. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  18. Indications for and techniques of keratoplasty at Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Dong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the indications for and techniques of corneal transplantation at Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology (VNIO over a period of 12y (2002-2013. METHODS: Records of patients who had undergone corneal transplantation at VNIO from January 1, 2002 to January 1, 2014 were reviewed to determine the indication for and type of corneal transplant performed. Patient age, gender, indication for corneal transplantation and surgical technique were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal transplantation were underwent in 1390 eyes of 1278 patients with a mean age of 44.9±18.1y during the period under review. The most common indication was infectious corneal ulcer (n=670; 48.2%, followed by corneal scar (n=333, 24.0%, corneal dystrophy (n=138, 9.9% and failed graft (n=112, 8.1%. Nearly all procedures performed were penetrating keratoplasty (n=1300, 93.5%, with a few lamellar keratoplasty procedures performed: lamellar keratoplasty (n=52, 3.7%, Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (n=27, 1.9% and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=11, 0.8%. CONCLUSION: While the most common indication for keratoplasty was infectious keratitis, nearly all indications for corneal transplantation were managed with penetrating keratoplasty. However, lamellar keratoplasty techniques, including deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, are being performed with increasing frequency for isolated stromal and endothelial disorders, respectively.

  19. Identification of a Maximum Softening Damage Indicator of RC-Structures Using Time-Frequency Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Micaletti, R. C.;

    This paper considers estimation of the Maximum Damage Indicator (MSDI) by using time-frequency system identification techniques for an RC-structure subjected to earthquake excitation. The MSDI relates the global damage state of the RC-structure to the relative decrease of the fundamental eigenfre...

  20. Neonatal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B; Treharne, L

    2016-09-01

    A term neonate was born with a grossly swollen and discoloured left hand and forearm. He was transferred from the local hospital to the plastic surgical unit, where a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent emergency forearm fasciotomies at six hours of age. Following serial debridements of necrotic tissue, he underwent split-thickness skin grafting of the resultant defects of his forearm, hand and digits. At the clinic follow-up appointment two months after the procedure, he was found to have developed severe flexion contractures despite regular outpatient hand therapy and splintage. He has had further reconstruction with contracture release, use of artificial dermal matrix, and K-wire fixation of the thumb and wrist. Despite this, the long term outcome is likely to be an arm with poor function. The key learning point from this case is that despite prompt transfer, diagnosis and appropriate surgical management, the outcome for neonatal compartment syndrome may still be poor.

  1. When Less Is More: The indications for MIS Techniques and Separation Surgery in Metastatic Spine Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Laufer, Ilya; Sahgal, Arjun; Yamada, Yoshiya J; Schmidt, Meic H; Chou, Dean; Shin, John H; Kumar, Naresh; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-10-15

    Systematic review. The aim of this study was to review the techniques, indications, and outcomes of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and separation surgery with subsequent radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with metastatic spine disease. The utilization of MIS techniques in patients with spine metastases is a growing area within spinal oncology. Separation surgery represents a novel paradigm where radiosurgery provides long-term control after tumor is surgically separated from the neural elements. PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases were systematically queried for literature reporting MIS techniques or separation surgery in patients with metastatic spine disease. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Of the initial 983 articles found, 29 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-five articles discussed MIS techniques and were grouped according to the primary objective: percutaneous stabilization (8), tubular retractors (4), mini-open approach (8), and thoracoscopy/endoscopy (5). The remaining 4 studies reported separation surgery. Indications were similar across all studies and included patients with instability, refractory pain, or neurologic compromise. Intraoperative variables, outcomes, and complications were similar in MIS studies compared to traditional approaches, and some MIS studies showed a statistically significant improvement in outcomes. Studies of mini-open techniques had the strongest evidence for superiority. Low-quality evidence currently exists for MIS techniques and separation surgery in the treatment of metastatic spine disease. Given the early promising results, the next iteration of research should include higher-quality studies with sufficient power, and will be able to provide higher-level evidence on the outcomes of MIS approaches and separation surgery. N/A.

  2. Multidimensional Poverty Indices and First Order Dominance Techniques: An Empirical Comparison of Different Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Permanyer, Iñaki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we contrast different perspectives to the measurement of multidimensional poverty. Using data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys around the developing world, we have compared the performance of two broad approaches: multidimensional poverty indices and first order dominance...... techniques (FOD). Our empirical findings suggest that the FOD approach might be a reasonable cost-effective alternative to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)’s flagship poverty indicator: the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). To the extent that the FOD approach is able to uncover the socio...

  3. Pelvic Fixation in Adult and Pediatric Spine Surgery: Historical Perspective, Indications, and Techniques: AAOS Exhibit Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Strike, Sophia A; Menga, Emmanuel N; Sponseller, Paul D; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-09-16

    Achieving solid osseous fusion across the lumbosacral junction has historically been, and continues to be, a challenge in spine surgery. Robust pelvic fixation plays an integral role in achieving this goal. The goals of this review are to describe the history of and indications for spinopelvic fixation, examine conventional spinopelvic fixation techniques, and review the newer S2-alar-iliac technique and its outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with spinal deformity. Since the introduction of Harrington rods in the 1960s, spinal instrumentation has evolved substantially. Indications for spinopelvic fixation as a means to achieve lumbosacral arthrodesis include a long arthrodesis (five or more vertebral levels) or use of three-column osteotomies in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, surgical treatment of high-grade spondylolisthesis, and correction of lumbar deformity and pelvic obliquity. A variety of techniques have been described over the years, including Galveston iliac rods, Jackson intrasacral rods, the Kostuik transiliac bar, iliac screws, and S2-alar-iliac screws. Modern iliac screws and S2-alar-iliac screws are associated with relatively low rates of pseudarthrosis. S2-alar-iliac screws have the advantages of less implant prominence and inline placement with proximal spinal anchors. Collectively, these techniques provide powerful methods for obtaining control of the pelvis in facilitating lumbosacral arthrodesis.

  4. The Kapandji-Sauvé operation. Its techniques and indications in non rheumatoid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapandji, I A

    1986-01-01

    The Kapandji-Sauvé operation consists in the arthrodesis of the distal radioulnar joint surmounted with a segmentary resection of the lower ulna. This technique may be used not only in rheumatoid dislocations of the distal radioulnar joint instead of the resection of the distal end of the ulna (Moore-Darrach) but also in traumatic diseases such as dislocations, sprains, chronical instabilities of this joint and stiffness secondary to Colles fractures. Two techniques are described, following the original one proposed in 1936. The first one (Technique I) indicated to chronical instabilities secondary to sprains and distal radioulnar dislocations. In this case, the ulnar head is in right situation at the sigmoid notch level and may be blocked at this place with two screws in mid position of prono-supination. The gap between the two extremities of the ulna must be filled by the pronator quadratus to avoid bony reconstruction. The second one (Technique II) is especially designed for the limitations of the prono-supination motion after Colles fractures, with shortening of the radius which causes an incongruency of the distal radioulnar joint and a positive ulnar variance. In this case it is necessary to lift up the ulnar head before blocking it in the sigmoid notch. A proceeding doing this automatically is described. Technique I was used in three cases and Technique II in four. In all cases the range of the prono-supination motion was normal in three to six weeks. The pains disappeared except a slight one when holding a load in supination position and when resting the hand unsteadily. The stability of the wrist was recovered allowing to unwind screw caps and to turn door knobs.

  5. A new technique for determining Substorm Onsets and Phases from Indices of the Electrojet (SOPHIE)

    CERN Document Server

    Forsyth, C; Coxon, J C; Freeman, M P; Jackman, C M; Gjerloev, J; Fazakerley, A N

    2016-01-01

    We present a new quantitative technique that determines the times and durations of substorm expansion and recovery phases and possible growth phases based on percentiles of the rate of change of auroral electrojet indices. By being able to prescribe different percentile values, we can determine the onset and duration of substorm phases for smaller or larger variations of the auroral index or indeed any auroral zone ground-based magnetometer data. We apply this technique to the SuperMAG AL (SML) index and compare our expansion phase onset times with previous lists of substorm onsets. We find that more than 50% of events in previous lists occur within 20 min of our identified onsets. We also present a comparison of superposed epoch analyses of SML based on our onsets identified by our technique and existing onset lists and find that the general characteristics of the substorm bay are comparable. By prescribing user-defined thresholds, this automated, quantitative technique represents an improvement over any vis...

  6. MR cholangiopancreatography: technique, potential indications, and diagnostic features of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Grossholz, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Mentha, G. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Peyer, R. de [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Terrier, F. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this article is to review technical aspects, discuss potential clinical indications for MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and demonstrate the spectrum of diagnostic findings in benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions. We describe our current imaging protocol in comparison with other available techniques. Using a non-breath-hold, heavily T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence with or without respiratory gating we obtained coronal and axial source images and maximum intensity projections (MIPs) in 102 patients with suspected abnormalities of the biliary or pancreatic ducts. Based on this series we demonstrate the diagnostic appearance of a variety of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions of the biliary and pancreatic ducts and discuss potential clinical indications for MRCP. The non-breath-hold FSE technique enables a consistent image quality even in patients who cannot cooperate well. Respiratory gating increased the rate of diagnostic examinations from 79 to 95 %. Acquisition of coronal and axial source images enables detection of bile duct stones as small as 2 mm, although calculi that are impacted and not surrounded by hyperintense bile may sometimes be difficult to detect. The MIP reconstructions help to determine the level of obstruction in malignant jaundice, delineate anatomical variants and malformations, and to diagnose inflammatory conditions, e. g., sclerosing cholangitis, the Mirizzi syndrome and inflammatory changes in the main pancreatic duct. The MRCP technique also correctly demonstrates the morphology of bilio-enteric or bilio-biliary anastomoses. Because MRCP provides sufficient diagnostic information in a wide range of benign and malignant biliary and pancreatic disorders, it could obviate diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in many clinical settings. The ERCP technique may be increasingly reserved for patients in whom nonsurgical interventional procedures are anticipated. (orig

  7. Compartment syndrome without pain!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report the case of a young male patient who underwent intra-medullary nailing for a closed, displaced mid-shaft fracture of tibia and fibula. He was commenced on patient controlled analgesia post-operatively. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome in the patient\\'s leg was delayed because he did not exhibit a pain response. This ultimately resulted in a below-knee amputation of the patient\\'s leg. We caution against the use of patient controlled analgesia in any traumatised limb distal to the hip or the shoulder.

  8. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  9. Non-invasive investigative techniques for the diachronic study of territorial compartments: a case study for the documentation and analysis of architectural complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lieto, Marco; Marchetta, Isabella; Ciriello, Rosanna; De Martino, Gregory; Della Mora, Dario

    2014-05-01

    The trend in the study of areas of land in their integrity and as dynamic, anthropic units in diachronic history has initiated long survey campaigns over several decades that have covered large areas mapping the evidence and attempting a reconstruction of the evolution of ancient settlements. The need for further study to disentangle the knots of modes and types of settlement boosted further investigations of targeted excavations, based on the quality and density of the findings from the field. Currently archaeological research can rely on non-invasive integrated methods to better define the areas to be investigated systematically obtaining new typologies of information and better management of time and research costs. In this paper we present a specific case study in which a variety of integrated survey methods have contributed to the documentation and analysis of monumental complexes linked to specific local contexts. The area under investigation lies in Italy, in the province of Potenza and, specifically in the town of Forenza. The survey activities, involving the entire municipality, have been running on and off for about 2 years and have already resulted in the collection of a lot of interesting data that will be useful to essential fieldwork. In particular, we carried out different types of investigation in three different sample sites: 1. monumental complex of Santa Maria de 'Armenis: to complement previous excavations which involved only a portion of the estimated area of interest, we carried out magnetometric and geo-electrical surveys aimed at a more precise definition of the true extent and interpretation of the monument in antiquity; 2. site of Monte Caruso: we carried out remote sensing using a remote-controlled UAV hexakopter drone with stereoscopic photogrammetric survey techniques aimed at the detailed documentation of the monumental evidence of a structure visible in elevation but in a context difficult to approach with traditional surveying

  10. The management of femoral bone stock in THA revision: indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luca; Galante, Claudio; Zagra, Luigi

    2014-10-02

    Following the increasing number of total hip arthroplasties, the amount of hip revision procedures continue to rise. Careful patient selection and bone loss evaluation is crucial for a correct management of femoral revision procedures. The key point in femoral revision is to obtain a reliable primary stability of the stem, with the least invasive implant as possible, to preserve and if possible to restore the bone stock. In this article we present the indications and the techniques for the femoral revisions most commonly used in Europe, referring to the evidence in the literature and our personal experiences.

  11. Quantifying the improvement of surrogate indices of hepatic insulin resistance using complex measurement techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Hattersley

    Full Text Available We evaluated the ability of simple and complex surrogate-indices to identify individuals from an overweight/obese cohort with hepatic insulin-resistance (HEP-IR. Five indices, one previously defined and four newly generated through step-wise linear regression, were created against a single-cohort sample of 77 extensively characterised participants with the metabolic syndrome (age 55.6 ± 1.0 years, BMI 31.5 ± 0.4 kg/m(2; 30 males. HEP-IR was defined by measuring endogenous-glucose-production (EGP with [6-6(2H(2] glucose during fasting and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps and expressed as EGP*fasting plasma insulin. Complex measures were incorporated into the model, including various non-standard biomarkers and the measurement of body-fat distribution and liver-fat, to further improve the predictive capability of the index. Validation was performed against a data set of the same subjects after an isoenergetic dietary intervention (4 arms, diets varying in protein and fiber content versus control. All five indices produced comparable prediction of HEP-IR, explaining 39-56% of the variance, depending on regression variable combination. The validation of the regression equations showed little variation between the different proposed indices (r(2 = 27-32% on a matched dataset. New complex indices encompassing advanced measurement techniques offered an improved correlation (r = 0.75, P<0.001. However, when validated against the alternative dataset all indices performed comparably with the standard homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (r = 0.54, P<0.001. Thus, simple estimates of HEP-IR performed comparable to more complex indices and could be an efficient and cost effective approach in large epidemiological investigations.

  12. Trends in indications and techniques of corneal transplantation in Iran from 2006 to 2013; an 8-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: KCN was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. Significant changes in surgical techniques were observed over the past 8 years; DSAEK demonstrated an increasing trend while PKP showed a decrease.

  13. An Effective Ostrich Oil Bleaching Technique Using Peroxide Value as an Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Seng Chiew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness.

  14. [Arthrodesis and endoprostheses of the ankle joint: indications, techniques and pitfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, S H; Klammer, G; Espinosa, N

    2013-09-01

    If adequate conservative measures for the treatment of end-stage ankle osteoarthritis have failed, surgery may be taken into consideration. After exorbitant failure rates in the beginning of total ankle replacement, nowadays this kind of treatment has regained lot of interest and has become a viable alternative to ankle fusion. The correct indication and a precise explanation of the surgical procedure, outcomes and potential complications provide a solid base for future success.Currently, there is no doubt that total ankle replacement has become an important player in the treatment of symptomatic and debilitating end-stage ankle arthritis. With increasing number of patients who undergo total ankle replacement the experience with this kind of procedure increases too. As a consequence several surgeons have started to stretch indications favoring total ankle replacement. However, it must be mentioned here, despite progress in terms of improved anatomical and biomechanical understanding of the hindfoot and improved surgical techniques and instruments, total ankle replacement and ankle fusion remain challenging and difficult procedures. We provide a review article including an overview of the relevant techniques. This article should serve as rough guide for surgeons and help in decision-making regarding total ankle replacement and ankle fusion.

  15. Evaluation of the Protein Requirement in Chinese Young Adults Using the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; ZHANG Yu Hui; WANG Zhi Ling; GOU Ling Yan; LI Wei Dong; TIAN Yuan; HU Yi Chun; WANG Rui; PIAO Jian Hua; YANG Xiao Guang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To accurately calculate the protein requirements in Chinese young adults using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Methods Nine women and ten men received a restricted daily level of protein intake (0.75, 0.82, 0.89, 0.97, and 1.05 g/kg), along with L-[1-13C]-leucine. Subjects’ protein requirement was determined by a biphasic linear regression crossover analysis of F13CO2 data. In doing so, a breakpoint at the minimal rate of appearance of 13CO2 expiration specific to each level of dietary protein was identified. This trial was registered with the Chinese clinical trial registry as ChiCTR-ONC-11001407. Results The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of protein for healthy Chinese young adults were determined to be 0.87 and 0.98 g/(kg·d), respectively, based on the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Conclusion The EAR and RNI of mixed protein are 5% and 16% that are lower than the current proposed EAR and RNI (0.92 and 1.16 g/(kg·d), respectively), as determined by the nitrogen balance method. The respective EAR and RNI recommendations of 0.87 and 0.98 g/(kg·d) of mixed protein are estimated to be reasonable and suitable for Chinese young adults.

  16. Fabrication of uniform multi-compartment particles using microfludic electrospray technology for cell co-culture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhou; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a robust and reliable approach to fabricate multi-compartment particles for cell co-culture studies. By taking advantage of the laminar flow within our microfluidic nozzle, multiple parallel streams of liquids flow towards the nozzle without significant mixing. Afterwards, the multiple parallel streams merge into a single stream, which is sprayed into air, forming monodisperse droplets under an electric field with a high field strength. The resultant multi-compartment droplets are subsequently cross-linked in a calcium chloride solution to form calcium alginate micro-particles with multiple compartments. Each compartment of the particles can be used for encapsulating different types of cells or biological cell factors. These hydrogel particles with cross-linked alginate chains show similarity in the physical and mechanical environment as the extracellular matrix of biological cells. Thus, the multi-compartment particles provide a promising platform for cell studies and co-culture of different cells. In our study, cells are encapsulated in the multi-compartment particles and the viability of cells is quantified using a fluorescence microscope after the cells are stained for a live/dead assay. The high cell viability after encapsulation indicates the cytocompatibility and feasibility of our technique. Our multi-compartment particles have great potential as a platform for studying cell-cell interactions as well as interactions of cells with extracellular factors.

  17. Quantifying the improvement of surrogate indices of hepatic insulin resistance using complex measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattersley, John G; Möhlig, Matthias; Roden, Michael; Arafat, Ayman M; Loeffelholz, Christian V; Nowotny, Peter; Machann, Jürgen; Hierholzer, Johannes; Osterhoff, Martin; Khan, Michael; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Weickert, Martin O

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of simple and complex surrogate-indices to identify individuals from an overweight/obese cohort with hepatic insulin-resistance (HEP-IR). Five indices, one previously defined and four newly generated through step-wise linear regression, were created against a single-cohort sample of 77 extensively characterised participants with the metabolic syndrome (age 55.6 ± 1.0 years, BMI 31.5 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); 30 males). HEP-IR was defined by measuring endogenous-glucose-production (EGP) with [6-6(2)H(2)] glucose during fasting and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps and expressed as EGP*fasting plasma insulin. Complex measures were incorporated into the model, including various non-standard biomarkers and the measurement of body-fat distribution and liver-fat, to further improve the predictive capability of the index. Validation was performed against a data set of the same subjects after an isoenergetic dietary intervention (4 arms, diets varying in protein and fiber content versus control). All five indices produced comparable prediction of HEP-IR, explaining 39-56% of the variance, depending on regression variable combination. The validation of the regression equations showed little variation between the different proposed indices (r(2) = 27-32%) on a matched dataset. New complex indices encompassing advanced measurement techniques offered an improved correlation (r = 0.75, Presistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.54, P<0.001). Thus, simple estimates of HEP-IR performed comparable to more complex indices and could be an efficient and cost effective approach in large epidemiological investigations.

  18. Application of Vegetation Indices for Agricultural Crop Yield Prediction Using Neural Network Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranjan Panigrahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variability in a crop field creates a need for precision agriculture. Economical and rapid means of identifying spatial variability is obtained through the use of geotechnology (remotely sensed images of the crop field, image processing, GIS modeling approach, and GPS usage and data mining techniques for model development. Higher-end image processing techniques are followed to establish more precision. The goal of this paper was to investigate the strength of key spectral vegetation indices for agricultural crop yield prediction using neural network techniques. Four widely used spectral indices were investigated in a study of irrigated corn crop yields in the Oakes Irrigation Test Area research site of North Dakota, USA. These indices were: (a red and near-infrared (NIR based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, (b green and NIR based green vegetation index (GVI, (c red and NIR based soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI, and (d red and NIR based perpendicular vegetation index (PVI. These four indices were investigated for corn yield during 3 years (1998, 1999, and 2001 and for the pooled data of these 3 years. Initially, Back-propagation Neural Network (BPNN models were developed, including 16 models (4 indices * 4 years including the data from the pooled years to test for the efficiency determination of those four vegetation indices in corn crop yield prediction. The corn yield was best predicted using BPNN models that used the means and standard deviations of PVI grid images. In all three years, it provided higher prediction accuracies, coefficient of determination (r2, and lower standard error of prediction than the models involving GVI, NDVI, and SAVI image information. The GVI, NDVI, and SAVI models for all three years provided average testing prediction accuracies of 24.26% to 94.85%, 19.36% to 95.04%, and 19.24% to 95.04%, respectively while the PVI models for all three years provided average testing prediction accuracies

  19. The Relationship Between Biomechanical Indicators of the Snatch Technique and Female Weightlifters' Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyszka Paulina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The snatch technique is a discipline in Olympic weightlifting. The lifter has to raise the barbell from the platform directly above their head in one movement. While reviewing the literature on biomechanical analysis of the techniques of weightlifting, one can find positions on the analysis of parameters, such as barbell track, horizontal displacement, and angular positions of the joints in the individual phases of the lifter's movement. Many texts concern female and male lifters taking part in World or European Championships. The parameters of the best competitors are outlined - mostly those who finish in the top five places in competition. Mostly these are parameters regarding male lifters, and less frequently those of female lifters. In the literature review, an overlooked aspect is that of the definition of the diversity of indicators as regards the snatch technique practiced by female lifters depending on score. Material and methods. In the research, registered snatch attempts during the World Championship were used. Videos were used by judges to establish a maximum weight limit for female lifters. The attempts were registered by two cameras and were later digitally processed by the APAS 2000 system. Barbell parameters, maximum speed, average of the bar, and the parameters of the lifter-bar collocation (horizontal displacement of barbell weights and height elevation were assessed. Results. The analysed attempts show the margin of error for measurement of the average speed of the barbell as 0.03 m/s. The difference in maximum speed of analysed attempts is 15%. The height of clearance of the first-placed female lifter's barbell was 12.7 cm, 30 cm for the last-placed. Conclusions. The sporting level of weightlifting by female lifters influences the analysed biomechanical indicators of the snatch. Those indicators, which are similar in the case of both the World Championship winner and the female lifter who came last, may be

  20. Indication, surgical technique and results of endoscopic fascial release in plantar fasciitis (E FRPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, Jörg; Schunck, Jochem; Liebsch, Dietrich; Filler, Tim

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the surgical technique for, and review our indications and results after, endoscopic fascial release in patients with plantar fasciitis. In five thiel-embalmed human specimens, a biportal technique for endoscopic release of the plantar fascia was established. The aim was here to evaluate the relation between the plantar fascia and the heel spur and to perform a release that would not exceed 50-70% of the diameter of the calcaneoplantar fascia. The endoscopic technique was performed within the last 5 years in ten male and seven female patients. All patients with the clinical entity of plantar fasciitis underwent conservative treatment for at least 6 months. The average age at surgery was 35 years (24-56 years). In the first five patients, surgery was performed under c-arm control. In all patients the operation could be finished endoscopically. The endoscopic portals healed without complications. The time for surgery during the learning curve ranged between 21 and 74 min (average 41 min) and was still longer compared to the open technique. The clinical follow-up ranged between 4 and 48 months (average 18.5 months). Out of 17 patients, 13 improved clinically, and they would choose the treatment option again. In the Ogilvie-Harris score, seven patients showed good and six excellent results. In two patients, the initial results were not satisfactory, because of a bony stress reaction of the calcaneus. This complication was treated by 6 weeks of partial weight bearing, without any further problems. Two other patients developed secondary pain in the lateral column. In spite of the minimal invasive approach it seems to be important to be careful in increasing the weight bearing in early rehabilitation. The technique of the endoscopic plantar fascia release (E FRPF) can be performed in a standardised and reproducible procedure. The follow-up examination showed good midterm results, but a loss of stability of the plantar arch

  1. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  2. Transcatheter arterial embolization for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Indications, techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffroy, R; Favelier, S; Pottecher, P; Estivalet, L; Genson, P Y; Gehin, S; Cercueil, J P; Krausé, D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, transcatheter arterial embolization has become the first-line therapy for the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that is refractory to endoscopic hemostasis. Advances in catheter-based techniques and newer embolic agents, as well as recognition of the effectiveness of minimally invasive treatment options, have expanded the role of interventional radiology in the treatment of bleeding for a variety of indications. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a fast, safe, and effective minimally invasive alternative to surgery, when endoscopic treatment fails to control acute bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. This article describes the role of arterial embolization in the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and summarizes the literature evidence on the outcomes of endovascular therapy in such a setting. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Supramalleolar osteotomies for degenerative joint disease of the ankle joint: indication, technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Alexej; Pagenstert, Geert I; Horisberger, Monika; Paul, Jochen; Gloyer, Marcel; Henninger, Heath B; Valderrabano, Victor

    2013-09-01

    Patients with varus or valgus hindfoot deformities usually present with asymmetric ankle osteoarthritis. In-vitro biomechanical studies have shown that varus or valgus hindfoot deformity may lead to altered load distribution in the tibiotalar joint which may result in medial (varus) or lateral (valgus) tibiotalar joint degeneration in the short or medium term. The treatment of asymmetric ankle osteoarthritis remains challenging, because more than half of the tibiotalar joint surface is usually preserved. Therefore, joint-sacrificing procedures like total ankle replacement or ankle arthrodesis may not be the most appropriate treatment options. The shortand midterm results following realignment surgery, are very promising with substantial pain relief and functional improvement observed post-operatively. In this review article we describe the indications, surgical techniques, and results from of realignment surgery of the ankle joint in the current literature.

  4. Indications and technique for laparoscopic liver resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuichiro Otsuka; Masaru Tsuchiya; Toshio Katagiri; Yoshihisa Kubota; Jun Ishii; Tetsuya Maeda; Hironori Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Liver resection is the preferred initial treatment option for solitary or limited multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, because of the characteristics of HCC, including its high recurrence rate and the frequent presence of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, both curability and invasiveness must be considered when selecting a treatment for HCC. Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is minimally invasive and increasingly performed worldwide as a curative surgical option for treatment of liver tumors. The 2014 International Consensus Conference on LLR concluded that minor LLRs are now standard practice. Meta-analyses suggest that, as compared with open hepatectomy, LLR for patients with HCC, including those with cirrhosis, resulted in less blood loss, lower postoperative hospitalization rates, and similar oncological outcomes. Although candidates for this procedure should be carefully evaluated, LLR appears to be a feasible option for treatment of HCC with liver cirrhosis. This review describes the indications for LLR in this patient subgroup and offers guidance on appropriate surgical technique.

  5. Changes in selected biochemical indices resulting from various pre-sampling handling techniques in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloupek, Petr; Bedanova, Iveta; Chloupek, Jan; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2011-05-13

    Since it is not yet clear whether it is possible to satisfactorily avoid sampling-induced stress interference in poultry, more studies on the pattern of physiological response and detailed quantification of stress connected with the first few minutes of capture and pre-sampling handling in poultry are required. This study focused on detection of changes in the corticosterone level and concentrations of other selected biochemical parameters in broilers handled in two different manners during blood sampling (involving catching, carrying, restraint, and blood collection itself) that lasted for various time periods within the interval 30-180 seconds. Stress effects of pre-sampling handling were studied in a group (n = 144) of unsexed ROSS 308 broiler chickens aged 42 d. Handling (catching, carrying, restraint, and blood sampling itself) was carried out in a gentle (caught, held and carried carefully in an upright position) or rough (caught by the leg, held and carried with lack of care in inverted position) manner and lasted for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, 120 s, 150 s, and 180 s. Plasma corticosterone, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, lactate, triglycerides and total protein were measured in order to assess the stress-induced changes to these biochemical indices following handling in the first few minutes of capture. Pre-sampling handling in a rough manner resulted in considerably higher plasma concentrations of all biochemical indices monitored when compared with gentle handling. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone after 150 and 180 s of handling were considerably higher (P technique. Concentrations of plasma lactate were also increased by prolonged handling duration. Handling for 90-180 seconds resulted in a highly significant elevation of lactate concentration in comparison with 30 s handling regardless of handling technique. Similarly to corticosterone concentrations, a strong positive correlation was found between plasma lactate and duration of pre-sampling handling

  6. Pediatric Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy: A Narrative Review of Current Indications, Techniques and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Haddadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocephalus is a disorder in which excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF collects in the brain. Possible managements for hydrocephalus contain CSF deviation through ventriculoperitoneal shunt assignment and endoscopic third ventriculostomy. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy has been in trend for the past two decades, as a tool in the field of the neurosurgery, for the management of hydrocephalus. Its utility has been confirmed consistently in congenital and acquired aqueductal stenosis, although the outcomes in communicating hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus secondary to other etiologies have not been impressive. It is a relatively harmless technique with the appropriate selection of patients with a low rate of enduring morbidity. Further studies in child should focus on the predictive factors that are specific to the older population. A combination of clinical, radiological, and intraoperative findings may be necessary to plan a clinical prediction rule suitable to this group of patients. The purpose of this review is to describe the current indications, management outcomes, techniques and complications of this method.

  7. [Bernese periacetabular osteotomy. : Indications, technique and results 30 years after the first description].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, T D; Steppacher, S D; Liechti, E F; Siebenrock, K A; Tannast, M

    2016-08-01

    The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a surgical technique for the treatment of (1) hip dysplasia and (2) femoroacetabular impingement due to acetabular retroversion. The aim of the surgery is to prevent secondary osteoarthritis by improvement of the hip biomechanics. In contrast to other pelvic osteotomies, the posterior column remains intact with this technique. This improves the inherent stability of the acetabular fragment and thereby facilitates postoperative rehabilitation. The birth canal remains unchanged. Through a shortened ilioinguinal incision, four osteotomies and one controlled fracture around the acetabulum are performed. The direction of acetabular reorientation differs for both indications while the sequence of the osteotomies remains the same. This surgical approach allows for a concomitant osteochondroplasty in the case of an aspherical femoral head-neck junction. The complication rate is relatively low despite the complexity of the procedure. The key point for a successful long term outcome is an optimal reorientation of the acetabulum for both indications. With an optimal reorientation and a spherical femoral head, the cumulative survivorship of the hip after 10 years is 80-90 %. For the very first 75 patients, the cumulative 20-year survivorship was 60 %. The preliminary evaluation of the same series at a 30-year follow-up still showed a survivorship of approximately 30 %. The PAO has become the standard procedure for the surgical therapy of hip dysplasia in adolescents and adults.

  8. Indications and Outcomes of the Components Separation Technique in the Repair of Complex Abdominal Wall Hernias: Experience From the Cambridge Plastic Surgery Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle, Shola; Pantelides, Nicholas M.; Hall, Nigel R.; Praseedom, Raaj; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The components separation technique (CST) is a widely described abdominal wall reconstructive technique. There have, however, been no UK reports of its use, prompting the present review. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, 13 patients who underwent this procedure by a single plastic surgeon (C.M.M.) were retrospectively evaluated. The indications, operative details, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: There were 7 women and 6 men in the series with a mean age of 53 years (range: 30-80). Patients were referred from a variety of specialties, often as a last resort. The commonest indication for CST was herniation following abdominal surgery. All operations except 1 were jointly performed with general surgeons (for bowel resection, stoma reversal, and hernia dissection). The operations lasted a mean of 5 hours (range: 3-8 hours). There were no major intra- and postoperative problems, except in 1 patient who developed intra-abdominal compartment syndrome, secondary to massive hemorrhage. All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic improvement in their abdominal contours. None of the patients have developed a clinical recurrence after a mean follow-up of 16 months (range: 3-38 months). Conclusions: The components separation technique is an effective method of treating large recalcitrant hernias but appears to be underutilized in the United Kingdom. The management of large abdominal wall defects requires a multidisciplinary approach, with input across a variety of specialities. Liaison with plastic surgery teams should be encouraged at an early stage and the CST should be more widely considered when presented with seemingly intractable abdominal wall defects. PMID:24058718

  9. Decision making in coal mine planning using a non-parametric technique of indicator kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamurekli, D. [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1997-03-01

    In countries where low calorific value coal reserves are abundant and oil reserves are short or none, the requirement of energy production is mainly supported by coal-fired power stations. Consequently, planning to mine the low calorific value coal deposits gains much importance considering the technical and environmental restrictions. Such a mine in Kangal Town of Sivas City is the one that delivers run of mine coal directly to the power station built in the region. In case the calorific value and the ash content of the extracted coal are lower and higher than the required limits, 1300 kcal/kg and 21%, respectively, the power station may apply penalties to the coal producing company. Since the delivery is continuous and made by relying on in situ determination of pre-estimated values these assessments without defining any confidence levels are inevitably subject to inaccuracy. Thus, the company should be aware of uncertainties in making decisions and avoid conceivable risks. In this study, valuable information is provided in the form of conditional distribution to be used during planning process. It maps the indicator variogram corresponding to calorific value of 1300 kcal/kg and the ash content of 21% estimating the conditional probabilities that the true ash contents are less and calorific values are higher than the critical limits by the application of non-parametric technique, indicator kriging. In addition, it outlines the areas that are most uncertain for decision making. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....510 Rooms and compartments. (a) Processing operations with open cheese vats should be separated from... techniques shall be provided for the propagation and handling of starter cultures. All necessary...

  11. The function of neuromuscular compartments in human shoulder muscles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wickham, J B; Brown, J M M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a surface electromyographic (sEMG) technique with a ballistic isotonic shoulder joint adduction movement to determine the function of the neuromuscular compartments (NMCs...

  12. Value of the cervical compartments in the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goropoulos, Apostolos; Karamoshos, Konstantinos; Christodoulou, Andreas; Ntitsias, Theodoros; Paulou, Konstantinos; Samaras, Asterios; Xirou, Persefoni; Efstratiou, Ioannis

    2004-12-01

    In the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), supplementary lymph node dissection (LND) is not well standardized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the cervical compartments in the lymphatic spread of PTC and the impact of modified radical neck dissection (MRND) as an additional surgical procedure to thyroid resection. From 1999 to 2002, LND of the central compartment (compartment A) was performed in 39 patients. Among this group, additional MRND of the ipsilateral compartment (compartment B) and the contralateral compartment (compartment C) was performed in 29 and 15 patients respectively, who met the selection criteria. The mean number of nodes resected was 11 (5-22) in compartment A, 23 (8-37) in compartment B, and 22 (10-31) in compartment C. Histopathologic findings revealed node invasion of compartment A in 25 patients (64.1%), of A and B in 20 patients (51,2%) and of A, B, and C in 13 patients (33.3%). From the 25 patients with metastases in compartment A, 80% (20 patients) already had metastases in compartment B and 52% (13 patients) had metastases in all three compartments. All patients free of metastasis (M0) in compartment A were also metastasis free in both lateral compartments. Postoperative whole-body scanning I(131) in M0 patients showed no uptake at all. Mapping of the cervical anatomy in compartments seems to be a useful taxonomy for clarifying the lymphatic spread of PTC. Patients having PTC without metastasis in compartment A are almost certainly disease free at the time of operation. Lymph node metastasis in the central compartment appears to be a valuable indicator of lymphatic invasion of the lateral compartment and a strong indication for performance of a unilateral or bilateral MRND to complete the surgical removal of tumor.

  13. Stenting of the SFA - indications, techniques,; Stents in der A. femoralis superficialis - Indikationen, Technik, Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, J.; Treitl, M.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet,, Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Ruppert, V. [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik Innenstadt - Klinikum der Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Funktionsbereich Gefaesschirurgie

    2006-11-15

    Aggressive risk factor modification, change of eating habits, exercise programs, and forceful antiplatelet therapy are the most important tools for the treatment of PAOD in symptomatic patients suffering from intermittent claudication. There are however no guidelines for revascularization at this stage. Endovascular treatment has been increasingly utilized over the last decade and increasingly displaced vascular surgery. Amongst numerous endovascular techniques beside PTA, stents meanwhile play the most important role due to constant technical progress. Results regarding the rate of restenosis or patency rates still remain worse compared to other vascular beds. This paper gives a review over recent results, currently available stent techniques, and possible indications for the endovascular therapy of an artery, which has turned out to be the biggest ordeal for material and construction of stents. (orig.) [German] Aggressives Risikofaktorenmanagement, Aenderungen der Lebens- und Essgewohnheiten sowie eine konsequente antithrombotische Therapie sind die wichtigsten Saeulen bei der Sekundaerprophylaxe einer symptomatischen peripheren arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit (PAVK) im Stadium der Claudicatio. Bei den revaskularisierenden Verfahren existieren in diesem Stadium keine verbindlichen Richtlinien zur Indikationsstellung. Endovaskulaere Techniken draengen jedoch den klassischen Bypass mehr und mehr zurueck. Unter den zahlreichen endovaskulaeren Therapiemoeglichkeiten haben sich in der A. femoralis superficialis (AFS) neben der perkutanen transfemoralen Angioplastie (PTA) v. a. technisch immer weiter verbesserte Stents etabliert. Die Ergebnisse bzgl. der Inzidenz von Restenosen bzw. der Offenheitsraten fallen aber weiterhin im Vergleich zu anderen arteriellen Stromgebieten schlechter aus. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die z. Z. einsetzbaren Stentmodelle, moegliche Indikationen und die juengsten Ergebnisse der endovaskulaeren Behandlung eines Gefaesses, das

  14. Pleurodese: técnica e indicações Pleurodesis: technique and indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Costa Vaz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O derrame pleural recidivante é uma situação clínica comum que compromete a qualidade de vida dos pacientes, em especial dos portadores de doença oncológica em estágio avançado. A abordagem terapêutica do espaço pleural é variada, incluindo procedimentos agressivos como a pleurectomia. A pleurodese é a técnica mais freqüentemente utilizada, podendo ser induzida tanto através da inserção de cateteres pleurais, como por procedimentos cirúrgicos amplos (toracotomia. São vários os agentes esclerosantes indicados, incluindo o talco, que é o mais utilizado, o nitrato de prata e recentemente as citocinas proliferativas. Este artigo resume as principais abordagens do derrame pleural recidivante e particularmente da pleurodese, suas indicações, vantagens e desvantagens para a aplicação na prática diária do pneumologista.Recurrent pleural effusion, which is commonly seen in clinical practice, compromises patient quality of life, especially in patients with advanced malignant disease. The therapeutic approach to the pleural space involves a wide range of techniques, including aggressive procedures such as pleurectomy. Among such techniques, pleurodesis is the most frequently used. Pleurodesis can be induced through the insertion of pleural catheters, as well as through major surgical procedures (such as thoracotomy. There are various recommended sclerosing agents, including talc (which is the most widely used, silver nitrate and, recently, proliferative cytokines. This article summarizes the principal approaches to the treatment of recurrent pleural effusion, pleurodesis in particular, addressing the indications for, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of, their application in daily pulmonology practice.

  15. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (pv): indications, contraindications, and technique; Perkutane Vertebroplastie: Indikationen, Kontraindikationen und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, R.T.; Jakobs, T.F.; Wallnoefer, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Helmberger, T.K. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen-Grosshadern (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (pv) is a worldwide increasingly performed interventional therapeutic procedure. This article addresses indications, patient preparation, technical requirements and approach as well as possible complications of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a technique consisting in an injection of bone cement into a vertebral body under imaging guidance. This procedure is performed to relief pain and support the mechanical stability in partially collapsed vertebral bodies. In the management of spinal compression fractures secondary to osteoporosis, myeloma, osteolytic metastases and aggressive hemangiomas, percutaneous vertebroplasty yields analgesic effect, and provides additional fortification in weakened segments of the vertebral column. Contraindications include major bleeding disorders, radicular pain and pain caused by compression of the myelon. Percutaneous vertebroplasty results in prompt pain relief and rapid rehabilitation. In experienced hands, using correct technique, pv is a safe and effective procedure for treating pain, caused either by osteoporotic or malignant vertebral compression fractures. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren gewinnt die perkutane Vertebroplastie (PV) weltweit zunehmend an Bedeutung. In diesem Beitrag werden die korrekte Indikationsstellung, die Vorbereitung der Patienten, geeignete Materialien sowie das technische Vorgehen bei dieser Behandlungsmethode dargestellt. Die PV ist ein minimal-invasives Verfahren, bei dem - unter radiologischer Kontrolle - Knochenzement ueber eine Hohlnadel in einen Wirbelkoerper injiziert wird und damit Schmerzen behandelt werden, die durch einen knoechernen Stabilitaetsverlust der Wirbelkoerper hervorgerufen werden. Indikationen zur Durchfuehrung der Vertebroplastie sind nichtradikulaere, konservativ nicht behandelbare Schmerzen, die durch Kompressionsfrakturen von Wirbelkoerpern aufgrund einer Osteoporose, benignen (aggressiven Haemangiomen) oder

  16. Survey regarding the clinical practice of cardiac CT in Germany. Indications, scanning technique and reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Marc H.; Hamm, B.; Dewey, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to obtain an overview of the current clinical practice of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Materials and methods: a 30-item question-naire was mailed to 149 providers of cardiac CT in Germany. The items asked about indications, scanning technique and reporting, data storage, and cost of the examination. Results: overall 45 questionnaires could be analyzed (30%). The majority of centers (76%, 34 of 45 centers) used CT scanners of the latest generation (at least 64 rows). The most common appropriate indications were exclusion of coronary artery disease (91%, 41/45), coronary anomalies (80%, 36/45), and follow-up after coronary artery bypass grafting (53%, 24/45). Each center examined on average 243 {+-} 310 patients in 2007 and the number of centers performing cardiac CT increased significantly in 2007 (p = 0.035) compared with the preceding year. Most used sublingual nitroglycerin (84%, 38/45; median of 2 sprays = 0.8 mg) and/or a beta blocker (86%, 39/44; median of 5 mg IV, median heart rate threshold: 70 beats/min). Many providers used ECG-triggered tube current modulation (65%, 29/44) and/or adjusted the tube current to the body mass index or body weight (63%, 28/44). A median slice thickness of 0.75 mm with a 0.5 mm increment and a 20 cm field-of-view was most commonly used. Source images in orthogonal planes (96%, 43/45), curved MPRs (93%, 42/45), and thin-slice MIPs (69%, 31/45) were used most frequently for interpretation. Extracardiac structures were also evaluated by 84% of the centers (38/45). The mean examination time was 16.2 min and reporting took an average of 28.8 min. (orig.)

  17. DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil. The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008 was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

  18. The endoscopic endonasal approach to the Meckel's cave tumors: surgical technique and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Simon, Emile; Jacquesson, Timothée; Sindou, Marc; Tringali, Stéphane; Messerer, Mahmoud; Berhouma, Moncef

    2014-12-01

    Many benign and malignant tumors as well as other inflammatory or vascular diseases may be located in the areas of Meckel's cave or the cavernous sinus. Except for typical features such as for meningiomas, imaging may not by itself be sufficient to choose the best therapeutic option. Thus, even though modern therapy (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or radiosurgery) dramatically reduces the field of surgery in this challenging location, there is still some place for surgical biopsy or tumor removal in selected cases. Until recently, the microscopic subtemporal extradural approach with or without orbitozygomatic removal was classically used to approach Meckel's cave but with a non-negligible morbidity. Percutaneous biopsy using the Hartel technique has been developed for biopsy of such tumors but may fail in the case of firm tumors, and additionally it is not appropriate for anterior parasellar tumors. With the development of endoscopy, the endonasal route now represents an interesting alternative approach to Meckel's cave as well as the cavernous sinus. Through our experience, we describe the modus operandi and discuss what should be the appropriate indication of the use of the endonasal endoscopic approach for Meckel's cave disease in the armamentarium of the skull base surgeon.

  19. Compartment Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Snake bites are an important public health problem worldwide. Snake venom causes both systemic and local complications, which can prove fatal if not treated on time. The local effects of snake bite include tissue necrosis, edema, and compartment syndrome. Patients may also be left with permanent physical deformities due to residual sequelae of the snake bite. Compartment syndrome after a snake bite is an uncommon occurrence. The effects are more pronounced in children possibly due to the the reduced total dilution volume in children. The administration of anti-snake venom is the only specific therapy. Compartment syndrome occurs due to a vicious cycle of edema causing hypoxia and acidosis, which further increases capillary permeability and fluid extravasation. This results in a volume increase in the closed fascial compartment, which ultimately compromises circulation and causes irreversible muscle and nerve damage. Our report describes a case of upper limb compartment syndrome following a snake bite on the right wrist of a five-year-old girl who presented eight-hours after the snake bite to the emergency department of Nizwa Regional Referral Hospital. The patient received early and appropriate care but progressed to develop compartment syndrome for which she had to be taken to the operating theatre for emergency fasciotomy. All clinicians should be able to recognize the early symptoms and signs of an evolving compartment syndrome in absence of intracompartmental measuring equipment. The timely fasciotomy in our patient helped the patient achieve excellent functional results.

  20. A case of delayed presentation of thigh compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardi, Gabriel; Görtz, Simon; Snyder, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Thigh compartment syndrome is a rare and devastating process. It generally occurs within hours to days of a traumatic event, although cases have been reported nearly 2 weeks after the initial event. To evaluate the literature describing the timing between inciting event and presentation of thigh compartment syndromes, with a focus on delayed presentations of this rare condition. To describe the unique properties of thigh compartments, and finally, to review the anatomy and techniques needed to measure the compartment pressures of the thigh. A case of a 54-year-old man is presented. He sustained trauma to his thigh 17 days prior to presenting to our ED with severe, sudden-onset pain in his right thigh. Compartment pressures were measured and confirmed the diagnosis of compartment syndrome caused by two large intramuscular hematomas. No other contributing events were identified. Compartment syndrome in the thigh should be considered in patients with a concerning examination and a history of recent trauma. This particular case represents the longest reported time between injury and development of a thigh compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive sampling techniques of retail chicken carcasses for enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; de Almeida, Michelle Vieira; Dias, Mariane Rezende; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The type of sampling technique used to obtain food samples is fundamental to the success of microbiological analysis. Destructive and nondestructive techniques, such as tissue excision and rinsing, respectively, are widely employed in obtaining samples from chicken carcasses. In this study, four sampling techniques used for chicken carcasses were compared to evaluate their performances in the enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms. Sixty fresh chicken carcasses were sampled by rinsing, tissue excision, superficial swabbing, and skin excision. All samples were submitted for enumeration of mesophilic aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The results were compared to determine the statistical significance of differences and correlation (P sampling techniques evaluated for most of the hygiene indicators. Despite presenting a higher recovery ability, tissue excision did not present significant differences for microorganism enumeration compared with other nondestructive techniques, such as rinsing, indicating its adequacy for microbiological analysis of chicken carcasses.

  2. Fine needle biopsy of abdominal organs in dogs -- indications, contraindications and performance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glińska-Suchocka, K; Jankowski, M; Kubiak, K; Spuzak, J; Dzimira, S; Nicpoń, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen in both human and veterinary medicine the development of numerous techniques allowing for evaluation and classification of changes in individual organs and tissues. Despite introduction of such techniques into diagnostics as among others, CT, MRI, CEUS or elastography, biopsy is still considered a "golden standard" and it is a procedure performed in order to obtain a final diagnosis. There are many biopsy techniques, such as fine needle aspiration biopsy, core biopsy as well as methods of performing a procedure, e.g. blind biopsy, biopsy under USG control and biopsy during laparotomy. In the article usefulness of biopsy techniques in relation to diagnostics of individual abdominal organ, as well as the procedure technique, contraindication and complications are discussed.

  3. Chronic anconeus compartment syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, S P; Bishop, A T

    2000-09-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is commonly associated with the volar compartment. We present a case of compartment syndrome of the anconeus muscle. Release of the anconeus muscle fascia provided relief of symptoms.

  4. Compartment Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    .... The local effects of snake bite include tissue necrosis, edema, and compartment syndrome. Patients may also be left with permanent physical deformities due to residual sequelae of the snake bite...

  5. Measurement of solute transport in the endothelial glycocalyx using indicator dilution techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujia; Lipowsky, Herbert H

    2009-09-01

    A new method is presented to quantify changes in permeability of the endothelial glycocalyx to small solutes and fluid flow using techniques of indicator dilution. Following infusion of a bolus of fluorescent solutes (either FITC or FITC conjugated Dextran70) into the rat mesenteric circulation, its transient dispersion through post-capillary venules was recorded and analyzed offline. To represent dispersion of solute as a function of radial position in a microvessel, a virtual transit time (VTT) was calculated from the first moment of fluorescence intensity-time curves. Computer simulations and subsequent in vivo measurements showed that the radial gradient of VTT within the glycocalyx layer (Delta VTT/Delta r) may be related to the hydraulic resistance within the layer along the axial direction in a post-capillary venule and the effective diffusion coefficient within the glycocalyx. Modeling the inflammatory process by superfusion of the mesentery with 10(-7) M fMLP, Delta VTT/Delta r was found to decrease significantly from 0.23 +/- 0.08 SD s/microm to 0.18 +/- 0.09 SD s/microm. Computer simulations demonstrated that Delta VTT/Delta r is principally determined by three independent variables: glycocalyx thickness (delta), hydraulic resistivity (K(r)) and effective diffusion coefficient of the solute (D(eff)) within the glycocalyx. Based upon these simulations, the measured 20% decrease in Delta VTT/Delta r at the endothelial cell surface corresponds to a 20% increase in D(eff) over a broad range in K(r), assuming a constant thickness delta. The absolute magnitude of D(eff) required to match Delta VTT/Delta r between in vivo measurements and simulations was found to be on the order of 2.5 x 10(-3) x D(free), where D(free) is the diffusion coefficient of FITC in aqueous media. Thus the present method may provide a useful tool for elucidating structural and molecular alterations in the glycocalyx as occur with ischemia, metabolic and inflammatory events.

  6. Posterior Segment Intraocular Foreign Body: Extraction Surgical Techniques, Timing, and Indications for Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante A. Guevara-Villarreal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on “Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body,” “Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body,” and “Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body” was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors with good results. Conclusion. The most important factor at the time to perform IOFB extraction is the experience of the surgeon.

  7. Clinical evoked potentials in neurology: a review of techniques and indications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lascano, Agustina M; Lalive, Patrice H; Hardmeier, Martin; Fuhr, Peter; Seeck, Margitta

    2017-01-01

    .... Although imaging techniques, such as MRI, have recently become increasingly important in the diagnosis of neurological diseases, over the past 30 years, many neurologists have continued to employ EPs...

  8. Double pot and double compartment: integrating two approaches to study nutrient uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Boddington, C.L.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    The double compartment technique has been commonly used in studies on nutrient uptake by mycorrhizas whereas the double pot technique has been used to assess the nutritional stress of plants grown in different soils. A combination of the double pot and the double compartment technique was used as a

  9. Percutaneous aspiration biopsy in cervical spine lytic lesions. Indications and technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampieri, D.; Weill, A.; Melanson, D.; Ethier, R. (Montreal Neurological Inst. and Hospital, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Neuroradiology)

    1991-02-01

    We describe the technique and the results of the percutaneous aspiration biopsy (PAB) in a series of 9 patients presenting with neck pain and different degrees of myelopathy, in whom the cervical spine X-ray demonstrated lytic lesions of unknown origin. PAB is a useful, relatively safe technique, and leads to histological diagnosis between metastatic and inflammatory processes. Furthermore, in inflammatory lesions with negative hemoculture, PAB may help in detecting the micro-organism responsible and therefore allow a better antibiotic treatment. (orig.).

  10. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  11. Total Reconstruction of the Auricle: Our Experiences on Indications and Recent Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Storck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Auricular reconstruction is a great challenge in facial plastic surgery. With the advances in surgical techniques and biotechnology, different options are available for consideration. The aim of this paper is to review the knowledge about the various techniques for total auricular reconstruction based on the literature and our experience. Methods. Approximately 179 articles published from 1980 to 2013 were identified, and 59 articles were included. We have focused on the current status of total auricular reconstruction based on our personal experience and on papers of particular interest, published within the period of review. We have also included a prospective view on the tissue engineering of cartilage. Results. Most surgeons still practice total auricular reconstruction by employing techniques developed by Brent, Nagata, and Firmin with autologous rib cartilage. Within the last years, alloplastic frameworks for reconstruction have become well established. Choosing the reconstruction techniques depends mainly on the surgeon’s preference and experience. Prosthetic reconstruction is still reserved for special conditions, even though the material is constantly improving. Tissue engineering has a growing potential for clinical applicability. Conclusion. Auricular reconstruction still receives attention of plastic/maxillofacial surgeons and otolaryngologists. Even though clinical applicability lags behind initial expectations, the development of tissue-engineered constructs continues its potential development.

  12. The Random Response Technique as an Indicator of Questionnaire Item Social Desirability/Personal Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Michael D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The random response technique was compared to a direct questionnaire, administered to college students, to investigate whether or not the responses predicted the social desirability of the item. Results suggest support for the hypothesis. A 33-item version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale which was used is included. (GDC)

  13. Bacterial translocation - impact on the adipocyte compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn's disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called "creeping fat." The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system.

  14. Extremities--indications and techniques for treatment of extremity vascular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, O; Given, M F; Lyon, S M

    2008-11-01

    Traumatic vascular injuries involving the extremity are rare and penetrating trauma accounts for the majority of such injuries. The remaining arterial injuries are as a result of either blunt or iatrogenic injuries. The rapid detection, localisation and characterisation of vascular injuries in patients who have a traumatic extremity injury is essential for the effective management and treatment of such injuries. This review will discuss the expanding role of multi-detector computed tomography angiography in diagnosing vascular injuries and its implications on conventional diagnostic angiography. The roles of other non-invasive imaging modalities are reviewed. The presentation and types of vascular injuries in blunt and penetrating injuries are discussed. While surgery remains the gold standard in the management of vascular extremity injuries it has significant morbidity rates. Endovascular techniques are increasingly being used for the treatment of vascular traumatic injuries and various techniques including balloon occlusion, embolisation and stent/stent graft placement are discussed.

  15. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging; Indikationen und Technik der fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Brugger, P.C. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Wien (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung und Bestaetigung von im praenatalen Ultraschall entdeckten Pathologien. Ultraschall und Magnetresonanztomographie. Praenatale Untersuchungsmethode. Die fetale MRT ist inzwischen als ergaenzende Methode zum praenatalen Ultraschall anerkannt. Die fetale MRT soll als additive Methode bei klinischer Relevanz, nicht jedoch als Routinescreeningverfahren waehrend der Schwangerschaft angewendet werden. Durchfuehrung ausschliesslich an einem Perinatalzentrum nach vorangegangenem Level-III-Ultraschall. (orig.)

  16. Liver hydatidosis: reasoned indications of surgical treatment. Comparison between conservative and radical techniques Retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Giuseppe; Tutino, Roberta; Atzeni, Jenny; Licari, Leo; Falco, Nicola; Orlando, Giuseppina; Gulotta, Gaspare

    2014-01-01

    Liver hydatidosis is a focal benign parasitic disease that still cause high rate of morbidity particularly in the Mediterranean area. A retrospective study comparing conservative and radical techniques in a General and Urgent Surgery operative unit was carried out in order to find signs of its surgical treatment. A total of 50 patients, 24 men and 26 women, who experienced a surgical treatment from 2000 to 2011, participated, and through the Fisher's Exact Test characteristics of the cysts, post-operative complications and relapse were compared. As a result, 29 patients undertook conservative surgery, while 21 radical surgery. There was a relationship between characteristics of the cysts and the technique chosen, (pcase (p<0.14). In conclusion, in a non hepato-bilio-pancreatic center a radical surgery including liver resection is suggested for left lobe's cysts, while a conservative technique tends to be more effective for right lobe's cysts mainly if complex. Consequently, patients with complicated presentation could explain why conservative treatment causes higher rate of morbidity.

  17. Assessing soil quality indicator under different land use and soil erosion using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2013-04-01

    Soil degradation associated with soil erosion and land use is a critical problem in Iran and there is little or insufficient scientific information in assessing soil quality indicator. In this study, factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were used to identify the most sensitive indicators of soil quality for evaluating land use and soil erosion within the Hiv catchment in Iran and subsequently compare soil quality assessment using expert opinion based on soil surface factors (SSF) form of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) method. Therefore, 19 soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties were measured from 56 different sampling sites covering three land use/soil erosion categories (rangeland/surface erosion, orchard/surface erosion, and rangeland/stream bank erosion). FA identified four factors that explained for 82 % of the variation in soil properties. Three factors showed significant differences among the three land use/soil erosion categories. The results indicated that based upon backward-mode DA, dehydrogenase, silt, and manganese allowed more than 80 % of the samples to be correctly assigned to their land use and erosional status. Canonical scores of discriminant functions were significantly correlated to the six soil surface indices derived of BLM method. Stepwise linear regression revealed that soil surface indices: soil movement, surface litter, pedestalling, and sum of SSF were also positively related to the dehydrogenase and silt. This suggests that dehydrogenase and silt are most sensitive to land use and soil erosion.

  18. Canthal cutdown for emergent treatment of orbital compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Andrew T; Czyz, Craig N; Gibson, Amanda

    2017-08-16

    This article evaluates the use of a "canthal cutdown" technique in orbital compartment syndrome in a cadaveric model. Twelve cadaver orbits were used to simulate orbital compartment syndrome using a blood analog solution. Two pressure probes, in different orbital locations, were used to monitor orbital pressure. Pressure was monitored during successive procedures: canthotomy, cantholysis, and canthal cutdown. Orbits were then re-injected with solution, simulating an active orbital hemorrhage, and pressure measurements were recorded over a 10-minute duration. No statistically significant difference was found between the two orbital pressure monitoring devices at each measurement point (p = 0.99). Significant pressure reductions, for both probes, were observed after canthal cutdown compared to initial measurement after injection of 20 mL blood analog (p compartment syndrome and temporizing treatment of compartment syndrome from active orbital hemorrhages.

  19. The effectiveness study of the physiotherapy techniques with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis using external respiration indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmykova Y.S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of respiratory function of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis to assess the ventilation ability of the lungs, as well as the presence and degree of ventilation violations. Indicated the need to examine the results of studies of lung function in these patients in order to timely correction of violations. It is established that therapeutic exercises with financial astrophysical exercises with elements of yoga postures, combined with yogic breathing exercises, as well as regulated breathing exercises, taking into account the tone of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and measured distance is an effective and significantly improves functional indices of external respiration.

  20. Driving forces of change in environmental indicators an analysis based on divisia index decomposition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    González, Paula Fernández; Presno, Mª José

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses several index decomposition analysis methods to assess progress made by EU countries in the last decade in relation to energy and climate change concerns. Several applications of these techniques are carried out in order to decompose changes in both energy and environmental aggregates. In addition to this, a new methodology based on classical spline approximations is introduced, which provides useful mathematical and statistical properties. Once a suitable set of determinant factors has been identified, these decomposition methods allow the researcher to quantify the respec

  1. Acute compartment syndrome of forearm and hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraprakasam, T.; Kumar, R. Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome is of paramount importance. Unless the viscious cycle is intervened at an appropriately early time it will result in irreversible damage leading to disability. In this review article we are discussing the basic pathophysiological process through which the various aetiological factors causing increased compartmental pressure lead to the progressive death of muscles and nerves. We also discuss the various clinical features that aid in the diagnosis and the role of intracompartmental pressure measurements. Finally we hope to ascertain the basic principles and the surgical techniques for treating this condition effectively. PMID:22022031

  2. Soil salinity mapping and hydrological drought indices assessment in arid environments based on remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2017-03-01

    Vegetation indices are mostly described as crop water derivatives. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the oldest remote sensing applications that is widely used to evaluate crop vigor directly and crop water relationships indirectly. Recently, several NDVI derivatives were exclusively used to assess crop water relationships. Four hydrological drought indices are examined in the current research study. The water supply vegetation index (WSVI), the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), the moisture stress index (MSI) and the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) are implemented in the current study as an indirect tool to map the effect of different soil salinity levels on crop water stress in arid environments. In arid environments, such as Saudi Arabia, water resources are under pressure, especially groundwater levels. Groundwater wells are rapidly depleted due to the heavy abstraction of the reserved water. Heavy abstractions of groundwater, which exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases, are powered by high evaporation rates in the designated study area because of the long days of extremely hot summer. Landsat 8 OLI data were extensively used in the current research to obtain several vegetation indices in response to soil salinity in Wadi ad-Dawasir. Principal component analyses (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses are complementary tools used to understand the regression pattern of the hydrological drought indices in the designated study area.

  3. Evaluation of energy performance indicators and financial aspects of energy saving techniques in residential real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The energy consumption in the existing residential building stock accounts for about 40% of the total energy consumption in the built environment. Different types of energy performance indicators to assess the energy consumption of buildings were and still are internationally under development. In

  4. MR urography: principles, examination techniques, indications; MR-Urographie: Prinzipien, Untersuchungstechniken, Indikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memarsadeghi, M.; Heinz-Peer, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik (Austria); Riccabona, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologie der Medizinischen Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Kinderradiologie, Graz (Austria)

    2005-10-01

    MR urography is an evolving and promising technique in the evaluation of the urinary tract. MR urography is currently considered the method of choice for imaging of the renal parenchyma and the collecting systems in patients who cannot undergo routine radiographic studies such as pregnant women, pediatric patients, patients allergic to iodinated contrast agents, or patients with impaired renal function. The future development of MR urography in terms of functional, cellular, and molecular imaging is presently the subject of research. The ability of MR imaging to provide quantitative functional information (e.g., on blood flow, perfusion, glomerular filtration rate, and excretion as well as urine drainage) in addition to morphologic assessment of the parenchyma and the collecting system could lead to a single, ''all-in-one approach'' examination technique. (orig.) [German] Die MR-Urographie hat sich bereits als eine umfassende und viel versprechende Methode bei der Harntraktevaluierung etabliert. Sie gilt derzeit als Methode der Wahl bei Unvertraeglichkeit jodhaltiger Roentgenkontrastmittel, bei Patientinnen mit eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion, waehrend der Schwangerschaft (z. B klinischen Symptomen einer Steinkolik) und bei Kindern. Die MR-Urographie ermoeglicht neben der morphologischen Abbildung des Harntrakts auch eine Funktionsbeurteilung mit Beurteilung der Nierenperfusion, der glomerulaeren Filtrationsrate und der Ausscheidungs- und Abflussverhaeltnisse. Die Zukunftsaspekte dieser Technik auf funktioneller, molekularer und zellulaerer Ebene sind derzeit Gegenstand zahlreicher Studien und intensiver Forschung. Dies laesst diese Methode als zukuenftiges ''All-in-one-approach-Verfahren'' fuer morphologisches, funktionelles sowie zellulaeres und molekulares Imaging einzigartig erscheinen. (orig.)

  5. Dual compartment neurofluidic system for electrophysiological measurements in physically segregated and functionally connected neuronal cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirukumaran T eKanagasabapathi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a dual compartment neurofluidic system with inter-connecting microchannels to connect neurons from their respective compartments, placed on a planar microelectrode array (MEA.The design and development of the compartmented microfluidic device for neuronal cell culture, protocol for sustaining long-term cultures and neurite growth through microchannels in such a closed compartment device are presented. Using electrophysiological measurements of spontaneous network activity in the compartments and selective pharmacological manipulation of cells in one compartment, the biological origin of network activity and the fluidic isolation between the compartments are demonstrated. The connectivity between neuronal populations via the microchannels and the crossing-over of neurites are verified using transfection experiments and immunofluorescence staining. In addition to the neurite cross-over to the adjacent compartment, functional connectivity between cells in both the compartments is verified using cross-correlation based techniques. Bidirectional signal propagation between the compartments is demonstrated using functional connectivity maps. Cross-correlation analysis and connectivity maps demonstrate that the two neuronal populations are not only functionally connected within each compartment but also with each other and a well connected functional network was formed between the compartments despite the physical barrier introduced by the microchannels.

  6. Laser and high-frequency cauthery gingivectomy in nonperiodontal indications: assessment and comparison of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartak, Petr; Smucler, Roman

    2003-06-01

    The authors have verified the efficiency and safety of laser and high-frequency gingivectomy in non-periodontal indications. Within a prospective, non-selective study, they treated and monitored 357 dental areas in 139 teeth.Out of the total number, 248 areas were treated wtih a diode laser, 980nm; 109 areas with high-frequency electrocautery. The following parameters were monitored: a) regeneration of the marginal gingiva; b) generation of iatrogenic recessions or periodontal pockets; c) bleeding from gingival sulcus during probing; d) changes in tooth vitality; e) patient's subjective evaluation. The authors identified a high degree of safety in both laser and high-frequency gingivectomy, with no significant difference between these two methods. Laser gingivectomy appears to have a wider indication range, while high-frequency gingivectomy requires lower financial expenses.

  7. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF PREDICTION OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF CHANGES IN MAINTENANCE ORGANISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej WIECZOREK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of how to assess the future state of the organization in the area of using and maintenance of technical means, basing on the combination of "classic" prognostic model with models ‐ components of the selected computer tools. Presentation of this concept was preceded by the definition and characteristics of maintenance key performance indicators. It also presents a requirements and method of KPIs selection.

  8. Variance estimation for complex indicators of poverty and inequality using linearization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Osier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Eurostat experience in calculating measures of precision, including standard errors, confidence intervals and design effect coefficients - the ratio of the variance of a statistic with the actual sample design to the variance of that statistic with a simple random sample of same size - for the "Laeken" indicators, that is, a set of complex indicators of poverty and inequality which had been set out in the framework of the EU-SILC project (European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The Taylor linearization method (Tepping, 1968; Woodruff, 1971; Wolter, 1985; Tille, 2000 is actually a well-established method to obtain variance estimators for nonlinear statistics such as ratios, correlation or regression coefficients. It consists of approximating a nonlinear statistic with a linear function of the observations by using first-order Taylor Series expansions. Then, an easily found variance estimator of the linear approximation is used as an estimator of the variance of the nonlinear statistic. Although the Taylor linearization method handles all the nonlinear statistics which can be expressed as a smooth function of estimated totals, the approach fails to encompass the "Laeken" indicators since the latter are having more complex mathematical expressions. Consequently, a generalized linearization method (Deville, 1999, which relies on the concept of influence function (Hampel, Ronchetti, Rousseeuw and Stahel, 1986, has been implemented. After presenting the EU-SILC instrument and the main target indicators for which variance estimates are needed, the paper elaborates on the main features of the linearization approach based on influence functions. Ultimately, estimated standard errors, confidence intervals and design effect coefficients obtained from this approach are presented and discussed.

  9. Diagnostic utility of invasive EEG for epilepsy surgery: Indications, modalities, and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakar, Prasanna; Gotman, Jean; Harvey, A Simon; Palmini, André; Tassi, Laura; Schomer, Donald; Dubeau, Francois; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Yu, Alice; Kršek, Pavel; Velis, Demetrios; Kahane, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Many patients with medically refractory epilepsy now undergo successful surgery based on noninvasive diagnostic information, but intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) continues to be used as increasingly complex cases are considered surgical candidates. The indications for IEEG and the modalities employed vary across epilepsy surgical centers; each modality has its advantages and limitations. IEEG can be performed in the same intraoperative setting, that is, intraoperative electrocorticography, or through an independent implantation procedure with chronic extraoperative recordings; the latter are not only resource intensive but also carry risk. A lack of understanding of IEEG limitations predisposes to data misinterpretation that can lead to denying surgery when indicated or, worse yet, incorrect resection with adverse outcomes. Given the lack of class 1 or 2 evidence on IEEG, a consensus-based expert recommendation on the diagnostic utility of IEEG is presented, with emphasis on the application of various modalities in specific substrates or locations, taking into account their relative efficacy, safety, ease, and incremental cost-benefit. These recommendations aim to curtail outlying indications that risk the over- or underutilization of IEEG, while retaining substantial flexibility in keeping with most standard practices at epilepsy centers and addressing some of the needs of resource-poor regions around the world. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Log-Linear Techniques for the Analysis of Categorical Data: A Demonstration with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.

    2003-01-01

    Log-linear analysis (LLA) techniques for categorical variables are demonstrated and evaluated using data from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Symmetrical LLA and asymmetrical LLA address questions of association and inference, respectively. Configural frequency analysis is examined as a strategy for whole types research. LLA approaches seem…

  11. Flow analysis techniques as effective tools for the improved environmental analysis of organic compounds expressed as total indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Fernando; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2010-04-15

    The scope of this work is the accomplishment of an overview about the current state-of-the-art flow analysis techniques applied to the environmental determination of organic compounds expressed as total indices. Flow analysis techniques are proposed as effective tools for the quick obtention of preliminary chemical information about the occurrence of organic compounds on the environment prior to the use of more complex, time-consuming and expensive instrumental techniques. Recently improved flow-based methodologies for the determination of chemical oxygen demand, halogenated organic compounds and phenols are presented and discussed in detail. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the highlight of flow-based techniques as vanguard tools on the determination of organic compounds in environmental water samples.

  12. Changes in Selected Biochemical Indices Resulting from Various Pre-sampling Handling Techniques in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloupek Petr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since it is not yet clear whether it is possible to satisfactorily avoid sampling-induced stress interference in poultry, more studies on the pattern of physiological response and detailed quantification of stress connected with the first few minutes of capture and pre-sampling handling in poultry are required. This study focused on detection of changes in the corticosterone level and concentrations of other selected biochemical parameters in broilers handled in two different manners during blood sampling (involving catching, carrying, restraint, and blood collection itself that lasted for various time periods within the interval 30-180 seconds. Methods Stress effects of pre-sampling handling were studied in a group (n = 144 of unsexed ROSS 308 broiler chickens aged 42 d. Handling (catching, carrying, restraint, and blood sampling itself was carried out in a gentle (caught, held and carried carefully in an upright position or rough (caught by the leg, held and carried with lack of care in inverted position manner and lasted for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, 120 s, 150 s, and 180 s. Plasma corticosterone, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, lactate, triglycerides and total protein were measured in order to assess the stress-induced changes to these biochemical indices following handling in the first few minutes of capture. Results Pre-sampling handling in a rough manner resulted in considerably higher plasma concentrations of all biochemical indices monitored when compared with gentle handling. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone after 150 and 180 s of handling were considerably higher (P Conclusions These results indicate that the pre-sampling procedure may be a considerably stressful procedure for broilers, particularly when carried out with lack of care and exceeding 120 seconds.

  13. Peripherally inserted central catheters in infants and children - indications, techniques, complications and clinical recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, B; Classen, V; Walther-Larsen, S

    2013-01-01

    in adults and neonates. However, the evidence may not extrapolate directly to older paediatric patients. In this study, we therefore review the indications, methods of insertion and complications of PICC lines for children beyond the neonatal age to provide clinical recommendations based on a search......Venous access required both for blood sampling and for the delivery of medicines and nutrition is an integral element in the care of sick infants and children. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been shown to be a valuable alternative to traditional central venous devices...

  14. Changing Indications and Surgical Techniques for Corneal Transplantation Between 2004 and 2009 at a Tertiary Referral Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad A.; Einollahi, Bahram; Karimian, Farid; Rafie, Ali R. B.; Feizi, Sepehr; Azimzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to report the indications, techniques, and clinical outcomes of corneal transplantation and investigate any changing trends in surgical techniques over a 6 year period. Materials and Methods: Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, from January 2004 to December 2009 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, graft clarity, and complications were reported. Results: During this period, 1859 eyes of 1624 patients with a mean age of 41.3 ± 21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (38.4%) followed by aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (11.7%), previous failed grafts (10.6%), infectious corneal ulcers (10.1%), non-herpetic corneal scars (7.6%), trachoma keratopathy (4.7%), stromal corneal dystrophies (4.6%), post-herpetic corneal scar (3.7%), Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (0.8%), and congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (0.4%). Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (PKP; 70.9%), deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK; 20.1%), conventional lamellar keratoplasty (LKP; 4.4%), and Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK; 2.3%). Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the relative frequency of infectious corneal ulcers, failed grafts, and trachoma keratopathy. Additionally, a significant reduction was observed in PKP and LKP procedures, and volume of DALK and DSAEK increased significantly. At final follow-up, 69.0% of grafts were clear in the PKP group. This figure was 82.6%, 82.7%, and 97.6% in the DALK, LKP, and DSAEK groups, respectively. Conclusion: Keratoconus was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. However, significant changes in the indications and

  15. Changing indications and surgical techniques for corneal transplantation between 2004 and 2009 at a tertiary referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to report the indications, techniques, and clinical outcomes of corneal transplantation and investigate any changing trends in surgical techniques over a 6 year period. Materials and Methods: Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, from January 2004 to December 2009 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, graft clarity, and complications were reported. Results: During this period, 1859 eyes of 1624 patients with a mean age of 41.3 ± 21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (38.4% followed by aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (11.7%, previous failed grafts (10.6%, infectious corneal ulcers (10.1%, non-herpetic corneal scars (7.6%, trachoma keratopathy (4.7%, stromal corneal dystrophies (4.6%, post-herpetic corneal scar (3.7%, Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy (0.8%, and congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (0.4%. Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (PKP; 70.9%, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK; 20.1%, conventional lamellar keratoplasty (LKP; 4.4%, and Descemet′s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK; 2.3%. Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the relative frequency of infectious corneal ulcers, failed grafts, and trachoma keratopathy. Additionally, a significant reduction was observed in PKP and LKP procedures, and volume of DALK and DSAEK increased significantly. At final follow-up, 69.0% of grafts were clear in the PKP group. This figure was 82.6%, 82.7%, and 97.6% in the DALK, LKP, and DSAEK groups, respectively. Conclusion: Keratoconus was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. However, significant changes in the indications

  16. Can carotid angiography be performed by vascular surgeons? A critical evaluation of indications, technique, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy M; Patel, Ajay; Langan, Eugene M; Gray, Bruce H; Mackrell, Peter J; Taylor, Spence M; Carsten, Christopher G; Cull, David L; Snyder, Bruce A; Miskulin, Joseph; Youkey, Jerry

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the contemporary indications for diagnostic carotid arteriography and evaluate its utility and safety when performed by vascular surgeons. The records of all patients having selective carotid arteriography from September 2000 through March 2002 at our institution were reviewed. One hundred sixty-four consecutive patients had selective arteriography of the extracranial carotid arteries for the following indications: hemispheric symptoms with stenosis 80% by duplex) internal carotid stenosis (9.8%), ipsilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (7.1%), bilateral high-grade internal carotid artery stenoses (7.1%), vertebral-basilar ischemia (7.0%), contralateral internal carotid occlusion (5.4%), duplex ultrasound from a nonaccredited vascular laboratory (3.3%), and evaluation of nonatherosclerotic carotid disease (3.3%). There were no transient ischemic attacks, strokes, or deaths related to the index procedure. Selective angiography of the extracranial carotid arteries remains an important adjunct in the evaluation of patients with carotid disease. This procedure can be performed safely by vascular surgeons.

  17. Ultra-mini PNL (UMP): Material, indications, technique, advantages and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Janak D

    2017-01-01

    Stone disease has afflicted mankind since centuries; records from ancient civilisations of India and Egypt have shown stones in human bodies. The scientific mind of humans has always made smart endeavours to remove the kidney stones. From large instruments made like the beaks of different animals and birds in 600 BC (Indian civilisation) to extremely sophisticated and miniaturised endoscopic intruments of today the human race has travelled a long way. The theme has always been to remove the stones with minimal morbidity and mortality and with minimum pain to the patient. The article takes you through the journey of instruments used in 600 BC until today. The story of instrumentation is a symbiosis of the medical minds along with engineering advances. The story of miniaturisation could not have moved further without the development of lasers, fiberoptics and sophisticated cameras. As the field stands today, we remove more complex stones by larger endoscopic intervention and smaller stones by miniaturised instruments. The article discusses all the merits and shortcomings of various techniques: from open surgery to standard PCNL to Mini PCNL to Ultra- Mini PCNL to Micro-PCNL.

  18. Surgery and Radiosurgery for Acromegaly: A Review of Indications, Operative Techniques, Outcomes, and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Marquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among multimodality treatments for acromegaly, the goals of surgical intervention are to balance maximal tumor resection while preserving normal pituitary function and maintaining patient safety. The resection of growth hormone-(GH- secreting pituitary adenomas in the hands of experienced surgeons results in hormonal remission in 50–70% of patients. Acromegalic patients often have medical comorbidities and anatomical variations complicating anesthesia and surgical management. Despite these challenges, complications such as CSF leak or new hypopituitarism following surgery remain uncommon. Over the past decade, endoscopic approaches to pituitary tumors have improved visualization and facilitated identification of additional tumor using angled telescopes. Patients with persistent acromegaly following surgery require continued medical and/or radiation-based interventions. The adjunctive use of stereotactic radiosurgery offers hormonal remission in 40–50% of patients. In this article, the current preoperative evaluation, indications for surgery, surgical approaches, role of radiosurgery, complications, and remission criteria following operative resection of GH adenomas are reviewed.

  19. The current state of intestine transplantation: indications, techniques, outcomes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, D

    2014-09-01

    Intestine transplantation is the least common form of organ transplantation in the United States and often deemed one of the most difficult. Patient and graft survival have historically trailed well behind other organ transplants. Over the past 5-10 years registry reports and single center series have demonstrated improvements to patient survival after intestinal transplantation that now match patient survival for those without life-threatening complications on parenteral nutrition. For various reasons including improvements in medical care of patients with intestinal failure and difficulty accessing transplant care, the actual number of intestine transplants has declined by 25% over the past 6 years. In light of the small numbers of intestine transplants, many physicians and the lay public are often unaware that this is a therapeutic option. The aim of this review is to describe the current indications, outcomes and advances in the field of intestine transplantation and to explore concerns over future access to this important and life-saving therapy.

  20. Computational learning techniques for intraday FX trading using popular technical indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, M H; Payne, T W; Romahi, Y; Thompson, G P

    2001-01-01

    We consider strategies which use a collection of popular technical indicators as input and seek a profitable trading rule defined in terms of them. We consider two popular computational learning approaches, reinforcement learning and genetic programming, and compare them to a pair of simpler methods: the exact solution of an appropriate Markov decision problem, and a simple heuristic. We find that although all methods are able to generate significant in-sample and out-of-sample profits when transaction costs are zero, the genetic algorithm approach is superior for non-zero transaction costs, although none of the methods produce significant profits at realistic transaction costs. We also find that there is a substantial danger of overfitting if in-sample learning is not constrained.

  1. Spinal angiography: vascular anatomy, technique, indications; Spinale Angiographie: Gefaessanatomie, Technik und Indikationsstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Thron, A. [Universitaetsklinik der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie

    2001-11-01

    The indication for spinal angiography has to be closely set as in case of inadequate handling this procedure bares the risk of paraplegia. In unclear spinal symptoms lasting over a longer periode of time, spinal vascular malformation have to be considered. Spinal vascular malformations are often reversibel, especially if diagnosed early. Diagnostic methods have to include spinal angiography if other non-invasive methods do not lead to results. The main point is to consider spinal vascular malformations in unclear cases. (orig.) [German] Die Indikation zu einer spinalen Angiographie muss streng gestellt werden, da bei unsachgemaesser Durchfuehrung dieser Untersuchung die Gefahr einer bleibenden Querschnittsymptomatik besteht. Bei unklarer spinaler Symptomatik, die ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum progredient ist, muss jedoch immer auch an eine spinale Gefaessfehlbildung gedacht werden. Die durch alle diagnostischen Moeglichkeiten einschliesslich der spinalen Angiographie diagnostizierten spinalen Gefaessfehlbildungen sind haeufig kurabel, insbesondere bei frueher Diagnosestellung. Der wichtigste Punkt ist jedoch, dass differenzialdiagnostisch auch an eine spinale Gefaessfehlbildung gedacht wird. (orig.)

  2. Ultrasound-guided synovial Tru-cut biopsy: indications, technique, and outcome in 111 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Griffith, James F; Lai, Fernand M; Hui, Mamie; Chiu, K H; Lee, Ryan K L; Ng, Alex W H; Leung, Jason

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. Clinical notes, pathology and microbiology reports, ultrasound and other imaging studies of 100 patients who underwent 111 ultrasound-guided synovial biopsies were reviewed. Biopsies were compared with the final clinical diagnosis established after synovectomy (n = 43) or clinical/imaging follow-up (n = 57) (mean 30 months). Other than a single vasovagal episode, no complication of synovial biopsy was encountered. One hundred and seven (96 %) of the 111 biopsies yielded synovium histologically. Pathology ± microbiology findings for these 107 conclusive biopsies comprised synovial tumour (n = 30, 28 %), synovial infection (n = 18, 17 %), synovial inflammation (n = 45, 42 %), including gouty arthritis (n = 3), and no abnormality (n = 14, 13 %). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of synovial biopsy was 99 %, 97 %, and 100 % for synovial tumour; 100 %, 100 %, and 100 % for native joint infection; and 78 %, 45 %, and 100 % for prosthetic joint infection. False-negative synovial biopsy did not seem to be related to antibiotic therapy. Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and reliable technique with a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing synovial tumour and also, most likely, for joint infection. Regarding joint infection, synovial biopsy of native joints seems to have a higher diagnostic yield than that for infected prosthetic joints. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy has high accuracy (99 %) for diagnosing synovial tumour. • It has good accuracy, sensitivity, and high specificity for diagnosis of joint infection. • Synovial biopsy of native joints works better than biopsy of prosthetic joints. • A negative synovial biopsy culture from a native joint largely excludes septic arthritis. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure.

  3. Venous Access Ports: Indications, Implantation Technique, Follow-Up, and Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walser, Eric M., E-mail: walser.eric@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The subcutaneous venous access device (SVAD or 'port') is a critical component in the care of patients with chronic disease. The modern SVAD provides reliable access for blood withdrawal and medication administration with minimal disruption to a patient's lifestyle. Because of improved materials and catheter technology, today's ports are lighter and stronger and capable of high-pressure injections of contrast for cross-sectional imaging. The majority of SVAD placement occurs in interventional radiology departments due to their ability to provide this service at lower costs, lower, complication rates, and greater volumes. Port-insertion techniques vary depending on the operator, but all consist of catheter placement in the central venous circulation followed by subcutaneous pocket creation and port attachment to the catheter with fixation and closure of the pocket. Venous access challenges occasionally occur in patients with central vein occlusions, necessitating catheterization of collateral veins or port placement in alternate locations. Complications of SVADs include those associated with the procedure as well as short- (<30 days) and long-term problems. Procedural and early complications are quite rare due to the near-universal use of real-time ultrasound guidance for vein puncture, but they can include hematoma, catheter malposition, arrhythmias, and pneumothorax. Late problems include both thrombotic complications (native venous or port-catheter thrombosis) and infections (tunnel or pocket infections or catheter-associated bloodstream infections). Most guidelines suggest that 0.3 infections/1000 catheter days is an appropriate upper threshold for the insertion of SVADs.

  4. Hyperspectral Imagery for Mapping Disease Infection in Oil Palm PlantationUsing Vegetation Indices and Red Edge Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Z.M. Shafri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Large scale plantation of oil palm trees requires on-time detection of diseases as the ganoderma basal stem rot disease was present in more than 50% of the oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. Approach: To deal with this problem, airborne hyperspectral imagery offers a better solution in order to detect and map the oil palm trees that were affected by the disease on time. Airborne hyperspectral can provide data on user requirement and has the capability of acquiring data in narrow and contiguous spectral bands which makes it possible to discriminate between healthy and diseased plants better compared to multispectral imagery. By using vegetation indices and red edge techniques, the condition of oil palm trees could be determined accurately. Results: Generally, all of these techniques showed better results as they could give accuracy between 73 and 84%. The highest accuracy was achieved by using Lagrangian interpolation technique with 84% of overall accuracy. Conclusions/Recommendations: The red edge based techniques were more effective than vegetation indices in detecting Ganoderma-infected oil palm trees plantation since there were three out of four techniques that could yield high accuracy results.

  5. Shaping physiological indices, swimming technique, and their influence on 200m breaststroke race in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzala, Marek; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Głab, Grzegorz; Glodzik, Jacek; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Kaca, Marcin; Nosiadek, Leszek

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and physiological capacity, and analyze kinematic parameters in the 200 m breaststroke swimming race. Twenty-seven male swimmers participated in the study. They were 15.7±1.98 years old. Their average height was 1.80 ± 0.02 m and lean body mass (LBM) was 62.45 ± 8.29 kg. Physiological exercise capacity was measured in two separate 90 sec. all-out tests, one for the arms and second for legs. During the tests total work of arm cranking (TWAR) and cycling (TWLG) as well as peak of VO2 for arm (VO2peakAR) and leg (VO2peakLG) were measured. The underwater swimmers body movements were recorded during the all-out swimming 200m breaststroke speed test using an underwater camera installed on a portable trolley. The swimming kinematic parameters and propulsive or non-propulsive movement phases of the arms and legs as well as average speed (V200), surface speed (V200surface) and swimming speed in turn zones (V200turns) were extracted. V200surface was significantly related to the percentage of leg propulsion and was shown to have large effect on VO2peakLG in the Cohen analysis. V200turns depended significantly on the indicators of physiological performance and body structure: TWAR, VO2peak LG and LBM, LBM, which in turn strongly determined the measured results of TWAR, TWLG, VO2peakAR and VO2peakLG. The V200turns and V200surface were strongly associated with V200, 0.92, p cycles. Key pointsThis study investigated the influence of the selected indicators of somatic properties and physiological capacity as well kinematic and coordination parameters on breaststroke swimming.In this observations the body's functional capacity have an important impact on achieving good breaststroke swimming results, the V200 was moderately associated on VO2peakLG, moreover, separate V200turns depended with VO2peakLG and on LBM and TWAR.The speed of surface breaststroke swimming - V200surface similarly as V200turns had a very strong

  6. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique. Major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Wagner, Jairo; Campos, Guilherme de Carvalho; Nogueira, Solange Amorim; Guerra, Elaine Gonçalves; Amaro, Edson

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, imagens médicas com tecnologias híbridas tornaram-se amplamente aceitas e utilizadas na prática clínica. O PET/RM possui vantagens importantes, incluindo excelentes contrastes e resolução, e menor radiação ionizante, em comparação ao PET/TC. Por isto, é uma modalidade promissora para exames de imagem de pacientes oncológicos, para avaliar o cérebro, cabeça e pescoço, o fígado e a pelve. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as situações clínicas que se beneficiariam de exames de PET/RM a partir de uma casuística. Destacamos o potencial desta técnica se tornar o método de imagem de escolha para doenças neurológicas e oncológicas que envolvam partes moles. Os aspectos clínicos de PET/RM e sua aplicação aos casos clínicos são ilustrados com exemplos da experiência inicial dos autores.

  7. ["In-situ split" (ISS) liver resection: new aspects of technique and indication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S A; Loss, M; Schlitt, H J

    2014-04-01

    The combination of right portal vein ligation with complete parenchyma dissection ("in-situ split", ISS) for rapid hypertrophy induction of the left-lateral liver lobe is a novel strategy to convert primarily irresectable liver tumours into a resectable stage. Available data so far show a 60-80 % growth induction of the remnant liver within 7(- 9) days. Certainly, a novel concept that comprises two operations within a very short time period raises questions. Based on the very few literature reports that have been published so far, as well as our own experience, we here discuss technical issues such as the use of a plastic sheet on the resection margin, the possibility of laparoscopic dissection and the timing of the second operation. Moreover, aspects of the preoperative diagnostic work-up that is necessary are assessed. Finally, open questions, e.g., concerning the influence of preoperative chemotherapy and the use of ISS in patients with cirrhosis are evaluated. In summary, the assessment of chances and risks of this novel concept with regard to indication and technical issues helps to provide the potentially curative option of the "in-situ split" procedure to more patients with marginal or even irresectable liver tumours. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Spinal angiography. Anatomy, technique and indications; Spinale Angiographie. Anatomie, Technik und Indikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Simgen, A.; Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal angiography is a diagnostic modality requiring detailed knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy. The cervical spinal cord is supplied by the vertebral arteries while segmental arteries which are preserved from fetal anatomy, supply the thoracic and lumbar regions. As spinal angiography carries the risk of paraplegia the indications have to be considered very carefully. Nevertheless, spinal angiography should be performed if there is reason to suspect a spinal vascular malformation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (orig.) [German] Indikationsstellung, Technik und Durchfuehrung der spinalen Angiographie erfordern detaillierte Kenntnisse der Gefaessversorgung des Spinalkanals und des Rueckenmarks. Die Gefaessversorgung des Rueckenmarks erfolgt im Bereich des Halsmarks aus den beiden Aa. vertebrales. Eine zusaetzliche arterielle Versorgung der Wirbelsaeule einschliesslich des Rueckenmarks wird ueber segmentale Arterien hergestellt, die im Bereich der Thorakal- und Lumbalregion aus der Embryonalphase als segmentale, interkostale und Lumbalarterien erhalten geblieben sind. Da die spinale Angiographie die Gefahr der Querschnittslaehmung birgt, ist eine strenge Indikation notwendig. Eine ueber laengere Zeit bestehende unklare klinische Symptomatik kann auch durch eine spinale Gefaessmalformation hervorgerufen werden. Ist durch die MRT-Bildgebung der Verdacht auf eine spinale Gefaessfehlbildung gegeben, sollte eine Angiographie durchgefuehrt werden, da diese Fehlbildungen oft kurabel sind. (orig.)

  9. USING THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVENESS INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Nottakrit

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.

  10. Shaping Physiological Indices, Swimming Technique, and Their Influence on 200m Breaststroke Race in Young Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Strzala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and physiological capacity, and analyze kinematic parameters in the 200 m breaststroke swimming race. Twenty-seven male swimmers participated in the study. They were 15.7±1.98 years old. Their average height was 1.80 ± 0.02 m and lean body mass (LBM was 62.45 ± 8.29 kg. Physiological exercise capacity was measured in two separate 90 sec. all-out tests, one for the arms and second for legs. During the tests total work of arm cranking (TWAR and cycling (TWLG as well as peak of VO2 for arm (VO2peakAR and leg (VO2peakLG were measured. The underwater swimmers body movements were recorded during the all-out swimming 200m breaststroke speed test using an underwater camera installed on a portable trolley. The swimming kinematic parameters and propulsive or non-propulsive movement phases of the arms and legs as well as average speed (V200, surface speed (V200surface and swimming speed in turn zones (V200turns were extracted. V200surface was significantly related to the percentage of leg propulsion and was shown to have large effect on VO2peakLG in the Cohen analysis. V200turns depended significantly on the indicators of physiological performance and body structure: TWAR, VO2peak LG and LBM, LBM, which in turn strongly determined the measured results of TWAR, TWLG, VO2peakAR and VO2peakLG. The V200turns and V200surface were strongly associated with V200, 0.92, p < 0.001 and 0.91, p < 0.001 respectively. In each lap of the 200m swimming there was an increased percentage of propulsion of limb movement observed simultaneously with a reduction in the gliding phase in the breaststroke cycles.

  11. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  12. The use of mineralogic techniques as relative age indicators for weathering profiles on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, D.R.; Owens, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Textural, geochemical, and mineralogic study of soils and weathering profiles has led to the practice of applying varioys weathering parameters as relative age indicators. In our studies examined the entire thickness of weathered sediment (i.e., the weathering profile) for evidence of weathering-induced changes in both sand- and clay-sized mineralogy, and used two techniques for relative age determinations. These techniques were developed as tools to support geologic mapping. One of our techniques for determining relative ages is based on the depth of weathering as recorded by progressive loss of denrital sand-sized minerals upward in the weathering profile. This is our preferred tool, especially in areas where weathering profiles have been truncated. We have found a gradual trend of increasing loss of labile sand-sized minerals (e.g., hornblendes, feldspars) and increasing depth of weathering with increasing age of the deposit. Of significance to many research programs, this technique does not require expensive instruments such as an X-ray diffractometer. Our other technique depends on accumulation of stable, secondary clay-sized minerals in the upper part of the weathering profile. In our study area on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, the stable assemblage consists of vermiculite, kaolinite, gibbsite, and iron oxides and hydroxides. This technique can be effective for relative age determinations where profiles have not been truncated, and can provide useful information on depositional and erosional history. However, in areas of widespread erosion and profile truncation, such as the Carolinas, the utility of this technique for relative age determinations is limited. There, soils were partially or completely removed in many localities in relatively recent times. ?? 1991.

  13. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  14. Modulatory compartments in cortex and local regulation of cholinergic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Jennifer J; Ward, Nicholas J; Jadi, Monika P; Disney, Anita A

    2016-09-01

    Neuromodulatory signaling is generally considered broad in its impact across cortex. However, variations in the characteristics of cortical circuits may introduce regionally-specific responses to diffuse modulatory signals. Features such as patterns of axonal innervation, tissue tortuosity and molecular diffusion, effectiveness of degradation pathways, subcellular receptor localization, and patterns of receptor expression can lead to local modification of modulatory inputs. We propose that modulatory compartments exist in cortex and can be defined by variation in structural features of local circuits. Further, we argue that these compartments are responsible for local regulation of neuromodulatory tone. For the cholinergic system, these modulatory compartments are regions of cortical tissue within which signaling conditions for acetylcholine are relatively uniform, but between which signaling can vary profoundly. In the visual system, evidence for the existence of compartments indicates that cholinergic modulation likely differs across the visual pathway. We argue that the existence of these compartments calls for thinking about cholinergic modulation in terms of finer-grained control of local cortical circuits than is implied by the traditional view of this system as a diffuse modulator. Further, an understanding of modulatory compartments provides an opportunity to better understand and perhaps correct signal modifications that lead to pathological states.

  15. Changing indications and techniques for corneal transplantations at a tertiary referral center in Turkey, from 1995 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yesim Altay, Ayse Burcu, Gozde Aksoy, Evin Singar Ozdemir, Firdevs Ornek Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Background: Indications for corneal transplantation in developed and developing nations differ according to the different spectrum of corneal disease in each country. Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the changing indications and surgical techniques for corneal transplantation over the past 20 years at a tertiary referral center in Turkey. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent keratoplasty from January 1995 to December 2014 (between 1995 and 2004, period 1, and between 2005 and 2014, period 2. Patients’ demographic data, indications for corneal transplantation, and the type of surgery were recorded. Results: The number of keratoplasties performed ranged from 548 in period 1 to 782 in period 2. Between 1995 and 2004, the leading indications were keratoconus (34.1%, bullous keratopathy (17%, and non-herpetic corneal scar (13.3%, and between 2005 and 2014, they were keratoconus (33.8%, corneal stromal dystrophy (14.2%, and bullous keratopathy (12.7%. All the keratoplasties performed in the 1995–2004 period were penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. During the period 2005–2014, PKP accounted for 93%, automated lamellar keratoplasty 5.8%, and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty 1.2% of all corneal transplantations. Conclusion: Keratoconus was the leading indication for keratoplasty in both periods. In the 2005–2014 period, corneal stromal dystrophy increased significantly. All the keratoplasties performed in period 1 and 93% of all keratoplasties performed in period 2 were PKP. Keywords: corneal transplantation, indication, keratoconus, keratoplasty technique, pene­trating keratoplasty

  16. Experiments at the GELINA facility for the validation of the self-indication neutron resonance densitometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossa Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-Indication Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD is a passive non-destructive method that is being investigated to quantify the 239Pu content in a spent fuel assembly. The technique relies on the energy dependence of total cross sections for neutron induced reaction. The cross sections show resonance structures that can be used to quantify the presence of materials in objects, e.g. the total cross-section of 239Pu shows a strong resonance close to 0.3 eV. This resonance will cause a reduction of the number of neutrons emitted from spent fuel when 239Pu is present. Hence such a reduction can be used to quantify the amount of 239Pu present in the fuel. A neutron detector with a high sensitivity to neutrons in this energy region is used to enhance the sensitivity to 239Pu. This principle is similar to self-indication cross section measurements. An appropriate detector can be realized by surrounding a 239Pu-loaded fission chamber with appropriate neutron absorbing material. In this contribution experiments performed at the GELINA time-of-flight facility of the JRC at Geel (Belgium to validate the simulations are discussed. The results confirm that the strongest sensitivity to the target material was achieved with the self-indication technique, highlighting the importance of using a 239Pu fission chamber for the SINRD measurements.

  17. Stochastic Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.6

    2010-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a variant of the Calculus of Looping Sequences (CLS). While keeping the same expressiveness, CWC strongly simplifies the development of automatic tools for the analysis of biological systems. The main simplification consists in the removal of the sequencing operator, thus lightening the formal treatment of the patterns to be matched in a term (whose complexity in CLS is strongly affected by the variables matching in the sequences). We define a stochastic semantics for this new calculus. As an application we model the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic neutrophils and a mechanism of gene regulation in E.Coli.

  18. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  19. [Fascia compartment syndrome of the iliac-psoas compartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammer, A

    1983-01-01

    The iliacus compression syndrome has a kind of exceptional position--as to genesis, development and therapy--in comparison with the other compartment-compression syndromes of the limbs. Indeed there exist similar pathophysiological, rules, but the special anatomic facts enlarge the etiological, differential-diagnostic and therapeutic spectrum. Thus, concerning the frequency of causes, not the trauma but the spontaneous bleeding in coagulation disturbances takes the first place, and unusual causes, such as rupturing aortic aneurysms, have to be included in the differential diagnostic discussion. The finest diagnostic sign besides pain is the palsy of the Nervus Femoralis. As to the treatment, operative measures are possible. The exact knowledge of the anatomy is important for the understanding of the specialties mentioned above.

  20. Techniques for Estimating Emissions Factors from Forest Burning: ARCTAS and SEAC4RS Airborne Measurements Indicate which Fires Produce Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of emission factors from biomass burning are prone to large errors since they ignore the interplay of mixing and varying pre-fire background CO2 levels. Such complications severely affected our studies of 446 forest fire plume samples measured in the Western US by the science teams of NASA's SEAC4RS and ARCTAS airborne missions. Consequently we propose a Mixed Effects Regression Emission Technique (MERET) to check techniques like the Normalized Emission Ratio Method (NERM), where use of sequential observations cannot disentangle emissions and mixing. We also evaluate a simpler "consensus" technique. All techniques relate emissions to fuel burned using C(burn) = delta C(tot) added to the fire plume, where C(tot) approximately equals (CO2 = CO). Mixed-effects regression can estimate pre-fire background values of C(tot) (indexed by observation j) simultaneously with emissions factors indexed by individual species i, delta, epsilon lambda tau alpha-x(sub I)/C(sub burn))I,j. MERET and "consensus" require more than emissions indicators. Our studies excluded samples where exogenous CO or CH4 might have been fed into a fire plume, mimicking emission. We sought to let the data on 13 gases and particulate properties suggest clusters of variables and plume types, using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). While samples were mixtures, the NMF unmixing suggested purer burn types. Particulate properties (b scant, b abs, SSA, AAE) and gas-phase emissions were interrelated. Finally, we sought a simple categorization useful for modeling ozone production in plumes. Two kinds of fires produced high ozone: those with large fuel nitrogen as evidenced by remnant CH3CN in the plumes, and also those from very intense large burns. Fire types with optimal ratios of delta-NOy/delta- HCHO associate with the highest additional ozone per unit Cburn, Perhaps these plumes exhibit limited NOx binding to reactive organics. Perhaps these plumes exhibit limited NOx binding to

  1. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  2. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  3. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Hauner, H. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Else Kroener-Fresenius-Center for Nutritional Medicine

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  4. Hybrid Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Sciacca, Eva; Spinella, Salvatore; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.8

    2010-01-01

    The modelling and analysis of biological systems has deep roots in Mathematics, specifically in the field of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Alternative approaches based on formal calculi, often derived from process algebras or term rewriting systems, provide a quite complementary way to analyze the behaviour of biological systems. These calculi allow to cope in a natural way with notions like compartments and membranes, which are not easy (sometimes impossible) to handle with purely numerical approaches, and are often based on stochastic simulation methods. Recently, it has also become evident that stochastic effects in regulatory networks play a crucial role in the analysis of such systems. Actually, in many situations it is necessary to use stochastic models. For example when the system to be described is based on the interaction of few molecules, when we are at the presence of a chemical instability, or when we want to simulate the functioning of a pool of entities whose compartmentalised structur...

  5. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Compartment syndrome following total knee arthroplasty: clinical results of late fasciotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hyuk; Kang, Dong-Geun; Cho, Kye-Youl; Lee, Sang-Hak; Kim, Kang-Il

    2014-09-01

    Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare complication. Because of its rarity, it may be overlooked and misdiagnosed as peroneal nerve palsy or deep vein thrombosis. This misdiagnosis could have a profound impact on the patient's outcome. We report a case of a 77-year-old female who developed unilateral compartment syndrome in the calf after staged bilateral TKA at an outside clinic. The patient presented with medical complications related to compartment syndrome: rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, which caused acute renal failure. Thus, we performed late fasciotomy one week after symptom onset to debride necrotic tissue and salvage the compartment. In the discussion section, we will discuss risk factors for compartment syndrome after TKA, results of late fasciotomy and other indications for surgical treatment of compartment syndrome.

  7. Dual-compartment neurofluidic system for electrophysiological measurements in physically segregated and functionally connected neuronal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T; Ciliberti, Davide; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J; Decré, Michel M J

    2011-01-01

    We developed a dual-compartment neurofluidic system with inter-connecting microchannels to connect neurons from their respective compartments, placed on a planar microelectrode arrays. The design and development of the compartmented microfluidic device for neuronal cell culture, protocol for sustaining long-term cultures, and neurite growth through microchannels in such a closed compartment device are presented. Using electrophysiological measurements of spontaneous network activity in the compartments and selective pharmacological manipulation of cells in one compartment, the biological origin of network activity and the fluidic isolation between the compartments are demonstrated. The connectivity between neuronal populations via the microchannels and the crossing-over of neurites are verified using transfection experiments and immunofluorescence staining. In addition to the neurite cross-over to the adjacent compartment, functional connectivity between cells in both the compartments is verified using cross-correlation (CC) based techniques. Bidirectional signal propagation between the compartments is demonstrated using functional connectivity maps. CC analysis and connectivity maps demonstrate that the two neuronal populations are not only functionally connected within each compartment but also with each other and a well connected functional network was formed between the compartments despite the physical barrier introduced by the microchannels.

  8. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable: (1) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large cabinet walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other...

  9. EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

  10. Application of image restoration and three-dimensional visualization techniques to frog microvessels in-situ loaded with fluorescent indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagakis, Stamatis N.; Curry, Fitz-Roy E.; Lenz, Joyce F.

    1993-07-01

    In situ experiments on microvessels require image sensors of wide dynamic range due to large variations of the intensity in the scene, and 3D visualization due to the thickness of the preparation. The images require restoration because of the inherent tissue movement, out-of- focus-light contamination, and blur. To resolve the above problems, we developed an imaging system for quantitative imaging based on a 12 bits/pixel cooled CCD camera and a PC based digital imaging system. We applied the optical sectioning technique with image restoration using a modified nearest neighbor algorithm and iterative constrained deconvolution on each of the 2D optical sections. For the 3D visualization of the data, a volume rendering software was used. The data provided 3D images of the distribution of fluorescent indicators in intact microvessels. Optical cross sections were also compared with cross sections of the same microvessels examined in the electron microscope after their luminal surfaces were labeled with a tracer which was both electron dense and fluorescent. This procedure enabled precise identification of the endothelial cells in the microvessel wall as the principal site of accumulation of the fluorescent calcium indicator, fura-2, during microperfusion experiments.

  11. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  12. A New Measurement Equivalence Technique Based on Latent Class Regression as Compared with Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurement equivalence is an essential prerequisite for making valid comparisons in mental health questionnaires across groups. In most methods used for assessing measurement equivalence, which is known as Differential Item Functioning (DIF), latent variables are assumed to be continuous. Objective: To compare a new method called Latent Class Regression (LCR) designed for discrete latent variable with the multiple indicators multiple cause (MIMIC) as a continuous latent variable technique to assess the measurement equivalence of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which is a cross deferent subgroup of Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 among 771 nurses working in the hospitals of Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran. To identify the Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD), the nurses completed self-report GHQ-12 questionnaires and sociodemographic questions. Two uniform-DIF detection methods, LCR and MIMIC, were applied for comparability when the GHQ-12 score was assumed to be discrete and continuous, respectively. Results: The result of fitting LCR with 2 classes indicated that 27.4% of the nurses had MPD. Gender was identified as an influential factor of the level of MPD.LCR and MIMIC agree with detection of DIF and DIF-free items by gender, age, education and marital status in 83.3, 100.0, 91.7 and 83.3% cases, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that the GHQ-12 is to a great degree, an invariant measure for the assessment of MPD among nurses. High convergence between the two methods suggests using the LCR approach in cases of discrete latent variable, e.g. GHQ-12 and adequate sample size. PMID:27482129

  13. The improving of ventilometric indices using Airway Clearance Techniques Asociated with Inhalation Therapy applied to adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Almăjan-Guţă

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: this study gave particular attention to respiratory damage, lung disease being the main target for developingtherapies in MV. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficiency of Classical Respiratory clearance techniquescombined with Inhalation Therapy and to compare the results of using acetylcysteine with those of using Pulmozyme Therapy.Aerosol (inhalation therapy is, along with exercise and respiratory clearance techniques, the third component in thephysiotherapy of patients with CF. Material and method: the study was developed during a period of six months, in TheNational Center of Cystic Fibrosis, Clinic II of Pediatrics in the Emergency County Hospital, Timisoara. The study group consistedof 12 children with MV . This group was divided into two groups of 6 patients (group 1 and group 2. Group 1 followedinhalation treatment with acetylcysteine, and group 2 with Pulmozyme. Results: The evaluation of the results was done after 2months and 6 months since the study started, by measuring the FEV, and FVC. For the first group, that used acetylcysteine inthe inhalation therapy, we observed, after 6 months, an increase of FEV with an average of 2.08% and of FVC with 2.13%.Thegrowth of ventilometric indices were relatively accelerated in the first two months and later there was a slower growth,achieving final value. For the second group, that used Pulmozyme, the growth of ventilometric indices was significantly higher.Discussion: considering the two relatively homogeneous groups, in what concerns the values of ventilometric indices andsuperimposed infection, we believe that inhaled Pulmozyme therapy proved to be superior to acetylcysteine. Conclusions:inhalation therapy is an important part of physiotherapy for patients with cystic fibrosis. A consistent physiotherapy is probablythe most important element in preventing chronic pulmonary infection and, along with antibiotherapy, improves significantlythe prognosis and helps

  14. Cystostomie percutanée à la pince de Kelly: indications, technique et résultats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabaté, Ibrahima; Ouédraogo, Bouréima; Sow, Ibrahima; Bâ, Aliou

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La dérivation urinaire sus-pubienne est pratiquée dans différentes circonstances. Cette étude vise à décrire la technique de cystostomie percutanée (CPC) pratiquée à l'aide d'une pince de Kelly pour la pose d'une sonde de Foley, à définir les indications de cette technique et à rapporter les résultats. Méthodes Du 1er janvier 2005 au 31 décembre 2014, il a été réalisé 194 CPC à la pince de Kelly dans notre service, en urgence, sous anesthésie locale, chez des patients en rétention vésicale. Cette technique, dérivée de la cystostomie par ponction au trocart vise à placer dans la vessie une sonde de Foley après incision cutanée et aponévrotique (de 1 cm sur la ligne médiane, à 1,5 - 2 cm au-dessus de la symphyse pubienne) et la ponction vésicale à la pince de Kelly à travers cette incision. Résultats Les 194 patients étaient tous de sexe masculin, âgés en moyenne de 50 ans ± 21 (extrêmes de 17 ans et 86 ans). Les pathologies à l'origine des rétentions vésicales étaient: les rétrécissements urétraux (n=119), les hypertrophies bénignes de la prostate (n=47), les cancers de prostate (n=21), les traumatismes de l'urètre (n=7). Tous les patients ont été opérés avec succès par cette méthode et les suites ont été simples. Le temps de réalisation était de 6 minutes ± 1. Les sondes de Foley mises en place étaient de charrière 16 (n=59), charrière 18 (n=116) et charrière 20 (n=19). La cicatrisation du trajet de la CPC après l'ablation de la sonde de Foley n'a posée aucun problème chez 146 patients suivis, les 48 autres ayant été perdus de vue. Conclusion La CPC à la pince de Kelly est une technique simple, rapide et pas onéreuse. Ses indications sont les mêmes que pour toute CPC et elle représente une alternative à la cystostomie par chirurgie ouverte. PMID:26893798

  15. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  16. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical presentation

  17. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... compartment. (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting...

  18. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  19. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  20. Implementation of multivariate techniques for the selection of volatile compounds as indicators of sensory quality of raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Cristina; Oliveira, I; Silva, J A; Martins, C; Ventanas, J; García, C

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed in order to select volatile compounds to predict the off-odour and overall assessment of raw beef's freshness Maronesa breed, using multivariate analysis. M. longissimus dorsi packed in vacuum and MAP (70 % O2/20 % CO2/10 % N2) stored at 4 ºC were examined for off-odour perception as well as the overall assessment of freshness at 10 and 21 days post mortem. The results achieved in this study demonstrated that the selected volatile compounds could be considered as volatile indicators of beef spoilage, enclosing information for discrimination of Maronesa beef samples in sensory classes of odour corresponding to unspoiled and spoiled levels. Fifty-four volatile compounds were detected. A significant increase of aldehydes, ketones and alcohols were observed during storage in MAP. 2 and 3-methylbutanal, 2 and 3-methylbutanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 2,3-octanedione, 3,5-octanedione, octanal and nonanal were suggested as indicators of beef spoilage. 3-methylpentane was considered as a marker in the first stages of spoilage in beef, decreasing during storage. Data were examined using PCR and PLSR models for different optimal subsets of volatile compounds. The simplicity and usefulness of the technique in using 0/1 data in preserving high levels of accuracy was also prevalent. The powerful analytical methodologies for reducing variables and the choice of optimal subsets could be advantageous in both basic research and the routine quality control of chilled beef.

  1. Spontaneous Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah K; Singleton, James A G

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of isolated compartment syndrome within the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) compartment in the forearm of a 40-year-old diabetic man. Magnetic resonance imaging of his forearm showed isolated changes in the ECU muscle belly; compartment syndrome was confirmed on manometry. In view of the short history of symptoms and his diabetic status, the patient was managed conservatively. Twenty-four hours after onset of the symptoms, the pain and swelling resolved and he was able to be discharged. To date, 3 cases of ECU compartment syndrome secondary to trauma have been reported. This report illustrates a case of confirmed compartment syndrome without antecedent trauma, highly unusual in terms of both its etiology and its anatomical location. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Liver transplantation--indications, surgical technique, results--the analysis of a clinical series of 200 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Ionescu, M; Braşoveanu, V; Hrehoreţ, D; Matei, E; Dorobantu, B; Zamfir, R; Alexandrescu, S; Grigorie, M; Tulbure, D; Popa, L; Ungureanu, M; Tomescu, D; Droc, G; Popescu, H; Cristea, A; Gheorghe, L; Iacob, S; Gheorghe, C; Boroş, M; Lupescu, I; Vlad, L; Herlea, V; Croitoru, M; Platon, P; Alloub, A

    2010-01-01

    Initially considered experimental, liver transplantation (LT) has become the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage liver diseases. Between April 2000 and October 2009, 200 LTs (10 reLTs) were performed in 190 patients, this study being retrospective. There were transplanted 110 men and 80 women, 159 adults and 31 children with the age between 1 and 64 years old (mean age--39.9). The main indication in the adult group was represented by viral cirrhosis, while the pediatric series the etiology was mainly glycogenosis and biliary atresia. There were performed 143 whole graft LTs, 46 living donor LTs, 6 split LTs, 4 reduced LTs and one domino LT RESULTS: The postoperative survival was 90% (170 patients). The patient and graft one-year and five-year survivals were 76.9%, 73.6% and 71%, 68.2%, respectively. The early complications occurred in 127 patients (67%). The late complications were recorded in 71 patients (37.3%). The intraoperative and early postoperative mortality rate was 9.5% (18 patients). The Romanian liver transplantation program from Fundeni includes all types of current surgical techniques and the results are comparable with those from other international centers.

  3. Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma: Technique, indication and results; Transarterielle Chemoembolisation (TACE) des hepatozellulaeren Karzinoms: Technik, Indikationsstellung und Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Zangos, S.; Balzer, J.O.; Nabil, M.; Rao, P.; Eichler, K.; Abdelkader, A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, J.W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); Bechstein, W.O. [Klinik fuer Allgemeinchirurgie, J.W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); Zeuzem, S. [Klinik fuer Innere Medizin, Hepatologie, J.W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    To present current data on technique, indications and results of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The principle of TACE is the intra-arterial injection of chemotherapeutic drug combinations like doxorubicin, cisplatin and mitomycin into the hepatic artery, followed by lipiodol injection, Gelfoam for vessel occlusion and degradable microspheres. The side effects and complications after TACE range from fever, upper abdominal pain and vomiting to acute or chronic liver cell failure. The palliative effect in unresectable HCC using TACE allows local tumor control in 15 to 60% of cases and 5-year survival rates ranging from 8 - 43%. The potentially curative treatment option allows local tumor control from 18 - 63%. The neoadjuvant treatment option of TACE in combination with other treatment options like percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) reach local tumor control rates between 80 - 96%. The bridging effect of TACE before liver transplantation reaches 5-year survival rates from 59 - 93%. The symptomatic therapy option of TACE is used to counteract pain directly caused by HCC and acute/subacute bleeding in the HCC. The local tumor response reaches up to 88% and the bleeding control is from 83 to 100%. (orig.)

  4. Fecal microbiota transplantation via fluoroscopy-guided nasojejunal catheter placement: indications, technique, and the role of radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlick, Julien S; D'Agostino, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-established cause of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. Although antibiotics remain an effective first-line treatment for C. difficile colitis (CDC), relapse and recurrence are common. FMT has emerged as one of the safest and most effective known therapies available for recurrent or refractory CDC, which is likely due to restoration of the protective microbiotic barrier of the gastrointestinal tract. FMT varies greatly across institutions by route of delivery, dose, and protocol. We present our experience with FMT via fluoroscopic-guided nasojejunal catheter placement. The discussion will include indications and contraindications, protocol, and procedural technique, and include a case presentation incorporating original CT and fluoroscopic images. Specifically, we will address the advantages and disadvantages of image-guided FMT via the upper GI tract with respect to nasogastric-, colonoscopic-, and enema-based delivery. The efficacy of FMT for the treatment of C. difficile has been widely demonstrated in several prospective and case studies. We feel that nasojejunal FMT is an underutilized radiologic procedure which can benefit selected patients, particularly given the advantages in risk profile, cost, convenience, and lack of routine sedation.

  5. Recurrent Lower-Extremity Compartment Syndrome after Four-Compartment Fasciotomy Secondary to Acute Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkar, Ashwini P; Farber, Alik; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening event necessitating emergent treatment using fasciotomy. Recurrent compartment syndrome is rare and has only been reported after trauma and in conjunction with underlying connective tissue disorders. In this report, we present a case of recurrent lower-extremity compartment syndrome caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury, in a patient previously treated with adequate 4-compartment fasciotomies. As such, this is the first reported case of recurrent compartment syndrome in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury that required treatment with 4-compartment fasciotomies on both occasions. This case demonstrates that fasciotomy is not protective against the development of recurrent compartment syndrome due to ischemia-reperfusion injury and that patients at high risk require monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Compartment Syndrome of the Leg Associated With Fracture: An Algorithm to Avoid Releasing the Posterior Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornetta, Paul; Puskas, Brian L; Wang, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to report on a prospective series of patients in whom an algorithm was used to attempt to avoid releasing the posterior compartments in patients with lower leg compartment syndrome (CS) and the safety of such a practice. Prospective cohort study. Level 1 trauma center. A consecutive series of 39 patients was managed by one surgeon for CS using the reported protocol. Patients diagnosed with a CS of the leg were managed with a single operative protocol. After a standard anterior and lateral compartment release through a full-length lateral incision was performed, the superficial and deep posterior compartments were measured with the heel resting on a bolster. Using the preoperative diastolic blood pressure, a ΔP compartments. If the ΔP was ≥30, the posterior compartments were not released. Need for medial release or development of posterior CS or sequelae. A consecutive series of 39 patients were managed by 1 surgeon for CS using the described protocol. Two patients with an isolated posterior CS were excluded. The other 37 had clinical symptoms or compartment pressures consistent with anterior compartment involvement. Of 37 patients, 21 had (57%) symptoms suggesting posterior compartment involvement. The preoperative pressure measurements averaged 41 mm Hg with an average ΔP of 38. After full-length release of the anterior and lateral compartments, only 3/37 (8%) required a posterior release for a ΔP of compartments of the remaining 34 patients averaged 59 (32-86). The compartment pressures in the superficial and deep posterior compartments decreased by 22 mm Hg and 24 mm Hg, respectively, after the anterolateral release. None of the patients who had only an anterolateral release developed sequelae of a missed posterior CS. The use of the reported algorithm is effective in avoiding posterior compartment release. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Burnei's "double X" internal fixation technique for supracondylar humerus fractures in children: indications, technique, advantages and alternative interventions : Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopaedics-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, S; Pârvan, A; Martiniuc, A; Japie, E; Ghiță, R; Drăghici, I; Hamei, Ş; Ţiripa, I; El Nayef, T; Dan, D

    2013-06-15

    The Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopedics-2012 initated this retrospective study due to the fact that in Romania and in other countries, the numerous procedures do not ensure the physicians a definite point of view related to the therapeutic criteria in the treatment of supracondylar fractures. That is why the number of complications and their severity brought into notice these existent deficiencies. In order to correct some of these complications, cubitus varus or valgus, Prof. Al. Pesamosca communicated a paper called "Personal procedure in the treatment of posttraumatic cubitus varus" at the County Conference from Bacău, in June 24, 1978. This procedure has next been made popular by Prof. Gh. Burnei and his coworkers by operating patients with cubitus varus or valgus due to supracondylar humeral fractures and by presenting papers related to the subject at the national and international congresses. The latest paper regarding this problem has been presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the European Pediatric Orthopedic Society in Zagreb, Croatia, April 7-10, 2010, being titled "Distal humeral Z-osteotomy for posttraumatic cubitus varus or valgus", having as authors Gh. Burnei, Ileana Georgescu, Ştefan Gavriliu, Costel Vlad and Daniela Dan. As members of this group, based on the performed studies, we wish to make popular this type of osteosynthesis, which ensures a tight fixation, avoids complications and allows a rapid postoperative activity. The acknowledged treatment for these types of fractures is the orthopedic one and it must be accomplished as soon as possible, in the first 6 hours, by reduction and cast immobilization or by closed or open reduction and fixation, using one of the several methods (Judet, Boehler, Kapandji, San Antonio, San Diego, Burnei's double X technique). The exposed treatment is indicated in irreducible supracondylar humeral fractures, in reducible, but unstable type, in polytraumatized patients with supracondylar

  8. Burnei’s “double X" internal fixation technique for supracondylar humerus fractures in children: indications, technique, advantages and alternative interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, S; Pârvan, A; Martiniuc, A; Japie, E; Ghiță, R; Drăghici, I; Hamei, S; Ţiripa, I; El Nayef, T; Dan, D

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopedics-2012 initated this retrospective study due to the fact that in Romania and in other countries, the numerous procedures do not ensure the physicians a definite point of view related to the therapeutic criteria in the treatment of supracondylar fractures. That is why the number of complications and their severity brought into notice these existent deficiencies. In order to correct some of these complications, cubitus varus or valgus, Prof. Al. Pesamosca communicated a paper called "Personal procedure in the treatment of posttraumatic cubitus varus" at the County Conference from Bacău, in June 24, 1978. This procedure has next been made popular by Prof. Gh. Burnei and his coworkers by operating patients with cubitus varus or valgus due to supracondylar humeral fractures and by presenting papers related to the subject at the national and international congresses. The latest paper regarding this problem has been presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the European Pediatric Orthopedic Society in Zagreb, Croatia, April 7-10, 2010, being titled “Distal humeral Z-osteotomy for posttraumatic cubitus varus or valgus", having as authors Gh. Burnei, Ileana Georgescu, Ştefan Gavriliu, Costel Vlad and Daniela Dan. As members of this group, based on the performed studies, we wish to make popular this type of osteosynthesis, which ensures a tight fixation, avoids complications and allows a rapid postoperative activity. Introduction. The acknowledged treatment for these types of fractures is the orthopedic one and it must be accomplished as soon as possible, in the first 6 hours, by reduction and cast immobilization or by closed or open reduction and fixation, using one of the several methods (Judet, Boehler, Kapandji, San Antonio, San Diego, Burnei’s double X technique). The exposed treatment is indicated in irreducible supracondylar humeral fractures, in reducible, but unstable type, in polytraumatized

  9. Therapeutic options in the treatment of cartilage defects: techniques and indications; Therapieoptionen zur Behandlung von Knorpelschaeden: Techniken und Indikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resinger, C.; Vecsei, V.; Marlovits, S. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2004-08-01

    Cartilage is composed of chondrocytes embedded within an extracellular matrix of collagens, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous proteins. Together, these structures maintain the unique mechanical properties and manifest its striking inability to heal even the most minor injury. This review presents the principles of cartilage structure and the biological background of cartilage repair and gives information about the surgical techniques for treating cartilage defects. The response of cartilage to injuries differs from that of other tissues because of its avascularity, the immobility of chondrocytes and the limited ability of mature chondrocytes to proliferate and alter their synthetic patterns. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells and tissues capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions and facilitating the access to the vascular system. The right indication and the treatment of joint instability and axis deformation are essential for the successful use of cartilage repair procedures. (orig.) [German] Das artikulaere Knorpelgewebe besteht aus einer einzelnen Zellpopulation, integriert in ein dreidimensionales Netzwerk hochorganisierter Matrixstrukturen. Dieser feingewebliche Aufbau bestimmt die einzigartigen mechanischen Eigenschaften, limitiert aber auch die physiologischen Reparationsmoeglichkeiten von Knorpeldefekten. Diese Uebersicht beschreibt die Grundlagen der Knorpelbiologie und die Mechanismen der Knorpelreparatur und behandelt die klinischen Ergebnisse chirurgischer Techniken zur Therapie umschriebener Knorpeldefekte. Die chirurgischen Techniken zur Therapie lokalisierter Defekte der Gelenkoberflaeche versuchen durch die Integration biologischer Mechanismen die mangelnde Regenerationsfaehigkeit artikulaeren Knorpels zu ueberwinden. Die Techniken der Transplantation chondrogener Gewebe wurden in juengster Zeit durch die Defektauffuellung mit autologen Chondrozyten erweitert. Eine klare Indikationsstellung

  10. Regional Anesthesia Did Not Delay Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report of Anterior Compartment Syndrome in the Thigh Not Masked by an Adductor Canal Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrie, Arissa; Sharma, Jyoti; Mason, Mark; Cruz Eng, Hillenn

    2017-04-24

    BACKGROUND Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh after elective primary total knee arthroplasty is rare. If not recognized and treated promptly, devastating consequences may result. Certain regional anesthesia techniques are thought to mask the symptoms of acute compartment syndrome, but there are no cases reported of adductor canal catheters masking the symptoms of thigh compartment syndrome. We report a case where symptoms and diagnosis of acute anterior thigh compartment syndrome were not masked by a functioning adductor canal catheter. CASE REPORT A 56-year-old male developed anterior thigh compartment syndrome after an elective primary total knee arthroplasty. Surgery was performed under spinal anesthesia with periarticular local infiltration analgesia. Postoperatively, an adductor canal catheter was placed, atraumatically, under ultrasound guidance in the recovery room with a plan to begin a continuous infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine 10 hours after the periarticular injection. Six hours after surgery, the patient complained of tightness and 10/10 pain in his right thigh, which was initially managed with parenteral opioids with moderate success. Continuous infusion through the adductor canal catheter was started and pain improved to 6/10 aching pain. Nonetheless, two hours after starting the continuous infusion, the patient reported tightness, swelling, and 10/10 pressure-like pain that was not relieved by the peripheral catheter infusion or PRN boluses of additional opioids. Due to the patient's symptomatology compartment pressures were measured. The anterior compartment pressure was 47 mm Hg and emergent anterior compartment fasciotomy was performed. CONCLUSIONS In this case, a functioning adductor canal catheter did not mask symptoms of, or delay diagnosis of, acute compartment syndrome in the thigh.

  11. A Spatial Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Bioglio, Livio; Coppo, Mario; Damiani, Ferruccio; Sciacca, Eva; Spinella, Salvatore; Troina, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. Although CWC has no explicit structure modelling a spatial geometry, its compartment labelling feature can be exploited to model various examples of spatial interactions in a natural way. However, specifying large networks of compartments may require a long modelling phase. In this work we present a surface language for CWC that provides basic constructs for modelling spatial interactions. These constructs can be compiled away to obtain a standard CWC model, thus exploiting the existing CWC simulation tool. A case study concerning the modelling of Arbuscular Mychorrizal fungi growth is discussed.

  12. volkmann's ischaemic contracture following acute compartment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-02

    Jun 2, 2006 ... compartment syndrome include crush injuries such as wringer injuries; prolonged external pressure; internal bleeding, especially after injury to a person with haemophilia .... in children: aetiology and prevention. J. Bone Joint ...

  13. [Acute compartment syndrome following snake bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H E; Barbier, P; Frey, H P; Janggen, F M; Rothen, H U

    1986-04-01

    The experience with snake bites, causing local complications is discussed. Whenever systemic envenomation occurs, antivenin is the treatment of choice. Tissue necroses are treated by early debridement and a possible closed compartment syndrome demands the open fasciotomy.

  14. Orientationally invariant metrics of apparent compartment eccentricity from double pulsed field gradient diffusion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed field gradient diffusion sequences (PFG) with multiple diffusion encoding blocks have been indicated to offer new microstructural tissue information, such as the ability to detect nonspherical compartment shapes in macroscopically isotropic samples, i.e. samples with negligible directional...

  15. Application of spectrophotometric, densitometric, and HPLC techniques as stability indicating methods for determination of Zaleplon in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Fadia H.; Abdelkawy, M.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.

    2007-12-01

    Spectrophotometric, spectrodensitometric and HPLC are stability indicating methods described for determination of Zaleplon in pure and dosage forms. As Zaleplon is easily degradable, the proposed techniques in this manuscript are adopted for its determination in presence of its alkaline degradation product, namely N-[4-(3-cyano-pyrazolo[1,5a]pyridin-7-yl)-phenyl]- N-ethyl-acetamide. These approaches are successfully applied to quantify Zaleplon using the information included in the absorption spectra of appropriate solutions. The second derivative (D 2) spectrophotometric method, allows determination of Zaleplon without interference of its degradate at 235.2 nm using 0.01N HCl as a solvent with obedience to Beer's law over a concentration range of 1-10 μg ml -1 with mean percentage recovery 100.24 ± 0.86%. The first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD) based on the simultaneous use of ( 1DD) and measurement at 241.8 nm using the same solvent and over the same concentration range as (D 2) spectrophotometric method, with mean percentage recovery 99.9 ± 1.07%. The spectrodensitometric analysis allows the separation and quantitation of Zaleplon from its degradate on silica gel plates using chloroform:acetone:ammonia solution (9:1:0.2 by volume) as a mobile phase. This method depends on quantitave densitometric evaluation of thin layer chromatogram of Zaleplon at 338 nm over a concentration range of 0.2-1 μg band -1, with mean percentage recovery 99.73 ± 1.35. Also a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method using 5-C8 (22 cm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5 μm particle size) column was described and validated for quantitation of Zaleplon using acetonitrile:deionised water (35:65, v/v) as a mobile phase using Paracetamol as internal standard and a flow rate of 1.5 ml min -1 with UV detection of the effluent at 232 nm at ambient temperature over a concentration range of 2-20 μg ml -1 with mean percentage recovery 100.19 ± 1.15%. The insignificance difference of the proposed

  16. CASE REPORT An Unusual Case of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Resection of Extensive Posttraumatic Mesenteric Ossification

    OpenAIRE

    Nabulyato, William M.; Alsahiem, Hebah; Hall, Nigel R; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition, which often follows trauma and is frequently symptomatic. To date, there are no reports in the literature of abdominal compartment syndrome occurring after surgical resection of mesenteric calcification. The present report documents an unusual case of compartment syndrome complicating resection of extensive mesenteric calcification despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique. Method: A 48-...

  17. Indicaciones, técnicas y resultados del trasplante de intestino delgado Indications, techniques and outcomes of small bowel transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López Santamaría

    2007-05-01

    costes y permiten ofrecer un tratamiento individualizado y adaptado a las necesidades individuales.The most recent outcomes on bowel transplantation (BT, with a survival rate immediately after transplant higher than 80% and a great rate of survivors achieving complete digestive autonomy and able to carry out activities according to their age allow for considering BT as the first choice therapy in patients with irreversible intestinal failure in whom poor prognosis with parenteral nutrition is foreseen. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver damage is the most frequent indication for BT, especially in children that are more susceptible than adults to develop this complication. Other accepted indications for BT are irreversible intestinal failure in association with loss of deep venous accesses, life-threatening severe infections associated with the use of central catheters, and those cases of intestinal failure usually leading to early death, such as ultra-short bowel syndromes, refractory diarrheas, and intestinal failure associated to high morbidity and poor quality of life. BT is performed in human clinical practice under three technical modalities: isolated bowel transplant, combined liver-bowel transplant, and multi-visceral transplantation. Currently, refinements of original techniques including reduction of liver and/or intestinal grafts, grafts from living donors, etc., allow for overcoming the different needs as well as increasing the likelihood of having access to transplantation, which is a desirable goal specially in very young or very low-weighted children candidate to liver-bowel transplant. One of the most interesting issues in BT programs is having given access to the Intestinal Rehabilitation Units, which comprise the three therapeutic modalities by means of a multidisciplinary team: nutritional support, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. These Units optimize the outcomes, minimize costs, and allow for offering a management adapted to individual needs.

  18. Spectrophotometric Determination of the Dissociation Constant of an Acid-Base Indicator Using a Mathematical Deconvolution Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Krystyn P.; Molloy, John L.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment reinforces the concept of acid-base equilibria while introducing a common application of spectrophotometry and can easily be completed within a standard four-hour laboratory period. It provides students with an opportunity to use advanced data analysis techniques like data smoothing and spectral deconvolution to…

  19. Bacterial Translocation – Impact on the Adipocyte Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called “creeping fat.” The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system. PMID:24432024

  20. A New Etiology for the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare diagnosis with an incidence of 1-2 per million. Most cases originate from an appendix which ruptures and releases mucin into the peritoneal cavity. The progression of the disease results in obstruction and cutaneous leak. Abdominal compartment syndrome is an uncommon complication of peritoneal pseudomyxoma. In the present article, we report the case of a patient with PMP and abdominal compartment syndrome. A laparotomy to decrease the abdominal pressure was performed. Three months later, a peritonectomy with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was performed. The patient was still alive 1 year after the procedure without any recurrence. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain and respiratory failure in patients with peritoneal PMP should lead to the measurement of the abdominal pressure but are not a contra indication for curative treatment of PMP.

  1. CASE REPORT Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Forearm Following Blood Gas Analysis Postthrombolysis for Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisarya, Kamal; George, Samuel; El Sallakh, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an important condition with potentially serious consequences if not diagnosed and treated promptly. This report highlights a case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm after radial artery blood gas analysis in a patient who had been thrombolyzed for a pulmonary embolus. Methods/Case Report: We present a case of a 54-year-old lady, admitted and treated for a pulmonary embolism with tenecteplase for thrombolysis. As per routine management, she had taken an arterial blood gas sample, which caused hematoma in the wrist and a few hours later developed pain and a tense right forearm being diagnosed with compartment syndrome. She underwent fasciotomies and subsequent split skin grafting. We discuss the different etiologies of compartment syndrome, clinical signs, and available investigations as well as immediate and definitive management options including fasciotomy techniques. We present the latest literature on the subject and extract valuable learning points from this case. With the common use of thrombolysis for the management of a myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolus, compartment syndrome is an uncommon but potentially associated problem. Furthermore, with blood gas sampling being part of daily clinical practice and a potential cause of this condition, the compartment syndrome becomes iatrogenic and potentiates serious litigation. As many junior doctors are performing blood gas analysis postthrombolysis, they need to assess patients adequately and realize the risk of possible sequelae such as compartment syndrome in this group and inform patients of such complications.

  2. The estimated sensitivity and specificity of compartment pressure monitoring for acute compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Margaret M; Duckworth, Andrew D; Aitken, Stuart A; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2013-04-17

    The aim of our study was to document the estimated sensitivity and specificity of continuous intracompartmental pressure monitoring for the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome. From our prospective trauma database, we identified all patients who had sustained a tibial diaphyseal fracture over a ten-year period. A retrospective analysis of 1184 patients was performed to record and analyze the documented use of continuous intracompartmental pressure monitoring and the use of fasciotomy. A diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome was made if there was escape of muscles at fasciotomy and/or color change in the muscles or muscle necrosis intraoperatively. A diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome was considered incorrect if it was possible to close the fasciotomy wounds primarily at forty-eight hours. The absence of acute compartment syndrome was confirmed by the absence of neurological abnormality or contracture at the time of the latest follow-up. Of 979 monitored patients identified, 850 fit the inclusion criteria with a mean age of thirty-eight years (range, twelve to ninety-four years), and 598 (70.4%) were male (p compartment syndrome: 141 had acute compartment syndrome (true positives), six did not have it (false positives), and five underwent fasciotomy despite having a normal differential pressure reading, with subsequent operative findings consistent with acute compartment syndrome (false negatives). Of the 698 patients (82.1%) who did not undergo fasciotomy, 689 had no evidence of any late sequelae of acute compartment syndrome (true negatives) at a mean follow-up time of fifty-nine weeks. The estimated sensitivity of intracompartmental pressure monitoring for suspected acute compartment syndrome was 94%, with an estimated specificity of 98%, an estimated positive predictive value of 93%, and an estimated negative predictive value of 99%. The estimated sensitivity and specificity of continuous intracompartmental pressure monitoring for the diagnosis of

  3. Indications and Outcomes of the Components Separation Technique in the Repair of Complex Abdominal Wall Hernias: Experience From the Cambridge Plastic Surgery Department

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle, Shola; Pantelides, Nicholas M.; Hall, Nigel R; Praseedom, Raaj; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The components separation technique (CST) is a widely described abdominal wall reconstructive technique. There have, however, been no UK reports of its use, prompting the present review. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, 13 patients who underwent this procedure by a single plastic surgeon (C.M.M.) were retrospectively evaluated. The indications, operative details, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: There were 7 women and 6 men in the series with a mean age of 53 years (ra...

  4. Compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Alexander; Schur, Mathew D; Arkader, Alexandre; Flynn, John; Gornitzky, Alex; Choi, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    To study the cause, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of acute compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers aged compartment syndrome were identified from two large pediatric trauma centers over a fifteen-year period. All children underwent fasciotomy. The mechanism of injury, time of injury, time to diagnosis, compartment pressures, time to fasciotomy, and outcome at the time of the latest follow-up were recorded. Nine (60 %) of fifteen patients developed compartment syndrome secondary to trauma, four (4/15, 27 %) due to infection, and two (2/15, 13 %) due to intravenous infiltration. The average time from injury or hospital admission to fasciotomy was 31.8 h (range 2.9-136.3 h). In general, the functional outcome was excellent at the latest follow-up with thirteen (13/15, 87 %) patients having an excellent outcome. No cases of Volkmann's ischemia were noted at the time of fasciotomy, even when performed as late as 5 days after injury. Compared to the general pediatric population, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers may be further delayed, i.e., >24 h after injury. Despite delays in diagnosis and time to treatment, the present study shows that outcomes in infants and toddlers remain favorable even when fasciotomy is performed 48-72 h after injury. Case series, level IV.

  5. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  6. Cutaneous anthrax cases leading compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Parlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease with three clinical forms. Clinical forms are skin, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is 95% of the cases. Cutaneous anthrax frequently defines itself. Clinical presentation of anthrax may be severe and complicated in some cases. There may seem complications like meningitis, septic shock and compartment syndrome. Compartment Syndrome is a rare complication of cutaneous anthrax and it is life threatening. Physicians working in the endemic area should be aware of this form. In this study, three cases were shown which developed compartment syndrome following cutaneous anthrax. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 214-217

  7. Video-assisted thoracoscopic implantation of a diaphragmatic pacemaker in a child with tetraplegia: indications, technique, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a child with tetraplegia after cervical trauma, who subsequently underwent diaphragmatic pacemaker implantation. We reviewed the major indications for diaphragmatic pacing and the types of devices employed. We highlight the unequivocal benefit of diaphragmatic pacing in the social and educational reintegration of individuals with tetraplegia.

  8. The Use of MMF Screws: Surgical Technique, Indications, Contraindications, and Common Problems in Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Ehrenfeld, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Mandibulo-maxillary fixation (MMF) screws are inserted into the bony base of both jaws in the process of fracture realignment and immobilisation. The screw heads act as anchor points to fasten wire loops or rubber bands connecting the mandible to the maxilla. Traditional interdental chain-linked wiring or arch bar techniques provide the anchorage by attached cleats, hooks, or eyelets. In comparison to these tooth-borne appliances MMF screws facilitate and shorten the way to achieve intermaxillary fixation considerably. In addition, MMF screws help to reduce the hazards of glove perforation and wire stick injuries. On the downside, MMF screws are attributed with the risk of tooth root damage and a lack of versatility beyond the pure maintenance of occlusion such as stabilizing loose teeth or splinting fragments of the alveolar process. The surgical technique of MMF screws as well as the pros and cons of the clinical application are reviewed. The adequate screw placement to prevent serious tooth root injuries is still an issue to rethink and modify conceptual guidelines.

  9. Detection of terrain indices related to soil salinity and mapping salt-affected soils using remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki Fourati, Hela; Bouaziz, Moncef; Benzina, Mourad; Bouaziz, Samir

    2017-04-01

    Traditional surveying methods of soil properties over landscapes are dramatically cost and time-consuming. Thus, remote sensing is a proper choice for monitoring environmental problem. This research aims to study the effect of environmental factors on soil salinity and to map the spatial distribution of this salinity over the southern east part of Tunisia by means of remote sensing and geostatistical techniques. For this purpose, we used Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data to depict geomorphological parameters: elevation, slope, plan curvature (PLC), profile curvature (PRC), and aspect. Pearson correlation between these parameters and soil electrical conductivity (ECsoil) showed that mainly slope and elevation affect the concentration of salt in soil. Moreover, spectral analysis illustrated the high potential of short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands to identify saline soils. To map soil salinity in southern Tunisia, ordinary kriging (OK), minimum distance (MD) classification, and simple regression (SR) were used. The findings showed that ordinary kriging technique provides the most reliable performances to identify and classify saline soils over the study area with a root mean square error of 1.83 and mean error of 0.018.

  10. Clinical indications, advantages and limits of the expansion-condensing osteotomes technique for the creation of implant bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE VICO, G.; BONINO, M.; SPINELLI, D.; POZZI, A.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The “screw shaped” expansion-condenser are hand instruments that were introduced for the first time at the end of the 70’ in order to improve bone density before the positioning of a dental implant. Thanks to these hand instruments it is possibile to compact the bone apically and along the walls of the implant bed (Fig. 3) improving a lot the bone density and the primary stability of the implant even in situations where the starting bone quality is low (es. D3-D4 as in the classification y Lekholm and Zarb 1985) or in cases of severe bone atrophy. Allowing a manageable raising of the shnaiderian membrane through trans-alveolar way, this technique avoids in many cases the necessity to have recourse to the realisation of bone vestibular “gates” when it comes to the techniques of the big sinus lift. The knoledge of the bone visco-elastic and hystologic properties together with the maximum respect of the surgical protocol allows us to obtein % of success superior than traditional surgical protocol in D3-D4 bone class. PMID:23285355

  11. Decomposing the trade-environment nexus for Malaysia: what do the technique, scale, composition, and comparative advantage effect indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chong Hui; Ahmed, Khalid; Binti Muhamad, Rusnah; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of trade openness on CO2 emissions using time series data over the period of 1970QI-2011QIV for Malaysia. We disintegrate the trade effect into scale, technique, composition, and comparative advantage effects to check the environmental consequence of trade at four different transition points. To achieve the purpose, we have employed augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests in order to examine the stationary properties of the variables. Later, the long-run association among the variables is examined by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. Our results confirm the presence of cointegration. Further, we find that scale effect has positive and technique effect has negative impact on CO2 emissions after threshold income level and form inverted U-shaped relationship-hence validates the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Energy consumption adds in CO2 emissions. Trade openness and composite effect improve environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions. The comparative advantage effect increases CO2 emissions and impairs environmental quality. The results provide the innovative approach to see the impact of trade openness in four sub-dimensions of trade liberalization. Hence, this study attributes more comprehensive policy tool for trade economists to better design environmentally sustainable trade rules and agreements.

  12. Freestyle-Like V-Y Flaps of the Eyebrow: A New Outlook and Indication of an Historical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Alberto Leto Barone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The eyebrow region is of utmost importance for facial movement, symmetry, and the overall cosmetic appearance of the face. Trauma or tumor resection often leave scars that may dislocate the eyebrow producing an alteration both in static symmetry of the face and in the dynamic expressivity. The authors present a technique for eyebrow’s defects repair using the remaining eyebrow advancement by means of a “freestyle-like” V-Y flap. In the past two years a total of eight consecutive patients underwent excision of skin lesions in the superciliary region and immediate reconstruction with this technique. On histology, six patients were affected from basal cell carcinomas, one from squamous cell carcinoma, and one from congenital intradermal melanocytic nevus. The pedicle of the flap included perforators from the supratrochlear, supraorbital, or superficial temporalis artery. Advancement of the entire aesthetic subunit that includes the eyebrow using a V-Y perforator flap was performed successfully in all cases achieving full, tension-free closure of defects up to 3.0 cm. “Freestyle-like” V-Y flaps should be considered as a first-line choice for partial defects of the eyebrow. The greater mobility compared to random subcutaneous flaps allows to reconstruct large defects providing an excellent cosmetic result.

  13. Bioavailability of cyanide in the different environmental compartments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz×Salix alba L.) were exposed to cyanide to determine whether willows can transport and metabolize this compound. Pre-rooted trees were grown in different environmental compartmentsspiked or irrigated with potassium cyanide at24.0 ±0.5℃. Cyanide in compartments, in air and in tissues of plants was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Results from this study indicated that large amounts of applied cyanide was removed from the systems during the presence of willows. Growing compartments of plants have a strong influence on the removal rates of cyanide. Little or no initial cyanide was detected in plant materials. Volatilization of cyanide was not occurring. Mass balance studies showed that applied cyanide was significantly metabolized during transport through willows cuttings. However, there was a clear difference between the metabolism rates of cyanide by willows exposed to different environmental compartments. The highest cyanide metabolism rate was found at the treatment with transport and metabolism of cyanide in plants is likely and phytoremediation of cyanide is a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated with cyanide.

  14. The pathophysiology of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: an unrecognized compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Lisa C.; Michalakis, Konstantinos G.; Browne, Hyacinth; Payson, Mark D.; Segars, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare and contrast the pathophysiology of ovarian hyperstimualtion syndrome (OHSS) with known syndromes of increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and to explore the relationship of increased IAP with symptom severity in OHSS. Design Literature review. Main Outcome Measure(s) Correlation of OHSS symptoms with IAP; effects of paracentesis on IAP in patients with OHSS. Setting Academic Research Institution. Intervention(s) None. Result(s) OHSS involves a rapid accumulation of volume (from 1.5–17 liters) in the peritoneal cavity that can lead to organ dysfunction, including respiratory impairment and oliguria. In published reports of 20 moderate-to-severe OHSS patients in whom IAP was measured, IAP was found to be elevated to a pathologic range. The increased IAP indicates that OHSS may be considered a compartment syndrome and meets criteria for abdominal compartment syndrome in advanced cases. For this reason, management of OHSS should include reduction of pressure by paracentesis to avoid morbidity and syndrome progression. In addition, measurement of IAP may help to classify the stage of OHSS. Conclusion(s) IAP was found to be elevated in the few cases of OHSS in which it was measured, substantiating the conclusion that OHSS may be considered a compartment syndrome. An understanding of the pathophysiology of increased intrabdominal pressure is useful in the management of OHSS. PMID:19836016

  15. Medial Closing-Wedge Distal Femoral Osteotomy for Genu Valgum With Lateral Compartment Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, James D; Maak, Travis G

    2016-12-01

    Lateral compartment disease combined with valgus alignment can lead to progressive knee joint degeneration. In the symptomatic patient with isolated lateral compartment disease, a varus-producing distal femoral osteotomy can unload the diseased lateral compartment. This osteotomy may be combined with other cartilage or meniscal restorative techniques to optimize knee joint preservation and pain relief. The osteotomy can be performed with a medial closing-wedge or lateral opening-wedge technique. Both techniques have been reported to improve knee-related quality of life in patients with lateral compartment disease. Advantages of the medial closing-wedge technique are direct bone apposition leading to inherent stability of the construct, as well as reliable bony healing, and less hardware irritation. Advantages of the lateral opening-wedge technique are a single bony cut and therefore more of an ability to adjust correction intraoperatively. However, this technique requires bone grafting and has a high rate of hardware irritation or removal. We present a surgical technique for the medial closing-wedge distal femoral osteotomy using an anteromedial-distal femoral locking plate.

  16. Investigation of grapevine photosynthesis using hyperspectral techniques and development of hyperspectral band ratio indices sensitive to photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelkan, Emre; Karaman, Muhittin; Candar, Serkan; Coskun, Zafer; Ormeci, Cankut

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate of 9 different grapevines were analyzed with simultaneous photosynthesis and spectroradiometric measurements on 08.08.2012 (veraison) and 06.09.2012 (harvest). The wavelengths and spectral regions, which most properly express photosynthetic rate, were determined using correlation and regression analysis. In addition, hyperspectral band ratio (BR) indices sensitive to photosynthesis were developed using optimum band ratio (OBRA) method. The relation of BR results with photosynthesis values are presented with the correlation matrix maps created in this study. The examinations were performed for both specific dates (i.e., veraison and harvest) and also in aggregate (i.e., correlation between total spectra and photosynthesis data). For specific dates wavelength based analysis, the photosynthesis were best determined with -0.929 correlation coefficient (r) 609 nm of yellow region at veraison stage, and -0.870 at 641 nm of red region at harvest stage. For wavelength based aggregate analysis, 640 nm of red region was found to be correlated with 0.921 and -0.867 r values respectively and red edge (RE) (695 nm) was found to be correlated with -0.922 and -0.860 r values, respectively. When BR indices results were analyzed with photosynthetic values for specific dates, -0.987 r with R8../R, at veraison stage and -0.911 r with R696/R944 at harvest stage were found most correlated. For aggregate analysis of BR, common BR presenting great correlation with photosynthesis for both measurements was found to be R632/R971 with -0.974, -0.881 r values, respectively and other R610/R760 with -0.976, -0.879 r values. The final results of this study indicate that the proportion of RE region to a region with direct or indirect correlation with photosynthetic provides information about rate of photosynthesis. With the indices created in this study, the photosynthesis rate of vineyards can be determined using in-situ hyperspectral remote sensing. The findings of this

  17. INFLUENCE OF ALPHAEEG/EMG BIOFEEDBACK AND SELF-REGULATION PSYCHO TECHNIQUES ON THE HEART RATE VARIABILITY INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bazanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to study the impact of the upper frequency alpha EEG power increasing neurofeedback training (ANFT on the cognitive performance, EEG alpha-activity and heart rate variability (HRV 27 healthy men aged 18–34 years in pre, post and follow up one month 10 sessions ANFT time were investigated. The AFNT enhanced the fluency in cognitive performance, alpha frequency and power in upper frequency range and HRV only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock AFNT did change neither cognitive performance, nor alpha-activity, nor HRV indices. ANT reduces activation in cognitive load, and this effect persists for a month.

  18. Stability-indicating micellar electrokinetic chromatography technique for simultaneous measurement of delapril and manidipine from a combination drug formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeschini, Vítor; Sangoi, Maximiliano da Silva; Meira, Alianise da Silva; Miron, Diogo; Lange, Alini Dall Cortivo; Volpato, Nadia Maria

    2014-01-01

    A stability-indicating micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of delapril (DEL) and manidipine (MAN) using salicylic acid as an internal standard. The MEKC method was performed using a fused-silica capillary (effective length of 72 cm) with 50 mM of borate buffer and 5 mM of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate at pH 9.0 as the background electrolyte. The separation was achieved at 25 kV applied voltage and 35 degrees C. The injection was performed at 50 mbar for 5 s, with detection at 208 nm. The method was linear in the range of 15-150 microg/mL (r2 = 0.9966) for DEL and 5-50 microg/mL (r2 = 0.9985) for MAN with adequate results for the precision (method and its stability-indicating capability was demonstrated through forced degradation studies, which showed that there was no interference from the excipients. The Plackett-Burman experimental design was used for robustness evaluation, giving results within the acceptable range. The method was successfully applied for analysis of the drugs, and the results were compared to an LC method, resulting in nonsignificant differences (P = 0.78 and 0.84 for DEL and MAN, respectively).

  19. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2)), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2)). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their

  20. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Diaz Dilernia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death.

  1. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M.; Hilligsø, Jens Georg

    2008-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various...

  2. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Dilernia, Fernando; Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E; Gamsie, Sebastian; Taype Zamboni, Danilo E R; Carabelli, Guido S; Barla, Jorge D; Sancineto, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death.

  3. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasch, James J; Misodi, Emmanuel O

    2016-07-19

    BACKGROUND Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome.

  4. Well Leg Compartment Syndrome After Abdominal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens Krogh; Hove, Lars Dahlgaard; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a complication to abdominal surgery. We aimed to identify risk factors for and outcome of WLCS in Denmark and literature. METHODS: Prospectively collected claims to the Danish Patient Compensation Association (DPCA) concerning WLCS after abdominal...

  5. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment.

  6. Acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome in an adolescent female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlandt, A; Micheli, L

    1995-01-01

    Acute compartment syndromes usually occur as a complication of major trauma. While the chronic exertional anterior tibial compartment syndrome is well described in the sports medicine literature, reports of acute tibial compartment syndromes due to physical exertion, or repetitive microtrauma, are rare. The case of an adolescent female who developed an acute anterior compartment syndrome from running in a soccer game is described in this report. Failure to recognize the onset of an acute exertional compartment syndrome may lead to treatment delay and serious complications. Whereas the chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is characterized by pain that diminishes with the cessation of exercise, the onset of the acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome is heralded by pain that continues, or increases, after exercise has stopped. Compartment pressure measurement confirms the clinical diagnosis and helps guide treatment. True compartment syndromes require urgent fasciotomy.

  7. CASE REPORT An Unusual Case of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Resection of Extensive Posttraumatic Mesenteric Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulyato, William M.; Alsahiem, Hebah; Hall, Nigel R.; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition, which often follows trauma and is frequently symptomatic. To date, there are no reports in the literature of abdominal compartment syndrome occurring after surgical resection of mesenteric calcification. The present report documents an unusual case of compartment syndrome complicating resection of extensive mesenteric calcification despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique. Method: A 48-year-old man undergoing components-separation technique for posttraumatic laparostomy hernia repair (ileostomy reversal and sigmoid stricture correction) was found to have extensive heterotopic mesenteric calcification, which needed resection. Results: Resection of the mesenteric calcification was complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage and unplanned small bowel resection. Later the patient developed secondary hemorrhage leading to an abdominal compartment syndrome, which was successfully treated by decompression, hemostasis, and Permacol-assisted laparotomy wound closure. The patient remains symptom-free more than 2 years after surgery. Discussion: The case herein reported gives an account of the rare occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome following resection of posttraumatic ectopic mesenteric ossifications. It is highly unusual in that it occurred because of “secondary hemorrhage” and despite abdominal closure with the components-separation technique, which had been undertaken precisely to prevent compartment syndrome with direct closure. It therefore highlights the need for continued clinical vigilance in complex posttraumatic cases. PMID:23573333

  8. Type III frontal sinusotomy: surgical technique, indications, outcomes, a multi-university retrospective study of 120 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, P; Vlaminck, S; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P; Timmermans, M; Daele, J; Ransky, P; Hassid, S; Van Zele, T; Bachert, C; Poirrier, A L; Bertrand, B

    2011-01-01

    Draf in 1991. The procedure--which is also known as the modified endoscopic Lothrop procedure--aims to create the largest possible anteroposterior and lateral to lateral opening between both frontal sinuses and the nasal cavities. This requires the resection of the medial floor of both frontal sinuses, the intersinus septum and the superior nasal septum. The authors present a retrospective study including a cohort of 120 patients who underwent surgery in six Belgian university ENT departments. Mean follow-up was 24.6 months (range: 5-36 months). This paper describes the surgical procedure and reviews the indications, comorbidities, outcomes and complications of the type III frontal sinusotomy. Some correlations are also established with the data published in the worldwide literature. The authors conclude that the Draf III is a demanding procedure requiring considerable expertise in endoscopic sinus surgery. The procedure is effective with a success rate of 87.5%. Indeed, 12.5% of patients only experienced closure of the neoostium while 20% of all the patients had unchanged or worse symptomatology. The percentage of post-operative complications is 7.5%. All complications were managed successfully.

  9. Posterior indirect adhesive 
restorations: updated indications 
and the Morphology Driven 
Preparation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Marco

    The aim of this article is to identify the indications for adhesively cemented restorations and to provide a correct step-by-step protocol for clinicians. New cavity preparation principles are based on morphological considerations in terms of geometry (maximum profile line and inclination of cusp lines), and structure (dentin concavity and enamel convexity). In this article, we discuss previous preparation concepts that were not designed purely for adhesive restorations and were therefore not conservative enough or suitable for adhesive procedures. The novel cavity shape consists of continuous inclined plane cavity margins (hollow chamfer or concave bevel) on axial walls, whenever they are coronal to the equatorial tooth line. A 1.2 mm-thick butt-joint preparation is performed in the interproximal box and on the axial walls when the margins are apical to the equatorial line. The occlusal surface is anatomically prepared, free of slots and angles. The author's suggestion is to avoid shoulder finish line preparation around cusps, occlusal slots, and pins, as they are less conservative, incompatible with adhesive procedures, and involve unnecessary dentin exposure. The clinical advantages of this new "anatomic" preparation design are 1) improving adhesion quality (optimizing the cutting of enamel prisms, and increasing the available enamel surface); 2) minimizing dentin exposure; 3) maximizing hard tissue preservation (the cavity being designed for cementation with reinforced composite resins, improvement of flow, and removal of excess material); 4) optimization of esthetic integration due to the inclined plane design, which permits a better blending at the transition area between tooth and restoration. These preparation principles may be effectively used for all adhesively cemented restorations, both according to traditional concepts (inlay, onlay, overlay) and new ones (additional overlay, occlusal-veneer, overlay-veneer, long-wrap overlay, adhesive crown). Thus, a

  10. Endoscopic decompression for chronic compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christophe; Peersman, Geert; Peersman, Benjamin; Van Den Langenbergh, Tom; Valk, Jody; Richart, Tom

    2015-09-01

    Sporting activities that involve repetitive stress to muscle compartments can elicit chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Its occurrence in the lower leg muscle compartments is most common, but other locations are less well known and the pathophysiology is not completely understood. In motocross racers, chronic exertional compartment syndrome can occur in the muscles of the lower arm. Currently, the only accepted treatment of correctly diagnosed chronic exertional compartment syndrome is surgical release of the fascia, which successfully relieves pain and allows patients to return to full activity. Open decompression is considered as the gold standard of treatment. This clinical paper describes our new endoscopic technique and investigates the functional outcome after surgery. We report on a series of 154 chronic exertional compartment syndromes afflicted motocross racers treated with an endoscopic release of the lower arm muscles. An MRI scan before and after strenuous exercise of the hand flexors (repetitive grip until exhaustion for 15 min) was performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Symptom severity before and after surgery was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Preoperative symptom severity scores were 1.1 ± 0.3 before exercise and 7.4 ± 1.5 after exercise. Post-operatively, these were 1.0 ± 0.2 and 1.7 ± 0.9. The pre- versus post-operative symptom scores after exercise were significantly different (p motocross racers diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a valuable treatment option, with mild post-operative pain and fast recovery.

  11. A Single-Incision Fasciotomy for Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebraheim, Nabil A; Siddiqui, Saaid; Raberding, Craig

    2016-07-01

    Lower leg fasciotomy may be performed with a single lateral incision with or without fibulectomy, or by a double incision technique, with most surgeons preferring the later. The aim of this article is to describe a variation of an existing single-incision technique that will allow for the release of all four compartments with 1 incision. Our approach uses a paratibial route to release the deep posterior compartment (DPC) rather than a transfibular or parafibular route that has already been discussed in the literature. We approach the DPC from the anterior compartment, whereas the parafibular approach uses the posterior aspect of the fibula to reach the DPC. This affords a faster fasciotomy with a smaller flap, avoids potential damage to neurovascular bundle and among other advantages, makes its especially pragmatic for bedside fasciotomy, without the risk of injury to the peroneal nerves, which is common with dissection at the posterior aspect of the fibula.

  12. Compartment syndrome in patients with haemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, James; Goddard, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon but potentially devastating condition. Methods and results There are scattered case reports and case series in the literature of ACS in persons with haemophilia (PWH), and even fewer in PWH and inhibitors. The management of compartment syndrome in these scenarios is controversial and often anecdotal. In addition haematological outcomes are frequently quoted but functional outcomes are generally overlooked. This article aims to provide an overview of ACS and its contemporary management. We also review the literature and outcomes of patients with haemophilia who develop ACS in an effort to assess the best treatment modality. Conclusion In the majority of cases ACS settles with normalisation of the clotting cascade. Specialist haematological input is mandatory before surgical intervention should be considered, especially in PWH and inhibitors. PMID:26566325

  13. Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony

    2017-06-01

    A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.

  14. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Cheatham Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous ...

  15. Ergonomic Evaluation on Taxi Drivers Compartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimmy; SF; Chan; YW; Chui; Reggie; Kwan; K; K; Chau

    2002-01-01

    Driving involves long hours of physical work within c onfined compartment. Taxi drivers usually work with prolonged working hours, add itional stress may likely be induced on particular body limbs. Occupational heal th may occur and working efficiency may potentially be affected resulting fr om fatigues, pains or diseases. These problems, however, could be remedied if mo re attention is paid on seating design, the workplace and driving postures adopt ed. Ergonomics design can provide better understanding...

  16. Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial.

  17. Actin: its cumbersome pilgrimage through cellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Michael; Jockusch, Brigitte M

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we follow the history of one of the most abundant, most intensely studied proteins of the eukaryotic cells: actin. We report on hallmarks of its discovery, its structural and functional characterization and localization over time, and point to present days' knowledge on its position as a member of a large family. We focus on the rather puzzling number of diverse functions as proposed for actin as a dual compartment protein. Finally, we venture on some speculations as to its origin.

  18. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  19. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied.

  20. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Random walks of cytoskeletal motors in open and closed compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipowsky, R.; Klumpp, S.

    2001-01-01

    Random walks of molecular motors, which bind to and unbind from cytoskeletal filaments, are studied theoretically. The bound and unbound motors undergo directed and nondirected motion, respectively. Motors in open compartments exhibit anomalous drift velocities. Motors in closed compartments generat

  2. Isolated medial foot compartment syndrome after ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Josep; Amat, Carles; Selga, Jordi; Corona, Pablo Salvador

    2014-03-01

    Foot compartment syndrome is a serious potential complication of foot crush injury, fractures, surgery, and vascular injury. An acute compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment of the foot after suffering an ankle sprain is a rare complication. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who developed a medial foot compartment syndrome after suffering a deltoid ligament rupture at ankle while playing football. The patient underwent a medial compartment fasciotomy with resolution of symptoms. Compartment syndromes of the foot are rare and have been reported to occur after severe trauma. But, there are some reports in the literature of acute exertional compartment syndrome. In our case, the compartment syndrome appeared after an ankle sprain without vascular injuries associated. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Forest Management Prescription : Compartment 9 : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Forest Management Prescription for Compartment 9 of Mingo NWR. It provides a description of the compartment, management objectives, proposed management...

  4. Development of an indicator of propensity to energy commercial losses using geospatial statistical techniques and socio-economic data: the case of AES Eletropaulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Rezende Francisco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing importance of integrating marketing and operations indicators to enhance business performance, and the availability of sophisticated geospatial statistical techniques, this paper draws on these concepts to develop an indicator of propensity to energy commercial losses. Loss management is a strategic topic among energy distribution companies, in particular for AES Eletropaulo. In such context, this work’s objectives are: (i to appropriate spatial auto-regressive models and geographically weighted regression (GWR in measuring the cultural influence of neighborhood in customer behavior in the energy fraud act; (ii to replace slum coverage areas by a regional social vulnerability index; and (iii to associate energy loss with customer satisfaction indicators, in a spatial-temporal approach. Spatial regression techniques are revised, followed by a discussion on social vulnerability and customer satisfaction indicators. Operational data obtained from AES Eletropaulo’s geographical information systems were combined with secondary data in order to generate predictive regression models, having energy loss as the response variable. Results show that the incorporation of market and social oriented data about customers substantially contribute to explicate energy loss – the coefficient of determination in the regression models rose from 17.76% to 63.29% when the simpler model was compared to the more complex one. Suggestions are made for future work and opportunities for the replication of the methodology in comparable contexts are discussed.

  5. Percutaneous biopsies: indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouic-Pagès, Emmanuelle; Perrochia, Hélène; Millet, Ingrid; Taourel, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    Breast inflammation is a difficult clinical problem as it can result from a variety of causes: specific or non-specific infectious mastitis, which may or may not be complicated, primary or secondary inflammatory mastitis or inflammatory cancer. The main objective of radiology is to eliminate an inflammatory cancer. Other objectives are to characterise an inflammatory condition (where the clinical context is valuable in guiding diagnosis but which often requires a micro- or macrobiopsy) or to obtain a microorganism in cases of complicated infectious mastitis (a diagnostic procedure but also comprising the first stage of treatment). Whether for bacteriological or histological purposes, percutaneous samples therefore play a large part in the diagnostic procedure, other than in the clinical context of pregnancy where mastitis is more easily diagnosed because of its frequency. The guidance method is usually ultrasound, and the needle chosen will depend on the radiological or ultrasound signal: puncture with an 18G needle will be used for a bacteriological sample, microbiopsy of a mass or lymph nodes, or macrobiopsy in the case of microcalcifications. Copyright © 2011 Éditions française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Little Thought about Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is a well described entity but there have been relatively few case reports in the emergency medicine literature of hand compartment syndromes (HCS). Prompt recognition and treatment of this potential limb threat are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Presented is a case of a documented hand compartment syndrome following a motor vehicle collision. PMID:27293917

  7. Quantitative structure-property relationships of retention indices of some sulfur organic compounds using random forest technique as a variable selection and modeling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Nasser; Shahsavani, Davood; Emadi-Gandaghi, Fereshteh; Chamjangali, Mansour Arab

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a noble quantitative structure-property relationship technique is proposed on the basis of the random forest for prediction of the retention indices of some sulfur organic compounds. In order to calculate the retention indices of these compounds, the theoretical descriptors produced using their molecular structures are employed. The influence of the significant parameters affecting the capability of the developed random forest prediction power such as the number of randomly selected variables applied to split each node (m) and the number of trees (nt ) is studied to obtain the best model. After optimizing the nt and m parameters, the random forest model conducted for m = 70 and nt = 460 was found to yield the best results. The artificial neural network and multiple linear regression modeling techniques are also used to predict the retention index values for these compounds for comparison with the results of random forest model. The descriptors selected by the stepwise regression and random forest model are used to build the artificial neural network models. The results achieved showed the superiority of the random forest model over the other models for prediction of the retention indices of the studied compounds.

  8. Postsynaptic density protein 95 in the striosome and matrix compartments of the human neostriatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma eMorigaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human neostriatum consists of two functional subdivisions referred to as the striosome (patch and matrix compartments. The striosome-matrix dopamine systems play a central role in cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia circuits, and their involvement is thought to underlie the genesis of multiple movement and behavioral disorders, and of drug addiction. Human neuropathology also has shown that striosomes and matrix have differential vulnerability patterns in several striatal neurodegenerative diseases. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, also known as DLG4, is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic densities of dendritic spines. PSD-95 is now known to negatively regulate not only N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate signaling, but also dopamine D1 signals at sites of postsynaptic transmission. Accordingly, a neuroprotective role for PSD-95 against dopamine D1 receptor (D1R-mediated neurotoxicity in striatal neurodegeneration also has been suggested. Here, we used a highly sensitive immunohistochemistry technique to show that in the human neostriatum, PSD-95 is differentially concentrated in the striosome and matrix compartments, with a higher density of PSD-95 labeling in the matrix compartment than in the striosomes. This compartment-specific distribution of PSD-95 was strikingly complementary to that of D1R. In addition to the possible involvement of PSD-95-mediated synaptic function in compartment-specific dopamine signals, we suggest that the striosomes might be more susceptible to D1R-mediated neurotoxicity than the matrix compartment. This notion may provide new insight into the compartment-specific vulnerability of MSNs in striatal neurodegeneration.

  9. Enteral Feeding in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V Grigoryev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate the choice of a gastrointestinal tract (GIT function support regimen as a mode for correction of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients with different causes of inadequate GIT function of various origin and ACS (disseminated peritonitis (45%, pancreatitis (24%, and severe concomitant injury (31% were examined. Group 1 (control received complete parenteral nutritional feeding (n=23; APACHE II scores, 21±4; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 33.5%. In Group II (study, complete parenteral feeding in the first 24 hours after stabilization was supplemented with GIT function support with Pepsisorb (Nutricia in doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 ml on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=20; APACHE II scores, 20±6; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 37.1%. During early enteral nutritional support, the SOFA score was significantly less than that in Group 1 on days 2—3; the oxygenation index significantly increased on day 3; the value of intra-abdominal hypertension decreased to the control values. The positive effect of the GIT function support regimen on regression of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS was confirmed by the lowered levels of biological markers (von Willebrand factor (WF and endothelin-1 as markers of endothelial damage of MODS. Correlation analysis showed a direct correlation between the markers of endothelial damage and the SOFA scores (r=0.34; p=0.05 for WF and r=0.49;p=0.03 for endothelin. Conclusion. The GIT function support regimen via early enteral alimentation with Peptisorb, which was initiated in the first 24 hours after admission, is able to level off the manifestations of the early stages of the abdominal compartment syndrome, with the acceptable values of oxygen balance and water-electrolyte and osmotic homeostasis being achieved. Key words: abdominal compartment syndrome, nutritional support, biological markers, oxygenation index

  10. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  11. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  12. Compartment elasticity measured by pressure-related ultrasound to determine patients "at risk" for compartment syndrome: an experimental in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, Richard Martin; Hingmann, Simon Johannes; Kobbe, Philipp; Weber, Christian; Grice, John Edward; Zimmerman, Frauke; Jeromin, Sabine; Hildebrand, Frank; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. In an in vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intra-compartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mmHg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mmHg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (∆d). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mmHg) occurred. The Pearson coefficient showed a high correlation (r(2) = -0.960). The intra-observer reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete compartmental elasticity by ultrasound

  13. Forearm Compartment Syndrome of a Newborn Associated with Extravasation of Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Altan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extravasation of contrast agents is a possible complication of imaging studies. Although extravasations typically cause minimal swelling or erythema, they can lead to compartment syndrome when the volume of extravasation is high. In this article, we will present an exceptional case where an insignificant amount of contrast agent extravasation led to a forearm compartment syndrome in a newborn, who was treated with an extended fasciotomy. We would like to emphasize the preventive techniques and treatment options of this iatrogenic complication in newborns. Close followup of the patient by the nurses, awareness of the parents and the personnel in the radiology department are the most important preventive measures in this extremity-threatening complication. Forearm compartment syndrome due to contrast agent extravasation may progress more rapidly in newborns even with smaller amounts of extravasation and prompt recognition of the pathology and immediate intervention are unevitable.

  14. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  15. Mass and body composition particularities of rugby compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru OPREAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and underline the morphological particularities of Romanian professional rugby players. This aspect can contribute to the improvement of training contents. The hypothesis of this study is that body mass values of the two compartments are in conformity with the optimal standards for this sport. The study included the players of the team Stejarii București, which comprises the best players of the Romanian championship. Among the 32 tested players, 17 are forwards and 15 backs. Evaluations were done by positions, and we drafted tables with arithmetic means and standard deviations for each position. We took several anthropometric measurements for the rugby players, thus determining the qualitative level of the body mass between the two compartments. The findings indicate that players have a certain level of morphological adaptation to specific effort by the post they occupy within the team. The players feature a hypertrophy of the muscle tissue, a phenomenon specific to strength sports. However, some of the players also had a significant amount of fat mass, which contributes to less impressive performances.

  16. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus compartment syndrome following scapular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ryan M; Beiser, Christopher W; Patel, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a confined fascial space rises to a level impairing microvascular perfusion to surrounding tissues.[1234567] The majority of the reported literature is based on lower extremity compartment syndrome, but any muscle group within an osteofascial compartment has the potential to develop compartment syndrome. We report a case of a 64-year-old male who developed an acute compartment syndrome of both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus after sustaining a severely comminuted scapula fracture. Diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made after intracompartmental pressure measurements of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus revealed pressures within 30 mmHg of the diastolic blood pressure, prompting emergency decompressive fasciotomy. At final follow-up, the examination revealed full shoulder strength with near-full range of motion. There were no signs of sequelae from compartment syndrome at any point. Few case reports describe compartment syndrome of the periscapular fascial compartments. However, these cases were either retrospectively diagnosed[89] or diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and lab values.[910] Surgical management of acute compartment syndrome of the supraspinatus has been reported in only one other case.[10] To our knowledge, we report the only case of a patient with acute compartment syndrome of both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus compartments treated with emergent decompressive fasciotomy. Due to the devastating complications and functional loss of a missed diagnosis of compartment syndrome, a high index of clinical suspicion for developing compartment syndrome must be maintained in every fracture setting, regardless of anatomic location or rarity of reported cases.

  17. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  18. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M.; Jeyakumar, S.; Manimaran, A.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; Sivaram, M.; Ramesha, K. P.; Das, D. N.; Kataktalware, Mukund A.; Jayaprakash, G.; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows. PMID:28096610

  19. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M; Jeyakumar, S; Manimaran, A; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Sivaram, M; Ramesha, K P; Das, D N; Kataktalware, Mukund A; Jayaprakash, G; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  20. Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) -- Indication des états de surface dans la documentation technique de produits

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    La présente Norme internationale spécifie les règles pour l'indication des états de surface dans la documentation technique de produits (par exemple dessins, spécifications, contrats, rapports) au moyen de symboles graphiques et d'indications textuelles. Elle est applicable à l'indication des exigences sur les surfaces au moyen de paramètres de profil conformément à l'ISO 4287, relatifs au profil R (paramètres de rugosité), au profil W (paramètres d'ondulation) et au profil P (paramètres de structure), de paramètres liés aux motifs conformément à l'ISO 12085, relatifs au motif de rugosité et au motif d'ondulation, et de paramètres relatifs à la courbe du taux de longueur portante conformément à l'ISO 13565-2 et à l'ISO 13565-3. NOTE Quant à l'indication des exigences concernant les imperfections de surface (pores, stries, etc.), qui ne peuvent pas être spécifiées à l'aide des paramètres d'état de surface, référence est faite à l'ISO 8785 qui couvre les imperfections de surface...

  1. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following psoas compartment block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Zuurmond, W W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J; Osterlöf, G; Oosting, H V

    1986-02-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing hip replacement surgery under psoas compartment block combined with general anaesthesia were studied. Group 1 (n = 7) received plain and Group 2 (n = 7) received 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline. The mean maximum peak concentrations were 1.93 (SEM 0.46) micrograms/ml and 1.04 (SEM 0.19) micrograms/ml at 10 minutes in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Bupivacaine concentrations were higher at all times in the group which received plain than the group receiving solution containing adrenaline. These differences were statistically significant at 10, 15 (p less than 0.05) and 30 minutes (p less than 0.025). The highest recorded plasma bupivacaine concentration was 4.54 micrograms/ml in one patient receiving plain bupivacaine. No patient developed any signs of toxic symptoms. The duration of analgesia was longer (p less than 0.005) in the group receiving bupivacaine with adrenaline. Bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 1:200 000 is safe for psoas compartment block, and is recommended for hip surgery.

  2. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome After Prolonged Immobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscles in the gluteal region are confined by distinct fascial attachments which can potentially result in compartment syndrome. A 74-year-old chronic drinker was admitted to the medical ward after being found drunk on the street. He noticed acute painful swelling of the right side of his buttock the following morning and recalled a slip and fall prior to his blackout. The whole right half of the buttock was tense with erythematous overlying skin. Examination revealed sciatic nerve palsy and myoglobinuria. Emergency fasciotomy and debridement were performed. Intra-operative pressure measurement confirmed a grossly elevated intra-compartmental pressure. Gluteal compartment syndrome is an extremely rare condition and has only been scantily documented previously in case reports. Early diagnosis is crucial but delay recognition is common from lack of knowledge of the condition and readily results in permanent sciatic nerve injury and acute renal shutdown from myoglobinuria. Awareness of the condition, early diagnosis and prompt exploration provide the only chance of avoiding these devastating consequences. Acute swelling diffusely affecting the whole or one side of the buttock, a history of trauma and prolonged local pressure impingement associated with pain out of proportion to the clinical signs should raise a suspicion of this rare condition.

  3. Raised compartment pressures are frequently observed with tibial shaft fractures despite the absence of compartment syndrome: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kelvin Lor Kah; Sing, Nicholas Yeoh Ching; Wong, Khai Phang; Huat, Andy Wee Teck

    2017-01-01

    To measure the intracompartmental pressures surrounding tibial fractures not exhibiting any clinical evidence of compartment syndrome. Our hypothesis was that pressures often exceed the recommended threshold of fasciotomy despite the absence of compartment syndrome, and hence diagnosis based on pressure measurements alone is unreliable. Thirteen consecutive patients with closed tibial shaft fractures without clinical suspicion of compartment syndrome, and who were planned for intramedullary nailing, were prospectively enrolled. Compartment pressures ( P) in all four compartments of the affected leg were measured at the start of surgery and immediately after tibial reaming, and differential pressures (delta P) were calculated based on the diastolic blood pressure prior to induction of anaesthesia. No patients required reoperation in the post-operative period, as a result of an undiagnosed compartment syndrome. Using commonly quoted threshold pressure criteria, 62% (using P > 30 mmHg) and 23% of patients (using delta P compartment syndrome. We conclude that raised compartment pressures are frequently seen in patients with tibial shaft fractures; but in most cases, it does not equate to the presence of compartment syndrome. Diagnosis of compartment syndrome based on intracompartmental pressure measurements alone may result in unnecessary fasciotomies in a sizeable number of patients. Compartment syndrome remains a clinical diagnosis, and one which always needs to be considered when managing tibial fractures.

  4. Intramuscular compartment pressure measurement in chronic exertional compartment syndrome: new and improved diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, David; Roberts, Andrew J; Hulse, David

    2015-02-01

    Patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) have pain during exercise that subsides with rest. Diagnosis is usually confirmed by intramuscular compartment pressure (IMCP) measurement. Controversy exists regarding the accuracy of existing diagnostic criteria. (1) To compare dynamic IMCP measurement and anthropometric factors between patients with CECS and asymptomatic controls and (2) to establish the diagnostic utility of dynamic IMCP measurement. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. A total of 40 men aged 21 to 40 years were included in the study: 20 with symptoms of CECS of the anterior compartment and 20 asymptomatic controls. Diagnoses other than CECS were excluded with rigorous inclusion criteria and magnetic resonance imaging. The IMCP was measured continuously before, during, and after participants exercised on a treadmill, wearing identical footwear and carrying a 15-kg load. Pain experienced by study subjects increased incrementally as the study progressed (P compartment IMCP is elevated immediately upon standing at rest in subjects with CECS. In patients with symptoms consistent with CECS, diagnostic utility of IMCP measurement is improved when measured continuously during exercise. A cutoff of 105 mm Hg in phase 2 provides better diagnostic accuracy than do the Pedowitz criteria of 30 mm Hg and 20 mm Hg at 1 and 5 minutes after exercise, respectively. © 2014 The Author(s).

  5. Role of Repeat Muscle Compartment Pressure Measurements in Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P. M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Teijink, Joep A. W.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic gold standard for diagnosing chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurement of the muscle. The potential role of a repeat ICP (re-ICP) measurement in patients with persistent lower leg symptoms after surgical decompression or with ongoing symptoms after an earlier normal ICP is unknown. Purpose: To study whether re-ICP measurements in patients with persistent CECS-like symptoms of the lower leg may contribute to the diagnosis of CECS after both surgical decompression and a previously normal ICP measurement. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Charts of patients who underwent re-ICP measurement of lower leg compartments (anterior [ant], deep posterior [dp], and/or lateral [lat] compartments) between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. CECS was diagnosed on the basis of generally accepted cutoff pressures for newly onset CECS (Pedowitz criteria: ICP at rest ≥15 mmHg, ≥30 mmHg after 1 minute, or ≥20 mmHg 5 minutes after a provocative test). Factors predicting recurrent CECS after surgery or after a previously normal ICP measurement were analyzed. Results: A total of 1714 ICP measurements were taken in 1513 patients with suspected CECS over a 13-year observation period. In all, 201 (12%) tests were re-ICP measurements for persistent lower leg symptoms. Based on the proposed ICP cutoff values, CECS recurrence was diagnosed in 16 of 62 previously operated compartments (recurrence rate, 26%; 53 patients [64% female]; median age, 24 years; age range, 15-78 years). Recurrence rates were not different among the 3 lower leg CECS compartments (ant-CECS, 17%; dp-CECS, 33%; lat-CECS, 30%; χ2 = 1.928, P = .381). Sex (χ2 = 0.058, P = .810), age (U = 378, z = 1.840, P = .066), bilaterality (χ2 = 0.019, P = .889), and prefasciotomy ICP did not predict recurrence. Re-ICP measurements evaluating 20 compartments with previously normal ICP measurements (15

  6. Role of Repeat Muscle Compartment Pressure Measurements in Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P M; de Bruijn, Johan A; Winkes, Michiel B; Hoogeveen, Adwin R; Teijink, Joep A W; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2017-06-01

    The diagnostic gold standard for diagnosing chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurement of the muscle. The potential role of a repeat ICP (re-ICP) measurement in patients with persistent lower leg symptoms after surgical decompression or with ongoing symptoms after an earlier normal ICP is unknown. To study whether re-ICP measurements in patients with persistent CECS-like symptoms of the lower leg may contribute to the diagnosis of CECS after both surgical decompression and a previously normal ICP measurement. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Charts of patients who underwent re-ICP measurement of lower leg compartments (anterior [ant], deep posterior [dp], and/or lateral [lat] compartments) between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. CECS was diagnosed on the basis of generally accepted cutoff pressures for newly onset CECS (Pedowitz criteria: ICP at rest ≥15 mmHg, ≥30 mmHg after 1 minute, or ≥20 mmHg 5 minutes after a provocative test). Factors predicting recurrent CECS after surgery or after a previously normal ICP measurement were analyzed. A total of 1714 ICP measurements were taken in 1513 patients with suspected CECS over a 13-year observation period. In all, 201 (12%) tests were re-ICP measurements for persistent lower leg symptoms. Based on the proposed ICP cutoff values, CECS recurrence was diagnosed in 16 of 62 previously operated compartments (recurrence rate, 26%; 53 patients [64% female]; median age, 24 years; age range, 15-78 years). Recurrence rates were not different among the 3 lower leg CECS compartments (ant-CECS, 17%; dp-CECS, 33%; lat-CECS, 30%; χ(2) = 1.928, P = .381). Sex (χ(2) = 0.058, P = .810), age (U = 378, z = 1.840, P = .066), bilaterality (χ(2) = 0.019, P = .889), and prefasciotomy ICP did not predict recurrence. Re-ICP measurements evaluating 20 compartments with previously normal ICP measurements (15 patients [53% female]; mean age, 31 ± 10 years

  7. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  8. Adder bite: an uncommon cause of compartment syndrome in northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Lars H; Bartscher, Tanja; Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter

    2010-09-20

    Snakebite envenomation is an uncommon condition in the northern hemisphere, but requires high vigilance with regard to both the systemic effects of the venom and the locoregional impact on the soft tissues. Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, may have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. A case of a 44-year-old man is reported. The patient was bitten in the right hand. He developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the upper limb. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgical decompression.

  9. Scenarios Approach to the Electromagnetic Exposure: The Case Study of a Train Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies identified the train compartment as the place where people can experience the highest exposure levels (still below the international guideline limits to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range. Here a possible scenario of a train compartment has been reproduced and characterized, both numerically and experimentally. A good agreement between the simulated electric field distributions and measurements has been found. Results indicate that the higher values of exposure in specific positions inside the train compartment depend on the number of active cell phones, the bad coverage condition, the cell orientation, and the presence of metallic walls. This study shows that the proposed approach, based on the scenarios characterization, may efficiently support the assessment of the individual electromagnetic exposure.

  10. Scenarios approach to the electromagnetic exposure: the case study of a train compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffi, A; Apollonio, F; Pinto, R; Liberti, M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies identified the train compartment as the place where people can experience the highest exposure levels (still below the international guideline limits) to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range. Here a possible scenario of a train compartment has been reproduced and characterized, both numerically and experimentally. A good agreement between the simulated electric field distributions and measurements has been found. Results indicate that the higher values of exposure in specific positions inside the train compartment depend on the number of active cell phones, the bad coverage condition, the cell orientation, and the presence of metallic walls. This study shows that the proposed approach, based on the scenarios characterization, may efficiently support the assessment of the individual electromagnetic exposure.

  11. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  12. The upper hand on compartment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, Roisin T

    2012-11-01

    Metacarpal fractures are common injuries, accounting for approximately 30% to 40% of all hand fractures and with a lifetime incidence of 2.5%. Traditionally regarded as an innocuous injury, metacarpal fractures tend to be associated with successful outcomes after closed reduction and immobilization. Hand compartment syndrome (HCS) is a rare clinical entity with potential devastating consequences in terms of loss of function and quality-of-life outcomes. We discuss the case of a 44-year-old woman presenting with multiple closed metacarpal fractures as a result of low-energy trauma, complicated by acute HCS. We review the presentation, clinical assessment, and optimal surgical management of acute HCS with reference to international literature.

  13. Microbial diversity in different compartments of an aquaponics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmautz, Zala; Graber, Andreas; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Goesmann, Alexander; Junge, Ranka; Smits, Theo H M

    2017-01-10

    Aquaponics is a solution for sustainable production of fish and plants in a single semi-closed system, where nutrient-rich water from the aquaculture provides nutrients for plant growth. We examined the microbial communities within an experimental aquaponics system. Whereas the fish feces contained a separate community dominated by bacteria of the genus Cetobacterium, the samples from plant roots, biofilter, and periphyton were more similar to each other, while the communities were more diverse. Detailed examination of the data gave the first indications to functional groups of organisms in the different compartments of the aquaponic system. As other nitrifiers other than members of the genus Nitrospira were only present at low numbers, it was anticipated that Nitrospirae may perform the nitrification process in the biofilm.

  14. Elementary Physics Considerations Indicate an Elegant Construction Technique For the Pyramids At Giza. Our Information Indicates They and the Sphinx Were Engineered and Built Around BCE 2500, Not Earlier!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Archimedes articulated an applied physics experience of many children who observe the upward movement of floating objects when they get into their "tubs." This same principle can effectively allow massive Egyptian construction blocks and obelisks to be elevated and erected. Platform bases at Giza were leveled by means of water channels that were cut into the rock. There is a canal behind the pyramids. The bathtub technique can elevate or transport the water-borne block (or obelisk) to sites involved, including the Sphinx temple. Water outflow from the barge locks (tubs) can erode Sphinx surrounds, without invoking 7000+ year-ago rainy weather. Our previously detailed account of how constellations, Canis Major, Phoenix, Leo can be detected at sites like America's Stonehenge, while they are below the local horizon, also indicates ancient Egyptians may have done likewise. Orion, or Leo the Sphinx could have been detected while they were in the "underground," around BCE 2500, in alignments otherwise requiring a date of BCE 1050.

  15. Production of compartmented cultures of rat sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campenot, Robert B; Lund, Karen; Mok, Sue-Ann

    2009-01-01

    The compartmented culture, in which primary neurons plated in a proximal compartment send their axons under silicone grease barriers and into left and right distal compartments, has enhanced the experimental capabilities of neuronal cultures. Treatments can be applied separately to cell bodies/proximal axons or distal axons, and cell bodies/proximal axons and distal axons can be separately harvested and analyzed. Distal axons can be axotomized, and the neurons can be studied while their axons regenerate. Construction of the culture dishes requires 3 h for 48 cultures, and preparing the neurons also requires 3 h. Compartmented cultures provide enough cellular material for biochemical analyses such as immunoblotting. The uses of compartmented cultures have included studies of neurotrophic factor retrograde signaling, axonal transport, and axonal protein and lipid biosynthesis. Here we focus on sympathetic neurons cultured from neonatal rats and provide protocols for the production and some of the uses of compartmented cultures.

  16. Compartment syndrome can also be seen in the forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Broholm, Rikke; Bülow, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome is a challenge for the clinician and symptomatic similar to neuropathies, tenosynovitis, stress fractures and referred pain from lumbar cervicalis. Thus, chronic compartment syndrome of the upper extremities is probably an underdiagnosed condition. In patients...... with stress-induced pain in the upper limbs, chronic compartment syndrome should be considered - particularly in young patients with high physical activity. Despite limited literature, the effect of surgical treatment is promising....

  17. Compartment syndrome after hypocalcemic tetany: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Richard; Burghardt, Rolf D; Herzenberg, John E; Zuckerberg, Aaron L

    2008-09-01

    Compartment syndrome results from pathologically elevated muscle tissue pressure within a closed space. It is almost always related to either trauma or reperfusion after loss of arterial inflow from occlusion of a major blood vessel. We present an unusual case of nontraumatic and nonvascular compartment syndrome after hypocalcemia-induced sustained tetany in a 2-year-10-month-old male child after a neuroblastoma tumor resection. This particular cause of compartment syndrome has been described only once before in an adult patient.

  18. An Update on the Anatomy of the Forehead Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Mian, Asima; Sykes, Jonathan M; Redka-Swoboda, Wolfgang; Ladinger, Andrea; Pavicic, Tatjana; Schenck, Thilo L; Benslimane, Fahd; Ingallina, Fabio; Schlattau, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The forehead is one of the most frequent locations for neuromodulator and soft tissue filler applications; however, the underlying anatomy is still poorly understood. Thus far, the presence of deep forehead compartments has not been confirmed. Twenty Caucasian cephalic specimens, 15 fresh frozen (six female and nine male) and five with formalin-phenol embalmment (three female and two male) were investigated using contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scans, dye injections, and anatomical dissections. Three superficial (one central and two lateral) and three deep (one central and two lateral) forehead compartments were identified. The superficial fat compartments were found within the subcutaneous fat tissue (layer 2) and measured 2.1 × 4.6 mm for the superficial central forehead compartments and the right superficial lateral forehead compartments and 2.6 × 3.2 cm for the left superficial lateral forehead compartments, with a mean volume of 2.5, 3.1, and 3.4 cc, respectively. The deep fat compartments were identified deep to the frontalis muscle but superficial to the periosteum with an extent of 6.4 × 5.9 cm for the deep central forehead compartments, 2.6 × 5.8 cm for the right deep lateral forehead compartments, and 2.7 × 5.8 cm for the left deep lateral forehead compartments, and a mean volume of 9.1, 1.6, and 1.4 cc, respectively. The results presented in this study increase the understanding of the forehead anatomy. Understanding the presence of the superficial and the deep forehead compartments allows one to change the signs of frontal aging. The deep forehead compartments are in general avascular planes and permit blunt dissection for access to the supraorbital region.

  19. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large cabinet walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other than...

  20. The myofascial compartments of the foot: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Z X; Kumar, V P

    2008-08-01

    Compartment syndrome of the foot requires urgent surgical treatment. Currently, there is still no agreement on the number and location of the myofascial compartments of the foot. The aim of this cadaver study was to provide an anatomical basis for surgical decompression in the event of compartment syndrome. We found that there were three tough vertical fascial septae that extended from the hindfoot to the midfoot on the plantar aspect of the foot. These septae separated the posterior half of the foot into three compartments. The medial compartment containing the abductor hallucis was surrounded medially by skin and subcutaneous fat and laterally by the medial septum. The intermediate compartment, containing the flexor digitorum brevis and the quadratus plantae more deeply, was surrounded by the medial septum medially, the intermediate septum laterally and the main plantar aponeurosis on its plantar aspect. The lateral compartment containing the abductor digiti minimi was surrounded medially by the intermediate septum, laterally by the lateral septum and on its plantar aspect by the lateral band of the main plantar aponeurosis. No distinct myofascial compartments exist in the forefoot. Based on our findings, in theory, fasciotomy of the hindfoot compartments through a modified medial incision would be sufficient to decompress the foot.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Plant Prevacuolar and Endosomal Compartments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) and endosomal compartments are membrane-bound organelles mediating protein traffic to vacuoles in the secretory and endocytic pathways of plant cells. Over the years, great progress has been made towards our understanding in these two compartments in plant cells. In this review, we will summarize our contributions toward the identification and characterization of plant prevacuolar and endosomal compartments. Our studies will serve as important steps in future molecular characterization of PVC biogenesis and PVC-mediated protein trafficking in plant cells.

  2. Compartment Syndrome After Varicose Vein Surgery Evidenced by CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Kim, Maru

    2016-03-01

    A 21-year-old man developed compartment syndrome after a varicose vein surgery. Because of a lack of appropriate diagnostic apparatus, it was not possible to measure calf pressure. The only diagnostic tool available was computed tomography (CT). With the aid of CT, faster diagnosis of the compartment syndrome was possible, leading to appropriate management. By providing unique CT images of a patient before and after having compartment syndrome and after a fasciotomy, this study could add valuable references for diagnosis of compartment syndrome using CT. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis: emergency management of orbital compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowh, Adam D; Ufberg, Jacob W; Chan, Theodore C; Vilke, Gary M; Harrigan, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Orbital compartment syndrome is a sight-threatening emergency. Vision may be preserved when timely intervention is performed. To present a case of orbital compartment syndrome caused by traumatic retrobulbar hemorrhage and the procedure of lateral canthotomy and cantholysis, reviewed with photographic illustration. Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis are readily performed at the bedside with simple instruments. The procedure may prevent irreversible blindness in cases of acute orbital compartment syndrome. Emergency physicians should be familiar with lateral canthotomy and cantholysis in the management of orbital compartment syndrome to minimize the chance of irreversible visual loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Basin Geomorphology and Drainage Morphometry Parame-ters Used as Indicators for Groundwater Prospect:Insight from Geographical Information System (GIS) Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar Avinash; B Deepika; K S Jayappa

    2014-01-01

    Influence of structural and lithological controls of various drainage patterns and their stream orientations (for 2nd, 3rd and 4th order steams) were identified to evaluate the direction and controlling factors of drainage network. To investigate the prospect of groundwater, hydrogeomor-phological features of river basin viz. Mulki-Pavanje were identified and mapped. To evaluate the characteristics of the basin, different morphometric parameters (linear, areal and relief) were com-puted in sub-basin wise (SB-I to -VII). The linear parameters suggest drainage network is controlled by geomorphology. The form factor (Ff), elongation ratio (Re) and circularity ratio (Rc) suggest that the basin is in an elongated shape. The drainage density (Dd) indicates resistant/permeable strata un-der medium-dense vegetation with moderate relief. The areal parameters of the sub-basins (except SB-I and III) indicates moderate ground-slopes associated with moderately permeable rocks, which pro-mote moderate run-off and infiltration. Drainage texture (T) of the whole basin indicates coarse tex-ture while the SB-I, and III showing an intermediate texture. The relief parameters namely rugged-ness number (Rn) infers low basin relief and poor drainage density. To identify the most deficit/surplus zones of groundwater suitable weightages were assigned to the hydrogeomorphological units and morphometric parameters. The study reveal that the basin manifest that SB-III shall be most deficit zone of groundwater, whereas SB-VII, VI and V are found to show increase in groundwater potential-ity. Groundwater prospect area in this basin is estimated to be 7% area under poor, 44% area under moderate and 49% area under good to excellent. This paper demonstrated the potential application of geographical information system (GIS) techniques to evaluate the groundwater prospect in absence of traditional groundwater monitoring data.

  5. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Several Different Fat Compartments in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemicals that store in lipid-rich compartments have the potential for long-term disruption of metabolic and endocrine processes. Given the evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs also alter systemic metabolic, endocrine, and immune system functions, it follows that elevated chemical concentrations in intra-abdominal fat may alter function, through local chemical signaling, of visceral organs. Despite this potential, there has been little study defining POP concentrations in live human intra-abdominal fat. It is at present uncertain whether POPs distribute equally to all fat compartments, including fat in serum. Methods. Seven human subjects scheduled for elective surgery for benign lesions or cancer provided consent for removal of samples of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat and/or cancerous tissue. These samples were analyzed for 22 chlorinated pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners by GC/ECD plus GC/MS. Results. In only two subjects were the patterns and relative concentrations of PCBs and pesticides about the same in all fat compartments. In the other subjects, there were major differences in levels in subcutaneous as compared to other compartments, but with some higher and some lower. While the pattern of PCBs in the various compartments matched that of the pesticides in some, it was opposite in others. Interpretation. These results demonstrate a complicated distribution of PCB congeners and pesticides in various lipid compartments. The difference may reflect various Kows, different rates of metabolism, and/or different lengths of exposure. But the results suggest that contaminant levels in serum or even subcutaneous fat do not necessarily indicate concentrations and patterns in other kinds of adipose tissue.

  6. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks....

  7. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks....

  8. Mannitol extravasation during partial nephrectomy leading to forearm compartment syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Yap,Ronald L.; Pazona,Joseph F.; Hartigan,Brian J.; Smith, Norm D.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first known complication of forearm compartment syndrome after mannitol infusion during partial nephrectomy. We stress the importance of excellent intravenous catheter access and constant visual monitoring of the intravenous catheter site during and after mannitol infusion as ways to prevent this complication. Prompt recognition of compartment syndrome with appropriate intervention can prevent long-term sequelae.

  9. Compartment Syndrome of the Arm After Cable-Wakeboard Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse-Hofmann, Minke G; Steenvoorde, Pascal; van Doorn, Louk; Zeillemaker, Anneke

    2009-02-01

    A compartment syndrome is an increased tissue pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment. This compromises blood flow to the muscles and nerves within that compartment, which -if not treated adequately in an early stage-results in permanent tissue and nerve damage. It most frequently occurs in the lower leg, but can also occur elsewhere when muscles are enclosed in tight fascial compartments, such as the forearm and hand. In this report a patient is described who developed an acute compartment syndrome of the arm after a cable-wakeboard accident in which his arm was strangulated. Cable-wakeboarding is an extreme sport that has become very popular over the last years. Early recognition and treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is of extreme importance since in short term necrotic muscles can lead to severe irreversible complications. Accidents with cable-wakeboarding often occur during the start. This is caused by the strong forces that are on the cable during the start. Strangulation injuries of the arm can cause a compartment syndrome of the arm. Possibly a wet-suit or dry-suit offers some protection. However, the duration of strangulation determines much of the damage. Although diagnosis of a compartment syndrome can be difficult, a high index of suspicion combined with fast and adequate treatment with a fasciotomy improve outcome and prognosis.

  10. Mannitol extravasation during partial nephrectomy leading to forearm compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A. Erickson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first known complication of forearm compartment syndrome after mannitol infusion during partial nephrectomy. We stress the importance of excellent intravenous catheter access and constant visual monitoring of the intravenous catheter site during and after mannitol infusion as ways to prevent this complication. Prompt recognition of compartment syndrome with appropriate intervention can prevent long-term sequelae.

  11. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Hand in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanagho, Andy; Hatab, Sameh; Youssef, Sally; Ansara, Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Compartment syndrome refers to a condition of compromised circulation within a limited space due to increased pressure within that space. The reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced venous drainage, leading to increased interstitial tissue pressure and subsequent compromised arterial flow. Although not as common as compartment syndrome of the leg and forearm, compartment syndrome of the hand is not rare and can lead to devastating sequelae as a result of tissue necrosis. Compartment syndrome of the hand has several etiologies, including trauma, arterial injury, thermal injury, and constrictive bandaging. The cardinal clinical sign is pain that is aggravated by passive stretching of the muscles within the involved compartments. Extremity function is usually restored with expeditious fasciotomy of the involved myofascial compartments, and complications, such as intrinsic muscular dysfunction and Volkmann's ischemic contracture, can usually be prevented. There are no reported cases of compartment syndrome of the hand in patients with systemic sclerosis or Raynaud's phenomenon. Systemic sclerosis is a form of scleroderma that affects the skin and internal organs. The limited cutaneous subset affects the skin of the extremities but is associated with a set of characteristic features that includes calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. This report describes an unusual case of a patient who had spontaneous compartment syndrome of the hand. The patient's concomitant limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis may have played a role in this unusual occurrence. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture, and the symptoms resolved after surgical decompression. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Radiographic predictors of compartment syndrome in tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziran, Bruce H; Becher, Stephen John

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the relationship of radiographic features of tibial plateau fractures to the development of compartment syndrome. We hypothesized that the direction and degree of initial displacement of the femur on the tibia, and the amount of tibial widening (TW), were correlated with the development of compartment syndrome. Retrospective case-control study. Single level 1 trauma center. Retrospective evaluation of 158 patients with 162 plateau fractures. Grouping with and without compartment syndrome. The following data were obtained: age, sex, Schatzker and OTA/AO classification, open/closed status, TW, and femoral displacement (FD). A univariate statistical and a logistical regression analysis were performed to determine significance. The overall rate of compartment syndrome was 11%. Univariate analysis found both the TW and FD to be significant with respect to development of compartment syndrome (P compartment syndrome. Logistic regression found FD and Schatzker grade to be significant. Our study is the first to identify easily obtained radiographic parameters that correlate to the occurrence compartment syndrome. There may also be a relationship between TW and FD, as noted by regression result. This study helps to assess which patients with a fracture are at higher risk for developing a compartment syndrome. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a Healthy Young Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sonia V; Duarte, Manuel A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented with symptoms of exercise-induced compartment syndrome and was later referred for bilateral fasciotomy surgery. A 21-year-old patient presented for chiropractic care with the inability to run due to foot paresthesia and weakness. An exertion test and compartment pressure test diagnosed exercise-induced compartment syndrome. Exertion test and compartment pressure test were used to identify and diagnose exercise-induced compartment syndrome. The patient was diagnosed with exercise-induced compartment syndrome. He was treated conservatively and referred for additional testing. The orthopedic surgeon requested that 12 weeks of conservative care be provided prior to testing; treatment consisted of chiropractic care and rehabilitation exercises. Following the 12 weeks of treatment, the patient did not significantly respond to conservative care. A compartment pressure test confirmed the initial diagnosis of exercise-induced compartment syndrome. The patient underwent a unilateral fasciotomy surgery and recovered fully. Following the surgery, the patient returned to the chiropractic clinic with the same presentation in the contralateral leg. The same protocol of management resulted in the same outcome. Two years after surgical intervention, the patient continues to maintain an active lifestyle, able to run 2 to 3 miles per day without any exacerbations or symptomatology. Clinical awareness, a detailed history, and thorough examination with reproduction of symptomatology are necessary to form a proper diagnosis and treatment plan for these patients. Therefore, multidisciplinary medical communication would prove to be the most beneficial approach for the patient.

  14. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  15. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  16. The effects of interaction compartments on stability for competitive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozdilsky, Ian D; Stone, Lewi; Solow, Andrew

    2004-03-21

    The interactions between species are unlikely to be randomly arranged, and there is increasing evidence that most interactions occur within small species sub-groups, or compartments, that do not strongly interact with one another. We examine whether arranging the interactions of a competitive system into compartments influences the system properties of linear stability, feasibility, reactivity, and biomass stability, thereby altering the likelihood of species persistence. Model Lotka-Volterra systems of diffuse competition were analysed with interactions arranged randomly and in compartments. It was found, using a variety of dynamical measures, that arranging interactions into compartments enhances the likelihood of species persistence. Since many natural competitive systems appear to have interactions arranged within compartments, this may be an outcome of the positive attributes that this form of organization offers.

  17. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered.

  18. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Model Chronic Compartment Syndrome In Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is characterized by muscle ischemia, usually in the anterior oompartment of the leg, caused by high intramuscular pressure during exercise. Dual-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an optical technique that allows noninvasive tracking of variations in muscle tissue oxygenation (Chance et al., 1988). We hypothesized that with a model CCS, muscle tissue oxygenation will show a greater decline during exercise and a slower recovery post-exercise than under normal conditions.

  19. Indication of the Expression of Transgene in Rice Plant Based on Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technique Ⅱ-Growth Monitoring of Samples in the Contrast Experiment%Indication of the Expression of Transgene in Rice Plant Based on Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technique Ⅱ——Growth Monitoring of Samples in the Contrast Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ru; CHEN Jin-song; YUAN Ding-yang; LIN Hui; TAN Yan-ning; YUE Yue-min

    2011-01-01

    Since the complication of monitoring and evaluating the problems about the transgenic expression and its impacts on the receptor in the transgenic crop breeding and other relevant evaluated works, the authors in the present work tried to assess the differences of spectral parameters of the transgenic rice in contrast with its parent group quantitatively and qualitatively, fulfilling the growth monitoring of the transgenic samples.The spectral parameters (spectral morphological characteristics and indices) chosen are highly related to internal or external stresses to the receipts, and thus could be applied as indicators of biophysical or biochemical processes changes of plant. By ASD portable field spectroradiometer with high-density probe, fine foliar spectra of 8 groups were obtained. By analyzing spectral angle and continuum removal, the spectral morphological differences and their locations of sample spectra were found which could be as auxiliary priori knowledge for quantitative analysis. By investigating spectral indices of the samples, the quantitative differences of spectra were revealed about foliar chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid content. In this study both the spectral differences between transgenic and parent groups and among transgenic groups were investigated. The results show that hyperspectral technique is promising and a helpful auxiliary tool in the study of monitoring the transgenic crop and other relevant researches. By this technique, quantitative and qualitative results of sample spectra could be provided as prior knowledge, as certain orientation, for laboratory professional advanced transgenic breeding study.

  20. Functional outcome of tibial fracture with acute compartment syndrome and correlation to deep posterior compartment pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Naik, Monappa A; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Rao, Sharath K

    2017-05-18

    To measure single baseline deep posterior compartment pressure in tibial fracture complicated by acute compartment syndrome (ACS) and to correlate it with functional outcome. Thirty-two tibial fractures with ACS were evaluated clinically and the deep posterior compartment pressure was measured. Urgent fasciotomy was needed in 30 patients. Definite surgical fixation was performed either primarily or once fasciotomy wound was healthy. The patients were followed up at 3 mo, 6 mo and one year. At one year, the functional outcome [lower extremity functional scale (LEFS)] and complications were assessed. Three limbs were amputated. In remaining 29 patients, the average times for clinical and radiological union were 25.2 ± 10.9 wk (10 to 54 wk) and 23.8 ± 9.2 wk (12 to 52 wk) respectively. Nine patients had delayed union and 2 had nonunion who needed bone grafting to augment healing. Most common complaint at follow up was ankle stiffness (76%) that caused difficulty in walking, running and squatting. Of 21 patients who had paralysis at diagnosis, 13 (62%) did not recover and additional five patients developed paralysis at follow-up. On LEFS evaluation, there were 14 patients (48.3%) with severe disability, 10 patients (34.5%) with moderate disability and 5 patients (17.2%) with minimal disability. The mean pressures in patients with minimal disability, moderate disability and severe disability were 37.8, 48.4 and 58.79 mmHg respectively (P < 0.001). ACS in tibial fractures causes severe functional disability in majority of patients. These patients are prone for delayed union and nonunion; however, long term disability is mainly because of severe soft tissue contracture. Intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) correlates with functional disability; patients with relatively high ICP are prone for poor functional outcome.

  1. Compartment syndrome causes systemic inflammation in a rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawendy, A-R; Bihari, A; Sanders, D W; Badhwar, A; Cepinskas, G

    2016-08-01

    Compartment syndrome results from increased intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) causing local tissue ischaemia and cell death, but the systemic effects are not well described. We hypothesised that compartment syndrome would have a profound effect not only on the affected limb, but also on remote organs. Using a rat model of compartment syndrome, its systemic effects on the viability of hepatocytes and on inflammation and circulation were directly visualised using intravital video microscopy. We found that hepatocellular injury was significantly higher in the compartment syndrome group (192 PI-labelled cells/10(-1) mm(3), standard error of the mean (sem) 51) compared with controls (30 PI-labelled cells/10(-1) mm(3), sem 12, p compartment syndrome group (5 leukocytes/30s/10 000 μm(2), sem 1) than controls (0.2 leukocytes/30 s/10 000 μm(2), sem 0.2, p Compartment syndrome can be accompanied by severe systemic inflammation and end organ damage. This study provides evidence of the relationship between compartment syndrome in a limb and systemic inflammation and dysfunction in a remote organ. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016; 98-B:1132-7. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  3. Treatment of Atypical Compartment Syndrome Due to Proteus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Justin; Bhat, Suneel; Miller, Andrew J; Hoffman, Ryan; Wang, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is an orthopedic emergency with a multitude of etiologies. Although it is most commonly associated with trauma to the extremity, hematoma and infection are 2 rare etiologies of insidious compartment syndrome. Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic gram-negative species that can infect the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and open wounds. The authors present the case of a 69-year-old woman who developed tissue necrosis and compartment syndrome secondary to an untreated hematoma infected by P mirabilis. This case involves an atypical presentation caused by an untreated infected hematoma, emphasizing the need for a high index of suspicion. Current literature supports immediate surgical intervention in the clinical scenario of fulminant compartment syndrome, regardless of compartment pressure findings. The probability of compartment syndrome in the patient presenting with pain, paresthesias, paresis, and pain with passive stretch, all of which were positive findings in this patient, has been reported to be 98%. Thus, Doppler evaluation and intercompartmental pressures were considered but forgone to expedite operative treatment. Emergent 4-compartment fasciotomies, with excision and debridement of nonviable tissue, are potentially limb-saving procedures, intended to limit loss of function and obviate the need for lower extremity amputation. The decision was made to perform a dual-incision fasciotomy to avoid contamination of the uninvolved compartments with a standard single-incision approach. To date, this represents the first report in the English literature of the insidious onset of tissue necrosis secondary to a Proteus-infected hematoma, highlighting a unique etiology of atypical compartment syndrome. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e176-e178.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Silent compartment syndrome in children: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher; Lightdale-Miric, Nina; Chang, Emory; Kay, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Compartment syndrome does not always present classically in the pediatric population, making clinical diagnosis uniquely challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome that may help risk-stratify pediatric patients upon presentation, as well as to report outcomes of 'silent' compartment syndrome in children. A retrospective review of cases of 'silent' compartment syndrome at a level I pediatric trauma center between 2000 and 2010 was conducted. Patient demographics and clinical data were reviewed, including complications and patient outcomes. Radiographs taken at presentation, on intraoperative fluoroscopy, and at postoperative follow-up were reviewed for fracture type, and severity and outcome analyses. Five patients were found to have compartment syndrome without the presence of significant pain at rest or on passive range of motion. The study included three male and two female patients with a median age of 7 years. Three upper-extremity and two lower-extremity fractures were involved. The mean time from presentation to surgery was 14 h. At presentation, three of five patients had muscle paralysis, whereas at diagnosis of compartment syndrome, four of five had paralysis. Of the classic five P's, a maximum of two were found at diagnosis. The mean clinical follow-up period was 11 months (2-26 months). Long-term complications from compartment syndrome were found in one of five patients, who at the most recent follow-up, continued to be debilitated. This study reviews a series of cases of 'silent' compartment syndrome and confirms its atypical presentation. It is recommended that caution be used when assessing fractures with high risk for compartment syndrome in children, especially those complicated by nerve injury, as they do not always present in the classic manner, with missed diagnosis leading to significant functional deficits. IV.

  5. Stochastic Turing patterns: analysis of compartment-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-12-01

    Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  6. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O’Brien, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. PMID:20858378

  7. The Psoas Compartment Block for Hip Surgery: The Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. de Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A posterior lumbar plexus block or psoas compartment block (PCB is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the entire lower extremity including the hip. Since the first description in the early seventies, this technique has been modified based on advanced knowledge of the anatomical localization of the lumbar plexus and the improvement of technical equipment. This paper provides an overview of the history, clinical efficacy, and risk profile of the PCB focused on hip surgery. Current status and future expectations are discussed.

  8. Electrical Identification and Selective Microstimulation of Neuronal Compartments Based on Features of Extracellular Action Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivojevic, Milos; Jäckel, David; Altermatt, Michael; Müller, Jan; Viswam, Vijay; Hierlemann, Andreas; Bakkum, Douglas J.

    2016-08-01

    A detailed, high-spatiotemporal-resolution characterization of neuronal responses to local electrical fields and the capability of precise extracellular microstimulation of selected neurons are pivotal for studying and manipulating neuronal activity and circuits in networks and for developing neural prosthetics. Here, we studied cultured neocortical neurons by using high-density microelectrode arrays and optical imaging, complemented by the patch-clamp technique, and with the aim to correlate morphological and electrical features of neuronal compartments with their responsiveness to extracellular stimulation. We developed strategies to electrically identify any neuron in the network, while subcellular spatial resolution recording of extracellular action potential (AP) traces enabled their assignment to the axon initial segment (AIS), axonal arbor and proximal somatodendritic compartments. Stimulation at the AIS required low voltages and provided immediate, selective and reliable neuronal activation, whereas stimulation at the soma required high voltages and produced delayed and unreliable responses. Subthreshold stimulation at the soma depolarized the somatic membrane potential without eliciting APs.

  9. Immunogold quantification of amino acids and proteins in complex subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergersen, Linda H; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Gundersen, Vidar

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of imaging techniques are in use to study the localization of molecules involved in cell-to-cell signaling. Here we describe the use of immunogold procedures to detect and quantify molecules on electron micrographs. To measure the areas of the subcellular compartments under investigation, the protocol uses an overlay screen with an array of regularly spaced points. On the basis of this, the densities of the gold-labeled molecules can be calculated. Despite the limited lateral resolution of the immunogold method as used by many investigators ( approximately 30 nm), it is possible to measure the content of molecules associated with tiny tissue compartments, e.g., synaptic vesicles and different types of membrane, such as plasma membranes and vesicle membranes. The quantification protocol can be carried out without using computer programs. The entire protocol can be completed in approximately 15 d.

  10. Condensation within small compartments during design basis accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, D.; Cavlina, N. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); ANTOLOVIc, A. [NPP Krsko, Engineering Department, Vrbina 12, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    During design basis events (LOCA, MSLB) in containment exists possibility for additional condensation within compartments and enclosures with different electrical equipment that can result in submergence of its parts and possible malfunction. The condensation within limit switch compartments (valve actuators) and attached electrical conduits during limiting LOCA and MSLB accidents in containment was analyzed using Gothic computer code with the assumptions corresponding to the ones used to generate containment EQ profiles for thermalhydraulic EQ parameters. The outcome of the analysis is volume of the liquid within the compartment and corresponding liquid level before and after additions of bottom openings (T-drains) required to drain condensed liquid. Different compartment sizes were analyzed during different LOCA and MSLB scenarios. After addition of bottom openings maximum possible condensed liquid level can not cause actuator malfunction. (authors)

  11. Abdominal compartment syndrome successfully treated with neuromuscular blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris T Chiles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48 year old male admitted to the intensive care unit after a cardiac arrest complicated by a stroke intra-operatively during automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. He post-operatively developed a rigid abdomen, elevated peak and plateau pressures, hypoxia and renal insufficiency. He was diagnosed with abdominal compartment syndrome with an intra-abdominal compartment pressure of 40mmHg. The patient was administered 10 mg of intravenous cisatracuriumbesylate in preparation for bedside surgical abdominal decompression. Cisatracurium eliminated the patients need for surgical intervention by reducing his abdominal compartment pressures to normal and improving his hypoxia and renal function. This case illustrates that neuromuscular blockade should be attempted in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome prior to surgical intervention.

  12. Fulminant crural compartment syndrome preceded by psychogenic polydipsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Anton; Ugleholdt, Randi; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral anterolateral crural compartment syndrome elicited by hyponatraemia and psychogenic polydipsia. The unusual constellation of clinical findings and diminished pain expression made initial diagnostic procedures challenging. The possible pathogenesis and treatment options...

  13. acute compartment syndrome of the thigh without associated fracture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C.K. Lakati, FCS (Ortho) ECSA, Orthopaedic Surgeon and Lecturer, Egerton University, B.M. Ndeleva, MMed. (Ortho -Mak), FCS ... damage to the nerves and muscles in that compartment. Early diagnosis ... Quadriceps exercises were started ...

  14. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  15. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  16. The Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Current Management of Acute Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, James; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim S

    2014-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency warranting prompt evaluation and treatment. It can occur with any elevation in interstitial pressure in a closed osseo-fascial compartment. Resultant ischaemic damage may be irreversible within six hours and can result in long-term morbidity and even death. The diagnosis is largely clinical with the classical description of ‘pain out of proportion to the injury’. Compartment pressure monitors can be a helpful adjunct where the diagnosis is in doubt. Initial treatment is with the removal of any constricting dressings or casts, avoiding hypotension and optimizing tissue perfusion by keeping the limb at heart level. If symptoms persist, definitive treatment is necessary with timely surgical decompression of all the involved compartments. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of ACS. PMID:25067973

  17. A Case of Acute Atraumatic Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfraynd, Alexander; Philpott, Sheila

    2016-09-01

    In the absence of trauma, compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare. Several case reports have described compartment syndrome in the presence of trauma, comorbid medical conditions, and acute muscle overuse. Very few reports have demonstrated an acute onset of atraumatic thigh compartment syndrome. A 24-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a painful and swollen left thigh immediately after a night of dancing at a concert. He was found to have an elevated intracompartmental quadriceps pressure of 45 mm Hg in the ED, which led to his transfer to the operating room for an emergent fasciotomy. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although acute, atraumatic compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare entity, failure to diagnose it promptly can lead to muscle necrosis, permanent neurologic deficits, and amputation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis of compartment syndrome using a microwave-based detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Riechers, Ronald G., Sr.; Pasala, Krishna M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Rosner, Michael; Jarell, Abel; Yun, Catherine; Garcia-Pinto, Patricia; Song, Ki-Il; Day, Keith; Riechers, Ronald G., Jr.; Zeidman, Seth M.; Rhee, Peter; Ecklund, James M.; Fitzpatrick, Thomas; Lockhart, Stephen

    2002-07-01

    A novel method for identifying compartment syndrome is presented. This method is based on a novel device that uses electromagnetic waves in the microwave radio frequency (RF) region and a modified algorithm previously used for the estimation of the angle of arrival of radar signals. In this study, we employ this radio frequency triage tool (RAFT) to the clinical condition of compartment syndrome, which is a clinical condition where blood or edema in the muscle compartment of the leg leads to critical sichemia of that exptremity. In anesthetized pigs, RAFT, can detect changes in the RF signature from a leg is due to 2cc or greater of either blood or slaine (a surrogate of edema). These results are compared to clinical examination. RAFT is superior to clinical examination in its ability to detect compartment syndrome in pgis.

  19. Description of glucose transport in isolated bovine mammary epithelial cells by a three-compartment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changting; Quinton, V Margaret; Cant, John P

    2004-04-01

    Initial rates of glucose entry into isolated bovine mammary epithelial cells display moderate degrees of asymmetry and cooperative interactions between export and import sites. The present study examined the hypothesis that these kinetic features are due to compartmentalization of intracellular glucose. Net uptake of 3-O-methyl-d-[1-(3)H]glucose (3-OMG) by isolated bovine mammary epithelial cells was measured at 37 degrees C. The time course of 3-OMG net uptake was better fitted by a double-exponential equation than by a single- or triple-exponential equation. Compartmental analysis of the time course curve suggested that translocated 3-OMG is distributed into two compartments with fractional volumes of 32.6 +/- 5.7% and 67.4 +/- 5.7%, respectively. The results support the view that glucose transport in bovine mammary epithelial cells is a multistep process consisting of two serial steps: fast, carrier-mediated, symmetric translocation of sugar across the cell plasma membrane into a small compartment and subsequent slow exchange of posttranslocated sugar between two intracellular compartments. A three-compartment model of this system successfully simulated the observed time course of 3-OMG net uptake and the observed dependence of unidirectional entry rates on intra- and extracellular 3-OMG concentrations. Simulations indicated that backflux of radiolabeled sugar from the small compartment to extracellular space during 15 s of incubation gives rise to the apparent asymmetry, trans-stimulation, and cooperativity of mammary glucose transport kinetics. The fixed-site carrier model overestimated the rate of glucose accumulation in cells, and its features can be accounted for by the compartmentalization of intracellular sugar.

  20. Characterizing exposure to chemicals from soil vapor intrusion using a two-compartment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Though several different models have been developed for sub-surface migration, little attention has been given to the effect of subsurface transport on the indoor environment. Existing methods generally assume that a house is one well-mixed compartment. A two-compartment model was developed to better characterize this exposure pathway; the model treats the house as two well-mixed compartments, one for the basement and one for the remainder of the house. A field study was completed to quantify parameters associated with the two-compartment model, such as soil gas intrusion rates and basement to ground floor air exchange rates. Two residential test houses in Paulsboro, New Jersey were selected for this study. All experiments were completed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) as a tracer gas. Soil gas intrusion rates were found to be highly dependent on the soil gas to basement pressure difference, varying from 0.001 m 3 m -2 h -1 for a pressure drop of -0.2 Pa to 0.011 m 3 m -2 h -1 for a pressure drop of -6.0 Pa. Basement ventilation rates ranged from 0.17 to 0.75 air changes per hour (ACH) for basement to ambient pressure differences ranging from -1.1 to -7.6 Pa (relative to ambient). Application of experimental results in conjunction with the two-compartment model indicate that exposures are highly dependent on gas intrusion rates, basement ventilation rate, and fraction of time spent in the basement. These results can also be significantly different when compared with the simple well-mixed house assumption.

  1. Contralateral compartment syndrome inoculated by invasive group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiwen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is a rare but a well-documented complication in patients with trauma-induced group A streptococcus infection. Here, we present a case of a male who developed compartment syndrome on the left lower extremity after an injury inoculated by group A streptococcus on the right lower extremity. The patient was resuscitated with antibiotics, urgent fasciotomy, and immunoglobulin. The patient was eventually transferred to a burn center for further care.

  2. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as posit....... Potential risk factors and preventive initiatives are listed to reduce the risk in future patients. We describe two patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively developed well-leg compartment syndrome....

  3. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Estimating Hydrogeological Parameters in Covered Carbonate Rocks Using a Discrete-State Compartment Model and Environmental Tritium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, isotope environmental technique tends to be used as a reconnaissance tool , both qualitative and quantitative, to calculate the aquifer parameters particularly in carbonate rock aquifers. But, the heterogeneous flow is still problematic when Lumped-parameter Models are usually used to calculate the residence times and hydraulic parameters. However, Discrete-State Compartment Model can provide a powerful model to heterogeneous medium. One such study was carried on in Dazha valley, where the environmental tritium was used as a tracer for determining hydrogeological parameters based on a discrete-state compartment model.

  5. Topology Optimization of Spacecraft Transfer Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Borovikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe subject of this research is topology optimization of the adapter of a spacecraft transfer compartment. The finite element topology optimization [1] is widely used for simple structure elements [6, 7]. It is argued that using this method in conjunction with additive technology (3D - printing it is possible to create construction designs with the best weight characteristics. However, the paper shows that when applying this method to a complex construction design the optimization results are highly sensitive to optimization algorithm parameters. The goal of this research is to study parameters of the topology optimization algorithm and the influence of their variations on results.1.      Problem formulation   A commercial software Altair HyperWorks/OptiStruct (student’s license performed numerical calculations. The paper presents a detailed description of the finite element model.The main features of the proposed model are as follows:-          Simplicity with non-complicated geometry;-          Building a finite element model in terms of computing time minimization;-          Using the lumped mass elements to simulate the impacts of the conjugates on the adapter;-          A limit of material strength, decreased by an order of magnitude, to eliminate stress concentrators;-          The gravitational load applied corresponds to the loads for the Angara-A5 launcher [8]. 2.      Method of solutionA brief description of the SIMP-method realized in the Altair HyperWorks/OptiStruct software is given.3.      ResultsPerformed numerical calculations, and shown the influence of variations of algorithm parameters (DISCRETE, MATINIT, MINDIM, MAXDIM on construction design as well as the parameters SINGLE and SPLIT used to reveal restrictions on manufacturing.Shown that, depending on variations of parameters, an adapter construction strives to «truss» or «shell» type. Described

  6. Compartment Syndrome of the Gluteus Medius Occurred without Bleeding or Trauma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Gyu-Min; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Park, Jun-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Compartment syndrome is an ischemic change resulting from an increase in compartment pressure. Initially, patients present with direct tenderness and swelling, and the weak circulation secondary to compartment syndrome can eventually lead to motor and sensory impairment. If the increase in pressure results in neurological impairment, emergency intervention is required to decompress the compartment. Typically, compartment syndrome develops on forearms or lower legs. The gluteal compartment is rarely the location of compartment syndrome and only a few cases have been presented in the literature with trauma or hematoma. We have treated a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome who presented with no history of trauma or hemorrhage and present that case report here.

  7. Percutaneous thermoablation of lung metastases. Indication, techniques, first results, and imaging findings; Perkutane Laserablation von Lungenmetastasen. Indikation, technische Durchfuehrung, erste Ergebnisse und Bildbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, C.; Schuchmann, S.; Kirsch, M.; Mensel, B.; Hosten, N. [Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universtiaet Greifswald (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    Not unlike thermoablation of liver metastases, thermoablation of metastases to the lungs is gaining clinical interest. Radiofrequency ablation and laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy are both used clinically. Initially it was suspected that percutaneous treatment of lung metastases would result in a rate of pneumothoraces and tissue reactions which would not be clinically acceptable. However, this did not prove true. Fear of pneumothoraces however did lead to the desire for an applicator with a maximally reduced diameter. While clinical results are not yet available, technical success rates of laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy of lung metastases are promising. The percentage of pneumothoraces does not differ significantly from that seen in diagnostic procedures. Large metastases may be treated by simultaneous use of multiple applicators or by repositioning of an applicator (pullback technique). Surgical experience is still guiding us in deciding which primaries' metastases may be successfully treated percutaneously. The literature indicates that lung metastases from colorectal primaries are especially suited. Radiotherapy is only an alternative method in cases of lung metastases if they cause symptoms (such as pain because of thorax infiltration or difficulty in breathing because of bronchial lesion). Due to the risk of radiation-induced pneumonia general radiotherapy is not to be recommended. The possibility of stereotactic ray treatment is being considered, but because breathing shifts the metastases it is not yet feasible. Therefore, percutaneous thermoablation could be used as a minimally invasive, rather riskless therapeutic option for a relatively high percentage of inoperable lung metastases. (orig.) [German] Die Thermoablation von Lungenmetastasen ist dabei, sich aehnlich erfolgreich im klinischen Alltag zu etablieren wie die heute weit verbreitete Thermoablation von Lebermetastasen. Bei beiden Metastasierungsformen kommen die Radiofrequenz

  8. Further fMRI Validation of the Visual Half Field Technique as an Indicator of Language Laterality: A Large-Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Seurinck, Ruth; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The best established lateralized cerebral function is speech production, with the majority of the population having left hemisphere dominance. An important question is how to best assess the laterality of this function. Neuroimaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) are increasingly used in clinical settings to…

  9. Comparison of tissue oxygenation and compartment pressure following tibia fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Erik N; Manzano, Givenchy; Kandemir, Utku; Mok, James M

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the ability of direct continuous measurement of intramuscular tissue oxygenation (PmO(2)) to detect acute ischaemia in the leg in patients at risk for acute extremity compartment syndrome. Following tibia fracture treated by intramedullary nailing, we compared the proportions of PmO(2) and compartment pressure (CP) measurements that met the warning criteria for compartment syndrome. Participants included 10 patients sustaining acute isolated closed tibia shaft fractures treated by intramedullary nailing. A tissue oxygenation probe and a CP probe were percutaneously placed into the anterior compartment of the leg. PmO(2) and CP in the anterior compartment were measured in the injured leg for 48 h postoperatively. Measurements meeting the warning criteria were defined as PmO(2) 30 mmHg and perfusion pressure ΔP PmO(2) showed a CP > 30 mmHg in 50.39% of CP measurements in all patients and a PmO(2) PmO(2) measurements in two patients (P = 0.005). Comparison of ΔP and PmO(2) showed a ΔP PmO(2) PmO(2) measurements in one patient (P = 0.01). In the absence of compartment syndrome, pressure measurements following tibia fracture treated with intramedullary nailing often met the warning criteria, whereas PmO(2) did not, suggesting that measurement of intramuscular tissue oxygenation may represent a potential method for the identification of acute compartment syndrome that deserves continued investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  11. Outcome of a Specific Compartment Fasciotomy Versus a Complete Compartment Fasciotomy of the Leg in One Patient With Bilateral Anterior Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjeerdsma, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a debilitating lower extremity condition in which increased intracompartmental pressure impedes blood flow to the involved compartments of the distal lower extremity, resulting in ischemia and pain. Owing to the lack of success with conservative management, most surgeons perform complete release fasciotomy as the preferred method of fasciotomy to avoid an unsuccessful release or outcome. Studies have been performed regarding the outcomes of complete compartmental release versus specific compartmental release, but no study has been performed comparing complete fasciotomy and compartment-specific fasciotomy in a single patient. The purpose of the present case report was to compare the efficacy of a complete fasciotomy versus a specific fasciotomy in 1 patient with properly diagnosed bilateral anterior compartment chronic exertional compartment syndrome with an 18-month follow-up period. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale and both subscales of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure were administered to assess the functional outcomes. Circumferential measurements and range of motion photographs were taken to compare the objective data throughout the recovery process. In general, the range of motion, circumferential measurements, and functional outcome measure scores were better for the specific compartmental fasciotomy leg than for the complete fasciotomy leg during the recovery period. The overall functional outcomes were the same for both surgical approaches, with the specific fasciotomy leg returning to baseline function 13 to 23 days before the complete fasciotomy leg. The outcomes remained unchanged 18 months after surgery. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adder bite: an uncommon cause of compartment syndrome in northern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evers Lars H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Snakebite envenomation is an uncommon condition in the northern hemisphere, but requires high vigilance with regard to both the systemic effects of the venom and the locoregional impact on the soft tissues. Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, may have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. A case of a 44-year-old man is reported. The patient was bitten in the right hand. He developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the upper limb. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgical decompression.

  13. The concept of "compartment allergy": prilocaine injected into different skin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobser Marion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We herein present a patient with delayed-type allergic hypersensitivity against prilocaine leading to spreading eczematous dermatitis after subcutaneous injections for local anesthesia with prilocaine. Prilocaine allergy was proven by positive skin testing and subcutaneous provocation, whereas the evaluation of other local anesthetics - among them lidocaine, articaine and mepivacaine - did not exhibit any evidence for cross-reactivity. Interestingly, our patient repeatedly tolerated strictly deep subcutaneous injection of prilocaine in provocation testing while patch and superficial subcutaneous application mounted strong allergic responses. We hypothesize, that lower DC density in deeper cutaneous compartments and/or different DC subsets exhibiting distinct functional immunomodulatory properties in the various layers of the skin may confer to the observed absence of clinical reactivity against prilocaine after deep subcutaneous injection. The term compartment allergy indicates that the route of allergen administration together with the targeted immunologic environment orchestrates on the immunologic outcome: overt T-cell mediated allergy or clinical tolerance.

  14. 76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... installation of an overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not... installing an overhead flight attendant rest (OFAR) compartment creates a smaller compartment volume...

  15. Surgical Treatment of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jennifer J; Tepolt, Frances A; Miller, Patricia E; Micheli, Lyle J; Kocher, Mininder S

    2016-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a cause of leg pain in running athletes and is treated with fasciotomy after failure of nonoperative management. CECS is being seen with increased frequency in younger patients. The demographics and outcomes of fasciotomy for CECS in pediatric patients, including risk factors for treatment failure, have not been described. To describe characteristics of pediatric patients with CECS and determine surgical outcomes of the condition in this population. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed for patients 18 years and younger treated surgically for CECS with compartment release at a single institution from 1995 to 2014. Demographic and condition characteristics, operative procedure, postoperative course, and clinical outcomes were recorded for 286 legs of 155 patients. Compartment pressure testing using the Pedowitz criteria confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. A total of 155 patients were included in the study (average patient age at presentation, 16.4 ± 1.38 years); 136 (88%) were female. All 155 patients presented with leg pain; of these patients, 8 (5%) also had neurologic symptoms, and 131 (85%) presented with bilateral symptoms requiring bilateral compartment release. Symptoms were chronic in nature, with duration over 1 year in 63% of patients. The primary sport was most commonly reported as running (25%), soccer (23%), or field hockey (12%); 50% of patients were multisport athletes. Of 286 legs, 138 (48%) had only anterior and/or lateral compartments released, while 84 (29.4%) had all 4 compartments released. Documented return to sport was seen in 79.5% of patients. Outcomes analysis was performed for 250 of 286 legs. Of these 250 legs, 47 (18.8%) had recurrent CECS requiring reoperation at a median of 1.3 years (interquartile range, 0.8-3.5) after initial compartment release. For each additional month between presentation and release, the odds of recurrence decreased by 12

  16. Assessment of Malpractice Claims Associated With Acute Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, John Mason; Sargent, Rachel; Fantry, Amanda J; Bokshan, Steven L; Palumbo, Mark A; Daniels, Alan H

    2017-06-01

    Because acute compartment syndrome is one of the few limb-threatening and life-threatening orthopaedic conditions and is difficult to diagnose, it is a frequent source of litigation. Understanding the factors that lead to plaintiff verdicts and higher indemnity payments may improve patient care by identifying common pitfalls. The VerdictSearch legal claims database was queried for the term "compartment syndrome." After 46 cases were excluded for missing information or irrelevancy, 139 cases were reviewed. The effects of plaintiff demographics, mechanism of injury, and complications were assessed. Of 139 cases, 37 (27%) were settled, 69 (50%) resulted in a defendant ruling, and 33 (24%) resulted in a plaintiff ruling. Juries were more likely to rule in favor of juvenile plaintiffs than adult patients (P = 0.002) and female plaintiffs than male plaintiffs (P = 0.008), but indemnity payments were not affected by the age or sex of the plaintiff. Plaintiffs who experienced acute compartment syndrome as a complication of surgery were more likely to win their suit and receive higher awards (P compartment syndrome if the patient was a woman or child or if acute compartment syndrome developed as a complication of a surgical procedure.

  17. Elevated compartment pressures from copperhead envenomation successfully treated with antivenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Boutsikaris, Amy; Clancy, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Copperhead envenomation causes local soft tissue effects; however, associated compartment syndrome is rare. We report a case of a 17-month-old with significantly elevated compartment pressures successfully treated with antivenin and supportive care. A 17-month-old girl sustained a copperhead bite to the foot and presented with circumferential edema, erythema, and ecchymosis of the foot and distal ankle. The patient had palpable pulses and was neurologically intact. Four vials of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab was initiated and additional doses were administered in an attempt to achieve local control. Within 10 h of presentation, the patient's edema extended to the groin, although sensation was maintained and pulses were documented by Doppler. Lower-extremity compartment pressures were measured and were most notable for an anterior pressure of 85 mm Hg, despite having received 12 vials of antivenin. Fasciotomy was deferred and the patient received two additional six-vial doses of antivenin to achieve local control. Compartment pressures improved with a 2.2-cm mean decrease in limb diameter within 48 h. Maintenance dosing was initiated and the patient ultimately received a total of 26 vials of antivenin. The patient did not develop significant coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia. Swelling continued to improve with return of limb function. In this case, early and aggressive treatment with antivenin may have avoided invasive fasciotomy, and its use should be considered in patients with copperhead envenomation and significantly elevated compartment pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsah Karaoren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered.

  19. Numerical modelling of crural fascia mechanical interaction with muscular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Piero G; Pachera, Paola; Natali, Arturo N

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of the crural fascia with muscular compartments and surrounding tissues can be at the origin of different pathologies, such as compartment syndrome. This pathology consists in the onset of excessive intracompartmental pressure, which can have serious consequences for the patient, compromising blood circulation. The investigation of compartment syndrome etiology also takes into account the alteration of crural fascia mechanical properties as a cause of the syndrome, where the fascial stiffening would result in the rise of intracompartmental pressure. This work presents a computational approach toward evaluating some biomechanical aspects of the problem, within the context of a more global viewpoint. Finite element analyses of the interaction phenomena of the crural fascia with adjacent regions are reported here. This study includes the effects of a fascial stiffness increase along the proximal-distal direction and their possible clinical implications. Furthermore, the relationship between different pre-strain levels of the crural fascia in the proximal-distal direction and the rise of internal pressure in muscular compartments are considered. The numerical analyses can clarify which aspects could be directly implied in the rise of compartment syndrome, leading to greater insight into muscle-fascia mechanical phenomena, as well as promoting experimental investigation and clinical analysis of the syndrome. © IMechE 2015.

  20. Percutaneous Release of the First Dorsal Extensor Compartment: A Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Ali; Türkmen, Faik; Toker, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the efficiency of the percutaneous 18-G needle technique in releasing the fibro-osseous sheath over the first dorsal extensor compartment of the hand. Methods: Using anatomic landmarks, percutaneous release was performed with an 18-G needle on 48 wrists of 24 cadavers. The specimens were then dissected and examined for the completeness of the first dorsal extensor compartment release and any tendon or neurovascular injuries. The tunnel length, number of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, presence of an intertendinous septum, and the effects of these parameters on percutaneous release were evaluated. Results: Percutaneous release was performed on all of the wrists, and the evaluation of the adequacy of release revealed 25 complete releases, 21 partial releases, and 2 missed releases. There were 19 cases of tendon complications. No neurovascular injuries were noted. The mean tunnel length was 2.66 ± 30 cm, and the mean number of tendons was 2.75 ± 0.86. A septum was present in 33.3% of cases. Tunnel length and tendon number had no statistically significant effect on release, whereas the presence of a septum was significantly associated with inadequate tunnel release and the development of tendon complications. Conclusions: Percutaneous release of the first dorsal extensor compartment using an 18-G needle was associated with high rates of incomplete release and tendon damage in the presence of an intertendinous septum. Further study is required under ultrasound guidance to determine the usefulness of percutaneous release in the first dorsal extensor compartment. Clinical Relevance: Release with a percutaneous needle tip in De Quervain’s syndrome may provide the advantages of better cosmetic results with less scar formation and an early return to work. PMID:27826460

  1. Human immune compartment comparisons: Optimization of proliferative assays for blood and gut T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dock, Jeffrey; Hultin, Lance; Hultin, Patricia; Elliot, Julie; Yang, Otto O; Anton, Peter A; Jamieson, Beth D; Effros, Rita B

    2017-03-21

    The accumulation of peripheral blood late-differentiated memory CD8 T cells with features of replicative (cellular) senescence, including inability to proliferate in vitro, has been extensively studied. Importantly, the abundance of these cells is directly correlated with increased morbidity and mortality in older persons. Of note, peripheral blood contains only 2% of the total body lymphocyte population. By contrast, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the most extensive lymphoid organ, housing up to 60% of total body lymphocytes, but has never been assessed with respect to senescence profiles. We report here the development of a method for measuring and comparing proliferative capacity of peripheral blood and gut colorectal mucosa-derived CD8 T cells. The protocol involves a 5-day culture of mononuclear leukocyte populations, from blood and gut colorectal mucosa respectively, labeled with 5-(and 6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and stimulated with anti-CD2/3/28-linked microbeads. Variables tested and optimized as part of the protocol development include: mode of T cell stimulation, CFSE concentration, inclusion of a second proliferation marker, BrdU, culture duration, initial culture concentration, and inclusion of autologous irradiated feeder cells. Moving forward, this protocol demonstrates a significant advance in the ability of researchers to study compartment-specific differences of in vitro proliferative dynamics of CD8 T cells, as an indicator of replicative senescence and immunological aging. The study's two main novel contributions are (1) Optimization and adaptation of standard proliferative dynamics blood T cell protocols for T cells within the mucosal immune system. (2) Introduction of the novel technique of combining CFSE and BrdU staining to do so.

  2. Elastic suture (shoelace technique) for fasciotomy closure after treatment of compartmental syndrome associated to tibial fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo Sergio Martins Castelo; Cardoso Junior, Mauricio; Rotbande, Isaac; Ciraudo, José Antonio Fraga; Silva, Celso Ricardo Correa de Melo; Leal, Paulo Cesar Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the use of elastic suture as an adjuvant in surgical wound closure caused by decompressive fasciotomy after compartment syndrome associated with a compound fracture of the tibia. Widely used in other medico-surgical specialties, this technique is unusual in orthopedics surgery, but the simplicity of the procedure and the successful outcome observed in this case allows for its consideration as indicated for situations similar to that presented in this study.

  3. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... separate Crew Rest Compartments: a Flight Crew Rest Compartment (FCRC) intended to be occupied by flight crew members only, and a Cabin Crew Rest Compartment (CCRC) intended to be occupied by cabin crew...

  4. Oncologic imaging. Indications for and limitations of modern cross-sectional imaging techniques; Bildgebende Methoden in der onkologischen Diagnostik. Indikationen und Limitationen moderner Schnittbildverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayerhoefer, M.E.; Ba-Ssalamah, A.; Prosch, H. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2013-04-15

    Cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) CT are an integral part of the modern oncological workup. They are used for tumor detection and staging as well as for treatment evaluation and monitoring. Due to pathophysiological and histological differences there is no universal imaging protocol for the assessment of different forms of cancer. For instance, CT is still the standard technique for the detection and staging of lung cancer supplemented by PET which aids the exclusion of nodal involvement and the detection of distant metastases. For hepatocellular carcinoma on the other hand, MRI is the preferred imaging technique, particularly when used in conjunction with liver-specific contrast media - PET/CT is only of limited value. Finally, for neuroendocrine tumors there is a focus on special radiotracers, which, in the context of PET/CT, enable a highly specific whole-body assessment. Thus, knowledge of the pathophysiological and imaging characteristics of different tumors is essential for a personalized, state-of-the art management of oncology patients. (orig.) [German] Die Schnittbildmethoden Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und Positronenemissionstomographie (PET)/CT sind aus der modernen onkologischen Diagnostik nicht mehr wegzudenken. Sie werden einerseits zur Tumorsuche und zum Staging, andererseits fuer posttherapeutische Verlaufskontrollen eingesetzt. Aufgrund der pathophysiologischen Unterschiede zwischen diversen Tumorarten existiert kein Universalrezept hinsichtlich der einzusetzenden bildgebenden Methoden. So ist die CT weiterhin die Standardtechnik fuer Detektion und Staging von Lungenkarzinomen, ergaenzt durch die PET, die den Ausschluss von Lymphknotenmetastasen sowie die Suche nach Fernmetastasen erleichtert. Fuer das hepatozellulaere Karzinom hingegen steht die MRT im Zentrum, v. a. bei Verwendung leberspezifischer

  5. A three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model can explain variable toxicities of cobra venoms and their alpha toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M; Aly, M H; Abd-Elsalam, M A; Morad, A M

    1996-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles of labelled Naja melanoleuca, Naja nivea, Naja nigricollis and Naja haje venoms and their alpha neurotoxins were determined following rapid i.v. injection into rabbits. The data obtained fitted a triexponential equation characteristic of a three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model comprising a central compartment 'blood', a rapidly equilibrating 'shallow' tissue compartment and a slowly equilibrating 'deep' tissue compartment. The distribution half-lives for the shallow compartment ranged from 3.2 to 5 min, reflecting the rapid uptake of venoms and toxins compared with 22-47 min for the deep tissue compartment denoting much slower uptake. The overall elimination half-lives, t1/2 beta, ranged from 15 to 29 hr, indicating a slow body elimination. Peak tissue concentration was reached within 15-20 min in the shallow tissue compartment. The corresponding values for the deep tissue compartment were 120 min for N. melanoleuca and N. nigricollis venoms and their toxins and 240 min for N. nivea and N. haje venoms and their toxins. Steady-state distribution between the shallow tissue compartment and the blood gave values of 0.50 and 0.92 (N. melanoleuca), 1.64 and 1.05 (N. nivea), 0.78 and 0.92 (N. nigricollis) and 1.70 and 1.03 (N. haje) for the venoms and their toxins, respectively. The corresponding values for the deep tissue compartment gave ratios of 3.31 and 3.44 (N. melanoleuca), 2.99 and 1.68 (N. nivea), 3.74 and 3.79 (N. nigricollis) and 1.39 and 2.46 (N. haje) for the venoms and their toxins, respectively. Ratios lower than unity indicate lower venom and toxin concentrations in the tissues than in the blood, while larger ratios denote higher tissue concentrations. The values thus reflect a higher affinity of the venoms and their toxins for the central than the shallow tissue compartment and for the deep tissue than the central compartment. The sites of action of the venoms seem to be located in the deep tissue compartment since most

  6. Organic nano-compartments as biomimetic reactors, and protocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Ziock, Hans-Joachim; DeClue, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    environmental conditions conducive to specific chemical reactions. In this review, we will focus mostly on this latter application. Amphiphiles that self-assemble to yield nano-compartments such as micelles, reverse-micelles and liposomes, have been used to build nanoscale reactors that can effect chemical...... reactions through spatial co-localization of the reacting species. The reacting species may include the compartment building amphiphiles themselves. These nano-compartments provide not only the conditions for the reaction to occur, but also allow the buildup of complex reaction networks by retaining primary...... reaction products which may in turn be capable of additional reactions. Ultimately, such complex systems could also serve as starting points for minimal artificial cells, i.e. protocells which would be highly simplified versions of biological cells and which might be engineered for specific tasks related...

  7. Coastal Ecosystem Integrated Compartment Model (ICM): Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meselhe, E. A.; White, E. D.; Reed, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Compartment Model (ICM) was developed as part of the 2017 Coastal Master Plan modeling effort. It is a comprehensive and numerical hydrodynamic model coupled to various geophysical process models. Simplifying assumptions related to some of the flow dynamics are applied to increase the computational efficiency of the model. The model can be used to provide insights about coastal ecosystems and evaluate restoration strategies. It builds on existing tools where possible and incorporates newly developed tools where necessary. It can perform decadal simulations (~ 50 years) across the entire Louisiana coast. It includes several improvements over the approach used to support the 2012 Master Plan, such as: additional processes in the hydrology, vegetation, wetland and barrier island morphology subroutines, increased spatial resolution, and integration of previously disparate models into a single modeling framework. The ICM includes habitat suitability indices (HSIs) to predict broad spatial patterns of habitat change, and it provides an additional integration to a dynamic fish and shellfish community model which quantitatively predicts potential changes in important fishery resources. It can be used to estimate the individual and cumulative effects of restoration and protection projects on the landscape, including a general estimate of water levels associated with flooding. The ICM is also used to examine possible impacts of climate change and future environmental scenarios (e.g. precipitation, Eustatic sea level rise, subsidence, tropical storms, etc.) on the landscape and on the effectiveness of restoration projects. The ICM code is publically accessible, and coastal restoration and protection groups interested in planning-level modeling are encouraged to explore its utility as a computationally efficient tool to examine ecosystem response to future physical or ecological changes, including the implementation of restoration and protection strategies.

  8. Imperfect pitchfork bifurcation in asymmetric two-compartment granular gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yin; Li Yin-Chang; Liu Rui; Cui Fei-Fei; Pierre Evesque; Hou Mei-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The clustering behavior of a mono-disperse granular gas is experimentally studied in an asymmetric two-compartment setup.Unlike the random clustering in either compartment in the case of symmetric configuration when lowering the shaking strength to below a critical value,the directed clustering is observed,which corresponds to an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation.Numerical solutions of the flux equation using a modified simple flux function show qualitative agreements with the experimental results.The potential application of this asymmetric structure is discussed.

  9. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh in a rugby player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard David James; Rust-March, Holly; Kluzek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of obvious trauma, diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh can easily be delayed, as disproportional pain is not always present. We present a case of ACS of the anterior right thigh compartment in a healthy, semiprofessional rugby player with normal coagulation, who sustained a seemingly innocuous blow during a rugby match. Following early surgical fasciotomy, he returned to his preinjury playing standards within 12 months. Our literature review suggests that high muscle mass, young, athletic males participating in a contact sport are mostly at risk of developing ACS of the thigh. PMID:26250368

  10. Strategies to improve the antigenicity, ultrastructure preservation and visibility of trafficking compartments in Arabidopsis tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierhof, York-Dieter; El Kasmi, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Immunolabelling of (ultra)thin thawed cryosections according to Tokuyasu is one of the most reliable and efficient immunolocalisation techniques for cells and tissues. However, chemical fixation at ambient temperature, a prerequisite of this technique, can cause problems for samples, like plant tissue, because cell walls, hydrophobic surfaces and intercellular air slow down diffusion of fixative molecules into the sample. We show that a hybrid technique, based on a combination of cryofixation/freeze-substitution and Tokuyasu cryosection immunolabelling, circumvents the disadvantages associated with chemical fixation and results in an improved ultrastructure and antigenicity preservation of Tokuyasu cryosections used for light and electron microscopic immunolabelling (as shown for Myc- or mRFP-tagged proteins, KNOLLE and carbohydrate epitopes). In combination with the most sensitive particulate marker systems, like 1-nm gold or quantum dot markers, we were able to obtain a differentiated labelling pattern which allows a more detailed evaluation of plant Golgi, trans-Golgi network and multivesicular body/prevacuolar compartment markers (COPI-specific gammaCOP, the ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase ARF1, ARA7/RabF2b and the vacuolar sorting receptor VSR). We also discuss possibilities to improve membrane contrast, e.g., of transport vesicles like COPI, COPII and clathrin-coated vesicles, and of compartments of endosomal trafficking like the trans-Golgi network. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. TLR2 ligands induce NF-κB activation from endosomal compartments of human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim J Brandt

    Full Text Available Localization of Toll-like receptors (TLR in subcellular organelles is a major strategy to regulate innate immune responses. While TLR4, a cell-surface receptor, signals from both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, less is known about the functional role of endosomal trafficking upon TLR2 signaling. Here we show that the bacterial TLR2 ligands Pam3CSK4 and LTA activate NF-κB-dependent signaling from endosomal compartments in human monocytes and in a NF-κB sensitive reporter cell line, despite the expression of TLR2 at the cell surface. Further analyses indicate that TLR2-induced NF-κB activation is controlled by a clathrin/dynamin-dependent endocytosis mechanism, in which CD14 serves as an important upstream regulator. These findings establish that internalization of cell-surface TLR2 into endosomal compartments is required for NF-κB activation. These observations further demonstrate the need of endocytosis in the activation and regulation of TLR2-dependent signaling pathways.

  12. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Han Lim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  13. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Han; Voedisch, Sabrina; Wahl, Benjamin; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Geffers, Robert; Rhen, Mikael; Pabst, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  14. Optical engine initiation: multiple compartment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Modern day propulsion systems are used in aerospace applications for different purposes. The aerospace industry typically requires propulsion systems to operate in a rocket mode in order to drive large boost vehicles. The defense industry generally requires propulsion systems to operate in an air-breathing mode in order to drive missiles. A mixed system could use an air-breathing first stage and a rocket-mode upper stage for space access. Thus, propulsion systems can be used for high mass payloads and where the payload is dominated by the fuel/oxidizer mass being used by the propulsion system. The pulse detonation wave engine (PDWE) uses an alternative type of detonation cycle to achieve the same propulsion results. The primary component of the PDWE is the combustion chamber (or detonation tube). The PDWE represents an attractive propulsion source since its engine cycle is thermodynamically closest to that of a constant volume reaction. This characteristic leads to the inference that a maximum of the potential energy of the PDWE is put into thrust and not into flow work. Consequently, the volume must be increased. The technical community has increasingly adopted the alternative choice of increasing total volume by designing the engine to include a set of banks of smaller combustion chambers. This technique increases the complexity of the ignition subsystem because the inter-chamber timing must be considered. Current approaches to igniting the PDWE have involved separate shock or blast wave initiators and chemical additives designed to enhance detonatibility. An optical ignition subsystem generates a series of optical pulses, where the optical pulses ignite the fuel/oxidizer mixture such that the chambers detonate in a desired order. The detonation system also has an optical transport subsystem for transporting the optical pulses from the optical ignition subsystem to the chambers. The use of optical ignition and transport provides a non-toxic, small, lightweight

  15. Functional MR urography in infants and children. Indications, techniques and requirements; Funktionelle MR-Urografie (fMRU) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Indikationen, Techniken und Anforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie; Darge, Kassa [Children' s Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Section ' ' Body Imaging' ' ; John, Ulrike [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Nephrologie

    2013-03-15

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) need to be diagnosed correctly in early life in order to avoid the need for dialysis and renal transplantation. Traditionally, X-ray, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and ultrasonography are the imaging methods to assess kidneys and the urinary tract. In infants and children, however, ultrasonography is the imaging method of first choice. In order to analyse the renal, to be more precise, the split renal function, MR urography has the potential for giving that information. More easily, information on morphology and dynamics of urinary flow in the upper renal tract can be obtained, too. Up to now, there is no commercial solution for obtaining split renal function with MR machines, however, two freeware solutions exist (''CHOP-fMRU'' and ''MR Urography''), that fill the gap. This article gives detailed information on patient selection, patient preparation, dedicated MR sequence technique, moreover discusses installation, use, and interpretation of the functional part using the ''CHOP-fMRU'' software. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of the probe dihydrocalcein acetoxymethylester as an indicator of reactive oxygen species formation and comparison with oxidative DNA base modification determined by modified alkaline elution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohnstock, A; Lehmann, L

    2007-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a predominant role in various diseases and the development of fast and easy methods for the quantification of intracellular ROS represents an important goal. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the fluorogenic probe dihydrocalcein acetoxymethylester (AM) for the detection of intracellular ROS. A flow cytometric method was developed using MCF-7 cells and the kinetics of ester hydrolysis and the cellular distribution and stability of calcein were characterized using calcein AM. Then, MCF-7 cells were challenged with model agents for the generation of singlet oxygen (illumination with visible light), peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals (tert-butylhydroperoxide, tBHP), superoxide anion radicals (potassium dioxide), and the intracellular formation of superoxide anion radicals by redox cycling (menadione) and the formation of calcein was compared with the induction of oxidative DNA base modifications assessed by modified alkaline elution technique. Every model agent significantly induced formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites (i.e. oxidative DNA base modifications) and most also induced DNA strand breaks. In contrast, exclusively tBHP and illumination with visible light induced the intracellular formation of calcein. In conclusion, though intracellular oxidation of dihydrocalcein represents a fast screening method, it detects a limited spectrum of ROS.

  17. Composition of Bacterial Communities Associated with Aurelia aurita Changes with Compartment, Life Stage, and Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Neulinger, Sven C; Pinnow, Nicole; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita is recognized as a key player in marine ecosystems and a driver of ecosystem change. It is thus intensely studied to address ecological questions, although its associations with microorganisms remain so far undescribed. In the present study, the microbiota associated with A. aurita was visualized with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and community structure was analyzed with respect to different life stages, compartments, and populations of A. aurita by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We demonstrate that the composition of the A. aurita microbiota is generally highly distinct from the composition of communities present in ambient water. Comparison of microbial communities from different developmental stages reveals evidence for life stage-specific community patterns. Significant restructuring of the microbiota during strobilation from benthic polyp to planktonic life stages is present, arguing for a restructuring during the course of metamorphosis. Furthermore, the microbiota present in different compartments of the adult medusa (exumbrella mucus and gastric cavity) display significant differences, indicating body part-specific colonization. A novel Mycoplasma strain was identified in both compartment-specific microbiota and is most likely present inside the epithelium as indicated by FISH analysis of polyps, indicating potential endosymbiosis. Finally, comparison of polyps of different populations kept under the same controlled laboratory conditions in the same ambient water showed population-specific community patterns, most likely due the genetic background of the host. In conclusion, the presented data indicate that the associated microbiota of A. aurita may play important functional roles, e.g., during the life cycle. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The Dutch approach to the escape from large compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, E.W.; Leur, P.H.E. van de

    1999-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the building regulations have no design mies for large fire compartments (over 1000 m2). With respect to the ability of people to escape from a fire in such large spaces, the Centre for Fire Research of TNO Building and Construction Research has developed a guideline that integra

  19. Volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigrovic, Vladimir; Proost, Johannes H.; Amann, Anton; Bhatt, Shashi B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The study examines the role of the volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Methods: The molar amount of the postsynaptic receptors at the motor end plates in muscle was assumed constant; the apparent recep

  20. Abdominal compartment syndrome in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunschot, S. van; Schut, A.J.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Besselink, M.G.; Bakker, O.J.; Goor, H. van; Hofker, S.; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.; Santvoort, H.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients.A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were num

  1. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Acute Pancreatitis : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brunschot, Sandra; Schut, Anne Julia; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bakker, Olaf J.; van Goor, Harry; Hofker, Hendrik; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients. A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were nu

  2. The abdominal compartment syndrome : A complication with many faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, P.; Nijsten, MWN; Paling, JC; Zwaveling, JH

    2001-01-01

    Background: Lately renewed attention has been given to the abdominal compartment syndrome. Despite of this there still remain a lot of controversies with regard to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this syndrome and the therapeutic options. Methods: Two cases of patients with this syndrom

  3. "Compartment"-syndrom på underben, atypisk traumemekanisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael H; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Wester, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is a limb threatening condition which warrants emergency treatment. We describe a case of a 37-year-old man with acute CS developed without major trauma. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment by decompressive fasciotomy is of vital importance in order to preserve limb...

  4. Compartment syndrome and popliteal vascular injury complicating unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Nanne Pieter; Van Raay, Jos J. J. A. M.; van Horn, Jim R.

    2007-01-01

    Popliteal vascular injury and the compartment syndrome of the leg are rare but important complications of knee arthroplasties. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance in preventing the devastating complications of these conditions. To our knowledge, these complications have not bee

  5. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe; Schattner, Ami

    2016-05-01

    Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated.

  6. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  7. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prostatectomy caused by incorrect positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Jens; Ladurner, R; Ozimek, A; Vogel, T; Hallfeldt, K K; Mussack, T

    2006-04-28

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is an uncommon and rare disease. Most reasonable causes for the development of this disease are trauma, drug induced coma, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, sickle cell associated muscle infarction, incorrect positioning during surgical procedures and prolonged pressure in patients with altered consciousness levels. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, especially in postoperative patient where sedation or peridural anaesthesia can confound the neurological examination. Early signs include gluteal tenderness, decrease in vibratory sensation during clinical examination and increasing CK in laboratory findings. We present a case of a 52 year-old patient, who developed gluteal compartment syndrome after radical prostatectomy in lithotomic position. After operation, diuresis decreased [pain in the gluteal region and both thighs. His thighs and the gluteal region were swollen. Passive stretch of the thighs caused enormous pain. The compartment pressure was 92 mmHg. Therefore, emergency fasciotomy was performed successfully. The gluteal compartment syndrome was most likely caused by elevated pressure on the gluteal muscle during operation. We suggest heightened awareness of positioning the patient on the operating table is important especially in obese patients with lengthy operating procedures.

  8. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen-Nafarrate, Edmundo; Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis.

  9. A wolf in wolf's clothing the abdominal compartment syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compartment syndrome appears to have been coined by. Fietsam et al.3 in .... wherein she sustained a severe crush injury of the lower leg ... restless. Her respiratory rate increased to 35/min and her. Paco2 decreased to 4,3 kPa. Although she ...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection... part of the cowling or engine compartment in the normal ground and flight attitudes. (c) No drain may... covering must be provided to preclude hazardous damage to rotors or critical control components in the...

  11. Lower extremity compartment sindrome following coronary artery bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, T T; Mikroulis, D; Papanas, N; Lazarides, M K; Bougioukas, G

    2007-04-01

    Compartment syndrome is a constellation of symptoms and signs associated with abnormally elevated tissue pressure in the skeletal muscle of the extremities. It is manifested in anatomic locations where muscles are enveloped in fasciae. The case of a lower extremity compartment syndrome in a 71-year-old male patient who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and simultaneous aortic valve surgery is reported. Preoperative evaluation revealed severe peripheral vascular disease. The patient underwent triple CABG using the left internal thoracic artery and two vein grafts. The right great saphenous vein was used for these vein grafts. The aortic valve was replaced with a biologic prosthesis. On postoperative day 1, the patient complained of pain and oedema in the right calf. The next day, symptoms worsened, with marked sensory loss, motor weakness and foot drop in the affected limb. Triplex ultrasonography excluded deep vein thrombosis. Compartment syndrome was diagnosed and successfully managed by fasciotomy. This case illustrates that compartment syndrome may, although rarely, be a complication of CABG.

  12. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Berumen-Nafarrate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis.

  13. Organic nano-compartments as biomimetic reactors, and protocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Ziock, Hans-Joachim; DeClue, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, nanoscale self-assembled structures have attracted ever increasing attention because of their potential to act as molecular templates for the synthesis of novel materials, delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents, and compartments defined at the molecular level that provide...

  14. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  15. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  16. Epidemic Spreading in a Multi-compartment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zong-Mao; GU Jiao; LI Wei

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the variant rate and white noise into the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemics, discuss the epidemic dynamics of a multiple-compartment system, and describe this system by using master equations. For both the local epidemic spreading system and the whole multiple-compartment system, we find that a threshold could be useful in forecasting when the epidemic vanishes. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that a model with the variant infection rate and white noise can improve fitting with real SARS data.%We introduce the variant rate and white noise into the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemics,discuss the epidemic dynamics of a multiple-compartment system,and describe this system by using master equations.For both the local epidemic spreading system and the whole multiple-compartment system,we find that a threshold could be useful in forecasting when the epidemic vanishes.Furthermore,numerical simulations show that a model with the variant infection rate and white noise can improve fitting with real SARS data.

  17. Compartment syndrome of the foot in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A K; Sharaf, I; Ajay, S

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of a 12-year-old boy with acute compartment syndrome of the foot following a road-traffic accident. Due to the rarity of the injury, there was a delay in diagnosing the injury. An emergency fasciotomy was performed 19 hours after the injury. The foot healed with a mild extension contracture of the second toe.

  18. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mata, Serafín

    2013-12-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a well-known process, although rare in the forearm. The diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and compartment pressure readings. My objective is to present the largest series of CECS of the forearm in adolescents and describe my experience in its management and evolution. I reviewed 5 patients, 4 male (competing in motorcycling or motocross) and 1 female (CECS in both the legs and forearms), aged between 15 and 18 years. Volar and dorsal compartments were affected in 3 patients and isolated volar in 2 cases. The clinical diagnosis was objectively confirmed by measuring ICP with a low-pressure digital transducer (Stryker). Open fasciotomy was carried out in 4 patients. They resumed their athletic activities 6 weeks after surgery without complications, increasing their athletic performance level in line with their preoperative status. All these patients remained asymptomatic, recovering their previous competitive levels. The results were objectively classified as excellent in all 4 cases. After a mean follow-up of 6 years, the condition has not relapsed in any of the patients. Two of the patients agreed to a new ICP measurement 1 year after the surgery, showing normal values. CECS in the forearm in adolescents is a rare condition that occurs after puberty. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose it. It is based on symptoms and ICP measurements. Most patients are competing motorcyclists. Surgical treatment, involving isolated decompression of the superficial volar compartment, is safe and effective (restoring normal ICP).

  19. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Acute Pancreatitis : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brunschot, Sandra; Schut, Anne Julia; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bakker, Olaf J.; Goor ,van Harry; Hofker, Hendrik; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients. A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were

  1. Abdominal compartment syndrome in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunschot, S. van; Schut, A.J.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Besselink, M.G.; Bakker, O.J.; Goor, H. van; Hofker, S.; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.; Santvoort, H.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients.A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were

  2. High tibial closing wedge osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthrosis of knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuli S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most patients of symptomatic osteoarthrosis of knee are associated with varus malalignment that is causative or contributory to painful arthrosis. It is rational to correct the malalignment to transfer the functional load to the unaffected or less affected compartment of the knee to relieve symptoms. We report the outcome of a simple technique of high tibial osteotomy in the medial compartment of osteoarthrosis of the knee. Materials and Methods: Between 1996 and 2004 we performed closing wedge osteotomy in 78 knees in 65 patients. The patients selected for osteotomy were symptomatic essentially due to medial compartment osteoarthrosis associated with moderate genu varum. Of the 19 patients who had bilateral symptomatic disease 11 opted for high tibial osteotomy of their second knee 1-3 years after the first operation. Preoperative grading of osteoarthrosis and postoperative function was assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA rating scale. Results: At a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range 2-9 years 6-10° of valgus correction at the site of osteotomy was maintained, there was significant relief of pain while walking, negotiating stairs, squatting and sitting cross-legged. Walking distance in all patients improved by two to four times their preoperative distance of 200-400 m. No patient lost any preoperative knee function. The mean JOA scoring improved from preoperative 54 (40-65 to 77 (55-85 at final follow-up. Conclusion: Closing wedge high tibial osteotomy performed by our technique can be undertaken in any setup with moderate facilities. Operation related complications are minimal and avoidable. Kirschner wire fixation is least likely to interfere with replacement surgery if it becomes necessary.

  3. Multimodal delivery of irinotecan from microparticles with two distinct compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Sahar; Park, Tae-Hong; Dishman, Acacia Frances; Lahann, Joerg

    2013-11-28

    In the last several decades, research in the field of drug delivery has been challenged with the fabrication of carrier systems engineered to deliver therapeutics to the target site with sustained and controlled release kinetics. Herein, we report the fabrication of microparticles composed of two distinct compartments: i) one compartment containing a pH responsive polymer, acetal-modified dextran, and PLGA (polylactide-co-glycolide), and ii) one compartment composed entirely of PLGA. We demonstrate the complete release of dextran from the microparticles during a 10-hour period in an acidic pH environment and the complete degradation of one compartment in less than 24h. This is in congruence with the stability of the same microparticles in neutral pH over the 24-hour period. Such microparticles can be used as pH responsive carrier systems for drug delivery applications where their cargo will only be released when the optimum pH window is reached. The feasibility of the microparticle system for such an application was confirmed by encapsulating a cancer therapeutic, irinotecan, in the compartment containing the acetal-modified dextran polymer and the pH dependent release over a 5-day period was studied. It was found that upon pH change to an acidic environment, over 50% of the drug was first released at a rapid rate for 10h, similar to that observed for the dextran release, before continuing at a more controlled rate for 4 days. As such, these microparticles can play an important role in the fabrication of novel drug delivery systems due to the selective, controlled, and pH responsive release of their encapsulated therapeutics.

  4. Compartment syndrome after Bothrops jararaca snakebite: monitoring, treatment, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; de Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Hyslop, Stephen; Mello, Sueli Moreira; Madureira, Paulo Roberto; Zanardi, Veronica; Ferreira, Daniel M; Meirelles, Guilerme V; Fernandes, Luciane C R

    2010-01-01

    To report the outcome of a patient who developed compartment syndrome after Bothrops jararaca snakebite. A 39-year-old male was admitted 5 h after being bitten on the lower right leg. Physical examination revealed tense swelling, ecchymosis, hypoesthesia, and intense local pain that worsened after passive stretching, limited right foot dorsiflexion, and gingival bleeding. The case was classified as moderate/severe and eight vials of bothropic antivenom (AV) were infused 1 h postadmission. The main laboratory findings upon admission were incoagulable blood (incoagulable PT, aPTT, and INR), thrombocytopenia, serum creatine kinase (CK) of 580 U/L (reference value compartment pressure (60 mmHg) was identified 8 h post bite, with progressively lower pressures after AV administration and limb elevation (36 mmHg; 19 h post bite). However, moderate pain and limited foot dorsiflexion persisted. In addition, there was a progressive increase in serum CK (6,729 U/L; 45 h post bite), as well as marked edema and hemorrhage of the anterior compartment detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 48 h post bite. A fasciotomy done after a further increase in intracompartmental pressure (66 mmHg, 57 h post bite) revealed hemorrhage/necrosis of the anterior tibial muscle that subsequently required partial resection. The patient developed a local infection (day 15 post bite) and a permanent fibular palsy. Compartment syndrome is an unusual but severe complication of snakebites. MRI, in conjunction with subfascial pressure measurements, may be useful in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome after snakebites.

  5. A Validated Stability-indicating Reverse Phase HPLC Assay Method for the Determination of Memantine Hydrochloride Drug Substance with UV-Detection Using Precolumn Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavil Narola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This present paper deals with the development and validation of a stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of Memantine hydrochloride. Memantine hydrochloride was derivatized with 0.015 M 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC and 0.5 M borate buffer solution by keeping it at room temperature for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 10 µL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ. The mobile phase consisting of 80% acetonitrile and 20% phosphate buffer solution and a flow rate of 2 milliliter/minute. The Memantine was eluted at approximately 7.5 minutes. The volume of FMOC used in derivatization, concentration of FMOC and derivatization time was optimized and used. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of Memantine hydrochloride using acid (5.0 Normal (N hydrochloric acid, base (1.0 N sodium hydroxide, oxidation (30% hydrogen peroxide, thermal (105°C, photolytic and humidity conditions. The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, precision (% RSD about 0.70%, linearity (linearity of range about 70–130 µg/mL, ruggedness (Overall % RSD about 0.35%, stability in analytical solution (Cumulative % RSD about 0.11% after 1450 min. and robustness.

  6. Oxidation states of iron as an indicator of the techniques used to burn clays and handcraft archaeological Tupiguarani ceramics by ancient human groups in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresta, D. L.; Ardisson, J. D.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics of the Tupiguarani Tradition typically have in common the burning characteristics, their forms and decoration motifs. Dating such ceramic pieces with the radiocarbon method indicate that these artifacts were probably handcrafted between 1,500 and 500 years before the present. Fragments ceramic utensils were collected in the archaeological site of Beltrão, in the municipality of Corinto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A fragment of about 50 mm in diameter and 15 mm thick, with a color gradation across the ceramic wall ranging from red, on one side, grayish, in the middle, and orange, on the opposite side, was selected for a more detailed examination. The fragment was transversely cut and a series of subsamples were separated from different points along the piece wall, in layer segments of ~3 mm. All subsamples were analyzed with Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 80 K. Results reveal that hematite is the magnetically ordered phase. A Fe2 + component (relative spectral area, 50 %) appears for the grayish subsample. According to these first results, the red subsample seems to be the side that had direct contact with fire used to burn the precursor clay in air. The grayish middle layer is probably due to the clay mixed with some ashes. Mössbauer data reveal that the orange layer, corresponding to the opposite side of the ceramic relatively to the direct fire, does contain about the same Fe2 + :Fe3 + ratio but much lower proportion of α-Fe2O3 than the red layer.

  7. Calculation of the relative metastabilities of proteins in subcellular compartments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jeffrey M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein subcellular localization and differences in oxidation state between subcellular compartments are two well-studied features of the the cellular organization of S. cerevisiae (yeast. Theories about the origin of subcellular organization are assisted by computational models that can integrate data from observations of compositional and chemical properties of the system. Presentation and implications of the hypothesis I adopt the hypothesis that the state of yeast subcellular organization is in a local energy minimum. This hypothesis implies that equilibrium thermodynamic models can yield predictions about the interdependence between populations of proteins and their subcellular chemical environments. Testing the hypothesis Three types of tests are proposed. First, there should be correlations between modeled and observed oxidation states for different compartments. Second, there should be a correspondence between the energy requirements of protein formation and the order the appearance of organelles during cellular development. Third, there should be correlations between the predicted and observed relative abundances of interacting proteins within compartments. Results The relative metastability fields of subcellular homologs of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin indicate a trend from less to more oxidizing as mitochondrion – cytoplasm – nucleus. Representing the overall amino acid compositions of proteins in 23 different compartments each with a single reference model protein suggests that the formation reactions for proteins in the vacuole (in relatively oxidizing conditions, ER and early Golgi (in relatively reducing conditions are relatively highly favored, while that for the microtubule is the most costly. The relative abundances of model proteins for each compartment inferred from experimental data were found in some cases to correlate with the predicted abundances, and both positive and negative correlations were

  8. Water Metabolism and Fluid Compartment Volumes in Humans at Altitude. A Compendium of Research (1914 - 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Gay, E.; West, G. I.; Barnes, P. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    This compendium includes abstracts and synopses of clinical observations and of more basic studies involving physiological mechanisms concerning interaction of water metabolism and fluid compartment volumes in humans during altitude exposure. If the author's abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In other cases a more detailed synopsis of the paper was prepared under the subheadings Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Author and subject indices are provided, plus an additional selected bibliography of related work of those papers received after the volume was being prepared for publication. This volume includes material published from 1914 through 1995.

  9. Orientationally invariant indices of axon diameter and density from diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Hubbard, Penny L; Hall, Matt G

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes and tests a technique for imaging orientationally invariant indices of axon diameter and density in white matter using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Such indices potentially provide more specific markers of white matter microstructure than standard indices from diffusion...... tensor imaging. Orientational invariance allows for combination with tractography and presents new opportunities for mapping brain connectivity and quantifying disease processes. The technique uses a four-compartment tissue model combined with an optimized multishell high-angular-resolution pulsed......-gradient-spin-echo acquisition. We test the method in simulation, on fixed monkey brains using a preclinical scanner and on live human brains using a clinical 3T scanner. The human data take about one hour to acquire. The simulation experiments show that both monkey and human protocols distinguish distributions of axon...

  10. Developmental dynamics of radial vulnerability in the cerebral compartments in preterm infants and neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica eKostović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The developmental vulnerability of different classes of axonal pathways in preterm white matter is not known. We propose that laminar compartments of the developing cerebral wall serve as spatial framework for axonal growth and evaluate potential of anatomical landmarks for understanding reorganization of the cerebral wall after perinatal lesions. The 3T MRI (in vivo and histological analysis were performed in a series of cases ranging from 22 PCW to 3 years. For the follow-up scans, three groups of children (control, normotypic and preterms with lesions were examined at the term equivalent age and after the first year of life. MRI and histological abnormalities were analyzed in the following compartments: (a periventricular, with periventricular fibre system; (b intermediate, with periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata and centrum semiovale; (c superficial, composed of gyral white matter, subplate and cortical plate. Vulnerability of thalamo-cortical pathways within the crossroads and sagittal strata seems to be characteristic for early preterms, while vulnerability of long association pathways in the centrum semiovale seems to be predominant feature of late preterms. The structural indicator of the lesion of the long association pathways is the loss of delineation between centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, which is possible substrate of the diffuse periventricular leukomalacia. The enhanced difference in MR signal intensity of centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, observed in damaged children after first year, we interpret as structural plasticity of intact short cortico-cortical fibres, which grow postnatally through U-zones and enter the cortex through the subplate remnant. Our findings indicate that radial distribution of MRI signal abnormalities in the cerebral compartments may be related to lesion of different classes of axonal pathways and have prognostic value for predicting the likely outcome of prenatal and perinatal

  11. Developmental dynamics of radial vulnerability in the cerebral compartments in preterm infants and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostović, Ivica; Kostović-Srzentić, Mirna; Benjak, Vesna; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša; Radoš, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The developmental vulnerability of different classes of axonal pathways in preterm white matter is not known. We propose that laminar compartments of the developing cerebral wall serve as spatial framework for axonal growth and evaluate potential of anatomical landmarks for understanding reorganization of the cerebral wall after perinatal lesions. The 3-T MRI (in vivo) and histological analysis were performed in a series of cases ranging from 22 postconceptional weeks to 3 years. For the follow-up scans, three groups of children (control, normotypic, and preterms with lesions) were examined at the term equivalent age and after the first year of life. MRI and histological abnormalities were analyzed in the following compartments: (a) periventricular, with periventricular fiber system; (b) intermediate, with periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata, and centrum semiovale; (c) superficial, composed of gyral white matter, subplate, and cortical plate. Vulnerability of thalamocortical pathways within the crossroads and sagittal strata seems to be characteristic for early preterms, while vulnerability of long association pathways in the centrum semiovale seems to be predominant feature of late preterms. The structural indicator of the lesion of the long association pathways is the loss of delineation between centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, which is possible substrate of the diffuse periventricular leukomalacia. The enhanced difference in MR signal intensity of centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, observed in damaged children after first year, we interpret as structural plasticity of intact short cortico-cortical fibers, which grow postnatally through U-zones and enter the cortex through the subplate remnant. Our findings indicate that radial distribution of MRI signal abnormalities in the cerebral compartments may be related to lesion of different classes of axonal pathways and have prognostic value for predicting the likely outcome of prenatal and

  12. Compartment-dependent mitochondrial alterations in experimental ALS, the effects of mitophagy and mitochondriogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Lenzi, Paola; Lazzeri, Gloria; Falleni, Alessandra; Biagioni, Francesca; Ryskalin, Larisa; Fornai, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by massive loss of motor neurons. Data from ALS patients and experimental models indicate that mitochondria are severely damaged within dying or spared motor neurons. Nonetheless, recent data indicate that mitochondrial preservation, although preventing motor neuron loss, fails to prolong lifespan. On the other hand, the damage to motor axons plays a pivotal role in determining both lethality and disease course. Thus, in the present article each motor neuron compartment (cell body, central, and peripheral axons) of G93A SOD-1 mice was studied concerning mitochondrial alterations as well as other intracellular structures. We could confirm the occurrence of ALS-related mitochondrial damage encompassing total swelling, matrix dilution and cristae derangement along with non-pathological variations of mitochondrial size and number. However, these alterations occur to a different extent depending on motor neuron compartment. Lithium, a well-known autophagy inducer, prevents most pathological changes. However, the efficacy of lithium varies depending on which motor neuron compartment is considered. Remarkably, some effects of lithium are also evident in wild type mice. Lithium is effective also in vitro, both in cell lines and primary cell cultures from the ventral spinal cord. In these latter cells autophagy inhibition within motor neurons in vitro reproduced ALS pathology which was reversed by lithium. Muscle and glial cells were analyzed as well. Cell pathology was mostly severe within peripheral axons and muscles of ALS mice. Remarkably, when analyzing motor axons of ALS mice a subtotal clogging of axoplasm was described for the first time, which was modified under the effects of lithium. The effects induced by lithium depend on several mechanisms such as direct mitochondrial protection, induction of mitophagy and mitochondriogenesis. In this study, mitochondriogenesis induced by lithium was confirmed in situ by a

  13. Compartment-dependent mitochondrial alterations in experimental ALS, the effects of mitophagy and mitochondriogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Lenzi, Paola; Lazzeri, Gloria; Falleni, Alessandra; Biagioni, Francesca; Ryskalin, Larisa; Fornai, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by massive loss of motor neurons. Data from ALS patients and experimental models indicate that mitochondria are severely damaged within dying or spared motor neurons. Nonetheless, recent data indicate that mitochondrial preservation, although preventing motor neuron loss, fails to prolong lifespan. On the other hand, the damage to motor axons plays a pivotal role in determining both lethality and disease course. Thus, in the present article each motor neuron compartment (cell body, central, and peripheral axons) of G93A SOD-1 mice was studied concerning mitochondrial alterations as well as other intracellular structures. We could confirm the occurrence of ALS-related mitochondrial damage encompassing total swelling, matrix dilution and cristae derangement along with non-pathological variations of mitochondrial size and number. However, these alterations occur to a different extent depending on motor neuron compartment. Lithium, a well-known autophagy inducer, prevents most pathological changes. However, the efficacy of lithium varies depending on which motor neuron compartment is considered. Remarkably, some effects of lithium are also evident in wild type mice. Lithium is effective also in vitro, both in cell lines and primary cell cultures from the ventral spinal cord. In these latter cells autophagy inhibition within motor neurons in vitro reproduced ALS pathology which was reversed by lithium. Muscle and glial cells were analyzed as well. Cell pathology was mostly severe within peripheral axons and muscles of ALS mice. Remarkably, when analyzing motor axons of ALS mice a subtotal clogging of axoplasm was described for the first time, which was modified under the effects of lithium. The effects induced by lithium depend on several mechanisms such as direct mitochondrial protection, induction of mitophagy and mitochondriogenesis. In this study, mitochondriogenesis induced by lithium was confirmed in situ by a

  14. CoMIC, the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bongki; Sun, Woong

    2017-08-14

    Mitochondria have evolutionarily, functionally and structurally distinct outer- (OMM) and inner-membranes (IMM). Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM. Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2. However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. Recently, we found that the IMM and the inner compartments undergo transient and reversible constriction prior to the OMM division, which we termed CoMIC, Constriction of Mitochondrial Inner Compartment. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of CoMIC during mitochondrial division.

  15. Compartment syndrome with mononeuropathies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, Brett J; Murthy, Naveen; Stolp, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Compartment syndrome rarely follows anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, when it does, it may result in mononeuropathies that are amenable to neurolysis. The authors of this study present an 18-yr-old woman who sustained a right anterior cruciate ligament tear and underwent uneventful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using femoral and popliteal nerve blocks. Postoperatively, she developed compartment syndrome requiring emergent fasciotomies. At 11 wks after fasciotomy, results of electrophysiologic tests showed evidence of severe fibular and tibial neuropathies. Magnetic resonance images showed extensive tricompartmental myonecrosis. Fibular and tibial neurolysis as well as decompression were performed, followed by intensive outpatient rehabilitation. At the 6-mo follow-up, she reported resolution of pain as well as significant improvement in sensation, strength, and function. Early recognition and intervention are crucial to prevent serious neurologic damage. Excessive tourniquet pressure and anesthetic nerve blocks may have been responsible.

  16. Understanding tumor heterogeneity as functional compartments--superorganisms revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Thomas G P; Herbst, Saskia M; Heinze, Jürgen; Burdach, Stefan

    2011-05-27

    Compelling evidence broadens our understanding of tumors as highly heterogeneous populations derived from one common progenitor. In this review we portray various stages of tumorigenesis, tumor progression, self-seeding and metastasis in analogy to the superorganisms of insect societies to exemplify the highly complex architecture of a neoplasm as a system of functional "castes."Accordingly, we propose a model in which clonal expansion and cumulative acquisition of genetic alterations produce tumor compartments each equipped with distinct traits and thus distinct functions that cooperate to establish clinically apparent tumors. This functional compartment model also suggests mechanisms for the self-construction of tumor stem cell niches. Thus, thinking of a tumor as a superorganism will provide systemic insight into its functional compartmentalization and may even have clinical implications.

  17. Head and neck fascia and compartments: no space for spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidera, Alice K; Dawes, Patrick J D; Fong, Amy; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-07-01

    An accurate understanding of the arrangement of cervical fascia and its associated compartments is essential for differential diagnosis, predicting the spread of disease, and surgical management. The purpose of this detailed review is to summarize the anatomic, clinical, and radiological literature to determine what is known about the arrangement of cervical fascia and to highlight controversies and consensus. The current terminology used to describe cervical fascia and compartments is replete with confusing synonyms and inconsistencies, creating important interdisciplinary differences in understanding. The term "spaces" is inappropriate. A modified nomenclature underpinned by evidence-based anatomic and radiologic findings is proposed. This should not only enhance our understanding of cervical anatomy but also facilitate clearer interdisciplinary communication. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tracer Dispersion in a Multi-compartment Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Skvortsov, A; Gamble, G; Roberts, M; Ilaya, O; Pitaliadda, D

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of the tracer dispersion in a complex structure is presented. A point source of tracer (dyed salt) was placed inside a multi-compartment structure embedded in water tank. This experimental setting corresponds to a hazardous tracer release inside the engineering structure (building, ship, aircarft etc). A system of conductivity sensors was deployed to monitor the propagation of a tracer plume in the structure, including tracer trapping inside some compartments and its release to the outside environment through the external openings. The experimental data is processed by employing the ideas of scaling and self-similarity of underlying transport processes. The established and validated scaling laws provide a rigorous way to up-scale the results of laboratory modeling to real operational scenarios and can be used as an important step in the development of risk-assessment models for the first responders to hazardous releases. Keywords: hazardous plume, tracer dispersion, diffusion and advecti...

  19. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denae Wagner

    Full Text Available For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9% when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%. When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%. The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%. This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

  20. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    understand better the health status of marine mammals . OBJECTIVE 2 Aim 1: Design of anaerobic grinder. The device was tested in three deceased... Mammals Michael Moore Biology Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone: (508) 289-3228 fax: (508) 457...study is to develop methods to estimate marine mammal tissue compartment sizes, and tissue gas solubility. We aim to improve the data available for

  1. Three STS 26 astronauts training in the Crew Compartment trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Three astronauts named in January 1987 as part of a five-member crew for NASA's first flight since the Challenger accident are shown in a photo session of July 1986. Left to right are Astronauts John M. (Mike) Lounge, Richard O. Covey and David C. Hilmers. Lounge and Hilmers will serve as Mission specialists for the STS 26 flight and Covey will serve as pilot. The three are on the middeck of JSC's one-G Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  2. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.

  3. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alexandra da Costa Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.

  4. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine...relative size of different tissues in various marine mammal species, as well as our understanding of their different morphological and physiological...available for the relative size of different tissues in various marine mammal species, as well as our understanding of the different morphological and

  5. Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ping [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using {sup 131}I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of {sup 131}I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[C{sub IAR}]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[C{sub IA}], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]). Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R = 0.95 {+-} 0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R = 0.92 {+-} 0.11 versus 0.77 {+-} 0.21, p = 0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of {sup 131}I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[C{sub IAR}]) and therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]) by 7.4 fold, (2) When extrapolated to the clinical setting, the model predicted that if {sup 131}I-3F8 could be split into 4 doses of 1.4 mg each and given at {>=}24 hours apart, an antibody affinity of K{sub D} of 4 x 10{sup -9} at 50% immunoreactivity were adequate in order to deliver {>=}100 Gy to tumor cells while keeping normal CSF exposure to <10 Gy. This model predicted that immunoreactivity, affinity and optimal scheduling of antibody injections were crucial in improving therapeutic index. (orig.)

  6. Compartment Syndrome Following Directly Repair of Hernia of Anterior Tibialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ta Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a patient with hernia of anterior tibialis who was treated operatively. Muscle herniation through a fascial defect is rare, which requires repair of fascial defects. We performed a simple closure of fascial defect. A fasciotomy was proceeded to complication of acute compartment syndrome developed after the operation. The sequelae as weakness of dorsiflexion of ankle and big toe were present.

  7. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh in Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    clinical signs and symptoms alone (27, 28). These signs include pain out of proportion, weakness and passive pain on stretch of the muscles in the...spasm/ cramping /weakness). Thirty-three percent (5/15) have pruritis. Twenty-seven percent (4/15) have symptomatic fascial herniations. Twenty...thigh. J. Orthop. Trauma 16:436–438, 2002. 6. Rooser, B., Bengtson, S., Hagglund, G. Acute compartment syndrome from anterior thigh muscle contusion: a

  8. Engineered protein nano-compartments for targeted enzyme localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Choudhary

    Full Text Available Compartmentalized co-localization of enzymes and their substrates represents an attractive approach for multi-enzymatic synthesis in engineered cells and biocatalysis. Sequestration of enzymes and substrates would greatly increase reaction efficiency while also protecting engineered host cells from potentially toxic reaction intermediates. Several bacteria form protein-based polyhedral microcompartments which sequester functionally related enzymes and regulate their access to substrates and other small metabolites. Such bacterial microcompartments may be engineered into protein-based nano-bioreactors, provided that they can be assembled in a non-native host cell, and that heterologous enzymes and substrates can be targeted into the engineered compartments. Here, we report that recombinant expression of Salmonella enterica ethanolamine utilization (eut bacterial microcompartment shell proteins in E. coli results in the formation of polyhedral protein shells. Purified recombinant shells are morphologically similar to the native Eut microcompartments purified from S. enterica. Surprisingly, recombinant expression of only one of the shell proteins (EutS is sufficient and necessary for creating properly delimited compartments. Co-expression with EutS also facilitates the encapsulation of EGFP fused with a putative Eut shell-targeting signal sequence. We also demonstrate the functional localization of a heterologous enzyme (β-galactosidase targeted to the recombinant shells. Together our results provide proof-of-concept for the engineering of protein nano-compartments for biosynthesis and biocatalysis.

  9. Deltoid Compartment Syndrome: A Rare Complication after Humeral Intraosseous Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadikonda, Kishan M.; Ma, Irene; Spiess, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old woman who developed a delayed deltoid compartment syndrome after resuscitation via humeral intraosseous access. Initially she was treated conservatively but then was taken emergently for a fasciotomy. After confirming the diagnosis with compartment pressures, a 2-incision approach was employed and a large hematoma was evacuated from the inferior margin of the anterior deltoid. The rest of the deltoid was inspected and debrided to healthy bleeding tissue. Her fasciotomy wounds were left open to heal on their own due to her tenuous clinical condition. At most recent follow-up, she had full range of motion in her shoulder and no residual pain. Our unique case study is the first documented incidence of upper extremity compartment syndrome after intraosseous access. Additionally, our case supports using humeral access only as a second-line option if lower extremity access is not available and prolonged vigilant monitoring after discontinuing intraosseous access to prevent disastrous late complications. PMID:28203508

  10. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  11. Prehospital Dextrose Extravasation Causing Forearm Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Matthew; Colella, M Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was found at home by paramedics to be hypoglycemic with altered mental status. She had multiple attempts at IV access and eventually a 22G IV was established and D50 was infused into her right forearm. Extravasation of the dextrose was noted after approximately 12 g of the medication was infused. She was given a dose of glucagon intramuscularly and her mental status improved. Shortly after her arrival to the emergency department, she was noted to have findings of compartment syndrome of her forearm at the site of the dextrose extravasation. She was evaluated by plastic surgery and taken to the operating room for emergent fasciotomy. She recovered well from the operation. D50 is well known to cause phlebitis and local skin necrosis as a complication. This case illustrates the danger of compartment syndrome after D50 extravasation. It is the first documented case of prehospital dextrose extravasation leading to compartment syndrome. There may be safer alternatives to D50 administration and providers must be acutely aware to monitor for D50 infusion complications.

  12. Endocytosis of desmosomal plaques depends on intact actin filaments and leads to a nondegradative compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Pernille K.; Hansen, Steen H.; Sandvig, Kirsten;

    1993-01-01

    Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment......Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment...

  13. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Compartment 8 Winter Burns and TSI Map 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Compartment 8 Winter Burns and TSI Map 1977. map also contains locations of know RCW trees in the compartment.

  14. Acute Compartment Syndrome in the Forearm with Trans-Ulnar Single Incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taku; Inaba, Naoto; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of ulnar nerve palsy caused by diaphyseal fractures of the forearm and acute compartment syndrome. Trans-ulnar single incision with a fasciotomy of the volar and dorsal compartments was used to fix the ulna. Full recovery of the ulnar nerve was achieved six months after the surgery. In cases of acute compartment syndrome with ulnar fracture, a trans-ulnar incision with compartment release is effective for the fixation of the ulna.

  15. Prehospital administered fascia iliaca compartment block by emergency medical service nurses, a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with a proximal femur fracture are often difficult to evacuate from the accident scene. Prehospital pain management for this vulnerable group of patients may be challenging. Multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy and increased age may limit the choice of suitable analgesics. The fascia iliaca compartment (FIC) block may be an alternative to intravenous analgesics. However this peripheral nerve block is mainly applied by physicians. In the Netherlands, prehospital emergency care is mostly provided by EMS-nurses. Therefore we examined whether well-trained EMS-nurses are able to successfully perform a FIC block in order to ensure timely and appropriate effective analgesia. The study was study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR-nr 3824). Methods Ten EMS nurses were educated in the performance of a FIC-block. Indications, technique, side-effects and complications were discussed. Hereafter the trained EMS-nurses staffed ambulance teams were dispatched to patients with a suspicion for a proximal femur fracture. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the block was performed and 0.3 ml/kg lidocaine (10 mg/ml) with adrenaline 5 μg/ml was injected. The quality of pain relief, occurrence of complications and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results In 108 patients a block was performed. One hundred patients could be included. Every EMS nurse performed at least 10 FIC blocks. The block was effective in 96 patients. The initial median (NRS)-pain score decreased after block performance to a score of 6 (after 10 minutes), 4 (after 20 minutes) and 3 (after 30 minutes). At arrival at the Emergency Department the median pain score was 3. Dynamic NRS-pain scores when transferring the patient from the accident scene to the ambulance stretcher, during transportation to the hospital and when transferring the patient to a hospital bed were, 4, 3 and 3.5 respectively. Patient satisfaction was very high. No complications were noted

  16. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... installation of an overhead crew rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain... Design Features Crew rest compartments have been installed and certificated on several Boeing...

  17. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments....287 Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are..., the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a crewmember to effectively reach all parts of the...

  18. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments... Requirements § 125.185 Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments... during flight, the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a crewmember to effectively reach all parts of...

  19. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Santiago Amillo; Romero-Muñoz, Luis M; Pons-Villanueva, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm requires immediate treatment to avoid damage of the soft tissues and a poor functional outcome for the forearm. Muscular and bone lesions are the main causes of acute compartment syndromes. We report a case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by a calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

  20. Extravasation of radiographic contrast material and compartment syndrome in the hand: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrededia Laura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiocontrast agents are a type of medical contrast material used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in X-ray based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT or radiography. Radiocontrast agents are typically iodine or barium compounds. Extravasation of contrast is a possible complication of imaging studies performed with contrasts. Most extravasations cause minimal swelling or erythema, however, skin necrosis, ulceration and compartment syndrome may occur with extravasation of large volumes of contrast. A case report is presented in which significant extravasation of contrast was caused while injecting the contrast intravenously into the back of the hand of a 50 year old patient during computed tomography. The patient was undergoing chemotherapy. The patient developed a compartment syndrome and a fasciotomy was required. Treatment options are outlined and emphasis is made on prevention of this iatrogenic complication. Some of the preventive measures to avoid these complications include use of non-ionic contrast (low osmolarity, careful choice of the site of intravenous administration, and close monitoring of the patient during injection of contrast to minimize or prevent extravasation injuries. Clear information to patients and prompt recognition of the complication can allow for other non-surgical treatment options than the one required in this case.

  1. Three-dimensional printing-based electro-millifluidic devices for fabricating multi-compartment particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiu Lan; Liu, Zhou; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of stereolithographic 3D printing to fabricate millifluidic devices, which are used to engineer particles with multiple compartments. As the 3D design is directly transferred to the actual prototype, this method accommodates 3D millimeter-scaled features that are difficult to achieve by either lithographic-based microfabrication or traditional macrofabrication techniques. We exploit this approach to produce millifluidic networks to deliver multiple fluidic components. By taking advantage of the laminar flow, the fluidic components can form liquid jets with distinct patterns, and each pattern has clear boundaries between the liquid phases. Afterwards, droplets with controlled size are fabricated by spraying the liquid jet in an electric field, and subsequently converted to particles after a solidification step. As a demonstration, we fabricate calcium alginate particles with structures of (1) slice-by-slice multiple lamellae, (2) concentric core-shells, and (3) petals surrounding the particle centers. Furthermore, distinct hybrid particles combining two or more of the above structures are also obtained. These compartmentalized particles impart spatially dependent functionalities and properties. To show their applicability, various ingredients, including fruit juices, drugs, and magnetic nanoparticles are encapsulated in the different compartments as proof-of-concepts for applications, including food, drug delivery, and bioassays. Our 3D printed electro-millifluidic approach represents a convenient and robust method to extend the range of structures of functional particles.

  2. Surgical techniques for the fixation of trochanteric fracture compartments in hip arthroplasty for femoral intertrochanteric fractures%股骨转子间骨折人工关节置换术中转子部骨折固定技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储小兵; 刘富存; 童培建

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨股骨转子间骨折人工关节置换术中转子部骨折固定的理想方式及选择依据。方法采用人工关节置换术治疗86例老年股骨转子间骨折患者。骨折按照 Evans-Jenson 分型,Ⅱ型2例,Ⅲ型22例,Ⅳ型45例,Ⅴ型17例。双极人工股骨头置换50例,全髋关节置换术36例。转子部骨折块采用金属线缆“双交叉法”捆绑固定46例,采用连接钛缆 GTR 接骨板固定技术28例,其他方法12例。结果手术成功78例,术后发生转子部骨折移位 5例(合并假体柄松动下沉 2例),关节脱位1例,假体深部感染1例,中毒性肠麻痹死亡1例。住院期间发生坠积性肺炎 2例,无坐骨神经损伤和严重的血栓栓塞并发症发生。 2例出院后失访,76例均获随访,时间3~79个月。 1例于术后2年死于急性心肌梗死,1例术后5个月死于脑溢血。末次随访时根据 Harris 髋关节功能判定标准,优52例,良13例,中9例,优良率为87.8% 。转子部骨折愈合时间3~8个月。结论老年人股骨转子间骨折采用人工关节置换治疗中,转子部骨折块的可靠固定对于术后开始进行康复训练的时间、行走步态和假体的使用寿命具有重要影响。%Objective To explore the ideal fixation techniques and selection criteria for trochanteric fracture frag-ments when treating intertrochanteric fractures of the femur by hip arthroplasty. Methods 86 cases of femoral inter-trochanteric fractures were undergone hip arthroplasties. According to Evans-Jenson classification,there were 2 cases with type Ⅱ fractures,22 with type Ⅲ,45 with type Ⅳ and 17 with type Ⅴ. 50 cases were received bipolar hemi-ar-throplasty and 36 cases were received total hip arthroplasty. Double cross binding fixation techniques with metal wires or cables were employed in 46 cases,cable-ready greater trochanteric reattachment fixation techniques in 28 cases,and other methods in 12 cases in treating femoral trochanteric

  3. Biopsia de la arteria temporal: revisión de indicaciones y técnica quirúrgica para cirujanos plásticos Temporal artery biopsy: review of indications and surgical technique for plastic surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La arteritis de células gigantes (ACG es una vasculitis que presenta complicaciones graves si no es diagnosticada y tratada precozmente con corticoides a altas dosis. La biopsia de la arteria temporal (BAT es la técnica diagnóstica estandarizada utilizada para confirmar la enfermedad. Se trata de una técnica sencilla y con poca morbilidad. No obstante, en la actualidad existe una controversia sobre su indicación en pacientes con sospecha clínica de arteritis sin síntomas craneales debido a la baja tasa de positividad de la biopsia. Presentamos en este trabajo una serie de 28 pacientes en los que se realizaron 30 BAT con el objetivo de revisar las indicaciones y describir la técnica quirúrgica utilizada.Giant cell arteritis is a vasculitis that presents serious complications if it is not diagnosed and treated prematurely with corticosteroids to high dose. The temporal artery biopsy is the gold estandar technique of diagnosis used to confirm the disease. It is a simple technique with little morbidity. Nevertheless, currently there is a controversy on its indication in patients with clinical suspicion of arteritis without craneal symptoms because of the downward rate of positiveness of the biopsy. We present in this work a serie of 28 patients in which 30 biopsies were carried out with the objective to review the indications and to describe the surgical technique utilized.

  4. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  5. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  6. Characterization of the Development of Acute-on-Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome A Case Report of Symmetric Compartment Syndromes and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew; Poole, Claudette; Schleien, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a rare and severe progression of the likely common and more benign chronic exertional compartment syndrome. This is a report of one 17-year-old male on a pediatric inpatient service with bilateral anterior leg pain of unknown origin. Because of the nonspecific nature of pain, a high level of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis to avoid compartment ischemia and irreversible soft tissue and nerve damage. While high-energy orthopaedic trauma, orthopaedic surgery, or closed reduction and casting are common preceding events for compartment syndrome, this patient presented with acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome. A dearth of literature of this condition hampered its morbiditysparing diagnosis. While there is a spectrum of clinical findings for the acute decompensation of chronic exertional compartment syndrome, like any compartment syndrome, pain disproportionate to physical exam is the most sensitive sign. Understanding the exertional compartment syndrome spectrum is tantamount to avoid the devastating complications of a missed diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome.

  7. The reinforcement and healing of asphalt mastic mixtures by rejuvenator encapsulation in alginate compartmented fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković, A.; Post, W.; Cantero, D.; Copuroglu, O.; Garcia, S. J.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the potential use of compartmented alginate fibres as a new method of incorporating rejuvenators into asphalt pavement mixtures. The compartmented fibres are employed to locally distribute the rejuvenator and to overcome the problems associated with spherical capsules and hollow fibres. The work presents proof of concept of the encapsulation process which involved embedding the fibres into the asphalt mastic mixture and the survival rate of fibres in the asphalt mixture. To prove the effectiveness of the alginate as a rejuvenator encapsulating material and to demonstrate its ability survive asphalt production process, the fibres containing the rejuvenator were prepared and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and uniaxial tensile test. The test results demonstrated that fibres have suitable thermal and mechanical strength to survive the asphalt mixing and compaction process. The CT scan of an asphalt mortar mix containing fibres demonstrated that fibres are present in the mix in their full length, undamaged, providing confirmation that the fibres survived the asphalt production process. In order to investigate the fibres physiological properties and ability to release the rejuvenator into cracks in the asphalt mastic, the environmental scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis were employed. To prove its success as an asphalt healing system, compartmented alginate fibres containing rejuvenator were embedded in asphalt mastic mix. The three point bend tests were performed on the asphalt mastic test samples and the degree to which the samples began to self-heal in response was measured and quantified. The research findings indicate that alginate fibres present a promising new approach for the development of self-healing asphalt pavement systems.

  8. Metabolic coupling in urothelial bladder cancer compartments and its correlation to tumor aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Julieta; Santos, Lúcio L.; Morais, António; Amaro, Teresina; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    abstract Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are vital for intracellular pH homeostasis by extruding lactate from highly glycolytic cells. These molecules are key players of the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, and evidence indicates a potential contribution in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) aggressiveness and chemoresistance. However, the specific role of MCTs in the metabolic compartmentalization within bladder tumors, namely their preponderance on the tumor stroma, remains to be elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the immunoexpression of MCTs in the different compartments of UBC tissue samples (n = 111), assessing the correlations among them and with the clinical and prognostic parameters. A significant decrease in positivity for MCT1 and MCT4 occurred from normoxic toward hypoxic regions. Significant associations were found between the expression of MCT4 in hypoxic tumor cells and in the tumor stroma. MCT1 staining in normoxic tumor areas, and MCT4 staining in hypoxic regions, in the tumor stroma and in the blood vessels were significantly associated with UBC aggressiveness. MCT4 concomitant positivity in hypoxic tumor cells and in the tumor stroma, as well as positivity in each of these regions concomitant with MCT1 positivity in normoxic tumor cells, was significantly associated with an unfavourable clinicopathological profile, and predicted lower overall survival rates among patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Our results point to the existence of a multi-compartment metabolic model in UBC, providing evidence of a metabolic coupling between catabolic stromal and cancer cells’ compartments, and the anabolic cancer cells. It is urgent to further explore the involvement of this metabolic coupling in UBC progression and chemoresistance. PMID:26636903

  9. Application of the Infrared Spectroscopy Technique in Geographical Indication Food Inspection%红外光谱技术在地理标志食品检验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美艳; 宋会歌; 陈海桂; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    随着光谱技术的发展,作为一种新型的检验技术,红外光谱技术在地理标志食品检验中的地位日益凸显.文中简要概述了地理标志产品及其在我国的发展和红外光谱技术产地鉴定的原理.在此基础上,文中还介绍了近红外光谱、中红外光谱以及傅里叶变换红外光谱法结合化学计量学等方法在酒类、奶酪、橄榄油、蜂蜜等地理标志食品检测中的应用,以期对以后的科研工作提供基础性依据.%With the development of spectroscopic techniques, infrared spectroscopy, as a new means of testing geographical indication food, the role is becoming increasingly prominent. Compared with traditional methods, infrared spectroscopy technique has a long way to develop. Based on the introduction of geographical indication products and the principle of infrared spectroscopy technique, this article summarizes the application of near infrared spectroscopy, middle infrared spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics methods in testing geographical indication food such as wine, cheese, olive oil and so on, in order to provide basis for further research.

  10. Does evaluation of the ligamentous compartment enhance diagnostic utility of sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P; Chan, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Inflammation of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) is a fundamental clinical feature of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). The anatomy of the irregularly shaped SIJ is complex with an antero-inferior cartilaginous compartment containing central hyaline and peripheral fibrocartilage, and a dorso...... and ligamentous compartment. The incremental value of evaluating the ligamentous additionally to the cartilaginous compartment alone for diagnosis of SpA was graded qualitatively. We determined the lesion distribution between the two compartments, and the impact of the ligamentous compartment evaluation...

  11. Upper limb compartment syndrome after an adder bite:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Faouzi Hamdi; Sayed Baccari; Mehdi Daghfous; Lamjed Tarhouni

    2010-01-01

    Compartment syndrome after an adder bite is extremely rare, whose effects are only secondary to the cytotoxic and hemorrhagic effects of venom.Here we reported a case of compartment syndrome in the upper limb following an adder bite in the thenar eminence.Elevated compartment pressure was documented and immediate sur-gical fasciotomy was practiced.The patient achieved com-plete recovery with a good functional result.We discussed the controversies on fasciotomy and non-invasive measures in such a situation, and recommended intracompartmental pressure monitoring during the management of compart-ment syndrome following adder bites.

  12. Exercise-induced Pediatric Lumbar Paravertebral Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Verena M; Ward, W Timothy

    2015-09-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is described as an elevation of interstitial pressure in a closed fascial compartment that can lead to damage of the microvasculature with subsequent tissue necrosis. Although paravertebral compartment syndrome has been described there is no case of paravertebral compartment syndrome that has been described in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented at our institution with severe, acute-onset low back pain that started shortly after a rigorous 4-hour workout. He was diagnosed with acute lumbar paravertebral compartment syndrome and underwent emergent fasciotomy with 2 more debridements.

  13. Community structure at two compartments of a disturbed mangrove forests at Pulau Langkawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norilani, W. I. Wan; Juliana, W. A. Wan; Salam, Muhamad Razali; Latiff, A.

    2014-09-01

    A study on floristic composition and estimation of above ground biomass of trees was carried out in two areas of disturbed mangroves at Kisap Forest Reserve, Pulau Langkawi. Two compartments that were selected was based on the different types of disturbances, i.e. compartment 5 (C5) was disrupted by human harvesting activities of mangrove trees for charcoal production, while compartment 7 (C7) was naturally disturbed from lightning strikes. In C5, a total of 1,217 trees measuring 1 cm DBH and above were enumerated in the plots of 0.25 ha which included 7 species and 5 genera in 3 families, i.e. Rhizophoraceae, Meliaceae and Avicenniaceae. In C7, a total of 390 individual trees of 8 species, 5 genera and 3 families were recorded. The three families recorded in C7 were also common in C5. Rhizophoraceae was recorded as the family with highest density in both compartments. Ceriops tagal had the highest density in C5, while Rhizophora apiculata was the most prominent species in the C7. Total basal area that represents tree coverage showed C5 had a value of 7.767 m2/ha with C. tagal as the major contributor at 5.022m2/ha. Total coverage in C7 was 18.184 m2/ha that was mostly contributed by R. apiculata at 11.135 m2/ha. Ceriops tagal (22.41 t/ha) and R. apiculata (111.75 t/ha), were the main contributors to the total biomass in C5 (37.34 t/ha) and C7 (162.29 t/ha), respectively. The distribution of individuals of six tree size classes in C7 was homogenous compared to that of C5, which had more saplings. In this study, the total biomass indicated that anthropogenic activities resulted in lower productivity of forest compared to natural disturbance. Therefore, conservation efforts of mangrove forest should be enhance in the management of mangrove forest in Pulau Langkawi.

  14. DYNAMICS OF DETECTED FIRE FACTORS IN CLOSED COMPARTMENT: COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nevdakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation of the initial fire stages in closed compartment with the volume of ≈ 60 m3 and with a burner on a floor and 2 m above floor have been carried using FDS software. Fires with different t 2 –power low heat release rates have been modeled. Fires which growth times to reach 1055 kW were 100 s and 500 s have been considered as fast and slow fires respectively. Dynamics of heat release rates and detected fire factors such as spatial distributions of air temperature, smoke obscuration and variations of indoor pressure have been studied. It has been obtained that dynamics of heat release rates of the initial fire stages in closed compartment consists of two stages. During the first stage the heat release rate is proportional to mass burning rate and flaming occurs only above a burner. At the second stage dynamics of heat release rates has a form of irregular in amplitude and duration pulsations, which are caused by self-ignition in the smoke layer. The compartment air volume may be layered with respect to the height and every layer has its oven temperature, smoke obscuration, self-ignition areas have been shown. The layer thickness, gradients of temperature and obscuration depend on a fire growth rate and on a burner height above floor have been concluded. The spatial distributions of air temperature and pressure variation have the opposite gradients on a height have been obtained. Maximal pressure variation and its gradient occurs under the fast fire with a burner on a floor have been obtained too. 

  15. Fire analysis for compartment of ITER tritium SDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Bang, Kyoung Sik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yon; Yun, Sei Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of the fire accident analysis for the compartment where the ITER tritium storage and delivery system (hereafter SDS) glove boxes are installed is to estimate the integrity of the glove box. Fires in grouped electrical cable trays pose distinct fire hazards within the compartment where the SDS glove boxes are installed. The nuclear industry has defined two general types of electrical cables, referred to as IEEE 383 qualified and unqualified. According to NUREG/CR 4679 and DOT TSC UMAT 83 4 1, a damage threshold temperature of 370 .deg. C and a critical heat flux of 10 kW/m2 have been selected for IEEE 383 qualified cable. A damage threshold temperature of 218 .deg. C and a critical heat flux of 5 kW/m2 have been selected for IEEE 383 unqualified cable. Cable tray fires can occur from various sources. The scenarios of concern include a fire within a cable tray and as exposure fire. However, fire within the compartment where the SDS glove boxes are installed could be happened due to over currents. Therefore, it is common practice to consider only self ignited cable fires to occur in power cable trays since they carry enough electrical energy for ignition. In general, electrical cables typically do not carry enough electrical energy for self ignition. According to NUREG/CR 5384, it was concluded that electrical cables which passed the IEEE 383 74 flame test were less likely to propagate electrically initiated fires. However, the scenario in this fire accident analysis assumed that the IEEE 383 qualified cable is burned completely.

  16. Change vector analysis to categorise land cover change processes using the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator: description: implementing Landsat TM and ETM to detect land cover and land use changes in the mount Cameroon region using the CVA technique with the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwe, Rene Ngamabou; Koch, Barbara

    2008-10-01

    The continuous extraction of wood and the conversion of forest to small- and large-scale agricultural parcels is rapidly changing the land cover of the mount Cameroon region. The changes occur at varying spatial scales most often not more than 2ha for the small-scale subsistence farms and above 10ha for the extensive agricultural plantations of cocoa and palm. Given the importance of land use and land cover data in conservation planning, accurate and efficient techniques to provide up-to-date change information are required. A number of techniques for realising the detection of land cover dynamics using remotely sensed imagery have been formulated, tested and assessed with the results varying with respect to the change scenario under investigation, the information required and the imagery applied. In this study the Change Vector Analysis (CVA) technique was implemented on multitemporal multispectral Landsat data from the Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensors to monitor the dynamics of forest change in the mount Cameroon region. CVA was applied to multi-temporal data to compare the differences in the time-trajectory of the tasseled cap greenness and brightness for two successive time periods - 1987 and 2002. The tasseled cap was selected as biophysical indicator because it optimises the data viewing capabilities of vegetation, representing the basic types of land cover - vegetation, soil and water. Classes were created arbitrarily to predict the technique's potential in monitoring forest cover changes in the mount Cameroon region. The efficiency of the technique could not be fully assessed due to the inavailability of sufficient ground truth data. Assessment was based on the establishment of an error matrix of change versus no-change. The overall accuracy was 70%. The technique nevertheless demonstrated immense potentials in monitoring forest cover change dynamics especially when complemented with field studies.

  17. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. Relevance of mangled extremity severity score to compartment syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, M M; Altun, N S; Cila, E; Atik, O S

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) to the evaluation of intracompartmental pressure in injured patients. We measured intracompartmental pressures with a modification of the Whitesides method and compared these values with MESS in 27 patients after trauma. For 5 of them fasciotomy was necessary to relieve high intracompartmental pressures. In our series MESS seemed to correlate with intracompartmental pressure values (r = 0.733, P MESS system provides objective criteria in determining the risk of a compartment syndrome.

  19. Taurine inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced compartment syndrome in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xian WANG; Yan LI; Li-ke ZHANG; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Jing ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of taurine on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced compartment syndrome in rabbit hind limbs.Methods: Rabbits underwent femoral artery occ lusion after ligation of branches from terminal aorta to femoral artery.After a 7-h ischemia, reperfusion was established with the use of heparinized by iv infusion 10 min before shunt placement.During reperfusion, anterior compartment pressure (ACP) was monitored continuously in the left lower extremity.Gastrocnemius muscle triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) level, taurine content and myeloperoxidase activity were assayed.Oxidative stress was induced in the in vitro gastrocnemius muscle slices by free radical generating systems (FRGS),and the malondialdehyde content was measured in presence or absence of taurine.Results: After 7 h of ischemia, none of the parameters that we measured were different from those before ischemia, except that TTC reduction decreased by 80%.In the control group, after 2 h of reperfusion, ACP increased 4.5-fold, and gastrocnemius muscle taurine content was reduced by 33%.In taurine-treated animals, at 2 h reperfusion, the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were increased, by 6% and 10%.ACP decreased by 39%, muscle edema decreased by 16%, TTC reduction increased by 150%, and lactate dehydrogenase decreased by 36% compared to control group.Plasma and muscle taurine content increased by 70% and 88%, respectively.In the taurine-treated group, at 2 h reperfusion, plasma malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content were decreased by 38% and 23%,respectively, and muscle malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content decreased by 22% and 30%, respectively compared to the control group.At 2 h reperfusion,myeloperoxidase activity was increased 3.5-fold in control animals.In the in vitro study, taurine decreased malondialdehyde content in muscle slices incubated with hypochlorous acid in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no change when incubated with hydrogen peroxide and

  20. Common complication of crush injury, but a rare compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Nissar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome (CS is a common complication of crush injury but it is rare to find bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome (BGCS. Only six cases of BGCS have been reported in the literature. This syndrome has been reported after crush injury, drug overdose, surgical positioning, and vascular surgery. Apart from CS, crush injury is associated with multi-system adverse effects and these patients are at high risk for renal failure and sepsis. CS patients may present with dehydration; coagulation disorders; elevated creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin levels; hyperkalemia and hypocalcaemia, which may cause life-threatening arrhythmias and therefore need urgent and aggressive therapy. The early goal in these patients is prevention of acute renal failure with aggressive fluid therapy, alkalinization of urine, and forced diuresis. Early treatment of hyperkalemia, antibiotic therapy, immunoprophylaxis, and wound care will minimize the risk of arrhythmias and sepsis. CS must be considered when any patient is diagnosed with crush injury syndrome. CS is defined as elevation of interstitial/intracompartmental pressure, leading to microvascular and myoneural dysfunction and secondary hypoxia; it may cause functional loss or even death if not detected early and treated properly. The increase in pressure in one or all compartments of the gluteal region causes CS with devastating effects on muscle and neurovascular bundles. CS is traditionally diagnosed on the basis of five ′p′s: pain, pallor, paraesthesia, pulselessness and paralysis. Diagnosis of gluteal CS is difficult as the peripheral pulses are preserved and the condition is usually only diagnosed when neurological abnormality is noticed. Diagnosis of CS can be made by direct measurement of the compartment pressure and magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. Gluteal CS is managed by fasciotomy and debridement of necrosed tissue, with secondary closure of fascia. A high index of

  1. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  2. Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Julian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb. This study compared foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA using a range of clinical foot measures. The reliability of the foot measures was also assessed. Methods The foot posture of 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA predominantly in the medial compartment of the knee and 28 asymptomatic age-matched healthy controls was investigated using the foot posture index (FPI, vertical navicular height and drop, and the arch index. Independent t tests and effect size (Cohen's d were used to investigate the differences between the groups in the foot posture measurements. Results Significant differences were found between the control and the knee OA groups in relation to the FPI (1.35 ± 1.43 vs. 2.46 ± 2.18, p = 0.02; d = 0.61, medium effect size, navicular drop (0.02 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.01; d = 1.02, large effect size and the arch index (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04, p = 0.04; d = 1.02, large effect size. No significant difference was found for vertical navicular height (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03, p = 0.54; d = 0.04, negligible effect size. Conclusion People with medial compartment knee OA exhibit a more pronated foot type compared to controls. It is therefore recommended that the assessment of patients with knee OA in clinical practice should include simple foot measures, and that the potential influence of foot structure and function on the efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of medial compartment knee OA be further investigated.

  3. Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

  4. Stonefish envenomation of hand with impending compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Terence Khai Wei; Chan, Han Zhe; Ahmad, Tunku Sara Tunku; Teh, Kok Kheng; Low, Tze Hau; Wahab, Nuraliza Ab

    2016-01-01

    Marine stings and envenomation are fairly common in Malaysia. Possible contact to various marine life occurs during diving, fishing and food handling. Even though majority of fish stings are benign, there are several venomous species such as puffer fish, scorpion fish, lionfish, stingray and stonefish that require urgent medical treatment. Stonefish is one of the most venomous fish in the world with potential fatal local and systemic toxicity effects to human. We reported a case of stonefish sting complicated with impending compartment syndrome. Medical staff should be alert about the possibility of this potential emergency in standard management of stonefish stings.

  5. Simulation of a compartment fire using a zone model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; GUO Zaifu; JI Jingwei; FAN Weicheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the zone modeling analysis of a single compartment flashover fire. Two criteria are applied in the model to judge the onset of ignition for different combustibles. By calculating the total received energy through radiation or the surface temperature of the combustible, the fire growth can be quantitatively determined. The improved zone fire model shows the influence of different combustibles upon the fire growth. This model is better than the traditional zone model because the common criteria of flashover, i.e. an upper layer temperature of 600℃ and the heat radiation intensity received by the floor of 20 kW/m2, have not been applied in it.

  6. Development of compartment for studies on the growth of protein crystals in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T; Tsukamoto, K; Yoshizaki, I; Fukuyama, S; Miura, H; Shimaoka, T; Maki, T; Oshi, K; Kimura, Y

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the growth mechanism of a protein crystal, it is essential to measure its growth rate with respect to the supersaturation. We developed a compartment (growth cell) for measuring the growth rate (materials for these components with care. The equipment was successfully used to examine the growth of a lysozyme crystal at a controlled supersaturation in space, where convection is negligible because of the microgravity environment, thereby advancing our understanding of the mechanism of protein crystal growth from solution. The technique used to develop the growth cell is useful not only for space experiments but also for kinetic studies of materials with very slow growth and dissolution rates (<10(-3) nm s(-1)).

  7. Cellular compartments cause multistability and allow cells to process more information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Heather A; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    recent developments from dynamical systems and chemical reaction network theory to identify and characterize the key-role of the spatial organization of eukaryotic cells in cellular information processing. In particular, the existence of distinct compartments plays a pivotal role in whether a system...... outcomes for cellular-decision making. We combine different mathematical techniques to provide a heuristic procedure to determine if a system has the capacity for multiple steady states, and find conditions that ensure that multiple steady states cannot occur. Notably, we find that introducing species......Many biological, physical, and social interactions have a particular dependence on where they take place; e.g., in living cells, protein movement between the nucleus and cytoplasm affects cellular responses (i.e., proteins must be present in the nucleus to regulate their target genes). Here we use...

  8. A one-compartment fructose/air biological fuel cell based on direct electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuee; Zhao, Feng; Varcoe, John R; Thumser, Alfred E; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio; Slade, Robert C T

    2009-10-15

    The construction and characterization of a one-compartment fructose/air biological fuel cell (BFC) based on direct electron transfer is reported. The BFC employs bilirubin oxidase and d-fructose dehydrogenase adsorbed on a cellulose-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) matrix, reconstituted with an ionic liquid, as the biocathode and the bioanode for oxygen reduction and fructose oxidation reactions, respectively. The performance of the bioelectrode was investigated by chronoamperometric and cyclic voltammetric techniques in a standard three-electrode cell, and the polarization and long-term stability of the BFC was tested by potentiostatic discharge. An open circuit voltage of 663 mV and a maximum power density of 126 microWcm(-2) were obtained in buffer at pH 5.0. Using this regenerated cellulose-MWCNT matrix as the immobilization platform, this BFC has shown a relatively high performance and long-term stability compared with previous studies.

  9. Effect of center of pressure modulation on knee adduction moment in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Amir; Wolf, Alon; Rubin, Guy; Genis, Yulya; Khoury, Mona; Rozen, Nimrod

    2011-11-01

    The knee adduction moment (KAM) provides a major contribution to the elevated load in the medial compartment of the knee. An abnormally high KAM has been linked with the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulations reduce the magnitude of this moment by conveying a more laterally shifted trajectory of the foot's center of pressure (COP), reducing the distance between the ground reaction force and the center of the knee joint, thus lowering the magnitude of the torque. We sought to examine the outcome of a COP shift in a cohort of female patients suffering from medial knee OA. Twenty-two female patients suffering from medial compartment knee OA underwent successive gait analysis testing and direct pedobarographic examination of the COP trajectory with a foot-worn biomechanical device allowing controlled manipulation of the COP. Modulation of the COP coronal trajectory from medial to lateral offset resulted in a significant reduction of the KAM. This trend was demonstrated in subjects with mild-to-moderate OA and in patients suffering from severe stages of the disease. Our results indicate that controlled manipulation of knee coronal kinetics in individuals suffering from medial knee OA can be facilitated by customized COP modification.

  10. Chronic excitotoxin-induced axon degeneration in a compartmented neuronal culture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Hosie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate excitotoxicity is a major pathogenic process implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions, including AD (Alzheimer's disease and following traumatic brain injury. Occurring predominantly from over-stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors located along dendrites, excitotoxic axonal degeneration may also occur in white matter tracts. Recent identification of axonal glutamate receptor subunits within axonal nanocomplexes raises the possibility of direct excitotoxic effects on axons. Individual neuronal responses to excitotoxicity are highly dependent on the complement of glutamate receptors expressed by the cell, and the localization of the functional receptors. To enable isolation of distal axons and targeted excitotoxicity, murine cortical neuron cultures were prepared in compartmented microfluidic devices, such that distal axons were isolated from neuronal cell bodies. Within the compartmented culture system, cortical neurons developed to relative maturity at 11 DIV (days in vitro as demonstrated by the formation of dendritic spines and clustering of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin. The isolated distal axons retained growth cone structures in the absence of synaptic targets, and expressed glutamate receptor subunits. Glutamate treatment (100 μM to the cell body chamber resulted in widespread degeneration within this chamber and degeneration of distal axons in the other chamber. Glutamate application to the distal axon chamber triggered a lesser degree of axonal degeneration without degenerative changes in the untreated somal chamber. These data indicate that in addition to current mechanisms of indirect axonal excitotoxicity, the distal axon may be a primary target for excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative conditions.

  11. Evaluation of chondromalacia of the patellofemoral compartment with axial magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.R. (Dept. of Radiology, Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)); Quinn, S.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Good Samaritan Hospital and Medical Center, Portland, OR (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Axial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the patellofemoral compartment was performed in 75 patients with arthroscopic correlation. Proton density and T2(2500/20/80) weighted images were obtained in all patients. Chondromalacia in stages I and II could not be reliably identified with MR imaging. For the evaluation of stage III and IV chondromalacia, the accuracy of MR was 89%. Focal or diffuse areas of increased or decreased signal alterations of the hyaline cartilage without a contour deformity or cartilaginous thinning do not correlate reliably with arthrosopic staging of chondromalacia. A normal signal intensity is no assurance that softening of the cartilage is not present. The most reliable indicators of chondromalacia are focal contour irregularities of the hyaline cartilage and/or thinning of the hyaline cartilage associated with high signal intensity changes within frank defects or contour irregularities with T2-weighted images. The poor MR-arthroscopic correlation in earlier stages of chondromalacia may be due in part to the subjective basis of the arthroscopic diagnosis. In conclusion, stage I and II chondromalacia of the patellofemoral compartment cannot be reliably evaluated with MR imaging. Stage III and IV chondromalacia is reliably evaluated with MR using the combination of proton density and T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  12. Intra-Articular Osteotomy for Genu Valgum in the Knee with a Lateral Compartment Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David S; Goldstein, Rachel Y; Kurland, Adam M; Sheikh Taha, Abdel Majid

    2016-01-20

    A deficiency of the lateral compartment of the knee, often in the setting of skeletal dysplasia, is an intra-articular deformity resulting in genu valgum. Historically, this abnormality has been treated using an extra-articular approach. Lateral hypoplasia of the femoral condyle can be treated with advancement of the lateral femoral condyle without creating a secondary deformity. The purpose of this study was to present the technique and results of lateral condylar advancement, with or without tibial hemiplateau elevation, in patients with intra-articular valgus deformity secondary to skeletal dysplasia. A retrospective review of the cases of five patients, from seven to twenty-one years old, with skeletal dysplasia and unilateral or bilateral severe genu valgum deformity was performed. For all patients, the etiology of the deformity was a deficient lateral compartment of the knee-that is, lateral femoral condylar hypoplasia with or without concomitant lateral hemiplateau depression. Lateral femoral condylar advancement with or without lateral tibial hemiplateau elevation was performed in eight knees. The average tibiofemoral angle was 34.7° of valgus preoperatively and improved to 9.4° of valgus at the most recent follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 2.9 years (range, 1.0 to 5.2 years). The average range of motion at the time of final follow-up was an arc of 108° starting from full extension. All osteotomies healed uneventfully. All five patients were satisfied with both the cosmetic appearance and the function of the involved limb and were able to walk without assistive devices. In patients with a deficient lateral compartment of the knee, lateral femoral condylar advancement with or without hemiplateau elevation allowed correction of severe genu valgum without the creation of an oblique joint line. This technique allows correction of the overall mechanical axis, restoring both function and the cosmetic appearance of the limb. Therapeutic Level IV

  13. Development of a patient-specific two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prionas, Nicolas D.; Burkett, George W.; McKenney, Sarah E.; Chen, Lin; Stern, Robin L.; Boone, John M.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a technique for the construction of a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom specific to an individual patient's pendant breast anatomy. Three-dimensional breast images were acquired on a prototype dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) scanner as part of an ongoing IRB-approved clinical trial of bCT. The images from the breast of a patient were segmented into adipose and glandular tissue regions and divided into 1.59 mm thick breast sections to correspond to the thickness of polyethylene stock. A computer-controlled water-jet cutting machine was used to cut the outer breast edge and the internal regions corresponding to glandular tissue from the polyethylene. The stack of polyethylene breast segments was encased in a thermoplastic ‘skin’ and filled with water. Water-filled spaces modeled glandular tissue structures and the surrounding polyethylene modeled the adipose tissue compartment. Utility of the phantom was demonstrated by inserting 200 µm microcalcifications as well as by measuring point dose deposition during bCT scanning. Affine registration of the original patient images with bCT images of the phantom showed similar tissue distribution. Linear profiles through the registered images demonstrated a mean coefficient of determination (r2) between grayscale profiles of 0.881. The exponent of the power law describing the anatomical noise power spectrum was identical in the coronal images of the patient's breast and the phantom. Microcalcifications were visualized in the phantom at bCT scanning. The real-time air kerma rate was measured during bCT scanning and fluctuated with breast anatomy. On average, point dose deposition was 7.1% greater than the mean glandular dose. A technique to generate a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom from bCT images has been demonstrated. The phantom is the first, to our knowledge, to accurately model the uncompressed pendant breast and the glandular tissue

  14. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb of 220 g/L, hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion and respiratory (ventilator support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients.

  15. Localized pigmented villonodular synovitis of posterior compartment of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Anshu; Patil, Shantanu Sudhakar; Dixit, Chandrashekhar; Tapasvi, Sachin Ramchandra

    2017-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is an uncommon entity involving articular or extra-articular tissues and maybe localized or diffuse in extent. The knee is by far the commonest joint to get involved. Localized PVNS of the knee can occur in any location but its confinement to the posterior compartment is infrequent. We present our experience of managing localized posterior compartment PVNS of the knee. There were 10 patients (7 males and 3 females) with average age of 33 years. These patients had symptoms of pain, locking, or swelling for a mean of 13.9 years before diagnosis. All the patients underwent arthroscopic synovectomy without adjuvant therapy, and PVNS was proven on histopathology. At an average follow-up of 23 months, no patient had recurrence of symptoms. The average International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score at last follow-up was 85.21. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation at final follow-up did not reveal any residual disease or recurrence in any patient.

  16. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Tessa, Alessandra [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Tonin, Paola [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Carrozzo, Rosalba [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Hospital-Molecular Medicine Unit, Roma (Italy); Mole, Sara E. [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Molecular Medicines Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London (United Kingdom); Santorelli, Filippo M. [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Simonati, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.simonati@univr.it [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  17. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis.

  18. Compartment syndrome after South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucaretchi, F; De Capitani, E M; Hyslop, S; Mello, S M; Fernandes, C B; Bergo, F; Nascimento, F B P

    2014-07-01

    In order to report the outcome of a patient who developed compartment syndrome after South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation, confirmed by subfascial pressure measurement and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 63-year-old male was admitted 1 h after being bitten on the right elbow by a "large" snake, which was not brought for identification. Physical and laboratory features upon admission revealed two fang marks, local tense swelling, paresthesia, intense local pain, hypertension, coagulopathy, and CK = 1530 U/L (RV bite revealed generalized myalgia, muscle weakness, palpebral ptosis, and severe rhabdomyolysis (CK = 126,160 U/L) compatible with envenoming by C. d. terrificus. The patient was then treated with crotalic antivenom (200 mL, intravenously), fluid replacement, and urine alkalinization. Twenty-four-hour post-bite MRI showed marked muscular edema in the anterior compartment of the right forearm, with a high subfascial pressure (40 mmHg) being detected 1 h later. ELISA of a blood sample obtained upon admission, before antivenom infusion, revealed a high serum concentration of C. d. terrificus venom. No fasciotomy was performed and the patient was discharged seven days later without sequelae. Snakebite by C. d. terrificus with subfascial venom injection may lead to increased intracompartmental pressure.

  19. Embryos of the viviparous dermapteran, Arixenia esau develop sequentially in two compartments: terminal ovarian follicles and the uterus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waclaw Tworzydlo

    Full Text Available Three main reproductive strategies have been described among insects: most common oviparity, ovoviviparity and viviparity. In the latter strategy, the embryonic development takes place within the body of the mother which provides gas exchange and nutrients for embryos. Here we present the results of histological and EM analyses of the female reproductive system of the viviparous earwig, Arixenia esau, focusing on all the modifications related to the viviparity. We show that in the studied species the embryonic development consists of two "physiological phases" that take place in two clearly disparate compartments, i.e. the terminal ovarian follicle and the uterus. In both compartments the embryos are associated with synthetically active epithelial cells. We suggest that these cells are involved in the nourishment of the embryo. Our results indicate that viviparity in arixeniids is more complex than previously considered. We propose the new term "pseudoplacento-uterotrophic viviparity" for this unique two-phase reproductive strategy.

  20. Embryos of the viviparous dermapteran, Arixenia esau develop sequentially in two compartments: terminal ovarian follicles and the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworzydlo, Waclaw; Kisiel, Elzbieta; Bilinski, Szczepan M

    2013-01-01

    Three main reproductive strategies have been described among insects: most common oviparity, ovoviviparity and viviparity. In the latter strategy, the embryonic development takes place within the body of the mother which provides gas exchange and nutrients for embryos. Here we present the results of histological and EM analyses of the female reproductive system of the viviparous earwig, Arixenia esau, focusing on all the modifications related to the viviparity. We show that in the studied species the embryonic development consists of two "physiological phases" that take place in two clearly disparate compartments, i.e. the terminal ovarian follicle and the uterus. In both compartments the embryos are associated with synthetically active epithelial cells. We suggest that these cells are involved in the nourishment of the embryo. Our results indicate that viviparity in arixeniids is more complex than previously considered. We propose the new term "pseudoplacento-uterotrophic viviparity" for this unique two-phase reproductive strategy.

  1. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Min [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Attieh, Zouhair K. [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Son, Hee Sook [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Huijun [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vulpe, Chris D., E-mail: vulpe@berkeley.edu [Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in non-polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in iron deficient and polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin with apical iron moves near to basolateral membrane of polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peri-basolateral location of hephaestin is accessible to the extracellular space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization from the intestine to circulation. -- Abstract: While intestinal cellular iron entry in vertebrates employs multiple routes including heme and non-heme routes, iron egress from these cells is exclusively channeled through the only known transporter, ferroportin. Reduced intestinal iron export in sex-linked anemia mice implicates hephaestin, a ferroxidase, in this process. Polarized cells are exposed to two distinct environments. Enterocytes contact the gut lumen via the apical surface of the cell, and through the basolateral surface, to the body. Previous studies indicate both local and systemic control of iron uptake. We hypothesized that differences in iron availability at the apical and/or basolateral surface may modulate iron uptake via cellular localization of hephaestin. We therefore characterized the localization of hephaestin in two models of polarized epithelial cell lines, MDCK and Caco2, with varying iron availability at the apical and basolateral surfaces. Our results indicate that hephaestin is expressed in a supra-nuclear compartment in non-polarized cells regardless of the iron status of the cells and in iron deficient and polarized cells. In polarized cells, we found that both apical (as FeSO{sub 4}) and basolateral iron (as the ratio of apo-transferrin to holo-transferrin) affect mobilization of hephaestin from the supra-nuclear compartment. We find that the presence of apical iron is essential for relocalization of hephaestin to a

  2. Presence of a lysosomal enzyme, arylsulfatase-A, in the prelysosome-endosome compartments of human cultured fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B M; Yu, C Z; Chang, P L

    1989-02-01

    Although endosomes and lysosomes are associated with different subcellular functions, we present evidence that a lysosomal enzyme, arylsulfatase-A, is present in prelysosomal vesicles which constitute part of the endosomal compartment. When human cultured fibroblasts were subfractionated with Percoll gradients, arylsulfatase-A activity was enriched in three subcellular fractions: dense lysosomes, light lysosomes, and light membranous vesicles. Pulsing the cells for 1 to 10 min with the fluid-phase endocytic marker, horseradish peroxidase, showed that endosomes enriched with the marker were distributed partly in the light lysosome fraction but mainly in the light membranous fraction. By pulsing the fibroblasts for 10 min with horseradish peroxidase conjugated to colloidal gold and then staining the light membranous and light lysosomal fractions for arylsulfatase-A activity with a specific cytochemical technique, the endocytic marker was detected under the electron microscope in the same vesicles as the lysosomal enzyme. The origin of the lysosomal enzyme in this endosomal compartment was shown not to be acquired through mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated endocytosis of enzymes previously secreted from the cell. Together with our recent finding that the light membranous fraction contains prelysosomes distinct from bona fide lysosomes and was highly enriched with newly synthesized arylsulfatase-A molecules, these results demonstrate that prelysosomes also constitute part of the endosomal compartment to which intracellular lysosomal enzymes are targeted.

  3. Estimation of Water Footprint Compartments in National Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ababaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water use and pollution have raised to a critical level in many compartments of the world. If humankind is to meet the challenges over the coming fifty years, the agricultural share of water use has to be substantially reduced. In this study, a modern yet simple approach has been proposed through the introduction concept ‘Water Footprint’ (WF. This concept can be used to study the connection between each product and the water allocation to produce that product. This research estimates the green, blue and gray WF of wheat in Iran. Also a new WF compartment (white is used that is related about irrigation water loss. Materials and Methods: The national green (Effective precipitation, blue (Net irrigation requirement, gray (For diluting chemical fertilizers and white (Irrigation water losses water footprints (WF of wheat production were estimated for fifteen major wheat producing provinces of Iran. Evapotranspiration, irrigation requirement, gross irrigation requirement and effective rainfall were got using the AGWAT model. Yields of irrigated and rain-fed lands of each province were got from Iran Agricultural-Jihad Ministry. Another compartment of the wheat production WF is related about the volume of water required to assimilate the fertilizers leached in runoff (gray WF. Moreover, a new concept of white water footprint was proposed here and represents irrigation water losses, which was neglected in the original calculation framework. Finally, the national WF compartments of wheat production were estimated by taking the average of each compartment over all the provinces weighted by the share of each province in total wheat production of the selected provinces. Results and Discussion: In 2006-2012, more than 67% of the national wheat production was irrigated and 32.3% were rain-fed, on average, while 37.9% of the total wheat-cultivated lands were irrigated and 62.1% was rain-fed from more than 6,568 -ha. The total national WF of

  4. Fourier domain closed-form formulas for estimation of kinetic parameters in reversible multi-compartment models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Gengsheng L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with static imaging, dynamic emission computed tomographic imaging with compartment modeling can quantify in vivo physiologic processes, providing useful information about molecular disease processes. Dynamic imaging involves estimation of kinetic rate parameters. For multi-compartment models, kinetic parameter estimation can be computationally demanding and problematic with local minima. Methods This paper offers a new perspective to the compartment model fitting problem where Fourier linear system theory is applied to derive closed-form formulas for estimating kinetic parameters for the two-compartment model. The proposed Fourier domain estimation method provides a unique solution, and offers very different noise response as compared to traditional non-linear chi-squared minimization techniques. Results The unique feature of the proposed Fourier domain method is that only low frequency components are used for kinetic parameter estimation, where the DC (i.e., the zero frequency component in the data is treated as the most important information, and high frequency components that tend to be corrupted by statistical noise are discarded. Computer simulations show that the proposed method is robust without having to specify the initial condition. The resultant solution can be fine tuned using the traditional iterative method. Conclusions The proposed Fourier-domain estimation method has closed-form formulas. The proposed Fourier-domain curve-fitting method does not require an initial condition, it minimizes a quadratic objective function and a closed-form solution can be obtained. The noise is easier to control, simply by discarding the high frequency components, and emphasizing the DC component.

  5. Clonal repertoires of virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes are shared in mucosal and systemic compartments during chronic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Piya; Furr, Kathryn L; Dorosh, Lauren A; Letvin, Norman L

    2010-08-15

    Because it is thought that mucosal tissues play a fundamental role in early HIV/SIV infection, it is crucial to understand the virus-specific responses in mucosal tissues to facilitate devising strategies to prevent and control these infections. We have employed TCR repertoire analyses to define the clonal composition of a dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell population in mucosal and systemic compartments of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys during both acute and chronic infection. We show that the CD8(+) T cell repertoire in mucosal tissues of uninfected rhesus monkeys is oligoclonal, whereas the CD8(+) T cell repertoire in blood is polyclonal. Early postinfection, the SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell clonal repertoire is distinct in mucosal compartments and peripheral blood. However, we observed a narrowing of the virus-specific CD8(+) T cell clonal repertoire in all sampled anatomic compartments as infection progressed from acute to chronic, and there was comparable clonal diversity in all anatomic compartments. We showed during chronic infection that the same clonal populations of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells are present in all compartments. These data indicate that the SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in systemic and mucosal sites have a shared clonal origin and are, therefore, capable of both responding to infection in the systemic circulation and trafficking to mucosal tissues.

  6. Surgical management of a large peritoneal pseudocyst causing acute kidney injury secondary to abdominal compartment syndrome in a rare case of congenital absence of omentum during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin P; Hunjan, Tia; Terry, Jayne

    2016-09-01

    Complete congenital absence of the omentum is very rare with only one previously reported case. We present a unique case of the management of a pregnant woman with a large pelvic pseudocyst caused by complications related to congenital absence of omentum, resulting in acute kidney injury, likely secondary to acute compartment syndrome. This case highlights the importance of considering acute compartment syndrome in critically unwell pregnant women and reiterates the need to measure intra-abdominal pressure when clinically indicated. Given that pregnancy is in itself a state of intra-abdominal hypertension, obstetricians should maintain a high index of suspicion in the context of additional risk factors.

  7. Social indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  8. Cellular endocytic compartment localization of expressed canine CD1 molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjærff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M.; Affolter, Verena K.

    2016-01-01

    CD1 molecules are glycoproteins present primarily on dendritic cells (DCs), which recognize and presenta variety of foreign- and self-lipid antigens to T-cells. Humans have five different CD1 isoforms that sur-vey distinct cellular compartments allowing for recognition of a large repertoire...... onlya diminished GFP expression. In conclusion, canine CD1 transfectants show distinct localization patternsthat are similar to human CD1 proteins with the exception of the canine CD1d isoform, which most likelyis non-functional. These findings imply that canine CD1 localization overall resembles human...... CD1 traf-ficking patterns. This knowledge is important for the understanding of lipid antigen-receptor immunityin the dog....

  9. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolliver, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dillow, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  10. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Izadpanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery.

  11. Two-compartment model for competitive hybridization on molecular biochips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechetkin, V. R.

    2007-01-01

    During competitive hybridization the specific and non-specific fractions of tested biomolecules in solution bind jointly with the specific probes immobilized in a separate cell of a microchip. The application of two-compartment model to the two-component hybridization allows analytically investigating the underlying kinetics. It is shown that the behaviour with the non-monotonous growth of complexes formed by the non-specific fraction on a probe cell is a typical feature of competitive hybridization for both diffusion-limited and reaction-limited kinetics. The physical reason behind such an evolution consists in the fact that the characteristic hybridization time for the perfect complexes turns out longer with respect to that for the mismatch complexes. This behaviour should be taken into account for the choice of optimum hybridization and washing conditions for the analysis of specific fraction.

  12. Two-compartment model for competitive hybridization on molecular biochips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chechetkin, V.R. [Theoretical Department of Division for Perspective Investigations, Troitsk Institute of Innovation and Thermonuclear Investigations (TRINITI), Troitsk, 142190 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: chechet@biochip.ru

    2007-01-08

    During competitive hybridization the specific and non-specific fractions of tested biomolecules in solution bind jointly with the specific probes immobilized in a separate cell of a microchip. The application of two-compartment model to the two-component hybridization allows analytically investigating the underlying kinetics. It is shown that the behaviour with the non-monotonous growth of complexes formed by the non-specific fraction on a probe cell is a typical feature of competitive hybridization for both diffusion-limited and reaction-limited kinetics. The physical reason behind such an evolution consists in the fact that the characteristic hybridization time for the perfect complexes turns out longer with respect to that for the mismatch complexes. This behaviour should be taken into account for the choice of optimum hybridization and washing conditions for the analysis of specific fraction.

  13. Spatial organization of chromatin domains and compartments in single chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Su, Jun-Han; Beliveau, Brian J; Bintu, Bogdan; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Wu, Chao-ting; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-08-05

    The spatial organization of chromatin critically affects genome function. Recent chromosome-conformation-capture studies have revealed topologically associating domains (TADs) as a conserved feature of chromatin organization, but how TADs are spatially organized in individual chromosomes remains unknown. Here, we developed an imaging method for mapping the spatial positions of numerous genomic regions along individual chromosomes and traced the positions of TADs in human interphase autosomes and X chromosomes. We observed that chromosome folding deviates from the ideal fractal-globule model at large length scales and that TADs are largely organized into two compartments spatially arranged in a polarized manner in individual chromosomes. Active and inactive X chromosomes adopt different folding and compartmentalization configurations. These results suggest that the spatial organization of chromatin domains can change in response to regulation.

  14. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    . Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling...

  15. Data Quality and Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matute

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of collecting good quality data from multidisciplinary studies. Bias in data may be the result of instrument inaccuracies, imprecise data recording techniques, inaccurate data entry to computers or inappropriate statistical analysis and presentation. Recommendations for good data quality control are given. Different types of data are discussed: raw data, simple indicators and complex indicators. It is shown how measurements from the components of multidisciplinary systems can be combined to form complex indicators and a specific example is given using Z-scores and dot charts. Finally the accumulated effect of bias in the individual component measurements upon the combined indicator is shown.

  16. Idiopathic Acute Isolated Lateral Compartment Syndrome of a Lower Leg: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Dong Heon; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Lee, Han Bee [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kyung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Asan Hospital, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg is usually associated with major trauma such as fracture, and most commonly occurs in the anterior or deep posterior compartments. Isolated lateral compartment syndrome is less typical and usually associated with minor trauma or exertion. There are a few reports of the acute compartment syndrome which develops without an obvious cause. However, there are few reports of idiopathic acute isolated lateral compartment syndrome, and there are no reports of the radiologic findings. This study presents a radiologic finding of idiopathic acute isolated lateral compartment of lower leg, which shows localized enlargement of the peroneal muscles with peripheral convex bowing and change of their signal intensity with fluid signal along the adjacent fascial planes on magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome - a Proposition for an Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Birk; Jensen, Steffen Skov

    Title: Diagnosis and treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome - a proposition for an algorithm based on case series of patients treated at Sports Medicine Division, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Viborg Regional Hospital, Denmark Background: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome...... that specific activity induced strain (SAIS) can be used to diagnose the specific affected compartments, and in this way be able to safely and effectively treat this disorder using endoscopic assisted selective fasciotomy (EASF). Materials and Methods: Retrospective follow-up study of 13 consecutive selected...... in conjunction with a thorough medical history formed the basis for the diagnosis. Results: 11 patients were offered surgical treatment consisting of EASF of the affected compartment (10 bilateral and 1 unilateral, 8 affected in specific compartments and 3 affected in all compartments. Only 1 patient required...

  18. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Foot due to Infection After Local Hydrocortisone Injection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sampat Dumbre; Patil, Vaishali Dumbre; Abane, Sachin; Luthra, Rohit; Ranaware, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    High-energy trauma associated with calcaneal fracture or Lisfranc fracture dislocation and midfoot crushing injuries are known causes of compartment syndrome in the foot. Suppurative infection in the deep osseofascial compartments can also cause compartment syndrome. We describe the case of a 29-year-old female who had developed a suppurative local infection that resulted in acute compartment syndrome after receiving a local hydrocortisone injection for plantar fasciitis. We diagnosed the compartment syndrome, and fasciotomy was promptly undertaken. After more than 2 years of follow-up, she had a satisfactory functional outcome without substantial morbidity. To our knowledge, no other report in the English-language studies has described compartment syndrome due to abscess formation after a local injection of hydrocortisone. The aim of our report was to highlight this rare, but serious, complication of a routine outpatient clinical procedure. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perforated second trimester appendicitis with abdominal compartment syndrome managed with negative pressure wound therapy and open abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, Adam R; Fleischer, Brian P; Carney, Martin J; Vanderlan, Wesley B

    2016-06-14

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of laparotomy; however, the literature is lacking in regards to treatment of this entity in pregnant patients. We present a case of acute perforated appendicitis in a second trimester primagravida, complicated by gangrenous necrosis of the contiguous bowel with subsequent development of ACS and intra-abdominal sepsis. This was treated with a novel approach, using non-commercial negative pressure wound therapy and open abdomen technique. Gestational integrity was preserved and the patient went on to experience a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. At 5 years post-delivery the patient has had no surgical complications and her baby has met all developmental milestones.

  20. ‘Growing mushroom on the back’ following minimally invasive spine fixation: The theory of iatrogenic compartment syndrome revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Asha, MSc, MRCS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of lumbar para-spinal muscle herniation following percutaneous thoraco-lumbar pedicle screw fixation. This is suggested to be due to subclinical iatrogenic increase in the intra-compartmental pressure. The possibility of ‘Iatrogenic paraspinal compartment syndrome’ following minimally invasive spine techniques has been discussed previously by other authors. Nevertheless, no such case has been reported so far in the literature. The awareness of this potential complication might be helpful for spinal surgeons for early detection and management.