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Sample records for compartment indications techniques

  1. Dynamic MR defecography of the posterior compartment: Indications, techniques and MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortele, Koenraad J.; Fairhurst, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic floor weakness is characterized by abnormal symptomatic displacement of pelvic organs. It represents a complex clinical problem most commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly parous women. Its diagnosis remains difficult in many cases, since these disorders typically present with nonspecific symptoms, such as pelvic pain, incontinence and constipation. Fluoroscopic colpocystodefecography has been proven to surpass physical examination in the detection and characterization of functional abnormalities of the anorectum and surrounding pelvic structures. Similarly, MR defecography, performed either with an open- or closed-configuration unit, appears to be an accurate imaging technique to assess clinically relevant pelvic floor abnormalities. Moreover, MR defecography negates the need to expose the patient to harmful ionizing radiation and allows excellent depiction of the surrounding soft tissues of the pelvis. In this manuscript, we review the techniques and indications of MR defecography, and illustrate the MRI features of a vast array of morphologic and functional pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on the posterior pelvic compartment (anorectum)

  2. Dynamic MR defecography of the posterior compartment: Indications, techniques and MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortele, Koenraad J. [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: kmortele@partners.org; Fairhurst, Janice [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston MA 02115 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Pelvic floor weakness is characterized by abnormal symptomatic displacement of pelvic organs. It represents a complex clinical problem most commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly parous women. Its diagnosis remains difficult in many cases, since these disorders typically present with nonspecific symptoms, such as pelvic pain, incontinence and constipation. Fluoroscopic colpocystodefecography has been proven to surpass physical examination in the detection and characterization of functional abnormalities of the anorectum and surrounding pelvic structures. Similarly, MR defecography, performed either with an open- or closed-configuration unit, appears to be an accurate imaging technique to assess clinically relevant pelvic floor abnormalities. Moreover, MR defecography negates the need to expose the patient to harmful ionizing radiation and allows excellent depiction of the surrounding soft tissues of the pelvis. In this manuscript, we review the techniques and indications of MR defecography, and illustrate the MRI features of a vast array of morphologic and functional pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on the posterior pelvic compartment (anorectum)

  3. Wrist arthrography: The value of the three compartment injection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinsohn, E.M.; Coren, A.B.; Palmer, A.K.; Zinberg, E.

    1987-10-01

    Arthrography of the wrist was performed on 50 consecutive patients with obscure post-traumatic wrist pain by injecting contrast separately into the radiocarpal joint, midcarpal compartment, and distal radioulnar joint. When distal radioulnar joint and midcarpal compartment injections were added to the standard radiocarpal injection, many significant unsuspected abnormalities were identified. Of the 25 triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities identified, six (24%) were found only with the distal radioulnar joint injection. Of the 29 abnormal communications between the midcarpal compartment and the radiocarpal joint, ten (35%) were found only with the midcarpal injection. Similarly, five of 29 (17%) of the abnormal radiocarpal-midcarpal communications would have been missed if a midcarpal injection alone had been performed. These findings indicate that separate injections into the radiocarpal joint, midcarpal compartment, and distal radioulnar joint are needed to identify a large number of abnormalities not seen with injections into one compartment alone.

  4. COMPARTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Janos X; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    of the localization of a protein, it is thus necessary to consult multiple databases and prediction tools. To address this, we present the COMPARTMENTS resource, which integrates all sources listed above as well as the results of automatic text mining. The resource is automatically kept up to date with source...

  5. Trochleoplasty: Indications and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John E; Schottel, Patrick C; Endres, Nathan K

    2018-05-09

    Trochlear dysplasia is a well-described risk factor for patellar instability. Trochleoplasty has emerged as a procedure within the surgical armamentarium for patellar instability, yet its role is unclear. A variety of trochleoplasty procedures have emerged. The purpose of this review is to clarify indications for trochleoplasty, outline the technical steps involved in performing common trochleoplasties and report the published outcomes and potential complications of these procedures. Patellar instability with severe trochlear dysplasia is the main indication for trochleoplasty. Three types of trochleoplasty have emerged: (1) lateral facet elevation; (2) sulcus deepening; and (3) recession wedge. Deepening and recession wedge trochleoplasties are the most commonly performed. Trochleoplasty is a surgical option for addressing patellar instability in patients with severe trochlear dysplasia. Deepening and recession wedge trochleoplasties that address Dejour B and D dysplastic trochleas are the most studied, with both short- and midterm outcomes reported. Long-term outcomes are lacking and comparative studies are needed.

  6. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jeff L; Michael Morey, A; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg–Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models. (paper)

  7. Techniques and indications in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, S.

    1987-01-01

    The stated purpose of this book is to review modern radiologic diagnostic techniques as applied to the study of the kidney and urinary tract, and their pertinent indications. This goal is partially accomplished in the first two segments of the book, which consist of about 100 pages. These include a synoptic description of various techniques - including classic uroradiologic studies such as excretory urography and retrograde pyelography, plus sonography, computed tomography, angiography, and nuclear medicine. The diagnostic signs and the differential diagnoses are fairly well described, aided by a profusion of tables and diagrams. The overall quality of the reproduction of the illustrations is good

  8. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Graser, Anno; Schima, Wolfgang; Maier, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions

  9. Treatment of a case of subacute lumbar compartment syndrome using the Graston technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Warren I; Pfefer, Mark T

    2005-01-01

    To discuss subacute lumbar compartment syndrome and its treatment using a soft tissue mobilization technique. A patient presented with low back pain related to exercise combined with prolonged flexion posture. The symptoms were relieved with rest and lumbar extension. The patient had restrictive lumbar fascia in flexion and rotation and no neurological deficits. The restrictive lumbar posterior fascial layers and adjoining restrictive fascia (thoracic, gluteal, hamstring) were treated with a form of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization called the Graston technique. Restoration of fascial extensibility and resolution of the complaint occurred after 6 treatment visits. The posterior spinal fascial compartments may be responsible for intermittent lower back pain. Functional clinical tests can be employed to determine whether the involved fascia is abnormally restrictive. Treatment directed at the restrictive fascia using this soft tissue technique may result in improved fascial functional testing and reduction of symptoms.

  10. Kyphoplasty: indications, contraindications and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Massari, Francesco; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Percutaneous Kyphoplasty is an emerging Interventional Radiology technique consisting in injecting polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into collapsed vertebral bodies under fluoroscopic guidance, after compaction of the cancellous bone with two dedicated balloon catheters. The purpose of our study was to assess the indications, contraindications, technique and results of our initial study. Materials and methods. Between January and May 2003 we treated 11 patients (5 men, 6 women) with vertebral collapse occurred up to three months earlier and osteoporosis or myeloma (mean age: 68.9), with pain refractory to medical therapy. All patients underwent treatment on a single vertebra (1 D7; 1 D8; 2 D12; 3 L1; 3 L2; 1 l4). Patient selection was based on clinical and instrumental criteria: conventional radiography, CT and MR were performed on all patients before the procedure. The Visual Analogue scale (VAS) for pain assessment was used to evaluate the post-procedure results. Results. All patients showed an increase in the height of the collapsed vertebral body, associated with partial or complete pain relief (VAS score decreasing from a pre-treatment score of 8 to a score of 2 after treatment). No complications related to the procedure were recorded. Conclusions. The indications for kyphoplasty include recent vertebral compression fractures due to osteoporosis, myeloma, metastasis and vertebral angioma with intractable pain and with no neurological symptoms. The main contraindications are coagulation disorders, unstable fractures or complete vertebral collapse (vertebra plana). Kyphoplasty proved to be a safe and effective method for the treatment of intractable pain due to vertebral collapse that allows for shorter hospital stays and an immediate improvement in the patient's quality of life [it

  11. Response of Holobiont Compartments to Salinity Changes Indicates Osmoregulation of Scleractinian Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roethig, T.; Ochsenkuehn, M. A.; van der Merwe, R.; Roik, A.; Voolstra, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental change is expected to render the oceans more saline, but scleractinian corals are assumed to be stenohaline osmoconformers. Yet, some corals are able to tolerate salinities up to 50 PSU, but we know little about the mechanisms involved. Previous studies have exclusively addressed the coral host and their algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) in hospite. To disentangle the role of all compartments of the coral holobiont we assessed the response of the coral host, its symbiont algae in the genus Symbiodinium (in hospite and in culture), and the associated bacterial community to strongly increased salinities. In a short-term incubation (4h) we could measure decreases in the calcification rate of the coral host and the photosynthetic performance of its algal symbiont in hospite. In a long-term (29 days) setup we found no differences in the photosynthetic efficiency but a major restructuring of the bacterial communities. In four Symbiodinium cultures we identified changes in photosynthetic yields and osmolytes composition upon short-term salinity exposure (≤24h). Our results show a short-term reaction of coral host and Symbiodinium to strongly increased salinities. However, lack of an apparent physiological long-term response indicates an acclimation process that is accompanied by a microbiome community shift towards a microbiome that potentially supports increased osmolyte production. Furthermore, changes in osmolytes composition in the Symbiodinium cultures display conserved osmoregulatory processes that may translate to osmoregulation for the coral holobiont.

  12. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...

  13. Two-compartment, two-sample technique for accurate estimation of effective renal plasma flow: Theoretical development and comparison with other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Feyerabend, A.; Gregory, C.

    1989-01-01

    Discordance between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) measurements from radionuclide techniques that use single versus multiple plasma samples was investigated. In particular, the authors determined whether effects of variations in distribution volume (Vd) of iodine-131 iodohippurate on measurement of ERPF could be ignored, an assumption implicit in the single-sample technique. The influence of Vd on ERPF was found to be significant, a factor indicating an important and previously unappreciated source of error in the single-sample technique. Therefore, a new two-compartment, two-plasma-sample technique was developed on the basis of the observations that while variations in Vd occur from patient to patient, the relationship between intravascular and extravascular components of Vd and the rate of iodohippurate exchange between the components are stable throughout a wide range of physiologic and pathologic conditions. The new technique was applied in a series of 30 studies in 19 patients. Results were compared with those achieved with the reference, single-sample, and slope-intercept techniques. The new two-compartment, two-sample technique yielded estimates of ERPF that more closely agreed with the reference multiple-sample method than either the single-sample or slope-intercept techniques

  14. Finger replantation: surgical technique and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbary, S; Dap, F; Dautel, G

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the surgical technique of finger replantation in detail, distinguishing particularities of technique in cases of thumb amputation, children fingertip replantation, ring finger avulsion, and very distal replantations. We emphasize the principles of bone shortening, the spare part concept, the special importance of nerve sutures and the use of vein graft in case of avulsion or crushing. However, even if finger replantation is now a routine procedure, a clear distinction should be made between revascularization and functional success. The indications for finger replantation are then detailed in the second part of this paper. The absolute indications for replantation are thumb, multiple fingers, transmetacarpal or hand, and any upper extremity amputation in a child whatever the level. Fingertip amputations distal to the insertion of the Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) are also a good indication. Other cases are more controversial because of the poor functional outcome, especially for the index finger, which is often functionally excluded. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Stenting of the SFA - indications, techniques,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Treitl, M.; Reiser, M.; Ruppert, V.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive risk factor modification, change of eating habits, exercise programs, and forceful antiplatelet therapy are the most important tools for the treatment of PAOD in symptomatic patients suffering from intermittent claudication. There are however no guidelines for revascularization at this stage. Endovascular treatment has been increasingly utilized over the last decade and increasingly displaced vascular surgery. Amongst numerous endovascular techniques beside PTA, stents meanwhile play the most important role due to constant technical progress. Results regarding the rate of restenosis or patency rates still remain worse compared to other vascular beds. This paper gives a review over recent results, currently available stent techniques, and possible indications for the endovascular therapy of an artery, which has turned out to be the biggest ordeal for material and construction of stents. (orig.) [de

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (pv): indications, contraindications, and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, R.T.; Jakobs, T.F.; Wallnoefer, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Helmberger, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (pv) is a worldwide increasingly performed interventional therapeutic procedure. This article addresses indications, patient preparation, technical requirements and approach as well as possible complications of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a technique consisting in an injection of bone cement into a vertebral body under imaging guidance. This procedure is performed to relief pain and support the mechanical stability in partially collapsed vertebral bodies. In the management of spinal compression fractures secondary to osteoporosis, myeloma, osteolytic metastases and aggressive hemangiomas, percutaneous vertebroplasty yields analgesic effect, and provides additional fortification in weakened segments of the vertebral column. Contraindications include major bleeding disorders, radicular pain and pain caused by compression of the myelon. Percutaneous vertebroplasty results in prompt pain relief and rapid rehabilitation. In experienced hands, using correct technique, pv is a safe and effective procedure for treating pain, caused either by osteoporotic or malignant vertebral compression fractures. (orig.) [de

  17. Pediatric interventional radiology: Indications, techniques, and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, R.B.; Ball, W.S. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This course develops a practical approach to pediatric interventional radiology. Radiologic intervention in the pediatricage group is possible by attending to the care and special needs of the child. The authors also emphasize their approach to patient preparation, sedation and anesthesia, nursing care, monitoring of the patient during the procedure, and follow-up care. The course is divided into nonvascular and vascular sections. The discussion of nonvascular procedures focus on the chest and the GU and GI systems. Biopsy techniques and drainage of effusions and abscesses within the chest are discussed. A variety of GU procedures are presented including insertion of a nephrostomy tube and percutaneous tract dilation for placement of internal stents, percutaneous stone removal, and percutaneous surgery for pyeloplasty. The authors approach to percutaneous pyeloplasty is briefly discussed. Intervention within the GI system includes percutaenous aspiration, drainage, and biopsies. Emphasis is placed on the selection of embolic agents and catheter delivery systems, techniques, and current treatment concepts. The authors describe experience with embolization of vascular malformations, renovascular disease, uncontrollable hemorrhage, and selected neoplastic processes. Comments on the indications for and techniques of transluminal angioplasty and fibrinolytic therapy in children conclude the lecture

  18. The Decrease of Peripheral Blood CD4+ T Cells Indicates Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the role of T lymphocytes and inflammatory cytokines in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. We conducted a retrospective study to assess the risk factors associated with ACS in SAP.A total of 76 SAP patients who were admitted within 24 hours after symptom onset in our study. There were 36 patients suffering from ACS and 40 from intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH. On the 1st, 3rd and 7th days after hospital admission, the following variables were assessed: serum value of C-reactive protein (CRP, and the proportions of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score, and computed tomography severity index (CTSI score were assessed on days 1 and 7 after hospitalization.Compared with the patients with IAH, ACS patients showed statistically higher CRP value on 7th day after hospital admission, proportions of CD4+ T cells on days 1, 3, 7 and CD4+/CD8+ ratio on day 1 were significantly lower (P < 0.05, respectively. A CD4+ T cell proportion of 30.3% on the 1st day indicated ACS with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.774, a sensitivity with 82.5% and specificity with 72.0%, respectively. Sensitivity/specificity for predicting ACS in SAP patients on day 1 was 70.0%/68.0% for CD4+/CD8+ ratio, 72.2%/65.0% for APACHE II score.The reduction of peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes is associated with ACS in SAP, and may act as a potential predictor of ACS in SAP.

  19. Dynamic imaging of posterior compartment pelvic floor dysfunction by evacuation proctography: Techniques, indications, results and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglinte, Dean D.T.; Bartram, Clive

    2007-01-01

    The clinical management of patients with anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction is often difficult. Evacuation proctography has evolved from a method to evaluate the anorectum for functional disorders to its current status as a practical method for evaluating anorectal dysfunction and pelvic floor prolapse. It has a high observer accuracy and yield of positive diagnosis. Clinicians find it of major benefit and has altered management from surgical to medical and vice versa in a significant number of cases

  20. [Red lip defects. Reconstructive techniques and indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E; Stricker, M; Duroure, F

    2002-10-01

    The attractive color of the red lip must be the object of very meticulous reconstruction in their form and pigmentation. This can be done only by using the buccal mucosa. The graf is less indicated. There are multiple local flaps that have been proposed using the same lip, the jugal mucosa and the tongue. The authors will show the principal procedures found in the literature.

  1. Elbow arthroscopy: indications, techniques, outcomes, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie E; King, Graham J W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cohen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a tool useful for the treatment of a variety of pathologies about the elbow. The major indications for elbow arthroscopy include débridement for septic elbow arthritis, synovectomy for inflammatory arthritis, débridement for osteoarthritis, loose body extraction, contracture release, treatment of osteochondral defects and selected fractures or instability, and tennis elbow release. To achieve favorable outcomes after elbow arthroscopy, the surgeon should be aware of contraindications, technical considerations, anatomic principles, and the need for proper patient positioning and portal selection. Elbow arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lateral epicondylitis.

  2. Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesenna Enrico

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate. Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO. All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%. Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the

  3. Patellofemoral compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.; Quinn, S.F.; Erickson, S.J.; Cox, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the normal and abnormal patellofemoral compartment with axial MR imaging. Anatomic cryotome sections of the patellofemoral compartment were correlated with the corresponding MR images for identification of ligamentous structures and cartilaginous surfaces. Two hundred fifty-four patients who underwent both arthroscopy and axial MR imaging of the patellofemoral compartment underwent axial MR examinations, which included gradient-echo (TR 23, TE 14, flip angle 30 degrees), T1- weighted (TR 400, TE 20), and proton and T2-weighted (2,500/20/80) sequences. The results from the cryotome-MR correlation show that axial MR images of the patellofemoral compartment accurately depict the major ligamentous and cartilaginous components. The MR arthroscopic correlation showed that all pulse sequences were unreliable in depicting the more superficial changes of chondromalacia and the evaluation on synovial plica

  4. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  5. Blood flow rate measurements with indicator techniques revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, Per; Bülow, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In view of the emerging role, disturbances in regional blood flow rate seem to play in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome; we review the concepts of the classical indicator dilution and washout techniques used for determinations of regional blood flow rate. Prerequisites, assumptions......, necessary precautions for the application of these experimental techniques are emphasized. Special attention has been carried out to elucidate the consequence of a choice of indicators having a large distribution volume in the tissues....

  6. Study of biological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    The several types of biological compartments are studied such as monocompartmental system, one-compartment balanced system irreversible fluxes, two closed compartment system, three compartment systems, catenary systems and mammilary systems [pt

  7. Biological indication in aquatic ecosystems. Biological indication in limnic and coastal ecosystems - fundamentals, techniques, methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunkel, G.

    1994-01-01

    Biological methods of water quality evaluation today form an integral part of environmental monitoring and permit to continuously monitor the condition of aquatic ecosystems. They indicate both improvements in water quality following redevelopment measures, and the sometimes insidious deterioration of water quality. This book on biological indication in aquatic ecosystems is a compendium of measurement and evaluation techniques for limnic systems by means of biological parameters. At present, however, an intense discussion of biological evaluation techniques is going on, for one thing as a consequence of the German reunification and the need to unify evaluation techniques, and for another because of harmonizations within the European Community. (orig./EF) [de

  8. Indications and techniques of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanjie; Stoddard, David; Monson, John R T

    2011-08-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) has recently reemerged as a valuable technique for the management of rectal neoplasms - both benign and malignant. Since the original description of this technique in the early 1980s, TEMS has emerged as the approach of choice for most benign rectal tumors because of the excellent views provided and superior dissection techniques possible when compared to traditional transanal excision. Many published reports demonstrate that the lowest rates of recurrence are associated with TEMS probably because of full-thickness excision with negative margins. Increasingly, TEMS is being applied to primary rectal cancer when used alone as a full-thickness excision alone or in combination with additional therapies, depending on tumor stage. There is now a significant evidence base to suggest that this approach should be considered as part of a multidisciplinary approach to rectal cancer. This paper describes indications and techniques for this technology.

  9. Season, Transport Duration and Trailer Compartment Effects on Blood Stress Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to Environmental, Behavioral and Other Physiological Factors, and Pork Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sommavilla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK, lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT, behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02, after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001 and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002. In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04 in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01 concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001, and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001, truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001, and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001. In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress.

  10. First Order Dominance Techniques and Multidimensional Poverty Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permanyer, Iñaki; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2017-01-01

    In this empirically driven paper we compare the performance of two techniques in the literature of poverty measurement with ordinal data: multidimensional poverty indices and first order dominance techniques (FOD). Combining multiple scenario simulated data with observed data from 48 Demographic...... between those country comparisons that are sensitive to alternative specifications of basic measurement assumptions and those which are not. To the extent that the FOD approach is able to uncover the socio-economic gradient that exists between countries, it can be proposed as a viable complement...

  11. Cytogenetic techniques as biological indicator and dosimeter of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The cytogenetic methods are established techniques for bio monitoring and bio dosimetry of professionally and accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation subjects. They are applied to continue the evaluation of the physical dosimetry and to consider the individual radiosensitivity. The results of cytogenetic monitoring and dosimetry of radiation exposed subjects carried out during the last 5 years in laboratory of Radiation Genetics, NCRRP is reported. Laboratory of Radiation genetics performs cytogenetic monitoring of low dose radiation professionally or medically exposed subjects: workers in Kozloduy NPP, radioactive waste repository workers, X-rays diagnostically exposed patients, and radiotherapy exposed as well. Three cytogenetic indicators are applied as the most sensitive indicators for human radiation exposure: analysis of micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and stable translocations (FISH). The optimized methodology for application of different cytogenetic techniques for radiation estimation is discussed

  12. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  13. [Anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Indications, technique, advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Weidenfeld, M; Uckmann, F P

    2015-02-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for lumbar interbody fusion from L2 to the sacrum has been an established technique for decades. The advantages and disadvantages of ALIF compared to posterior interbody fusion techniques are discussed. The operative technique is described in detail. Complications and avoidance strategies are discussed. This article is based on a selective literature search using PubMed and the experience of the authors in this medical field. The advantages of ALIF compared to posterior fusion techniques are the free approach to the anterior disc space without opening of the spinal canal or the neural foramina. This gives the possibility of an extensive anterior release and placement of the largest possible cages without the risk of neural structure damage. The disadvantages of ALIF are the additional anterior approach and the related complications. The most frequent complication is due to damage of vessels. The rate of complications is significantly increased in revision surgery. The ALIF technique meaningfully expands the repertoire of the spinal surgeon especially for the treatment of non-union after interbody fusion, in patients with epidural scar tissue at the index level and spinal infections. Advantages and disadvantages should be considered when evaluating the indications for ALIF.

  14. Percutaneous embolization of varicocele: technique, indications, relative contraindications, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Halpern

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several options for the treatment of varicocele, including surgical repair either by open or microsurgical approach, laparoscopy, or through percutaneous embolization of the internal spermatic vein. The ultimate goal of varicocele treatment relies on the occlusion of the dilated veins that drain the testis. Percutaneous embolization offers a rapid recovery and can be successfully accomplished in approximately 90% of attempts. However, the technique demands interventional radiologic expertise and has potential serious complications, including vascular perforation, coil migration, and thrombosis of pampiniform plexus. This review discusses the common indications, relative contraindications, technical details, and risks associated with percutaneous embolization of varicocele.

  15. Advanced techniques using the plant as indicator of irrigation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara dos Santos Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The methodologies which are considered the most promising for irrigation management are those based on the analysis of the water status of the plants themselves. This justifies the study and improvement of indicators based on automatic and continuous measures to enable real-time monitoring data, as indices from sap flow, dendrometry and leaf turgor pressure techniques. The aim of this paper is to analyze such methodologies in order to demonstrate their principles, advantages and challenges. In conclusion, the methodologies analyzed still have many technological advances and challenges before being presented to the final user. The future research should work these tools for elaboration of technical indexes that allow their simplification, on the instrumental point of view, and the interpretation of their results.

  16. Double-compartment wrist arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Pittman, C.; Belsole, R.; Greene, T.L.; Rayhack, J.; Clark, R.A.; King, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Seventy patients with clinical wrist problems were studied with double-compartment wrist arthrography. Midcarpal and radiocarpal compartment arthrograms were obtained in all patients. Digital subtraction technique was used to subtract out contrast from the first compartmental injection. Digital technique also allowed a dynamic record of each injection, which helped determine sites of intercompartmental communication. Postarthrography exercises recorded on videotape were performed after each injection. There were 34 normal studies. Abnormalities in the other 36 patients included: scapholunate communication (n = 9), lunatotriquetral communication (n = 6), communication with tendon sheaths (n = 4), communication with distal radioulnar compartment (n = 14), abnormal synovium process (n = 9), and communication through the radial or ulnar collateral ligament (n = 3). Double-compartment wrist arthrography may provide additional information for complex problems of the wrist

  17. Standards in radiographically guided biopsies - indications, techniques, complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerbach, S.; Schreyer, A.; Schlottmann, K.

    2003-01-01

    In the first place, different needle types are presented, in particular, biopsy cannulae applying the ''TruCut'' principle and devices suitable for bone biopsy. Important aids for the daily practice, such as tandem technology and coaxial technology, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed, together with the most important sites of target-directed fluoroscopy, sonography and computer tomography as well as CT-fluoroscopy. Local anesthesia and analgosedation are presented, and the general and specific caliber- or entrance-dependent contraindications are described. The literature is reviewed for data of severe complications, such as death or tumor cell deposits along the puncture site. For the different targets in thorax and abdomen, the typical indications, points of entrance, contraindications, complications and special techniques are described, and the value of the biopsy for these localizations is presented. Under the heading ''Tips and Tricks'', practical advice useful for the daily routine can be found. (orig.) [de

  18. Percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade ureteral stenting: technique - indications - complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, Klaus A. [Klagenfurt General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Klagenfurt (Austria); Portugaller, Horst R. [University Hospital of Graz, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    In this review the technique, indication for and complications of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade ureter stent insertion are described. In the majority of the cases PCN is performed to relieve urinary obstruction, which can be of benign or malignant nature. Another indication for PCN is for treatment of urinary fistulas. PCN can be performed under ultrasound and/or fluoroscopic guidance, with a success rate of more than 90%. The complication rate is approximately 10% for major and minor complications together and 4-5% for major complications only. Percutaneous antegrade double-J stent insertion usually is performed if retrograde ureter stenting has not been successful. However, especially in malignant obstructions, the success rate for antegrade stenting is higher than for retrograde transvesical double-J stent insertion. In the case of severe infection and bleeding after PCN JJ-stent insertion may be contraindicated so long as there is no sufficient concomitant drainage via a PCN. Lower urinary tract dysfunction should be excluded before stent placement. The complication rate is 2-4%. Consequent stent surveillance with regular stent exchange is mandatory. (orig.)

  19. TU-EF-BRD-02: Indicators and Technique Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlone, M. [Princess Margaret Hospital (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    peer-reviewed research will be used to highlight the main points. Historical, medical physicists have leveraged many areas of applied physics, engineering and biology to improve radiotherapy. Research on quality and safety is another area where physicists can have an impact. The key to further progress is to clearly define what constitutes quality and safety research for those interested in doing such research and the reviewers of that research. Learning Objectives: List several tools of quality and safety with references to peer-reviewed literature. Describe effects of mental workload on performance. Outline research in quality and safety indicators and technique analysis. Understand what quality and safety research needs to be going forward. Understand the links between cooperative group trials and quality and safety research.

  20. TU-EF-BRD-02: Indicators and Technique Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlone, M.

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed research will be used to highlight the main points. Historical, medical physicists have leveraged many areas of applied physics, engineering and biology to improve radiotherapy. Research on quality and safety is another area where physicists can have an impact. The key to further progress is to clearly define what constitutes quality and safety research for those interested in doing such research and the reviewers of that research. Learning Objectives: List several tools of quality and safety with references to peer-reviewed literature. Describe effects of mental workload on performance. Outline research in quality and safety indicators and technique analysis. Understand what quality and safety research needs to be going forward. Understand the links between cooperative group trials and quality and safety research

  1. Density gradient multilayered polymerization (DGMP): a novel technique for creating multi-compartment, customizable scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V; Ner, Yogesh; Wen, Jessica H; Engler, Adam J; Almutairi, Adah

    2013-02-12

    Complex tissue culture matrices, in which types and concentrations of biological stimuli (e.g. growth factors, inhibitors, or small molecules) or matrix structure (e.g. composition, concentration, or stiffness of the matrix) vary over space, would enable a wide range of investigations concerning how these variables affect cell differentiation, migration, and other phenomena. The major challenge in creating layered matrices is maintaining the structural integrity of layer interfaces without diffusion of individual components from each layer. Current methodologies to achieve this include photopatterning, lithography, sequential functionalization5, freeze drying, microfluidics, or centrifugation, many of which require sophisticated instrumentation and technical skills. Others rely on sequential attachment of individual layers, which may lead to delamination of layers. DGMP overcomes these issues by using an inert density modifier such as iodixanol to create layers of varying densities. Since the density modifier can be mixed with any prepolymer or bioactive molecule, DGMP allows each scaffold layer to be customized. Simply varying the concentration of the density modifier prevents mixing of adjacent layers while they remain aqueous. Subsequent single step polymerization gives rise to a structurally continuous multilayered scaffold, in which each layer has distinct chemical and mechanical properties. The density modifier can be easily removed with sufficient rinsing without perturbation of the individual layers or their components. This technique is therefore well suited for creating hydrogels of various sizes, shapes, and materials. A protocol for fabricating a 2D-polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, in which alternating layers incorporate RGDS-350, is outlined below. We use PEG because it is biocompatible and inert. RGDS, a cell adhesion peptide, is used to demonstrate spatial restriction of a biological cue, and the conjugation of a fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350) enables

  2. Colostomy in neonates under local anaesthesia: indications, technique and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukong, Christopher Suiye; Jabo, Basheer Abdullahi; Mfuh, Anita Yafeh

    2012-01-01

    Colostomy is a resuscitative procedure in paediatric surgical practice. In critical patients, mortality may be high, if general anaesthesia is used. Local anaesthesia may be an alternative in this group of neonates. The aim of this article was to evaluate the indications, the technique and outcome of colostomy in neonates under local anaesthesia. A prospective analysis of 38 neonates who had colostomy under local anaesthesia, from July 2008 to September 2011, in our centre. There were 34 boys and 4 girls. The median age was 4 days (range 2-11 days),and all presented in a critical state. The indication for colostomy was anorectal malformation 37 (97.4%) and colonic atresia 1 (2.6%). COLOSTOMY: sigmoid 7 (18.4%), descending 29 (76.3%), transverse 2 (5.3%). The median duration of the procedure was 45 minutes (range 30-60 minutes). The hospital stay was 7-15 days (median 7 days) and cost of treatment 7000-7500 Naira (median 7500 Naira = $50). There were 5 (13.2%) early complications, namely, skin excoriation 2, superficial site infection 2, and bowel evisceration 1; mortality was 2 (5.3%). The late complications were stomal stenosis 1 (2.6%), colostomy diarrhoea 2 (5.3%), and parastomal hernia 2 (5.3%). 25 (65.7%) had colostomy takedown and 13 (34%) were yet to have colostomy takedown. Follow-up was for 1-2 years. None of the patients had a permanent colostomy. Colostomy in neonates under local anaesthesia is feasible, safe and cost-effective. The outcome is good and may be used when neonatal anaesthetic expertise and intensive care facilities are lacking.

  3. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony James, E-mail: consultant@radiologist.co.uk [The Imaging Clinic (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure.

  4. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Anthony James

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure

  5. [Amnioinfusion: techniques, indications, and controlled retrospective study of 55 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramellini, D; Fieni, S; Piantelli, G; Faiola, S; Kaihura, C; Verrotti, C; Cavallotti, D; Viola, P; Bacchini, G; Vadora, E

    2000-01-01

    Amnioinfusion is a relatively recent procedure introduced among fetal medicine techniques. Its applications focus on two different methods: transcervical and transabdominal. The first procedure usually is carried out during "intrapartum amnioinfusion" to prevent or treat fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations related to oligohydramnios or to dilute thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. The latter method used during "antepartum amnioinfusion" is usually indicated for severe oligohydramnios in order to avoid the complications related such as pulmonary hypoplasia, deforming effects of oligohydramnios, variable FHR decelerations and intraventricular hemorrhages. Antepartum amnioinfusion, also used to improve ultrasound visualisation in presence of oligohydramnios, is less employed as compared to intrapartum amnioinfusion, therefore its risks are not well established. In order to study possible adverse effects on the mother or foetus, fifty five patients affected by oligohydramnios at 17th-34th week of gestational age were submitted to antepartum amnioinfusion (1-5 procedures) and were matched retrospectively with forty seven women with the same characteristics treated with the conservative and expectant management. The trend of pregnancy was the same for both groups in relation to maternal fever > 38 degrees (10.9% in the amnioinfused group vs 17.0% in control group ns), leukocyte count > 18,000/mm3 (25.5% vs 21.3%, ns), C-reactive protein > 10 ng/ml (10.9% vs 6.4%, ns). The latency period between admission and delivery was significantly longer in the amnioinfused group than in the control one [21 (range 1-98) vs 9 days (range 0-72); p amnioinfused group than in the control group (32.3% vs 66.6%; p amnioinfusion seems to increase the latency period between premature rupture of membranes and delivery, but it remains to clarify if this procedure is as much safe for the fetus as for the mother.

  6. Radioembolization of Colorectal Liver Metastases: Indications, Technique, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, F Edward; Bodei, Lisa; Sofocleous, Constantinos T

    2017-09-01

    Liver metastases are a major cause of death from colorectal cancer. Intraarterial therapy options for colorectal liver metastases include chemoinfusion via a hepatic arterial pump or port, irinotecan-loaded drug-eluting beads, and radioembolization using 90 Y microspheres. Intraarterial therapy allows the delivery of a high dose of chemotherapy or radiation into liver tumors while minimizing the impact on liver parenchyma and avoiding systemic effects. Specificity in intraarterial therapy can be achieved both through preferential arterial flow to the tumor and through selective catheter positioning. In this review, we discuss indications, contraindications, preprocedure evaluation, activity prescription, follow-up, outcomes, and complications of radioembolization of colorectal liver metastases. Methods for preventing off-target embolization, increasing the specificity of microsphere delivery, and reducing the lung-shunt fraction are discussed. There are 2 types of 90 Y microspheres: resin and glass. Because glass microspheres have a higher activity per particle, they can deliver a particular radiation dose with fewer particles, likely reducing embolic effects. Glass microspheres thus may be more suitable when early stasis or reflux is a concern, in the setting of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein invasion, and for radiation segmentectomy. Because resin microspheres have a lower activity per particle, more particles are needed to deliver a particular radiation dose. Resin microspheres thus may be preferable for larger tumors and those with high arterial flow. In addition, resin microspheres have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for colorectal liver metastases, whereas institutional review board approval is required before glass microspheres can be used under a compassionate-use or research protocol. Finally, radiation segmentectomy involves delivering a calculated lobar activity of 90 Y microspheres selectively to treat a tumor

  7. Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography: Technique, Indications, and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Chandni; Matta, Danielle; Roth, Robyn G; Liao, Lydia; Tinney, Elizabeth; Brill, Kristin; Germaine, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) combines the benefits of full field digital mammography with the concept of tumor angiogenesis. Technique and practical applications of CESM are discussed. An overview of the technique is followed by a demonstration of practical applications of CESM in our practice. We have successfully implemented CESM into our practice as a screening, diagnostic, staging, and treatment response tool. It is important to understand the technique of CESM and how to incorporate it into practice. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.) [de

  9. Arthrography of the TMJ. Indications, technique and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jend, H.H.; Triebel, H.J.; Jend-Rossmann, I.

    1986-09-01

    Articular dysfunction of the TMJ with anterior displacement of the disc ('internal derangement') is an entity which has been separated from other types of the 'myofascial pain syndromes' and which can be treated conservatively or by surgery. Arthrography of the TMJ has contributed greatly to an understanding of normal and abnormal function and, in many cases, it can provide a diagnosis. On the basis of our experience with 80 investigations we discuss technical problems and the clinical indications. The indications for arthrography are in the pre-operative diagnosis, when clinical findings are uncertain, in order to demonstrate perforation, in order to confirm a suspected diagnosis and to assist in prosthetic treatment.

  10. Indications and new diagnostic techniques in micturating cystourethrographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, W.; Bruenger, J.

    1978-01-01

    Urological radiographic procedures on children are of great importance. The frequency of examinations is comparable to the number of Gl tract studies. In diagnosing chronically recurrent urinary tract infections, micturating cystourethrography is a valuable addition to excretory urography. Indications and performance of micturating cystourethrography at juvenile age are described. All measures reducing radiation exposure must be taken into consideration. New technological devices grant improved diagnostic information with a minimal radiation exposure for patients. (orig.) [de

  11. [Intestinal stomas--indications, stoma types, surgical technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzulli, P; Candinas, D

    2007-09-01

    The formation of an intestinal stoma is one of the most frequent operations in visceral surgery. Despite new operative techniques and a more restrictive use of the stoma, the stoma formation remains an often necessary surgical procedure, which results to a dramatic change in the patients' life. The stoma formation and its later closure are associated with a high morbidity. Many complications, such as stoma necrosis, stoma retraction or stoma prolapse, are related to surgical mistakes made during stoma formation. These complications are therefore largely avoidable. The stoma formation needs careful planning together with a professional stoma nursing team. Moreover, it is mandatory that the stoma formation is made with great care and that it meticulously follows the well established surgical principles. A perfectly placed, technically correctly fashioned and easy to care for stoma is essential for a good patients'quality of life.

  12. Operative Fixation of Rib Fractures Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, David; Taylor, Benjamin; McLaurin, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are extremely common injuries and vary in there severity from single nondisplaced fractures to multiple segmental fractures resulting in flail chest and respiratory compromise. Historically, rib fractures have been treated conservatively with pain control and respiratory therapy. However this method may not be the best treatment modality in all situations. Operative fixation of select rib fractures has been increasing in popularity especially in patients with flail chest and respiratory compromise. Newer techniques use muscle sparing approaches and precontoured locking plate technology to obtain stable fixation and allow improved respiration. Current reports shows that rib fracture fixation offers the benefits of improved respiratory mechanics and improved pain control in the severe chest wall injury with resultant improvement in patient outcomes by decreasing time on the ventilator, time in the intensive care unit, and overall hospital length of stay.

  13. Surgical Approaches to Chronic Pancreatitis: Indications and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Monica M; Visser, Brendan C

    2017-07-01

    There are a number of surgical strategies for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. The optimal intervention should provide effective pain relief, improve/maintain quality of life, preserve exocrine and endocrine function, and manage local complications. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was once the standard operation for patients with chronic pancreatitis; however, other procedures such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections and its variants have been introduced with good long-term results. Pancreatic duct drainage via a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy continues to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle in many patients. This review summarizes operative indications and gives an overview of the different surgical strategies in treating chronic pancreatitis.

  14. [Surgical aspects of indications and techniques for adenomatous polyposis variants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möslein, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Due to the advances in molecular genetic diagnostics of adenomatous polyposis variants, identification of patients with a genetic predisposition and their at risk relatives is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Precise knowledge of the specific risk profile is gaining significance especially for surgeons and requires a clinically differentiated approach in order to correctly identify the indications for prophylactic surgery. In this article reference will be made to the technical details of the pouch operation rather than the decision-making process per se, since this has become common knowledge for specialized colorectal surgeons. Besides the more commonly known polyposis syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), surgeons should nowadays at least be able to clinically distinguish between attenuated and classical variants of FAP, be aware of MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) and also the new polyposis syndrome polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). Surgeons should be familiar with the specific indications and extent of surgery for prophylactic organ removal in the lower gastrointestinal tract in order to be able to competently advise patients.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast. Actual technique and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardivon, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Optimal breast MRI protocols are required using dedicated breast coils, high spatial resolution dynamic sequences (morphologic criteria are significantly more accurate than kinetic criteria) and bolus injection of contrast medium. Any abnormal MR enhancement must be described using BI-RADSMRI lexicon. Main indications of breast MRI are: suspicion of intra-capsular rupture (silicone implants), local relapse in a treated breast, search for breast cancer (metastatic axillary lymph nodes), locals staging of a breast cancer (dense breasts), follow-up of cancer under neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and screening in high-risk patients (gene mutation background). MRI is also useful for patients with unresolved problems at standard imaging (high negative predictive value of MRI). In patients with breast cancer, it is important to underline the need for radiologists to work with the multidisciplinary team and the ability to perform MR-guided biopsies for additional suspicious enhancements. (author) [es

  16. Transluminal coronary angioplasty (TCA) techniques, indications and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, G.; Lang, H.; Vallbracht, C.; Bussmann, W.D.; Hopf, R.; Kunkel, B.; Kaltenbach, M.

    1985-01-01

    Transluminal coronary angioplasty (TCA) was introduced in 1977 for dilatation of coronary stenoses. From October 1977 to December 1984 1087 procedures have been performed in Frankfurt. The mean success rate was 77% with an increase from 58% to 84% since 1977. Recurrences were seen within the first year in 15% of the patients, which could be treated successfully in a high percentage with a second TCA. Emergency bypass operations were necessary in 5.2%. Four patients (fatality rate 0.37%) died as the consequence of the intervention. Within few years TCA has become an established procedure for myocardial revascularisation, with a high success rate. Major progress has been possible in the last few years due to technical developments, which are still going on. They may lead to further improvement of the results and enlargement of the indication for TCA. (orig.) [de

  17. ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle destruction, muscle fibrosis, contractures and permanent disability and at worst case scenario of amputation (3,4). As reported by Frink et al (3) on their study on acute compartment syndrome it can occur even when there is no fracture. Also general surgeons have reported acute compartment syndrome.

  18. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  19. Multi-compartment microscopic diffusion imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, Enrico; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Carson, Robert P.; Does, Mark D.; Alexander, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-compartment model for microscopic diffusion anisotropy imaging. The aim is to estimate microscopic features specific to the intra- and extra-neurite compartments in nervous tissue unconfounded by the effects of fibre crossings and orientation dispersion, which are ubiquitous in the brain. The proposed MRI method is based on the Spherical Mean Technique (SMT), which factors out the neurite orientation distribution and thus provides direct estimates of the microsco...

  20. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance

  1. Evidence for two compartments of exchangeable calcium in isolated rat liver mitochondria obtained using a 45Ca exchange technique in the presence of magnesium, phosphate, and ATPase at 370C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barritt, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of calcium between isolated rat liver mitochondria and the extramitochondrial medium at 37 degrees C and in the presence of 2 mM inorganic phosphate, 3 mM ATP, 0.05 or 1.1 mM free magnesium and a calcium buffer, nitrilotriacetic acid, was investigated using a 45 Ca exchange technique. The amounts of 40 Ca in the mitochondria and medium were allowed to reach equilibrium before initiation of the measurement of 45 Ca exchange. At 0.05 mM free magnesium and initial extramitochondrial free calcium concentrations of between 0.15 and 0.5 microM, the mitochondria accumulated calcium until the extramitochondrial free calcium concentration was reduced to 0.15 microM. Control experiments showed that the mitochondria were stable under the incubation conditions employed. The 45 Ca exchange data were found to be consistent with a system in which two compartments of exchangeable calcium are associated with the mitochondria. Changes in the concentration of inorganic phosphate did not significantly affect the 45 Ca exchange curves, whereas an increase in the concentration of free magnesium inhibited exchange. The maximum rate of calcium outflow from the mitochondria was estimated to be 1.7 nmol/min per mg of protein, and the value of K0.5 for intramitochondrial exchangeable calcium to be about 1.6 nmol per mg of protein. Ruthenium Red decreased the fractional transfer rate for calcium inflow to the mitochondria while nupercaine affected principally the fractional transfer rates for the transfer of calcium between the two mitochondrial compartments. The use of the incubation conditions and 45 Ca exchange technique described in this report for studies of the effects of agents which may alter mitochondrial calcium uptake or release (e.g., the pre-treatment of cells with hormones) is briefly discussed

  2. Compartment syndrome without pain!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report the case of a young male patient who underwent intra-medullary nailing for a closed, displaced mid-shaft fracture of tibia and fibula. He was commenced on patient controlled analgesia post-operatively. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome in the patient\\'s leg was delayed because he did not exhibit a pain response. This ultimately resulted in a below-knee amputation of the patient\\'s leg. We caution against the use of patient controlled analgesia in any traumatised limb distal to the hip or the shoulder.

  3. Application of the control variate technique to estimation of total sensitivity indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, S.; Delpuech, B.; Iooss, B.; Tarantola, S.

    2015-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is widely used in many areas of science, biology, sociology and policy planning. The variance-based methods also known as Sobol' sensitivity indices has become the method of choice among practitioners due to its efficiency and ease of interpretation. For complex practical problems, estimation of Sobol' sensitivity indices generally requires a large number of function evaluations to achieve reasonable convergence. To improve the efficiency of the Monte Carlo estimates for the Sobol' total sensitivity indices we apply the control variate reduction technique and develop a new formula for evaluation of total sensitivity indices. Presented results using well known test functions show the efficiency of the developed technique. - Highlights: • We analyse the efficiency of the Monte Carlo estimates of Sobol' sensitivity indices. • The control variate technique is applied for estimation of total sensitivity indices. • We develop a new formula for evaluation of Sobol' total sensitivity indices. • We present test results demonstrating the high efficiency of the developed formula

  4. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, P.; Siccama, A.; Visser, D.; Komen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  5. Indications for and techniques of keratoplasty at Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Dong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the indications for and techniques of corneal transplantation at Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology (VNIO over a period of 12y (2002-2013. METHODS: Records of patients who had undergone corneal transplantation at VNIO from January 1, 2002 to January 1, 2014 were reviewed to determine the indication for and type of corneal transplant performed. Patient age, gender, indication for corneal transplantation and surgical technique were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal transplantation were underwent in 1390 eyes of 1278 patients with a mean age of 44.9±18.1y during the period under review. The most common indication was infectious corneal ulcer (n=670; 48.2%, followed by corneal scar (n=333, 24.0%, corneal dystrophy (n=138, 9.9% and failed graft (n=112, 8.1%. Nearly all procedures performed were penetrating keratoplasty (n=1300, 93.5%, with a few lamellar keratoplasty procedures performed: lamellar keratoplasty (n=52, 3.7%, Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (n=27, 1.9% and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=11, 0.8%. CONCLUSION: While the most common indication for keratoplasty was infectious keratitis, nearly all indications for corneal transplantation were managed with penetrating keratoplasty. However, lamellar keratoplasty techniques, including deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, are being performed with increasing frequency for isolated stromal and endothelial disorders, respectively.

  6. Multidimensional Poverty Indices and First Order Dominance Techniques: An Empirical Comparison of Different Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Permanyer, Iñaki

    2018-01-01

    techniques (FOD). Our empirical findings suggest that the FOD approach might be a reasonable cost-effective alternative to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)’s flagship poverty indicator: the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). To the extent that the FOD approach is able to uncover the socio...

  7. Kidney compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-09-01

    A multiparameter kidney compartment model which quantitates the amount of iodohippurate concentration as a function of time in the blood, tissue, kidneys and bladder is developed from a system of differential equations which represent first order kinetics. The kinetic data are obtained using a gamma camera and an HP5407 computer system which allows one to delineate areas of interest for the blood and tissue, kidneys, and bladder thus separating the data into four data sets. The estimated tubular transit times have a high ratio of the signal to the variance whereas the estimates of the amount of iodohippurate in the blood, tissue and kidneys have a low ratio of the signal to the variance. Application of this model to patient data requires better statistics than available with conventional 131 I-hippurate doses; thus a true test of the efficacy awaits availability of 123 I-hippurate

  8. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

  9. An experimental study on crib fires in a closed compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhurandher Bhisham Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on burning behavior of fire in closed compartments is presented. Fire experiments were performed in a closed compartment of interior dimensions 4 × 4 × 4 m (length × width × height with ply board cribs as fire source. The parameters including the gas temperature, mass loss rate, heat flux, flame temperature, and compartment pressure were measured during the experiments. Experimental results indicated that the providing sudden ventilation to the closed compartment had great influence on the behavior of fire. The mass loss rate of the burning crib increased by 150% due to sudden ventilation which results in the increase in heat release rate by 198 kW. From the perspective of total heat flux, compartment pressure, and gas temperatures closed compartment with sudden ventilation were more hazardous.

  10. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  11. Pelvic Fixation in Adult and Pediatric Spine Surgery: Historical Perspective, Indications, and Techniques: AAOS Exhibit Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Strike, Sophia A; Menga, Emmanuel N; Sponseller, Paul D; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-09-16

    Achieving solid osseous fusion across the lumbosacral junction has historically been, and continues to be, a challenge in spine surgery. Robust pelvic fixation plays an integral role in achieving this goal. The goals of this review are to describe the history of and indications for spinopelvic fixation, examine conventional spinopelvic fixation techniques, and review the newer S2-alar-iliac technique and its outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with spinal deformity. Since the introduction of Harrington rods in the 1960s, spinal instrumentation has evolved substantially. Indications for spinopelvic fixation as a means to achieve lumbosacral arthrodesis include a long arthrodesis (five or more vertebral levels) or use of three-column osteotomies in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, surgical treatment of high-grade spondylolisthesis, and correction of lumbar deformity and pelvic obliquity. A variety of techniques have been described over the years, including Galveston iliac rods, Jackson intrasacral rods, the Kostuik transiliac bar, iliac screws, and S2-alar-iliac screws. Modern iliac screws and S2-alar-iliac screws are associated with relatively low rates of pseudarthrosis. S2-alar-iliac screws have the advantages of less implant prominence and inline placement with proximal spinal anchors. Collectively, these techniques provide powerful methods for obtaining control of the pelvis in facilitating lumbosacral arthrodesis. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  12. Environmental fate and transport analysis with compartment modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Keith W

    2012-01-01

    .... Discussing various modeling issues in a single volume, this text provides an introduction to a specific numerical modeling technique called the compartment approach and offers a practical user's guide to the GEM...

  13. Depth-Sizing Technique for Crack Indications in Steam Generator Tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hong Deok

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear power plants have been safely operated by plugging the steam generator tubes which have the crack indications. Tube rupture events can occur if analysts fail to detect crack indications during in-service inspection. There are various types of crack indication in steam generator tubes and they have been detected by the eddy current test. The integrity assessment should be performed using the crack-sizing results from eddy current data when the crack indication is detected. However, it is not easy to evaluate the crack-depth precisely and consistently due to the complexity of the methods. The current crack-sizing methods were reviewed in this paper and the suitable ones were selected through the laboratory tests. The retired steam generators of Kori Unit 1 were used for this study. The round robin tests by the domestic qualified analysts were carried out and the statistical models were introduced to establish the appropriate depth-sizing techniques. It is expected that the proposed techniques in this study can be utilized in the Steam Generator Management Program

  14. Cardiac output determined by echocardiography in patients with cirrhosis: comparison with the indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik B; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    technique (CO(I)). METHODS: Twelve patients with cirrhosis were studied. CO(d) was measured as the spatial mean velocity of the left ventricular outflow tract, multiplied by the cross-sectional area and the heart rate. CO(I) was determined by the standard indicator dilution technique after injection of 125I...... albumin and 99mTc albumin into the right atrium and subsequent sampling from the femoral artery. RESULTS: The mean CO(d) and CO(I) were similar (7.20 vs 7.15 l/min, NS). A highly significant correlation was present between CO(d) and CO(I) (r = 0.86, P

  15. Forecasting of rainfall using ocean-atmospheric indices with a fuzzy neural technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Mondal, Pratap; Liu, Junguo

    2010-12-01

    SummaryForecasting of rainfall is imperative for rainfed agriculture of arid and semi-arid regions of the world where agriculture consumes nearly 80% of the total water demand. Fuzzy-Ranking Algorithm (FRA) is used to identify the significant input variables for rainfall forecast. A case study is carried out to forecast monthly rainfall in India with several ocean-atmospheric predictor variables. Three different scenarios of ocean-atmospheric predictor variables are used as a set of possible input variables for rainfall forecasting model: (1) two climate indices, i.e. Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index (PDOI); (2) Sea Surface Temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the 5° × 5° grid points in Indian Ocean; and (3) both the climate indices and SSTa. To generate a set of possible input variables for these scenarios, we use climatic indices and the SSTa data with different lags between 1 and 12 months. Nonlinear relationship between identified inputs and rainfall is captured with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique. A new approach based on fuzzy c-mean clustering is proposed for dividing data into representative subsets for training, testing, and validation. The results show that this proposed approach overcomes the difficulty in determining optimal numbers of clusters associated with the data division technique of self-organized map. The ANN model developed with both the climate indices and SSTa shows the best performance for the forecast of the monthly August rainfall in India. Similar approach can be applied to forecast rainfall of any period at selected climatic regions of the world where significant relationship exists between the rainfall and climate indices.

  16. An Effective Ostrich Oil Bleaching Technique Using Peroxide Value as an Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Seng Chiew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness.

  17. IMPROVING THE ECOLOGICALAND ECONOMIC INDICES OFTHE COMPANY ON THE BASIS OFTHE BESTAVAILABLE TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gunkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the modern society pays much attention to the issue of environmental security. On the basis of literary sources it is noted that there is a trend to strengthening the role of environmentally oriented management methods, guidelines for the modernization of production, implementation of environmental management systems and environmental certification. Environmental certification helps the company to properly allocate resources for environmental protection and provides the state with the accurate data and the receipt of payments in budgets of all levels for negative impact on the environment. The structural changes are based on the requirements of the environmental legislation, new requirements to ecological regulation. The authors confirm the need for transition to the Best available techniques (BAT, which significantly improve environmental and economic performance of the enterprise. Implementation of BAT requires the effective replacement of obsolete resource-intensive production and modern technology. Such transitions affect the size of payments for negative impact on the environment and the volume of economic incentives from the state. It is noted that Russia applies the European experience as a basis of creating guidebooks on the best available techniques. The definition of technology as the best available techniques is determined by the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation. Indicators and information generated in the BREF are also required in carrying out the environmental monitoring and control. Changes in these indicators reflect the quality of the technology used. Implementation of BAT requires significant investments, the priority should be conservation projects that eliminate the most acute environmental problems and maximize environmental benefits. The increased interest of enterprises in the application of environmental technologies is not only based on obtaining favorable conditions for state

  18. Correlation analysis of energy indicators for sustainable development using multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Alvaro Luiz Guimaraes; Santos, Francisco Carlos Barbosa dos

    2007-01-01

    Energy is an essential input for social development and economic growth. The production and use of energy cause environmental degradation at all levels, being local, regional and global such as, combustion of fossil fuels causing air pollution; hydropower often causes environmental damage due to the submergence of large areas of land; and global climate change associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As mentioned in chapter 9 of Agenda 21, the Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the world's energy, however, is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if technologies were remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially. All energy sources will need to be used in ways that respect the atmosphere, human health, and the environment as a whole. The energy in the context of sustainable development needs a set of quantifiable parameters, called indicators, to measure and monitor important changes and significant progress towards the achievement of the objectives of sustainable development policies. The indicators are divided into four dimensions: social, economic, environmental and institutional. This paper shows a methodology of analysis using Multivariate Statistical Technique that provide the ability to analyse complex sets of data. The main goal of this study is to explore the correlation analysis among the indicators. The data used on this research work, is an excerpt of IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica) data census. The core indicators used in this study follows The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) framework: Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development. (author)

  19. The Relationship Between Biomechanical Indicators of the Snatch Technique and Female Weightlifters' Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyszka Paulina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The snatch technique is a discipline in Olympic weightlifting. The lifter has to raise the barbell from the platform directly above their head in one movement. While reviewing the literature on biomechanical analysis of the techniques of weightlifting, one can find positions on the analysis of parameters, such as barbell track, horizontal displacement, and angular positions of the joints in the individual phases of the lifter's movement. Many texts concern female and male lifters taking part in World or European Championships. The parameters of the best competitors are outlined - mostly those who finish in the top five places in competition. Mostly these are parameters regarding male lifters, and less frequently those of female lifters. In the literature review, an overlooked aspect is that of the definition of the diversity of indicators as regards the snatch technique practiced by female lifters depending on score. Material and methods. In the research, registered snatch attempts during the World Championship were used. Videos were used by judges to establish a maximum weight limit for female lifters. The attempts were registered by two cameras and were later digitally processed by the APAS 2000 system. Barbell parameters, maximum speed, average of the bar, and the parameters of the lifter-bar collocation (horizontal displacement of barbell weights and height elevation were assessed. Results. The analysed attempts show the margin of error for measurement of the average speed of the barbell as 0.03 m/s. The difference in maximum speed of analysed attempts is 15%. The height of clearance of the first-placed female lifter's barbell was 12.7 cm, 30 cm for the last-placed. Conclusions. The sporting level of weightlifting by female lifters influences the analysed biomechanical indicators of the snatch. Those indicators, which are similar in the case of both the World Championship winner and the female lifter who came last, may be

  20. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the region of the renal artery: indications, technique and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbert, F; Ogris, E; Muzika, N; Schlegl, A; Vacariu, O; Diez, W

    1985-01-01

    The paper reports the results obtained by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of renal artery stenosis in 25 patients with secondary hypertension and discusses indications and the technique used. The follow-up period ranged from 0.5 to 12 months. All interventions were performed with the Olbert catheter system. Following PTA a significant decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure was observed in nearly all patients. The response of the plasma renin activity (PRA) to orthostatic stimulation and pharmacological stimulation by furosemide was determined in a subset of 15 patients before and after PTA. A significant decrease in both basal and stimulated PRA values was observed subsequent to PTA. The decrease in PRA values after successful PTA did not, however, correlate with the extent of the blood pressure changes. (Author).

  1. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the region of the renal artery: indications, technique and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbert, F.; Ogris, E.; Muzika, N.; Schlegl, A.; Vacariu, O.; Diez, W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reports the results obtained by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of renal artery stenosis in 25 patients with secondary hypertension and discusses indications and the technique used. The follow-up period ranged from 0.5 to 12 months. All interventions were performed with the Olbert catheter system. Following PTA a significant decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure was observed in nearly all patients. The response of the plasma renin activity (PRA) to orthostatic stimulation and pharmacological stimulation by furosemide was determined in a subset of 15 patients before and after PTA. A significant decrease in both basal and stimulated PRA values was observed subsequent to PTA. The decrease in PRA values after successful PTA did not, however, correlate with the extent of the blood pressure changes. (Author)

  2. Transcatheter arterial embolization for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Indications, techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffroy, R; Favelier, S; Pottecher, P; Estivalet, L; Genson, P Y; Gehin, S; Cercueil, J P; Krausé, D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, transcatheter arterial embolization has become the first-line therapy for the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that is refractory to endoscopic hemostasis. Advances in catheter-based techniques and newer embolic agents, as well as recognition of the effectiveness of minimally invasive treatment options, have expanded the role of interventional radiology in the treatment of bleeding for a variety of indications. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a fast, safe, and effective minimally invasive alternative to surgery, when endoscopic treatment fails to control acute bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. This article describes the role of arterial embolization in the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and summarizes the literature evidence on the outcomes of endovascular therapy in such a setting. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct surgical repair of spondylolysis in athletes: indications, techniques, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Shirzadi, Ali; Jeswani, Sunil; Ching, Harry; Rosner, Jack; Rasouli, Alexandre; Kim, Terrence; Pashman, Robert; Johnson, J Patrick

    2011-11-01

    Athletes present with back pain as a common symptom. Various sports involve repetitive hyperextension of the spine along with axial loading and appear to predispose athletes to the spinal pathology spondylolysis. Many athletes with acute back pain require nonsurgical treatment methods; however, persistent recurrent back pain may indicate degenerative disc disease or spondylolysis. Young athletes have a greater incidence of spondylolysis. Surgical solutions are many, and yet there are relatively few data in the literature on both the techniques and outcomes of spondylolytic repair in athletes. In this study, the authors undertook a review of the surgical techniques and outcomes in the treatment of symptomatic spondylolysis in athletes. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed using the following key words to identify articles published between 1950 and 2011: "spondylolysis," "pars fracture," "repair," "athlete," and/or "sport." Papers on both athletes and nonathletes were included in the review. Articles were read for data on methodology (retrospective vs prospective), type of treatment, number of patients, mean patient age, and mean follow-up. Eighteen articles were included in the review. Eighty-four athletes and 279 nonathletes with a mean age of 20 and 21 years, respectively, composed the population under review. Most of the fractures occurred at L-5 in both patient groups, specifically 96% and 92%, respectively. The average follow-up period was 26 months for athletes and 86 months for nonathletes. According to the modified Henderson criteria, 84% (71 of 84) of the athletes returned to their sports activities. The time intervals until their return ranged from 5 to 12 months. For a young athlete with a symptomatic pars defect, any of the described techniques of repair would probably produce acceptable results. An appropriate preoperative workup is important. The ideal candidate is younger than 20 years with minimal or no listhesis and

  4. Laparoscopic major hepatectomies: current trends and indications. A comparison with the open technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Francesca; Cipriani, Federica; Ariotti, Riccardo; Giannone, Fabio; Paganelli, Michele; Aldrighetti, Luca

    2015-06-01

    Diffusion of laparoscopic major hepatectomies is experiencing a steady increasing trend, although slower compared to minor resections. The aim of this single-center study is to discuss current trends and indications in the application of minimally invasive techniques to major hepatic resections. Preoperative patients and disease characteristics of 49 laparoscopic major hepatectomies (LPS group), performed between 2005 and 2015, were compared with 585 open hepatectomies (Open group) to analyze differences in patients recruitment. Factors which were found to be differently distributed between groups were used as covariates in a propensity score-based case-matched analysis with a 1:3 ratio between LPS group and 147 patients from the Open group (constituting Open-mat group). Short-term outcome was analyzed in matched groups. ASA score, previous abdominal surgery, previous interventional procedures, indication, lesion size and associated procedures were significantly different between the LPS and the Open group. Short-term outcome analysis revealed that blood loss (200 vs 350 mL, p = 0.044) and time for functional recovery (3 vs 4 days, p = 0.05) were reduced in the LPS compared to the Open-mat group, in spite of longer length of surgery (260 vs 170 min, p = 0.041) and comparable oncological adequacy. Even though data on technical feasibility of laparoscopic major resections and their benefits in terms of blood loss and functional recovery support the diffusion of minimally invasive approach, the limit of the technique is still represented by the reduced pool of suitable candidates.

  5. Advantages, Disadvantages, Indications, Contraindications and Surgical Technique of Laryngeal Airway Mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannu, Anubhav; Shekar, Ashim; Balakrishna, Ramdas; Sudarshan, H; Veena, G C; Bhuvaneshwari, S

    2017-12-01

    The beauty of the laryngeal mask is that it forms an air tight seal enclosing the larynx rather than plugging the pharynx, and avoid airway obstruction in the oropharynx. The goal of its development was to create an intermediate form of airway management face mask and endotracheal tube. Indication for its use includes any procedure that would normally involve the use of a face mask. The laryngeal mask airway was designed as a new concept in airway management and has been gaining a firm position in anesthetic practice. Despite wide spread use the definitive role of the laryngeal mask airway is yet to be established. In some situations, such as after failed tracheal intubation or in oral surgery its use is controversial. There are several unresolved issues, for example the effect of the laryngeal mask on regurgitation and whether or not cricoids pressure prevents placement of mask. We review the techniques of insertion, details of misplacement, and complications associated with use of the laryngeal mask. We then attempt to clarify the role of laryngeal mask in air way management during anesthesia, discussing the advantages and disadvantages as well as indications and contraindications of its use in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  6. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  7. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (pv): indications, contraindications, and technique; Perkutane Vertebroplastie: Indikationen, Kontraindikationen und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, R.T.; Jakobs, T.F.; Wallnoefer, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Helmberger, T.K. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen-Grosshadern (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (pv) is a worldwide increasingly performed interventional therapeutic procedure. This article addresses indications, patient preparation, technical requirements and approach as well as possible complications of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a technique consisting in an injection of bone cement into a vertebral body under imaging guidance. This procedure is performed to relief pain and support the mechanical stability in partially collapsed vertebral bodies. In the management of spinal compression fractures secondary to osteoporosis, myeloma, osteolytic metastases and aggressive hemangiomas, percutaneous vertebroplasty yields analgesic effect, and provides additional fortification in weakened segments of the vertebral column. Contraindications include major bleeding disorders, radicular pain and pain caused by compression of the myelon. Percutaneous vertebroplasty results in prompt pain relief and rapid rehabilitation. In experienced hands, using correct technique, pv is a safe and effective procedure for treating pain, caused either by osteoporotic or malignant vertebral compression fractures. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren gewinnt die perkutane Vertebroplastie (PV) weltweit zunehmend an Bedeutung. In diesem Beitrag werden die korrekte Indikationsstellung, die Vorbereitung der Patienten, geeignete Materialien sowie das technische Vorgehen bei dieser Behandlungsmethode dargestellt. Die PV ist ein minimal-invasives Verfahren, bei dem - unter radiologischer Kontrolle - Knochenzement ueber eine Hohlnadel in einen Wirbelkoerper injiziert wird und damit Schmerzen behandelt werden, die durch einen knoechernen Stabilitaetsverlust der Wirbelkoerper hervorgerufen werden. Indikationen zur Durchfuehrung der Vertebroplastie sind nichtradikulaere, konservativ nicht behandelbare Schmerzen, die durch Kompressionsfrakturen von Wirbelkoerpern aufgrund einer Osteoporose, benignen (aggressiven Haemangiomen) oder

  8. Pleurodese: técnica e indicações Pleurodesis: technique and indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Costa Vaz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O derrame pleural recidivante é uma situação clínica comum que compromete a qualidade de vida dos pacientes, em especial dos portadores de doença oncológica em estágio avançado. A abordagem terapêutica do espaço pleural é variada, incluindo procedimentos agressivos como a pleurectomia. A pleurodese é a técnica mais freqüentemente utilizada, podendo ser induzida tanto através da inserção de cateteres pleurais, como por procedimentos cirúrgicos amplos (toracotomia. São vários os agentes esclerosantes indicados, incluindo o talco, que é o mais utilizado, o nitrato de prata e recentemente as citocinas proliferativas. Este artigo resume as principais abordagens do derrame pleural recidivante e particularmente da pleurodese, suas indicações, vantagens e desvantagens para a aplicação na prática diária do pneumologista.Recurrent pleural effusion, which is commonly seen in clinical practice, compromises patient quality of life, especially in patients with advanced malignant disease. The therapeutic approach to the pleural space involves a wide range of techniques, including aggressive procedures such as pleurectomy. Among such techniques, pleurodesis is the most frequently used. Pleurodesis can be induced through the insertion of pleural catheters, as well as through major surgical procedures (such as thoracotomy. There are various recommended sclerosing agents, including talc (which is the most widely used, silver nitrate and, recently, proliferative cytokines. This article summarizes the principal approaches to the treatment of recurrent pleural effusion, pleurodesis in particular, addressing the indications for, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of, their application in daily pulmonology practice.

  9. [Endoscopic calcaneoplasty (ECP) in Haglund's syndrome. Indication, surgical technique, surgical findings and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J; Sokkar, S; Dücker, M; Donner, A

    2012-06-01

    Posterior calcaneal exostosis treatment modalities have given rise to many controversial opinions. After failure of the conservative treatment, surgical bursectomy and resection of the calcaneal exostosis are indicated by many authors. But clinical studies also show a high rate of unsatisfactory results with a relative high incidence of complications. The minimally invasive surgical technique by an endoscopic calcaneoplasty (ECP) could be an option to overcome some of these problems. Between 1999 und 2010 we operated 164 patients with an age range between 16 and 67 years, 81 males and 83 females. The radiological examination prior to surgery documented in all cases a posterior superior calcaneal exostosis that showed friction to the Achilles tendon. All patients included in the study had no clinical varus of the hind foot, nor cavus deformities. All patients had undergone a trial of conservative treatment for at least 6 months and did not show a positive response. The average follow-up was 46.3 (range: 8-120) months. According to the Ogilvie-Harris score 71 patients presented good and 84 patients excellent results, while 5 patients showed fair results, and 4 patients only poor results. All the post-operative radiographs showed sufficient resection of the calcaneal spur. In 61 patients the preoperative MRI showed a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon close to the insertion side. In no case could we observe a complete tear at the time of follow-up. Only minor postoperative complications were observed. In many patients we could observe a chondral layer at the posterior aspect of the calcaneus. Close to the intersion the Achilles tendon showed also in many patients a chondroide metaplasia. ECP is an effective and minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of patients with calcaneal exostosis. After a short learning curve the endoscopic exposure is superior to the open technique, has less morbidity, less operating time, and nearly no complications. Moreover, the

  10. Lower limb compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M M; Jayne, D

    2011-05-01

      In spite of recent advances in technology and technique, laparoscopic colorectal surgery is associated with increased operating times when compared with open surgery. This increases the risk of acute lower limb compartment syndrome. The aim of this review was to gain a better understanding of postoperative lower limb compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery and to suggest strategies to avoid its occurrence. A MEDLINE search was performed using the keywords 'compartment syndrome', 'laparoscopic surgery' and 'Lloyd-Davies position' between 1970 and 2008. All relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. A total of 54 articles were retrieved. Of the 30 articles in English, five were reviews, six were original articles and 19 were case reports, of which only one was following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The remaining 24 were non-English articles. Of these, two were reviews and 22 were case reports, of which only one was following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The incidence of acute compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery is unknown. The following are believed to be risk factors for acute lower limb compartment syndrome: the Lloyd-Davies operating position with exaggerated Trendelenburg tilt, prolonged operative times and improper patient positioning. Simple strategies are suggested to reduce its occurrence. Simple preventative measures have been identified which may help to reduce the incidence of acute lower limb compartment syndrome. However, if suspected, timely surgical intervention with four-compartment fasciotomy remains the standard of care. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Survey regarding the clinical practice of cardiac CT in Germany. Indications, scanning technique and reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Marc H.; Hamm, B.; Dewey, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to obtain an overview of the current clinical practice of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Materials and methods: a 30-item question-naire was mailed to 149 providers of cardiac CT in Germany. The items asked about indications, scanning technique and reporting, data storage, and cost of the examination. Results: overall 45 questionnaires could be analyzed (30%). The majority of centers (76%, 34 of 45 centers) used CT scanners of the latest generation (at least 64 rows). The most common appropriate indications were exclusion of coronary artery disease (91%, 41/45), coronary anomalies (80%, 36/45), and follow-up after coronary artery bypass grafting (53%, 24/45). Each center examined on average 243 {+-} 310 patients in 2007 and the number of centers performing cardiac CT increased significantly in 2007 (p = 0.035) compared with the preceding year. Most used sublingual nitroglycerin (84%, 38/45; median of 2 sprays = 0.8 mg) and/or a beta blocker (86%, 39/44; median of 5 mg IV, median heart rate threshold: 70 beats/min). Many providers used ECG-triggered tube current modulation (65%, 29/44) and/or adjusted the tube current to the body mass index or body weight (63%, 28/44). A median slice thickness of 0.75 mm with a 0.5 mm increment and a 20 cm field-of-view was most commonly used. Source images in orthogonal planes (96%, 43/45), curved MPRs (93%, 42/45), and thin-slice MIPs (69%, 31/45) were used most frequently for interpretation. Extracardiac structures were also evaluated by 84% of the centers (38/45). The mean examination time was 16.2 min and reporting took an average of 28.8 min. (orig.)

  12. Orbital exenteration: Institutional review of evolving trends in indications and rehabilitation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, Hayyam; Koç, İrem

    2018-06-01

    To determine the changes in indications for orbital exenteration over 20 years and to assess its impact on patient survival. Evolving techniques of rehabilitation of the orbit in our institution were also evaluated. This was a retrospective review of hospital records of patients who underwent orbital exenteration from 1995 to 2015 in a tertiary care center. Data extracted included primary location of the tumor, preoperative treatments, interval between initial diagnosis and exenteration, status of surgical margins, presence of metastatic disease, and postoperative survival. The types of prosthesis utilized over the years were also reviewed. Cox regression analysis was performed for categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate post-exenteration survival. Over a 20-year period, orbital exenteration was performed on 100 orbits of 100 patients. The mean age was 39.4 years (range: 2 months to 90 years). The most common indications among 98 malignant causes were retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, extraocular extension of uveal melanoma, and conjunctival melanoma. Postoperative survival was significantly related to age and tumor location but independent from gender, surgical margin, histopathological diagnosis, previous treatment modality, and preoperative interval. In the whole cohort, 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 97% and 84%, respectively. Exenteration appears to be life-saving in children with orbital extension of retinoblastoma. While patients exenterated for malignant eyelid tumors have the best chance of survival, those with orbital extension of uveal melanoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland have the worst prognosis.

  13. Embolization of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae with ONYX: Indications, techniques, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraf Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the liquid embolic agent, ONYX, in the treatment of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs and to redefine the indications, techniques and outcomes of treatment with ONYX. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 25 DAVF patients who underwent endovascular treatment with ONYX between February 2006 and July 2008. All patients of DAVF presenting in this period were treated with ONYX. Results: Anatomic cure (i.e., complete angiographic closure of the fistula was achieved in a single session and through a single arterial pedicle injection in 21 out of 25 patients (cure rate of 84%. Out of four patients with residual fistulae, one achieved cure that was evident on a control angiogram obtained at 3 months while three had no vascular access for further embolization and so were referred for radiosurgery. There was only one recurrence seen in angiograms obtained at the end of one year and this patient was re-embolized successfully with ONYX. Complications were seen in two patients. Conclusion: ONYX embolization of DAVFs has revolutionized the endovascular treatment of DAVFs, achieving high cure rates in a single session with minimal complications. Transarterial ONYX embolization should be the first option for all locations, except cavernous DAVFs.

  14. DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil. The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008 was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

  15. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Multi-compartment linear noise approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenger, Joseph D; McKane, Alan J; Pahle, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The ability to quantify the stochastic fluctuations present in biochemical and other systems is becoming increasing important. Analytical descriptions of these fluctuations are attractive, as stochastic simulations are computationally expensive. Building on previous work, a linear noise approximation is developed for biochemical models with many compartments, for example cells. The procedure is then implemented in the software package COPASI. This technique is illustrated with two simple examples and is then applied to a more realistic biochemical model. Expressions for the noise, given in the form of covariance matrices, are presented. (paper)

  17. Study of indicators aggregation techniques for the selection of a new nuclear reactor for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barragan M, A.M.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2007-01-01

    A study on several aggregation techniques that can be used as multi criteria analysis methods, like important part of the methodology developed for the selection of a nuclear reactor for Mexico is described. In an arbitrary way three reactors were selected to be compared, these they are the AP1000 (Advance Passive from 1000 MWe), the PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) and the GT-MHR (Gas Turbine Modular Helium). The evaluation approaches were classified in three categories: Economic, Socio-political and of safety and environment. In each category they were defined the more important evaluation indicators and then it was built a matrix with those values of each reactor. The four studied aggregation methods are described: Normalization, Linear deliberation, Fuzzy Logic and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). The well-known aggregation mechanisms are those that are obtained of the lineal deliberation and of the normalization, which have demonstrated to give good results before the simplicity of their use. The fuzzy logic has the advantage that it allows to manage qualitative and quantitative information simultaneously without the aggregation problems that are presented since in a conventional system the semantic pattern on that is based, it is provided by the theory of the diffuse groups that has demonstrated in other areas of the knowledge a better approach to the reality, when admitting that the nature has shades and that the decisions take in function of a wide range of possibilities and of approaches in contradictory occasions or in conflict, all equally worth. The Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) that consists in formalizing the intuitive understanding of a multi criteria complex problem, by means of the construction of a hierarchical model that allows the decision agent to structure the problem in visual form, giving him the form of a hierarchy of attributes (global objective of the problem, approaches and alternative). Finally, using the matrix of initiators

  18. Standards in radiographically guided biopsies - indications, techniques, complications; Standards radiologisch bildgesteuerter Biopsien - Indikationsstellung, Technik, Komplikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerbach, S.; Schreyer, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Schlottmann, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Innere Medizin I

    2003-09-01

    In the first place, different needle types are presented, in particular, biopsy cannulae applying the ''TruCut'' principle and devices suitable for bone biopsy. Important aids for the daily practice, such as tandem technology and coaxial technology, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed, together with the most important sites of target-directed fluoroscopy, sonography and computer tomography as well as CT-fluoroscopy. Local anesthesia and analgosedation are presented, and the general and specific caliber- or entrance-dependent contraindications are described. The literature is reviewed for data of severe complications, such as death or tumor cell deposits along the puncture site. For the different targets in thorax and abdomen, the typical indications, points of entrance, contraindications, complications and special techniques are described, and the value of the biopsy for these localizations is presented. Under the heading ''Tips and Tricks'', practical advice useful for the daily routine can be found. (orig.) [German] Zunaechst werden verschiedene Nadeltypen vorgestellt, insbesondere die nach dem ''Tru-Cut''-Prinzip funktionierenden Biopsiekanuelen, und Bestecke, die sich zur Knochenbiopsie eignen. Fuer die taegliche Praxis wichtige Hilfsmittel wie Tandemtechnik und Koaxialtechnik werden dargestellt. Auf die Vor- und Nachteile und damit auch die wichtigen Einsatzgebiete der Zielverfahren Fluoroskopie, Ultraschall und Computertomographie sowie CT-Fluoroskopie wird eingegangen. Lokalanaesthesie und Analogsedierung werden ebenso dargestellt, die allgemeinen und spezifischen, kaliber- oder zugangsabhaengigen Kontraindikationen werden beschrieben und auf die Daten zur Literatur hinsichtlich schwerer Komplikationen wie Todesfaelle oder Tumorzellenverschleppung in den Stichkanal wird eingegangen. Fuer die unterschiedlichen Punktionsziele im Thorax und Abdomen werden die typischen

  19. [The sural medial perforator flap: Anatomical bases, surgical technique and indications in head and neck reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, S; Schaff, J-B; Qassemyar, Q

    2018-04-01

    The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is defined as a thin cutaneo-adipose perforator flap harvested on the medial aspect of the leg. The aims of this study were to describe the anatomical basis as well as the surgical technique and discuss the indications in head and neck reconstructive surgery. We harvested 10 MSAP flap on 5 fresh cadavers. For each case, the number and the location of the perforators were recorded. For each flap, the length of pedicle, the diameter of source vessels and the thickness of the flap were studied. Finally, we performed a clinical application of a MSAP flap. A total of 23 perforators with a diameter superior than 1mm were dissected on 10 legs. The medial sural artery provided between 1 and 4 musculocutaneous perforators. Perforators were located in average at 10.3cm±2cm from the popliteal fossa and at 3.6cm±1cm from the median line of the calf. The mean pedicle length was 12.1cm±2.5cm. At its origin, the source artery diameter was 1.8mm±0.25mm and source veins diameters were 2.45mm±0.9mm in average. There was no complication in our clinical application. This study confirms the reliability of previous anatomical descriptions of the medial sural artery perforator flap. This flap was reported as thin and particularly adapted for oral cavity reconstruction and for facial or limb resurfacing. Sequelae might be reduced as compared to those of the radial forearm flap with comparable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Posterior Segment Intraocular Foreign Body: Extraction Surgical Techniques, Timing, and Indications for Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante A. Guevara-Villarreal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on “Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body,” “Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body,” and “Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body” was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors with good results. Conclusion. The most important factor at the time to perform IOFB extraction is the experience of the surgeon.

  1. CFD analysis of flow in engine compartment of large urban bus; Ogata bus no engine room nai nagare kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, H; Otake, M; Iioka, K [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Sato, K [Subaru Research Center Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A CFD simulation was performed to analyze the air flow in the engine compartment of a large urban bus. The conventional simulation technique takes a long time to perform the parameter study of a complex engine compartment shape. In this study, the use of orthogonal grids made modeling the engine compartment easy, so parameter study on modification of the engine compartment structure could be conducted in a short time. Thus this simulation enables engineers to more clearly understand the air flow patterns in the engine compartment, and to get guidlines for modifying the compartment structure to improve the cooling performance. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  2. [Management of spinal metastasis by minimal invasive surgery technique: Surgical principles, indications: A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toquart, A; Graillon, T; Mansouri, N; Adetchessi, T; Blondel, B; Fuentes, S

    2016-06-01

    Spinal metastasis are getting more frequent. This raises the question of pain and neurological complications, which worsen the functional and survival prognosis of this oncological population patients. The surgical treatment must be the most complete as possible: to decompress and stabilize without delaying the management of the oncological disease. Minimal invasive surgery techniques are by definition, less harmful on musculocutaneous plan than opened ones, with a comparable efficiency demonstrated in degenerative and traumatic surgery. So they seem to be applicable and appropriate to this patient population. We detailed different minimal invasive techniques proposed in the management of spinal metastasis. For this, we used our experience developed in degenerative and traumatic pathologies, and we also referred to many authors, establishing a literature review thanks to Pubmed, Embase. Thirty eight articles were selected and allowed us to describe different techniques: percutaneous methods such as vertebro-/kyphoplasty and osteosynthesis, as well as mini-opened surgery, through a posterior or anterior way. We propose a surgical approach using these minimal invasive techniques, first according to the predominant symptom (pain or neurologic failure), then characteristics of the lesions (number, topography, type…) and the deformity degree. Whatever the technique, the main goal is to stabilize and decompress, in order to maintain a good quality of life for these fragile patients, without delaying the medical management of the oncological disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Imaging of iliopsoas compartment disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, L.; Saint Maurice, J.P.; Le Quen, O.; Bazille, A.; Miquel, A.; Frouge, C.; Blery, M.

    1997-01-01

    Infection, neoplastic involvement, and hemorrhage, are the most frequent pathologies that involve the ilio-psoas compartment. The extension from contiguous pathological structures and particularly digestive and urological organs, are often the origin of abscess formation or malignant tumours. The radiological findings including ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging, show a low specificity, which improves if the clinical history is known. The final diagnosis is confirmed by puncture or biopsy. (author)

  4. Numerical treatment of compartment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einarsson, B.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes and interactive program RADIO (Radioactive Decay Information Online) for studying the radioactive decay process, with applications to many ecological problems, but not necessarily involving radioactive processes. Starting with the compartment coefficients and initial values of the various compartments the problem is solved as a system of linear ordinary differential equations. The method of solution is the direct use of matrix exponentials or the backward differences method. A program INVERS is also available for the solution of the inverse problem, that is parameter estimation in a system of linear ordinary differential equations when the solution is available pointwise. The output can be printed on a line printer either from a result file or from the plot file, which of course also can be used to produce graphic output. The plot file is processed by the plotting program VISION or by the auxiliary printing program RADAR. Another file can be used for a later restart from the point of time where the previous computation was aborted or from an arbitrary point of time if the relevant starting information is available. This is useful in order to avoid the manual input of a compartment matrix if it is similar to one used before. When the program RADIO is run the user answers to the question asked by the program. The programs are written in Fortran 77 for the Digital Equipment VAX 11 with graphical presentation on a Tektronix 4010, and are available from the author. (Author)

  5. Percutaneous aspiration biopsy in cervical spine lytic lesions. Indications and technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampieri, D; Weill, A; Melanson, D; Ethier, R [Montreal Neurological Inst. and Hospital, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    1991-02-01

    We describe the technique and the results of the percutaneous aspiration biopsy (PAB) in a series of 9 patients presenting with neck pain and different degrees of myelopathy, in whom the cervical spine X-ray demonstrated lytic lesions of unknown origin. PAB is a useful, relatively safe technique, and leads to histological diagnosis between metastatic and inflammatory processes. Furthermore, in inflammatory lesions with negative hemoculture, PAB may help in detecting the micro-organism responsible and therefore allow a better antibiotic treatment. (orig.).

  6. Indications, techniques, and outcomes of arthroscopic repair of scapholunate ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathoulin, C L

    2017-07-01

    This review includes updated understanding of the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic carpal ligaments in scapholunate instability and details the author's experience of indications, arthroscopic repair methods, and outcomes of treating the instability. A classification on triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries is reviewed, followed by author's indications, methods, and outcomes of arthroscopic repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries.

  7. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Sayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities’ compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy.

  8. Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Yan Kit; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear is very rare. It can involve the superficial posterior compartment alone or progress to involve all the 4 compartments of the lower legs. Those patients with high pain tolerance and minor trauma can lead to delayed presentation. Immediate fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. Therapeutic Level IV, Case Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  9. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.787 Stowage compartments. (a) Each compartment for the stowage of cargo, baggage, carry-on articles, and... to compartments located below, or forward, of all occupants in the airplane. If the airplane has a...

  10. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging; Indikationen und Technik der fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Brugger, P.C. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Wien (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung und Bestaetigung von im praenatalen Ultraschall entdeckten Pathologien. Ultraschall und Magnetresonanztomographie. Praenatale Untersuchungsmethode. Die fetale MRT ist inzwischen als ergaenzende Methode zum praenatalen Ultraschall anerkannt. Die fetale MRT soll als additive Methode bei klinischer Relevanz, nicht jedoch als Routinescreeningverfahren waehrend der Schwangerschaft angewendet werden. Durchfuehrung ausschliesslich an einem Perinatalzentrum nach vorangegangenem Level-III-Ultraschall. (orig.)

  11. Assessing soil quality indicator under different land use and soil erosion using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2013-04-01

    Soil degradation associated with soil erosion and land use is a critical problem in Iran and there is little or insufficient scientific information in assessing soil quality indicator. In this study, factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were used to identify the most sensitive indicators of soil quality for evaluating land use and soil erosion within the Hiv catchment in Iran and subsequently compare soil quality assessment using expert opinion based on soil surface factors (SSF) form of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) method. Therefore, 19 soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties were measured from 56 different sampling sites covering three land use/soil erosion categories (rangeland/surface erosion, orchard/surface erosion, and rangeland/stream bank erosion). FA identified four factors that explained for 82 % of the variation in soil properties. Three factors showed significant differences among the three land use/soil erosion categories. The results indicated that based upon backward-mode DA, dehydrogenase, silt, and manganese allowed more than 80 % of the samples to be correctly assigned to their land use and erosional status. Canonical scores of discriminant functions were significantly correlated to the six soil surface indices derived of BLM method. Stepwise linear regression revealed that soil surface indices: soil movement, surface litter, pedestalling, and sum of SSF were also positively related to the dehydrogenase and silt. This suggests that dehydrogenase and silt are most sensitive to land use and soil erosion.

  12. Trace analysis of cyanide by ion-selective electrode indicator technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, R.L.; Kapauan, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the toxicity of cyanide, its analysis in water is important. The use of ion-selective electrodes for its determination was studied. The known addition method using a silver sulfide membrane electrode was studied. This involved using a silver indicator solution to determine the cyanide content of a sample. Known amounts of a standard cyanide solution were added and the potentials noted. The results were plotted and the original concentration of cyanide extrapolated. The results of the experiment indicated the method to be practical for analysis of industrial waste waters, even in the presence of metal ions. The metal ions were masked using an EDTA solution while possible sulfides were precipitated out using a Pb (N0 3 ) 2 solution. The method was tested on four actual samples and the results indicated the applicability of the method

  13. Appropriate Urban Livability Indicators for Metropolitan Johor, Malaysia via Expert-Stakeholder Approach: a Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Gallares Pampanga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metro Johor is one of the fast emerging metropolitan urban centers where its current progress and spatial transformation have made it a key player in the economic growth of Malaysia. The recent creation of the Iskandar Malaysia, an economic strategy which aims to be a global player as potential destination for high-value investments, has certainly added social, environmental and economic stress to its urban citizens. This paper intends to develop urban livability indicators for Metropolitan Johor anchored on the changing urban complexion in the face of climate change, economic, governance, social and cultural dynamics, among others. The urban livability conundrum of Metro Johor illustrates that indicators are imperative, especially policy-based indicators, which would aid to scale-up the desired progress according to urban livability metrics. The study involves iterative 3-rounds of Delphi blind survey with Likert scale’s degree of agreement, and finally assigning weightings to each sub-indicator. Thus, with the expert-stakeholders involvement, constituting broad-sectoral community representation, a robust and appropriate urban livability index for Metro Johor was generated - a comprehensive framework yet prospective benchmark in appropriating timely policy decisions that would redound to the benefit of urban citizens ensuring a livable Metropolitan Johor.

  14. Evaluation of pre-jamming indication parameter during blind backfilling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Panda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic blind backfilling is used to reduce subsidence problems above old underground water-logged coal mines. This paper describes experimental research on a fully transparent model of a straight underground mine gallery. An automatic data acquisition system was installed in the model to continuously record the sand and water flowrates along with the inlet pressure of the slurry near the model's inlet. Pressure signature graphs and pressure loss curves with bed advancement under different flow conditions are examined. Pressure signature analyses for various flowrates and sand slurry concentrations are conducted to evaluate a pre-jamming indication parameter, which could be used to indicate the arrival of the final stage of filling.

  15. Variance estimation for complex indicators of poverty and inequality using linearization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Osier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Eurostat experience in calculating measures of precision, including standard errors, confidence intervals and design effect coefficients - the ratio of the variance of a statistic with the actual sample design to the variance of that statistic with a simple random sample of same size - for the "Laeken" indicators, that is, a set of complex indicators of poverty and inequality which had been set out in the framework of the EU-SILC project (European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The Taylor linearization method (Tepping, 1968; Woodruff, 1971; Wolter, 1985; Tille, 2000 is actually a well-established method to obtain variance estimators for nonlinear statistics such as ratios, correlation or regression coefficients. It consists of approximating a nonlinear statistic with a linear function of the observations by using first-order Taylor Series expansions. Then, an easily found variance estimator of the linear approximation is used as an estimator of the variance of the nonlinear statistic. Although the Taylor linearization method handles all the nonlinear statistics which can be expressed as a smooth function of estimated totals, the approach fails to encompass the "Laeken" indicators since the latter are having more complex mathematical expressions. Consequently, a generalized linearization method (Deville, 1999, which relies on the concept of influence function (Hampel, Ronchetti, Rousseeuw and Stahel, 1986, has been implemented. After presenting the EU-SILC instrument and the main target indicators for which variance estimates are needed, the paper elaborates on the main features of the linearization approach based on influence functions. Ultimately, estimated standard errors, confidence intervals and design effect coefficients obtained from this approach are presented and discussed.

  16. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF PREDICTION OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF CHANGES IN MAINTENANCE ORGANISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej WIECZOREK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of how to assess the future state of the organization in the area of using and maintenance of technical means, basing on the combination of "classic" prognostic model with models ‐ components of the selected computer tools. Presentation of this concept was preceded by the definition and characteristics of maintenance key performance indicators. It also presents a requirements and method of KPIs selection.

  17. Banking a hemi-abdominal DIEP flap: a pilot report of indications, technique, and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Singh, Navin K; Taylor, Jesse A; Rosson, Gedge D

    2009-01-01

    We present a pilot report of "banking" the contralateral hemi-abdominal deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap under the abdominal closure in patients undergoing unilateral autologous breast reconstruction when a hemi-abdominal flap suffices. Four patients undergoing unilateral autologous breast reconstruction with a hemi-abdominal DIEP or superficial inferior epigastric artery flap had their contralateral hemi-abdominal flap left in position, or "banked," under their abdominal closure to be used in case of failure. This novel method may be of assistance when a free microvascular hemi-abdominal flap is felt to be threatened or suspect. It provides a life-boat for the younger and experienced surgeon alike, and most importantly, for the breast cancer survivor. Economic analysis of the technique reveals that the contralateral hemi-abdominal flap should be banked more often than intuition alone would suggest. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Bone grafting in surgery about the foot and ankle: indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Timothy C; Hawks, Michael A; McMullen, Scott T; Inda, David J

    2011-02-01

    Bone grafting is a common procedure in foot and ankle surgery. Historically, autogenous bone graft has most often been harvested from the ipsilateral iliac crest. However, other sites offer similar volumes of cancellous bone and are associated with fewer complications. The ipsilateral proximal tibia, distal tibia, and calcaneus provide adequate amounts of bone graft material for most arthrodesis procedures about the foot and ankle. Emerging techniques have enabled the development of a seemingly unlimited supply of alternative bone graft materials with osteoconductive properties. The osteoprogenitor cells in bone marrow aspirates can be concentrated by use of selective retention systems. These aspirate-matrix composites may be combined with allograft preparations, resulting in a product that promotes osteoconduction, osteoinduction, and osteogenesis with limited morbidity.

  19. Indications, imaging technique, and reading of cardiac computed tomography: survey of clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.H.; Zimmermann, E.; Germershausen, C.; Hamm, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schlattmann, P. [University Hospital of Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Department of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin, PO Box 10098 (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    To obtain an overview of the current clinical practice of cardiac computed tomography (CT). A 32-item questionnaire was mailed to a total of 750 providers of cardiac CT in 57 countries. A total of 169 questionnaires from 38 countries were available for analysis (23%). Most CT systems used (94%, 207/221) were of the latest generation (64-row or dual-source CT). The most common indications for cardiac CT was exclusion of coronary artery disease (97%, 164/169). Most centres used beta blockade (91%, 151/166) and sublingual nitroglycerine (80%, 134/168). A median slice thickness of 0.625 mm with a 0.5-mm increment and an 18-cm reconstruction field of view was used. Interpretation was most often done using source images in orthogonal planes (92%, 155/169). Ninety percent of sites routinely evaluate extracardiac structures on a large (70%) or cardiac field of view (20%). Radiology sites were significantly more interested in jointly performing cardiac CT together with cardiology than cardiologists. The mean examination time was 18.6 {+-} 8.4 min, and reading took on average 28.7 {+-} 17.8 min. Cardiac CT has rapidly become established in clinical practice, and there is emerging consensus regarding indications, conduct of the acquisition, and reading. (orig.)

  20. Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy: technique, indications and clinical follow-up in over 1000 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaldi, G. [Department of Neuroradiology, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo (Italy)

    2003-10-01

    This paper summarises my experience, over 14 years, treating over 1350 patients suffering from lumbar disc pathology, using minimally invasive intradiscal decompressive percutaneous techniques. The vast majority underwent the method introduced by Onik in 1985, referred to as ''automated'' since it involves a mechanical probe, working by a ''suction and cutting'' action for removal of the nucleus pulposus. Postoperative follow-up of at least 6 months was available for 1047 patients aged 15-92 years, who underwent this procedure up to June 2002. Results, based on a patient satisfaction, have been good in 58% of patients at 2 months and in 67.5% at 6 months; they have been particularly favourable in some subgroups such as elderly people (79.5% of excellent or good results), patients previously operated upon (78%) and those with ''discogenic'' low back pain (79%). Complication rates have been extremely low (less than 1%) and all complications cleared up without sequelae. In comparison with other percutaneous disc treatments, Onik's achieves the best compromise between clinical efficacy, comfort for the patient and low invasiveness. (orig.)

  1. Ultra-mini PNL (UMP): Material, indications, technique, advantages and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Janak D

    2017-01-01

    Stone disease has afflicted mankind since centuries; records from ancient civilisations of India and Egypt have shown stones in human bodies. The scientific mind of humans has always made smart endeavours to remove the kidney stones. From large instruments made like the beaks of different animals and birds in 600 BC (Indian civilisation) to extremely sophisticated and miniaturised endoscopic intruments of today the human race has travelled a long way. The theme has always been to remove the stones with minimal morbidity and mortality and with minimum pain to the patient. The article takes you through the journey of instruments used in 600 BC until today. The story of instrumentation is a symbiosis of the medical minds along with engineering advances. The story of miniaturisation could not have moved further without the development of lasers, fiberoptics and sophisticated cameras. As the field stands today, we remove more complex stones by larger endoscopic intervention and smaller stones by miniaturised instruments. The article discusses all the merits and shortcomings of various techniques: from open surgery to standard PCNL to Mini PCNL to Ultra- Mini PCNL to Micro-PCNL.

  2. Indications, techniques and results of postoperative brachytherapy in cancer of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, M.; Aletti, P.; Carolus, J.M.; Marquis, I.; Hoffstetter, S.; Maaloul, F.; Peiffert, D.; Lapeyre, M.; Luporsi, E.; Marchal, C.; Noeel, A.; Bey, P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/objective: We tried to reduce the number of local recurrences after surgery and external beam irradiation (EBI) in carcinoma of the oral cavity, when margins were positive or close. Material and methods: From 1980 to 1992, we treated 97 cases of carcinomas of the oral cavity by postoperative brachytherapy. Surgery was combined with EBI+brachytherapy in 51 cases and with brachytherapy alone in 46 cases. We treated 29 T1, 34 T2, 30 T3T4 and four Tx (73% were N0 at first examination and 23% had positive nodes). The type of surgery is analysed. Brachytherapy was performed in one or two planes along the surgical scar. If the mandibular rim was resected, especially when the tongue or the remaining floor were sutured to the internal face of the inferior lip or to the buccal mucosa, the bridge technique was used. To decrease the dose to the inferior part of the mandible, the bridge was modified thanks to experimental dosimetry. Results: At 5 years, the local control (LC) is 89%, the locoregional control (LRC) 82%, the specific survival (SS) 74% and the overall survival (OS) 67%. Complications: We noted 19% of grade 1 (minor), 12% of grade 2 (moderate) and 6% of grade 3 (major) complications. Conclusion: Compared with the results of the literature, we think that postoperative brachytherapy can improve classical radiosurgical results in selected cases with a risk of local recurrence

  3. Cytogenetic techniques for biological indications and dosimetry of of radiation damages in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetic methods present a proved way for bio-monitoring and bio-dosimetry for persons, submitted to ionising radiation in occupational and emergency conditions. Their application complement and assist the evaluation of the physical dosimetry and takes in account the individual radiosensitivity of the organism. A comparative assessment is made of the cytogenetic markers for radiation damage of humans applied in Bulgaria. It is discussed the sensitivity of the methods and their development in the last years, as well as the basic concept for their application - the causal relationship between the frequency of the observation of cytogenetic markers in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the risk of oncological disease. The conventional analysis of dicentrics is recognised as a 'golden standard' for the quantitative assessment of the radiation damage. The long term persisting translocations reflect properly the cumulative dose burden from chronic exposure. The micronucleus test allows a quick screening of large groups of persons, working in ionising radiation environment. The combined application with centromeric DNA probe improves the sensitivity and presents a modern alternative of the bio-monitoring and bio-dosimetry. It is discussed the advantages of the different cytogenetic techniques and their optimised application for the assessment of the radiation impact on humans

  4. Mixing of radiolytic hydrogen generated within a containment compartment following a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.; Gido, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine hydrogen concentration variations with position and time in a closed containment compartment with radiolytic hydrogen generation in the water on the compartment floor following a Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). One application is to determine the potential difference between the compartment maximum hydrogen concentration and a hydrogen detector reading, due to the detector location. Three possible mechanisms for hydrogen transport in the compartment were investigated: (1) molecular diffusion, (2) possible bubble formation and motion, and (3) natural convection flows. A base case cubic compartment with 6.55-m (21.5-ft) height was analyzed. Parameter studies were used to determine the sensitivity of results to compartment size, hydrogen generation rates, diffusion coefficients, and the temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls of the compartment. Diffusion modeling indicates that if no other mixing mechanism is present for the base case, the maximum hydrogen volume percent (vol percent) concentration difference between the compartment floor and ceiling will be 4.8 percent. It will be 24.5 days before the maximum concentration difference is less than 0.5 percent. Bubbles do not appear to be a potential source of hydrogen pocketing in a containment compartment. Compartment natural convection circulation rates for a 2.8 K (5 0 F) temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls are estimated to be at least the equivalent of 1 compartment volume per hour and probably in the range of 4 to 9 compartment volumes per hour. Related natural convection studies indicate there will be turbulent mixing in the compartment for a 2.8 K (5 0 F) temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls

  5. In vivo measurement of myocardial protein turnover using an indicator dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revkin, J.H.; Young, L.H.; Stirewalt, W.S.; Dahl, D.M.; Gelfand, R.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Barrett, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    We applied a nondestructive tracer technique, previously developed for measuring skeletal muscle protein turnover, to the measurement of myocardial protein turnover in vivo. During a continuous infusion of L-[ring-2,6-3H]phenylalanine to anesthetized, overnight-fasted dogs, we measured the uptake of radiolabeled phenylalanine from plasma and the release of unlabeled phenylalanine from myocardial proteolysis using arterial and coronary sinus catheterization and analytic methods previously applied to skeletal muscle. Using these measurements, together with a model of myocardial protein synthesis that assumes rapid equilibration of tracer specific activity between myocardial phenylalanyl-tRNA and circulating phenylalanine, we estimated the rates of heart protein synthesis and degradation. The rate of heart protein synthesis was also estimated directly from the incorporation of labeled phenylalanine into tissue protein. The use of [3H]phenylalanine was compared with L-[1-14C]leucine in the measurement of heart protein turnover in dogs given simultaneous infusion of both tracers. Leucine uptake and release by the myocardium exceeded that of phenylalanine by 3.1 +/- 0.4- and 1.7 +/- 0.3-fold, respectively, consistent with leucine's 2.4-fold greater abundance in heart protein and its metabolism via other pathways. Phenylalanine is the preferred tracer for use with this method because of its limited metabolic fate in muscle. One theoretical limitation to the method, slow equilibration of circulating labeled phenylalanine with myocardial phenylalanyl-tRNA, was resolved by comparison of these specific activities after a 30-minute infusion of labeled phenylalanine in the rat. A second, empirical limitation involves precision in the measurement of the small decrements in phenylalanine specific activity that occur with each pass of blood through the coronary circulation

  6. Venous Access Ports: Indications, Implantation Technique, Follow-Up, and Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walser, Eric M., E-mail: walser.eric@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The subcutaneous venous access device (SVAD or 'port') is a critical component in the care of patients with chronic disease. The modern SVAD provides reliable access for blood withdrawal and medication administration with minimal disruption to a patient's lifestyle. Because of improved materials and catheter technology, today's ports are lighter and stronger and capable of high-pressure injections of contrast for cross-sectional imaging. The majority of SVAD placement occurs in interventional radiology departments due to their ability to provide this service at lower costs, lower, complication rates, and greater volumes. Port-insertion techniques vary depending on the operator, but all consist of catheter placement in the central venous circulation followed by subcutaneous pocket creation and port attachment to the catheter with fixation and closure of the pocket. Venous access challenges occasionally occur in patients with central vein occlusions, necessitating catheterization of collateral veins or port placement in alternate locations. Complications of SVADs include those associated with the procedure as well as short- (<30 days) and long-term problems. Procedural and early complications are quite rare due to the near-universal use of real-time ultrasound guidance for vein puncture, but they can include hematoma, catheter malposition, arrhythmias, and pneumothorax. Late problems include both thrombotic complications (native venous or port-catheter thrombosis) and infections (tunnel or pocket infections or catheter-associated bloodstream infections). Most guidelines suggest that 0.3 infections/1000 catheter days is an appropriate upper threshold for the insertion of SVADs.

  7. Investigating the Morphologic Indices of the Hamulus Pterygoid Process Using the CBCT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Romoozi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Location and length of hamulus process plays a very important role in the efficiency of muscles such as tensor veli palatine, palato pharyngeal, upper part of upper throat muscle and so on. Given the importance of information on the morphology of the hamular process and capabilities and usefulness of CBCT in the diagnosis of its structure, this study takes place with the goal of investigating the morphologic indices (indicators of hamulus pterygoid process using CBCT. This study investigates the CBCT images of 201 patients with the average age of 37 years, 102 males and 99 females. The length and width of the hamulus process on the left and right was measured. Also, the slope of this process in the sagittal and coronal planes were studied. Then variables in question were measured by a CBCT viewer. Average length of hamulus pterygoid process on the right was found to be 6.4 mm and on the left it was 6.5 mm. Average width of hamulus pterygoid process on the right was found to be 1.34 mm and on the left it was 1.35 mm. The average slope of the hamulus pterygoid process in the sagittal plane on the right was found to be 55.9 ° and on the left it was 56.7° The average slope of the hamulus pterygoid process in the coronal plane on the right was found to be 65.7 ° and on the left it was 66.5°. Average length and width of the hamulus process on the two sides did not make a statistically significant difference. But the average slope in the sagittal and coronal plane on the left was significantly higher than the one on the right. Average length of hamulus pterygoid process on the two sides was significantly higher in men than women. Average width of hamulus pterygoid process and the slope in the sagittal and coronal planes did not make any difference on both sides in both genders. Average length, width and slope of hamulus pterygoid process in the sagittal plan reduces on both sides with increase in age. But the slope of the hamulus pterygoid process

  8. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique. Major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Wagner, Jairo; Campos, Guilherme de Carvalho; Nogueira, Solange Amorim; Guerra, Elaine Gonçalves; Amaro, Edson

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, imagens médicas com tecnologias híbridas tornaram-se amplamente aceitas e utilizadas na prática clínica. O PET/RM possui vantagens importantes, incluindo excelentes contrastes e resolução, e menor radiação ionizante, em comparação ao PET/TC. Por isto, é uma modalidade promissora para exames de imagem de pacientes oncológicos, para avaliar o cérebro, cabeça e pescoço, o fígado e a pelve. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as situações clínicas que se beneficiariam de exames de PET/RM a partir de uma casuística. Destacamos o potencial desta técnica se tornar o método de imagem de escolha para doenças neurológicas e oncológicas que envolvam partes moles. Os aspectos clínicos de PET/RM e sua aplicação aos casos clínicos são ilustrados com exemplos da experiência inicial dos autores.

  9. USING THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVENESS INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Nottakrit

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.

  10. Shaping Physiological Indices, Swimming Technique, and Their Influence on 200m Breaststroke Race in Young Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Strzala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and physiological capacity, and analyze kinematic parameters in the 200 m breaststroke swimming race. Twenty-seven male swimmers participated in the study. They were 15.7±1.98 years old. Their average height was 1.80 ± 0.02 m and lean body mass (LBM was 62.45 ± 8.29 kg. Physiological exercise capacity was measured in two separate 90 sec. all-out tests, one for the arms and second for legs. During the tests total work of arm cranking (TWAR and cycling (TWLG as well as peak of VO2 for arm (VO2peakAR and leg (VO2peakLG were measured. The underwater swimmers body movements were recorded during the all-out swimming 200m breaststroke speed test using an underwater camera installed on a portable trolley. The swimming kinematic parameters and propulsive or non-propulsive movement phases of the arms and legs as well as average speed (V200, surface speed (V200surface and swimming speed in turn zones (V200turns were extracted. V200surface was significantly related to the percentage of leg propulsion and was shown to have large effect on VO2peakLG in the Cohen analysis. V200turns depended significantly on the indicators of physiological performance and body structure: TWAR, VO2peak LG and LBM, LBM, which in turn strongly determined the measured results of TWAR, TWLG, VO2peakAR and VO2peakLG. The V200turns and V200surface were strongly associated with V200, 0.92, p < 0.001 and 0.91, p < 0.001 respectively. In each lap of the 200m swimming there was an increased percentage of propulsion of limb movement observed simultaneously with a reduction in the gliding phase in the breaststroke cycles.

  11. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  12. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Kirschner wire transfixation of unstable ankle fractures: indication, surgical technique and outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvan, J; Džupa, V; Bartoška, R; Kachlík, D; Krbec, M; Báča, V

    2015-01-01

    transfixation, no radiographic evidence of ankle osteoarthritis was recorded in 25 (42%) patients. While tibiofibular synostosis was recorded in only few patients (9%) of the group with one-stage osteosynthesis, it showed a high occurrence in the group with temporary transfixation (35%). The patients with one-stage osteosynthesis (188/68%) had a higher proportion of excellent outcomes measured on the Olerund-Molander ankle scoring scale than the other two groups (temporary transfixation, 47%; definitive transfixation,10%); in both cases the difference was significant (p ankle fractures were assessed. The patients with one-stage osteosynthesis were compared with those treated by temporary or definitive transfixation. The majority of patients undergoing temporary transfixation had a fractured posterior margin of the tibia and major ankle joint dislocation, which suggested serious injuries to bone and ligament structures. Generally, the use of only two K-wires inserted through the calcaneus and talus into the distal tibia is recommended. Patients with K-wire transfixation usually require a longer hospital stay because of the serious nature of their injuries. CONCLUSIONS The therapy of choice for unstable ankle fractures is one-stage osteosynthesis. Temporary transfixation is an effective method of primary management when an unstable fracture cannot be treated by definitive osteosynthesis at the early stage due to local or general health conditions of the patient. The temporary transfixation provides good alignment of the ankle joint necessary for successful healing of soft tissues. A higher occurrence of post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis, ossification and distal tibiotalar synostosis found in the patients treated by temporary transfixation is more related to serious types of ankle fractures the patient had suffered than to the method itself. Key words: unstable ankle fracture, soft tissue condition, indications for transfixation, treatment outcome.

  14. Forearm Compartment Syndrome: Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Justin M; Ilyas, Asif M; Thoder, Joseph J

    2018-02-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is uncommon but can have devastating consequences. Compartment syndrome is a result of osseofascial swelling leading to decreased tissue perfusion and tissue necrosis. There are numerous causes of forearm compartment syndrome and high clinical suspicion must be maintained to avoid permanent disability. The most widely recognized symptoms include pain out of proportion and pain with passive stretch of the wrist and digits. Early diagnosis and decompressive fasciotomy are essential in the treatment of forearm compartment syndrome. Closure of fasciotomy wounds can often be accomplished by primary closure but many patients require additional forms of soft tissue coverage procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P.; Hauner, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  16. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Hauner, H. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Else Kroener-Fresenius-Center for Nutritional Medicine

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  17. Cycling indices for ecosystem models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, J.H.; Gardner, R.H.; Mankin, J.B.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The study of ecosystems is aided by representing structural and functional groups of organisms or processes as discrete components. A complex compartment model will explicitly map pathways from one compartment to another and specify transfer rates. This quantitative description allows insight into the dynamics of flow of nutrients, toxic chemicals, radionuclides, or energy. Three new indices that calculate compartment-specific probabilities of occurrence and recycling and illustrate the problem of applying these indices to ecosystem models are presented

  18. Changing indications and techniques for corneal transplantations at a tertiary referral center in Turkey, from 1995 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yesim Altay, Ayse Burcu, Gozde Aksoy, Evin Singar Ozdemir, Firdevs Ornek Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Background: Indications for corneal transplantation in developed and developing nations differ according to the different spectrum of corneal disease in each country. Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the changing indications and surgical techniques for corneal transplantation over the past 20 years at a tertiary referral center in Turkey. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent keratoplasty from January 1995 to December 2014 (between 1995 and 2004, period 1, and between 2005 and 2014, period 2. Patients’ demographic data, indications for corneal transplantation, and the type of surgery were recorded. Results: The number of keratoplasties performed ranged from 548 in period 1 to 782 in period 2. Between 1995 and 2004, the leading indications were keratoconus (34.1%, bullous keratopathy (17%, and non-herpetic corneal scar (13.3%, and between 2005 and 2014, they were keratoconus (33.8%, corneal stromal dystrophy (14.2%, and bullous keratopathy (12.7%. All the keratoplasties performed in the 1995–2004 period were penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. During the period 2005–2014, PKP accounted for 93%, automated lamellar keratoplasty 5.8%, and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty 1.2% of all corneal transplantations. Conclusion: Keratoconus was the leading indication for keratoplasty in both periods. In the 2005–2014 period, corneal stromal dystrophy increased significantly. All the keratoplasties performed in period 1 and 93% of all keratoplasties performed in period 2 were PKP. Keywords: corneal transplantation, indication, keratoconus, keratoplasty technique, pene­trating keratoplasty

  19. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  20. Experiments at the GELINA facility for the validation of the self-indication neutron resonance densitometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossa Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-Indication Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD is a passive non-destructive method that is being investigated to quantify the 239Pu content in a spent fuel assembly. The technique relies on the energy dependence of total cross sections for neutron induced reaction. The cross sections show resonance structures that can be used to quantify the presence of materials in objects, e.g. the total cross-section of 239Pu shows a strong resonance close to 0.3 eV. This resonance will cause a reduction of the number of neutrons emitted from spent fuel when 239Pu is present. Hence such a reduction can be used to quantify the amount of 239Pu present in the fuel. A neutron detector with a high sensitivity to neutrons in this energy region is used to enhance the sensitivity to 239Pu. This principle is similar to self-indication cross section measurements. An appropriate detector can be realized by surrounding a 239Pu-loaded fission chamber with appropriate neutron absorbing material. In this contribution experiments performed at the GELINA time-of-flight facility of the JRC at Geel (Belgium to validate the simulations are discussed. The results confirm that the strongest sensitivity to the target material was achieved with the self-indication technique, highlighting the importance of using a 239Pu fission chamber for the SINRD measurements.

  1. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)......The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  2. The evaluation of supply chain performance in the Oil Products Distribution Company, using information technology indicators and fuzzy TOPSIS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryosh Mohamadi Janaki

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT plays an essential role on development of effective supply chain planning and it can improve the supply chain performance, either directly or indirectly. As a national industry, the National Iranian Oil Products Distribution Company involves a large number of organizations within its supply chain. Therefore, this descriptive-survey uses information sharing indicators, fuzzy TOPSIS technique based on managers and expert opinions to evaluate and to rank some oil products distribution companies. Data are analyzed and the results show that Oil Products Distribution Company of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari received the highest rank and Farsan maintained the lowest rank compared with other regional companies.

  3. Techniques for Estimating Emissions Factors from Forest Burning: ARCTAS and SEAC4RS Airborne Measurements Indicate which Fires Produce Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of emission factors from biomass burning are prone to large errors since they ignore the interplay of mixing and varying pre-fire background CO2 levels. Such complications severely affected our studies of 446 forest fire plume samples measured in the Western US by the science teams of NASA's SEAC4RS and ARCTAS airborne missions. Consequently we propose a Mixed Effects Regression Emission Technique (MERET) to check techniques like the Normalized Emission Ratio Method (NERM), where use of sequential observations cannot disentangle emissions and mixing. We also evaluate a simpler "consensus" technique. All techniques relate emissions to fuel burned using C(burn) = delta C(tot) added to the fire plume, where C(tot) approximately equals (CO2 = CO). Mixed-effects regression can estimate pre-fire background values of C(tot) (indexed by observation j) simultaneously with emissions factors indexed by individual species i, delta, epsilon lambda tau alpha-x(sub I)/C(sub burn))I,j. MERET and "consensus" require more than emissions indicators. Our studies excluded samples where exogenous CO or CH4 might have been fed into a fire plume, mimicking emission. We sought to let the data on 13 gases and particulate properties suggest clusters of variables and plume types, using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). While samples were mixtures, the NMF unmixing suggested purer burn types. Particulate properties (b scant, b abs, SSA, AAE) and gas-phase emissions were interrelated. Finally, we sought a simple categorization useful for modeling ozone production in plumes. Two kinds of fires produced high ozone: those with large fuel nitrogen as evidenced by remnant CH3CN in the plumes, and also those from very intense large burns. Fire types with optimal ratios of delta-NOy/delta- HCHO associate with the highest additional ozone per unit Cburn, Perhaps these plumes exhibit limited NOx binding to reactive organics. Perhaps these plumes exhibit limited NOx binding to

  4. Abdominal compartment syndrome with acute reperfusion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized clinically in the 19th century when Marey and Burt observed its association with declines in respiratory function. Abdominal compartment syndrome is first used as a medical terminology from Fietsman in a case of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A condition caused by abnormally increased pressure within the abdomen. Causes of abdominal compartment syndrome include trauma, surgery, or infection. Common symptoms: abdominal distension, fast heart rate, insufficient urine production, or low blood pressure Medical procedure: nasogastric intubation Surgery: laparotomy Specialists: radiologist, primary care provider (PCP), surgeon, and emergency medicine doctor [6, 10]. Keywords: Stomach. Gastroparesis . Diabetes Mellitus [bg

  5. Developing Flanagan's critical incident technique to elicit indicators of high and low quality nursing care from patients and their nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, I J; Redfern, S J; Tomalin, D A; Oliver, S

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a development of Flanagan's critical incident technique (CIT) to elicit indicators of high and low quality nursing from patients and their nurses on medical, surgical and elderly care wards. Stages in undertaking the CIT are identified and presuppositions held by most researchers about the nature of the technique are identified. The paper describes how the authors moved to a different set of presuppositions during the course of the study. Preliminary analysis of interview transcripts revealed that critical incidents need not always be demarcated scenes with a clear beginning and end, but may arise from respondents summarizing their overall experience within their description of one incident. Characteristically respondents were unable to give a detailed account of such incidents but validity may be established by the fact that respondents appear to recount what actually happened as they saw it, and what they said was clearly important to them. The researchers found that the most appropriate basic unit of analysis was not the incident itself but 'happenings' revealed by incidents that are 'critical' by virtue of being important to respondents with respect to the quality of nursing care. The importance of CIT researchers achieving an understanding of the 'meaning' of critical happenings to respondents is emphasized. Analysis of the interview transcripts is facilitated by the use of INGRES, a relational database computer program which should enable a 'personal theory' of quality nursing for each respondent, both patients and nurses, to be described. The study suggests that the CIT is a flexible technique which may be adapted to meet the demands of nursing research. If carefully applied, the CIT seems capable of capitalizing on respondents' own stories and avoids the loss of information which occurs when complex narratives are reduced to simple descriptive categories. Patients and nurses have unique perspectives on nursing and their views are of

  6. Forefoot running improves pain and disability associated with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebal, Angela R; Gregory, Robert; Alitz, Curtis; Gerber, J Parry

    2012-05-01

    Anterior compartment pressures of the leg as well as kinematic and kinetic measures are significantly influenced by running technique. It is unknown whether adopting a forefoot strike technique will decrease the pain and disability associated with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) in hindfoot strike runners. For people who have CECS, adopting a forefoot strike running technique will lead to decreased pain and disability associated with this condition. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Ten patients with CECS indicated for surgical release were prospectively enrolled. Resting and postrunning compartment pressures, kinematic and kinetic measurements, and self-report questionnaires were taken for all patients at baseline and after 6 weeks of a forefoot strike running intervention. Run distance and reported pain levels were recorded. A 15-point global rating of change (GROC) scale was used to measure perceived change after the intervention. After 6 weeks of forefoot run training, mean postrun anterior compartment pressures significantly decreased from 78.4 ± 32.0 mm Hg to 38.4 ± 11.5 mm Hg. Vertical ground-reaction force and impulse values were significantly reduced. Running distance significantly increased from 1.4 ± 0.6 km before intervention to 4.8 ± 0.5 km 6 weeks after intervention, while reported pain while running significantly decreased. The Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) significantly increased from 49.9 ± 21.4 to 90.4 ± 10.3, and the Lower Leg Outcome Survey (LLOS) significantly increased from 67.3 ± 13.7 to 91.5 ± 8.5. The GROC scores at 6 weeks after intervention were between 5 and 7 for all patients. One year after the intervention, the SANE and LLOS scores were greater than reported during the 6-week follow-up. Two-mile run times were also significantly faster than preintervention values. No patient required surgery. In 10 consecutive patients with CECS, a 6-week forefoot strike running intervention led to decreased

  7. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Surgical Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, affect ... timely surgical intervention is crucial. Key words: .... On the second postoperative day, he was noted to be restless ... Although surgery is very effective in managing ACS.

  8. Compartment syndrome in a labrador retriever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Bailey, M.Q.; Schertel, E.R.; Valentine, A.

    1994-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is an elevation of interstitial pressure in a closed osseofascial compartment that results in microvascular compromise. This report documents a clinical syndrome in the crus of a fourteen-month-old intact male Labrador Retriever which was consistent with trauma-induced compartment syndrome. A six month history of recurring trauma or complications resulted in the need for referral. Survey radiography and ultrasonography aided in the diagnosis, but the definitive answer was provided by femoral angiography. The patient was successfully treated and was discharged with normal limb function. One year later, there were no complications observed. Compartment syndrome is not uncommon in humans, and is routinely considered in certain blunt and most penetrating traumas. However, few reports of this complication in animals are found

  9. Orientationally invariant metrics of apparent compartment eccentricity from double pulsed field gradient diffusion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed field gradient diffusion sequences (PFG) with multiple diffusion encoding blocks have been indicated to offer new microstructural tissue information, such as the ability to detect nonspherical compartment shapes in macroscopically isotropic samples, i.e. samples with negligible directional...

  10. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration)

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Cadaveric Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Daniel R; Sellon, Jacob L; Smith, Jay; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2017-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a common cause of exertional leg pain. It is commonly treated with a surgical fasciotomy, which has a surgical complication rate of up to 16% and takes approximately 6-12 weeks to return to preprocedure activity levels. Therefore, the development of a less invasive, effective outpatient intervention to treat CECS is desirable. To describe and validate an ultrasound-guided (USG) fasciotomy technique for the anterior and lateral compartments of the lower limb in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Prospective, cadaveric laboratory investigation. Academic institution procedural skills laboratory. Ten unembalmed cadaveric knee-ankle-foot specimens from 1 female (2 specimens) and 7 male donors aged 62-91 years (mean 78.6 years) with body mass indices of 18.9-35.3 kg/m 2 (mean 27.1 kg/m 2 ). Two experienced operators each performed USG anterior and lateral compartment fasciotomies on 5 unembalmed cadaveric legs. A third physician subsequently dissected the legs to assess the continuity of the fasciotomies and to identify any neurovascular damage related to the procedures. Fasciotomy length (in centimeters) and classification by completeness (achieved target length or did not achieve target length) and continuity (continuous or discontinuous) based on predetermined criteria. Muscles, retinaculae, and neurovascular structures were assessed for damage. No neurovascular injuries occurred in any of the 20 USG fasciotomies. The average fasciotomy length was 22.5 cm. All 20 of the fasciotomies achieved the target length. A continuous cephalocaudal fasciotomy was accomplished in 13 of 20 fasciotomies. When a fasciotomy was not continuous, the average length and number of intact fascial bands was 1.52 cm and 2.3, respectively. USG fasciotomy of the anterior and lateral leg compartments can be safely performed in a cadaveric model and can achieve a fasciotomy length comparable to surgical fasciotomy. Most procedures successfully

  12. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  13. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  14. [Liver transplantation--indications, surgical technique, results--the analysis of a clinical series of 200 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Ionescu, M; Braşoveanu, V; Hrehoreţ, D; Matei, E; Dorobantu, B; Zamfir, R; Alexandrescu, S; Grigorie, M; Tulbure, D; Popa, L; Ungureanu, M; Tomescu, D; Droc, G; Popescu, H; Cristea, A; Gheorghe, L; Iacob, S; Gheorghe, C; Boroş, M; Lupescu, I; Vlad, L; Herlea, V; Croitoru, M; Platon, P; Alloub, A

    2010-01-01

    Initially considered experimental, liver transplantation (LT) has become the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage liver diseases. Between April 2000 and October 2009, 200 LTs (10 reLTs) were performed in 190 patients, this study being retrospective. There were transplanted 110 men and 80 women, 159 adults and 31 children with the age between 1 and 64 years old (mean age--39.9). The main indication in the adult group was represented by viral cirrhosis, while the pediatric series the etiology was mainly glycogenosis and biliary atresia. There were performed 143 whole graft LTs, 46 living donor LTs, 6 split LTs, 4 reduced LTs and one domino LT RESULTS: The postoperative survival was 90% (170 patients). The patient and graft one-year and five-year survivals were 76.9%, 73.6% and 71%, 68.2%, respectively. The early complications occurred in 127 patients (67%). The late complications were recorded in 71 patients (37.3%). The intraoperative and early postoperative mortality rate was 9.5% (18 patients). The Romanian liver transplantation program from Fundeni includes all types of current surgical techniques and the results are comparable with those from other international centers.

  15. On monitoring anthropogenic airborne uranium concentrations and 235U/238U isotopic ratio by Lichen - bio-indicator technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Krylov, N.G.; Kuznetsova, V.F.; Mavrin, S.V.; Aleinikov, A.Yu.; Hoppes, W.G.; Surano, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios 235 U/ 238 U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45mgkg -1 in lichen at 2.09E-04μgm -3 in air and 0.106mgkg -1 in lichen at 1.13E-05μgm -3 in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C AIR =exp(1.1xC LICHEN -12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle

  16. Cardiac Catheterization and Intervention in Pediatric Cardiac Disease: A Narrative Review of Current Indications, Techniques, and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Pishgoo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context In the past 20 to 30 years, the area of pediatric interventional cardiology has had noteworthy development. Technological revolutions have significantly progressed management of cardiovascular disease in both children and adults with congenital heart disease (CHD. This article reviews the current indications, techniques and complications of interventional therapy for CHD. Evidence Acquisition Training and publications in this field are rare. Overall, 64 article from January 1953 to February 2014 were studied. A total of 26 articles were involved in pediatric evaluation. Results There have been several catheter-based interventions for congenital heart disease. Percutaneous intervention in pediatric cardiac disease has been established in the past 2 to 3 decades. There are currently devices accepted for percutaneous closure of ASDs, patent ductus arteriosus (PDAs, and muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs. The period of percutaneous valve implantation is just beginning, and the next few years may bring about advances in miniaturized valve distribution methods to allow insertion in smaller children. Conclusions Completely prepared catheterization laboratory, surgical holdup, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support capabilities must be accessible at any center to achieve interventional cardiac catheterization. Additional understanding of normal history of interventions more than 2 decade post process, novel strategies and methods will certainly lead to an increase in the methods for managing of congenital heart disease.

  17. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Flegg, Mark B

    2015-05-06

    Spatial reaction-diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction-diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as 'compartment-based' or 'on-lattice'. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of 'compartments'. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: 'how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?' First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient implementation of

  18. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrin, N S Ahmad; Ibrahim, N

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model

  19. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  20. Effects of combustible stacking in large compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of fire in case of various distributions of combustible materials in a large compartment. Large compartments often represent a challenge for structural fire safety, because of lack of prescriptive rules to follow and difficulties of taking into account the effect...... of non uniform distribution of the combustible materials and fire propagation. These aspects are discussed in this paper with reference to an industrial steel building, taken as case study. Fires triggered by the burning of wooden pallets stored in the premises have been investigated with respect...

  1. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won

    1991-01-01

    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  2. Compartment analysis of 125I-labelled albumin washout from coronary vessels of isolated perfused hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Eap Ng; Seh-Hoon Song

    1978-01-01

    Albumin labelled with 125 I was used as a tracer to investigate the washout kinetics of plasma from the coronary circulation of isolated perfused feline hearts. Compartmentalization with experimental results showed at least two compartments. The model was compared with a three-compartment model found previously for red blood cells. The results indicate that there is a separation of plasma and RBC in the coronary microcirculation. (author)

  3. Performance of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor with Three Compartments in Removal of COD of Wastewater of Chilly Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumantri Indro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to examine the performance of each compartment of the number of compartments of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR to the COD removal of the chilly sauce wastewater. Three-compartments of ABR were conducted in this experiment with the total volume of 60 l. ABR is very suitable for processing waste water with high content of COD. Wastewater conducted in this research is a degradable chilly sauce synthetic and high content of organic compounds. While the COD parameter is the main parameter to indicate the achievement of wastewater treatment plant. Stepwise in the research starting with the preparation of raw materials such as sample preparation of synthetic wastewater and preparation of activated sludge. Variable used is the time digestion in the ABR, sludge volume (50% and 70%, and initial COD concentrations (6000 – 14000 mg/L. The response is observed up to 7 days process. For a load of organic compounds, the first compartment has high degree of decomposition of organic compounds than 2nd and 3rd, it is shown that the COD removal the second and third compartment increase insignificantly compare the first compartment. As for the different height of the activated sludge indicated that for organic load of of 6170 mg/L up to 14265 mg/L, the first compartment has removal efficiency 79-73%, in the second compartment is 81-75%, 81-77% and third compartment.

  4. Evaluation of Improved Engine Compartment Overheat Detection Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    radiation properties (emissivity and reflectivity) of the surface. The first task of the numerical procedure is to investigate the radiosity (radiative heat...and radiosity are spatially uniform within each zone. 0 Radiative properties are spatially uniform and independent of direction. 0 The enclosure is...variation in the radiosity will be nonuniform in distribution in that region. The zone analysis method assumes the : . ,. temperature and radiation

  5. Application of spectrophotometric, densitometric, and HPLC techniques as stability indicating methods for determination of Zaleplon in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Fadia H.; Abdelkawy, M.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.

    2007-12-01

    Spectrophotometric, spectrodensitometric and HPLC are stability indicating methods described for determination of Zaleplon in pure and dosage forms. As Zaleplon is easily degradable, the proposed techniques in this manuscript are adopted for its determination in presence of its alkaline degradation product, namely N-[4-(3-cyano-pyrazolo[1,5a]pyridin-7-yl)-phenyl]- N-ethyl-acetamide. These approaches are successfully applied to quantify Zaleplon using the information included in the absorption spectra of appropriate solutions. The second derivative (D 2) spectrophotometric method, allows determination of Zaleplon without interference of its degradate at 235.2 nm using 0.01N HCl as a solvent with obedience to Beer's law over a concentration range of 1-10 μg ml -1 with mean percentage recovery 100.24 ± 0.86%. The first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD) based on the simultaneous use of ( 1DD) and measurement at 241.8 nm using the same solvent and over the same concentration range as (D 2) spectrophotometric method, with mean percentage recovery 99.9 ± 1.07%. The spectrodensitometric analysis allows the separation and quantitation of Zaleplon from its degradate on silica gel plates using chloroform:acetone:ammonia solution (9:1:0.2 by volume) as a mobile phase. This method depends on quantitave densitometric evaluation of thin layer chromatogram of Zaleplon at 338 nm over a concentration range of 0.2-1 μg band -1, with mean percentage recovery 99.73 ± 1.35. Also a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method using 5-C8 (22 cm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5 μm particle size) column was described and validated for quantitation of Zaleplon using acetonitrile:deionised water (35:65, v/v) as a mobile phase using Paracetamol as internal standard and a flow rate of 1.5 ml min -1 with UV detection of the effluent at 232 nm at ambient temperature over a concentration range of 2-20 μg ml -1 with mean percentage recovery 100.19 ± 1.15%. The insignificance difference of the proposed

  6. Iris colour as an indicator of age feature in female Brazilian tanagers (Passeriformes: Emberizidae confirmed by a molecular sexing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Monnerat Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius is an endemic species from Brazil that is sexually dimorphic in adult plumage. Young males are similar to adult and young females until their second year. Adults and young females are not distinguishable in plumage. We tested whether iris colour can be used to separate adult females from immature females. We used for the first time the molecular sexing technique based on CHD-genes to confirm the sex of the individuals classified as "female plumage with red iris", and to identify the sex of individuals classified as "female plumage and brown iris". The adult males were used as a positive control. DNA samples from 190 individuals were analysed. The sizes of the PCR products were identified as 350 base pairs (bp for CHD-Z and 388 bp for CHD-W. We confirmed that adult females have a red iris and the young females a brown iris. We could also separate young males and females which present the same iris colour and plumage. Although there are indications that the iris colour can be used by birds to identify the adults in co-operative breeding species such as the Brazilian tanager, more behavioural data are required to understand the role of iris coloration in this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1629-1633. Epub 2008 December 12.El ave Ramphocelus bresilius es una especie endémica de Brasil con dimorfismo sexual en el plumaje del adulto. Los machos jóvenes son similares a las hembras adultas y jóvenes hasta el segundo año de vida. Adultos y hembras jóvenes son indistinguibles por el plumaje. Evaluamos si el color del iris puede ser utilizado para distinguir hembras adultas de hembras inmaduras. Utilizamos por primera vez la técnica molecular de identificación de sexos basada en los genes CHD para confirmar el género de individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino con iris rojo, y para identificar el sexo de los individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino e iris marrón. Usamos machos adultos como

  7. External beam radiotherapy for head and neck carcinomas with preservation of parotid function: indications, techniques and long term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding-Jen, Lee; Fairbanks, Robert; Lee, Frank C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To reduce the incidence of radiotherapy induced xerostomia, we developed techniques of external beam irradiation with preservation of parotid function for patients with early to intermediate stage carcinomas of the head and neck. This analysis reports the efficacy of our methods. Materials and Methods: From 1985 to 1993, 42 patients with early to intermediate stage (T 1-3 N 0-2 M 0 ) head and neck carcinomas received a course of external beam radiotherapy. There were 13 patients with carcinoma of the oropharynx, 26 with carcinomas of the oral cavity and 3 with carcinomas of the hypopharynx (lateral wall). 7 patients received a course of definitive radiotherapy (66 to 72 Gy), while 35 patients received a course of postoperative radiotherapy (60-66 Gy). The fraction size was 2 Gy per day. In terms of treatment planning, the primary site (plus a margin) and the ipsilateral neck were covered by the irradiation volume. The ipsilateral parotid gland was within the treatment volume while the contralateral parotid gland was not. The most frequently used field arrangement was a paired wedge fields with an AP (medially just across the mid-line) and an ipsilateral posterior oblique field (usually 30 deg. off vertical axis with a spinal cord block). Multiple level of contours were taken and transmission blocks were used to improve dose homogeneity. In all patients, the ipsilateral parotid gland (and the neck) was irradiated while the contralateral parotid gland (and the neck) was not. Results: With a median follow up of 4 years (ranged from 1.5 to 9 years), only one patient developed symptomatic xerostomia. None had radiation induced dental caries. No patient developed recurrent disease in the contralateral neck. The local control rate was (38(42)) (90%) in the primary site and(41(42)) (98%) in the ipsilateral neck. Conclusion: With appropriate treatment planning, external beam irradiation with parotid function preservation can be achieved. Our results

  8. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2)), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2)). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their

  9. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm2), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm2). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18–0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the ‘design’ of their

  10. Advanced Simulation Tool for Improved Damage Assessment 2) Water-Mist Suppression of Large Scale Compartment Fires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, Kuldeep

    2000-01-01

    .... In the first report, we adopted a domain decomposition approach, based on the multiblock Chimera technique, to simulate fires in single uncluttered compartments and predicted spread of smoke in multi...

  11. Double contrast barium enema: technique, indications, results and limitations of a conventional imaging methodology in the MDCT virtual endoscopy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Biscaldi, Ennio; DeCicco, Enzo

    2007-03-01

    The double contrast barium enema of the colon continues to be a diffused conventional radiological technique and allows for the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory pathology. After the '70s, a massive initiative is undertaken to simplify, perfect and encode the method of the double contrast barium enema: Altaras from Germany, Miller from USA and Cittadini from Italy are responsible for the perfection of this technique in the last 30 years. The tailored patient preparation, a perfect technique of execution and a precise radiological documentation are essentials steps to obtain a reliable examination. The main limit of double contrast enema is that it considers the pathology only from the mucosal surface. In neoplastic pathology evaluation the main limit is the "T" parameter staging, but more limited are the "N" and "M" parameters evaluation. Today the double contrast technique continues to be a refined, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, moreover, diagnostic results cannot compete with the new CT multislice techniques (CT-enteroclysis and virtual colonoscopy) which can examine both the lumen and the wall of the colon. The double contrast is a cheap and simple examination but in the next future is predictably a progressive substitution of conventional radiology from new multislice techniques, because the cross sectional imaging is more frequently able to detect causes of the symptoms whether resulting both from colonic or non colonic origin.

  12. Double contrast barium enema: Technique, indications, results and limitations of a conventional imaging methodology in the MDCT virtual endoscopy era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Biscaldi, Ennio; DeCicco, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    The double contrast barium enema of the colon continues to be a diffused conventional radiological technique and allows for the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory pathology. After the '70s, a massive initiative is undertaken to simplify, perfect and encode the method of the double contrast barium enema: Altaras from Germany, Miller from USA and Cittadini from Italy are responsible for the perfection of this technique in the last 30 years. The tailored patient preparation, a perfect technique of execution and a precise radiological documentation are essentials steps to obtain a reliable examination. The main limit of double contrast enema is that it considers the pathology only from the mucosal surface. In neoplastic pathology evaluation the main limit is the 'T' parameter staging, but more limited are the 'N' and 'M' parameters evaluation. Today the double contrast technique continues to be a refined, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, moreover, diagnostic results cannot compete with the new CT multislice techniques (CT-enteroclysis and virtual colonoscopy) which can examine both the lumen and the wall of the colon. The double contrast is a cheap and simple examination but in the next future is predictably a progressive substitution of conventional radiology from new multislice techniques, because the cross sectional imaging is more frequently able to detect causes of the symptoms whether resulting both from colonic or non colonic origin

  13. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  14. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment.

  15. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Dejan V; Johnson, Colin D; Milic, Natasa; Gregoric, Pavle; Ivancevic, Nenad; Bezmarevic, Mihailo; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Cijan, Vladimir; Antic, Andrija; Bajec, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment.

  16. Herpes simplex virus replication compartments can form by coalescence of smaller compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Travis J; McNamee, Elizabeth E.; Day, Cheryl; Knipe, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses intranuclear compartmentalization to concentrate the viral and cellular factors required for the progression of the viral life cycle. Processes as varied as viral DNA replication, late gene expression, and capsid assembly take place within discrete structures within the nucleus called replication compartments. Replication compartments are hypothesized to mature from a few distinct structures, called prereplicative sites, that form adjacent to cellular nuclear matrix-associated ND10 sites. During productive infection, the HSV single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8 localizes to replication compartments. To further the understanding of replication compartment maturation, we have constructed and characterized a recombinant HSV-1 strain that expresses an ICP8 molecule with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to its C terminus. In transfected Vero cells that were infected with HSV, the ICP8-GFP protein localized to prereplicative sites in the presence of the viral DNA synthesis inhibitor phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) or to replication compartments in the absence of PAA. A recombinant HSV-1 strain expressing the ICP8-GFP virus replicated in Vero cells, but the yield was increased by 150-fold in an ICP8-complementing cell line. Using the ICP8-GFP protein as a marker for replication compartments, we show here that these structures start as punctate structures early in infection and grow into large, globular structures that eventually fill the nucleus. Large replication compartments were formed by small structures that either moved through the nucleus to merge with adjacent compartments or remained relatively stationary within the nucleus and grew by accretion and fused with neighboring structures

  17. Treatment of AVN using the induction chamber technique and a biological-based approach: indications and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, G M; Mazza, E; Colombo, M; Mazzola, S; Mineo, G V; Giannoudis, P V

    2014-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of core decompression (CD) technique combined with recombinant morphogenetic proteins, autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and xenograft bone substitute into the necrotic lesion of the femoral head on clinical symptoms and on the progression of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. A total of 38 patients (40 hips) with early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head were studied over a 4-year period. CD technique combined with recombinant morphogenetic proteins, autologous MSCs and xenograft bone substitute was associated with a significant reduction in both pain and joint symptoms and reduced the incidence of fractural stages. At 36 months, 33 patients achieved clinical and radiographic healing. This long-term follow-up study confirmed that CD technique combined with recombinant morphogenetic proteins, autologous MSCs and xenograft bone substitute may be an effective treatment for patients with early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christopher J; Lynch, Joan; Harris, Ian A; Richardson, Martin D; Brand, Caroline; Lowe, Adrian J; Sugrue, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious and not uncommon complication of limb trauma. The condition is a surgical emergency, and is associated with significant morbidity if not managed appropriately. There is variation in management of acute limb compartment syndrome in Australia. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma were developed in accordance with Australian National Health and Medical Research Council recommendations. The guidelines were based on critically appraised literature evidence and the consensus opinion of a multidisciplinary team involved in trauma management who met in a nominal panel process. Recommendations were developed for key decision nodes in the patient care pathway, including methods of diagnosis in alert and unconscious patients, appropriate assessment of compartment pressure, timing and technique of fasciotomy, fasciotomy wound management, and prevention of compartment syndrome in patients with limb injuries. The recommendations were largely consensus based in the absence of well-designed clinical trial evidence. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma have been developed that will support consistency in management and optimize patient health outcomes.

  19. Increased pressure within the abdominal compartment: intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Ball, Chad G; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews recent developments related to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH)/abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and clinical practice guidelines published in 2013. IAH/ACS often develops because of the acute intestinal distress syndrome. Although the incidence of postinjury ACS is decreasing, IAH remains common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill/injured patients. Many risk factors for IAH include those findings suggested to be indications for use of damage control surgery in trauma patients. Medical management strategies for IAH/ACS include sedation/analgesia, neuromuscular blocking and prokinetic agents, enteral decompression tubes, interventions that decrease fluid balance, and percutaneous catheter drainage. IAH/ACS may be prevented in patients undergoing laparotomy by leaving the abdomen open where appropriate. If ACS cannot be prevented with medical or surgical management strategies or treated with percutaneous catheter drainage, guidelines recommend urgent decompressive laparotomy. Use of negative pressure peritoneal therapy for temporary closure of the open abdomen may improve the systemic inflammatory response and patient-important outcomes. In the last 15 years, investigators have better clarified the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and appropriate prevention of IAH/ACS. Subsequent study should be aimed at understanding which treatments effectively lower intra-abdominal pressure and whether these treatments ultimately affect patient-important outcomes.

  20. Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony

    2017-06-01

    A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.

  1. A modern definition of mediastinal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brett W; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Bhora, Faiz Y; Rosado de Christenson, Melissa L; Nakajima, Jun; Boiselle, Phillip M; Detterbeck, Frank C; Marom, Edith M

    2014-09-01

    Division of the mediastinum into compartments is used to help narrow the differential diagnosis of newly detected mediastinal masses, to assist in planning biopsy and surgical procedures, and to facilitate communication among clinicians of multiple disciplines. Several traditional mediastinal division schemes exist based upon arbitrary landmarks on the lateral chest radiograph. We describe a modern, computed tomography-based mediastinal division scheme, which has been accepted by the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group as a new standard. This clinical classification defines a prevascular (anterior), a visceral (middle), and a paravertebral (posterior) compartment, with anatomic boundaries defined clearly by computed tomography. It is our intention that this definition be used in the reporting of clinical cases and the design of prospective clinical trials.

  2. Hermetic compartments leak-tightness enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the enhancement of the nuclear safety of the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP actions for the increase of the leak tightness are performed. The reconstruction has been done in the following directions: hermetic compartments leak tightness enhancement; air lock installation; installation of air lock in SP 4 vent system; integrated leakage rate test to hermetic compartments with leak detection. After 'major' leaks on the hermetic boundary components had been eliminated, since 1994 works on a higher qualitative level began. The essence of the works consists in the detection and identification of leaks in the structural component of the hermetic boundary during the planned refueling outages. The results of the Small Reconstruction and gradual enhancement of leak tightness are presented

  3. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  4. Salus: Kernel Support for Secure Process Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Strackx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer devices are increasingly being used to perform security and privacy critical tasks. The software used to perform these tasks is often vulnerable to attacks, due to bugs in the application itself or in included software libraries. Recent work proposes the isolation of security-sensitive parts of applications into protected modules, each of which can be accessed only through a predefined public interface. But most parts of an application can be considered security-sensitive at some level, and an attacker who is able to gain inapplication level access may be able to abuse services from protected modules. We propose Salus, a Linux kernel modification that provides a novel approach for partitioning processes into isolated compartments sharing the same address space. Salus significantly reduces the impact of insecure interfaces and vulnerable compartments by enabling compartments (1 to restrict the system calls they are allowed to perform, (2 to authenticate their callers and callees and (3 to enforce that they can only be accessed via unforgeable references. We describe the design of Salus, report on a prototype implementation and evaluate it in terms of security and performance. We show that Salus provides a significant security improvement with a low performance overhead, without relying on any non-standard hardware support.

  5. Evaluation of acute compartment syndrome of extremities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    compartment syndrome in children; Acute compartment syndrome and fasciotomy. INTRODUCTIONᴪ .... these patients were manipulated under general anaesthesia ... of these children. The clinical diagnosis of increased ICP is not easy.

  6. Compartment syndrome can also be seen in the forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Broholm, Rikke; Bülow, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome is a challenge for the clinician and symptomatic similar to neuropathies, tenosynovitis, stress fractures and referred pain from lumbar cervicalis. Thus, chronic compartment syndrome of the upper extremities is probably an underdiagnosed condition. In patients...

  7. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Photographic Film PH1.25 (available from the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N... stowage compartments and compartments for stowing small items such as magazines and maps) must be self...

  8. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Post operative infections of the spine: technique, indications and results of the surgical treatment - A retrospective study of 90 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, J Y; Laville, C; Konel, B; Roy-Camille, R; Saillant, G; Poloujadoff, M P

    1996-05-01

    Post operative infection in spine surgery is a well known complication. The authors studied a series of 90 patients in accordance with an homogenous strategy based on the excision of necrotic and infected tissues, associated with appropriate antibiotics.The results are analyzed according to the degree of infection (which is based on the type of germs and their associations), and type of patients, the delay in diagnosis and the anatomical extension of the infected lesions.Making a difference between superficial and deep infection is of no therapeutic value and may lead to wrong and inadequate treatment.One must separate the common infections (which are due to germs as staphylococcus aureus or others from the urinary or digestive tract), and severe infections (which are either due to a per operative massive and deep contamination, or associated with patient's poor general condition).This series is mainly about posterior approaches to the spine, with or without osteosynthesis. Technical problems for treatment depend on the site of infection, particularly at the thoracic kyphosis level, or at the lumbar level where the muscle necrosis can be extensive. At the cervical level, the infection of an anterior approach mandates a check on the respiratory and digestive tracts.Removing the osteosynthesis is not mandatory in post operative spinal infections, as it may induce severe mechanical destabilization. An anterior approach is not necessarily required in the case of a posterior infection, except with massive contamination of an anterior graft. In some cases, posterior lumbar interbody fusion can lead to the indication for anterior cage removal.Pseudarthrosis of an infected spine, initially treated to obtain fusion, is still the worst complication. In case of previous posterior infection, even a severe one, fusion can still be obtained through a secondary anterior or posterior approach for grafting, with or without osteosynthesis.In this series, there was no neurological

  10. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks and...

  11. Video-assisted thoracoscopic implantation of a diaphragmatic pacemaker in a child with tetraplegia: indications, technique, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a child with tetraplegia after cervical trauma, who subsequently underwent diaphragmatic pacemaker implantation. We reviewed the major indications for diaphragmatic pacing and the types of devices employed. We highlight the unequivocal benefit of diaphragmatic pacing in the social and educational reintegration of individuals with tetraplegia.

  12. Freestyle-Like V-Y Flaps of the Eyebrow: A New Outlook and Indication of an Historical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Alberto Leto Barone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The eyebrow region is of utmost importance for facial movement, symmetry, and the overall cosmetic appearance of the face. Trauma or tumor resection often leave scars that may dislocate the eyebrow producing an alteration both in static symmetry of the face and in the dynamic expressivity. The authors present a technique for eyebrow’s defects repair using the remaining eyebrow advancement by means of a “freestyle-like” V-Y flap. In the past two years a total of eight consecutive patients underwent excision of skin lesions in the superciliary region and immediate reconstruction with this technique. On histology, six patients were affected from basal cell carcinomas, one from squamous cell carcinoma, and one from congenital intradermal melanocytic nevus. The pedicle of the flap included perforators from the supratrochlear, supraorbital, or superficial temporalis artery. Advancement of the entire aesthetic subunit that includes the eyebrow using a V-Y perforator flap was performed successfully in all cases achieving full, tension-free closure of defects up to 3.0 cm. “Freestyle-like” V-Y flaps should be considered as a first-line choice for partial defects of the eyebrow. The greater mobility compared to random subcutaneous flaps allows to reconstruct large defects providing an excellent cosmetic result.

  13. Decomposing the trade-environment nexus for Malaysia: what do the technique, scale, composition, and comparative advantage effect indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chong Hui; Ahmed, Khalid; Binti Muhamad, Rusnah; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of trade openness on CO2 emissions using time series data over the period of 1970QI-2011QIV for Malaysia. We disintegrate the trade effect into scale, technique, composition, and comparative advantage effects to check the environmental consequence of trade at four different transition points. To achieve the purpose, we have employed augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests in order to examine the stationary properties of the variables. Later, the long-run association among the variables is examined by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. Our results confirm the presence of cointegration. Further, we find that scale effect has positive and technique effect has negative impact on CO2 emissions after threshold income level and form inverted U-shaped relationship-hence validates the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Energy consumption adds in CO2 emissions. Trade openness and composite effect improve environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions. The comparative advantage effect increases CO2 emissions and impairs environmental quality. The results provide the innovative approach to see the impact of trade openness in four sub-dimensions of trade liberalization. Hence, this study attributes more comprehensive policy tool for trade economists to better design environmentally sustainable trade rules and agreements.

  14. The study of chromosome aberration yield in human lymphocytes as an indicator of radiation dose. 1. Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purrott, R.J.; Lloyd, D.C.

    1972-08-01

    Estimates of exposure to ionizing radiation can be obtained by determining the yield of chromosome aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes. Chromosomes can only be conveniently examined during cell division. The lymphocytes, which do not normally divide whilst circulating, are stimulated to divide during a 48-hour culture period. Two types of culture technique are described, one of which employs a lymphocyte-enriched inoculum and the other which uses whole blood. After culture the cells are harvested, dispensed onto slides and prepared for microscopic examination. An account is also given of the analysis of various types of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and of the construction of calibration curves for certain types and rates of radiation which are used to interpret the aberration yields in terms of dose. (author)

  15. Enteral Feeding in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V Grigoryev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate the choice of a gastrointestinal tract (GIT function support regimen as a mode for correction of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients with different causes of inadequate GIT function of various origin and ACS (disseminated peritonitis (45%, pancreatitis (24%, and severe concomitant injury (31% were examined. Group 1 (control received complete parenteral nutritional feeding (n=23; APACHE II scores, 21±4; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 33.5%. In Group II (study, complete parenteral feeding in the first 24 hours after stabilization was supplemented with GIT function support with Pepsisorb (Nutricia in doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 ml on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=20; APACHE II scores, 20±6; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 37.1%. During early enteral nutritional support, the SOFA score was significantly less than that in Group 1 on days 2—3; the oxygenation index significantly increased on day 3; the value of intra-abdominal hypertension decreased to the control values. The positive effect of the GIT function support regimen on regression of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS was confirmed by the lowered levels of biological markers (von Willebrand factor (WF and endothelin-1 as markers of endothelial damage of MODS. Correlation analysis showed a direct correlation between the markers of endothelial damage and the SOFA scores (r=0.34; p=0.05 for WF and r=0.49;p=0.03 for endothelin. Conclusion. The GIT function support regimen via early enteral alimentation with Peptisorb, which was initiated in the first 24 hours after admission, is able to level off the manifestations of the early stages of the abdominal compartment syndrome, with the acceptable values of oxygen balance and water-electrolyte and osmotic homeostasis being achieved. Key words: abdominal compartment syndrome, nutritional support, biological markers, oxygenation index

  16. Investigation of grapevine photosynthesis using hyperspectral techniques and development of hyperspectral band ratio indices sensitive to photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelkan, Emre; Karaman, Muhittin; Candar, Serkan; Coskun, Zafer; Ormeci, Cankut

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate of 9 different grapevines were analyzed with simultaneous photosynthesis and spectroradiometric measurements on 08.08.2012 (veraison) and 06.09.2012 (harvest). The wavelengths and spectral regions, which most properly express photosynthetic rate, were determined using correlation and regression analysis. In addition, hyperspectral band ratio (BR) indices sensitive to photosynthesis were developed using optimum band ratio (OBRA) method. The relation of BR results with photosynthesis values are presented with the correlation matrix maps created in this study. The examinations were performed for both specific dates (i.e., veraison and harvest) and also in aggregate (i.e., correlation between total spectra and photosynthesis data). For specific dates wavelength based analysis, the photosynthesis were best determined with -0.929 correlation coefficient (r) 609 nm of yellow region at veraison stage, and -0.870 at 641 nm of red region at harvest stage. For wavelength based aggregate analysis, 640 nm of red region was found to be correlated with 0.921 and -0.867 r values respectively and red edge (RE) (695 nm) was found to be correlated with -0.922 and -0.860 r values, respectively. When BR indices results were analyzed with photosynthetic values for specific dates, -0.987 r with R8../R, at veraison stage and -0.911 r with R696/R944 at harvest stage were found most correlated. For aggregate analysis of BR, common BR presenting great correlation with photosynthesis for both measurements was found to be R632/R971 with -0.974, -0.881 r values, respectively and other R610/R760 with -0.976, -0.879 r values. The final results of this study indicate that the proportion of RE region to a region with direct or indirect correlation with photosynthetic provides information about rate of photosynthesis. With the indices created in this study, the photosynthesis rate of vineyards can be determined using in-situ hyperspectral remote sensing. The findings of this

  17. INFLUENCE OF ALPHAEEG/EMG BIOFEEDBACK AND SELF-REGULATION PSYCHO TECHNIQUES ON THE HEART RATE VARIABILITY INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bazanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to study the impact of the upper frequency alpha EEG power increasing neurofeedback training (ANFT on the cognitive performance, EEG alpha-activity and heart rate variability (HRV 27 healthy men aged 18–34 years in pre, post and follow up one month 10 sessions ANFT time were investigated. The AFNT enhanced the fluency in cognitive performance, alpha frequency and power in upper frequency range and HRV only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock AFNT did change neither cognitive performance, nor alpha-activity, nor HRV indices. ANT reduces activation in cognitive load, and this effect persists for a month.

  18. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M.; Hilligsø, Jens Georg

    2008-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various...... medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2/11...

  19. Postsynaptic density protein 95 in the striosome and matrix compartments of the human neostriatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma eMorigaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human neostriatum consists of two functional subdivisions referred to as the striosome (patch and matrix compartments. The striosome-matrix dopamine systems play a central role in cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia circuits, and their involvement is thought to underlie the genesis of multiple movement and behavioral disorders, and of drug addiction. Human neuropathology also has shown that striosomes and matrix have differential vulnerability patterns in several striatal neurodegenerative diseases. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, also known as DLG4, is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic densities of dendritic spines. PSD-95 is now known to negatively regulate not only N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate signaling, but also dopamine D1 signals at sites of postsynaptic transmission. Accordingly, a neuroprotective role for PSD-95 against dopamine D1 receptor (D1R-mediated neurotoxicity in striatal neurodegeneration also has been suggested. Here, we used a highly sensitive immunohistochemistry technique to show that in the human neostriatum, PSD-95 is differentially concentrated in the striosome and matrix compartments, with a higher density of PSD-95 labeling in the matrix compartment than in the striosomes. This compartment-specific distribution of PSD-95 was strikingly complementary to that of D1R. In addition to the possible involvement of PSD-95-mediated synaptic function in compartment-specific dopamine signals, we suggest that the striosomes might be more susceptible to D1R-mediated neurotoxicity than the matrix compartment. This notion may provide new insight into the compartment-specific vulnerability of MSNs in striatal neurodegeneration.

  20. Use of the Satinsky clamp for hilar clamping during robotic partial nephrectomy: indications, technique, and multi-center outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Newaj; Rahbar, Haider; Barod, Ravi; Dalela, Deepansh; Larson, Jeff; Johnson, Michael; Mass, Alon; Zargar, Homayoun; Kaouk, Jihad; Allaf, Mohamad; Bhayani, Sam; Stifelman, Michael; Rogers, Craig

    2017-03-01

    A Satinsky clamp may be a backup option for hilar clamping during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) if there are challenges with application of bulldog clamps, but there are potential safety concerns. We evaluate outcomes of RPN using Satinsky vs. bulldog clamps, and provide tips for safe use of the Satinsky as a backup option. Using a multi-center database, we identified 1073 patients who underwent RPN between 2006 and 2013, and had information available about method of hilar clamping (bulldog clamp vs. Satinsky clamp). Patient baseline characteristics, tumor features, and perioperative outcomes were compared between the Satinsky and bulldog clamp groups. A Satinsky clamp was used for hilar clamping in 94 (8.8 %) RPN cases, and bulldog clamps were used in 979 (91.2 %) cases. The use of a Satinsky clamp was associated with greater operative time (198 vs. 175 min, p hilar clamping during challenging RPN cases, but requires careful technique, and was rarely necessary.

  1. The use of Data Mining techniques to Automated Detection of Beneficiaries With Indicative of Diabetes Mellitus 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ribeiro Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Health Industry companies store a vast amount of data in order to support administrative tasks like payment of medical bills, but filling out epidemiological data (International Classification of Diseases - ICD is not mandatory. This makes it difficult to identify the persons’ illness using standard data extraction techniques as well as implementing preventive programs. Objective: This paper proposes a data mining model that identifies automatically the patients with chronic illnesses. Method: The proposed method is comprised of the following steps: initial identification of the variables and their analysis; variable selection; data mining and rule validation by experts. An experiment, for identifying the patients with propensity for diabetes type 2, was designed to validate the methodology. Results: For the data mining process, 12 variables were selected, targeting 43.375 patients: 843 rules were discovered, with a 88,9% success rate. Conclusion: From the 843 rules, six were selected to be evaluated by four experts: they considered the model efficient, with an 89.6% rate of positive results.

  2. Solution methods for compartment models of transport through the environment using numerical inversion of Laplace transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garratt, T.J.

    1989-05-01

    Compartment models for the transport of radionuclides in the biosphere are conventionally solved using a numerical time-stepping procedure. This report examines an alternative method based on the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms, which is potentially more efficient and accurate for some classes of problem. The central problem considered is the most efficient and robust technique for solving the Laplace-transformed rate equations. The conclusion is that Gaussian elimination is the most efficient and robust solution method. A general compartment model has been implemented on a personal computer and used to solve a realistic case including radionuclide decay chains. (author)

  3. Compartment elasticity measured by pressure-related ultrasound to determine patients "at risk" for compartment syndrome: an experimental in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, Richard Martin; Hingmann, Simon Johannes; Kobbe, Philipp; Weber, Christian; Grice, John Edward; Zimmerman, Frauke; Jeromin, Sabine; Hildebrand, Frank; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. In an in vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intra-compartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mmHg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mmHg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (∆d). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mmHg) occurred. The Pearson coefficient showed a high correlation (r(2) = -0.960). The intra-observer reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete compartmental elasticity by ultrasound

  4. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation in children for chronic pancreatitis: indication, surgical techniques, postoperative management, and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakotla, Srinath; Bellin, Melena D; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Radosevich, David M; Cook, Marie; Dunn, Ty B; Beilman, Gregory J; Freeman, Martin L; Balamurugan, A N; Wilhelm, Josh; Bland, Barbara; Jimenez-Vega, Jose M; Hering, Bernhard J; Vickers, Selwyn M; Pruett, Timothy L; Sutherland, David E R

    2014-07-01

    Describe the surgical technique, complications, and long-term outcomes of total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT) in a large series of pediatric patients. Surgical management of childhood pancreatitis is not clear; partial resection or drainage procedures often provide transient pain relief, but long-term recurrence is common due to the diffuse involvement of the pancreas. Total pancreatectomy (TP) removes the source of the pain, whereas islet autotransplantation (IAT) potentially can prevent or minimize TP-related diabetes. Retrospective review of 75 children undergoing TP-IAT for chronic pancreatitis who had failed medical, endoscopic, or surgical treatment between 1989 and 2012. Pancreatitis pain and the severity of pain statistically improved in 90% of patients after TP-IAT (P Puestow procedure (P = 0.018), lower body surface area (P = 0.048), higher islet equivalents (IEQ) per kilogram body weight (P = 0.001), and total IEQ (100,000) (P = 0.004) were associated with insulin independence. By multivariate analysis, 3 factors were associated with insulin independence after TP-IAT: (1) male sex, (2) lower body surface area, and (3) higher total IEQ per kilogram body weight. Total IEQ (100,000) was the single factor most strongly associated with insulin independence (odds ratio = 2.62; P < 0.001). Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation provides sustained pain relief and improved quality of life. The β-cell function is dependent on islet yield. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation is an effective therapy for children with painful pancreatitis that failed medical and/or endoscopic management.

  5. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  6. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Mingbo; She, Zhending; Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng; Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng; Shi, Shengjun; Tan, Rongwei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation

  7. Forearm Compartment Syndrome of a Newborn Associated with Extravasation of Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Altan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extravasation of contrast agents is a possible complication of imaging studies. Although extravasations typically cause minimal swelling or erythema, they can lead to compartment syndrome when the volume of extravasation is high. In this article, we will present an exceptional case where an insignificant amount of contrast agent extravasation led to a forearm compartment syndrome in a newborn, who was treated with an extended fasciotomy. We would like to emphasize the preventive techniques and treatment options of this iatrogenic complication in newborns. Close followup of the patient by the nurses, awareness of the parents and the personnel in the radiology department are the most important preventive measures in this extremity-threatening complication. Forearm compartment syndrome due to contrast agent extravasation may progress more rapidly in newborns even with smaller amounts of extravasation and prompt recognition of the pathology and immediate intervention are unevitable.

  8. Measuring urban sprawl on geospatial indices characterized by leap frog development using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, N M; Asmawi, M Z; Rusni, N A

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing urban sprawl using spatial measures requires a concise definition of what constitutes sprawling urban spatial patterns. This research attempts to study a measurement of defining sprawl by using leapfrog development index through remote sensing and GIS approach. The IKONOS pan-sharpened and SPOT-5 with 1 and 2.5 meter resolution were used and combined with Geographical information system (GIS) database to analyze the geospatial indicators using the leapfrog development index. Kuantan city has been selected as a study area to examine the leapfrog development based on land use pattern for year 2012. The findings show Kuantan has identified as non-sprawling cities with result from characterization in leapfrog development that has been tested. However, the gap between sprawl and non-sprawling was very low. It is anticipated this research will provide a new direction in sprawl nationally that address finding of sprawl at the atomic level and present a robust analytical approach for characterizing urban development in city scale at once promoting a city via GIS and Remote Sensing technology respectively towards Digital and Green cities

  9. Possible indicators for bio-mass burning in a small Swedish city as studied by EDXRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.S.; Henriksson, D.; Therning, P.; Laursen, J.; Pind, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: One of the major challenges in air pollution research is to make source apportionment from different sources of pollution. Examples of anthropogenic large sources of global impact are vehicle exhaust, oil and coal fired power and heat plants, industrial emissions and bio-mass burning. The relative contributions of these sources are usually difficult to evaluate due to the complexity of the ambient aerosol. XRS is one of the most reliable methods for giving information on elemental composition and elemental ratios of the aerosol particles. If this information is combined with data on other components in the polluted air there is a better chance of identifying the relative strengths of different pollution sources to the air quality in a specific location. In the present work XRS analysis has been performed on aerosol particles, PM 2,5 and PM 2,5-10 which were sampled in the centre of the small Swedish city of Vaexjoe, with the special aim to identify the possible contribution of bio-mass burning to the air pollution. In order to identify typical indicators for bio-mass burning principle component analysis was performed on data of elemental contents, black carbon and gaseous species in the aerosol

  10. Posterior indirect adhesive 
restorations: updated indications 
and the Morphology Driven 
Preparation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Marco

    The aim of this article is to identify the indications for adhesively cemented restorations and to provide a correct step-by-step protocol for clinicians. New cavity preparation principles are based on morphological considerations in terms of geometry (maximum profile line and inclination of cusp lines), and structure (dentin concavity and enamel convexity). In this article, we discuss previous preparation concepts that were not designed purely for adhesive restorations and were therefore not conservative enough or suitable for adhesive procedures. The novel cavity shape consists of continuous inclined plane cavity margins (hollow chamfer or concave bevel) on axial walls, whenever they are coronal to the equatorial tooth line. A 1.2 mm-thick butt-joint preparation is performed in the interproximal box and on the axial walls when the margins are apical to the equatorial line. The occlusal surface is anatomically prepared, free of slots and angles. The author's suggestion is to avoid shoulder finish line preparation around cusps, occlusal slots, and pins, as they are less conservative, incompatible with adhesive procedures, and involve unnecessary dentin exposure. The clinical advantages of this new "anatomic" preparation design are 1) improving adhesion quality (optimizing the cutting of enamel prisms, and increasing the available enamel surface); 2) minimizing dentin exposure; 3) maximizing hard tissue preservation (the cavity being designed for cementation with reinforced composite resins, improvement of flow, and removal of excess material); 4) optimization of esthetic integration due to the inclined plane design, which permits a better blending at the transition area between tooth and restoration. These preparation principles may be effectively used for all adhesively cemented restorations, both according to traditional concepts (inlay, onlay, overlay) and new ones (additional overlay, occlusal-veneer, overlay-veneer, long-wrap overlay, adhesive crown). Thus, a

  11. Combined Multi-criteria Evaluation Stage Technique as an Agro Waste Evaluation Indicator for Polymeric Composites: Date Palm Fibers as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. AL-Oqla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The final features of natural fiber composites (NFCs depend on the integrated characteristics of their constituents. In the industry today, natural agro waste fibers are evaluated using a limited number of criteria. In this work, a combined multi-criteria evaluation stage technique (CMCEST is introduced as a simple efficient systematic indicator to enhance evaluation of the available natural agro wastes for polymeric composites. In this proposed technique, criteria affecting the proper selection of natural agro waste fibers were combined and divided into sequence stages as follows: single-evaluation-criterion (SEC, combined-double-evaluation-criterion (CDEC, combined-triple-evaluation-criterion (CTEC, etc. These stages are based on combined physical, mechanical, and economic evaluation criteria and can be extended to several further stages to include other beneficial characteristics. The effectiveness of this technique was demonstrated by evaluating coir, date palm, jute, hemp, kenaf, and oil palm fibers simultaneously. This combined evaluation criteria can lead to more informative decisions regarding selection of the most suitable fiber type for polymeric composites. The CMCEST enhancements can reveal new potential fiber types through better evaluation schemes, help achieve clearer indications of the capabilities of available agro wastes to enhance composites, and determine proper ecological waste management practices. Utilizing the proposed technique, the date palm fiber type was found to be quite promising due to beneficial characteristics revealed in CTEC, which provides a reasonable, cheap, and eco-friendly alternative material suitable for different applications.

  12. Modeling malware propagation using a carrier compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.

    2018-03-01

    The great majority of mathematical models proposed to simulate malware spreading are based on systems of ordinary differential equations. These are compartmental models where the devices are classified according to some types: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. As far as we know, there is not any model considering the special class of carrier devices. This type is constituted by the devices whose operative systems is not targeted by the malware (for example, iOS devices for Android malware). In this work a novel mathematical model considering this new compartment is considered. Its qualitative study is presented and a detailed analysis of the efficient control measures is shown by studying the basic reproductive number.

  13. The upper hand on compartment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, Roisin T

    2012-11-01

    Metacarpal fractures are common injuries, accounting for approximately 30% to 40% of all hand fractures and with a lifetime incidence of 2.5%. Traditionally regarded as an innocuous injury, metacarpal fractures tend to be associated with successful outcomes after closed reduction and immobilization. Hand compartment syndrome (HCS) is a rare clinical entity with potential devastating consequences in terms of loss of function and quality-of-life outcomes. We discuss the case of a 44-year-old woman presenting with multiple closed metacarpal fractures as a result of low-energy trauma, complicated by acute HCS. We review the presentation, clinical assessment, and optimal surgical management of acute HCS with reference to international literature.

  14. The cooperative electrochemical oxidation of chlorophenols in anode-cathode compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Wang Jianlong

    2008-01-01

    By using a self-made carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene (C/PTFE) O 2 -fed as the cathode and Ti/IrO 2 /RuO 2 as the anode, the degradation of three organic compounds (phenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol) was investigated in the diaphragm (with terylene as diaphragm material) electrolysis device by electrochemical oxidation process. The result indicated that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was 8.3 mg/L, and hydroxyl radical (HO·) was determined in the cathodic compartment by electron spin resonance spectrum (ESR). The removal efficiency for organic compounds reached about 90% after 120 min, conforming to the sequence of phenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. And the dechlorination degree of 4-chlorophenol exceeded 90% after 80 min. For H 2 O 2 , HO· existed in the catholyte and reduction dechlorination at the cathode, the mineralization of organics in the cathodic compartment was better than that in the anodic compartment. The degradation of organics was supposed to be cooperative oxidation by direct or indirect electrochemical oxidation at the anode and H 2 O 2 , HO· produced by oxygen reduction at the cathode. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allowed identifying phenol as the dechlorination product of 4-chlorophenol in the cathodic compartment, and hydroquinone, 4-chlorocatechol, benzoquinone, maleic, fumaric, oxalic, and formic acids as the main oxidation intermediates in the cathodic and anodic compartments. A reaction scheme involving all these intermediates was proposed

  15. Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty improves congruence and restores joint space width of the lateral compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaisy, Saker; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; van der List, Jelle P; Nam, Denis; Pearle, Andrew D

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritic progression of the lateral compartment remains a leading indication for medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revision. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the alterations of the lateral compartment congruence and joint space width (JSW) following medial UKA. Retrospectively, lateral compartment congruence and JSW were evaluated in 174 knees (74 females, 85 males, mean age 65.5years; SD±10.1) preoperatively and six weeks postoperatively, and compared to 41 healthy knees (26 men, 15 women, mean age 33.7years; SD±6.4). Congruence (CI) was calculated using validated software that evaluates the geometric relationship between surfaces and calculates a congruence index (CI). JSW was measured on three sides (inner, middle, outer) by subdividing the lateral compartment into four quarters. The CI of the control group was 0.98 (SD±0.01). The preoperative CI was 0.88 (SD±0.01), which improved significantly to 0.93 (SD±0.03) postoperatively (pcongruence and restores the JSW of the lateral compartment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Congruence and joint space width alterations of the medial compartment following lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderbaan, H A; Khamaisy, S; Thein, R; Nawabi, D H; Pearle, A D

    2015-01-01

    Progressive degenerative changes in the medial compartment of the knee following lateral unicompartmental arthroplasty (UKA) remains a leading indication for revision surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in the congruence and joint space width (JSW) of the medial compartment following lateral UKA. The congruence of the medial compartment of 53 knees (24 men, 23 women, mean age 13.1 years; sd 62.1) following lateral UKA was evaluated pre-operatively and six weeks post-operatively, and compared with 41 normal knees (26 men, 15 women, mean age 33.7 years; sd 6.4), using an Interactive closest point algorithm which calculated the congruence index (CI) by performing a rigid transformation that best aligns the digitised tibial and femoral surfaces. Inner, middle and outer JSWs were measured by sub-dividing the medial compartment into four quarters on pre- and post-operative, weight bearing tunnel view radiographs. The mean CI of knees following lateral UKA significantly improved from 0.92 (sd 0.06) pre-operatively to 0.96 (sd 0.02) (p congruence and normalise the JSW of the medial compartment, potentially preventing progression of degenerative change. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Experimental investigation on the flow around a simplified geometry of automotive engine compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Marion; Gilliéron, Patrick; Devinant, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In the current sustainable development context, car manufacturers have to keep doing efforts to reduce the aerodynamic drag of automotive vehicle in order to decrease their CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions. The cooling airflow, through the engine compartment of vehicles, contributes from 5 to 10% to the total aerodynamic drag. By means of simplified car geometry, equipped with an engine compartment, the configurations that favor a low contribution to total drag are identified. PIV (particle image velocimetry) velocity measurements in the wake of the geometry allow explaining these drag reductions. Besides, the cooling flow rate is also assessed and gives indications on the configurations that favor the engine cooling.

  18. Microbial diversity in different compartments of an aquaponics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmautz, Zala; Graber, Andreas; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Goesmann, Alexander; Junge, Ranka; Smits, Theo H M

    2017-05-01

    Aquaponics is a solution for sustainable production of fish and plants in a single semi-closed system, where nutrient-rich water from the aquaculture provides nutrients for plant growth. We examined the microbial communities within an experimental aquaponics system. Whereas the fish feces contained a separate community dominated by bacteria of the genus Cetobacterium, the samples from plant roots, biofilter, and periphyton were more similar to each other, while the communities were more diverse. Detailed examination of the data gave the first indications to functional groups of organisms in the different compartments of the aquaponic system. As other nitrifiers other than members of the genus Nitrospira were only present at low numbers, it was anticipated that Nitrospirae may perform the nitrification process in the biofilm.

  19. Fire simulation in large compartments with a fire model 'CFAST'. Part 1. Survey of applicability for analyzing air-temperature profile in compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Shirai, Koji; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Sano, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    The basic performance of numerical analysis of air-temperature profiles in large-scale compartments by using a zone model, CFAST (Consolidated model of Fire growth And Smoke Transport), which has been widely applied for fire protection design of buildings is examined. Special attentions are paid to the dependence of the setting boundary conditions and the choosing model parameters. The simulations carried out under the denkyoken-test conditions, in which the air-temperature profiles in compartments and the heat-release rate of a fire have been precisely measured, indicate that the CFAST has a capability to appropriately represent the time-histories of air-temperature in the high air-temperature layer generated in the vicinity of ceiling of the compartment which includes the source of a fire, by applying the proper boundary conditions, i.e., time-histories of air-temperature in the upper (high temperature) layer given by the CFAST agree well with those of observations. The sensitivity analysis in the simulations also reveals that the appropriately setting of the boundary-conditions, especially for the heat-release ratio from a fire and the heat-transfer rate from walls of compartments to ambient air is vital. Contrary to this, the impacts of choosing numerical parameters on the air-temperature analysis are quite small. (author)

  20. Antigen storage compartments in mature dendritic cells facilitate prolonged cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfoort, Nadine; Camps, Marcel G; Khan, Selina; Filippov, Dmitri V; Weterings, Jimmy J; Griffith, Janice M; Geuze, Hans J; van Hall, Thorbald; Verbeek, J Sjef; Melief, Cornelis J; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2009-04-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for priming of naive CD8(+) T lymphocytes to exogenous antigens, so-called "cross-priming." We report that exogenous protein antigen can be conserved for several days in mature DCs, coinciding with strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming potency in vivo. After MHC class I peptide elution, protein antigen-derived peptide presentation is efficiently restored, indicating the presence of an intracellular antigen depot. We characterized this depot as a lysosome-like organelle, distinct from MHC class II compartments and recently described early endosomal compartments that allow acute antigen presentation in MHC class I. The storage compartments we report here facilitate continuous supply of MHC class I ligands. This mechanism ensures sustained cross-presentation by DCs, despite the short-lived expression of MHC class I-peptide complexes at the cell surface.

  1. A human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Frank C; Cooper, Dylan; Huffman, Gretchen; Bartkus, Edward; Wilbur, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Fresh human cadavers provide an effective model for procedural training. Currently, there are no realistic models to teach fascial compartment pressure measurement. We created a human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model and studied its feasibility with a pre-post design. Three faculty members, following instructions from a common procedure textbook, used a standard handheld intra-compartment pressure monitor (Stryker(®), Kalamazoo, MI) to measure baseline pressures ("unembalmed") in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the lower legs of a fresh human cadaver. The right femoral artery was then identified by superficial dissection, cannulated distally towards the lower leg, and connected to a standard embalming machine. After a 5-min infusion, the same three faculty members re-measured pressures ("embalmed") of the same compartments on the cannulated right leg. Unembalmed and embalmed readings for each compartment, and baseline readings for each leg, were compared using a two-sided paired t-test. The mean baseline compartment pressures did not differ between the right and left legs. Using the embalming machine, compartment pressure readings increased significantly over baseline for three of four fascial compartments; all in mm Hg (±SD): anterior from 40 (±9) to 143 (±44) (p = 0.08); lateral from 22 (±2.5) to 160 (±4.3) (p cadaver using a standard embalming machine. Set-up is minimal and the model can be incorporated into teaching curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interventional and surgical management of abdominal compartment syndrome in severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Parseliūnas, Audrius; Maleckas, Almantas; Gulbinas, Antanas; Barauskas, Giedrius; Pundzius, Juozas

    2010-01-01

    Management of the abdominal compartment syndrome during severe acute pancreatitis by the open abdomen method is associated with considerable morbidity and resource utilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the ultrasound-guided percutaneous interventions and/or minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome. Forty-four patients with severe acute pancreatitis were enrolled into a prospective study and treated according to the standard management protocol. Interventional and/or surgical management of abdominal compartment syndrome was employed in 6 (13.6%) cases. In the context of this study, we assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of subcutaneous fasciotomy of the anterior m. rectus abdominis sheath, as well as the role of ultrasound-guided drainage of intra-abdominal and peripancreatic fluid collections in the management of abdominal compartment syndrome. Subcutaneous fasciotomy of the anterior m. rectus sheath and ultrasound-guided drainage of intra-abdominal and peripancreatic fluid collections seem to be safe (minor risk of bleeding or infection, closed abdomen, and easy care for the patient) and effective (resulted in a sustained decrease of intra-abdominal pressure to 13-16 mm Hg and regression of organ failures after intervention). Subcutaneous anterior m. rectus fasciotomy may appear to be beneficial in case of refractory abdominal compartment syndrome avoiding morbidity associated with the open abdomen technique. Both the subcutaneous fasciotomy and ultrasound-guided drainage of intra-abdominal and/or peripancreatic fluid collections seem to be safe and effective alternatives in the management of abdominal compartment syndrome; however, prospective studies are needed to further evaluate their clinical role.

  3. Effect of heterogeneity on the characterization of cell membrane compartments: I. Uniform size and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien

    2010-03-15

    Observations of the motion of individual molecules in the membrane of a number of different cell types have led to the suggestion that the outer membrane of many eukaryotic cells may be effectively partitioned into microdomains. A major cause of this suggested partitioning is believed to be due to the direct/indirect association of the cytosolic face of the cell membrane with the cortical cytoskeleton. Such intimate association is thought to introduce effective hydrodynamic barriers into the membrane that are capable of frustrating molecular Brownian motion over distance scales greater than the average size of the compartment. To date, the standard analytical method for deducing compartment characteristics has relied on observing the random walk behavior of a labeled lipid or protein at various temporal frequencies and different total lengths of time. Simple theoretical arguments suggest that the presence of restrictive barriers imparts a characteristic turnover to a plot of mean squared displacement versus sampling period that can be interpreted to yield the average dimensions of the compartment expressed as the respective side lengths of a rectangle. In the following series of articles, we used computer simulation methods to investigate how well the conventional analytical strategy coped with heterogeneity in size, shape, and barrier permeability of the cell membrane compartments. We also explored questions relating to the necessary extent of sampling required (with regard to both the recorded time of a single trajectory and the number of trajectories included in the measurement bin) for faithful representation of the actual distribution of compartment sizes found using the SPT technique. In the current investigation, we turned our attention to the analytical characterization of diffusion through cell membrane compartments having both a uniform size and permeability. For this ideal case, we found that (i) an optimum sampling time interval existed for the analysis

  4. Lumbar interbody fusion: techniques, indications and comparison of interbody fusion options including PLIF, TLIF, MI-TLIF, OLIF/ATP, LLIF and ALIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Malham, Greg; Seex, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine is common in the ageing population, and is one of the most frequent causes of disability. Lumbar spondylosis may result in mechanical back pain, radicular and claudicant symptoms, reduced mobility and poor quality of life. Surgical interbody fusion of degenerative levels is an effective treatment option to stabilize the painful motion segment, and may provide indirect decompression of the neural elements, restore lordosis and correct deformity. The surgical options for interbody fusion of the lumbar spine include: posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF), oblique lumbar interbody fusion/anterior to psoas (OLIF/ATP), lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The indications may include: discogenic/facetogenic low back pain, neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy due to foraminal stenosis, lumbar degenerative spinal deformity including symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis. In general, traditional posterior approaches are frequently used with acceptable fusion rates and low complication rates, however they are limited by thecal sac and nerve root retraction, along with iatrogenic injury to the paraspinal musculature and disruption of the posterior tension band. Minimally invasive (MIS) posterior approaches have evolved in an attempt to reduce approach related complications. Anterior approaches avoid the spinal canal, cauda equina and nerve roots, however have issues with approach related abdominal and vascular complications. In addition, lateral and OLIF techniques have potential risks to the lumbar plexus and psoas muscle. The present study aims firstly to comprehensively review the available literature and evidence for different lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) techniques. Secondly, we propose a set of recommendations and guidelines

  5. Three-compartment modeling of C-11 N-Methyl spiperone kinetics in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.A.; Wong, D.F.; Di Chiro, G.; Wayner, R.T.; Douglass, K.H.; Frost, J.J.; Larson, S.M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    N-Methyl spiperone, as well as spiperone, has been used to study the dopamine receptor system in the brain. The authors have applied a 3-compartment model consisting of vascular, extravascular unbound, and receptor-bound activity to two normal volunteers and one patient with Parkinson's disease. The model differs from that proposed by another study, in that, as in the Sokoloff model for deoxyglucose, there is no explicit term for blood flow. Furthermore, the authors used a 3-compartment model for the cerebellum as well as the caudate/putamen. Serial scans were obtained by PET for up to 2 hrs after injection of the tracer. Time-activity curves were generated over the caudate, putamen and cerebellum. The results indicate a close fit of the observed data to the 3-compatment model. In the model, K1 represents the rate constant of delivery of the tracer in the tissue from the vascular compartment. K2 is the reverse rate constant. K1 was approximately equal to K2 for the cerebellum. In the basal ganglia, K2 was less than K1 due to nonspecific binding in compartment 2. K3 represents the rate constant of binding of the tracer to the receptor binding sites in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia and to nonspecific binding sites in the cerebellum which contains essentially no dopamine receptors. K4 represents the rate constant for dissociation of the tracer from the receptors. For N-methyl spiperone K4 is very low in the caudate/putamen. The 3-compartment model seemed to fit the data better than the 2-compartment model for both the caudate/putamen and cerebellar activity

  6. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Flageole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not.

  7. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    bends? Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species: Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon densirostris and Hyperoodon...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine...is to develop methods to estimate marine mamal tissue compartment sizes, and tissue gas solubility. We aim to improve the data available for the

  8. [Progress of midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lihong; Wang, Jinhuang; Li, Yang; Liu, Dalie

    2018-02-01

    To review the research progress of midfacial fat compartments, and to thoroughly understand its current state of the anatomy and the aging morphologic characters of midfacial fat compartments, as well as the current status of clinical applications. The recent literature concerning the midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications were extensively reviewed and analyzed. Midfacial fat layer has been considered as a fusion and a continuous layer, experiencing a global atrophy when aging. As more anatomical researches have done, recent studies have shown that midfacial fat layer is broadly divided into superficial and deep layers, which are both divided into different fat compartments by fascia, ligaments, or muscles. Midfacial fat compartments tend to atrophy with age, specifically in the deep fat compartments while hypertrophy in the superficial fat compartments. Clinical applications show that fat volumetric restoration with deep medial cheek fat and Ristow's space can restore the appearance of midface effectively. In recent years, the researches of midfacial fat compartments have achieved obvious progress, which will provide new ideas and basis for fat volumetric restoration. Corresponding treatments are selected based on different sites and different layers with different aging changes, reshaping a more youthful midface.

  9. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences

  10. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences.

  11. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  12. Fire simulation of pool fire with effects of a ventilation controlled compartment by using a fire model, CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Shirai, Koji; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Matsuyama, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The basic performance for numerical analysis of fire parameters in a compartment by using a zone model, CFAST (Consolidated model of Fire growth And Smoke Transport), which has been widely applied for fire protection design of buildings, was examined. Special attentions were paid to the effects of compartment geometry under poor ventilation conditions with mechanical systems. The simulations were carried out under conditions corresponding to previous experiments, in which fire parameters have been precisely measured. The comparison between numerical simulations and experiments indicated that the CFAST principally has a capability to represent the time-histories of air-temperature in the high air-temperature layer generated in the vicinity of ceiling of the compartment, by applying the proper boundary conditions. These results suggest that numerical analysis for time-series of air temperature and smoke concentration in compartments must be a powerful tool for discussion on validity of fire protection schemes. (author)

  13. Computation of thermal comfort inside a passenger car compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrhab, A.; Bouzidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model to study the behaviour of thermal comfort inside the passenger car compartment according to climatic conditions and materials that compose the vehicle. The specifically developed numerical model is based on the nodal method and the finite difference method. Its specificities are: (i) the transient mode, (ii) the taking into account of the combined convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, (iii) the coupling of two spectral bands (short-wave and long-wave radiation) and two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse). The compartment is subdivided in several solid nodes (materials constituting the compartment) and fluid nodes (volumes of air inside the compartment). The establishment of the heat balance for each node gives the evolution of its temperature. Effects of solar radiation, types of glazing, car colour and radiative properties of materials constituting the compartment are investigated

  14. Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) -- Indication des états de surface dans la documentation technique de produits

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    La présente Norme internationale spécifie les règles pour l'indication des états de surface dans la documentation technique de produits (par exemple dessins, spécifications, contrats, rapports) au moyen de symboles graphiques et d'indications textuelles. Elle est applicable à l'indication des exigences sur les surfaces au moyen de paramètres de profil conformément à l'ISO 4287, relatifs au profil R (paramètres de rugosité), au profil W (paramètres d'ondulation) et au profil P (paramètres de structure), de paramètres liés aux motifs conformément à l'ISO 12085, relatifs au motif de rugosité et au motif d'ondulation, et de paramètres relatifs à la courbe du taux de longueur portante conformément à l'ISO 13565-2 et à l'ISO 13565-3. NOTE Quant à l'indication des exigences concernant les imperfections de surface (pores, stries, etc.), qui ne peuvent pas être spécifiées à l'aide des paramètres d'état de surface, référence est faite à l'ISO 8785 qui couvre les imperfections de surface...

  15. Phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge ash suspended in water in a two-compartment electrodialytic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2016-01-01

    was suspended in water in the anolyte, which was separated from the catholyte by a cation exchange membrane. Electrolysis at the anode acidified the SSA suspension, and hereby P, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn were extracted. The heavy metal ions electromigrated into the catholyte and were thus separated from the filtrate......Phosphorus (P) is indispensable for all forms of life on Earth and as P is a finite resource, it is highly important to increase recovery of P from secondary resources. This investigation is focused on P recovery from sewage sludge ash (SSA) by a two-compartment electrodialytic separation (EDS......) technique. Two SSAs are included in the investigation and they contained slightly less P than phosphate rock used in commercial fertilizer production and more heavy metals. The two-compartment electrodialytic technique enabled simultaneous recovery of P and separation of heavy metals. During EDS the SSA...

  16. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  17. Transanal endoscopic micro-surgery (TEMS) for the management of large or sessile rectal adenomas: a review of the technique and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagrigoriadis, Savvas

    2006-05-04

    In this review article the surgical technique of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) is examined. A number of techniques have been used to treat adenomas of the rectum. The treatment of large adenomas which occupy a large surface of the rectal lumen or adenomas which are flat and grow in a "carpet-like" fashion is particularly challenging. Major rectal surgery carries a risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly and unfit patients. Although local excision with transanal resection (TAR) and the Kraske sacral operation have been used in the past, during the last twenty years TEMS has become the method of choice for those lesions. TEMS is efficient and minimally invasive. The technique allows the patient to recover rapidly and the incidence of complications is much lower than that of major surgery. In case of recurrence the option of repeat TEMS or major surgery remain available. TEMS has been slow to gain popularity mainly for reasons of cost and steep learning curve but it is now an established procedure and a valuable therapeutic option which is particularly useful for elderly and unfit patients. Gastroenterologists should be aware of the nature and indications of TEMS in order to advise and refer selected patients with rectal adenomas accordingly.

  18. Functional outcome of tibial fracture with acute compartment syndrome and correlation to deep posterior compartment pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Naik, Monappa A; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Rao, Sharath K

    2017-05-18

    To measure single baseline deep posterior compartment pressure in tibial fracture complicated by acute compartment syndrome (ACS) and to correlate it with functional outcome. Thirty-two tibial fractures with ACS were evaluated clinically and the deep posterior compartment pressure was measured. Urgent fasciotomy was needed in 30 patients. Definite surgical fixation was performed either primarily or once fasciotomy wound was healthy. The patients were followed up at 3 mo, 6 mo and one year. At one year, the functional outcome [lower extremity functional scale (LEFS)] and complications were assessed. Three limbs were amputated. In remaining 29 patients, the average times for clinical and radiological union were 25.2 ± 10.9 wk (10 to 54 wk) and 23.8 ± 9.2 wk (12 to 52 wk) respectively. Nine patients had delayed union and 2 had nonunion who needed bone grafting to augment healing. Most common complaint at follow up was ankle stiffness (76%) that caused difficulty in walking, running and squatting. Of 21 patients who had paralysis at diagnosis, 13 (62%) did not recover and additional five patients developed paralysis at follow-up. On LEFS evaluation, there were 14 patients (48.3%) with severe disability, 10 patients (34.5%) with moderate disability and 5 patients (17.2%) with minimal disability. The mean pressures in patients with minimal disability, moderate disability and severe disability were 37.8, 48.4 and 58.79 mmHg respectively ( P fractures causes severe functional disability in majority of patients. These patients are prone for delayed union and nonunion; however, long term disability is mainly because of severe soft tissue contracture. Intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) correlates with functional disability; patients with relatively high ICP are prone for poor functional outcome.

  19. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  20. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  1. Compartmented pyruvate in perfused working heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenger, R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyruvate compartmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were studied in isolated perfused working guinea pig hearts. The mean intracellular pyruvate (Pyr) contents increased with perfusate Pyr (0-2 mM) but varied only slightly with glucose (0-10 mM) and additional insulin (0.04-5 U/l), respectively. With 5-10 mM glucose plus 5 U/l insulin, but not with Pyr or lactate (Lac) as substrates, a near equilibrium between the LDH and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase seemed to exist. Evidence for an inhibitory effect of Pyr on the activity of the LDH system of the perfused hearts was not obtained. With [U- 14 C]glucose as sole substrate, the specific activity of coronary venous Lac was near half that of precursor glucose. 14 CO 2 production was thus in quantitative agreement with rates of pyruvate oxidation that were determined as glucose uptake minus (Pyr + Lac) release. In contrast, with 0.2 mM [1- 14 C]Pyr plus 5 mM glucose, the ratio of 14 CO 2 production to specific activity of Lac overestimated Pyr oxidation judged from myocardial substrate balances and O 2 uptake, respectively; here, at least three pools of [ 14 C]HCO-3 and [ 14 C]lac, respectively, were kinetically demonstrable during washout of trace amounts of 14 C-labeled Pyr. Evidently, the specific activity of Lac was equivalent to that of mitochondrial oxidized Pyr provided [ 14 C]glucose was the sole or major precursor of cellular pyruvate. However, exogenously applied [1- 14 C]Pyr of high specific activity seemed to induce intracellular formation of both a highly and lowly labeled Pyr; the latter Pyr compartment did not seem in ready equilibrium with the cell physiologically prevailing highly labeled Pyr pool

  2. Orientationally invariant indices of axon diameter and density from diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Hubbard, Penny L; Hall, Matt G

    2010-01-01

    tensor imaging. Orientational invariance allows for combination with tractography and presents new opportunities for mapping brain connectivity and quantifying disease processes. The technique uses a four-compartment tissue model combined with an optimized multishell high-angular-resolution pulsed...... to natural axon diameter distributions for the first time with both specialist and clinical hardware. This demonstration motivates further refinement, validation, and evaluation of the precise nature of the indices and the influence of potential confounds....

  3. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  4. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai Malinouski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells.Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events.We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells.

  5. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  6. Characteristics of patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel E; Raikin, Steven; Garras, David N; Vitanzo, Peter; Labrador, Hallie; Espandar, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition that causes reversible ischemia and lower extremity pain during exercise. To date there are few large studies examining the characteristics of patients with CECS. This study aimed to present these characteristics by examining the largest published series of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of the disorder. An IRB-approved, retrospective review was undertaken of patients with a suspected diagnosis of CECS undergoing pre- and postexercise compartment pressure testing between 2000 and 2012. Patients were evaluated for gender, age, duration of symptoms, pain level, specific compartments involved, compartment pressure measurements, and participation and type of athletics. Two-hundred twenty-six patients (393 legs) underwent compartment pressure testing. A diagnosis of CECS was made in 153 (67.7%) patients and 250 (63.6%) legs with elevated compartment measurements; average age of the patients was 24 years (range, 13-69 years). Female patients accounted for 92 (60.1%) of those with elevated pressures. Anterior and lateral compartment pressures were elevated most frequently, with 200 (42.5%) and 167 (35.5%) compartments, respectively. One hundred forty-one (92.2%) patients reported participation in sports, with running being the most common individual sport and soccer being the most common team sport. Duration of pain prior to diagnosis averaged 28 months. Although there is ample literature pertaining to the diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithm of the condition, few papers have described the type of patient most likely to develop CECS. This is the largest study to date to evaluate the type of patient likely to present with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Level III, retrospective review.

  7. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  8. A prospective blinded evaluation of exercise thallium-201 SPET in patients with suspected chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trease, L.; Every, B. van; Rynderman, J.; Baldey, A.; Turlakow, A.; Kelly, Michael J.; Bennell, K.; Brukner, P.

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the quantitative and qualitative results of leg thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in patients with and without raised intracompartmental pressure associated with exercise-related leg pain. The purpose of this study was to clarify the aetiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), and to investigate the diagnostic applications of 201 Tl SPET in CECS. Thirty-four study participants underwent compartment pressure testing (CPT) between March and August 2000. There were 25 positive CPT results (patient group), and nine negative CPT results (control group). All 34 participants underwent scintigraphy. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed for the anterolateral and deep posterior compartments of the lower leg. There was no significant difference in either quantitative or qualitative assessments of perfusion between those compartments with and those without CECS. In contrast, a marked effect of exercise type upon compartment perfusion pattern was noted. Results of this study indicate that there is no compartment perfusion deficit in those patients with raised intracompartmental pressure associated with CECS, and suggest a non-ischaemic basis for the pain associated with CECS. They also suggest no role for exercise perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of this syndrome. (orig.)

  9. Elementary Physics Considerations Indicate an Elegant Construction Technique For the Pyramids At Giza. Our Information Indicates They and the Sphinx Were Engineered and Built Around BCE 2500, Not Earlier!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Archimedes articulated an applied physics experience of many children who observe the upward movement of floating objects when they get into their "tubs." This same principle can effectively allow massive Egyptian construction blocks and obelisks to be elevated and erected. Platform bases at Giza were leveled by means of water channels that were cut into the rock. There is a canal behind the pyramids. The bathtub technique can elevate or transport the water-borne block (or obelisk) to sites involved, including the Sphinx temple. Water outflow from the barge locks (tubs) can erode Sphinx surrounds, without invoking 7000+ year-ago rainy weather. Our previously detailed account of how constellations, Canis Major, Phoenix, Leo can be detected at sites like America's Stonehenge, while they are below the local horizon, also indicates ancient Egyptians may have done likewise. Orion, or Leo the Sphinx could have been detected while they were in the "underground," around BCE 2500, in alignments otherwise requiring a date of BCE 1050.

  10. The subapical compartment : a traffic center in membrane polarity development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D; Tyteca, D; van IJzendoorn, SCD

    2004-01-01

    Spatially separated apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains that have distinct functions and molecular compositions are a characteristic feature of epithelial cell polarity. The subapical compartment (SAC), also known as the common endosome (CE), where endocytic pathways from both surfaces

  11. 14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight, and stress concentrations and fatigue effects must be accounted for. (c) If landings may be made... small compartment. The size Ho must be computed by the following formula: Ho=PAs where, Ho=Maximum...

  12. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  13. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a rower

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICP) measurement (Fig. 1). Testing of the flexor compart- ments revealed a raised resting pressure of 16 ... the following values suggestive of CECS in the lower limb: A pre- ... toxin decreases muscle mass and therefore causes a reduction of.

  14. Microbial investigations of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Joulian, C.; Coulon, S.; Le Marrec, C.; Garrido, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep sedimentary rocks are now considered to contain a significant part of the total bacterial population, but are microbiologically unexplored. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned and sub-sampled on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible, the nine cores: two in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, two in the Dogger, five in the Triassic compartments. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the five Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized bars chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the core by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analysed. The microbial exploration we started can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for six metabolic groups to try to find microbial cells still viable. This type of experiment is difficult because of the small proportion of cultivable species, especially in these extreme environmental samples. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. Here, the limits are the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. The five Triassic samples were partly crushed in powder and inoculated in the six culture media with four NaCl concentrations, because this type of rock is known as saline or hyper-saline, and incubated at three temperatures: 30 deg. C, 55 deg. C under agitation and 70 deg. C. First results will be presented. The direct extraction of DNA needs a complete method optimisation to adapt existent procedures (using commercial kit and classical

  15. Topology Optimization of Spacecraft Transfer Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Borovikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe subject of this research is topology optimization of the adapter of a spacecraft transfer compartment. The finite element topology optimization [1] is widely used for simple structure elements [6, 7]. It is argued that using this method in conjunction with additive technology (3D - printing it is possible to create construction designs with the best weight characteristics. However, the paper shows that when applying this method to a complex construction design the optimization results are highly sensitive to optimization algorithm parameters. The goal of this research is to study parameters of the topology optimization algorithm and the influence of their variations on results.1.      Problem formulation   A commercial software Altair HyperWorks/OptiStruct (student’s license performed numerical calculations. The paper presents a detailed description of the finite element model.The main features of the proposed model are as follows:-          Simplicity with non-complicated geometry;-          Building a finite element model in terms of computing time minimization;-          Using the lumped mass elements to simulate the impacts of the conjugates on the adapter;-          A limit of material strength, decreased by an order of magnitude, to eliminate stress concentrators;-          The gravitational load applied corresponds to the loads for the Angara-A5 launcher [8]. 2.      Method of solutionA brief description of the SIMP-method realized in the Altair HyperWorks/OptiStruct software is given.3.      ResultsPerformed numerical calculations, and shown the influence of variations of algorithm parameters (DISCRETE, MATINIT, MINDIM, MAXDIM on construction design as well as the parameters SINGLE and SPLIT used to reveal restrictions on manufacturing.Shown that, depending on variations of parameters, an adapter construction strives to «truss» or «shell» type. Described

  16. Do urologists and gynaecologists manage posterior compartment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driven training, which occurs locally and internationally. We felt that the practice of an individual physician would reflect the overall training that he or she had received. Before commencement of this study, we hypothesised that gynaecologists would be less dependent on industry- driven surgical techniques than urologists.

  17. The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

    2014-10-01

    A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arbuscules of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhabit an acidic compartment within plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberger, M

    2000-08-01

    The most widespread type of mycorrhiza is the so-called vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this endomycorrhiza, fungal hyphae penetrate plant cell walls in the root cortex. There they form densely branched arbuscules. Fungus and plant plasma membrane are separated by a common interfacial apoplast. The pH of the compartment between the symbionts is of pivotal importance for nutrient transfer. Histochemical experiments were conducted to check for an acidic nature of the interface in the model system Glomus versiforme (Karst.) Berch-Allium porrum L. Two chemically different acidotropic dyes (neutral red and LysoSensor Green DND-189) stained the arbuscules intensely. The staining of arbuscules could be eliminated by addition of the protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or treatments leading to membrane rupture. Therefore, the staining of the arbuscules was based on the ion-trap mechanism, which indicates acidic, membrane-bound compartments. Microscopic examination of stained arbuscules at high optical resolution revealed a peripheral accumulation of the dye. Since plasmolysis rapidly destained the arbuscules, it is concluded that the dyes accumulate in the arbuscular interface, indicating the highly acidic nature of this compartment. The findings are discussed with respect to their relevance for the nutrient transfer in mycorrhizas. In addition, evidence for a discontinuity in the arbuscular interface between the stem and the branches of the arbuscule is given.

  19. Radiocesium concentrations in wholebody homogenates and several body compartments of naturally contaminated white-tailed deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Smith, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radiocesium concentrations were determined for various tissues, organs, and other body compartments of 17 white-tailed deer collected from contaminated habitats on the AEC Savannah River Plant. Highest levels of radiocesium concentration were found in skeletal muscle, feces, kidney, and adrenal tissue, which averaged between 50 to 70 pCi radiocesium/g (dry weight). Liver and bone showed the lowest average values. With the exception of feces and rumen contents, nearly all tissues and organ compartments showed significant positive linear correlations between their respective radiocesium levels. Analyses of whole-body homogenates indicated that the deer examined averaged 9.91 pCi radiocesium/g (whole-body wet weight). These values were best predicted from the radiocesium contents of skeletal muscle, using the relationship: pCi radiocesium/g dry whole-body weight = 3.33 + 0.60 (pCi/g dry skeletal muscle). Calculation of a weighted ''predictive index'' indicated that concentrations in skeletal muscle best predicted the overall pattern and levels of radiocesium distribution within all compartments of the deer body. Radiocesium concentrations in the brain, heart, and liver, respectively, followed muscle in order of predictive ability

  20. The concept of "compartment allergy": prilocaine injected into different skin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobser Marion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We herein present a patient with delayed-type allergic hypersensitivity against prilocaine leading to spreading eczematous dermatitis after subcutaneous injections for local anesthesia with prilocaine. Prilocaine allergy was proven by positive skin testing and subcutaneous provocation, whereas the evaluation of other local anesthetics - among them lidocaine, articaine and mepivacaine - did not exhibit any evidence for cross-reactivity. Interestingly, our patient repeatedly tolerated strictly deep subcutaneous injection of prilocaine in provocation testing while patch and superficial subcutaneous application mounted strong allergic responses. We hypothesize, that lower DC density in deeper cutaneous compartments and/or different DC subsets exhibiting distinct functional immunomodulatory properties in the various layers of the skin may confer to the observed absence of clinical reactivity against prilocaine after deep subcutaneous injection. The term compartment allergy indicates that the route of allergen administration together with the targeted immunologic environment orchestrates on the immunologic outcome: overt T-cell mediated allergy or clinical tolerance.

  1. Labour input in construction of composite structures of the Balakovo NPP reactor compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alasyuk, G.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    Technical-economical results achieved when constructing the Balakovo NPP second unit reactor compartment structures are presented. The obtained data analysis shows that in the case of building the walls of non-sealed reactor compartment section in the form of composite structures the major part of labour input requirements (54-59%) falls at works on production and mounting of these structures, performed at auxiliary plants. Labour input for works performed the construction (unit-cell and space frame mounting, preparation of units for concreting, joint sealing, concrete placement) make up 41-46%, and labour input for enlarged unit-cell mounting make up 8%. Labour input per 1 m 3 of the wall structure with 0.6 and 0.9 m thicness in the monolith option are respectively by 19 an 23% higher than the same indices for composite

  2. First year experience of robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery with 153 cases in a general surgery department: indications, technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomulescu, V; Stănciulea, O; Bălescu, I; Vasile, S; Tudor, St; Gheorghe, C; Vasilescu, C; Popescu, I

    2009-01-01

    Robotic surgery was developed in response to the limitations and drawbacks of laparoscopic surgery. Since 1997 when the first robotic procedure was performed various papers pointed the advantages of robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, this technique is now a reality and it will probably become the surgery of the future. The aim of this paper is to present our preliminary experience with the three-arms "da Vinci S surgical system", to assess the feasibility of this technique in various abdominal and thoracic procedures and to point out the advantages of the robotic approach for each type of procedure. Between 18 January 2008 and 18 January 2009 153 patients (66 men and 87 women; mean age 48,02 years, range 6 to 84 years) underwent robotic-assisted surgical procedures in our institution; we performed 129 abdominal and 24 thoracic procedures, as follows: one cholecystectomy, 14 myotomies with Dor fundoplication, one gastroenteroanastomosis for unresectable antral gastric cancer, one transthoracic esophagectomy, 14 gastrectomies, one polypectomy through gastrotomy, 22 splenectomies,7 partial spleen resections, 22 thymectomy, 6 Nissen fundoplications, one Toupet fundoplication, one choledocho-duodeno-anastomosis, one drainage for pancreatic abscess, one distal pancreatectomy, one hepatic cyst fenestration, 7 hepatic resections, 29 colonic and rectal resections, 5 adrenalectomies, 12 total radical hysterectomies and pelvic lymphadenectomy, 3 hysterectomies with bilateral adnexectomy for uterine fibroma, one unilateral adnexectomy, and 2 cases of cervico-mediastinal goitre resection. 147 procedures were robotics completed , whereas 6 procedures were converted to open surgery due to the extent of the lesion. Average operating room time was 171 minutes (range 60 to 600 minutes, Median length of stay was 8,6 days (range 2 to 48 days). One system malfunctions was registered. Post-operatory complications occurred in 14 cases. There were no deaths. Our preliminary experience

  3. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  4. The impact of suction drainage on orbital compartment syndrome after craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Carlton R; Golio, Dominick

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative orbital compartment syndrome is a potentially blinding complication of surgery in the orbital region. We describe the technique of orbital drain placement as a method of preventing vision loss resulting from orbital compartment syndrome. We present a retrospective case series of 29 patients who underwent orbital fracture, facial fracture, and orbital implant removal from 7/4/2008 to 5/3/2013 by the same craniofacial surgeon. An orbital drain was placed in each patient. The drainage was recorded daily until drain removal. Criteria for removal included less than or equal to 5 mL of drainage in 24 hours. Of the 29 patients included in this study, 21 were men and 8 were women. Ages ranged from 17 to 67 years. The postoperative drainage ranged from less than 1 mL to 71 mL of serosanguinous fluid. All drains were removed between the first and sixth postoperative days. No postoperative visual loss, infections, or additional antibiotics were recorded with follow-up reaching as far as 40 months. Postoperative orbital compartment syndrome is a dangerous complication of surgery in the orbital region. Its rapid onset necessitates immediate intervention to prevent permanent vision loss. Morphologic changes to the optic nerve as well as reductions in electroretinogram a- and b-wave amplitudes have been demonstrated with as little as 7 mL of fluid accumulation. Intraoperative orbital drain placement should be considered in all patients undergoing surgery in the orbital region as a preventative measure.

  5. 3D printed multi-compartment capsular devices for two-pulse oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, A; Melocchi, A; Parietti, F; Foppoli, A; Zema, L; Gazzaniga, A

    2017-12-28

    In the drug delivery area, versatile therapeutic systems intended to yield customized combinations of drugs, drug doses and release kinetics have drawn increasing attention, especially because of the advantages that personalized pharmaceutical treatments would offer. In this respect, a previously proposed capsular device able to control the release performance based on its design and composition, which could extemporaneously be filled, was improved to include multiple separate compartments so that differing active ingredients or formulations may be conveyed. The compartments, which may differ in thickness and composition, resulted from assembly of two hollow halves through a joint also acting as a partition. The systems were manufactured by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing, which holds special potential for product personalization, and injection molding (IM) that would enable production on a larger scale. Through combination of compartments having wall thickness of 600 or 1200μm, composed of promptly soluble, swellable/erodible or enteric soluble polymers, devices showing two-pulse release patterns, consistent with the nature of the starting materials, were obtained. Systems fabricated using the two techniques exhibited comparable performance, thus proving the prototyping ability of FDM versus IM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Colleen Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007. We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission.

  7. Focuss algorithm application in kinetic compartment modeling for PET tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xinrui; Bao Shanglian

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is in the process of becoming. Its application mostly depends on the molecular discovery process of imaging probes and drugs, from the mouse to the patient, from research to clinical practice. Positron emission tomography (PET) can non-invasively monitor . pharmacokinetic and functional processes of drugs in intact organisms at tracer concentrations by kinetic modeling. It has been known that for all biological systems, linear or nonlinear, if the system is injected by a tracer in a steady state, the distribution of the tracer follows the kinetics of a linear compartmental system, which has sums of exponential solutions. Based on the general compartmental description of the tracer's fate in vivo, we presented a novel kinetic modeling approach for the quantification of in vivo tracer studies with dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), which can determine a parsimonious model consisting with the measured data. This kinetic modeling technique allows for estimation of parametric images from a voxel based analysis and requires no a priori decision about the tracer's fate in vivo, instead determining the most appropriate model from the information contained within the kinetic data. Choosing a set of exponential functions, convolved with the plasma input function, as basis functions, the time activity curve of a region or a pixel can be written as a linear combination of the basis functions with corresponding coefficients. The number of non-zero coefficients returned corresponds to the model order which is related to the number of tissue compartments. The system macro parameters are simply determined using the focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS) algorithm. The FOCUSS algorithm is a nonparametric algorithm for finding localized energy solutions from limited data and is a recursive linear estimation procedure. FOCUSS algorithm usually converges very fast, so demands a few iterations. The effectiveness is verified by simulation and clinical

  8. TLR2 ligands induce NF-κB activation from endosomal compartments of human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim J Brandt

    Full Text Available Localization of Toll-like receptors (TLR in subcellular organelles is a major strategy to regulate innate immune responses. While TLR4, a cell-surface receptor, signals from both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, less is known about the functional role of endosomal trafficking upon TLR2 signaling. Here we show that the bacterial TLR2 ligands Pam3CSK4 and LTA activate NF-κB-dependent signaling from endosomal compartments in human monocytes and in a NF-κB sensitive reporter cell line, despite the expression of TLR2 at the cell surface. Further analyses indicate that TLR2-induced NF-κB activation is controlled by a clathrin/dynamin-dependent endocytosis mechanism, in which CD14 serves as an important upstream regulator. These findings establish that internalization of cell-surface TLR2 into endosomal compartments is required for NF-κB activation. These observations further demonstrate the need of endocytosis in the activation and regulation of TLR2-dependent signaling pathways.

  9. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Han; Voedisch, Sabrina; Wahl, Benjamin; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Geffers, Robert; Rhen, Mikael; Pabst, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  10. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Han Lim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  11. An Airborne Parachute Compartment Test Bed for the Orion Parachute Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.; Romero, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The test program developing parachutes for the Orion/MPCV includes drop tests with parachutes deployed from an Orion-like parachute compartment at a wide range of dynamic pressures. Aircraft and altitude constraints precluded the use of an Orion boilerplate capsule for several test points. Therefore, a dart-shaped test vehicle with a hi-fidelity mock-up of the Orion parachute compartment has been developed. The available aircraft options imposed constraints on the test vehicle development and concept of operations. Delivery of this test vehicle to the desired velocity, altitude, and orientation required for the test is a di cult problem involving multiple engineering disciplines. This paper describes the development of the test technique. The engineering challenges include extraction from an aircraft, reposition of the extraction parachute, and mid-air separation of two vehicles, neither of which has an active attitude control system. The desired separation behavior is achieved by precisely controlling the release point using on-board monitoring of the motion. The design of the test vehicle is also described. The trajectory simulations and other analyses used to develop this technique and predict the behavior of the test vehicle are reviewed in detail. The application of the technique on several successful drop tests is summarized.

  12. Wide-range high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals morphological and distributional changes of endomembrane compartments during log to stationary transition of growth phase in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Higaki, Takumi; Sawaki, Fumie; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Goto, Yumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Nagata, Noriko; Matsuoka, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Rapid growth of plant cells by cell division and expansion requires an endomembrane trafficking system. The endomembrane compartments, such as the Golgi stacks, endosome and vesicles, are important in the synthesis and trafficking of cell wall materials during cell elongation. However, changes in the morphology, distribution and number of these compartments during the different stages of cell proliferation and differentiation have not yet been clarified. In this study, we examined these changes at the ultrastructural level in tobacco Bright yellow 2 (BY-2) cells during the log and stationary phases of growth. We analyzed images of the BY-2 cells prepared by the high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution technique with the aid of an auto-acquisition transmission electron microscope system. We quantified the distribution of secretory and endosomal compartments in longitudinal sections of whole cells by using wide-range gigapixel-class images obtained by merging thousands of transmission electron micrographs. During the log phase, all Golgi stacks were composed of several thick cisternae. Approximately 20 vesicle clusters (VCs), including the trans-Golgi network and secretory vesicle cluster, were observed throughout the cell. In the stationary-phase cells, Golgi stacks were thin with small cisternae, and only a few VCs were observed. Nearly the same number of multivesicular body and small high-density vesicles were observed in both the stationary and log phases. Results from electron microscopy and live fluorescence imaging indicate that the morphology and distribution of secretory-related compartments dramatically change when cells transition from log to stationary phases of growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Transanal endoscopic micro-surgery (TEMS) for the management of large or sessile rectal adenomas: a review of the technique and indications

    OpenAIRE

    Papagrigoriadis, Savvas

    2006-01-01

    In this review article the surgical technique of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) is examined. A number of techniques have been used to treat adenomas of the rectum. The treatment of large adenomas which occupy a large surface of the rectal lumen or adenomas which are flat and grow in a "carpet-like" fashion is particularly challenging. Major rectal surgery carries a risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly and unfit patients. Although local excision with transanal res...

  14. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as posit...

  15. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  16. Talofibular compartment of the ankle joint after recent ankle sprain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrand, A.; Mortensson, W.; Norman, O.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of predicting the condition of the anterior talofibular ligament from the shape of the lateral compartment of the ankle joint was investigated in patients with recent ankle sprain. The diagnostic value of the method was found to be restricted. (Auth.)

  17. Volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigrovic, Vladimir; Proost, Johannes H.; Amann, Anton; Bhatt, Shashi B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The study examines the role of the volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Methods: The molar amount of the postsynaptic receptors at the motor end plates in muscle was assumed constant; the apparent

  18. A wolf in wolf's clothing the abdominal compartment syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdomen. These findings are consistent with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal compartment syndrome. In 1 case trauma was remote from the abdomen .... although they tend to develop most often in those who have undergone major vascular operations or suffered abdominal trauma. The effects of the pressure on the bowel ...

  19. "Compartment"-syndrom på underben, atypisk traumemekanisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael H; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Wester, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is a limb threatening condition which warrants emergency treatment. We describe a case of a 37-year-old man with acute CS developed without major trauma. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment by decompressive fasciotomy is of vital importance in order to preserve limb...

  20. Surgical treatment for ~brain compartment syndrome' in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Traumatic brain injury accounts for a high percentage of deaths in children. Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) due to brain swelling within the closed compartment of the skull leads to death or severe neurological disability if not effectively treated. We report our experience with 12 children who presented with ...

  1. Intraabdominal Compartment Syndrome Complicating Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Narain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options.

  2. The anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niftrik, L.A.M.P. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Damste, J.S.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single

  3. The anammoxosome : An intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Niftrik, L.A. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single

  4. Compartment syndrome and popliteal vascular injury complicating unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Nanne Pieter; Van Raay, Jos J. J. A. M.; van Horn, Jim R.

    Popliteal vascular injury and the compartment syndrome of the leg are rare but important complications of knee arthroplasties. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance in preventing the devastating complications of these conditions. To our knowledge, these complications have not

  5. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  6. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: (a) Each Class C or Class D compartment, as defined in § 25.857 of this Chapter in effect on June 16, 1986 (see Appendix L to this part), that is greater than 200 cubic feet in volume must have ceiling and sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet...

  7. Ward Round - Late Presentation of Acute Compartment Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following the course of ibuprofen mentioned. Twelve days after admission he started to complain of increasing pain and tightness in his left thigh. Sensation and motor function. Ward Round - Late Presentation of Acute. Compartment Syndrome in the Thigh. University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Department of Surgery,.

  8. Acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William; Low, Nelson; Pratt, George

    2018-01-08

    While still a rare entity, acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome has an increasing incidence. Similar to other compartment syndromes, acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome is defined by raised pressure within a closed fibro-osseous space, limiting tissue perfusion within that space. The resultant tissue ischaemia presents as acute pain, and if left untreated, it may result in permanent tissue damage. A literature search of 'paraspinal compartment syndrome' revealed 21 articles. The details from a case encountered by the authors are also included. A common data set was extracted, focusing on demographics, aetiology, clinical features, management and outcomes. There are 23 reported cases of acute compartment syndrome. These are typically caused by weight-lifting exercises, but may also result from other exercises, direct trauma or non-spinal surgery. Pain, tenderness and paraspinal paraesthesia are key clinical findings. Serum creatine kinase, magnetic resonance imaging and intracompartment pressure measurement confirm the diagnosis. Half of the reported cases have been managed with surgical fasciotomy, and these patients have all had good outcomes relative to those managed with conservative measures with or without hyperbaric oxygen therapy. These good outcomes were despite significant delays to operative intervention. The diagnostic uncertainty and subsequent delay to fasciotomy result from the rarity of this disease entity, and a high level of suspicion is recommended in the appropriate setting. This is particularly true in light of the current popularity of extreme weight lifting in non-professional athletes. Operative intervention is strongly recommended in all cases based on the available evidence. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Lift-and-fill face lift: integrating the fat compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan; Constantine, Fadi C; Unger, Jacob; Mojallal, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Recent discovery of the numerous fat compartments of the face has improved our ability to more precisely restore facial volume while rejuvenating it through differential superficial musculoaponeurotic system treatment. Incorporation of selective fat compartment volume restoration along with superficial musculoaponeurotic system manipulation allows for improved control in recontouring while addressing one of the key problems in facial aging, namely, volume deflation. This theory was evaluated by assessing the contour changes from simultaneous face "lifting" and "filling" through fat compartment-guided facial fat transfer. A review of 100 face-lift patients was performed. All patients had an individualized component face lift with fat grafting to the nasolabial fold, deep malar, and high/lateral malar fat compartment locations. Photographic analysis using a computer program was conducted on oblique facial views preoperatively and postoperatively, to obtain the most projected malar contour point. Two independent observers visually evaluated the malar prominence and nasolabial fold improvements based on standardized photographs. Nasolabial fold improved by at least one grade in 81 percent and by over one grade in 11 percent. Malar prominence average projection increase was 13.47 percent and the average amount of lift was 12.24 percent. The malar prominence score improved by at least one grade in 62 percent of the patients postoperatively, and 9 percent had a greater than one grade improvement. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had a convex malar prominence postoperatively compared with 6 percent preoperatively. Malar prominence improved by at least one grade in 63 percent and by over one grade in 10 percent. The lift-and-fill face lift merges two key concepts in facial rejuvenation: (1) effective tissue manipulation by means of lifting and tightening in differential vectors according to original facial asymmetry and shape; and (2) selective fat compartment filling

  10. High tibial closing wedge osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthrosis of knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuli S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most patients of symptomatic osteoarthrosis of knee are associated with varus malalignment that is causative or contributory to painful arthrosis. It is rational to correct the malalignment to transfer the functional load to the unaffected or less affected compartment of the knee to relieve symptoms. We report the outcome of a simple technique of high tibial osteotomy in the medial compartment of osteoarthrosis of the knee. Materials and Methods: Between 1996 and 2004 we performed closing wedge osteotomy in 78 knees in 65 patients. The patients selected for osteotomy were symptomatic essentially due to medial compartment osteoarthrosis associated with moderate genu varum. Of the 19 patients who had bilateral symptomatic disease 11 opted for high tibial osteotomy of their second knee 1-3 years after the first operation. Preoperative grading of osteoarthrosis and postoperative function was assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA rating scale. Results: At a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range 2-9 years 6-10° of valgus correction at the site of osteotomy was maintained, there was significant relief of pain while walking, negotiating stairs, squatting and sitting cross-legged. Walking distance in all patients improved by two to four times their preoperative distance of 200-400 m. No patient lost any preoperative knee function. The mean JOA scoring improved from preoperative 54 (40-65 to 77 (55-85 at final follow-up. Conclusion: Closing wedge high tibial osteotomy performed by our technique can be undertaken in any setup with moderate facilities. Operation related complications are minimal and avoidable. Kirschner wire fixation is least likely to interfere with replacement surgery if it becomes necessary.

  11. Does evaluation of the ligamentous compartment enhance diagnostic utility of sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P; Chan, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    in the ligamentous compartment and their potential diagnostic utility in axial SpA. We therefore aimed to evaluate the ligamentous compartment on sacroiliac joint MRI for lesion distribution and potential incremental value towards diagnosis of SpA over and above the traditional assessment of the cartilaginous...... and ligamentous compartment. The incremental value of evaluating the ligamentous additionally to the cartilaginous compartment alone for diagnosis of SpA was graded qualitatively. We determined the lesion distribution between the two compartments, and the impact of the ligamentous compartment evaluation...... on diagnostic utility. RESULTS: MRI bone marrow lesions solely in the ligamentous compartment in the absence of lesions in the cartilaginous compartment were reported in just 0-2.0/0-4.0 % (BME/fat metaplasia) of all subjects. Additional assessment of the ligamentous compartment was regarded as essential...

  12. Further fMRI Validation of the Visual Half Field Technique as an Indicator of Language Laterality: A Large-Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Seurinck, Ruth; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The best established lateralized cerebral function is speech production, with the majority of the population having left hemisphere dominance. An important question is how to best assess the laterality of this function. Neuroimaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) are increasingly used in clinical settings to…

  13. State-of-the-art treatment alternatives for base of skull meningiomas: complementing and controversial indications for neurosurgery, stereotactic and robotic based radiosurgery or modern fractionated radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Ganswindt, Ute; Foote, Robert L; Kondziolka, Douglas; Tonn, Jörg-Christian

    2012-01-01

    For skull base meningiomas, several treatment paradigms are available: Observation with serial imaging, surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, radiation therapy or some combination of both. The choice depends on several factors. In this review we evaluate different treatment options, the outcome of modern irradiation techniques as well as the clinical results available, and establish recommendations for the treatment of patients with skull-base meningiomas

  14. Diagnosis of diseases involving solid organs in the supramesocolic compartment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbreteau, D.; Solvit, D.; Anglade, M.C.; Mathieu, D.

    1989-04-01

    Sonographic and computed tomographic (CT) examinations have modified the investigation of hepatic, splenic and pancreatic tumors. Because of advances in non-invasive diagnostic procedures, these different benign or malignant tumors are now more frequently detected and surgically treated. However, for these different lesions sonography is the gold standard imaging technique. The different indications of CT and magnetic resonance imaging are discussed for each tumor. For the diagnostic imaging of an acutely injured patient, sonography remains the useful examination in emergencies. The indications of CT scans are limited to the difficulties of sonographic diagnosis in stable trauma patients.

  15. Imaging with organic indicators and high-speed charge-coupled device cameras in neurons: some applications where these classic techniques have advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, William N; Miyazaki, Kenichi; Popovic, Marko A; Zecevic, Dejan

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic calcium and voltage imaging is a major tool in modern cellular neuroscience. Since the beginning of their use over 40 years ago, there have been major improvements in indicators, microscopes, imaging systems, and computers. While cutting edge research has trended toward the use of genetically encoded calcium or voltage indicators, two-photon microscopes, and in vivo preparations, it is worth noting that some questions still may be best approached using more classical methodologies and preparations. In this review, we highlight a few examples in neurons where the combination of charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging and classical organic indicators has revealed information that has so far been more informative than results using the more modern systems. These experiments take advantage of the high frame rates, sensitivity, and spatial integration of the best CCD cameras. These cameras can respond to the faster kinetics of organic voltage and calcium indicators, which closely reflect the fast dynamics of the underlying cellular events.

  16. Air quality inside the passenger compartment of a bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E Z; Silva, M C; Viegas, D X

    1997-01-01

    The indoor air quality in the passenger compartment of an intercity bus is studied. A system used for the remotion of the contaminants from the compartment, based on an extraction duct, was projected using a simple, unidimensional flow model with capability to predict the air exchange rate as a function of the vehicle velocity. Some tests using tracer gan methods were performed in a real vehicle with the contaminant remotion system mounted, in order to validate the calculation model and evaluate the performances of the system. A good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results was verified and the obtained air exchange rate was quite reasonable when compared with the former situation, without extraction duct.

  17. Bladder distension as a cause of abdominal compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasir, M.; Hoda, M.Q.

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is increasingly identified in critically ill patient and its harmful effects are well documented. The disparity among the pressure, volume in abdominal cavity and its contents, results in ACS. The actual incidence of ACS is not known. However, it has been observed predominantly in patients with severe blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, retro- and intra-peritoneal hemorrhage, pneumoperitoneum, neoplasm, pancreatitis, ascites and multiple bone fracture. We present a case of 40-year female who underwent emergency cesarean section and developed abdominal compartment syndrome due to urinary bladder distension secondary to blockade of urinary catheter with blood clots. This is a very unusual cause of ACS. (author)

  18. CoMIC, the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bongki; Sun, Woong

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondria have evolutionarily, functionally and structurally distinct outer- (OMM) and inner-membranes (IMM). Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM. Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2. However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. Recently, we found that the IMM and the inner compartments undergo transient and reversible constriction prior to the OMM division, which we termed CoMIC, Constriction of Mitochondrial Inner Compartment. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of CoMIC during mitochondrial division. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(12): 597-598].

  19. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalai Malinouski; You Zhou; Vsevolod V Belousov; Dolph L Hatfield; Vadim N Gladyshev

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular ...

  20. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alexandra da Costa Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.

  1. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denae Wagner

    Full Text Available For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9% when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%. When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%. The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%. This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

  2. SACHET, Dynamic Fission Products Inventory in PWR Multiple Compartment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Hideki

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SACHET evaluates the dynamic fission product inventories in the multiple compartment system of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. 2 - Method of solution: SACHET utilizes a matrix of fission product core inventory which is previously calculated by the ORIGEN code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Liquid wastes such as chemical waste and detergent waste are not included

  3. Developmental dynamics of radial vulnerability in the cerebral compartments in preterm infants and neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica eKostović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The developmental vulnerability of different classes of axonal pathways in preterm white matter is not known. We propose that laminar compartments of the developing cerebral wall serve as spatial framework for axonal growth and evaluate potential of anatomical landmarks for understanding reorganization of the cerebral wall after perinatal lesions. The 3T MRI (in vivo and histological analysis were performed in a series of cases ranging from 22 PCW to 3 years. For the follow-up scans, three groups of children (control, normotypic and preterms with lesions were examined at the term equivalent age and after the first year of life. MRI and histological abnormalities were analyzed in the following compartments: (a periventricular, with periventricular fibre system; (b intermediate, with periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata and centrum semiovale; (c superficial, composed of gyral white matter, subplate and cortical plate. Vulnerability of thalamo-cortical pathways within the crossroads and sagittal strata seems to be characteristic for early preterms, while vulnerability of long association pathways in the centrum semiovale seems to be predominant feature of late preterms. The structural indicator of the lesion of the long association pathways is the loss of delineation between centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, which is possible substrate of the diffuse periventricular leukomalacia. The enhanced difference in MR signal intensity of centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, observed in damaged children after first year, we interpret as structural plasticity of intact short cortico-cortical fibres, which grow postnatally through U-zones and enter the cortex through the subplate remnant. Our findings indicate that radial distribution of MRI signal abnormalities in the cerebral compartments may be related to lesion of different classes of axonal pathways and have prognostic value for predicting the likely outcome of prenatal and perinatal

  4. Metal levels in southern leopard frogs from the Savannah River Site: location and body compartment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Snodgrass, J

    2001-06-01

    Tadpoles have been proposed as useful bioindicators of environmental contamination; yet, recently it has been shown that metal levels vary in different body compartments of tadpoles. Metals levels are higher in the digestive tract of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles, which is usually not removed during such analysis. In this paper we examine the heavy metal levels in southern leopard frog (R. utricularia) tadpoles from several wetlands at the Savannah River Site and test the null hypotheses that (1) there are no differences in metal levels in different body compartments of the tadpoles, including the digestive tract; (2) there are no differences in heavy metal levels among different wetlands; and (3) there are no differences in the ratio of metals in the tail/body and in the digestive tract/body as a function of metal or developmental stage as indicated by body weight. Variations in heavy metal levels were explained by wetland and body compartment for all metals and by tadpole weight for selenium and manganese. In all cases, levels of metals were higher in the digestive tract than in the body or tail of tadpoles. Metal levels were highest in a wetland that had been remediated and lowest in a wetland that was never a pasture or remediated (i.e., was truly undisturbed). Although tadpoles are sometimes eaten by fish and other aquatic predators, leopard frogs usually avoid laying their eggs in ponds with such predators. However, avian predators will eat them. These data suggest that tadpoles can be used as bioindicators of differences in metal levels among wetlands and as indicators of potential exposure for higher-trophic-level organisms, but that to assess effects on the tadpoles themselves, digestive tracts should be removed before analysis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Hypothyroid-induced acute compartment syndrome in all extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Matthew C; Chae, Jung Hee

    2016-12-20

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon complication of uncontrolled hypothyroidism. If unrecognized, this can lead to ischemia, necrosis and potential limb loss. A 49-year-old female presented with the sudden onset of bilateral lower and upper extremity swelling and pain. The lower extremity anterior compartments were painful and tense. The extensor surface of the upper extremities exhibited swelling and pain. Motor function was intact, however, limited due to pain. Bilateral lower extremity fasciotomies were performed. Postoperative Day 1, upper extremity motor function decreased significantly and paresthesias occurred. She therefore underwent bilateral forearm fasciotomies. The pathogenesis of hypothyroidism-induced compartment syndrome is unclear. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-induced fibroblast activation results in increased glycosaminoglycan deposition. The primary glycosaminoglycan in hypothyroid myxedematous changes is hyaluronic acid, which binds water causing edema. This increases vascular permeability, extravasation of proteins and impaired lymphatic drainage. These contribute to increased intra-compartmental pressure and subsequent ACS. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  6. Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

    2008-11-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation.

  7. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  8. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Haisan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS, tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P<0.002. Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments’ variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

  9. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... envision that a lavatory would be installed inside a Class E cargo compartment. Lavatories, including the... envision that a lavatory would be installed in a Class E cargo compartment. Therefore, special conditions...

  10. Endocytosis of desmosomal plaques depends on intact actin filaments and leads to a nondegradative compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Pernille K.; Hansen, Steen H.; Sandvig, Kirsten

    1993-01-01

    Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment......Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment...

  11. Compartment modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier: A study on the influence of operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Zhong, Weimin; Du, Wenli; Qian, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gasification of Shenfu coal in an industrial Texaco gasifier for syngas production. • An equivalent compartment model is developed using Aspen Plus. • Effects of operating parameters on gasification performance indices are studied. • Choosing a reasonable ROC to enhance the gasification efficiency can be flexible. - Abstract: Coal gasifiers are core components of coal-based polygeneration systems for power and chemical production. To study the effects of operational parameters on the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers, this paper presents an equivalent compartment model (CM) using the Aspen Plus process simulator. The CM blocking is established based on gasifier flow field analysis, using a number of compartments. A simple configuration of these compartments involving material recirculation should be able to simulate the main flow and provide the temperature and gas component distributions. The model predictions exhibit good agreement with industrial data in the model validation. The influences of the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (ROC) and the coal slurry concentration on the gasification performance are discussed. Within the calculation range, the increase in the coal slurry concentration enhances the yield of the effective compositions in product gas. For a given slurry concentration of 62%, the efficient gas yield is a maximum for ROC of 1.43 kg/kg, whereas the oxygen consumption is a minimum for ROC of 1.37 kg/kg. According to the intended final use, however, choosing a reasonable ROC to obtain a higher efficient syngas yield and lower oxygen consumption can be flexible

  12. Purification of the Membrane Compartment for Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation of Exogenous Antigens in Cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Jun; Otani, Mayu; Sakai, Takahiro; Hatta, Shinichi

    2017-08-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly capable of processing and presenting internalized exogenous antigens upon major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules also known as cross-presentation (CP). CP plays an important role not only in the stimulation of naïve CD8 + T cells and memory CD8 + T cells for infectious and tumor immunity but also in the inactivation of self-acting naïve T cells by T cell anergy or T cell deletion. Although the critical molecular mechanism of CP remains to be elucidated, accumulating evidence indicates that exogenous antigens are processed through endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) after export from non-classical endocytic compartments. Until recently, characterizations of these endocytic compartments were limited because there were no specific molecular markers other than exogenous antigens. The method described here is a new vesicle isolation protocol, which allows for the purification of these endocytic compartments. Using this purified microsome, we reconstituted the ERAD-like transport, ubiquitination, and processing of the exogenous antigen in vitro, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome system processed the exogenous antigen after export from this cellular compartment. This protocol can be further applied to other cell types to clarify the molecular mechanism of CP.

  13. Numerical Study on Hydrogen Flow Behavior in Two Compartments with Different Connecting Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HanChen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen accumulation in the containment compartments under severe accidents would result in high concentration, which could lead to hydrogen deflagration or detonation. Therefore, getting detailed hydrogen flow and distribution is a key issue to arrange hydrogen removal equipment in the containment compartments. In this study, hydrogen flow behavior in local compartments has been investigated in two horizontal compartments. The analysis model is built by 3-dimensional CFD code in Cartesian coordinates based on the connection structure of the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR compartments. It consists of two cylindrical vessels, representing the Steam Generator compartment (SG and Core Makeup Tank compartment (CMT. With standard k-ε turbulence model, the effects of the connecting pipe size and location on hydrogen concentration distribution are investigated. Results show that increasing the diameter of connection pipe (IP which is located at 800 mm from 150 mm to 300 mm facilitates hydrogen flow between compartments. Decreasing the length of IP which is located at 800 mm from 1000 mm to 500 mm can also facilitate hydrogen flow between compartments. Lower IP is in favor of hydrogen mixing with air in non-source compartment. Higher IP is helpful for hydrogen flow to the non-source term compartment from source term compartment.

  14. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of two...

  15. Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

    OpenAIRE

    Thennavan, A S; Funk, L; Volans, A P

    1999-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture, although rare, is a limb threatening condition, which warrants emergency treatment. The case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to a gastrocnemius muscle tear of the right lower leg, in a non-athlete is reported. To our knowledge, this is the only description of acute compartment syndrome due to muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

  16. Pressure-flow relationships in in vitro model of compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1995-07-01

    Compartment syndrome is a condition in which an increase in intramuscular pressure decreases blood flow to skeletal muscle. According to the Starling resistor (i.e., vascular waterfall) model of blood flow, the decrease in flow could occur through an increase in arterial resistance (Rart) or an increase in the critical closing pressure (Pcrit). To determine which explains the decrease in flow, we pump perfused a canine gastrocnemius muscle placed within an airtight box, controlled box pressures (Pbox) so that flow ranged from 100 to 50%, and measured Pcrit, Rart, arterial compliance, small venular pressure (measured by the double-occlusion technique), and venous pressure. An increase in Pbox limited flow mainly through an increase in Pcrit (75-85%), with only small changes in Rart (15-25%) and no change in arterial compliance. Increases in Pbox also produced a vascular waterfall in the venous circulation, but small venular transmural pressure always remained less than control levels. We conclude that increases in Pbox mostly limit blood flow through increases in Pcrit and that Rart plays a minor role. Transmural pressure across the small venules decreases with increases in intramuscular pressure, which contradicts the currently held belief that compartment syndrome is due to a cycle of swelling-ischemia-swelling.

  17. Extravasation of radiographic contrast material and compartment syndrome in the hand: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrededia Laura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiocontrast agents are a type of medical contrast material used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in X-ray based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT or radiography. Radiocontrast agents are typically iodine or barium compounds. Extravasation of contrast is a possible complication of imaging studies performed with contrasts. Most extravasations cause minimal swelling or erythema, however, skin necrosis, ulceration and compartment syndrome may occur with extravasation of large volumes of contrast. A case report is presented in which significant extravasation of contrast was caused while injecting the contrast intravenously into the back of the hand of a 50 year old patient during computed tomography. The patient was undergoing chemotherapy. The patient developed a compartment syndrome and a fasciotomy was required. Treatment options are outlined and emphasis is made on prevention of this iatrogenic complication. Some of the preventive measures to avoid these complications include use of non-ionic contrast (low osmolarity, careful choice of the site of intravenous administration, and close monitoring of the patient during injection of contrast to minimize or prevent extravasation injuries. Clear information to patients and prompt recognition of the complication can allow for other non-surgical treatment options than the one required in this case.

  18. Protected Geographical Indication Identification of a Chinese Green Tea (Anji-White by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometric Class Modeling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a rapid identification method for a Chinese green tea with PGI, Anji-white tea, by class modeling techniques and NIR spectroscopy. 167 real and representative Anji-white tea samples were collected from 8 tea plantations in their original producing areas for model training. Another 81 non-Anji-white tea samples of similar appearance were collected from 7 important tea producing areas and used for validation of model specificity. Diffuse NIR spectra were measured with finely ground tea powders. OCPLS and SIMCA were used to describe the distribution of representative Anji-white tea objects and predict the authenticity of new objects. For data preprocessing, smoothing, derivatives, and SNV were applied to improve the raw spectra and classification performance. It is demonstrated that taking derivatives and SNV can improve classification accuracy and reduce the complexity of class models by removing spectral background and baseline. For the best models, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.886 and 0.951 for OCPLS, 0.886 and 0.938 for SIMCA with SNV spectra, respectively. Although it is difficult to perform an exhaustive analysis of all types of potential false objects, the proposed method can detect most of the important non-Anji-white teas in the Chinese market.

  19. Functional MR urography in infants and children. Indications, techniques and requirements; Funktionelle MR-Urografie (fMRU) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Indikationen, Techniken und Anforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie; Darge, Kassa [Children' s Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Section ' ' Body Imaging' ' ; John, Ulrike [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Nephrologie

    2013-03-15

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) need to be diagnosed correctly in early life in order to avoid the need for dialysis and renal transplantation. Traditionally, X-ray, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and ultrasonography are the imaging methods to assess kidneys and the urinary tract. In infants and children, however, ultrasonography is the imaging method of first choice. In order to analyse the renal, to be more precise, the split renal function, MR urography has the potential for giving that information. More easily, information on morphology and dynamics of urinary flow in the upper renal tract can be obtained, too. Up to now, there is no commercial solution for obtaining split renal function with MR machines, however, two freeware solutions exist (''CHOP-fMRU'' and ''MR Urography''), that fill the gap. This article gives detailed information on patient selection, patient preparation, dedicated MR sequence technique, moreover discusses installation, use, and interpretation of the functional part using the ''CHOP-fMRU'' software. (orig.)

  20. Diffusion MRI processing for multi-compartment characterization of brain pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedouin, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a specific type of MRI acquisition based on the direction of diffusion of the brain water molecules. It allows, through several acquisitions, to model the brain microstructure, as white matter, which is significantly smaller than the voxel-resolution. To acquire a large number of images in a clinical setting, very-fast acquisition techniques are required as single-shot imaging. However these acquisitions suffer locally large distortions. We propose a block-matching registration method based on the acquisition of images with opposite phase-encoding directions (PED). This technique specially designed for Echo-Planar Images (EPI) robustly correct images and provides a deformation field. This field is applicable to an entire DWI series from only one reversed EPI allowing distortion correction with a minimal acquisition time cost. This registration algorithm has been validated both on phantom and on in vivo data and is available in our source medical image processing toolbox Anima. From these diffusion images, we are able to construct multi-compartments models (MCM) which can represent complex brain microstructure. Doing registration, averaging and atlas creation on these MCM images is required to perform studies and statistic analyses. We propose a general method to interpolate MCM as a simplification problem based on spectral clustering. This technique, which is adaptable for any MCM, has been validated on both synthetic and real data. Then, from a registered dataset, we performed a patient to population analysis at a voxel-level computing statistics on MCM parameters. Specifically designed tractography can also be used to make analysis, following tracks, based on individual anisotropic compartments. All these tools are designed and used on real data and contribute to the search of bio-markers for brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (author)

  1. Dynamic and nucleolin-dependent localization of human cytomegalovirus UL84 to the periphery of viral replication compartments and nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Brian J; Coen, Donald M; Strang, Blair L

    2014-10-01

    Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions within subcellular compartments are required for viral genome replication. To understand the localization of the human cytomegalovirus viral replication factor UL84 relative to other proteins involved in viral DNA synthesis and to replicating viral DNA in infected cells, we created a recombinant virus expressing a FLAG-tagged version of UL84 (UL84FLAG) and used this virus in immunofluorescence assays. UL84FLAG localization differed at early and late times of infection, transitioning from diffuse distribution throughout the nucleus to exclusion from the interior of replication compartments, with some concentration at the periphery of replication compartments with newly labeled DNA and the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44. Early in infection, UL84FLAG colocalized with the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein UL57, but colocalization became less prominent as infection progressed. A portion of UL84FLAG also colocalized with the host nucleolar protein nucleolin at the peripheries of both replication compartments and nucleoli. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a dramatic elimination of UL84FLAG from replication compartments and other parts of the nucleus and its accumulation in the cytoplasm. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of viral proteins from infected cell lysates revealed association of UL84, UL44, and nucleolin. These results indicate that UL84 localization during infection is dynamic, which is likely relevant to its functions, and suggest that its nuclear and subnuclear localization is highly dependent on direct or indirect interactions with nucleolin. Importance: The protein-protein interactions among viral and cellular proteins required for replication of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA genome are poorly understood. We sought to understand how an enigmatic HCMV protein critical for virus replication, UL84, localizes relative to other viral and cellular

  2. Total Pancreatectomy and Islet Auto-Transplantation in Children for Chronic Pancreatitis. Indication, Surgical Techniques, Post Operative Management and Long-Term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakotla, Srinath; Bellin, Melena D.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.; Radosevich, David M.; Cook, Marie; Dunn, Ty B.; Beilman, Gregory J.; Freeman, Martin L.; Balamurugan, A.N.; Wilhelm, Josh; Bland, Barbara; Jimenez-Vega, Jose M; Hering, Bernhard J.; Vickers, Selwyn M.; Pruett, Timothy L.; Sutherland, David E.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe the surgical technique, complications and long term outcomes of total pancreatectomy and islet auto transplantation (TP-IAT) in a large series of pediatric patients. Summary Background Data Surgical management of childhood pancreatitis is not clear; partial resection or drainage procedures often provide transient pain relief, but long term recurrence is common due to the diffuse involvement of the pancreas. Total pancreatectomy (TP) removes the source of the pain, while islet auto transplantation (IAT) potentially can prevent or minimize TP-related diabetes. Methods Retrospective review of 75 children undergoing TP-IAT for chronic pancreatitis who had failed medical, endoscopic or surgical treatment between 1989–2012. Results Pancreatitis pain and the severity of pain statistically improved in 90% of patients after TP-IAT (p =Puestow (p=0.018), lower body surface area (p=0.048), IEQ per Kg Body Weight (p=0.001) and total IEQ (100,000) (0.004) were associated with insulin independence. By multivariate analysis, 3 factors were associated with insulin independence after TP-IAT:(1) male gender, (2) lower body surface area and the (3) higher total IEQ per kilogram body weight. Total IEQ (100,000) was the single factor most strongly associated with insulin independence (OR = 2.62; p value < 0.001). Conclusions TP-IAT provides sustained pain relief and improved quality of life. The β cell function is dependent on islet yield. TP-IAT is an effective therapy for children with painful pancreatitis that fail medical and or endoscopic management PMID:24509206

  3. Recent advances in the management of abdominal compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, T.B.; Ahmed, I.

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome is a systemic syndrome involving derangement in cardiovascular hemodynamics, respiratory and renal function as a result of sustained increase in intra-abdominal pressure. This results in multi-organ failure requiring prompt action and treatment. Presentation can be acute, chronic and acute on chronic. Initial diagnosis is clinical, confirmed by measurement of urinary bladder pressure. Treatment is abdominal decompression by laparostomy and delayed abdominal closure. Awareness among the surgeons has increased because laparoscopy has resulted in determination of intra-abdominal pressure as a readily measurable quantity. They have been able to appreciate the benefit of abdominal decompression by performing repeated planned laparotomies for trauma. (author)

  4. Pericardial effusion and pericardial compartments after open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvernoy, O.; Larsson, S.G.; Persson, K.; Thuren, J.; Wikstroem, G.; Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala; Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with pericardial effusion after open heart surgery were investigated with computed tomography (CT). Twelve of the 33 patients also underwent echocardiography prior to pericardiocentesis. The effusions were typed according to the results of the CT investigation. Because of postoperative adhesions, typical patterns of localized pericardial effusions were found in 16 patients. The localized compartments were seen on the right and left side of the heart and around the aorta and the pulmonary artery. CT was therefore shown to be of value for selecting the approach for drainage with catheter pericardiocentesis. (orig.)

  5. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation pack ages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on the United States Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama. (authors)

  6. Containment shells of reactor compartments at foreign NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, A.P.; Savchenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The modern designes of containment shells (CS) of NPP reactor compartments is described. Much attention is paid to the PCS-3 project envisaging CS inclusion in the complex of NPP passive safety system. The PCS-3 system is developed in the USA for NPP with the improved PWR type reactor. The above system permits to cool the core quickly, to reduce steam pressure in CS down to a safe level and to prevent the discharge of radioactive products in the atmosphere in the case of accidents, even very serious, caused by loss of coolant and core dryout

  7. A two-compartment exposure device for foliar uptake study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Q.; Lin, H.; Zhang, X.L.; Li, Q.L.; Liu, S.Z.; Tao, S.

    2006-01-01

    An airtight two-chamber exposure devise was designed for investigating foliar uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by plants. The upper and the bottom chambers of the device were air-tightly separated by an aluminum foil and the plant aerial tissues and roots were exposed in the two chambers, respectively. The device was tested using maize exposed to several PAH species. Positive correlations between air and aerial tissue concentrations of the exposed PAH species were revealed. PAHs spiking in the culture solution had no influence on the leaf concentrations. -- A two-compartment gastight exposure device was developed for investigation of foliar uptake of PAHs by plants

  8. Arthroscopic meniscectomy in medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Joji; Shimoyama, Gishichiro; Shinozaki, Toshiro; Nagata, Kensei

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the results of arthroscopic meniscectomy in medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. The operation was performed on 25 knee joints (8 male, 17 female) with the mean age of 67 years. The mean period of follow-up was 19 months. Clinical results were more or less excellent, but radiological assessment suggested slight osteoarthritic changes. In addition, two cases progressed to subchondral bone collapse. Of 12 cases which had no bone marrow edema on MRI before surgery, six (50%) cases showed it at follow-up. These findings suggest a possible relationship between arthroscopic meniscectomy and later appearance of osteonecrosis in some cases. (author)

  9. District-level hospital trauma care audit filters: Delphi technique for defining context-appropriate indicators for quality improvement initiative evaluation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Addo, Wilfred Larbi; Afoko, Akis; Agbenorku, Pius; Amponsah-Manu, Forster; Ankomah, James; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer; Baffoe, Peter; Debrah, Sam; Donkor, Peter; Dorvlo, Theodor; Japiong, Kennedy; Kushner, Adam L; Morna, Martin; Ofosu, Anthony; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Tabiri, Stephen; Mock, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Prospective clinical audit of trauma care improves outcomes for the injured in high-income countries (HICs). However, equivalent, context-appropriate audit filters for use in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) district-level hospitals have not been well established. We aimed to develop context-appropriate trauma care audit filters for district-level hospitals in Ghana, was well as other LMICs more broadly. Consensus on trauma care audit filters was built between twenty panellists using a Delphi technique with four anonymous, iterative surveys designed to elicit: (i) trauma care processes to be measured; (ii) important features of audit filters for the district-level hospital setting; and (iii) potentially useful filters. Filters were ranked on a scale from 0 to 10 (10 being very useful). Consensus was measured with average percent majority opinion (APMO) cut-off rate. Target consensus was defined a priori as: a median rank of ≥9 for each filter and an APMO cut-off rate of ≥0.8. Panellists agreed on trauma care processes to target (e.g. triage, phases of trauma assessment, early referral if needed) and specific features of filters for district-level hospital use (e.g. simplicity, unassuming of resource capacity). APMO cut-off rate increased successively: Round 1--0.58; Round 2--0.66; Round 3--0.76; and Round 4--0.82. After Round 4, target consensus on 22 trauma care and referral-specific filters was reached. Example filters include: triage--vital signs are recorded within 15 min of arrival (must include breathing assessment, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation if available); circulation--a large bore IV was placed within 15 min of patient arrival; referral--if referral is activated, the referring clinician and receiving facility communicate by phone or radio prior to transfer. This study proposes trauma care audit filters appropriate for LMIC district-level hospitals. Given the successes of similar filters in HICs and obstetric care filters in LMICs

  10. A Validated Stability-indicating Reverse Phase HPLC Assay Method for the Determination of Memantine Hydrochloride Drug Substance with UV-Detection Using Precolumn Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavil Narola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This present paper deals with the development and validation of a stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of Memantine hydrochloride. Memantine hydrochloride was derivatized with 0.015 M 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC and 0.5 M borate buffer solution by keeping it at room temperature for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 10 μL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ, The mobile phase consisting of 80% acetonitrile and 20% phosphate buffer solution and a flow rate of 2 milliliter/minute. The Memantine was eluted at approximately 7.5 minutes. The volume of FMOC used in derivatization, concentration of FMOC and derivatization time was optimized and used. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of Memantine hydrochloride using acid (5.0 Normal (N hydrochloric acid, base (1.0 N sodium hydroxide, oxidation (30% hydrogen peroxide, thermal (105 ° C, photolytic and humidity conditions. The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, precision (% RSD about 0.70%, linearity (linearity of range about 70-130 μg/mL, ruggedness (Overall % RSD about 0.35%, stability in analytical solution (Cumulative % RSD about 0.11% after 1450 min. and robustness.

  11. A Validated Stability-indicating Reverse Phase HPLC Assay Method for the Determination of Memantine Hydrochloride Drug Substance with UV-Detection Using Precolumn Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavil Narola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This present paper deals with the development and validation of a stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of Memantine hydrochloride. Memantine hydrochloride was derivatized with 0.015 M 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC and 0.5 M borate buffer solution by keeping it at room temperature for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 10 µL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ. The mobile phase consisting of 80% acetonitrile and 20% phosphate buffer solution and a flow rate of 2 milliliter/minute. The Memantine was eluted at approximately 7.5 minutes. The volume of FMOC used in derivatization, concentration of FMOC and derivatization time was optimized and used. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of Memantine hydrochloride using acid (5.0 Normal (N hydrochloric acid, base (1.0 N sodium hydroxide, oxidation (30% hydrogen peroxide, thermal (105°C, photolytic and humidity conditions. The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, precision (% RSD about 0.70%, linearity (linearity of range about 70–130 µg/mL, ruggedness (Overall % RSD about 0.35%, stability in analytical solution (Cumulative % RSD about 0.11% after 1450 min. and robustness.

  12. Metabolic Availability of the Limiting Amino Acids Lysine and Tryptophan in Cooked White African Cornmeal Assessed in Healthy Young Men Using the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Mahroukh; Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2018-06-01

    Maize is a staple food in many regions of the world, particularly in Africa and Latin America. However, maize protein is limiting in the indispensable amino acids lysine and tryptophan, making its protein of poor quality. The main objective of this study was to determine the protein quality of white African cornmeal by determining the metabolic availability (MA) of lysine and tryptophan. To determine the MA of lysine, 4 amounts of l-lysine (10, 13, 16, and 18 mg · kg-1 · d-1 totaling 28.6%, 37.1%, 45.7%, and 51.4% of the mean lysine requirement of 35 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively) were studied in 6 healthy young men in a repeated-measures design. To determine the MA of tryptophan, 4 amounts of l-tryptophan (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mg · kg-1 · d-1 totaling 12.5%, 25.0%, 37.5%, and 50.0% of the mean tryptophan requirement of 4 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively) were studied in 7 healthy young men in a repeated-measures design. The MAs of lysine and tryptophan were estimated by comparing the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) response with varying intakes of lysine and tryptophan in cooked white cornmeal compared with the IAAO response to l-lysine and l-tryptophan intakes in the reference protein (crystalline amino acid mixture patterned after egg protein) with the use of the slope ratio method. The MAs of lysine and tryptophan from African cooked white cornmeal were 71% and 80%, respectively. Our study provides a robust estimate of the availability of lysine and tryptophan in African white maize to healthy young men. This estimate provides a basis for postproduction fortification or supplementation of maize-based diets. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402179.

  13. Evaluation of chondromalacia of the patellofemoral compartment with axial magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Quinn, S F

    1993-01-01

    Axial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the patellofemoral compartment was performed in 75 patients with arthroscopic correlation. Proton density and T2(2500/20/80) weighted images were obtained in all patients. Chondromalacia in stages I and II could not be reliably identified with MR imaging. For the evaluation of stage III and IV chondromalacia, the accuracy of MR was 89%. Focal or diffuse areas of increased or decreased signal alterations of the hyaline cartilage without a contour deformity or cartilaginous thinning do not correlate reliably with arthroscopic staging of chondromalacia. A normal signal intensity is no assurance that softening of the cartilage is not present. The most reliable indicators of chondromalacia are focal contour irregularities of the hyaline cartilage and/or thinning of the hyaline cartilage associated with high signal intensity changes within frank defects or contour irregularities with T2-weighted images. The poor MR-arthroscopic correlation in earlier stages of chondromalacia may be due in part to the subjective basis of the arthroscopic diagnosis. In conclusion, stage I and II chondromalacia of the patellofemoral compartment cannot be reliably evaluated with MR imaging. Stage III and IV chondromalacia is reliably evaluated with MR using the combination of proton density and T2-weighted images.

  14. Evaluation of chondromalacia of the patellofemoral compartment with axial magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.R. (Dept. of Radiology, Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)); Quinn, S.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Good Samaritan Hospital and Medical Center, Portland, OR (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Axial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the patellofemoral compartment was performed in 75 patients with arthroscopic correlation. Proton density and T2(2500/20/80) weighted images were obtained in all patients. Chondromalacia in stages I and II could not be reliably identified with MR imaging. For the evaluation of stage III and IV chondromalacia, the accuracy of MR was 89%. Focal or diffuse areas of increased or decreased signal alterations of the hyaline cartilage without a contour deformity or cartilaginous thinning do not correlate reliably with arthrosopic staging of chondromalacia. A normal signal intensity is no assurance that softening of the cartilage is not present. The most reliable indicators of chondromalacia are focal contour irregularities of the hyaline cartilage and/or thinning of the hyaline cartilage associated with high signal intensity changes within frank defects or contour irregularities with T2-weighted images. The poor MR-arthroscopic correlation in earlier stages of chondromalacia may be due in part to the subjective basis of the arthroscopic diagnosis. In conclusion, stage I and II chondromalacia of the patellofemoral compartment cannot be reliably evaluated with MR imaging. Stage III and IV chondromalacia is reliably evaluated with MR using the combination of proton density and T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  15. Development, implementation and utilization of 210Pb in vivo measurement techniques as indicator of human being exposure to 222Rn - evaluation of associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its decay products are present in the atmosphere and are the most important contributors for the internal exposure of humans to natural radiation. The execution of in vivo measurements of 210 Pb in the population and in individuals occupationally exposed in underground mines has been studied and recommended as one of the procedures for the estimation of the exposure to 222 Rn. The metabolism of 210 Pb and its distribution within the human body, mainly deposited in the bone tissue, suggests the regions of skull and knee as the most suitable for the in vivo monitoring of such radionuclide. A radiological survey in non uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the State of Parana, in the south of Brazil, had high radon concentration. The aim of this work were: (1) To investigate whether underground coal miners may also have elevated 210 Pb in the skeleton as a result of occupational exposure to radon in the coal mine; (2) To estimate the committed equivalent dose and the committed effective dose in different incorporation scenarios using a computer code. The calibration and the in vivo measurements of underground coal miners were performed in the IRD-CNEN Whole Body Counter shielded room using an array of four high resolution germanium detectors. The detection system was positioned at the head and knee geometries. The minimum detectable quantity of 210 Pb in the skeleton using this methodology was (50 Bq) and the positive results were verified using a mathematical method that applies a moving median smoothing function to the total spectrum for each measurement. In vivo measurements of 210 Pb in 6 out of the 32 underground coal miners ranged between 83 Bq and 164 Bq suggesting that these workers received significant occupational cumulative exposure to 222 Rn. The simulation of some exposure patterns of 222 Rn progeny and 210 Pb incorporation showed that the most important contribution for 210 Pb skeleton deposition was the intake of

  16. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis.

  17. Shock absorber system for nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, J.F.; Rudd, G.E.; Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.; Lippincott, H.W.; Sutherland, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A shock absorber system was designed to absorb the energy imparted to doors in a nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment as they swing rapidly to an open position. Each shock absorber which is installed on a wall adjacent to each door is large and must absorb up to about 40,000 foot pounds of energy. The basic shock absorber component comprises foam enclosed in a synthetic fabric bag having a volume about twice the foam volume. A stainless steel knitted mesh bag of the same volume as the fabric bag, contains the fabric bag and its enclosed foam. To protect the foam and bags during construction activities at the reactor site and from the shearing action of the doors, a protective sheet metal cover is installed over the shock absorber ends and the surface to be contacted by the moving door. With the above shock absorber mounted on a wall behind each door, as the door is forcibly opened by steam pressure and air resulting from a pipe break in the reactor compartment, it swings at a high velocity into contact with the shock absorber, crushes the foam and forces it into the fabric bag excess material thus containing the foam fragmented particles, and minimizes build-up of pressure in the bag as a result of the applied compressive force

  18. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. ► Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. ► Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  19. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology.

  20. A multiple-compartment model for biokinetics studies in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Fermin; Pietrobron, Flavio; Fonseca, Agnes M.F.; Mol, Anderson W.; Rodriguez, Oscar; Guzman, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    In the present work is used the system of linear equations based in the general Assimakopoulos's GMCM model , for the development of a new method that will determine the flow's parameters and transfer coefficients in plants. The need of mathematical models to quantify the penetration of a trace substance in animals and plants, has often been stressed in the literature. Usually, in radiological environment studies, it is used the mean value of contaminant concentrations on whole or edible part plant body, without taking in account vegetable physiology regularities. In this work concepts and mathematical formulation of a Vegetable Multi-compartment Model (VMCM), taking into account the plant's physiology regularities is presented. The model based in general ideas of the GMCM , and statistical Square Minimum Method STATFLUX is proposed to use in inverse sense: the experimental time dependence of concentration in each compartment, should be input, and the parameters should be determined from this data in a statistical approach. The case of Uranium metabolism is discussed. (author)

  1. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb of 220 g/L, hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion and respiratory (ventilator support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients.

  2. Improved hydrogen combustion model for multi-compartment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Masao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    NUPEC has been improving a hydrogen combustion model in MELCOR code for severe accident analysis. In the proposed combustion model, the flame velocity in a node was predicted using six different flame front shapes of fireball, prism, bubble, spherical jet, plane jet, and parallelepiped. A verification study of the proposed model was carried out using the NUPEC large-scale combustion test results following the previous work in which the GRS/Battelle multi-compartment combustion test results had been used. The selected test cases for the study were the premixed test and the scenario-oriented test which simulated the severe accident sequences of an actual plant. The improved MELCOR code replaced by the proposed model could predict sufficiently both results of the premixed test and the scenario-oriented test of NUPEC large-scale test. The improved MELCOR code was confirmed to simulate the combustion behavior in the multi-compartment containment vessel during a severe accident with acceptable degree of accuracy. Application of the new model to the LWR severe accident analysis will be continued. (author)

  3. Atraumatic medial collateral ligament oedema in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, D.; Keogh, C.; O'Connell, M.; Zoga, A.; Rowe, D.; Shah, B.; Eustace, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and determine the prevalence of atraumatic medial collateral oedema identified in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Design and patients: Sixty patients, 30 patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 4) and 30 age-matched patients with atraumatic knee pain without osteoarthritis, referred for MR imaging over a 2 year period were included in the study. In each case, severity of osteoarthritis was recorded on radiographs and correlated with the presence or absence of medial collateral ligament oedema at MR imaging. Results: Medial collateral oedema was identified in 27 of the 30 patients with osteoarthritis, of whom 14 had grade 1 oedema and 13 had grade 2 oedema compared with the presence of medial collateral ligament oedema (grade 1) in only two of the 30 control patients without osteoarthritis (P<<0.0001). Conclusion: Medial collateral oedema is common in patients with osteoarthritis in the absence of trauma. When identified, medial collateral ligament oedema should be considered to be a feature of osteoarthritis and should not be incorrectly attributed to an acute traumatic injury. (orig.)

  4. Distribution of stable and radioactive metals among the biomass compartments of the macrophytes of the Yenisei river and estimation of the dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovskiy, A.Ya.; Sukovatyj, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artificial radioactive metals are annually detected in the biomass of submerged macrophytes in the zone radioactive contamination of the Yenisei river. It has been shown by other authors that metals are not uniformly distributed in the biomass of aquatic macrophytes. In this research the distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of metals was investigated among the biomass compartments of the macrophytes from the Yenisei river with chemical fractionation technique. Dose rates from the intra- and extracellular radionuclides have been estimated. According to the data obtained the distribution of metals among intra- and extracellular compartments was different. The major portion of Co, Mn and Zn was accumulated in the biomass in more mobile form, than Cr and Fe. Artificial radioactive isotopes were detected in the same compartments as stable metals. Essential portion of artificial radionuclides and stable metals was detected in the particles of seston, attached to the surface of the macrophytes.

  5. [Combined closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy with arthroscopy for varus knee and medial compartment osteoarthritis: clinical results at a minimum follow-up for five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Song; Li, Zhi-Yao

    2013-09-01

    To study the results of closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy and arthroscopy for the treatment of medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. From October 2005 to June 2007, 25 patients met with our inclusion criteria. All the patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis were treated with arthroscopy and closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy. There were 11 males and 14 females,with a mean age of 53 years old. The pre-operative HSS knee score was 67.6 +/- 2.8, FTA was (185.54 +/- 1.11) degrees, and aLPTA was (96.54 +/- 0.52) degrees in average. The patients were followed up and evaluated according to HSS knee score. The efficacy of the osteotomy was evaluated by FTA and aLPTA. All surgeries were successful without serious complication. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 5 to 7 years. The HSS was 85.5 +/- 3.7 at the 1st year and 80.3 +/- 5.4 at the latest follow-up. There was significant difference between every two scores of before operation and the two after operation (t = -33.135, P = 0.000; t = -13.215, P = 0.000). The FTA was (173.65 +/- 0.92) degrees at the 1st year and (174.34 +/- 0.53) degrees at the latest follow-up. There was significant difference between every two angles of before operation and after operation (t = 28.739, P = 0.000; t = 2.331, P = 0.048). The aLPTA was (87.32 +/- 0.33) degrees at the 1st year and (87.67 +/- 2.82) degrees at the latest follow-up. There was significant difference between every two angles of before operation and after operation (t = 37.264, P = 0.000; t = 2.469, P = 0.039). Indication is important and good surgical technique is critical for good clinical outcome. A detailed plan before operation is essential for the operation. Arthroscopy is helpful for treating the intra-articular pathology. The osteoarthritis is still in progress but in a slow mode. The combined method of arthroscopy and closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy is a reliable way for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the

  6. Development of a patient-specific two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prionas, Nicolas D; Burkett, George W; McKenney, Sarah E; Chen, Lin; Boone, John M; Stern, Robin L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a technique for the construction of a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom specific to an individual patient's pendant breast anatomy. Three-dimensional breast images were acquired on a prototype dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) scanner as part of an ongoing IRB-approved clinical trial of bCT. The images from the breast of a patient were segmented into adipose and glandular tissue regions and divided into 1.59 mm thick breast sections to correspond to the thickness of polyethylene stock. A computer-controlled water-jet cutting machine was used to cut the outer breast edge and the internal regions corresponding to glandular tissue from the polyethylene. The stack of polyethylene breast segments was encased in a thermoplastic ‘skin’ and filled with water. Water-filled spaces modeled glandular tissue structures and the surrounding polyethylene modeled the adipose tissue compartment. Utility of the phantom was demonstrated by inserting 200 µm microcalcifications as well as by measuring point dose deposition during bCT scanning. Affine registration of the original patient images with bCT images of the phantom showed similar tissue distribution. Linear profiles through the registered images demonstrated a mean coefficient of determination (r 2 ) between grayscale profiles of 0.881. The exponent of the power law describing the anatomical noise power spectrum was identical in the coronal images of the patient's breast and the phantom. Microcalcifications were visualized in the phantom at bCT scanning. The real-time air kerma rate was measured during bCT scanning and fluctuated with breast anatomy. On average, point dose deposition was 7.1% greater than the mean glandular dose. A technique to generate a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom from bCT images has been demonstrated. The phantom is the first, to our knowledge, to accurately model the uncompressed pendant breast and the glandular tissue

  7. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Min [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Attieh, Zouhair K. [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Son, Hee Sook [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Huijun [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vulpe, Chris D., E-mail: vulpe@berkeley.edu [Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in non-polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in iron deficient and polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin with apical iron moves near to basolateral membrane of polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peri-basolateral location of hephaestin is accessible to the extracellular space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization from the intestine to circulation. -- Abstract: While intestinal cellular iron entry in vertebrates employs multiple routes including heme and non-heme routes, iron egress from these cells is exclusively channeled through the only known transporter, ferroportin. Reduced intestinal iron export in sex-linked anemia mice implicates hephaestin, a ferroxidase, in this process. Polarized cells are exposed to two distinct environments. Enterocytes contact the gut lumen via the apical surface of the cell, and through the basolateral surface, to the body. Previous studies indicate both local and systemic control of iron uptake. We hypothesized that differences in iron availability at the apical and/or basolateral surface may modulate iron uptake via cellular localization of hephaestin. We therefore characterized the localization of hephaestin in two models of polarized epithelial cell lines, MDCK and Caco2, with varying iron availability at the apical and basolateral surfaces. Our results indicate that hephaestin is expressed in a supra-nuclear compartment in non-polarized cells regardless of the iron status of the cells and in iron deficient and polarized cells. In polarized cells, we found that both apical (as FeSO{sub 4}) and basolateral iron (as the ratio of apo-transferrin to holo-transferrin) affect mobilization of hephaestin from the supra-nuclear compartment. We find that the presence of apical iron is essential for relocalization of hephaestin to a

  8. Estimation of Water Footprint Compartments in National Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ababaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water use and pollution have raised to a critical level in many compartments of the world. If humankind is to meet the challenges over the coming fifty years, the agricultural share of water use has to be substantially reduced. In this study, a modern yet simple approach has been proposed through the introduction concept ‘Water Footprint’ (WF. This concept can be used to study the connection between each product and the water allocation to produce that product. This research estimates the green, blue and gray WF of wheat in Iran. Also a new WF compartment (white is used that is related about irrigation water loss. Materials and Methods: The national green (Effective precipitation, blue (Net irrigation requirement, gray (For diluting chemical fertilizers and white (Irrigation water losses water footprints (WF of wheat production were estimated for fifteen major wheat producing provinces of Iran. Evapotranspiration, irrigation requirement, gross irrigation requirement and effective rainfall were got using the AGWAT model. Yields of irrigated and rain-fed lands of each province were got from Iran Agricultural-Jihad Ministry. Another compartment of the wheat production WF is related about the volume of water required to assimilate the fertilizers leached in runoff (gray WF. Moreover, a new concept of white water footprint was proposed here and represents irrigation water losses, which was neglected in the original calculation framework. Finally, the national WF compartments of wheat production were estimated by taking the average of each compartment over all the provinces weighted by the share of each province in total wheat production of the selected provinces. Results and Discussion: In 2006-2012, more than 67% of the national wheat production was irrigated and 32.3% were rain-fed, on average, while 37.9% of the total wheat-cultivated lands were irrigated and 62.1% was rain-fed from more than 6,568 -ha. The total national WF of

  9. Pediatric Nonfracture Acute Compartment Syndrome: A Review of 39 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kristin; Glotzbecker, Michael; Miller, Patricia E; Hresko, Michael T; Hedequist, Daniel; Shore, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome in the absence of fracture is rare and poorly described within the pediatric literature. The purpose of this study was to report the varying etiologies, risk factors, and treatment outcomes associated with pediatric nonfracture acute compartment syndrome (NFACS). We conducted a retrospective chart review on 37 children who suffered a NFACS and were treated at a single pediatric trauma center between 1997 and 2013. Demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome characteristics were reviewed. Five causal groups were generated: trauma, exercise related (acute presentation after exercise without trauma), infectious, vascular, and postoperative (in the absence of osteotomy). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors of NFACS. P-values 39 cases of NFRCS in 37 children [6 females, 31 males, mean age of 11.7 y (SD+7.2 y)]. The leg was the most commonly involved limb (29 cases, 74%). Diagnosis of NFRCS was made either by compartment pressure monitoring [59%, 23/39 cases, mean pressure 66 mm Hg (SD+28)] or by clinical examination. According to etiology, vascular was most common (11/39, 28%), followed by trauma (10/39, 26%) and postoperative (8/39, 21%), with exertion and infection representing a small proportion (6/39, 15% and 4/39, 10%, respectively). Pain was present in 33 cases (85%), swelling in 28 cases (72%), paresthesias in 13 cases (33%), motor deficit in 12 cases (31%), and poor perfusion in 11 cases (28%). Average time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 48 hours (IQR, 9 to 96 h). At surgery, 21 patients (54%) had evidence of myonecrosis. Children required an average of 3 surgeries for wound closure. The median time to follow-up was 232 days (IQR, 73 to 608 d). A total of 54% made a full recovery, whereas 31% suffered a persistent neurological or functional deficit. NFACS in children is associated with a delay in diagnosis and a high rate of myonecrosis. Timely assessment with high clinical suspicion is

  10. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewig, F.; Allelein, H.J.; Schwarz, S.; Weber, G.

    1996-01-01

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model which originally was only drafted for chains of compartments was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO 3 - is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO 3 - are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I 2 -concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I 2 is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO 3 - . (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12

  11. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  12. Cellular endocytic compartment localization of expressed canine CD1 molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjærff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M.; Affolter, Verena K.

    2016-01-01

    CD1 molecules are glycoproteins present primarily on dendritic cells (DCs), which recognize and presenta variety of foreign- and self-lipid antigens to T-cells. Humans have five different CD1 isoforms that sur-vey distinct cellular compartments allowing for recognition of a large repertoire...... onlya diminished GFP expression. In conclusion, canine CD1 transfectants show distinct localization patternsthat are similar to human CD1 proteins with the exception of the canine CD1d isoform, which most likelyis non-functional. These findings imply that canine CD1 localization overall resembles human...... CD1 traf-ficking patterns. This knowledge is important for the understanding of lipid antigen-receptor immunityin the dog....

  13. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Izadpanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery.

  14. Geochemical isotope compartment model of the nitrogen cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, G.; Wetzel, K.; Stiehl, G.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the global cycle of nitrogen and its isotopes is described. It takes into account geochemical reservoirs (nitrogen in magmatic metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and in the atmosphere) and the nitrogen exchange between magmatic rocks and the outer mantle, the transition of nitrogen exchange between sedimentary rocks and the atmosphere. With the aid of the mathematical formalisms of the compartment theory and on the basis of all available delta 11 N values assumptions regarding the isotope effects in forming these nitrogen fluxes data have been obtained on the degree of the nitrogen exchange between the earth crust and the outer mantle and on other nitrogen fluxes characterizing the global nitrogen cycle. (author)

  15. COMPBRN III: a computer code for modeling compartment fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, V.; Siu, N.; Apostolakis, G.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    The computer code COMPBRN III deterministically models the behavior of compartment fires. This code is an improvement of the original COMPBRN codes. It employs a different air entrainment model and numerical scheme to estimate properties of the ceiling hot gas layer model. Moreover, COMPBRN III incorporates a number of improvements in shape factor calculations and error checking, which distinguish it from the COMPBRN II code. This report presents the ceiling hot gas layer model employed by COMPBRN III as well as several other modifications. Information necessary to run COMPBRN III, including descriptions of required input and resulting output, are also presented. Simulation of experiments and a sample problem are included to demonstrate the usage of the code. 37 figs., 46 refs

  16. The intrinsic renal compartment syndrome: new perspectives in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrler, Tanja; Tischer, Anne; Meyer, Andreas; Feiler, Sergej; Guba, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Rentsch, Markus; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2010-01-15

    Inflammatory edema after ischemia-reperfusion may impair renal allograft function after kidney transplantation. This study examines the effect of edema-related pressure elevation on renal function and describes a simple method to relieve pressure within the renal compartment. Subcapsular pressure at 6, 12, 24, 48 hr, and 18 days after a 45 min warm ischemia was determined in a murine model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Renal function was measured by Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy and laser Doppler perfusion. Structural damage was assessed by histologic analysis. As a therapeutic approach, parenchymal pressure was relieved by a standardized circular 0.3 mm incision at the lower pole of the kidney capsule. Compared with baseline (0.9+/-0.3 mm Hg), prolonged ischemia was associated with a sevenfold increase in subcapsular pressure 6 hr after ischemia (7.0+/-1.0 mm Hg; P<0.001). Pressure levels remained significantly elevated for 24 hr. Without therapy, a significant decrease in functional parameters was found with considerably reduced tubular excretion rate (33+/-3.5%, P<0.001) and renal perfusion (64.5+/-6.8%, P<0.005). Histologically, severe tissue damage was found. Surgical pressure relief was able to significantly prevent loss of tubular excretion rate (62.5+/-6.8%, P<0.05) and renal blood flow (96.2+/-4.8%; P<0.05) and preserved the integrity of renal structures. Our data support the hypothesis of the existence of a renal compartment syndrome as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Surgical pressure relief effectively prevented functional and structural renal impairment, and we speculate that this approach might be of value for improving graft function after renal transplantation.

  17. Characterisation of open-door electrical cabinet fires in compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutin, M., E-mail: mickael.coutin@irsn.fr; Plumecocq, W.; Zavaleta, P.; Audouin, L.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Heat release rate of electrical cabinet fire source in a vitiated atmosphere. • Experimental database for proper validation the combustible modelling, taking into account the oxygen depletion in an enclosure. • New model for complex fire source. - Abstract: The study of electrical fires is a major concern for fire safety in the industry and more particularly for fire safety in nuclear facilities. To investigate this topic, IRSN conducted a large number of real-scale experiments involving open-door electrical cabinets burning firstly under a calorimetric hood and then inside a mechanically-ventilated compartment. The main challenges are to determine accurately the heat release rate of such a complex fire source in a vitiated atmosphere and to provide an experimental database for validating properly the combustible modelling, taking into account the oxygen depletion in an enclosure. After providing a detailed description of the fire scenarios and of the experimental apparatus, this paper focuses on the characteristic stages of the cabinet fire development, essentially based on the heat release rate time evolution of the fire. The effects of the confinement, of the outlet branch location, of the ventilation management and of the fire barrier on the fire source were then investigated. The reproducibility of electrical cabinet fires is also studied. A new model for complex fire source (applied in this study for open-door electrical cabinet fires) was then developed. This model was introduced in the zone code SYLVIA and the major features of the compartment fire experiments, such as characteristic heat release rate with effect of oxygen depletion and over-pressure peak were then calculated with a rather good agreement for this complex fire source (i.e. electrical cabinet)

  18. A compartment model of plutonium dynamics in a deciduous forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Gardner, R.H.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A linear compartment donor-controlled model was designed to describe and simulate the behaviour of plutonium ( 239 , 240 Pu) in a contaminated deciduous forest ecosystem at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. At steady states predicted by the model, less than 0.25% of the Pu in the ecosystem resides in forest biota. Soil is the major repository of Pu in the forest, and reciprocal exchanges of Pu between soil and litter or soil and tree roots were dominant transfers affecting the ecosystem distribution of Pu. Variation in predicted steady state amounts of Pu in the forest, given variability in the model parameters, indicated that ones ability to develop reliable models of Pu transport in ecosystems will improve with greater precision in data from natural environments and a better understanding of sources of variation in Pu data. (author)

  19. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben

    2015-01-01

    transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling....... Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...

  20. A multiobjective modeling approach to locate multi-compartment containers for urban-sorted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tralhao, Lino; Coutinho-Rodrigues, Joao; Alcada-Almeida, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The location of multi-compartment sorted waste containers for recycling purposes in cities is an important problem in the context of urban waste management. The costs associated with those facilities and the impacts placed on populations are important concerns. This paper introduces a mixed-integer, multiobjective programming approach to identify the locations and capacities of such facilities. The approach incorporates an optimization model in a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based interactive decision support system that includes four objectives. The first objective minimizes the total investment cost; the second one minimizes the average distance from dwellings to the respective multi-compartment container; the last two objectives address the 'pull' and 'push' characteristics of the decision problem, one by minimizing the number of individuals too close to any container, and the other by minimizing the number of dwellings too far from the respective multi-compartment container. The model determines the number of facilities to be opened, the respective container capacities, their locations, their respective shares of the total waste of each type to be collected, and the dwellings assigned to each facility. The approach proposed was tested with a case study for the historical center of Coimbra city, Portugal, where a large urban renovation project, addressing about 800 buildings, is being undertaken. This paper demonstrates that the models and techniques incorporated in the interactive decision support system (IDSS) can be used to assist a decision maker (DM) in analyzing this complex problem in a realistically sized urban application. Ten solutions consisting of different combinations of underground containers for the disposal of four types of sorted waste in 12 candidate sites, were generated. These solutions and tradeoffs among the objectives are presented to the DM via tables, graphs, color-coded maps and other graphics. The DM can then use this

  1. Biopsia de la arteria temporal: revisión de indicaciones y técnica quirúrgica para cirujanos plásticos Temporal artery biopsy: review of indications and surgical technique for plastic surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La arteritis de células gigantes (ACG es una vasculitis que presenta complicaciones graves si no es diagnosticada y tratada precozmente con corticoides a altas dosis. La biopsia de la arteria temporal (BAT es la técnica diagnóstica estandarizada utilizada para confirmar la enfermedad. Se trata de una técnica sencilla y con poca morbilidad. No obstante, en la actualidad existe una controversia sobre su indicación en pacientes con sospecha clínica de arteritis sin síntomas craneales debido a la baja tasa de positividad de la biopsia. Presentamos en este trabajo una serie de 28 pacientes en los que se realizaron 30 BAT con el objetivo de revisar las indicaciones y describir la técnica quirúrgica utilizada.Giant cell arteritis is a vasculitis that presents serious complications if it is not diagnosed and treated prematurely with corticosteroids to high dose. The temporal artery biopsy is the gold estandar technique of diagnosis used to confirm the disease. It is a simple technique with little morbidity. Nevertheless, currently there is a controversy on its indication in patients with clinical suspicion of arteritis without craneal symptoms because of the downward rate of positiveness of the biopsy. We present in this work a serie of 28 patients in which 30 biopsies were carried out with the objective to review the indications and to describe the surgical technique utilized.

  2. Membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC): specialized functional microdomain of the yeast plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Doudová, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC): specialized functional microdomain of the yeast plasma membrane Yeast plasma membrane is divided into several different compartments. Membrane compartment of Can1 is specific for its protein and lipid composition, furthermore it creates furrow-like invaginations on the plasma membrane. These invaginations are made by multiprotein complexes called eisosomes, which are located in the cytosolic side of MCCs. It was established that this domain plays an importa...

  3. An efficient heuristic for the multi-compartment vehicle routing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Vitor Silvestrin

    2016-01-01

    We study a variant of the vehicle routing problem that allows vehicles with multiple compartments. The need for multiple compartments frequently arises in practical applications when there are several products of different quality or type, that must be kept or handled separately. The resulting problem is called the multi-compartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP). We propose a tabu search heuristic and embed it into an iterated local search to solve the MCVRP. In several experiments we analy...

  4. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  5. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  6. The Boomerang Lift: A Three-Step Compartment-Based Approach to the Youthful Cheek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jillian E; Terner, Jordan; Stern, Carrie S; Beut, Javier; Jelks, Elizabeth B; Jelks, Glenn W; Tepper, Oren M

    2018-04-01

    Autologous fat grafting is an important tool for plastic surgeons treating the aging face. Malar augmentation with fat is often targeted to restore the youthful facial contour and provides support to the lower eyelid. The existence of distinct facial fat compartments suggests that a stepwise approach may be appropriate in this regard. The authors describe a three-step approach to malar augmentation using targeted deep malar fat compartmental augmentation, termed the "boomerang lift." Clinical patients undergoing autologous fat grafting for malar augmentation were injected in three distinct deep malar fat compartments: the lateral sub-orbicularis oculi fat, the medial sub-orbicularis oculi fat, and the deep medial cheek (n = 9). Intraoperative three-dimensional images were taken at baseline and following compartmental injections (Canfield VECTRA H1). Images were overlaid between the augmented and baseline captures, and the three-dimensional surface changes were analyzed, which represented the resulting "augmentation zone." Three-dimensional analysis demonstrated a unique pattern for the augmentation zone consistent across patients. The augmentation zone resembled a boomerang, with the short tail supporting the medial lower lid and the long tail extending laterally along the zygomatic arch. The upper border was restricted by the level of the nasojugal interface, and the lower border was defined medially by the nasolabial fold and laterally by the level of the zygomaticocutaneous ligament. Lateral and medial sub-orbicularis oculi fat injections defined the boundaries of the boomerang shape, and injection to the deep medial cheek provided maximum projection. This is the first description of deep malar augmentation zones in clinical patients. Three-dimensional surface imaging was ideal for analyzing the surface change in response to targeted facial fat grafting. The authors' technique resulted in a reproducible surface shape, which they term the boomerang lift.

  7. Surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse: a historical review with emphasis on the anterior compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensen, E J M; Withagen, M I J; Kluivers, K B; Milani, A L; Vierhout, M E

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize a detailed historical review of the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in which we specifically focused on the anterior compartment. A literature search in English, Dutch, and German was carried out using the keywords pelvic organ prolapse, anterior colporrhaphy, cystocele, and interposition operations in several databases (e.g., PubMed and HathiTrust Digital Library). Other relevant journal and textbook articles were found by retrieving references cited in previous articles and textbooks. Probably the first explanation of the treatment of POP dates from 1500 B.C. The Egyptians gave a description to "falling of the womb" in the Kahun Papyrus. More than a millennium later, Euryphon, a contemporary of Hippocrates (400 B.C.) described some interesting therapeutic options, from succussion (turning a women upside down for several minutes) to irrigating the displaced uterus with wine. A wide range of techniques has been attempted to repair the prolapsing anterior vaginal wall. By 1866, Sim had already performed a series of operations very similar to a modern anterior repair. The first reviews about the abdominal approach to correcting a cystocele were in 1890. The first description of using mesh to cystoceles was the use of tantalum mesh in 1955. In 1970, the first report of collagen mesh in urogynecology was described. Nowadays, robot-assisted surgery and cell-based tissue engineering are the latest interventions. Many surgeons have tried to find the ideal surgical therapy for anterior compartment prolapse, but to date, this has not been achieved.

  8. The Role of Water Compartments in the Material Properties of Cortical Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granke, Mathilde; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2015-09-01

    Comprising ~20% of the volume, water is a key determinant of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone. It essentially exists in two general compartments: within pores and bound to the matrix. The amount of pore water-residing in the vascular-lacunar-canalicular space-primarily reflects intracortical porosity (i.e., open spaces within the matrix largely due to Haversian canals and resorption sites) and as such is inversely proportional to most mechanical properties of bone. Movement of water according to pressure gradients generated during dynamic loading likely confers hydraulic stiffening to the bone as well. Nonetheless, bound water is a primary contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone in that it is responsible for giving collagen the ability to confer ductility or plasticity to bone (i.e., allows deformation to continue once permanent damage begins to form in the matrix) and decreases with age along with fracture resistance. Thus, dehydration by air-drying or by solvents with less hydrogen bonding capacity causes bone to become brittle, but interestingly, it also increases stiffness and strength across the hierarchical levels of organization. Despite the importance of matrix hydration to fracture resistance, little is known about why bound water decreases with age in hydrated human bone. Using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), both bound and pore water concentrations in bone can be measured ex vivo because the proton relaxation times differ between the two water compartments, giving rise to two distinct signals. There are also emerging techniques to measure bound and pore water in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NMR/MRI-derived bound water concentration is positively correlated with both the strength and toughness of hydrated bone and may become a useful clinical marker of fracture risk.

  9. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  10. A New Approach to Uncertainty Reduction in Launch Vehicle Compartment Venting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch vehicle compartments are vented to the external environment during ascent to minimize undesirable structural loading. Prediction of venting performance is an...

  11. Tubulation of Class II MHC Compartments Is Microtubule Dependent and Involves Multiple Endolysosomal Membrane Proteins in Primary Dendritic Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M.; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J. Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2009-01-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP. PMID:17513769

  12. Correlations and coherence of monopolar EMG-currents of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in proximal and distal compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinzenz eVon Tscharner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The penniform gastrocnemius muscle contains multiple heads in the proximal regions and the aponeuroses are attached to the Achilles tendon. The multiple head structure lead to the assumption that different regions of the muscle must be activated compartment wise. The purpose of this study was to compare the correlation and coherence of EMG-currents within and between proximal and distal compartments of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, which reflect underling synchronization of motor units. It was hypothesized and shown that phase-inverted signals represent a property that discriminates compartments. However, the phase-inverted and non-inverted signals showed values of correlations that were indicative for highly synchronized signals. The correlation increased with the complexity of the task and was higher for the calf-rising movement than while balancing in a tiptoe position. Because the muscle fibers do not span the whole length of the muscles one has to conclude that the MUs were synchronized by synchronizing the various motor nerves. This study shows that it is essential to measure monopolar signals and use non-isometric contractions to observe synchronization of the EMG-signals. One could speculate that compartmental differences can only be observed if more complex movements that generate rotational forces at the knee or ankle are used.

  13. Porphyromonas gingivalis Outer Membrane Vesicles Enter Human Epithelial Cells via an Endocytic Pathway and Are Sorted to Lysosomal Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Nobumichi; Tsuda, Kayoko; Omori, Hiroko; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Amano, Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, secretes outer membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain major virulence factors, including major fimbriae and proteases termed gingipains, although it is not confirmed whether MVs enter host cells. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms involved in the interactions of P. gingivalis MVs with human epithelial cells. Our results showed that MVs swiftly adhered to HeLa and immortalized human gingival epithelial cells in a fimbria-dependent manner and then entered via a lipid raft-dependent endocytic pathway. The intracellular MVs were subsequently routed to early endosome antigen 1-associated compartments and then were sorted to lysosomal compartments within 90 min, suggesting that intracellular MVs were ultimately degraded by the cellular digestive machinery. However, P. gingivalis MVs remained there for over 24 h and significantly induced acidified compartment formation after being taken up by the cellular digestive machinery. In addition, MV entry was shown to be mediated by a novel pathway for transmission of bacterial products into host cells, a Rac1-regulated pinocytic pathway that is independent of caveolin, dynamin, and clathrin. Our findings indicate that P. gingivalis MVs efficiently enter host cells via an endocytic pathway and survive within the endocyte organelles for an extended period, which provides better understanding of the role of MVs in the etiology of periodontitis. PMID:19651865

  14. Tubulation of class II MHC compartments is microtubule dependent and involves multiple endolysosomal membrane proteins in primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2007-06-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP.

  15. Non-invasive neurosensory testing used to diagnose and confirm successful surgical management of lower extremity deep distal posterior compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyton Gregory P

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS is characterized by elevated pressures within a closed space of an extremity muscular compartment, causing pain and/or disability by impairing the neuromuscular function of the involved compartment. The diagnosis of CECS is primarily made on careful history and physical exam. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of CECS is invasive intra-compartmental pressure measurements. Sensory nerve function is often diminished during symptomatic periods of CECS. Sensory nerve function can be documented with the use of non-painful, non-invasive neurosensory testing. Methods Non-painful neurosensory testing of the myelinated large sensory nerve fibers of the lower extremity were obtained with the Pressure Specified Sensory Device™ in a 25 year old male with history and invasive compartment pressures consistent with CECS both before and after running on a tread mill. After the patient's first operation to release the deep distal posterior compartment, the patient failed to improve. Repeat sensory testing revealed continued change in his function with exercise. He was returned to the operating room where a repeat procedure revealed that the deep posterior compartment was not completely released due to an unusual anatomic variant, and therefore complete release was accomplished. Results The patient's symptoms numbness in the plantar foot and pain in the distal calf improved after this procedure and his repeat sensory testing performed before and after running on the treadmill documented this improvement. Conclusion This case report illustrates the principal that non-invasive neurosensory testing can detect reversible changes in sensory nerve function after a provocative test and may be a helpful non-invasive technique to managing difficult cases of persistent lower extremity symptoms after failed decompressive fasciotomies for CECS. It can easily be performed before and after

  16. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  17. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewig, F; Allelein, H J [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schwarz, S; Weber, G [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO{sub 3}{sup -} is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO{sub 3}{sup -} are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I{sub 2}-concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I{sub 2} is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO{sub 3}{sup -}. (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  18. Influence of the fire location and the size of a compartment on the heat and smoke flow out of the compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyński, Wojciech; Konecki, Marek

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents results of CFD and scale modelling of the flow of heat and smoke inside and outside of a compartment, in case of fire. Estimation of mass flow out of a compartment is critical, as it is the boundary condition in further considerations related to the exhaust of the smoke from a building - also in analysis related to the performance of natural ventilation in wind conditions. Both locations of the fire and the size of compartment were addressed as possible variables, which influence the mass and the temperature of smoke that leaves the room engulfed in fire. Results of the study show small to none influence of both size of the compartment and the location of the fire, on the mass flow of smoke exiting the room. On the same time, both of these parameters influence the temperature of the smoke - in larger compartments lower average temperatures of the smoke layer, but higher maximum values were observed. Results of this study may be useful also in the determination of the worst case scenarios for structural analysis, or in the investiga tion of the spread of fire through the compartment. Based on the results presented in this study, researchers can attribute an expert judgement choice of fire location, as a single scenario that is representative of a larger amount of probable scenarios.

  19. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  20. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Jun; Ueyama, Masashi; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Ode, Yasumasa; Aoki, Yoshiki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock. Hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) infusion reduces early fluid requirements in burn shock, but the effects of HLS on intraabdominal pressure have not been clarified. Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2004 with burns > or =40% of the total body surface area without severe inhalation injury were entered into a fluid resuscitation protocol using HLS (n = 14) or lactated Ringer's solution (n = 22). Urine output was monitored hourly with a goal of 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg per hour. Hemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis, intrabladder pressure as an indicator of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and the peak inspiratory pressure were recorded. Pulmonary compliance and the abdominal perfusion pressure were also calculated. In the HLS group, the amount of intravenous fluid volume needed to maintain adequate urine output was less at 3.1 +/- 0.9 versus 5.2 +/- 1.2 mL/24 h per kg per percentage of total body surface area, and the peak IAP and peak inspiratory pressure at 24 hours after injury were significantly lower than those in the lactated Ringer's group. Two of 14 patients (14%) in the HLS group and 11 of 22 patients (50%) developed IAH within 20.8 +/- 7.2 hours after injury. In patients with severe burn injury, a large intravenous fluid volume decreases abdominal perfusion during the resuscitative period because of increased IAP. Our data suggest that HLS resuscitation could reduce the risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome with lower fluid load in burn shock patients.

  1. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs

  2. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  3. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  4. Connexin Communication Compartments and Wound Repair in Epithelial Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Marc; Watanabe, Masakatsu; O'Shaughnessy, Erin M; Zoso, Alice; Martin, Patricia E

    2018-05-03

    Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair. This review focuses on the dynamic changes that occur in connexins, the constituent proteins of the intercellular gap junction channel, during wound-healing processes and in localised inflammation, with an emphasis on the lung and skin. Current developments in targeting connexins as corrective therapies to improve wound closure and resolve localised inflammation are also discussed. Finally, we consider the emergence of the zebrafish as a concerted whole-animal model to study, visualise and track the events of wound repair and regeneration in real-time living model systems.

  5. Mathematical properties and parameter estimation for transit compartment pharmacodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, James W T

    2008-07-03

    One feature of recent research in pharmacodynamic modelling has been the move towards more mechanistically based model structures. However, in all of these models there are common sub-systems, such as feedback loops and time-delays, whose properties and contribution to the model behaviour merit some mathematical analysis. In this paper a common pharmacodynamic model sub-structure is considered: the linear transit compartment. These models have a number of interesting properties as the length of the cascade chain is increased. In the limiting case a pure time-delay is achieved [Milsum, J.H., 1966. Biological Control Systems Analysis. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York] and the initial behaviour becoming increasingly sensitive to parameter value perturbation. It is also shown that the modelled drug effect is attenuated, though the duration of action is longer. Through this analysis the range of behaviours that such models are capable of reproducing are characterised. The properties of these models and the experimental requirements are discussed in order to highlight how mathematical analysis prior to experimentation can enhance the utility of mathematical modelling.

  6. Connexin Communication Compartments and Wound Repair in Epithelial Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chanson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair. This review focuses on the dynamic changes that occur in connexins, the constituent proteins of the intercellular gap junction channel, during wound-healing processes and in localised inflammation, with an emphasis on the lung and skin. Current developments in targeting connexins as corrective therapies to improve wound closure and resolve localised inflammation are also discussed. Finally, we consider the emergence of the zebrafish as a concerted whole-animal model to study, visualise and track the events of wound repair and regeneration in real-time living model systems.

  7. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Borland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic link between neuron-to-neuron transmission of secreted amyloid and propagation of protein malconformation cytopathology and disease has recently been uncovered in animal models. An enormous interest in the unconventional secretion of amyloids from neurons has followed. Amphisomes and late endosomes are the penultimate maturation products of the autophagosomal and endosomal pathways, respectively, and normally fuse with lysosomes for degradation. However, under conditions of perturbed membrane trafficking and/or lysosomal deficiency, prelysosomal compartments may instead fuse with the plasma membrane to release any contained amyloid. After a brief introduction to the endosomal and autophagosomal pathways, we discuss the evidence for autophagosomal secretion (exophagy of amyloids, with a comparative emphasis on Aβ1–42 and α-synuclein, as luminal and cytosolic amyloids, respectively. The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors, mainly for Parkinson’s disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds.

  8. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clonal dominance and transplantation dynamics in hematopoietic stem cell compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ashcroft

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells in mammals are known to reside mostly in the bone marrow, but also transitively passage in small numbers in the blood. Experimental findings have suggested that they exist in a dynamic equilibrium, continuously migrating between these two compartments. Here we construct an individual-based mathematical model of this process, which is parametrised using existing empirical findings from mice. This approach allows us to quantify the amount of migration between the bone marrow niches and the peripheral blood. We use this model to investigate clonal hematopoiesis, which is a significant risk factor for hematologic cancers. We also analyse the engraftment of donor stem cells into non-conditioned and conditioned hosts, quantifying the impact of different treatment scenarios. The simplicity of the model permits a thorough mathematical analysis, providing deeper insights into the dynamics of both the model and of the real-world system. We predict the time taken for mutant clones to expand within a host, as well as chimerism levels that can be expected following transplantation therapy, and the probability that a preconditioned host is reconstituted by donor cells.

  10. Are certain fractures at increased risk for compartment syndrome after civilian ballistic injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskey, Thomas; Hardcastle, John; O'Toole, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    Compartment syndrome after ballistic fracture is uncommon but potentially devastating. Few data are available to help guide clinicians regarding risk factors for developing compartment syndrome after ballistic fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that ballistic fractures of certain bones would be at higher risk for development of compartment syndrome. A retrospective review at a Level I trauma center from 2001 through 2007 yielded 650 patients with 938 fractures resulting from gunshots. We reviewed all operative notes, clinic notes, discharge summaries, and data from our prospective trauma database. Cases in which the attending orthopedic surgeon diagnosed compartment syndrome and performed fasciotomy were considered cases with compartment syndrome. We excluded all prophylactic fasciotomies. Univariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with development of compartment syndrome. Twenty-six (2.8%) of the 938 fractures were associated with compartment syndrome. Only fibular (11.6%) and tibial (11.4%) fractures had incidence significantly higher than baseline for all ballistic fractures (p Ballistic fractures of the fibula and tibia are at increased risk for development of compartment syndrome over other ballistic fractures. We recommend increased vigilance when treating these injuries, particularly if the fracture is in the proximal aspect of the bone or is associated with vascular injury.

  11. Compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and risk of acute renal failure as complications of the lithotomy position.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Feitz, W.F.J.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and the risk of acute renal failure are potential complications of the lithotomy position. A six-year-old girl is described who developed a compartment syndrome with rhabdomyolysis after prolonged surgery in the lithotomy position. This complication occurred

  12. The formation of endosymbiotic membrane compartments: membrane identity markers and the regulation of vesicle trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, S.

    2012-01-01

    In symbiosis of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as well as in rhizobium-legume symbiosis the microbes are hosted intracellularly, inside specialized membrane compartments of the host. These membrane compartments are morphologically different but similar in function, since they control

  13. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... and protective breathing equipment (PBE). This analysis should consider the possibility of fire in any..., mechanical or structural failure, or persons standing below or against the crew rest compartment outlets. One..., volume of the compartment, and the ventilation rate. The system must have sufficient extinguishing agent...

  14. AERODYNAMIC IMPROVEMENT OF KhADI 33 RACING CAR RADIATOR COMPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avershyn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic characteristics of radiator compartment of KhADI 33 racing car on the basis of the decision of the interfaced problem of internal and external aerodynamics are numerically investigated. The rational variant of radiator compartment which is characterized by high throughput and low level of non-uniformity of speed field at the input is offered.

  15. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust system...

  16. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... detection systems. 25.858 Section 25.858 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If... must be met for each cargo or baggage compartment with those provisions: (a) The detection system must...

  17. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car, compartment.... Customs] [Can. Transit] for use on railroad cars, and “United States-Canada Customs” for use on samples...

  18. Validation of a multiple compartment model for the transport of cesium through animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    A general multiple compartment model, which describes the transport of trace elements through animals is presented. This model considers a system of K interconnected compartments of volume V i , i = 1,2,....,K, each containing, at a given time t, N i molecules of a trace substance. (5 figs.)

  19. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown.......Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  20. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation. 57.19107 Section 57.19107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation. 56.19107 Section 56.19107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected by...

  2. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... accommodates side-by-side placement of LD-3 containers in the cargo compartment. The basic A350-900 series... total overhead crew rest compartment length, the exit separation should not be less than 50 percent of... by curtains. Flight tests must be conducted to show compliance with this requirement. Each system or...

  3. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances. 58.16-20 Section 58.16-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with...

  4. Unrecognized anterior compartment syndrome following ankle fracture surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyahi, Aksel; Uludag, Serkan; Akman, Senol; Demirhan, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    A 35-year-old male sustained a lateral malleolar fracture while playing football. The fracture was treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a tourniquet. The next day, the patient returned with pain and swelling of the ankle and was admitted again to the hospital with a suspected diagnosis of cellulitis. Ten hours later, the patient developed the symptoms of anterior compartment syndrome. Emergency open fasciotomy of the anterior compartment was performed. The retrospective analysis of the patient's history was suggestive of a predisposition to an exercise-induced compartment syndrome. We think that exertional increase of the compartmental pressure before the injury and the tourniquet used during surgery contributed together to the development of compartment syndrome. Physicians should be vigilant in identifying the features of compartment syndrome when managing patients injured during a sporting activity.

  5. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  6. Double compartment hydrocephalus with ominous symptoms which diagnosis was made with isotopic SPECT cisternography: Presentation of one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenter, L.F.; Paz-Araviche, V.; Celedon-Arrieta, P.; Tavares, A.; Tavares, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Standard isotopic cerebral cisternography is a relevant test in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus, nevertheless its provide vague localization of the CSF pathways obstruction. The objective was to share our experience with SPECT cisternography in the diagnosis of double compartment hydrocephalus. Materials and Methods: We performed an isotopic cerebral cisternography after injecting 20 mCi de 99mTc-DTPA thru a spinal tap. Images were taken in three planes: coronal, sagital and axial immediately, 3, 6, 10, 12 and 18 hours after injection. This particular case correspond to a 12 year-old girl with symptoms and signs of cyclic intracranial hypertension without apparent no reason or signs of cephalous-caudal deterioration. Results: We made the diagnosis of double compartment hydrocephalus, secondary to septation of subarachnoid space, above and below of the tentorial hiatus. The problem was solved with another shunting from the posterior fosse to the previous ventricular catheter. Conclusions: A new technique or utility of the CT SPECT is developed to be able to reach a clear diagnosis of the site of obstruction. In the current literature there are not many studies of SPECT Cisternography, so that, more investigations are needed to study the applications of this technique

  7. Maintenance of host leukocytes in peripheral immune compartments following lethal irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution: implications for graft versus host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Elizabeth M; Tanner, Scott M; Daft, Joseph G; Stanus, Andrea L; Martin, Steven M; Lorenz, Robin G

    2013-03-01

    Bone marrow reconstitution is utilized as a tool for disease treatment and as a research technique to elucidate the function of bone marrow derived cells. Clinically successful engraftment is indicated by the development of a functioning immune repertoire. In research, reconstitution is considered successful if >85% of splenic leukocytes are of donor origins. Previous work suggests that splenic reconstitution may not be indicative of reconstitution in the mucosa. We sought to evaluate mucosal reconstitution in animals following a standard bone marrow eradication and reconstitution technique. Bone marrow was harvested from adult B6.SJL donor mice (CD45.1) and injected via either the retro-orbital or intraperitoneal route into lethally irradiated B6 (CD45.2) adult or neonatal recipients respectively. The expression of CD45 by flow cytometry was used to calculate reconstitution with respect to immune compartment and cell type. In reconstituted adult animals 93.2±1.5% of splenic leukocytes expressed the donor CD45.1 antigen thus meeting the standard definition of reconstitution, however only 58.6±13.6% of intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes and 52.4±16.0% of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were of donor origin, confirming splenic reconstitution fails to represent peripheral immune reconstitution. T-cells in the gastrointestinal tract are the most poorly reconstituted, while B-cells appear to be almost universally replaced by donor cells. The inadequate mucosal reconstitution was not corrected by evaluating later time points or by performing the bone marrow transfer during the neonatal period. This demonstration that substantial host T-cells remain in the intestinal mucosa after a "successful" bone marrow transplantation should cause a re-evaluation of data from research bone marrow chimera experiments, as well as the mechanisms for complications after clinical bone marrow transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extra- and intramuscular nerve supply of the muscles of the anterior antebrachial compartment: applications for selective neurotomy and for botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, D; Parratte, B; Tatu, L; Vuiller, F; Monnier, G

    2005-12-01

    Hypertonia of the upper limb due to spasticity causes pronation of the forearm and flexion of wrist and fingers. Nowadays this spasticity is often treated with injections of botulinum toxin and sometimes with selective fascicular neurotomy. To correctly perform this microsurgical technique, it is necessary to get precise knowledge of the extramuscular nerve branching in order to be better able to select the motor branches which supply the muscles involved in spasticity. The same knowledge is required for botulinum toxin injections which must be made as near as possible to the zones where intramuscular nerve endings are the densest, which is also where neuromuscular junctions are the most numerous. Thus, it is necessary to better know these zones, but their knowledge remains today imprecise. The muscles of the anterior compartment of 30 forearms were dissected, first macroscopically, then microscopically, to study the extra- and intramuscular nerve supply and the distribution of terminal nerve ramifications. The results were then linked to surface topographical landmarks to indicate the precise location of motor branches for each muscle with the aim of proposing appropriate surgical approaches for selective neurotomies. Then for each muscle, the zones with the highest density of nerve endings were divided into segments, thus determining the optimal zones for botulinim toxin injections.

  9. Pre test parametric studies on single compartment vented enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a proper design fire scenario is a challenging task and essential component for conducting fire safety design of buildings. A design fire scenario is a qualitative description of a fire with time identifying key events that characterize the fire (ignition, growth, flashover, fully-developed, and decay stages of fire). Proper fire safety design requires the appropriate selection of design fires against which the performance of the building is evaluated. The selection of the design fires directly impacts all aspects of fire safety performance, including the structural fire resistance, compartmentation against fire spread, egress systems, manual or automatic detection systems, suppression systems, and smoke control. The parameters affecting design fires include, the type, amount and arrangement of combustible materials, the ventilation conditions (air supply conditions, door/window open), and size of the compartment of fire origin. A design fire is a quantitative description of the characteristics of a fire, such as heat release rate (HRR), size of fire and its rate of spread, yield of products of combustion, and hot gas temperatures. Design fires are based on fire scenarios that replicate real fires. Six Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effect of fire load on fire dynamics in a) iso corner fire configuration b) IIT Delhi single compartment of a size of 5.0 m long, 5.0 m wide and 5.0 m high with doorway opening of 1m x 3m with centre fire of size 0.5 m x 0.5m. These types of simulation are carried out for deciding about the instrumentation scheme, safety aspect, and optimization of proposed experiments for National Fire Test Facility as pretest calculations. The simulations results are summarized in various identified applied parameter which are useful in terms of understanding the complex fire dynamics, validating the numerical tolls against experiments and using them (in form of values

  10. [Orbital compartment syndrome. The most frequent cause of blindness following facial trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Gusztáv; Katona, József; Kenderfi, Gábor; Lestyán, János; Gombos, Katalin; Hirschberg, Andor

    2017-09-01

    Although orbital compartment syndrome is a rare condition, it is still the most common cause of blindness following simple or complicated facial fractures. Its pathomechanism is similar to the compartment syndrome in the limb. Little extra fluid (blood, oedema, brain, foreign body) in a non-space yielding space results with increasingly higher pressures within a short period of time. Unless urgent surgical intervention is performed the blocked circulation of the central retinal artery will result irreversible ophthalmic nerve damage and blindness. Aim, material and method: A retrospective analysis of ten years, 2007-2017, in our hospital among those patients referred to us with facial-head trauma combined with blindness. 571 patients had fractures involving the orbit. 23 patients become blind from different reasons. The most common cause was orbital compartment syndrome in 17 patients; all had retrobulbar haematomas as well. 6 patients with retrobulbar haematoma did not develop compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome was found among patient with extensive and minimal fractures such as with large and minimal haematomas. Early lateral canthotomy and decompression saved 7 patients from blindness. We can not predict and do not know why some patients develop orbital compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome seems independent from fracture mechanism, comminution, dislocation, amount of orbital bleeding. All patients are in potential risk with midface fractures. We have a high suspicion that orbital compartment syndrome has been somehow missed out in the recommended textbooks of our medical universities and in the postgraduate trainings. Thus compartment syndrome is not recognized. Teaching, training and early surgical decompression is the only solution to save the blind eye. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(36): 1410-1420.

  11. Bilateral post-traumatic gluteal compartment syndrome: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashis Barick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluteal compartment is a rare site for compartment syndrome. Gluteal compartment syndrome has most commonly been described in the literature as occurring after prolonged immobility associated with substance abuse, improper operative positioning, sickle cell-induced infarct, post-traumatic and spontaneous superior gluteal artery rupture, exercise, and post-arterial embolization of the internal iliac artery prior to abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Trauma is rarely associated with this syndrome. Gluteal compartment syndrome occurs in approximately 0.9% of trauma patients. Posttraumatic gluteal compartment syndrome develops because of edema with traumatic contusions, crush injuries and hematoma formation due to blunt superior or inferior gluteal artery injuries in all compartments of the gluteal region Only 6 previous cases have been reported in the literature. Two previous cases involved positioning for urological procedures, while the other cited causes of bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome include exercise-induced, trauma, and prolonged immobilization from substance abuse. One of the most immediately devastating results of a missed compartment syndrome is the risk of the development of rhabdomyolysis with the resulting squeal of myoglobinuria, hyperkalemia, and acidosis resulting in renal failure, shock, multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and possibly death. Here we report a case of posttraumatic bilateral compartment syndrome which developed secondary to pressure due to patient being trapped under a vehicle following a vehicular accident. He was operated upon and a bilateral fasciotomy was done. Although he did not develop any renal complications, the sciatic nerve palsy on the left side did not recover. The patient is still under follow up.

  12. A computational code for resolution of general compartment models applied to internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, Thiago R.; Todo, Alberto S., E-mail: claro@usp.br, E-mail: astodo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The dose resulting from internal contamination can be estimated with the use of biokinetic models combined with experimental results obtained from bio analysis and the knowledge of the incorporation time. The biokinetics models can be represented by a set of compartments expressing the transportation, retention and elimination of radionuclides from the body. The ICRP publications, number 66, 78 and 100, present compartmental models for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and for systemic distribution for an array of radionuclides of interest for the radiological protection. The objective of this work is to develop a computational code for designing, visualization and resolution of compartmental models of any nature. There are available four different techniques for the resolution of system of differential equations, including semi-analytical and numerical methods. The software was developed in C{ne} programming, using a Microsoft Access database and XML standards for file exchange with other applications. Compartmental models for uranium, thorium and iodine radionuclides were generated for the validation of the CBT software. The models were subsequently solved by SSID software and the results compared with the values published in the issue 78 of ICRP. In all cases the system is in accordance with the values published by ICRP. (author)

  13. A computational code for resolution of general compartment models applied to internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Thiago R.; Todo, Alberto S.

    2011-01-01

    The dose resulting from internal contamination can be estimated with the use of biokinetic models combined with experimental results obtained from bio analysis and the knowledge of the incorporation time. The biokinetics models can be represented by a set of compartments expressing the transportation, retention and elimination of radionuclides from the body. The ICRP publications, number 66, 78 and 100, present compartmental models for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and for systemic distribution for an array of radionuclides of interest for the radiological protection. The objective of this work is to develop a computational code for designing, visualization and resolution of compartmental models of any nature. There are available four different techniques for the resolution of system of differential equations, including semi-analytical and numerical methods. The software was developed in C≠ programming, using a Microsoft Access database and XML standards for file exchange with other applications. Compartmental models for uranium, thorium and iodine radionuclides were generated for the validation of the CBT software. The models were subsequently solved by SSID software and the results compared with the values published in the issue 78 of ICRP. In all cases the system is in accordance with the values published by ICRP. (author)

  14. Cascades in Compartments: En Route to Machine-Assisted Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Kersten S; Müller, Joachim; Skoupi, Marc; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2017-10-23

    Biological compartmentalization is a fundamental principle of life that allows cells to metabolize, propagate, or communicate with their environment. Much research is devoted to understanding this basic principle and to harness biomimetic compartments and catalytic cascades as tools for technological processes. This Review summarizes the current state-of-the-art of these developments, with a special emphasis on length scales, mass transport phenomena, and molecular scaffolding approaches, ranging from small cross-linkers over proteins and nucleic acids to colloids and patterned surfaces. We conclude that the future exploration and exploitation of these complex systems will largely benefit from technical solutions for the integrated, machine-assisted development and maintenance of a next generation of biotechnological processes. These goals should be achievable by implementing microfluidics, robotics, and added manufacturing techniques supplemented by theoretical simulations as well as computer-aided process modeling based on big data obtained from multiscale experimental analyses. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Technical success of the ultrasound-guided supra-inguinal fascia iliaca compartment block in older children and adolescents for hip arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastburn, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Maria A; Boretsky, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Hip arthroscopic surgery is performed on older pediatric patients. Fascia iliaca compartment block has proven efficacy in providing analgesia following hip surgery and can be performed with target location of local anesthetic below or above the inguinal ligament. The reported success of ultrasound-guided infra-inguinal fascia iliaca compartment block is lower when compared to traditional landmark technique, while the reliability of supra-inguinal fascia iliaca compartment block is unreported. The primary aim was to report the results in obtaining sensory changes in the distribution of the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves following supra-inguinal fascia iliaca compartment block in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery. Secondary outcomes are the ability to find echogenic landmarks and to report pain scores and opioid consumption. We reviewed the electronic medical record and regional anesthesia database of patients receiving ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca compartment block for arthroscopic hip surgery. Sensory changes to the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves were determined. Identification of echogenic landmarks was quantified. Pain scores and opioid consumption were determined. Seventeen patients of mean age 15.4 years old (SD 1.3; range 13-17 years) were included. Sensory changes to both the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves occurred in 94% of patients (95% CI: 82%-100%). The average volume of ropivacaine 0.2% was 0.53 mL/Kg (SD 0.11 mL/Kg). Echogenic landmarks were identified in all patients. Pain scores and opioid consumption were generally low. A supra-inguinal location for the deposition of local anesthetic when performing fascia iliaca nerve block for hip surgery is reliable in anesthetizing the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves and should encourage investigation into the clinical efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Spectral Doppler findings in a rare case of acute compartment syndrome following leg burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer A. Mahmoud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome (ACS is an orthopedic emergency condition, which is rarely attributed to burns. It occurs when pressure in an enclosed space rises to a point where it reduces blood flow and impairs tissue perfusion. Its consequences often lead to ischemia and possible necrosis within that space. Until now, the use of Doppler assessment to explore different types of compartment syndrome has yielded contradictory findings. Here, we present a significant increase of blood flow velocity in the arteries proximal to the burned area. Thus, the combination of Duplex ultrasound results with clinical findings will help vascular surgeons to make immediate decision to perform fasciotomy. Keywords: Compartment syndrome, Spectral Doppler

  17. Compartment Syndrome following Open Femoral Fracture with an Isolated Femoral Vein Injury Treated with Acute Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Walmsley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency and its diagnosis is more difficult in obtunded or insensate patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Gustilo-Anderson grade III open midshaft femur fracture with an isolated femoral vein injury treated with direct repair. She developed lower leg compartment syndrome at 48 hours postoperatively, necessitating fasciotomies. She was subsequently found to have a DVT in her femoral vein at the level of the repair and was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the importance of recognition of isolated venous injuries in a trauma setting as a risk factor for developing compartment syndrome.

  18. Compartment and Crush Syndromes After Sleep Deprivation and a Therapeutic Dose of Zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Huecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive review in the literature, compartment syndrome and crush syndrome remain difficult to diagnose. Trauma, toxins and reperfusion have been associated with these syndromes. Cases involving alcohol and drug abuse have described patients “found down” compressing an extremity. We present a case of a registered nurse who developed compartment syndrome in multiple limbs due to prolonged sleep after sleep deprivation and zolpidem use. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compartment syndrome or crush syndrome to have occurred in the setting of zolpidem use. Sleep disruption in healthcare workers represents a public health issue with dangerous sequelae, both acute and chronic.

  19. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, E.

    1991-01-01

    The general theory of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates is illustrated by examples. Mathematically, it turns out that models consisting of partial differential equations include ordinary, delayed and integro-differential equations, a general fact which is treated here in the context of linear tracer kinetics. The examples include standard compartments as a degenerate case, systems of standard compartments (compartment blocks), models resulting in special residence time distributions, models with pipes, and systems with heterogeneous particles. (orig./BBR) [de

  20. Distribution of Radioisotopes between Phytoplankton, Sediment and Sea Water in a Dialysis Compartment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, R.; Duursma, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of the radioisotopes 36 Cl, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 109 Cd, 110 mAg, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 147 Pm and 204 Tl between sea water, Mediterranean sediment in suspension, and the phytoplankton species Phaeodactylum tricornutum was studied by using a competitive technique in which the various phases were separated by dialysis membranes. The radioisotopes were introduced into the sea water compartment and the radionuclide uptake by sediment and phytoplankton occurred in the adjoining compartments after the isotopes had diffused through the membranes. The diffusion through membranes is time dependent and related to the hydrated ion radii of the elements in solution. Chelation of the elements by organic matter from sewage may hamper this diffusion, although the complexing molecules themselves can pass through the membrane. The laboratory experiments showed that the uptake of radionuclides by sediments and phytoplankton in suspension did not occur independently of each other but in competition relative to the different affinities to the sediment and phytoplankton and relative to the concentrations of the particulate materials themselves. On examination of the distribution coefficients, the isotopes 90Sr, 110m Ag, 204 Ti and in particular 109 Cd, had higher affinities towards Phaeodactylum tricornutum than towards the Mediterranean sediment. The isotopes 54 Mn, 60 Co and 137 Cs had lower distribution coefficients with the phytoplankton than with sediment and in the case of 59 Fe, 65 Zn, l06 Ru, l 4 Ce and 147 Pm, the distribution coefficients were similar for both phytoplankton and sediment. Taking into account that many more factors play a role in the natural aquatic environment, the distribution pattern between water, plankton and sediment in suspension can be approximated by calculating the percentage distribution in the 3 phases. Those percentages are dependent on 2 parameters, being the distribution coefficients and the concentrations of the

  1. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Ing How

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome.

  2. Theoretical Compartment Modeling of DCE-MRI Data Based on the Transport across Physiological Barriers in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fanea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders represent major causes of lost years of healthy life and mortality worldwide. Development of their quantitative interdisciplinary in vivo evaluation is required. Compartment modeling (CM of brain data acquired in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging techniques with clinically available contrast agents can be performed to quantitatively assess brain perfusion. Transport of 1H spins in water molecules across physiological compartmental brain barriers in three different pools was mathematically modeled and theoretically evaluated in this paper and the corresponding theoretical compartment modeling of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI data was analyzed. The pools considered were blood, tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The blood and CSF data were mathematically modeled assuming continuous flow of the 1H spins in these pools. Tissue data was modeled using three CMs. Results in this paper show that transport across physiological brain barriers such as the blood to brain barrier, the extracellular space to the intracellular space barrier, or the blood to CSF barrier can be evaluated quantitatively. Statistical evaluations of this quantitative information may be performed to assess tissue perfusion, barriers' integrity, and CSF flow in vivo in the normal or disease-affected brain or to assess response to therapy.

  3. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the nuclear compartment of neurons and glial cells in aging and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Daniel; Pirici, Ionica; Mogoanta, Laurentiu; Margaritescu, Otilia; Tudorica, Valerica; Margaritescu, Claudiu; Ion, Daniela A; Simionescu, Cristiana; Coconu, Marieta

    2012-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are well-recognized denominators for extracellular matrix remodeling in the pathology of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Recent data on non-nervous system tissue showed intracellular and even intranuclear localizations for different MMPs, and together with this, a plethora of new functions have been proposed for these intracellular active enzymes, but are mostly related to apoptosis induction and malign transformation. In neurons and glial cells, on human tissue, animal models and cell cultures, different active MMPs have been also proven to be located in the intra-cytoplasmic or intra-nuclear compartments, with no clear-cut function. In the present study we show for the first time on human tissue the nuclear expression of MMP-9, mainly in neurons and to a lesser extent in astrocytes. We have studied ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients, as well as aged control patients. Age and ischemic suffering seemed to be the best predictors for an elevated MMP-9 nuclear expression, and there was no evidence of a clear-cut extracellular proteolytic activity for this compartment, as revealed by intact vascular basement membranes and assessment of vascular densities. More, the majority of the cells expressing MMP-9 in the nuclear compartment also co-expressed activated-caspase 3, indicating a possible link between nuclear MMP-9 localization and apoptosis in neuronal and glial cells following an ischemic or hemorrhagic event. These results, besides showing for the first time the nuclear localization of MMP-9 on a large series of human stroke and aged brain tissues, raise new questions regarding the unknown spectrum of the functions MMPs in human CNS pathology. © 2011 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  4. Investigating Stream Metabolism and Nutrient Dynamics in Contrasting Ecosystems: The Role of Hydrologic Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Covino, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between mobile and less mobile hydrologic compartments affect the quality and quantity of water in streams and aquifers, and the cycling of dissolved carbon and nutrients. As new laboratory and field techniques become available, new questions and challenges emerge, including: What do we measure, where, and for how long to fully characterize a system? and, What is the ideal cost-maintenance-benefit relationship that we should strive for to maximize knowledge gained in different field settings? We recently performed a series of field experiments to measure aquatic metabolism and nutrient dynamics in two highly contrasting hydrologic systems, i.e., 1) a wetland-stream alpine, tropical system in Colombia (South America) and 2) a dryland river continuum (1st - 5th stream orders) in New Mexico. In this presentation we discuss how multiple lines of evidence can support the analysis of key aquatic processes and how co-interpretation provides a more complete picture of stream complexity. For this analysis, we deployed YSI EXO2 and 6920 sondes, Turner Designs C-sense and C6 sensors, and Onset HOBO water quality data loggers. Parameters measured by these instruments include conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, pCO2, chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin, fluorescein, CDOM, brighteners and water depth. We also injected conservative tracers (i.e., NaCl and NaBr) and the bioreactive tracer resazurin in both experimental sites, and NO3 in the dryland river continuum. NO3 was measured in-situ with Satlantic Submersible Ultraviolet Nitrate Analyzers (SUNA) sensors and in the laboratory using Ion Chromatograph techniques using stream grab samples. Our results highlight the role of both residence times and chemical fluxes in regulating the effective processing of carbon and nutrients. Our results also demonstrate that stream stimuli from controlled experiments are ideal for maximizing the information content derived from short (hours to days) and mid

  5. Shock Transmission Analyses of a Simplified Frigate Compartment Using LS-DYNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trouwborst, W

    1999-01-01

    This report gives results as obtained with finite element analyses using the explicit finite element program LS-DYNA for a longitudinal slice of a frigate's compartment loaded with a shock pulse based...

  6. A case of abdominal compartment syndrome derived from simple elongated sigmoid colon in an elderly man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Shida

    2016-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Considering the increase in the aging population, we must bear in mind that abdominal compartment syndrome may occur in simple elongated sigmoid colon without other risk factors.

  7. Synchronous compartment temperature control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Stephen J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, controls the cooling rate in one or both compartments to synchronize, alternating cycles of cooling the compartments to their set point temperatures.

  8. A delayed presentation of bilateral leg compartment syndrome following non-stop dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, James Gordon; Carter, Tom; White, Tim Oliver

    2015-03-18

    We present the case of a young man with a 48 h delayed presentation of bilateral lower limb acute compartment syndrome (ACS) affecting the anterior compartments following an extended period of dancing at a music festival. On making the diagnosis of ACS, the patient was immediately taken to theatre for fasciotomies and compartmental decompression. Repeat look fasciotomies revealed further necrosis to the muscles of the anterior compartments bilaterally and, effectively, all the muscle bellies within the anterior compartments were excised. The patient has been left with a significant functional deficit and disability. This case highlights the importance of timely diagnosis of ACS as delay in presentation can impact significantly on subsequent functional outcome and quality of life. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  10. Assessment of Fire Growth and Mitigation in Submarine Plastic Waste Stowage Compartments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ndubizu, Chuka

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests to assess the fire growth characteristics and the ease of fire control in the proposed Virginia-class and the Ohio-class submarine plastic waste stowage compartments...

  11. Optimization of Dissolution Compartments in a Biorelevant Dissolution Apparatus Golem v2, Supported by Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stupák

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biorelevant dissolution instruments represent an important tool for pharmaceutical research and development. These instruments are designed to simulate the dissolution of drug formulations in conditions most closely mimicking the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we focused on the optimization of dissolution compartments/vessels for an updated version of the biorelevant dissolution apparatus—Golem v2. We designed eight compartments of uniform size but different inner geometry. The dissolution performance of the compartments was tested using immediate release caffeine tablets and evaluated by standard statistical methods and principal component analysis. Based on two phases of dissolution testing (using 250 and 100 mL of dissolution medium, we selected two compartment types yielding the highest measurement reproducibility. We also confirmed a statistically ssignificant effect of agitation rate and dissolution volume on the extent of drug dissolved and measurement reproducibility.

  12. Propriety check for quenching meshes for control of hydrogen combustion between two compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, H. Z.; Kim, H. D.; Hong, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    In our previous study, the quenching meshes have been proposed for the control of hydrogen combustion under nuclear severe accident. It has been investigated whether the method of installation of quenching mesh to prevent flame from propagating to the other compartment is proper or not. Schlieren photograph is used to visualize the propagation of flame between two compartments. Without the quenching mesh equipped between the compartments, it has been observed that the flame always propagates from a compartment to the other. The data on quencing distance of hydrogen premixed flames gotten in our previous study is alayzed to setup of optimum quenching mesh, too. Such experimental results establish that the quenching meshes proposed for the control of hydrogen combustion are resonably available

  13. Acute gluteal compartment syndrome: superior gluteal artery rupture following a low energy injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aubrey; Chitre, Vivek; Deo, Hersh

    2012-12-17

    Acute compartment syndrome affecting the gluteal region is rare when compared to the same condition in the forearm or calf. When it does occur, it is usually due to prolonged immobilisation in those with altered consciousness. Gluteal compartment syndrome resulting from injury to the superior gluteal artery is extremely rare and to our knowledge has been described only twice--both after high-energy road traffic accidents (RTA). Other cases have described profound hypotension with superior gluteal artery injury after an RTA and falling off a horse, without acute gluteal compartment syndrome. We present a case of gluteal compartment syndrome due to rupture of the superior gluteal artery following a relatively minor fall. The patient required an emergency fasciotomy, which was performed within 4 h of the injury. This case highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition.

  14. Development of a compartment model based on CFD simulations for description of mixing in bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crine, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and modeling the complex interactions between biological reaction and hydrodynamics are a key problem when dealing with bioprocesses. It is fundamental to be able to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. CFD can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of "Compartment" or "Multi-zone" models which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a methodology in order to propose a compartment model based on CFD simulations of a bioreactor. The flow rate between two compartments can be easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The difficulty lies in the definition of the zones in such a way they can be considered as perfectly mixed. The creation of the model compartments from CFD cells can be achieved manually or automatically. The manual zoning consists in aggregating CFD cells according to the user's wish. The automatic zoning defines compartments as regions within which the value of one or several properties are uniform with respect to a given tolerance. Both manual and automatic zoning methods have been developed and compared by simulating the mixing of an inert scalar. For the automatic zoning, several algorithms and different flow properties have been tested as criteria for the compartment creation.

  15. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  16. CHRONIC COMPARTMENT SYNDROME OF LOWER LEG. AN UNUSUAL CASE IN NON ATHLETIC PATIENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schiavone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is debilitating disease of lower limb. The clinical picture is characterised by limited symptomology at rest, pain during sporting activities, tumefaction and contractures of limb as well impotency by pain of the entire forefoot and hypoesthesia. Usually the most affected patients are athletes. We analyse a case of chronic post traumatic compartment syndrome of the anterior tibial muscle in an unsportsmanlike patient.

  17. Investigation of Local Hydrogen Risk in the RDT Compartment of OPR1000 under SBO Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Kyung; Jeon, Joon Goo; Choi, Won Jun; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong

    2016-01-01

    As TMI-2 and Fukushima accidents revealed, a high concentration of hydrogen in a nuclear power plant (NPP) could cause hydrogen combustion. In order to take follow-up measures, an average and local hydrogen concentration in the NPP containment are regulated below 0.1 using hydrogen mitigation system such as igniter and/or passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR). During a severe accident, some compartments of the NPP containment temporarily may show peaks of the local hydrogen concentration over 0.1 depending on the geometry of the containment structure and hydrogen transportation path. For example, the compartment of a reactor drain tank (RDT) is connected to the pressurizer nozzle and if the relieved pressure drives the significant amount of steam and hydrogen, then substantial peaks of the hydrogen concentration can occur. Before the RPV failure under SBO scenario, the RDT compartment was the main region for hydrogen release due to the RDT break. Therefore, confirming the local hydrogen risk in the RDT compartment is very important to verify the integrity of the NPP containment. In this study, the local hydrogen risk in the RDT compartment of OPR1000 under SBO scenario was evaluated using MELCOR 1.8.6 code in terms of the hydrogen volume fraction and the Shapiro diagram. (1) The RDT compartment showed the peaks of the hydrogen volume fraction over 0.1. As a future work, the local hydrogen risk of the compartment of a steam generator (SG) needs to be analyzed under SBLOCA scenario. Because the SG compartment is also a main region of hydrogen release under SBLOCA scenario. In the long run, the analysis for the detailed hydrogen distribution, based on detailed modeling of the whole OPR1000 containment, needs to be performed.

  18. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  19. LYMPHOCYTIC THYROIDITIS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED NUMBER OF BENIGN CERVICAL NODES AND FEWER CENTRAL NECK COMPARTMENT METASTATIC LYMPH NODES IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Walts, Ann E; Bresee, Catherine; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2016-10-01

    Whether or not autoimmune thyroid disease influences the progression of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains controversial. Findings of previous studies are influenced by lead time bias and/or procedure bias selection. These biases can be reduced by studying a single-institution patient population that underwent a similar extent of surgical resection. From a cohort of 660 patients with DTC who underwent thyroidectomy, we retrospectively studied 357 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and central compartment node dissection (CCND) for DTC between 2003 and 2013. Forty-one percent (140/345) of study patients had lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT), and 30% (91/301) had serum positive for thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb). LT was reported in 78% of the TgAb-positive cases. Sixty percent (213/357) of cases had metastatic thyroid carcinoma in 1 or more neck lymph nodes (55% [198/357] central compartment, and 22% [77/356] lateral compartment). Patients with LT had fewer metastatic cervical lymph nodes than those with no LT (2.7 ± 4.7 vs 3.5 ± 4.8, respectively, P = .0285). Patients with positive TgAb and thyroiditis had a larger number of benign cervical lymph nodes removed than those with negative TgAb or no LT. No significant difference was observed in age, tumor size, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, or frequency of cervical lymph node metastasis between TgAb-negative and -positive cases or between cases with and without LT. Lymphocytic thyroiditis is associated with fewer central neck compartment metastatic lymph nodes and a larger number of excised reactive benign cervical lymph nodes. Whether this association indicates a protective role of thyroid autoimmunity in lymph node spreading remains unclear. CCND = central compartment node dissection DTC = differentiated thyroid cancer HT = Hashimoto thyroiditis LT = lymphocytic thyroiditis TgAb = thyroglobulin antibody TPO = thyroid peroxidase.

  20. Search for and characterization of microorganisms in deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the scientific community has shown a growing interest for deep geological compartments. However, these ecosystems remain largely unknown due to their inaccessibility. The aim of the present thesis was double; the first aim was to characterize, from a microbiological perspective, four terrestrial Triassic sedimentary formations located between 1700 and 2000 m depth in the Parisian Basin and collected by the ANDRA during a deep drilling campaign in 2008, and the second aim was to study the combined effects of temperature, pressure and salinity on the metabolic activity of anaerobic prokaryotes in order to predict their reaction to geological burial. Incubations in a large variety of media were carried out in order to stimulate the growth of the main trophic types found in such environments such as methanogens, fermenters and bacteria reducing sulphur compounds, however, no viable and cultivable microorganisms could be isolated. In parallel, a molecular approach was used to i) compare the efficacy of several DNA extractions methods and ii) analyse the bacterial diversity, using DGGE (Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning, present in rock inner cores conserved either at atmospheric pressure or under pressure, in their initial states and following incubations in various media. The genetic exploration of these samples revealed a very low biomass and a poor diversity composed mainly of aerobic and mesophilic members of the Bacteria domain, a priori unadapted to such a deep, hot, saline and anoxic environment. This unexpected microbial community also found in many subsurface ecosystems as well as in extreme ecosystems could have partially originated from a paleo-recharge of the Trias aquifer with cold waters coming from the melting of ice formed during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The second objective was to study the combined effects of temperature (40, 55 and 70 C), pressure (1, 90 and 180 bars) and salinity (13, 50, 110, 180

  1. Human herpesvirus-8 infection leads to expansion of the preimmune/natural effector B cell compartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Della Bella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS and of some lymphoproliferative disorders of B cells. Most malignancies develop after long-lasting viral dormancy, and a preventing role for both humoral and cellular immune control is suggested by the high frequency of these pathologies in immunosuppressed patients. B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells of peripheral lymphoid organs and blood represent the major reservoir of HHV-8. Due to the dual role of B cells in HHV-8 infection, both as virus reservoir and as agents of humoral immune control, we analyzed the subset distribution and the functional state of peripheral blood B cells in HHV-8-infected individuals with and without cKS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Circulating B cells and their subsets were analyzed by 6-color flow cytometry in the following groups: 1- patients HHV-8 positive with classic KS (cKS (n = 47; 2- subjects HHV-8 positive and cKS negative (HSP (n = 10; 3- healthy controls, HHV-8 negative and cKS negative (HC (n = 43. The number of B cells belonging to the preimmune/natural effector compartment, including transitional, pre-naïve, naïve and MZ-like subsets, was significantly higher among HHV-8 positive subjects, with or without cKS, while was comparable to healthy controls in the antigen-experienced T-cell dependent compartment. The increased number of preimmune/natural effector B cells was associated with increased resistance to spontaneous apoptosis, while it did not correlate with HHV-8 viral load. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that long-lasting HHV-8 infection promotes an imbalance in peripheral B cell subsets, perturbing the equilibrium between earlier and later steps of maturation and activation processes. This observation may broaden our understanding of the complex interplay between viral and immune factors leading HHV-8-infected individuals to develop HHV-8-associated malignancies.

  2. The longest telomeres: a general signature of adult stem cell compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ignacio; Canela, Andres; Vera, Elsa; Tejera, Agueda; Cotsarelis, George; Blasco, María A.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of adult stem cells and their location (niches) is of great relevance for regenerative medicine. However, stem cell niches are still poorly defined in most adult tissues. Here, we show that the longest telomeres are a general feature of adult stem cell compartments. Using confocal telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomapping), we find gradients of telomere length within tissues, with the longest telomeres mapping to the known stem cell compartments. In mouse hair follicles, we show that cells with the longest telomeres map to the known stem cell compartments, colocalize with stem cell markers, and behave as stem cells upon treatment with mitogenic stimuli. Using K15-EGFP reporter mice, which mark hair follicle stem cells, we show that GFP-positive cells have the longest telomeres. The stem cell compartments in small intestine, testis, cornea, and brain of the mouse are also enriched in cells with the longest telomeres. This constitutes the description of a novel general property of adult stem cell compartments. Finally, we make the novel finding that telomeres shorten with age in different mouse stem cell compartments, which parallels a decline in stem cell functionality, suggesting that telomere loss may contribute to stem cell dysfunction with age. PMID:18283121

  3. Mercury distribution in the main compartments of the eutrophic Lake Candia (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria BEONE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Total mercury (T-Hg and organic mercury (mainly methylmercury, MeHg concentrations in the most important compartments (water, sediment, macrophytes, zooplankton, mussels and fish of the shallow and eutrophic Lake Candia (Turin, Northern Italy were measured. The decreasing sequence of the T-Hg concentrations is as follows: cat-fish (143 μg kg-1 d.w., zooplankton (77 μg kg-1 d.w., Unio pictorum mancus (37.9 μg kg-1 d.w., macrophytes (28.9 μg kg-1 d.w.. The content of mercury in mussel tissues increased with the size of the animal, but the relationship between Hg concentration and tissue weight was negative, indicating that the rate of mercury accumulation was lower than the tissue growth rate. The amount of mercury accumulated in the mussels living in the lake sediments was estimated to be 0.54 μg m-2. The importance of mercury biomagnification is also discussed.

  4. Extracellular Tau Oligomers Induce Invasion of Endogenous Tau into the Somatodendritic Compartment and Axonal Transport Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Eric; Breckenridge, Leigham; McMahon, Lloyd; Som, Sreemoyee; McConnell, Ian; Bloom, George S.

    2017-01-01

    Aggregates composed of the microtubule associated protein, tau, are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and non-Alzheimer’s tauopathies. Extracellular tau can induce the accumulation and aggregation of intracellular tau, and tau pathology can be transmitted along neural networks over time. There are six splice variants of central nervous system tau, and various oligomeric and fibrillar forms are associated with neurodegeneration in vivo. The particular extracellular forms of tau capable of transferring tau pathology from neuron to neuron remain ill defined, however, as do the consequences of intracellular tau aggregation on neuronal physiology. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of extracellular tau monomers, oligomers, and filaments comprising various tau isoforms on the behavior of cultured neurons. We found that 2N4R or 2N3R tau oligomers provoked aggregation of endogenous intracellular tau much more effectively than monomers or fibrils, or of oligomers made from other tau isoforms, and that a mixture of all six isoforms most potently provoked intracellular tau accumulation. These effects were associated with invasion of tau into the somatodendritic compartment. Finally, we observed that 2N4R oligomers perturbed fast axonal transport of membranous organelles along microtubules. Intracellular tau accumulation was often accompanied by increases in the run length, run time and instantaneous velocity of membranous cargo. This work indicates that extracellular tau oligomers can disrupt normal neuronal homeostasis by triggering axonal tau accumulation and loss of the polarized distribution of tau, and by impairing fast axonal transport. PMID:28482642

  5. Compartment-Specific Biosensors Reveal a Complementary Subcellular Distribution of Bioactive Furin and PC7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Ginefra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Furin trafficking, and that of related proprotein convertases (PCs, may regulate which substrates are accessible for endoproteolysis, but tools to directly test this hypothesis have been lacking. Here, we develop targeted biosensors that indicate Furin activity in endosomes is 10-fold less inhibited by decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethylketone and enriched >3-fold in endosomes compared to the trans-Golgi network (TGN. Endogenous PC7, which resists this inhibitor, was active in distinct vesicles. Only overexpressed PC7 activity reached the cell surface, endosomes, and the TGN. A PLC motif in the cytosolic tail of PC7 was dispensable for endosomal activity, but it was specifically required for TGN recycling and to rescue proActivin-A cleavage in Furin-depleted B16F1 melanoma cells. In sharp contrast, PC7 complemented Furin in cleaving Notch1 independently of PLC-mediated TGN access. Our study provides a proof in principle that compartment-specific biosensors can be used to gain insight into the regulation of PC trafficking and to map the tropism of PC-specific inhibitors.

  6. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p lead to the major crustal elements (Al, Sr, Ti and Fe) indicates significant lead enrichment in atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. One elevated bladder pressure measurement may not be enough to diagnose abdominal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew Joseph; Weber, William; Wolfe, Luke; Ivatury, Rao R; Duane, Therese Marie

    2013-02-01

    Bladder pressure measurements (BPMs) are considered a key component in the diagnosis of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The purpose of this observational review was to determine risk factors of ACS and associated mortality with particular focus on the role of BPM. A retrospective trauma registry and chart review was performed on trauma patients from January 2003 through December 2010. Comparisons were made between patients with and without ACS. There were 3172 patients included in the study of whom 46 had ACS. Patients with ACS were younger, more severely injured, with longer lengths of stay. Logistic regression determined Injury Severity Score (ISS) and urinary catheter days as independent predictors of ACS, whereas independent predictors of mortality included age, ISS, and ACS. Subset analysis demonstrated no association between BPM 20 mmHg or greater and diagnosis of ACS versus no ACS. Logistic regression indicated independent predictors of mortality were number of BPM 20 mmHg or greater and age. Patients with ACS are more severely injured with worse outcomes. An isolated BPM 20 mmHg or greater was not associated with ACS and may be inadequate to independently diagnose ACS. These findings suggest the need for repeat measurements with early intervention if they remain elevated in an effort to decrease mortality associated with ACS.

  8. Biocompatible click chemistry enabled compartment-specific pH measurement inside E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maiyun; Jalloh, Abubakar S; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Peng; Chen, Peng R

    2014-09-19

    Bioorthogonal reactions, especially the Cu(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, have revolutionized our ability to label and manipulate biomolecules under living conditions. The cytotoxicity of Cu(I) ions, however, has hindered the application of this reaction in the internal space of living cells. By systematically surveying a panel of Cu(I)-stabilizing ligands in promoting protein labelling within the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, we identify a highly efficient and biocompatible catalyst for intracellular modification of proteins by azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This reaction permits us to conjugate an environment-sensitive fluorophore site specifically onto HdeA, an acid-stress chaperone that adopts pH-dependent conformational changes, in both the periplasm and cytoplasm of E. coli. The resulting protein-fluorophore hybrid pH indicators enable compartment-specific pH measurement to determine the pH gradient across the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. This construct also allows the measurement of E. coli transmembrane potential, and the determination of the proton motive force across its inner membrane under normal and acid-stress conditions.

  9. Body fat measurement among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians: a comparative study using a four-compartment model and different two-compartment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    This cross-sectional study compared body fat percentage (BF€obtained from a four-compartment (4C) model with BF␏rom hydrometry (using 2H2O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and densitometry among the three main ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in Singapore, and determined the

  10. A theoretical compartment model for antigen kinetics in the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römgens, A.M.; Bader, D.L.; Bouwstra, J.A.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a promising location for vaccination with its abundant population of antigen capturing and presenting cells. The development of new techniques, such as the use of microneedles, can facilitate the delivery of vaccines into the skin. In recent years, many different types of microneedle

  11. Creatine-creatine phosphate shuttle modeled as two-compartment system at different levels of creatine kinase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey

    1994-01-01

    In order to characterize ADP-ATP and creatine-creatine phosphate (Cr-CrP) shuttles a minimal mathematical model with two compartments and cyclic turnover of matter was designed. The 'mitochondrial' compartment contained 'ATP-synthase' and 'mitochondrial ereatine kinase' (mitCK). The 'cytoplasmic......' compartment consisted of 'ATPase', 'cytoplasmic creatine kinase' (cytCK) and an 'ADP-binding structure'. The exchange of metabolites between these compartments was limited. Different levels of cytCK and mitCK expression as welt as different exchange rate constants between the compartments were assigned...

  12. A One-compartment direct glucose alkaline fuel cell with methyl viologen as electron mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xianhua; Hao, Miaoqing; Feng, Mengnan; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yong; Du, Xiwen; Wang, Guangyi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A glucose–air alkaline fuel cell without using noble metal catalysts has been developed. ► The rudimentary fuel cell generates a maximum power density of 0.62 mW m −2 . ► The high performance is attributed to the use of MV and nickel foam. ► Main oxidation products are small organic acids indicating deep oxidation of glucose. - Abstract: Glucose is abundant, renewable, non-toxic and convenient as a fuel for fuel cells, but current technologies are unavailable for us to directly oxidize it to obtain energy. Fuel cells using enzymes and micro-organisms as catalysts are limited by their extremely low power output and rather short durability. Fuel cells using precious metal catalyst are expensive for large-scale use. In this work, a one-compartment direct glucose alkaline fuel cell has been developed that use methyl viologen (MV) as electron mediator and nickel foam as the anode. The rudimentary fuel cell generates a maximum power density of 0.62 mW cm −2 , while the maximum current density is 5.03 mA cm −2 . Electro-catalytic activities of MV and the nickel foam in alkaline conditions were studied by cyclic voltammetry. It is indicated that the high performance of the fuel cell is attributed to the combined use of MV and nickel foam. 13 C-NMR and HPLC were used to analyze oxidation products of glucose. The result shows that the principal oxidation products are short-chain organic acids indicating deep oxidation of glucose is achieved

  13. Modelling the delay between pharmacokinetics and EEG effects of morphine in rats: binding kinetic versus effect compartment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, Wilhelmus E A; Rottschäfer, Vivi; Danhof, Meindert; van der Graaf, Piet H; Peletier, Lambertus A; de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2018-05-18

    Drug-target binding kinetics (as determined by association and dissociation rate constants, k on and k off ) can be an important determinant of the kinetics of drug action. However, the effect compartment model is used most frequently instead of a target binding model to describe hysteresis. Here we investigate when the drug-target binding model should be used in lieu of the effect compartment model. The utility of the effect compartment (EC), the target binding kinetics (TB) and the combined effect compartment-target binding kinetics (EC-TB) model were tested on either plasma (EC PL , TB PL and EC-TB PL ) or brain extracellular fluid (ECF) (EC ECF , TB ECF and EC-TB ECF ) morphine concentrations and EEG amplitude in rats. It was also analyzed when a significant shift in the time to maximal target occupancy (Tmax TO ) with increasing dose, the discriminating feature between the TB and EC model, occurs in the TB model. All TB models assumed a linear relationship between target occupancy and drug effect on the EEG amplitude. All three model types performed similarly in describing the morphine pharmacodynamics data, although the EC model provided the best statistical result. The analysis of the shift in Tmax TO (∆Tmax TO ) as a result of increasing dose revealed that ∆Tmax TO is decreasing towards zero if the k off is much smaller than the elimination rate constant or if the target concentration is larger than the initial morphine concentration. The results for the morphine PKPD modelling and the analysis of ∆Tmax TO indicate that the EC and TB models do not necessarily lead to different drug effect versus time curves for different doses if a delay between drug concentrations and drug effect (hysteresis) is described. Drawing mechanistic conclusions from successfully fitting one of these two models should therefore be avoided. Since the TB model can be informed by in vitro measurements of k on and k off , a target binding model should be considered more often

  14. The Fanconi anemia proteins FAA and FAC function in different cellular compartments to protect against cross-linking agent cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, F A; Youssoufian, H

    1998-10-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosomal instability, bone marrow failure, and a high risk of developing malignancies. Although the disorder is genetically heterogeneous, all FA cells are defined by their sensitivity to the apoptosis-inducing effect of cross-linking agents, such as mitomycin C (MMC). The cloned FA disease genes, FAC and FAA, encode proteins with no homology to each other or to any known protein. We generated a highly specific antibody against FAA and found the protein in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of mammalian cells. By subcellular fractionation, FAA is also associated with intracellular membranes. To identify the subcellular compartment that is relevant for FAA activity, we appended nuclear export and nuclear localization signals to the carboxy terminus of FAA and enriched its localization in either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. Nuclear localization of FAA was both necessary and sufficient to correct MMC sensitivity in FA-A cells. In addition, we found no evidence for an interaction between FAA and FAC either in vivo or in vitro. Together with a previous finding that FAC is active in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus, our results indicate that FAA and FAC function in separate subcellular compartments. Thus, FAA and FAC, if functionally linked, are more likely to be in a linear pathway rather than form a macromolecular complex to protect against cross-linker cytotoxicity.

  15. Long-term In Vivo Calcium Imaging of Astrocytes Reveals Distinct Cellular Compartment Responses to Sensory Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, Jillian L; Ferrari, Kim David; Barrett, Matthew J P; Stobart, Michael J; Looser, Zoe J; Saab, Aiman S; Weber, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Localized, heterogeneous calcium transients occur throughout astrocytes, but the characteristics and long-term stability of these signals, particularly in response to sensory stimulation, remain unknown. Here, we used a genetically encoded calcium indicator and an activity-based image analysis scheme to monitor astrocyte calcium activity in vivo. We found that different subcellular compartments (processes, somata, and endfeet) displayed distinct signaling characteristics. Closer examination of individual signals showed that sensory stimulation elevated the number of specific types of calcium peaks within astrocyte processes and somata, in a cortical layer-dependent manner, and that the signals became more synchronous upon sensory stimulation. Although mice genetically lacking astrocytic IP3R-dependent calcium signaling (Ip3r2-/-) had fewer signal peaks, the response to sensory stimulation was sustained, suggesting other calcium pathways are also involved. Long-term imaging of astrocyte populations revealed that all compartments reliably responded to stimulation over several months, but that the location of the response within processes may vary. These previously unknown characteristics of subcellular astrocyte calcium signals provide new insights into how astrocytes may encode local neuronal circuit activity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh in the Absence of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javedani, Parisa P; Ratnabalasuriar, Radhika; Grall, Kristi J H

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome occurs when an increase in pressure results in vascular and functional impairment of the underlying nerve and muscles. Thigh compartment syndrome (TCS) is uncommon, but clinical suspicion warrants emergent surgical consultation and fasciotomy. We present a 42-year-old man evaluated for right lateral thigh pain, without a history of trauma, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), previous surgery, or intravenous drug use. He was febrile, tachycardic, with a mild leukocytosis, an elevated C-reactive protein level, and an elevated creatinine kinase level. Radiographs showed no abnormality and right lower extremity duplex ultrasound showed no DVT. A computed tomography scan of the right lower extremity was concerning for compartment syndrome. Surgical consultation was obtained, and the patient was taken to the operating room for fasciotomy. He was diagnosed with compartment syndrome intraoperatively. The patient was discharged on hospital day 10. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: TCS is exceedingly rare, especially in the absence of underlying traumatic and nontraumatic etiologies. The diagnosis is challenging because more elastic fascia with larger space in the thigh allows for accommodation of acute increases in pressure. Consequently, there may not be the expected acute rise in compartment pressures; increased compartment pressure may only be a late sign, when underlying neurovascular damage has already occurred. TCS is complicated by high morbidity and mortality. Emergent surgical consultation should be obtained when there is a high clinical suspicion for TCS, and limb-saving fasciotomy should not be delayed. This case shows the importance of a high level of suspicion for TCS in patients with no identifiable etiology and no historical risk factors for development of compartment syndrome, because TCS may not present with classic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radioecological synthesis of the various compartments of La Hague (Cotentin) marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.

    1986-03-01

    Permits for low level radioactive liquid waste releases by the LA HAGUE (Cotentin, France) fuel reprocessing plant are based on an accurate radioecological study of the marine environment. Since 1967, the monitoring of indicators such as seawater, sediments and marine organisms (Fucus serratus, Laminaria sp., Mytilus sp., ...) have made it possible to create an important environmental data base. A statistical treatment has been used to quantify the spatio-temporal (daily, seasonal, local and regional) variabilities of these indicators from 1975 up to now. It has demonstrated the interest of F. serratus seaweed as bioindicators of radioactivity. Moreover it appears that seawater-soluble radionuclides such as 125 Sb and 137 Cs are monitored through longer distance from the outlet than those bound to particles such as 144 Ce. A study of the sestonic load by satellite images suggested a number of geographical sites of potential accumulation through particle transport, some of which were verified by radioactivity measurements of sediments. However, such accumulation was not confirmed by the particle size distribution at the level of the Cap de LA HAGUE associated with radioactive measurements of seawater. A spectral analysis of biota radioactive levels vs radioactive waste releases showed a time delay of 2 - 4 months for F. serratus and Mytilus sp. collected in the local area of LA HAGUE after either an increase or a decrease of the releases. Modeling of marine currents fields associated with a transfer model can now be used to predict, at small time scales, the radioactivity levels inthe various Cotentin marine compartments from the liquid waste releases [fr

  18. Differential CARM1 Isoform Expression in Subcellular Compartments and among Malignant and Benign Breast Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shlensky

    Full Text Available Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1 is a coactivator for ERα and cancer-relevant transcription factors, and can methylate diverse cellular targets including histones. CARM1 is expressed in one of two alternative splice isoforms, full-length CARM1 (CARM1FL and truncated CARM1 (CARM1ΔE15. CARM1FL and CARM1ΔE15 function differently in transcriptional regulation, protein methylation, and mediation of pre-mRNA splicing in cellular models.To investigate the functional roles and the prognosis potential of CARM1 alternative spliced isoforms in breast cancer, we used recently developed antibodies to detect differential CARM1 isoform expression in subcellular compartments and among malignant and benign breast tumors.Immunofluorescence in MDA-MB-231 and BG-1 cell lines demonstrated that CARM1ΔE15 is the dominant isoform expressed in the cytoplasm, and CARM1FL is more nuclear localized. CARM1ΔE15 was found to be more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition than CARM1FL, indicating that the truncated isoform may be the oncogenic form. Clinical cancer samples did not have significantly higher expression of CARM1FL or CARM1ΔE15 than benign breast samples at the level of mRNA or histology. Furthermore neither CARM1FL nor CARM1ΔE15 expression correlated with breast cancer molecular subtypes, tumor size, or lymph node involvement.The analysis presented here lends new insights into the possible oncogenic role of CARM1ΔE15. This study also demonstrates no obvious association of CARM1 isoform expression and clinical correlates in breast cancer. Recent studies, however, have shown that CARM1 expression correlates with poor prognosis, indicating a need for further studies of both CARM1 isoforms in a large cohort of breast cancer specimens.

  19. Study of indicators aggregation techniques for the selection of a new nuclear reactor for Mexico; Estudio de tecnicas de agregacion de indicadores para la seleccion de un nuevo reactor nuclear para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan M, A.M.; Martin del Campo M, C. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: ale_bar_m@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-07-01

    A study on several aggregation techniques that can be used as multi criteria analysis methods, like important part of the methodology developed for the selection of a nuclear reactor for Mexico is described. In an arbitrary way three reactors were selected to be compared, these they are the AP1000 (Advance Passive from 1000 MWe), the PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) and the GT-MHR (Gas Turbine Modular Helium). The evaluation approaches were classified in three categories: Economic, Socio-political and of safety and environment. In each category they were defined the more important evaluation indicators and then it was built a matrix with those values of each reactor. The four studied aggregation methods are described: Normalization, Linear deliberation, Fuzzy Logic and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). The well-known aggregation mechanisms are those that are obtained of the lineal deliberation and of the normalization, which have demonstrated to give good results before the simplicity of their use. The fuzzy logic has the advantage that it allows to manage qualitative and quantitative information simultaneously without the aggregation problems that are presented since in a conventional system the semantic pattern on that is based, it is provided by the theory of the diffuse groups that has demonstrated in other areas of the knowledge a better approach to the reality, when admitting that the nature has shades and that the decisions take in function of a wide range of possibilities and of approaches in contradictory occasions or in conflict, all equally worth. The Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) that consists in formalizing the intuitive understanding of a multi criteria complex problem, by means of the construction of a hierarchical model that allows the decision agent to structure the problem in visual form, giving him the form of a hierarchy of attributes (global objective of the problem, approaches and alternative). Finally, using the matrix of initiators

  20. Density fractions versus size separates: does physical fractionation isolate functional soil compartments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Moni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical fractionation is a widely used methodology to study soil organic matter (SOM dynamics, but concerns have been raised that the available fractionation methods do not well describe functional SOM pools. In this study we explore whether physical fractionation techniques isolate soil compartments in a meaningful and functionally relevant way for the investigation of litter-derived nitrogen dynamics at the decadal timescale. We do so by performing aggregate density fractionation (ADF and particle size-density fractionation (PSDF on mineral soil samples from two European beech forests a decade after application of 15N labelled litter.

    Both density and size-based fractionation methods suggested that litter-derived nitrogen became increasingly associated with the mineral phase as decomposition progressed, within aggregates and onto mineral surfaces. However, scientists investigating specific aspects of litter-derived nitrogen dynamics are pointed towards ADF when adsorption and aggregation processes are of interest, whereas PSDF is the superior tool to research the fate of particulate organic matter (POM.

    Some methodological caveats were observed mainly for the PSDF procedure, the most important one being that fine fractions isolated after sonication can not be linked to any defined decomposition pathway or protective mechanism. This also implies that historical assumptions about the "adsorbed" state of carbon associated with fine fractions need to be re-evaluated. Finally, this work demonstrates that establishing a comprehensive picture of whole soil OM dynamics requires a combination of both methodologies and we offer a suggestion for an efficient combination of the density and size-based approaches.

  1. Indications for coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Vallbracht, C.

    1985-01-01

    Today selective coronary angiography, introduced by Sones in 1957, is used as clinical routine for diagnosing morphological changes in the coronary arteries. Hitherto, more recent techniques such as digital subtraction angiography cannot provide comparable information. Strict criteria for its indication depending on possible therapeutic consequences, have to be applied, although the risk is low with a letality of 0.01 to 0.05 percent. Radionuclear investigations can be used as additional tool in selected cases. The careful indication for coronary angiography usually implies the possible need for coronary bypass graft surgery of balloon angioplasty. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Bilateral simultaneous traumatic upper arm compartment syndromes associated with anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Gurhan; Davies, Nev; Williams, Huw; Deo, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome, a surgical emergency, is defined as increased pressure in an osseofascial space. The resulting reduction of capillary perfusion to that compartment requires prompt fasciotomy. Treatment delay has a poor prognosis, and is associated with muscle and nerve ischemia, resultant infarction, and late-onset contractures. We report a case of traumatic bilateral upper limb acute compartment syndrome associated with anabolic steroids, requiring bilateral emergency fasciotomies. A 25-year-old male bodybuilder taking anabolic steroids, with no past medical history, presented to the Emergency Department 25 min after a road traffic accident. Secondary survey confirmed injuries to both upper limbs with no distal neurovascular deficit. Plain radiographs demonstrated bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the distal humeri. Within 2 h of the accident, the patient developed clinical features that were consistent with bilateral upper arm compartment syndrome. Bilateral fasciotomies of both anterior and posterior compartments were performed, confirming clinical suspicion. We suggest consideration of a history of anabolic steroid use when evaluating patients with extremity trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1981-05-01

    An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems.

  4. Anatomical variations within the deep posterior compartment of the leg and important clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, M; Tierney, P

    2004-09-01

    The management of musculoskeletal conditions makes up a large part of a sports medicine practitioner's practice. A thorough knowledge of anatomy is an essential component of the armament necessary to decipher the large number of potential conditions that may confront these practitioners. To cloud the issue further, anatomical variations may be present, such as supernumerary muscles, thickened fascial bands or variant courses of nerves and blood vessels, which can themselves manifest as acute or chronic conditions that lead to significant morbidity or limitation of activity. There are a number of contentious areas within the literature surrounding the anatomy of the leg, particularly involving the deep posterior compartment. Conditions such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial periostitis (shin splints), peripheral nerve entrapment and tarsal tunnel syndrome may all be affected by subtle anatomical variations. This paper primarily focuses on the deep posterior compartment of the leg and uses the gross dissection of cadaveric specimens to describe definitively the anatomy of the deep posterior compartment. Variant fascial attachments of flexor digitorum longus are documented and potential clinical sequelae such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome and tarsal tunnel syndrome are discussed.

  5. Quantitative muscle hardness as a noninvasive means for detecting patients at risk of compartment syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, Bruce; Riel, Ryan; Armitage, Marshal; Berrey, Hudson

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the efficacy of quantitative muscle hardness (QH) curve analysis for noninvasive measurement of muscle compartment interstitial pressure (IMP), and to eliminate the need for a comparison normal QH measurement to determine a pathologic reading. Elevation of IMP may lead to limb compartment syndrome, which may result in irreversible dysfunction, chronic pain and contracture. Two studies were performed by two separate independent examiners on male volunteers, where IMP measurements and QH curves were obtained. QH curves were divided into three parts comparing the third part to the second part using the coefficient of determination (R 2 ). In 205 limb compartments, there were 1432 comparison readings of the IMP versus R 2 . Using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis for all data from both studies, an R 2 cutoff of 0.974 best corresponded to a pathologic IMP of 50 mmHg. For both sets of data and for each compartment tested, the mean IMP values were statistically different (t-test: P < 0.0001) for the group with R 2 values less than 0.974 compared to the group of R 2 values greater than or equal to 0.974. In addition, a pressure prediction model was formulated with a strong overall correlation coefficient of 0.78. The data of this study support that QH analysis is potentially useful for the monitoring of IMP elevation in compartment syndrome

  6. Coordinate expansion of murine hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments by SHIPi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Iyer, S; Akada, H; Neelam, S; Russo, C M; Chisholm, J D; Kerr, W G

    2015-03-01

    Promoting the expansion of adult stem cell populations offers the potential to ameliorate radiation or chemotherapy-induced bone marrow failure and allows for expedited recovery for patients undergoing these therapies. Previous genetic studies suggested a pivotal role for SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) in limiting the size of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment. The aim of this study was to determine whether our recent development of small molecule SHIP1 inhibitors offers the potential for pharmacological expansion of the HSC compartment in vivo. We show here that treatment of mice with aminosteroid inhibitors of SHIP1 (SHIPi) more than doubles the size of the adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) compartment while simultaneously expanding the HSC pool sixfold. Consistent with its ability to target SHIP1 function in vivo, SHIPi also significantly increases plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, a growth factor that supports proliferation of HSC. Here, we show that SHIPi-induced G-CSF production mediates HSC and MSC expansion, as in vivo neutralization of G-CSF abrogates the SHIPi-induced expansion of both the HSC and MSC compartments. Due to its expansionary effect on adult stem cell compartments, SHIPi represents a potential novel strategy to improve declining stem cell function in both therapy induced and genetically derived bone marrow failure syndromes. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Roeleveld, K; Mork, P J

    2009-01-01

    of the human trapezius muscle can be independently activated by voluntary command, indicating neuromuscular compartmentalization of the trapezius muscle. The independent activation of the upper and lower subdivisions of the trapezius is in accordance with the selective innervation by the fine cranial and main...... branch of the accessory nerve to the upper and lower subdivisions. These findings provide new insight into motor control characteristics, learning possibilities, and function of the clinically relevant human trapezius muscle....

  8. Safety and performance indicators for repositories in salt and clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Jens; Ruebel, Andre; Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk

    2008-07-01

    The GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit) study aims to the identification of suitable indicators for repositories in salt and clay formation. It is not intended to compare the two formations with respect to the safe disposal of radioactive waste. A first set of safety and performance indicators for both host rocks has been derived on the basis of results of the SPIN project. Reference values for the safety indicators have been determined. The suitability of the indicators and their significance for different time frames Is demonstrated by means of deterministic model calculations and external parameter variations of previous studies. The safety indicators considered in the report are the effective dose rate (Sv/a), the radiotoxicity concentration in the biosphere water (Sv/m 3 ) and the radiotoxicity flux from the geosphere (overlying rock) (Sv/a). The performance indicators considered in the study are the radiotoxicity inventory in different compartments (S), radiotoxicity fluxes from compartments and the integrated radiotoxicity fluxes from compartments (Sv).

  9. Comparison of 2-compartment, 3-compartment and stack designs for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cell and stack designs for the electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from two harbour sediments, were made. Multivariate modelling showed that sediment properties and experimental set-ups had the highest influence on the heavy metal removal indicating that they should be modelled...

  10. Effects of long-duration bed rest on structural compartments of m. soleus in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerova, I.; Shenkman, B.; Mazin, M.; Leblanc, A.; LeBlanc, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histomorphometry and electron microscopy of muscle demonstrate that long-term exposure to actual or simulated weightlessness (including head down bed rest) leads to decreased volume of antigravity muscles in mammals. In muscles interbundle space is occupied by the connective tissue. Rat studies show that hindlimb unloading induces muscle fiber atrophy along with increase in muscle non-fiber connective tissue compartment. Beside that, usually 20% of the muscle fiber volume is comprised by non-contractile (non-myofibrillar) compartment. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in muscle volume, and in muscle fiber size with alterations in myofibrillar apparatus, and in connective tissue compartment in human m. soleus under conditions of 120 day long head down bed rest (HDBR).

  11. Optochemical Control of Protein Localization and Activity within Cell-like Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Reese M; Bermudez, Jessica G; Thai, David; Aonbangkhen, Chanat; Schuster, Benjamin S; Courtney, Taylor; Deiters, Alexander; Hammer, Daniel A; Chenoweth, David M; Good, Matthew C

    2018-05-08

    We report inducible dimerization strategies for controlling protein positioning, enzymatic activity, and organelle assembly inside synthetic cell-like compartments upon photostimulation. Using a photocaged TMP-Haloligand compound, we demonstrate small molecule and light-induced dimerization of DHFR and Haloenzyme to localize proteins to a compartment boundary and reconstitute tripartite sfGFP assembly. Using photocaged rapamycin and fragments of split TEV protease fused to FRB and FKBP, we establish optical triggering of protease activity inside cell-size compartments. We apply light-inducible protease activation to initiate assembly of membraneless organelles, demonstrating the applicability of these tools for characterizing cell biological processes in vitro. This modular toolkit, which affords spatial and temporal control of protein function in a minimal cell-like system, represents a critical step toward the reconstitution of a tunable synthetic cell, built from the bottom up.

  12. Hydrogen Generation by Koh-Ethanol Plasma Electrolysis Using Double Compartement Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, Nelson; Sasiang, Johannes; Dewi Rosalina, Chandra; Budikania, Trisutanti

    2018-03-01

    This study has successfully investigated the generation of hydrogen using double compartment reactor with plasma electrolysis process. Double compartment reactor is designed to achieve high discharged voltage, high concentration, and also reduce the energy consumption. The experimental results showed the use of double compartment reactor increased the productivity ratio 90 times higher compared to Faraday electrolysis process. The highest hydrogen production obtained is 26.50 mmol/min while the energy consumption can reach up 1.71 kJ/mmol H2 at 0.01 M KOH solution. It was shown that KOH concentration, addition of ethanol, cathode depth, and temperature have important effects on hydrogen production, energy consumption, and process efficiency.

  13. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following bariatric surgery: A rare but important complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gluteal Compartment Syndrome is a rare condition caused by excessive pressure within the gluteal compartments which leads to a number of potentially serious sequelae including rhabdomyolysis, nerve damage, renal failure and death. As bariatric patients are heavy and during prolonged bariatric procedures lie in one position for extended periods of time, they are especially susceptible to developing this complication. It is therefore essential that bariatric surgeons are aware of this complication and how to minimise the chances of it occurring and how to diagnose it. We describe a case of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome in a patient following a gastric bypass and review the aetiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prevention of this complication.

  14. Preliminary Study on GF/Carbon/Epoxy Composite Permeability in Designing Close Compartment Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya’acob, A. M.; Razali, D. A.; Anwar, U. A.; Radhi, A. H.; Ishak, A. A.; Minhat, M.; Aris, K. D. Mohd; Johari, M. K.; Casey, T.

    2018-05-01

    This project involves discovering how the permeability effect inside a close compartment in processing. After the appropriate pressure range was found, the close compartment was designed by studying the relationship between pressure output and the flow rate. A variety of pressure ranges have been used in this test to determine the effective pressure range that can be applied to the manufacturing process. Based on the results, the suitable pressure ranges were found between 55 psi to 75 psi. These pressures have been chosen based on the area covered on the product surfaces and time taken to penetrate the proposed area. The relationship between pressure and flow rate have been found to be directly proportional until 75 psi only. In conclusion, 70 psi for the proposed design of close compartment mould is suitable to be used to fulfill the required area of 120 mm square within 90 seconds.

  15. Acute compartment syndrome after rupture of the medial head of gastrocnemius in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vasu; Pai, Vishal

    2007-01-01

    Rupture of the gastrocnemius muscle is an uncommon injury, with most cases occurring in athletes and, typically, presenting with the acute onset of focal calf pain and ecchymosis after injury. Although gastrocnemius ruptures are usually treated symptomatically with good results, we present an unusual case of a medial head of gastrocnemius muscle tear complicated by acute compartment syndrome in a 7-year-old boy whose right calf was crushed in a fall. After confirmation of the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, the patient underwent emergency fasciotomy with evacuation of hematoma, and, thereafter, he recovered unremarkably. Clinicians and surgeons need to maintain a high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome associated with gastrocnemius muscle injury, so that timely surgical decompression can be undertaken and complications related to delayed diagnosis and treatment can be avoided.

  16. Development of a dynamic compartment model for the prediction of tritium behavior around NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Lee, Hansoo; Kang, Hee Suk; Choi, Yong Ho

    2003-01-01

    KAERI has developed a new model to find the relationship between the tritium release rate and tritium concentration in the environment. The model was based upon a dynamic compartment model. In this paper three kinds of global tritium cycling model were compared to estimate the natural background concentration of tritium in Korea. The dry and wet deposition rates were calculated using a computer program called DEPOS to derive a source term. The mechanisms considered for the transfer of tritium between the compartments were evaporation, groundwater flow, infiltration, runoff, and hydrodynamic dispersion. Also, transfer coefficients between the compartments were obtained using realistic geographical data. In order to illustrate the model various release scenarios were developed, and the change of tritium concentration in groundwater and surface water around the nuclear power plants was estimated. (author)

  17. Polarized trafficking: the palmitoylation cycle distributes cytoplasmic proteins to distinct neuronal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Elena; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2018-02-01

    In neurons, polarized cargo distribution occurs mainly between the soma and axonal and dendritic compartments, and requires coordinated regulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane trafficking. The Golgi complex plays a critical role during neuronal polarization and secretory trafficking has been shown to differentially transport proteins to both axons and dendrites. Besides the Golgi protein sorting, recent data revealed that palmitoylation cycles are an efficient mechanism to localize cytoplasmic, non-transmembrane proteins to particular neuronal compartments, such as the newly formed axon. Palmitoylation allows substrate proteins to bind to and ride with Golgi-derived secretory vesicles to all neuronal compartments. By allowing cytoplasmic proteins to 'hitchhike' on transport carriers in a non-polarized fashion, compartmentalized depalmitoylation may act as a selective retention mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TECHNIQUE OF ESTIMATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. Part 2. Dependence on the characteristics of collimator, optical sourse-distance indicator, treatment field, lasers and treatment couch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Tsitovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linac, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error (difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value in determining this value, depending on the characteristics of the collimator, the source to surface distance pointer, lasers, radiation field and treatment table. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the collimator, the deviation of the collimator rotation isocenter, the sourcesurface distance pointer accuracy, field size accuracy, the accuracy of lasers and treatment table positioning were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has the error in the optical SSD indication and the error in the lasers position in the plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3.64 % for the energy of 6 MV. Dose errors caused by error in the field size were different for two photon energies, and reached 2.54 % for 6 MeV and 1.33% for 18 MeV. Errors caused by the rest of the characteristic do not exceed 1 %. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of these devices integrated in linac in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation on the basis of the calibration of radiation output in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence dosimetric

  19. A Time- and Compartment-Specific Activation of Lung Macrophages in Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Steven C; Kumar, Sushil; Janssen, William J; Graham, Brian B; Frid, Maria G; Riddle, Suzette R; El Kasmi, Karim C; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2017-06-15

    Studies in various animal models suggest an important role for pulmonary macrophages in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Yet, the molecular mechanisms characterizing the functional macrophage phenotype relative to time and pulmonary localization and compartmentalization remain largely unknown. In this study, we used a hypoxic murine model of PH in combination with FACS to quantify and isolate lung macrophages from two compartments over time and characterize their programing via RNA sequencing approaches. In response to hypoxia, we found an early increase in macrophage number that was restricted to the interstitial/perivascular compartment, without recruitment of macrophages to the alveolar compartment or changes in the number of resident alveolar macrophages. Principal component analysis demonstrated significant differences in overall gene expression between alveolar and interstitial macrophages (IMs) at baseline and after 4 and 14 d hypoxic exposure. Alveolar macrophages at both day 4 and 14 and IMs at day 4 shared a conserved hypoxia program characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, proinflammatory gene activation, and mTORC1 signaling, whereas IMs at day 14 demonstrated a unique anti-inflammatory/proreparative programming state. We conclude that the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling in hypoxic PH involves an early compartment-independent activation of lung macrophages toward a conserved hypoxia program, with the development of compartment-specific programs later in the course of the disease. Thus, harnessing time- and compartment-specific differences in lung macrophage polarization needs to be considered in the therapeutic targeting of macrophages in hypoxic PH and potentially other inflammatory lung diseases. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremyslov, Valera V; Cole, Rex A; Fowler, John E; Dolja, Valerian V

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  1. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, E.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models in tracer kinetics are usually based on ordinary differential equations which correspond to a system of kinetically homogeneous compartments (standard compartments). A generalization is possible by the admission of inhomogeneities in the behaviour of the elements belonging to a compartment. The important special case of the age-dependence of elimination rates is treated in its deterministic version. It leads to partial different equations (i.e., systems with distributed coefficients) with the 'age' or the 'residence time' of an element of the compartment as a variable additional to 'time'. The basic equations for one generalized compartment and for systems of such compartments are given together with their general solutions. (orig.) [de

  2. Increase of forage dryness induces differentiated anatomical response in the sheep rumen compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paola; Mercati, Francesca; Tardella, Federico Maria; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the Surface Enlargement Factor (SEF) and the epithelial keratinization degree of sheep rumen change in response to phytomass production, and to forage fiber and water content during the pasture vegetative cycle. The study used eighteen sheep nourished with dry hay and cereals during the winter season and with fresh hay during the pasture vegetative cycle. We collected samples from rumen indicative regions for two consecutive years characterized by different rainfall and pasture productivity values. We evaluated the densities (D) of rumen papillae to estimate the rumen SEF, and the keratinization percentage of the epithelial lining; these parameters showed differentiated modifications in the four ruminal analyzed compartments in response to pasture seasonal conditions. In addition, we performed Canonical Redundancy Analysis (RDA) on the "keratinization and SEF" matrix constrained by phytomass, water, and crude fiber contents of pasture at different time in the two considered years to highlight how rumen features answer to pasture conditions. Atrium (A) and ventral sac (VS) keratinization showed a strict positive correlation to crude fiber, while SEF of VS was positively related to phytomass and forage water content. The degree of keratinization of the rumen VS epithelium proved to be a useful parameter for evaluating anatomical variations in the short term period related to pasture features; in addition, its monitoring could be carried out through biopsy, thus avoiding the killing of animals. The study also leads to the application of the 3Rs (Replacement; Reduction; and Refinement). Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:738-743, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Deep learning and three-compartment breast imaging in breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Karen; Huynh, Benjamin Q.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Malkov, Serghei; Avila, Jesus I.; Fan, Bo; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Kazemi, Leila; Pereira, Malesa M.; Shepherd, John

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether deep learning has potential to aid in the diagnosis of breast cancer when applied to mammograms and biologic tissue composition images derived from three-compartment (3CB) imaging. The dataset contained diagnostic mammograms and 3CB images (water, lipid, and protein content) of biopsy-sampled BIRADS 4 and 5 lesions in 195 patients. In 58 patients, the lesion manifested as a mass (13 malignant vs. 45 benign), in 87 as microcalcifications (19 vs. 68), and in 56 as (focal) asymmetry or architectural distortion (11 vs. 45). Six patients had both a mass and calcifications. For each mammogram and corresponding 3CB images, a 128x128 region of interest containing the lesion was selected by an expert radiologist and used directly as input to a deep learning method pretrained on a very large independent set of non-medical images. We used a nested leave-one-out-by-case (patient) model selection and classification protocol. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the task of distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions was used as performance metric. For the cases with mammographic masses, the AUC increased from 0.83 (mammograms alone) to 0.89 (mammograms+3CB, p=.162). For the microcalcification and asymmetry/architectural distortion cases the AUC increased from 0.84 to 0.91 (p=.116) and from 0.61 to 0.87 (p=.006), respectively. Our results indicate great potential for the application of deep learning methods in the diagnosis of breast cancer and additional knowledge of the biologic tissue composition appeared to improve performance, especially for lesions mammographically manifesting as asymmetries or architectural distortions.

  4. Benzoxazolinone detoxification by N-Glucosylation: The multi-compartment-network of Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Margot; Filary, Barbara; Kühn, Sabine; Colby, Thomas; Harzen, Anne; Schmidt, Jürgen; Sicker, Dieter; Hennig, Lothar; Hofmann, Diana; Disko, Ulrich; Anders, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The major detoxification product in maize roots after 24 h benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) exposure was identified as glucoside carbamate resulting from rearrangement of BOA-N-glucoside, but the pathway of N-glucosylation, enzymes involved and the site of synthesis were previously unknown. Assaying whole cell proteins revealed the necessity of H2O2 and Fe(2+) ions for glucoside carbamate production. Peroxidase produced BOA radicals are apparently formed within the extraplastic space of the young maize root. Radicals seem to be the preferred substrate for N-glucosylation, either by direct reaction with glucose or, more likely, the N-glucoside is released by glucanase/glucosidase catalyzed hydrolysis from cell wall components harboring fixed BOA. The processes are accompanied by alterations of cell wall polymers. Glucoside carbamate accumulation could be suppressed by the oxireductase inhibitor 2-bromo-4´-nitroacetophenone and by peroxidase inhibitor 2,3-butanedione. Alternatively, activated BOA molecules with an open heterocycle may be produced by microorganisms (e.g., endophyte Fusarium verticillioides) and channeled for enzymatic N-glucosylation. Experiments with transgenic Arabidopsis lines indicate a role of maize glucosyltransferase BX9 in BOA-N-glycosylation. Western blots with BX9 antibody demonstrate the presence of BX9 in the extraplastic space. Proteomic analyses verified a high BOA responsiveness of multiple peroxidases in the apoplast/cell wall. BOA incubations led to shifting, altered abundances and identities of the apoplast and cell wall located peroxidases, glucanases, glucosidases and glutathione transferases (GSTs). GSTs could function as glucoside carbamate transporters. The highly complex, compartment spanning and redox-regulated glucoside carbamate pathway seems to be mainly realized in Poaceae. In maize, carbamate production is independent from benzoxazinone synthesis.

  5. Serum IGF-1 affects skeletal acquisition in a temporal and compartment-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden-William Courtland

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 plays a critical role in the development of the growing skeleton by establishing both longitudinal and transverse bone accrual. IGF-1 has also been implicated in the maintenance of bone mass during late adulthood and aging, as decreases in serum IGF-1 levels appear to correlate with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD. Although informative, mouse models to date have been unable to separate the temporal effects of IGF-1 depletion on skeletal development. To address this problem, we performed a skeletal characterization of the inducible LID mouse (iLID, in which serum IGF-1 levels are depleted at selected ages. We found that depletion of serum IGF-1 in male iLID mice prior to adulthood (4 weeks decreased trabecular bone architecture and significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 16 weeks (adulthood. Likewise, depletion of serum IGF-1 in iLID males at 8 weeks of age, resulted in significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 32 weeks (late adulthood, but had no effect on trabecular bone architecture. In contrast, depletion of serum IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (at 16 weeks resulted in enhancement of trabecular bone architecture, but no significant changes in cortical bone properties by 32 weeks as compared to controls. These results indicate that while serum IGF-1 is essential for bone accrual during the postnatal growth phase, depletion of IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (16 weeks is compartment-specific and does not have a detrimental effect on cortical bone mass in the older adult mouse.

  6. Metal immobilization by sludge-derived biochar: roles of mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Huang, Xinchen; Jia, Yanming; Rees, Frederic; Tsang, Daniel C W; Qiu, Rongliang; Wang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Pyrolyzing sludge into biochar is a potentially promising recycling/disposal solution for municipal wastewater sludge, and the sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) presents an excellent sorbent for metal immobilization. As SDBC is composed of both mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment, this study therefore compared the sorption behaviour of Pb and Zn on SDBC to those of individual and mixture of activated carbon (AC) and amorphous aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). Batch experiments were conducted at 25 and 45 °C, and the metal-loaded sorbents were artificially aged in the atmosphere for 1-60 days followed by additional sorption experiments. The Pb sorption was generally higher than Zn sorption, and the co-presence of Pb reduced Zn sorption on each studied sorbent. Higher sorption capacities were observed at 45 °C than 25 °C for SDBC and AC, while the opposite was shown for Al 2 O 3 , indicating the significance of temperature-dependent diffusion processes in SDBC and AC. Nevertheless, metal sorption was more selective on Al 2 O 3 that showed a greater affinity towards Pb over Zn under competition, correlating with the reducible fraction of sequential extraction. Furthermore, significant amounts of Pb and Zn were additionally sorbed on SDBC following 30-day ageing. The X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of metal-phosphate precipitates, while the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a larger quantity of metal-oxygen bonding after 30-day ageing of metal-loaded SDBC. The results may imply favourable long-term transformation and additional sorption capacity of SDBC. In conclusion, SDBC resembles the sorption characteristics of both organic and mineral sorbents in different aspects, presenting an appropriate material for metal immobilization during soil amendment.

  7. On the application of the compartment theory to the modelling of the isotopic composition of nitrogen in its natural cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, E.; Wetzel, K.

    1979-01-01

    The compartment theory is presented as a means for mathematical modelling of isotope geochemical processes, taking into consideration isotopic effects. It is used to formulate a global model of the isotopic composition of nitrogen in its natural cycle, which consists of three pools connected by fluxes: nitrogen in magmatites, in the atmosphere, and in sedimentary rocks. A part from the simulation of the development of pool sizes, of delta 15 N values and of fluxes as functions of time through the history of the earth, contributions could be made to the solution of geochemical problems. The results of modelling indicate that the original atmosphere contained much less nitrogen than the present one (up to 10% of the present value), and that a nitrogen flux exists from the upper crust to the magmatites (about 6 . 10 5 tons/yr). (author)

  8. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  9. Combined Psoas Compartment-Sciatic Block in a Pediatric Patient with High-Risk Cardiopulmonary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Þahin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is high potential for complications in cardiopulmonary high-risk patients with valvular heart disease at perioperative period. The operation was planned due to pathological fracture of the femoral shaft of a nine year old male patient weighing 26 kilograms. He had 3o tricuspid insufficiency, 3o mitral insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension in preoperative evaluation. Sciatic nerve block and psoas compartment block was performed to patient for anesthesia and analgesia. In conclusion we think that combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block may be a good alternative to other methods of anesthesia in high-risk pediatric patients with cardiopulmonary perspective in lower-extremity surgery.

  10. Rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome in a bodybuilder undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian John Baxter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is the result of skeletal muscle tissue injury and is characterized by elevated creatine kinase levels, muscle pain, and myoglobinuria. It is caused by crush injuries, hyperthermia, drugs, toxins, and abnormal metabolic states. This is often difficult to diagnose perioperatively and can result in renal failure and compartment syndrome if not promptly treated. We report a rare case of inadvertent rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome in a bodybuilder undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery. The presentation, differential diagnoses, and management are discussed. Hyperkalemia may be the first presenting sign. Early recognition and management are essential to prevent life-threatening complications.

  11. Compartment modelling in nuclear medicine: a new program for the determination of transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallstadius, L.

    1986-01-01

    In many investigations concerning transport/exchange of matter in a natural system, e.g. functional studies in nuclear medicine, it is advantageous to relate experimental results to a model of the system. A new computer program is presented for the determination of linear transfer coefficients in a compartment model from experimentally observed time-compartment content curves. The program performs a least-square fit with the specified precision of the observed values as weight factors. The resulting uncertainty in the calculated transfer coefficients may also be assessed. The application of the program in nuclear medicine is demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  12. [Application of three compartment model and response surface model to clinical anesthesia using Microsoft Excel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Eiji; Abe, Mari

    2011-08-01

    With the spread of total intravenous anesthesia, clinical pharmacology has become more important. We report Microsoft Excel file applying three compartment model and response surface model to clinical anesthesia. On the Microsoft Excel sheet, propofol, remifentanil and fentanyl effect-site concentrations are predicted (three compartment model), and probabilities of no response to prodding, shaking, surrogates of painful stimuli and laryngoscopy are calculated using predicted effect-site drug concentration. Time-dependent changes in these calculated values are shown graphically. Recent development in anesthetic drug interaction studies are remarkable, and its application to clinical anesthesia with this Excel file is simple and helpful for clinical anesthesia.

  13. Combustion of lean hydrogen-air mixtures in the connected compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Liu; Yoshio Yoshizawa; Akio Miyori; Kenya Kubota

    1997-01-01

    A study of combustion experiments with premixed lean hydrogen-air mixtures was conducted in a vessel consisting of two compartments connected by a diameter-variable vent. Effects of various parameters (hydrogen concentration, vent diameter and initial pressure) on mechanical loads of the combustion processes including mainly the peak pressures and the rates of pressure rise were investigated. Relation of flow and combustion was approached. Ignition-combustion processes were discussed, and the combustion types were classified into three patterns according to the pressure-time histories and the flow characteristics in main combustion compartment

  14. Modelization of tritium transfer into the organic compartments of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Arapis, G.; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of tritium oxide and its conversion into organic tritium was studied in four different types of algae with widely varying size and growth characteristics (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, two strains of Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella bioculata). Water in the cell and the vacuales equilibrates rapidly with external tritium water. Tritium is actively incorporated into organically bound form as the organisms grow. During the stationary phase, incorporation of tritium is slow. There exists a discrimination against the incorporation of tritium into organically bound form. A model has been elaborated taking in account these different factors. It appears that transfer of organic tritium by algae growing near the sites of release would be significant only for actively growing algae. Algae growing slowly may, however, be useful as cumulative indicators of discontinuous tritium release. (author)

  15. Open abdomen procedure in managing abdominal compartment syndrome in a child with severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome with increased abdominal pressure resulted in multi-organ dysfunctions can be lethal in children. The open abdomen procedure intentionally leaves the abdominal cavity open in patients with severe abdominal sepsis and abdominal compartment syndrome by temporarily relieving the abdominal pressure. We reported our experience of open abdomen procedure in successfully treating a 4-year old boy with abdominal compartment syndrome caused by severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation.

  16. Comparison of transvaginal sonography and double-contrast barium enema for diagnosing deep infiltrating endometriosis of the posterior compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelli, L; Manuzzi, L; Coe, M; Mabrouk, M; Di Donato, N; Venturoli, S; Seracchioli, R

    2011-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in the preoperative detection of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) of the posterior compartment. This was a prospective study of 69 consecutive patients with results of pelvic examination or symptoms suggestive of DIE of the posterior compartment. TVS and DCBE were performed before surgery by two groups of physicians specialized in endometriosis, each blinded to the results of the other technique. Imaging data were compared with histopathologic analysis of the resected specimen (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and test accuracies were calculated for both imaging modalities. Sixty seven of the 69 women had a nodule of DIE confirmed at laparoscopy and histopathologic examination. TVS diagnosed DIE in 57 (85%) of these patients, while DCBE revealed the presence of the lesion in 24 (36%) women. For the diagnosis of posterior DIE, TVS and DCBE had, respectively, a sensitivity of 85% and 36%, specificity of 100% and 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and 100%, negative predictive value of 17% and 4% and accuracy of 85.5% and 38%. In patients with pure bowel DIE the sensitivity was 91% and 43%, specificity was 100% and 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and 100%, negative predictive value was 29% and 6% and accuracy was 91% and 45%, respectively. TVS has a much higher sensitivity than does DCBE in detecting the presence of posterior DIE and should thus be regarded as the imaging modality of choice when there is clinical suspicion of the disease. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Purging of the neuroblastoma stem cell compartment and tumor regression on exposure to hypoxia or cytotoxic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Ilaria; D'Amico, Massimo; Biagiotti, Tiziana; Giunti, Serena; Carbone, Maria Vittoria; Fredducci, David; Wanke, Enzo; Olivotto, Massimo

    2007-03-15

    We worked out an experimental protocol able to purge the stem cell compartment of the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma clone. This protocol was based on the prolonged treatment of the wild-type cell population with either hypoxia or the antiblastic etoposide. Cell fate was monitored by immunocytochemical and electrophysiologic (patch-clamp) techniques. Both treatments produced the progressive disappearance of neuronal type (N) cells (which constitute the bulk of the tumor), leaving space for a special category of epithelial-like substrate-adherent cells (S(0)). The latter represent a minimal cell component of the untreated population and are endowed with immunocytochemical markers (p75, c-kit, and CD133) and the electrophysiologic "nude" profile, typical of the neural crest stem cells. S(0) cells displayed a highly clonogenic potency and a substantial plasticity, generating both the N component and an alternative subpopulation terminally committed to the fibromuscular lineage. Unlike the N component, this lineage was highly insensitive to the apoptotic activity of hypoxia and etoposide and developed only when the neuronal option was abolished. Under these conditions, the fibromuscular progeny of S(0) expanded and progressed up to the exhaustion of the staminal compartment and to the extinction of the tumor. When combined, hypoxia and etoposide cooperated in abolishing the N cell generation and promoting the conversion of the tumor described. This synergy might mirror a natural condition in the ischemic areas occurring in cancer. These results have relevant implications for the understanding of the documented tendency of neuroblastomas to regress from a malignant to a benign phenotype, either spontaneously or on antiblastic treatment.

  18. Systemic Administration of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-3 Protects the Skeletal Muscle in Porcine Model of Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Aurelia; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Sanders, David; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Acute limb compartment syndrome, a complication of musculoskeletal trauma, results in muscle necrosis and cell death. Carbon monoxide, liberated from the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3, has been shown protective in a rat model of compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 in a preclinical large animal model of compartment syndrome, with the ultimate goal of developing a pharmacologic adjunct treatment for compartment syndrome. Animal research study. Basic research laboratory in a hospital setting. Male Yorkshire-Landrace pigs (50-60 kg). Pigs underwent 6 hours of intracompartmental pressure elevation by infusing fluid into the anterior compartment of the right hind limb. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 was administered systemically (2 mg/kg, IV) at fasciotomy, followed by 3-hour reperfusion. Muscle perfusion, inflammation, injury, and apoptosis were assessed in the skeletal muscle. Systemic leukocyte activation was assessed during compartment syndrome and reperfusion. Elevation of hind limb intracompartmental pressure resulted in significant microvascular perfusion deficits (44% ± 1% continuously perfused capillaries in compartment syndrome vs 76% ± 4% in sham; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy increased the number of continuously perfused capillaries (68% ± 3%; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy offered protection against compartment syndrome-induced microvascular perfusion deficit, tissue injury, and systemic leukocyte activation. The data suggest the potential therapeutic application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 to patients at risk of developing compartment syndrome.

  19. Handling of computational in vitro/in vivo correlation problems by Microsoft Excel: IV. Generalized matrix analysis of linear compartment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbucher, Frieder

    2005-01-01

    A linear system comprising n compartments is completely defined by the rate constants between any of the compartments and the initial condition in which compartment(s) the drug is present at the beginning. The generalized solution is the time profiles of drug amount in each compartment, described by polyexponential equations. Based on standard matrix operations, an Excel worksheet computes the rate constants and the coefficients, finally the full time profiles for a specified range of time values.

  20. Ra-226 and Rn-222 in saline water compartments of the Aral Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, Georg; Oberhänsli, Hedi; Hahne, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 222 Rn and 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Aral Sea region. • 226 Ra-analysis based on 222 Rn-ingrowth versus MS-analysis after solid-phase extraction. • 226 Ra in different groundwater types of the Aral Sea Basin. • 222 Rn distribution in the Aral Sea, western basin. - Abstract: The Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1963 due to extensive irrigation and the corresponding decline in the river water inflow. Understanding of the current hydrological situation demands an improved understanding of the surface water/groundwater dynamics in the region. 222 Rn and 226 Ra measurements can be used to trace groundwater discharge into surface waters. Data of these radiometric parameters were not previously available for the study region. We determined 222 Rn activities after liquid phase extraction using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) with peak-length discrimination and analyzed 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Amu Darya Delta (surface waters, unconfined groundwater, artesian water, and water profiles from the closed Large Aral Sea (western basin). The water samples comprise a salinity range between 1 and 263 g/l. The seasonal dynamics of solid/water interaction under an arid climate regime force the hydrochemical evolution of the unconfined groundwater in the Amu Darya Delta to high-salinity Na(Mg)Cl(SO 4 ) water types. The dissolved radium concentrations in the waters were mostly very low due to mineral over-saturation, extensive co-precipitation of radium and adsorption of radium on coexisting solid substrates. The analysis of very low 226 Ra concentrations (<10 ppq) at remote study sites is a challenge. We used the water samples to test and improve different analytical methods. In particular, we modified a procedure developed for the α-spectrometric determination of 226 Ra after solid phase extraction of radium using 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disks (Purkl, 2002) for the