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Sample records for comparing school lunch

  1. A school meal study: comparing platewaste and likings of packed lunch and school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The majority of Danish children do not eat in accordance with the national dietary guidelines. The OPUS School Meal Study is a school-based intervention study testing the health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND). The aim of this sub-study was to compare edible plate.......0; 119.0). Lunches rated as ‘really bad’ or ‘bad’ in the self-reported likings had more waste than lunches rated ‘really good’ (P ... schools were assigned to the food waste sub-study. Edible plate waste was measured by weighing individually the meal for 5 consecutive days before and after lunch at the end of each dietary period. Self-reported smiley ratings from a web-based dietary assessment software for children were compared...

  2. A school meal study: comparing platewaste and likings of packed lunch and school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The majority of Danish children do not eat in accordance with the national dietary guidelines. The OPUS School Meal Study is a school-based intervention study testing the health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND). The aim of this sub-study was to compare edible plate.......0; 119.0). Lunches rated as ‘really bad’ or ‘bad’ in the self-reported likings had more waste than lunches rated ‘really good’ (P

  3. National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in over 101,000 public and non-profit private schools and residential child care institutions. It provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches to more than 30.5 million children each school day in 2008. In 1998, Congress expanded the National School Lunch…

  4. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Commodity Foods from the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora

    2009-01-01

    Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program receive a portion of their federal funding as commodity foods rather than cash payments. This research compared the product costs and estimated total procurement costs of commodity and commercial foods from the school district perspective using data from 579 Minnesota ordering sites in…

  5. School lunches v. packed lunches: a comparison of secondary schools in England following the introduction of compulsory school food standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lesley; Nicholas, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare food choices and nutrient intakes of pupils taking a school lunch or a packed lunch in eighty secondary schools in England, following the introduction of the food-based and nutrient-based standards for school food. Cross-sectional data collected between October 2010 and April 2011. Pupils' lunchtime food choices were recorded over five consecutive days. Secondary schools, England. A random selection of 5925 pupils having school lunches and 1805 pupils having a packed lunch in a nationally representative sample of eighty secondary schools in England. The differences in the specific types of food and drink consumed by the two groups of pupils are typical of differences between a hot and cold meal. On average, school lunches as eaten contained significantly more energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamin A, folate, Fe and Zn than packed lunches, and 8 % less Na. Although neither school lunches nor packed lunches provided the balance of nutrients required to meet the nutrient-based standards (based on about one-third of daily energy and nutrient requirements), school lunches generally had a healthier nutrient profile, with lower Na and percentage of energy from fat, and higher fibre and micronutrient content. These differences were greater than those reported prior to the introduction of compulsory standards for school lunches. In order to ensure more pupils have a healthy lunch, schools could introduce and enforce a packed lunch policy or make school meals the only option at lunchtime.

  6. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  7. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  8. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  10. Back to basics - the school lunch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2016-01-01

    . The concept of foodscape captures the school lunch as a specific configuration of food products, social practices and values. The concept of human well-being defined by Amartya Sen and elaborated by Martha C. Nussbaum helps to characterize the needs involved in the school lunch. The assessment is performed...

  11. Study on school lunch of four groups

    OpenAIRE

    大迫, 康子; 小住, フミ子; Yasuko, OSAKO; Fumiko, OZUMI

    1984-01-01

    There are many small islands, villages and fishing ports in Kagoshima. This study was designed to investigate whether a local color in school lnuch exist or not. It was found that the school lunch served in small island had the best nutritional quantity and quality and menu contents. Contradictionus results, vitamin deficiency in village and protein deficiency in fishing ports, were also obtained. There is a correlation between lunch cost and menu contents. The shotage of potatos and beans ob...

  12. The Food Costs of Healthier School Lunches

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Constance

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture proposed and adopted a new set of meal pattern requirements for the National School Lunch Program that will allow schools to claim 6 cents more in lunch reimbursement rates. This study analyzes the food costs of school menus in 2005 that met many of the proposed requirements. Overall, schools that served more, and more diverse, non-starchy vegetables had higher average food costs, and schools that served menus with lower calories had lower food costs. The fo...

  13. How to Make School Lunch Programs Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Len

    Food waste, student rejection of Type A meals, and the difficulty of keeping school food service departments in the black have been the three major problems in the school lunch program. The Las Vegas Fast Food Combo Program provides an answer. By providing the foods students want to eat--foods of the type advertised everywhere--and making that…

  14. What's for Lunch? II. A 1990 Survey of Options in the School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Patricia McGrath; And Others

    This report provides information on the content of school lunches offered to middle school children in the public schools. A total of 163 middle schools in 42 states responded to the school lunch survey. Survey findings are given on: (1) the contents of the main course, vegetable and fruit offerings, desserts, and beverages; and (2) lunches…

  15. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Andersen, Lene F; Brockhoff, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-07-14

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (Pjuice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals.

  16. Satisfaction of Middle School Lunch Program Participants and Non-Participants with the School Lunch Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students' satisfaction with the school lunch experience, using two validated surveys; the Middle/Junior High School Student Participation Survey and the Middle/Junior High School Student Non-Participation Survey, both developed by the National Food Service Management…

  17. How Nutritious Are Children's Packed School Lunches? A Comparison of Lunches Brought from Home and School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Sarah; Rainville, Alice Jo

    2016-01-01

    Through reinforcement of policies and nutrition standards linked to the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), school environments play an important role in preventing childhood obesity. The NSLP includes mandated nutrition standards that specify recommended servings of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, dairy and protein, as well as limits on…

  18. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self...

  19. Validation of the school lunch recall questionnaire to capture school lunch intake of third- to fifth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Amy; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Fleming, Phyllis; Ammerman, Alice

    2011-03-01

    Children's dietary intake is a key variable in evaluations of school-based interventions. Current methods for assessing children's intake, such as 24-hour recalls and meal observations, are time- and resource-intensive. As part of a study to evaluate the impact of farm-to-school programs, the school lunch recall was developed from a need for a valid and efficient tool to assess school lunch intake among large samples of children. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire, the school lunch recall prompts for school lunch items by asking children whether they chose a menu item, how much of it they ate, how much they liked it, and whether they would choose it again. The school lunch recall was validated during summer school in 2008 with 18 third- to fifth-grade students (8 to 11 years old) in a North Carolina elementary school. For 4 consecutive days, trained observers recorded foods and amounts students ate during school lunch. Students completed the school lunch recall immediately after lunch. Thirty-seven total observation school lunch recall sets were analyzed. Comparison of school lunch recalls against observations indicated high accuracy, with means of 6% for omission rate (items observed but unreported), 10% for intrusion rate (items unobserved but reported), and 0.63 servings for total inaccuracy (a measure that combines errors for reporting items and amounts). For amounts, accuracy was high for matches (0.06 and 0.01 servings for absolute and arithmetic differences, respectively) but lower for omissions (0.47 servings) and intrusions (0.54 servings). In this pilot study, the school lunch recall was a valid, efficient tool for assessing school lunch intake for a small sample of third- to fifth-grade students. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using School Lunch Programs To Promote Positive Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    The variety of school lunch foods available has dramatically expanded as school food managers strive to increase sales and generate revenue. Though lunchtime offerings are often based on student preferences versus nutritional value, with a small investment of effort and commitment to student well-being, schools can create lunch programs that…

  1. Factors Predicting Staying in School to Eat Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…

  2. Plate Waste and Attitudes among High School Lunch Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jessica; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) What foods high school students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are discarding the most? (2) How much of these foods they are discarding? and (3) What are their perceptions towards school lunch? Methods: Researchers measured plate waste at two high…

  3. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student Lunch Consumption after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…

  4. The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...

  5. A comparison of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts in the packed lunches of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Alisha R; Misyak, Sarah; Duffey, Kiyah J; Mann, Georgianna R; Davis, George C; Hosig, Kathy; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; McFerren, Mary M; Serrano, Elena L

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 40% of children bring a packed lunch to school. These lunches are not required to meet nutrition standards. The aim of this study was to compare differences in the nutritional quality of elementary packed lunches by the presence or absence of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), desserts, and fruits and vegetables (FVs). Observational data for prekindergarten and kindergarten packed lunches were collected from three schools in rural Virginia for 5 consecutive school days and analyzed for macro- and micronutrients and by the presence or absence of food and beverage items. Of the 561 packed lunch observations collected, 41.7% contained no FV, 41.2% contained an SSB, and 61.1% contained a dessert. The nutrient profile of packed lunches with at least one fruit or vegetable had significantly higher levels of carbohydrate, fiber, sugar, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Packed lunches containing an SSB had significantly higher levels of sugar and vitamin C and significantly lower levels of protein, fiber, vitamin A, calcium, and iron. Packed lunches containing a dessert had significantly higher levels of energy, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, sodium, sugar, vitamin C, and iron and significantly lower levels of vitamin A. Additional research is needed to fully understand parent and child motivations for packing lunches and the decision processes that influence the inclusion of food items. The development of packed lunch interventions, encouragement of National School Lunch Program participation, or enactment of school policies to increase the nutritional value of packed lunches is warranted.

  6. Eating School Lunch Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality among Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Rosen, Nila J; Fenton, Keenan; Hecht, Kenneth; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have assessed the dietary quality of children who eat meals from home compared with school meals according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The objective of this study was to examine diet quality for elementary school students in relation to source of breakfast and lunch (whether school meal or from an outside source). An observational study was conducted of students in 43 schools in San Diego, CA, during the 2011-2012 school year. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (N=3,944) completed a diary-assisted 24-hour food recall. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores of children who ate breakfast and lunch at school were compared with the HEI-2010 scores of children who obtained their meals from home and a combination of both school and home. Analysis of variance, χ 2 test, and generalized estimating equation models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, grade, language, and school level clustering were performed. School lunch eaters had a higher mean±standard deviation overall diet quality score (HEI-2010=49.0±11.3) compared with students who ate a lunch obtained from home (46.1±12.2; P=0.02). There was no difference in overall diet quality score by breakfast groups. Students who ate school breakfast had higher total fruit (P=0.01) and whole fruit (P=0.0008) scores compared with students who only ate breakfast obtained from home. Students who ate school foods had higher scores for dairy (P=0.007 for breakfast and Pempty calories from solid fats and added sugars (P=0.01 for breakfast and P=0.007 for lunch). Eating school lunch was associated with higher overall diet quality compared with obtaining lunch from home. Future studies are needed that assess the influence of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on children's diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. School Lunch Programs in Israel, Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endevelt, Ronit

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The first lunch programs in Palestine were the “soup kitchens,” which were established in Jerusalem before the First World War to feed the poor. Then, in 1923, Henrietta Szold launched a lunch initiative in schools in order to supply basic nutrition to students. As the children at most of the schools prepared the meals themselves with local products, they also learned good, low-cost eating habits and the appropriate use of domestic goods and had educational goals as well. These educational goals were in line with Zionist ideology. School lunch programs lasted through the early years of the nation of Israel, albeit without official governmental support, but they came to an end amid the rising prosperity of the early 1970s. In 2004, in response to the alarming results of a food security survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, the Knesset passed a law establishing a new school lunch program on a trial basis. This article reviews the history of lunch programs in Israel, highlighting both their achievements and their limitations, in order to establish a framework for judging the success of the current school lunch policy.

  8. 75 FR 63689 - National School Lunch Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    .... To foster school environments that encourage physical activity and nourishing diets, ``Let's Move... for nutritional quality in school food, participation in meal programs, physical activity, and... National School Lunch Week, we recognize the vital importance of this historic program, and we recommit to...

  9. School Lunch Is Not a Meal: Posthuman Eating as Folk Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Bradley; Rocha, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    School lunch is one of the least critiqued aspects of compulsory schooling. As a result, there may be a tendency to think of school lunch as part of the hidden curriculum, but what and how students eat are evident and ubiquitous parts of the schooling experience. In demarcating the school lunch as an overt educational event, this article attempts…

  10. Accuracy of 11-year-olds selfreported school lunch consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nina

    accuracy differ by the lunch format consumed (Paper III) Material and methods The study was conducted as a cross-sectional dietary reporting study. The population consisted of 11-year-old children from three public schools in Copenhagen. The study was conducted on two consecutive days and assessed...... in general. Objectives The aim of the present thesis was to assess food level reporting accuracy in Danish 11-year-old children’s self-reported school lunch consumption, and the aim was operationalized in following objectives. 1- To identify food items clustering by lunch format (Preliminary analyses) 2......- To assess reporting accuracy in relation to gender and self-reported methods (Paper I) 3- To address aspects of reporting inaccuracy from intrusions by food group, against different objective measures, and classification of intrusions in stretches and confabulations (Paper II) 4- To assess how reporting...

  11. Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children's Lunches from School and from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Watkins, Tracee; Barbee, Mary; Rushing, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze beverage selections of elementary students consuming National School Lunch Program meals (NSLP) and lunches brought from home (LBFH), 2) compare overall meal quality (MQ) of NSLP and LBFH by food components using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), and 3) investigate the impact…

  12. Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with school lunch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Corder, Kirsten L; Jones, Andy; Ambrosini, Gina L; White, Martin; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (-2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (-0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (-3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (-1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (-8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (-25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. School lunch waste among middle school students: nutrients consumed and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S Bryn; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2013-02-01

    The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policymakers, students, and their families. Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a 2-year pilot study (2007-2009) in which a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percentage of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in these Boston middle schools. For most meal components, substantially less than 85% was consumed. There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards, and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students might benefit if additional focus were given to the quality and palatability of school meals. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. School Lunch Waste among Middle School Students: Implications for Nutrients Consumed and Food Waste Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott; Austin, S. Bryn; Economos, Christina D.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policy makers, students, and their families. Purpose Nutrient losses and economic costs associated with school meal waste were examined. The study also assessed if school foods served were valid proxies for foods consumed by students. Methods Plate waste measurements were collected from middle school students in Boston attending two Chef Initiative schools (n=1609) and two control schools (n=1440) during a two-year pilot study (2007-2009) where a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to make healthier school meals. The costs associated with food waste were calculated and the percent of foods consumed was compared with a gold standard of 85% consumption. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. Results Overall, students consumed less than the required/recommended levels of nutrients. An estimated $432,349 of food (26.1% of the total food budget) was discarded by middle school students annually at lunch in Boston middle schools. For most meal components, significantly less than 85% was consumed. Conclusions There is substantial food waste among middle school students in Boston. Overall, students' nutrient consumption levels were below school meal standards and foods served were not valid proxies for foods consumed. The costs associated with discarded foods are high; if translated nationally for school lunches, roughly $1,238,846,400 annually is wasted. Students would benefit if additional focus was given to the quality and palatability of school meals. PMID:23332326

  15. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate...

  16. The National School Lunch Program: Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - present

    OpenAIRE

    Gosliner, Wendi Anne

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe National School Lunch Program:Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - presentBy Wendi Anne GoslinerDoctor of Public HealthUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Ann Keller, ChairOn an average school day in 2012, The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) supported the provision of lunch meals to almost 2/3 of school-age youth in the United States. Recent spikes in childhood obesity rates and the emerg...

  17. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids... interim rule entitled National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for..., 2013 / Rules and Regulations [[Page 79567

  18. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandian Modjtaba

    2012-05-01

    increased to 183 (53% in the girls and to 166 (47% in the boys compared to the speed of eating in the unrestricted condition. These apparent changes in food intake during school lunches could be replicated by experimentally increasing the speed of eating when the children were eating individually. Conclusions If insufficient time is allocated for consuming school lunches, compensatory increased speed of eating puts children at risk of losing control over food intake and in many cases over-eating. Public health initiatives to increase the time available for school meals might prove a relatively easy way to reduce excess food intake at school and enable children to eat more healthily.

  19. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Bergström, Jakob; Brodin, Ulf; Bergh, Cecilia; Leon, Michael; Shield, Julian; Södersten, Per

    2012-05-14

    )% in the boys compared to the speed of eating in the unrestricted condition. These apparent changes in food intake during school lunches could be replicated by experimentally increasing the speed of eating when the children were eating individually. If insufficient time is allocated for consuming school lunches, compensatory increased speed of eating puts children at risk of losing control over food intake and in many cases over-eating. Public health initiatives to increase the time available for school meals might prove a relatively easy way to reduce excess food intake at school and enable children to eat more healthily.

  20. School lunch: a comparison of the fat and cholesterol content with dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, R C; Wright, J A; Finch, A J; Deyo, R A; Psaty, B M

    1993-12-01

    To compare the fat and cholesterol content of the foods offered and selected in an elementary school lunch program with current dietary guidelines. For 105 school days we recorded the food items selected by elementary school students in an entire school district (262,851 meals) who were given a choice between two entrees. The nutrient content of foods was assessed with a computerized nutrient data base supplemented by the food manufacturers' data. Sixteen elementary schools in the Bellevue (Washington) School District. The number of students eating school lunch averaged 2500 per day, of whom 25% were from households with incomes less than 185% of poverty. None. We determined the nutritional content of the average meal selected; the proportion of days when one of the two offered entrees met fat and cholesterol guidelines; and the proportion of children selecting the entrees that met the guidelines. The average lunch selected had 35.9% of calories from total fat and 12.6% from saturated fat, exceeding the guidelines of 30% and 10%, respectively. Lunch contained an average of 57 mg cholesterol (106 mg/1000 kcal) and met guidelines. One of the two daily entree choices met guidelines for both total fat and saturated fat on 20% of days, and met both fat and cholesterol guidelines on 14% of days. When available, entrees meeting the fat guidelines were chosen by 37% of students, and entrees meeting both fat and cholesterol guidelines were chosen by 34% of students. In this school district the average lunch selected did not meet the current guidelines for dietary fat; when given the choice, more than one third of students selected the entrees that met these guidelines.

  1. Lunch frequency among adolescents:associations with sociodemographic factors and school characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Utter, Jennifer; McNaughton, Sarah A; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne; Rasmussen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were es...

  2. Soy Goes to School: Acceptance of Healthful, Vegetarian Options in Maryland Middle School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor, Kathleen; Chapman, Nancy; Levine, Elyse

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soyfoods provide healthful options for school breakfasts and lunches that are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol, fat, and calories and can help meet demands for vegetarian choices. Researchers tested acceptance of soy-based options substituted for popular lunch items with a diverse student population. Methods: Researchers conducted a…

  3. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  4. School lunch program in India: background, objectives and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutani, Alka Mohan

    2012-01-01

    The School Lunch Program in India (SLP) is the largest food and nutrition assistance program feeding millions of children every day. This paper provides a review of the background information on the SLP in India earlier known as national program for nutrition support to primary education (NP-NSPE) and later as mid day meal scheme, including historical trends and objectives and components/characteristics of the scheme. It also addresses steps being taken to meet challenges being faced by the administrators of the program in monitoring and evaluation of the program. This program was initially started in 1960 in few states to overcome the complex problems malnutrition and illiteracy. Mid Day Meal Scheme is the popular name for school meal program. In 2001, as per the supreme court orders, it became mandatory to give a mid day meal to all primary and later extended to upper primary school children studying in the government and government aided schools. This scheme benefitted 140 million children in government assisted schools across India in 2008, strengthening child nutrition and literacy. In a country with a large percent of illiterate population with a high percent of children unable to read or write; governmental and non-governmental organizations have reported that mid day meal scheme has consistently increased enrollment in schools in India. One of the main goals of school lunch program is to promote the health and well-being of the Nation's children.

  5. Middle school student perceptions of school lunch following revised federal school meal guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed student perceptions of school meals under the new federal meal patterns for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Student feedback is instrumental in developing strategies to increase and maintain NSLP participation, satisfaction, and ultimately provide students with a health...

  6. Plate Waste in School Lunch Programs in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students’ health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches. Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43% and vegetables (42% were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students’ knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.

  7. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  8. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: Associations with school food environment and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story Mary

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.

  9. Lunch frequency among adolescents: associations with sociodemographic factors and school characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Utter, Jennifer; McNaughton, Sarah A; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne; Rasmussen, Mette

    2016-04-01

    To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups. Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were estimated by multilevel multivariate logistic regression. The Danish arm of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study 2010. Students (n 4922) aged 11, 13 and 15 years attending a random sample of seventy-three schools. The school-level and class-level variations in low lunch frequency were small (intraclass correlation coefficient lunch frequency was most common among students who were boys, 13- and 15-year-olds, from medium and low family social class, descendants of immigrants, living in a single-parent family and in a reconstructed family. School-level analyses suggested that having access to a canteen at school was associated with low lunch frequency (OR=1·47; 95% CI 1·14, 1·89). Likewise not having an adult present during lunch breaks was associated with low lunch frequency (OR=1·44; 95% CI 1·18, 1·75). Cross-level interactions suggested that these associations differed by age group. Lunch frequency among Danish students appears to be largely influenced by sociodemographic factors. Additionally, the presence of an adult during lunch breaks promotes frequent lunch consumption while availability of a canteen may discourage frequent lunch consumption. These findings vary between older and younger students.

  10. Effect of Food Service Nutrition Improvements on Elementary School Cafeteria Lunch Purchase Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia A.; Fee, LuAnn; Culyba, Rebecca J.; Bhat, Kiran B.; Owen, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools can play a major role in prevention and intervention for childhood obesity. We describe changes in elementary school cafeteria lunch sales patterns resulting from nutritional improvements in menu offerings that were part of a community-wide focus on health. Methods: Elementary school lunch sales data were collected for 1 week…

  11. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy... Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on June... sold in a school and purchased with funds from the nonprofit school food service account, other than...

  12. Food Service Perspectives on National School Lunch Program Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of the new National School Lunch Program (NSLP) policy guidelines. Interviews with eight food service directors using an interview guide informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Food service personnel; parents, teachers, school staff; and students were important stakeholders. Characteristics of the new NSLP policy guidelines were reported to create increased demands; resources alleviated some barriers. Directors reported increased food and labor costs, food sourcing challenges, decreased student participation, and organizational constraints as barriers to implementation. Creativity in menu planning facilitated success. Factors within the food service department, characteristics of implementing individuals and the new NSLP policy guidelines, and stakeholder involvement in the implementation process relate to successful implementation.

  13. Plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Cheng, Shengkui; Liu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrial...... in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.......School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted...... in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches...

  14. Participation in the National School Lunch Program: Importance of School-Level and Neighborhood Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtcheva, Donka M.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effect of stigma (proxied by school-level peer participation), neighborhood food environment, and demographic characteristics on participation in the U.S. Department of Agriculture National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Methods: The 1997 and 2003 waves of the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of…

  15. 78 FR 45178 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... snack--80 cents, reduced price snack--40 cents, paid snack--07 cents; Alaska--free snack--130 cents, reduced price snack--65 cents, paid snack--11 cents; Hawaii--free snack--94 cents, reduced price snack--47..., afterschool snacks and breakfasts served to children participating in the National School Lunch and School...

  16. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... collection burden inventory for the National School Lunch Program is 12,181,012. These changes are contingent... American children and adolescents: What changes in prevalence rates could not reveal. International Journal... purchase and consume at school. Researchers concluded that these kinds of changes in food exposure and...

  17. Body Mass Index and Sociodemographic Predictors of School Lunch Purchase Behavior during a Year-Long Environmental Intervention in Middle School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacey A. Greece

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifying the school food environment is on the national agenda as one strategy to improve the nutritional quality of children’s diets. Because few environmental-level interventions have been rigorously evaluated, the evidence base to inform programs and policies is limited. Of concern is the impact that changes to cafeteria offerings will have on participation in school meal programs. This study evaluates school lunch participation in the setting of a year-long middle school cafeteria intervention by examining the association between body mass index (BMI, sociodemographics, and the purchases of school lunch meals. IMOVE meals were healthier choices that met stringent nutritional criteria and were offered alongside standard lunch meals. Students who were overweight had a significantly higher purchase rate for both types of meals compared to those with a healthy BMI. Non-white race, younger age, being male, and low-income status were also significantly associated with participation in school lunch. Results indicate that nutritionally vulnerable students participate in school lunch and are equally likely to buy healthy alternatives or standard meals. This behavioral observation has important implications for school foodservice programs and policies. These results are timely given recent federal legislation to improve the school food environment to influence students’ food choice behaviors.

  18. Body Mass Index and Sociodemographic Predictors of School Lunch Purchase Behavior during a Year-Long Environmental Intervention in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greece, Jacey A; Kratze, Alyssa; DeJong, William; Cozier, Yvette C; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2015-06-10

    Modifying the school food environment is on the national agenda as one strategy to improve the nutritional quality of children's diets. Because few environmental-level interventions have been rigorously evaluated, the evidence base to inform programs and policies is limited. Of concern is the impact that changes to cafeteria offerings will have on participation in school meal programs. This study evaluates school lunch participation in the setting of a year-long middle school cafeteria intervention by examining the association between body mass index (BMI), sociodemographics, and the purchases of school lunch meals. IMOVE meals were healthier choices that met stringent nutritional criteria and were offered alongside standard lunch meals. Students who were overweight had a significantly higher purchase rate for both types of meals compared to those with a healthy BMI. Non-white race, younger age, being male, and low-income status were also significantly associated with participation in school lunch. Results indicate that nutritionally vulnerable students participate in school lunch and are equally likely to buy healthy alternatives or standard meals. This behavioral observation has important implications for school foodservice programs and policies. These results are timely given recent federal legislation to improve the school food environment to influence students' food choice behaviors.

  19. The practices and needs of dietitian in school lunch program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yueching; Chang, Yu-Jhen

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition-related problems among school-age children nowadays become potentially serious. In order to prevent obesity and other nutritionally related diseases in the young generation, a school lunch program has been proposed and conducted in Taiwan. It is to ensure that students' nutritional intake meets the daily requirement and to help students develop correct eating habits and maintain a healthy lifestyle. A professional dietitian who has a clear concept regarding food material utilization, cooking methods and nutritional values thus becomes important. However, the majority of schools in Taiwan are unable to offer the post of dietitian due to budgetary constraints and lack of organization. The responsibility of a dietitian is usually held by teachers, school nurses and other administrative staff. This problem has hindered the nutritional education in schools and made school lunches less beneficial to the children's nutritional needs. For the current status of dietitians in schools, a large gap is found between the currently supplied school lunches and the nutritionally standardized school lunches. It also exists in relation to education and hygiene. One of the solutions requires an infrastructure to support plans and policy, reasonable adequate budget, well human affairs establishment and coordination of all aspects. While the needed infrastructure is being proposed, an access to the professionalism of the currently employed dietitians can be strategically explored by constructing an education system. Through the system, schools without on-campus dietitians will be able to utilize their expertise with which the improvement of school lunches can be expectedly accomplished.

  20. Food choice, plate waste and nutrient intake of elementary- and middle-school students participating in the US National School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2014-06-01

    To (i) evaluate food choices and consumption patterns of elementary- and middle-school students who participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and (ii) compare students' average nutrient intake from lunch with NSLP standards. Plate waste from elementary- and middle-school students' lunch trays was measured in autumn 2010 using a previously validated digital photography method. Percentage waste was estimated to the nearest 10 % for the entrée, canned fruit, fresh fruit, vegetable, grain and milk. Univariate ANOVA determined differences in percentage waste between schools, grades and genders. Daily nutrient intake was calculated using the district's menu analysis and percentage waste. Elementary and middle schools in northern Colorado (USA). Students, grades 1-8. Plate waste was estimated from 899 lunch trays; 535 elementary- and 364 middle-school students. Only 45 % of elementary- and 34 % middle-school students selected a vegetable. Elementary-school students wasted more than a third of grain, fruit and vegetable menu items. Middle-school students left nearly 50 % of fresh fruit, 37 % of canned fruit and nearly a third of vegetables unconsumed. Less than half of the students met the national meal standards for vitamins A and C, or Fe. Few students' lunch consumption met previous or new, strengthened NSLP lunch standards. Due to the relatively low intake of vegetables, intakes of vitamins A and C were of particular concern. Effective behavioural interventions, combined with marketing, communications and behavioural economics, will likely be necessary to encourage increased vegetable intake to meet the new meal standards.

  1. 77 FR 4688 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... local educational agencies (LEAs) that participate in the NSLP and/or School Breakfast Program to... performance benchmarks for directly certifying for free school meals those children who are members of... requirements, School breakfast and lunch programs. 7 CFR Part 272 Alaska, Civil rights, Claims, Food stamps...

  2. Influence of School Environment on Student Lunch Participation and Competitive Food Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ruth E.; Wenz, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The school nutrition environment includes food policy and practices, advertising, and presence of competitive foods (CF). CF provide schools with revenue; however, CF decrease National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation and reimbursement as well as the nutrient density of children's diets. Local wellness policies (LWPs)…

  3. Eat lunch first or play first? Inconsistent associations with fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Keenan; Rosen, Nila J; Wakimoto, Patricia; Patterson, Tracey; Goldstein, Lauren H; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2015-04-01

    Scheduling play before eating lunch has been suggested as a relatively simple environmental strategy to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) intake among elementary school students. However, the few small studies to date have had mixed findings. The primary aim of this observational study was to evaluate the possible relationship between the relative order of play and eating and students' lunch intake of FV. A secondary aim was to examine whether any differences existed in this relationship by student sex, ethnicity, language spoken at home, and school lunch source. A diary-assisted 24-hour recall was collected during the 2011-2012 school year from 2,167 fourth- and fifth-graders attending 31 elementary schools in California. The association of play before eating with FV intake was estimated using Generalized Estimation Equations. Overall, lunch FV intake was not significantly higher for students who had a play-before-eating vs a play-after-eating lunch schedule at school. However, variables included in the model showed significant interaction with play before eating, resulting in the need for separate effect estimates for distinct strata based on sex, ethnicity, language spoken at home, and school lunch source. For 10 of the 16 strata, no significant effect of play before eating was observed on lunch FV intake, while increases in intake were observed in four strata and decreases in two strata. Before rescheduling play before eating for the purpose of improving student FV intake, additional research is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The quality of school lunch consumed reflects overall eating patterns in 11-16-year-old schoolchildren in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles-Tirkkonen, Tanja; Pentikäinen, Saara; Lappi, Jenni; Karhunen, Leila; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2011-12-01

    To explore how the quality of school lunch consumed reflected overall eating patterns in school-aged children. Children filled in an Internet-based questionnaire about their eating patterns. The children were then divided into balanced and imbalanced school lunch eaters on the basis of their responses in the questionnaire. A balanced school lunch consisted of, by the definition used in the present study, a main dish, salad and bread. Eleven primary schools and one middle school in eastern Finland. A total of 531 schoolchildren (247 boys and 284 girls) aged 11-16 years. The school lunch was balanced in 46·5% of children. Eating a balanced school lunch was associated with overall healthier eating patterns outside school. Children who ate a balanced school lunch had more regular meal times and consumed healthier snacks. They ate fruit or berries and vegetables, dairy products and wholegrain foods more often, consumed fewer salty snacks, pizzas, meat pies and drank fewer soft drinks and energy drinks. Their eating patterns at home were also healthier, with vegetables being offered at every family dinner and fruit being offered daily, whereas soft drinks were offered seldom. The choices made by children in their school lunch reflect the overall eating patterns among school-aged children. Eating a balanced school lunch is associated with more regular meal patterns, the availability of healthier foods at home and an overall healthier diet, suggesting that healthy eating patterns are learnt at home.

  5. Healthier Standards for School Meals and Snacks: Impact on School Food Revenues and Lunch Participation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary T; Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the updated U.S. Department of Agriculture school meals standards and a competitive food law similar to the fully implemented version of the national Smart Snack standards went into effect in Massachusetts. This study evaluated the impact of these updated school meal standards and Massachusetts' comprehensive competitive food standards on school food revenues and school lunch participation. Revenue and participation data from 11 Massachusetts school districts were collected from 2011 to 2014 and analyzed in 2015 using multilevel modeling. The association between the change in compliance with the competitive food standards and revenues/participation was assessed using linear regression. Schools experienced declines in school food revenues of $15.40/student in Year 1 from baseline (p=0.05), due to competitive food revenue losses. In schools with 3 years of data, overall revenues rebounded by the second year post-implementation. Additionally, by Year 2, school lunch participation increased by 15% (p=0.0006) among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Better competitive food compliance was inversely associated with school food revenues in the first year only; an absolute change in compliance by 10% was associated with a $9.78/student decrease in food revenues over the entire school year (p=0.04). No association was seen between the change in compliance and school meal participation. Schools experienced initial revenue losses after implementation of the standards, yet longer-term school food revenues were not impacted and school meal participation increased among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Weakening the school meal or competitive food guidelines based on revenue concerns appears unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring changes in middle-school student lunch consumption after local school food service policy modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa; Ralston, Katherine

    2006-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food environment. After that school year was completed, chips and dessert foods were removed from the snack bars of all schools by the Food Service Director. Students recorded the amount and source of food and beverage items consumed. Point-of-service purchase machines provided a day-by-day electronic data file with food and beverage purchases from the snack bars during the 2-year period. Independent t-tests and time series analyses were used to document the impact of the policy change on consumption and sales data between the two years. In general, student consumption of sweetened beverages declined and milk, calcium, vitamin A, saturated fat and sodium increased after the policy change. Snack chips consumption from the snack bar declined in year 2; however, consumption of snack chips and candy from vending increased and the number of vending machines in study schools doubled during the study period. Ice cream sales increased significantly in year 2. Policy changes on foods sold in schools can result in changes in student consumption from the targeted environments. However, if all environments do not make similar changes, compensation may occur.

  7. School Lunch Consumption Among 3 Food Service Providers in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canterberry, Melanie; Francois, Samantha; van Hattum, Taslim; Rudov, Lindsey; Carton, Thomas W

    2018-02-01

    Louisiana has one of the highest rates of overweight and obese children in the United States. The Healthy School Food Collaborative (HSFC) was created to allow New Orleans's schools to select their own healthy school Food Service Provider (FSP) with requirements for higher nutritional standards than traditional options. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether HSFC membership was associated with lunch consumption rates in elementary school children. An 8-week plate waste study examining 18,070 trays of food among fourth and fifth graders was conducted. Participants included 7 schools and the 3 FSPs (2 HSFC and 1 non-HSFC member) that serviced them. Mixed models analysis examined whether consumption rates of food items differed among FSPs. On average, students consumed 307 cal during lunch. Analyses showed significant differences in consumption rates of entrée, vegetables, fruit, and milk between the 3 FSPs (p < .01). The highest consumption rate was among entrées at 65%. One HSFC provider had consumption levels consistent with the non-HSFC FSP. Overall, students consumed less than 60% of the US Department of Agriculture recommended calories for school lunch. While overall caloric consumption was higher among the non-HSFC schools, interventions to increase lunch consumption across all schools are needed. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  8. Cost-free and sustainable incentive increases healthy eating decisions during elementary school lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, D W; Parker, J S; Getz, B R; Jackson, C M; Le, T-A P; Riggs, S B; Shay, J M

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to develop a cost-free and sustainable program to influence healthier eating decisions during elementary school lunch. Baseline food and beverage choices were assessed for 9 days during lunch service at two racially and economically diverse elementary schools in Spartanburg County, SC, USA. After being informed that the labeled items on the daily lunch menu represented the healthiest choice, students were allowed to ring a call bell in the cafeteria for public recognition when they chose all of the identified healthiest food and beverage items during lunch service. Using menus matched to the baseline phase, food and beverage choices were measured during a 9-day intervention phase. After 30 days, food and beverage choices were reassessed during a 3-day follow-up phase. Healthiest food & beverage choices increased 49% with >60% of students choosing non-flavored milk over flavored milk during the intervention phase. There was no difference in the success of the program between the two schools. The program continued and healthy eating decisions were significantly sustained at a 30-day follow-up assessment. Public recognition through bell ringing appears to be an effective practice to sustain increases in healthy eating decisions during elementary school lunch and warrants expansion to larger scale, longitudinal trials.

  9. From Policy to Practice: Parent Perceptions of the 2010 Federal School Lunch Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Elchert, Daniel M.; Leicht, Erika A.; Scheidel, Carrie A.; Delger, Patti J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate parent awareness and perceptions of changes to the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) implemented as a result of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHKA) of 2010. Methods: An online survey of parents of school age (K-12) children in a Midwestern state was conducted (n = 2,189). The…

  10. School Lunch Quality Following Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…

  11. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  12. Eating Behavior and Attitude toward School Lunches in Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    嶋田, さおり; 若林, 良和; 西村, 栄恵; 逸見, 幾代

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of the eating habits of children in elementary schools that work actively in food education and take advantage of local products, and analyzed the trends in eating behavior and the attitude toward school lunches in each grade. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. 88.1% of children eat breakfast every day: second graders represent the highest percentage at 97.1% and sixth graders the lowest at 83.7%. The most common reason for not eating breakfast was "...

  13. Long-term impact of a chef on school lunch consumption: findings from a 2-year pilot study in Boston middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Smit, Liesbeth A; Parker, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; Frazier, A Lindsay; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    School cafeterias can play an important role in providing healthy meals. Although schools participating in the National School Lunch Program are required to meet minimum program standards, advocates recommend that innovations be sought to enhance menu dietary quality. This study evaluated the Chef Initiative, a 2-year pilot study in two Boston middle schools, designed to increase the availability and consumption of healthier school foods. Between 2007 and 2009, a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to prepare healthier school lunches (ie, more whole grains, fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables, and less sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats). Meal nutrient compositions were monitored from 2007 to 2009, and a plate waste study conducted in the spring of 2009 compared food selection and consumption patterns among students at Chef Initiative schools, with students receiving standard school lunches at two matched control schools. Paired t tests and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in menus and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in students' food selection and consumption between Chef Initiative and control schools. Overall, the Chef Initiative schools provided healthier lunches and the percent of foods consumed at Chef Initiative and control schools were similar (61.6% vs 57.3%; P=0.63). Of the areas targeted, there was greater whole-grain selection and vegetable consumption; 51% more students selected whole grains (P=0.02) and students consumed 0.36 more vegetable servings/day (P=0.01) at Chef Initiative schools. The potential of chefs collaborating with cafeteria staff to improve the availability, selection, and consumption of healthier meals is promising. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Grab a Cup, Fill It Up! An Intervention to Promote the Convenience of Drinking Water and Increase Student Water Consumption During School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Carter, Jill E; Howe, M Caitlin W; Reiner, Jennifer F; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated a low-cost strategy for schools to improve the convenience and appeal of drinking water. We conducted a group-randomized, controlled trial in 10 Boston, Massachusetts, schools in April through June 2013 to test a cafeteria-based intervention. Signage promoting water and disposable cups were installed near water sources. Mixed linear regression models adjusting for clustering evaluated the intervention impact on average student water consumption over 359 lunch periods. The percentage of students in intervention schools observed drinking water during lunch nearly doubled from baseline to follow-up compared with controls (+ 9.4%; P convenience by providing cups can increase student water consumption.

  15. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. PMID:26773034

  17. The influence of physical and social contexts of eating on lunch-time food intake among southern Ontario, Canada, middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M; McGoldrick, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who prepared the food, and where the food was originally purchased). A total of 1236 participants (males = 659, females = 566) in grades 6 (n = 359), 7 (n = 409), and 8 (n = 463) from southern Ontario, Canada, completed the Food Behavior Questionnaire during the 2005-2006 academic year. A total of 8159 foods and 2200 beverages were consumed during the lunch meal, which contributed to 552 kcal (SD = 429) or 30% (SD = 16) of total daily energy intake (kcal/day). Higher amounts of energy, meats and alternatives, other foods, fried foods, and pizza were consumed when participants ate in between places or at a restaurant/fast food outlet (compared with at home or school, p lunch, despite a school board-level policy restricting the sales of "junk food," which appears to be brought from home. Our findings support schools in policy efforts that restrict fast food access (by leaving school grounds, preventing fast food companies from coming onto school grounds, or restricting sugar-sweetened beverage sales in vending machines) and that eating in between places should be discouraged.

  18. 76 FR 78095 - Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... 0584-AD54 [FNS-2007-0023] Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program and for Benefits in the Special Milk Program, and Technical... school meals to implement nondiscretionary provisions of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act...

  19. Impact of the school lunch program on overweight and obesity among junior high school students: a nationwide study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, A; Lee, J S; Kobayashi, Y

    2018-06-05

    Japan has experienced a low prevalence of childhood obesity. The Japanese nationwide school lunch program is suggested to have helped this phenomenon, but it has not been proven. From official statistics, we combined annual data for 2006-15 about the prefecture-level school lunch coverage rate for public junior high school students and the prefecture-level nutritional indicators calculated by randomly selected age-sex groups of 13-15-year olds: the percentage of overweight, obese or underweight children, who are 20% heavier, 30% heavier or 20% lighter than the standard weight by sex, age and height; and mean body weight (kg) or height (cm). We estimated the impact of the school lunch coverage rate on the nutritional indicators in subsequent years, adjusting for the lagged dependent variable and dummies for prefecture, age and year. A 10 percentage point increase in the prefecture-level school lunch coverage rate significantly decreased the percentage of overweight (0.37%, 95% CI: 0.18-0.56) and obesity (0.23%, 0.10-0.37) in subsequent years among boys, but not among girls. No significant effect on the percentage of underweight or mean body weight/height was observed for either sex. Appropriate nutritional intake through school lunch may be effective to reduce childhood obesity.

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of HHFKA Nutrition Standards for School Lunch Servings and Patterns of Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echon, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to provide baseline data and characteristics of food served and consumed prior to the recently mandated nutrition standards as authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA). Methods: Over 600,000 school lunch menus with associated food production records from 61 elementary schools…

  1. Changing the Image of School Lunch: Arizona Meets the Marketing Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shelley B.

    1988-01-01

    Arizona's Future for Child Nutrition organization hired a professional public relations and advertising agency to increase student participation in school lunches. After, the opinions and needs of students were researched, and the agency launched a campaign that featured radio advertising, television and radio talk shows, and press coverage, with…

  2. 78 FR 39163 - Certification of Compliance With Meal Requirements for the National School Lunch Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... 27, 2012. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) cleared the associated information collection... 2010 regarding performance-based cash assistance for school food authorities (SFA) certified compliant... receive performance-based cash assistance for each reimbursable lunch served (an additional six cents per...

  3. From Charity to Security: The Emergence of the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Jennifer Geist

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the historical formation of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in the United States and argues that programme emergence depended on the ability of policy entrepreneurs to link the economic concerns of agricultural production with the ideational concern of national security. Using a historical institutionalist framework…

  4. 78 FR 40625 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy... Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on February 22, 2013... performance benchmarks and to develop and implement continuous improvement plans if they fail to do so. The...

  5. Chronology of a Successful Conversion--Contractor Revives School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James B.

    1994-01-01

    A New York State school district employed a management company to privatize the food-service program with the goal of enticing all students to eat lunch. Expertise in marketing, menu planning, and food-service operation turned the program around. Suggests questions to ask when selecting a management company. (MLF)

  6. Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; Pena, Pablo; Lissner, Lauren; Grafström, Lisen; Vanaelst, Barbara; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-09-18

    Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, pteacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake

  7. Small prizes increased healthful school lunch selection in a Midwestern school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Barnes, Allison S; Hiller, Elizabeth; Kipp, Roger; Robison, Debora L; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Hudgens, Michelle E

    2016-04-01

    As obesity has become a pressing health issue for American children, greater attention has been focused on how schools can be used to improve how students eat. Previously, we piloted the use of small prizes in an elementary school cafeteria to improve healthful food selection. We hoped to increase healthful food selection in all the elementary schools of a small school district participating in the United States Department of Agriculture Lunch Program by offering prizes to children who selected a Power Plate (PP), which consisted of an entrée with whole grains, a fruit, a vegetable, and plain low-fat milk. In this study, the PP program was introduced to 3 schools sequentially over an academic year. During the kickoff week, green, smiley-faced emoticons were placed by preferred foods, and children were given a prize daily if they chose a PP on that day. After the first week, students were given a sticker or temporary tattoo 2 days a week if they selected a PP. Combining data from the 3 schools in the program, students increased PP selection from 4.5% at baseline to 49.4% (p small prizes as rewards dramatically improves short-term healthful food selection in elementary school children.

  8. Associations between usual school lunch attendance and eating habits and sedentary behaviour in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.

  9. 76 FR 63805 - National School Lunch Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... professionals, chefs, students, parents, and communities have also used their talents to develop nutritious foods for schools through the Recipes for Healthy Kids competition and the Chefs Move to Schools...

  10. Parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and its association with students' school lunch participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and whether students eat lunch served at school. We use data from five low-income cities in New Jersey that have high minority populations. Students whose parents perceive the quality of school meals to be healthy have greater odds of eating meals served at school. Recent changes in guidelines for the United States Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program met with resistance from several fronts. Advocates for and implementers of improved school meals may benefit from partnering with parents to increase the acceptance and utilization of improved school offerings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the Use of Whole Grain Pasta in School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Hauge, Denise A.; Arndt, Elizabeth A.; Veal, Mike; Marquart, Len

    2011-01-01

    Pasta is a popular grain food served as an entree or side dish in both home and away-from-home settings. In schools, pasta is served less frequently than other entrees. Pasta, especially whole-grain pasta, offers an opportunity to incorporate less expensive, nutritious, and versatile dishes into school meals. A need exists to develop whole-grain…

  12. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  13. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and health status have powerful influences on a child's ... well-being and cognitive development of school children. Students who ... Department of Pediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria. Abstract.

  14. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The costs and calorie content of à la carte food items purchased by students during school lunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsey Ramirez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available School environments influence student food choices. À la carte foods and beverages are often low nutrient and energy dense. This study assessed how much money students spent for these foods, and the total kilocalories purchased per student during the 2012–2013 school year. Six elementary and four intermediate schools in the Houston area provided daily food purchase transaction data, and the cost and the calories for each item. Chi-square analysis assessed differences in the number of students purchasing à la carte items by grade level and school free/reduced-price meal (FRP eligibility. Analysis of covariance assessed grade level differences in cost and calories of weekly purchases, controlling for FRP eligibility. Intermediate grade students spent significantly more on à la carte food purchases and purchased more calories (both p < 0.001 than elementary school students. Lower socioeconomic status (SES elementary and intermediate school students purchased fewer à la carte foods compared to those in higher SES schools (p < 0.001. Intermediate school students purchased more à la carte foods and calories from à la carte foods than elementary students. Whether the new competitive food rules in schools improve student food selection and purchase, and dietary intake habits across all grade levels remains unknown. Keywords: National School Lunch Program, Elementary schools, Intermediate schools, À la carte foods, Competitive foods, Costs, Calories

  16. School setting and irregular lunch consumption among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Rasmussen, Mette

    in a multilevel model controlled for factors at the individual level. Further, we investigated whether grade modified the association. Methods: We used data from the Danish 2010 contribution to the international collaborative cross-sectional study ‘Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC). Data collection...... were conducted in 2010 among schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (in Denmark, equivalent to 5th, 7th and 9th grade, respectively) from a random sample of schools, i.e. cluster sampling. The schoolchildren completed the self-administered and internationally standardised anonymous HBSC questionnaire...

  17. SCHOOL LUNCH, SUGGESTED GUIDES FOR SELECTING LARGE EQUIPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    THE TYPE AND CAPACITY OF A WIDE RANGE OF SCHOOL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT IS RECOMMENDED WITH RESPECT TO THE NUMBER OF MEALS SERVED PER DAY. THESE RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR RANGES, SINKS, ELECTRIC HEATING, GAS HEATING, REFRIGERATION, TABLES, KITCHEN MACHINES, TRUCK DOLLIES, SCALES, STORAGE CABINETS, OFFICE SPACES, LOUNGES, GARBAGE AND CAN WASHING…

  18. 78 FR 62335 - National School Lunch Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... more of our children are at risk for preventable health problems including diabetes and heart disease... their children with decent meals for the long school day, President Harry Truman signed the National... child should go hungry. And today, with more than 32 million children participating in the National...

  19. 77 FR 43232 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...) establishes National Average Payments for free, reduced price and paid afterschool snacks as part of the...--free lunch-- 303 cents, reduced price lunch--263 cents. Afterschool Snacks in Afterschool Care Programs--The payments are: Contiguous States--free snack--78 cents, reduced price snack--39 cents, paid snack...

  20. 75 FR 41796 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... National Average Payments for free, reduced price and paid afterschool snacks as part of the National...; Hawaii--free lunch-- 288 cents, reduced price lunch--248 cents. Afterschool Snacks in Afterschool Care Programs--The payments are: Contiguous States--free snack--74 cents, reduced price snack--37 cents, paid...

  1. 76 FR 43256 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... National Average Payments for free, reduced price and paid afterschool snacks as part of the National...; Hawaii--free lunch-- 294 cents, reduced price lunch--254 cents. Afterschool Snacks in Afterschool Care Programs--The payments are: Contiguous States--free snack--76 cents, reduced price snack--38 cents, paid...

  2. Radioactivity in school lunch. Concrete proposal for protecting children from unnecessary internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Naoko; Hasui, Seiichiro; Haraguchi, Yayoi

    2012-01-01

    After the reactor accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan on March 11, 2011, many food adopted widely in school food service such as rice, wheat, milk are known to have risk for radioactivity contamination. To protect all children from exposure, the authors quantitatively examined risk assessment coming from food and conclude that radioactivity due to cesium 137 in rice, wheat, and milk for school lunch should be less than 10 Bq/kg and, furthermore from 2013, as lower as possible and less than 5 Bq/kg. (S. Ohno)

  3. Nutrition Report Cards: an opportunity to improve school lunch selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wansink

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and implementation efficiency of Nutritional Report Cards (NRCs in helping children make healthier food choices at school. METHODS: Pilot testing was conducted in a rural New York school district (K-12. Over a five-week period, 27 parents received a weekly e-mail containing a NRC listing how many meal components (fruits, vegetables, starches, milk, snacks, and a-la-carte foods their child selected. We analyzed choices of students in the NRC group vs. the control group, both prior to and during the intervention period. Point-of-sale system data for a-la-carte items was analyzed using Generalized Least Squares regressions with clustered standard errors. RESULTS: NRCs encouraged more home conversations about nutrition and more awareness of food selections. Despite the small sample, the NRC was associated with reduced selection of some items, such as the percentage of those selecting cookies which decreased from 14.3 to 6.5 percent. Additionally, despite requiring new keys on the check-out registers to generate the NRC, checkout times increased by only 0.16 seconds per transaction, and compiling and sending the NRCs required a total weekly investment of 30 minutes of staff time. CONCLUSIONS: This test of concept suggests that NRCs are a feasible and inexpensive tool to guide children towards healthier choices.

  4. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  5. A Validation Study of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 Version, at School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Caroline F; DuPaul, George J; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining valid and reliable estimates of usual dietary intake at a reasonable cost is a challenge in school-based nutrition research. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 version (ASA24 Kids-2014), a self-administered, computerized 24-hour dietary recall, offers improved feasibility over traditional interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. This mixed-methods study examined ASA24 Kids-2014's validity for measuring dietary intake from National School Lunch Program lunches. After 24% attrition, 96 middle-school students from three urban schools in eastern Pennsylvania participated in the study. A subsample of 27 participants completed qualitative interviews. Data were collected in the spring of 2014. Self-reported ASA24 Kids-2014 data were compared to direct observations of school lunch, which served as the criterion measure. Dependent variables included eight meal components selected from the National School Lunch Program guidelines (fruit, vegetables, grains, protein-rich foods, dairy, oils, solid fats, and added sugars). A supplemental interview collected qualitative data regarding students' perceptions of content and substantive validity. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman's ρ examined criterion-related validity; qualitative content analysis examined content and substantive validity. Participants inaccurately recalled food items eaten at lunch, as 58% of foods were reported in error. However, among foods recalled correctly, no statistically significant differences emerged for estimates of portions consumed for six meal components (fruit, vegetables, grains, protein-rich foods, oils, and added sugars). In addition, statistically significant positive correlations emerged between ASA24 Kids-2014 and direct observation for all estimates. Qualitative data identified students' interest and motivation, comprehension, memory, and English-language fluency as relevant sources of error. Middle school students have difficulty

  6. Assessment of the national school lunch program in a subset of schools in San Juan, Puerto Rico: participants vs. non-participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alan M; Venegas, Heidi; Rodríguez, Cindy A; Vélez-Rodríguez, Rose M

    2013-03-01

    Extensive evaluations of the national school lunch program (NSLP) have been carried out on the U.S. mainland. Puerto Rico, a commonwealth of the U.S. is a participant in this program, but has never been included in assessment studies. Herein, we present assessment information and compare results with comparable mainland studies. Multiple 24-hr recall questionnaires were administered to groups of participating (P) and non-participating (NP) children in the lunch program at 3 educational levels. Comparisons were made for children within the study as well as between comparable children in mainland studies for total intake of several macro- and micro-nutrients, contribution of the lunch to the total daily intake and adherence to U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA's) or to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI's) including acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR's). Target intakes were met by P for % of the RDA of energy from protein, for all water soluble vitamins, iron, zinc and cholesterol. P did not achieve target intakes for total energy, energy from carbohydrates and fat nor for fat soluble vitamins, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and fiber. Recommended levels were exceeded for sodium, total fat and saturated fat. Comparing P vs NP, the vast majority of both groups fell within AMDR recommendations for macronutrients but not all micronutrients. For the most part, our results parallel those obtained in the National sample however, results suggest that P in the lunch program in Puerto Rico have a healthier intake of several nutrients than NP students. The unique feature of this study is that it is the first assessment of the NSLP in a completely Hispanic population.

  7. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  8. School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low-fat cheese on whole wheat tortillas) cold pizza (shredded mozzarella cheese with pizza sauce on a flour tortilla, whole wheat pita, English muffin, or mini pizza shell) cracker sandwiches (whole-grain crackers filled with ...

  9. Amount of Time to Eat Lunch Is Associated with Children's Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetables, and Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Richardson, Scott; Cluggish, Sarah A; Parker, Ellen; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no national standards for school lunch period length and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. Our aim was to examine plate-waste measurements from students in the control arm of the Modifying Eating and Lifestyles at School study (2011 to 2012 school year) to determine the association between amount of time to eat and school meal selection and consumption. We used a prospective study design using up to six repeated measures among students during the school year. One thousand and one students in grades 3 to 8 attending six participating elementary and middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20 to 30 minutes were included. School food selection and consumption were collected using plate-waste methodology. Logistic regression and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to examine food selection and consumption. Compared with meal-component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs 57%; Peat. There were no significant differences in entrée, milk, or vegetable selections. Among those who selected a meal component, students with eat consumed 13% less of their entrée (Peat. During the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entrée, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time might reduce food waste and improve dietary intake. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Amount of Time to Eat Lunch is Associated with Children’s Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetable, and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Richardson, Scott; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently no national standards for school lunch period lengths and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. Objectives To examine plate waste measurements from students in the control arm from the MEALS study (2011-2012 school year) for the association of the amount of time to eat with school meal selection and consumption. Design Prospective study using up to six repeated measures among students over the school year. Participants/Setting 1001 students in grades 3-8 attending 6 participating elementary/middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20-30 minutes. Main Outcome Measures School food selection and consumption were collected using plate waste methodology. Statistical Analyses Performed Logistic regression and mixed-model ANOVA was used to examine food selection and consumption. Results Compared with meal component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs. 57%; p=0.0001) compared with when students had fewer than 20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entrée, milk, or vegetable selection. Among those who selected a meal component, students with fewer than 20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entrée (peat. Conclusions Over the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entrée, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time may reduce food waste and improve dietary intake. PMID:26372337

  11. Food and drink consumption at school lunchtime: the impact of lunch type and contribution to overall intake in British 9-10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Flo; Jennings, Amy; Jones, Andy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedín

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake, and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals. Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4 d food diaries and school lunchtime intake from the two diary days completed while at school. Norfolk, UK. One thousand six hundred and twenty-six children (aged 9-10 years) attending ninety Norfolk primary schools. At school, lunchtime school meal eaters consumed more vegetables, sweet snacks, chips, starchy foods and milk, and less squash/cordial, fruit, bread, confectionery and savoury snacks than packed lunch eaters. These differences were also reflected in the overall diet. On average school meal eaters met the School Food Trust (SFT) food-based standards, while food choices among packed lunch eaters were less healthy. The contribution of food consumed at school lunchtime to overall diet varied by food and lunch type, ranging from 0.8 % (milk intake in packed lunches) to 74.4 % (savoury snack intake in packed lunches). There were significant differences in the foods consumed by school meal and packed lunch eaters, with food choices among school meal eaters generally in line with SFT standards. The food choices made at school lunchtime make a significant contribution to overall diet.

  12. Associations between structural characteristics of the school setting and irregular lunch consumption – are there gender differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Krølner, Rikke

    .52 (1.26-1.82). At the individual level, irregular lunch consumption was associated with being a boy, attending 7th grade, medium and low family social class, migration status, and living in a single and reconstructed family structure. Analyses stratified by gender showed similar results but among girls...... schoolchildren, and 2) examine whether gender modified these associations. Methods: Danish data from the international cross-sectional study ‘Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children in 2010 were used. Data were collected among schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years from a random sample of 75 schools....... The schoolchildren (N=4922) completed a self-administered questionnaire at school (response rate=86.3%). School principals (N=69) completed the school setting questionnaire (response rate=92 %). Associations between school level variables and irregular lunch consumption were estimated by multilevel logistic...

  13. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...

  14. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

  15. An Innovative Method of Measuring Changes in Access to Healthful Foods in School Lunch Programs: Findings from a Pilot Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P Hawkes

    Full Text Available A large local health department in Colorado partnered with 15 school districts to develop an approach to evaluate changes in access to healthy foods in reimbursable school lunches and a la carte offerings.School district nutrition managers were engaged at the start of this project. Health department dietitians developed criteria to classify food items as "Lower Fat and less added Sugar" (LFS and "Higher Fat and more added Sugar" (HFS based on the percentage of calories from fat and grams of added sugar. Lunch production sheets were obtained for two time periods, food items and the number of planned servings recorded. LFS and HFS planned servings were summed for each time period, and a LFS to HFS ratio calculated by dividing LFS planned servings by HFS planned servings. Additional analyses included calculating LFS: HFS ratios by school district, and for a la carte offerings.In 2009, the LFS: HFS ratio was 2.08, in 2011, 3.71 (P<0.0001. The method also detected changes in ratios at the school district level. For a la carte items, in 2009 the ratio of LFS: HFS was 0.53, and in 2011, 0.61 (not statistically significant.This method detected an increase in the LFS: HFS ratio over time and demonstrated that the school districts improved access to healthful food/drink by changing the contents of reimbursable school lunches. The evaluation method discussed here can generate information that districts can use in helping sustain and expand their efforts to create healthier environments for children and adults. Although federal regulations now cover all food and beverages served during the school day, there are still opportunities to improve and measure changes in food served in other settings such as child care centers, youth correction facilities, or in schools not participating in the National School Lunch Program.

  16. State farm-to-school laws influence the availability of fruits and vegetables in school lunches at US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa; Turner, Lindsey; Schneider, Linda; Chriqui, Jamie; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-05-01

    State laws and farm-to-school programs (FTSPs) have the potential to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) availability in school meals. This study examined whether FV were more available in public elementary school lunches in states with a law requiring/encouraging FTSPs or with a locally grown-related law, and whether the relationship between state laws and FV availability could be explained by schools opting for FTSPs. A pooled, cross-sectional analysis linked a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools with state laws. A series of multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for school-level demographics were performed according to mediation analysis procedures for dichotomous outcomes. Roughly 50% of schools reported FV availability in school lunches on most days of the week. Schools with the highest FV availability (70.6%) were in states with laws and schools with FTSPs. State laws requiring/encouraging FTSPs were significantly associated with increased FV availability in schools and a significant percentage (13%) of this relationship was mediated by schools having FTSPs. Because state farm-to-school laws are associated with significantly higher FV availability in schools-through FTSPs, as well as independently-enacting more state legislation may facilitate increased FTSP participation by schools and increased FV availability in school meals. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  17. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  18. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program participation in elementary schools in the United States and availability of fruits and vegetables in school lunch meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-06-01

    Dietary intake among children in the United States falls short of national recommendations. Schools can play an important role in improving children's preferences and food consumption patterns. The US Department of Agriculture's Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) aims to improve children's nutrient intake patterns by offering fresh fruits and vegetables as snacks outside the reimbursable meals programs in elementary schools that serve large numbers of low-income children. Using a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools, this cross-sectional study investigated FFVP participation patterns among schools by demographic and school characteristics. Further, the study investigated the association between FFVP participation and availability of fresh fruits, salads, and vegetables at lunch as reported by school administrators and foodservice staff. Data collected via a mail-back survey from 620 public elementary schools participating in the National School Lunch Program during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Almost 70% of the FFVP-participating schools had a majority of students (>50%) eligible for free and reduced-cost meals. Participating in US Department of Agriculture Team Nutrition Program and having a registered dietitian or a nutritionist on staff were significantly associated with FFVP participation. Based on the results from logistic regression analyses schools participating in the FFVP were significantly more likely (odds ratio 2.07; 95% CI 1.12 to 3.53) to serve fresh fruit during lunch meals. Slightly >25% of public elementary schools across the United States participated in the FFVP, and participation was associated with healthier food availability in school lunches. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Middle School Cafeteria Food Choice and Waste Prior to Implementation of Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Changes in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Priscilla; Bednar, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The study objective was to document choices of entrées, vegetables, fruits, grains/breads, and beverages on lunch trays and to determine the amount of each that was discarded after mealtime. Methods: A convenience sample of two urban middle school cafeterias in Texas participated in the study which took place in the 2010-2011…

  20. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is a challenge to assess children’s dietary intake. The digital photographic method (DPM) may be an objective method that can overcome some of these challenges. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a DPM to assess the quality of dietary....... The lunches were photographed using a standardised DPM. From the digital images, the dietary components were estimated by a trained image analyst using weights or household measures and the dietary quality was assessed using a validated Meal Index of Dietary Quality (Meal IQ). The dietary components...... and the Meal IQ obtained from the digital images were validated against the objective weighed foods of the school lunch sandwiches. To determine interrater reliability, the digital images were evaluated by a second image analyst. Results: Correlation coefficients between the DPM and the weighed foods ranged...

  1. Chefs move to schools. A pilot examination of how chef-created dishes can increase school lunch participation and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, David R; Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S

    2014-12-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of introducing a main dish designed by a professional chef in the National School Lunch Program and to document the impact on child participation, a chef was recruited to design pizza to be served in an upstate New York school district. The pizza was designed to meet both the cost and ingredient requirements of the NSLP. High school students were significantly more likely to select the pizza prepared by the chef. While the chef had no significant impact on main dish consumption given selection, more students took a vegetable and vegetable consumption increased by 16.5%. This pilot study demonstrates the plausibility of using chefs to boost participation in the school lunch program, and potentially increase nutrition through side selection, among high school students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 76 FR 35301 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ...,557 $3,629 $17,108 Number of breakfasts 2,091 2,187 2,253 2,298 2,332 11,160 * Equals less than $500... 356 schools within those SFAs. Financial statements, meal production records, recipes, invoices, and... Foods, school recipe records, and school menus. With this information, the study estimated the share of...

  3. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  4. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Spence

    Full Text Available In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9 and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5 than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6, protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0, non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9, vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8, and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4 in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  5. 78 FR 40625 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ...-free and low-fat fluid milk in school meals; reduce the levels of sodium, saturated fat and trans fat... mitigate the childhood obesity trend. The proposed rule took comments on the associated ICR until March 14...

  6. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet and on packed lunches: A randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared...

  7. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet and on packed lunches: A randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P vegetarian days (23 %) compared...

  8. 77 FR 4087 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... dietary fiber and when consumed in excess can contribute extra calories. Schools should offer fresh fruit... potassium and other minerals, vitamins and fiber, and are naturally low in fat and sodium. Many stakeholders...) are a source of nutrients such as iron, magnesium, selenium, B vitamins, and dietary fiber. Evidence...

  9. Successes and Challenges in Using Group-Level Incentives to Increase Children's Aggregate Fruit and Vegetable Consumption for Lunch in One Wisconsin Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchanachokchai, Sydney; Jamelske, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Existing research has investigated the effects of using individual incentives and positive reinforcements to influence children to eat more fruits and vegetables for lunch and snack during school. This study explored using group-level incentives to motivate children in a Wisconsin elementary school to eat more fruits and…

  10. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  11. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  12. Contaminated Frozen Strawberries in School Lunches. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session (June 5, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This hearing includes testimony on contaminated strawberries in school lunches. Contaminated strawberries were determined to be the cause of an outbreak of hepatitis in the state of Michigan. In addition to statements by the committee members, testimony was given by: (1) Mary Ann Keeffe, Acting Under Secretary, Food Nutrition and Consumer…

  13. Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-08-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Feud over Food: The Truth about the School Lunch Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Serving meals and snacks at school is fraught with politics and pitfalls. While the battle rages in school cafeterias over menu choices, beverage sales, vending foods, and outright bans on what students can buy or even bring to school, there is some good news. More school districts are reducing the number of fried foods, increasing the levels of…

  15. The impact of the availability of school vending machines on eating behavior during lunch: the Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sappenfield, William M; Huang, Youjie; Sherry, Bettylou; Bensyl, Diana M

    2010-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern and is associated with substantial morbidities. Access to less-healthy foods might facilitate dietary behaviors that contribute to obesity. However, less-healthy foods are usually available in school vending machines. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of students buying snacks or beverages from school vending machines instead of buying school lunch and predictors of this behavior. Analyses were based on the 2003 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,322 students in grades six through eight in 73 Florida public middle schools. Analyses included χ2 tests and logistic regression. The outcome measure was buying a snack or beverage from vending machines 2 or more days during the previous 5 days instead of buying lunch. The survey response rate was 72%. Eighteen percent of respondents reported purchasing a snack or beverage from a vending machine 2 or more days during the previous 5 school days instead of buying school lunch. Although healthier options were available, the most commonly purchased vending machine items were chips, pretzels/crackers, candy bars, soda, and sport drinks. More students chose snacks or beverages instead of lunch in schools where beverage vending machines were also available than did students in schools where beverage vending machines were unavailable: 19% and 7%, respectively (P≤0.05). The strongest risk factor for buying snacks or beverages from vending machines instead of buying school lunch was availability of beverage vending machines in schools (adjusted odds ratio=3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 5.7). Other statistically significant risk factors were smoking, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, Hispanic ethnicity, and older age. Although healthier choices were available, the most common choices were the less-healthy foods. Schools should consider developing policies to reduce the availability of less-healthy choices

  16. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Dragoset; Anne Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This brief describes exploratory work to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes that may be coming in policies and practices related to school meals and school food environments.

  17. A Food Service Intervention Improves Whole Grain Access at Lunch in Rural Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F. W.; Rimm, Eric B.; Austin, S. Bryn; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Kraak, Vivica I.; Economos, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole grain (WG) options are often limited in schools, which may impact rural, low-income students who rely on school meals for a substantial portion of their food intake. This study examined the changes in the availability and quantity of WG and refined grain foods offered in schools participating in the Creating Healthy, Active and…

  18. School Lunch Consumption among 3 Food Service Providers in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canterberry, Melanie; Francois, Samantha; van Hattum, Taslim; Rudov, Lindsey; Carton, Thomas W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Louisiana has one of the highest rates of overweight and obese children in the United States. The Healthy School Food Collaborative (HSFC) was created to allow New Orleans's schools to select their own healthy school Food Service Provider (FSP) with requirements for higher nutritional standards than traditional options. The goal of…

  19. Foods and beverages offered in US public secondary schools through the National School Lunch Program from 2011-2013: Early evidence of improved nutrition and reduced disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2015-09-01

    To present data on trends in foods and beverages offered through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in public middle and high schools in the years immediately preceding and following implementation of new NSLP standards. From 2011 to 2013, primary data collection through the annual Youth, Education, and Society study involved use of mailed questionnaires to obtain data on NSLP meals from schools attended by nationally representative samples of US 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) grade students (N=792 middle schools and 751 high schools). Each school was weighted to represent the percentage of target grade students enrolled, thus allowing analyses examining changes over time in the percentage of students enrolled in (attending) schools with specified NSLP measure outcomes, as well as disparities in NSLP measures based on school characteristics. Significantly more US secondary students attended schools with specified NSLP measures in 2013 than in 2011; increases were observed at both middle and high school levels. Increase rates for some NSLP measures were moderated by school characteristics; where this was the case, moderating associations decreased prior NSLP nutrition environment disparities that were especially evident in smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of minority students. Meaningful improvements have been made in the nutritional content of NSLP meals offered to US secondary students; these improvements have reduced prior NSLP meal disparities associated with school characteristics. Schools will need continued help with implementation and compliance monitoring in order to have the best opportunity to improve the nutrition environments for US students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast Food Combos Make Type A Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashower, Gloria

    1974-01-01

    Clark County school district in Las Vegas, Nevada, has combination lunches available for high school students that meet Type A nutrition requirements but which resemble the commercial fast food menus teenagers prefer. (MLF)

  1. Direct Certification in the National School Lunch Program: State Implementation Progress School Year 2010-2011. Report to Congress. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report Number CN-11-DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Quinn; Conway, Kevin; Kyler, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This report responds to the legislative requirement of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L.110-246) to assess the effectiveness of State and local efforts to directly certify children for free school meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Direct certification is a process conducted by the States and by local…

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmyo Yoshiomi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Methods Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Results Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82% replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03–1.68, current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24–1.98, and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01–1.79. As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05–1.56, breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13–1.56, kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03–1.15, and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08–1.19 were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03–1.45, stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42–1.99, financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03–1.47, health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08–1.59 and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01–1.52 were similarly associated. Conclusion Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2007-07-24

    The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82%) replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.68), current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24-1.98), and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79). As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56), breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.56), kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03-1.15), and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.19) were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45), stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42-1.99), financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47), health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59) and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52) were similarly associated. Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks.

  4. Consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages at school, home, and other locations among school lunch participants and nonparticipants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Gleason, Philip M

    2009-02-01

    Access to foods and beverages on school campuses, at home, and other locations affects children's diet quality, energy intake, and risk of obesity. To describe patterns of consumption of "empty calories"--low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, including sugar-sweetened beverages--by eating location among National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants and nonparticipants. Cross-sectional study using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2004-2005 third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study. A nationally representative sample of 2,314 children in grades one through 12, including 1,386 NSLP participants. Comparisons, using t tests, of the proportion of children consuming low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, mean daily energy and energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, and energy density by NSLP participation status. On a typical school day, children consumed 527 "empty calories" during a 24-hour period. Eating at home provided the highest mean amount of energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods (276 kcal vs 174 kcal at school and 78 kcal at other locations). NSLP participants consumed less energy from sugar-sweetened beverages at school than nonparticipants (11 kcal vs 39 kcal in elementary schools and 45 kcal vs 61 kcal in secondary schools, Pkcal vs 127 kcal, Plunch participants' consumption at school was less energy-dense than nonparticipants' consumption at school (Pdaily and energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods are consumed (especially from sugar-sweetened beverages, chips, and baked goods) is warranted. At schools, consumption of energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods may be reduced by limiting access to competitive foods and beverages, enforcing strong school wellness policies, and minimizing the frequency of offering french fries and similar potato products and higher-fat baked goods in school meals or à la carte.

  5. A comparative study of mid-day meal beneficiaries and private school attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is undergoing a rapid demographic transition accompanied by an epidemiologic and nutritional transition. The nutritional status of school-going children who form a major section of the population, can give an indication of the changing trends in nutritional profile of the population. According to Planning Commission report, 2010, Mid Day Meal (MDM Program has been successful in addressing classroom hunger and the objective of social equity in government school attendees. Aims & Objectives: To study the pattern of school lunch intake and nutritional status in private and government school-going children of district Dehradun. Material & Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study in district Dehradun in government and private schools, with participants from class 1 to 12. A 24-hour dietary recall was done to measure caloric intake. Height and weight were measured using Microtoise (accuracy 0.1cm and digital weighing machine (Omron Model: HN286, accuracy 100 gm. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, version 22. Nutritional status was classified using WHO cut-offs and analyzed using AnthroPlus Software. Student t-test was used to compare caloric intake of subgroups. Association between nutritional status and other variables was assessed using Chi-squared test. Results: Using WHO cut-offs, the proportion of thin children was 5.4% in private school and 21.5% in MDM beneficiaries of government schools. The proportion of children who were overweight was 27.7% in private schools and 3.6% in government schools (p<.0.05. The caloric content of school lunch was 271 Kcal in private school attendees and 375 Kcal in MDM beneficiaries. Proportion of children who skipped school lunch increased as they progressed in higher classes, and this proportion was greater in students of government schools beyond class VIII. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for more large scale nutritional surveys with school lunch in focus.

  6. Explaining the positive relationship between fourth-grade children's body mass index and energy intake at school-provided meals (breakfast and lunch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B

    2013-05-01

    A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. Fourth-grade children (N = 465) from Columbia, SC, were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on 1 to 4 days per child. Researchers measured children's weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m(2) for every 100 kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  7. Explaining the Positive Relationship between Fourth-Grade Children’s Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A positive relationship exists between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain this relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals—energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. METHODS We observed children in grade 4 (N=465) eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to 4 days per child. We measured children’s weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). RESULTS BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m2 for every 100-kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. PMID:23517000

  8. The Influence of Physical and Social Contexts of Eating on Lunch-Time Food Intake among Southern Ontario, Canada, Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McGoldrick, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who…

  9. Pre-ordering lunch at work. Results of the what to eat for lunch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Shana D; Singletary, S Brook; Menasha, Adeena; Cooblall, Clarissa; Hantula, Donald; Axelrod, Saul; Figueredo, Vincent M; Phipps, Etienne J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate an intervention that combined mindful eating and online pre-ordering to promote healthier lunch purchases at work. The study took place at an urban hospital with 26 employees who were overweight or obese. The design included a contemporaneous comparison with delayed-treatment control and a three-phase prospective study. A minimum 4-week baseline period preceded a 4-week full-intervention, in which participants received mindful eating training, pre-ordered their lunches, and received price discounts toward lunch purchases. In a 4-week reduced intervention phase, participants pre-ordered lunches without price discounts. Participant lunch purchases were tracked electronically at the point of purchase. The primary outcome measures were the amounts of kilocalories and fat grams in purchased lunches. In contemporaneous comparisons, the treatment group purchased lunches with an average of 144.6 fewer kilocalories (p = 0.01) and 8.9 fewer grams of fat (p = 0.005) compared to controls. In multivariable longitudinal analyses, participants decreased the average number of calories in their meals by 114.6 kcal per lunch and the average grams of fat by 5.4 per lunch during the partial-intervention compared to the baseline (p ordering system if offered in the future. Combined mindful eating training and online pre-ordering appears a feasible and useful worksite intervention to improve food choices by employees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of the effects of lunch on adults' short-term cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katrin; Libuda, Lars; Terschlüsen, Anna Maria; Kersting, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Because of widespread irregular lunch consumption by both children and adults, information on the effects of lunch on short-term cognitive functioning is relevant to public health. In September 2012, a MEDLINE search was conducted for studies in which the effects of lunch on cognitive performance were examined. Eleven experimental studies published from 1981 to 1996 were found and evaluated; all involved adults. In three studies, the effects of lunch and lunch skipping were compared; the remaining studies involved a determination of the effects of lunch size and lunch composition. Results of studies in which lunch was compared with no lunch indicate that lunch leads to potential impairment of some aspects of cognitive functioning in the early afternoon. Lunch size may influence cognitive functioning, with impairment more likely to occur after a large lunch than a small lunch. Furthermore, in comparison with low-fat lunches, high-fat lunches seem to result in slower but more accurate responses to some cognitive tasks. However, these suggestions must be viewed with caution, as they are based on only a few studies and are not thoroughly supported by high-quality evidence. In addition, results obtained with adults are not applicable to children. Thus, the potential effects of lunch need further examination in children and adults.

  11. Feasibility and reliability of digital imaging for estimating food selection and consumption from students' packed lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer C; Sutter, Carolyn; Ontai, Lenna L; Nishina, Adrienne; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2018-01-01

    Although increasing attention is placed on the quality of foods in children's packed lunches, few studies have examined the capacity of observational methods to reliably determine both what is selected and consumed from these lunches. The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility and inter-rater reliability of digital imaging for determining selection and consumption from students' packed lunches, by adapting approaches previously applied to school lunches. Study 1 assessed feasibility and reliability of data collection among a sample of packed lunches (n = 155), while Study 2 further examined reliability in a larger sample of packed (n = 386) as well as school (n = 583) lunches. Based on the results from Study 1, it was feasible to collect and code most items in packed lunch images; missing data were most commonly attributed to packaging that limited visibility of contents. Across both studies, there was satisfactory reliability for determining food types selected, quantities selected, and quantities consumed in the eight food categories examined (weighted kappa coefficients 0.68-0.97 for packed lunches, 0.74-0.97 for school lunches), with lowest reliability for estimating condiments and meats/meat alternatives in packed lunches. In extending methods predominately applied to school lunches, these findings demonstrate the capacity of digital imaging for the objective estimation of selection and consumption from both school and packed lunches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. No free lunch

    KAUST Repository

    Ture, Ferhan

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the problem of cross-lingual pairwise similarity, where the task is to extract similar pairs of documents across two different languages. Solutions to this problem are of general interest for text mining in the multilingual context and have specific applications in statistical machine translation. Our approach takes advantage of cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) techniques to project feature vectors from one language into another, and then uses locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) to extract similar pairs. We show that effective cross-lingual pairwise similarity requires working with similarity thresholds that are much lower than in typical monolingual applications, making the problem quite challenging. We present a parallel, scalable MapReduce implementation of the sort-based sliding window algorithm, which is compared to a brute-force approach on German and English Wikipedia collections. Our central finding can be summarized as "no free lunch": there is no single optimal solution. Instead, we characterize effectiveness-efficiency tradeoffs in the solution space, which can guide the developer to locate a desirable operating point based on application- and resource-specific constraints.

  13. School Lunch Program: Role and Impacts of Private Food Service Companies. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    In the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994, Congress directed the Government Accounting Office (GAO) to examine the use of private food establishments and caterers by schools participating in federal programs for school meals. In conducting its review, the GAO relied primarily on questionnaires returned by food authorities that had…

  14. Lunch, recess and nutrition: responding to time incentives in the cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph; Just, David R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we evaluate if moving recess before lunch has an effect on the amount of fruits and vegetables elementary school students eat as part of their school-provided lunch. Participants were 1st-6th grade students from three schools that switched recess from after to before lunch and four similar schools that continued to hold recess after lunch. We collected data for an average of 14 days at each school (4 days during spring 2011, May 3 through June 1, 2011 and 9 days during fall 2011, September 19 through November 11, 2011). All of the schools were in Orem, UT. Data was collected for all students receiving a school lunch and was based on observational plate waste data. We find that moving recess before lunch increased consumption of fruits and vegetables by 0.16 servings per child (a 54% increase) and increased the fraction of children eating at least one serving of fruits or vegetables by 10 percentage points (a 45% increase). In contrast, the schools in our control group actually experienced a small reduction in fruit and vegetable consumption during the same time period. Our results show the benefits of holding recess before lunch and suggest that if more schools implement this policy, there would be significant increases in fruit and vegetable consumption among students who eat school lunch as part of the National School Lunch Program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior.

  16. School bullying - A comparative approach -

    OpenAIRE

    Kosevaliska, Olga; Buzarovska - Lazetik, Gordana; Nanev, Lazar

    2014-01-01

    The modest purpose of this paper is to elaborate the phenomenon of school bullying and to try to give an answer to questions that remain open over time because of the seriousness of this issue. A child is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly over time to aggressive behavior that intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort through physical contact, verbal attacks, fighting or psychological manipulation. Besides finding the proper definition of bullying, we’ll give a comparative a...

  17. Reporting accuracy of packed lunch consumption among Danish 11-year-olds differ by gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nina; Fagt, Sisse; Davidsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Packed lunch is the dominant lunch format in many countries including Denmark. School lunch is consumed unsupervised, and self-reported recalls are appropriate in the school setting. However, little is known about the accuracy of recalls in relation to packed lunch. Objective: To assess...... the qualitative recall accuracy of self-reported consumption of packed lunch among Danish 11-year-old children in relation to gender and dietary assessment method. Design: A cross-sectional dietary recall study of packed lunch consumption. Digital images (DIs) served as an objective reference method to determine...... food items consumed. Recalls were collected with a lunch recall questionnaire (LRQ) comprising an open-ended recall (OE-Q) and a pre-coded food group prompted recall (PC-Q). Individual interviews (INTs) were conducted successively. The number of food items was identified and accuracy was calculated...

  18. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Serial Food Poisoning Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus-Contaminated Shredded Dried Laver Seaweed Provided at School Lunch, Tokyo, 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Kimoto, Kana; Oda, Mayuko; Okutsu, Yuta; Kato, Rei; Suzuki, Yasunori; Siki, Dai; Hirai, Akihiko; Akiba, Tetsuya; Shinkai, Takayuki; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, four food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Tokyo, involving ten schools. Shredded dried laver seaweed processed by a single food manufacturer in December 2016 was provided in common for the school meals that caused all four outbreaks. Of 4,209 persons exposed, 1,193 (28.3%) had symptoms of gastroenteritis. Norovirus (NoV) GII was detected in 207 (78.1%) of 265 cases by real-time RT-PCR. Thirty-one shredded dried laver seaweed samples were examined and seven (22.6%) of them were positive for NoV GII. PCR fragments of NoV ORF1/2 junction region (302 bp) from seven shredded dried laver seaweed samples and 20 clinical samples derived from the four outbreaks were sequenced. All of them displayed complete homology, and the genotype was classified as GII.17. A nearly full-length sequence (7,420 bp) of NoV RNA derived from a case was obtained by next-generation sequencer analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the same cluster as Hu/GII/JP/2015/GII.P17_GII.17/Kawasaki308. Thus, our investigation elucidated that the causative agent of these four serial food poisoning outbreaks was NoV GII.17 and the infectious source was a single batch of shredded dried laver seaweed. The water activity of the shredded dried laver seaweed was found to be 0.119 to 0.129. It was epidemiologically clarified that NoV does not lose infectivity for about two months even in the dry state. We conclude that a large diffuse outbreak of food poisoning caused by NoV GII.17 contamination of shredded dried laver seaweed had occurred in Tokyo. Our elucidation of the causative agent indicated that the food poisoning outbreaks in multiple areas of Japan, including Tokyo, during January to February 2017 were caused by the same contaminated food.

  20. Occurrence of selected perfluorinated alkyl acids in lunch meals served at school canteens in Italy and their relevance for children’s intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellatte, E.; Brambilla, G.; De Filippis, S.P.; Di Domenico, A.; Pulkrabova, J.; Eschauzier, C.; Klenow, S.; Heinemeyer, G.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat servings may be more contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) than the corresponding unprocessed foods due to the presence of PFAAs in and transfer from food contact materials (FCM) and cookware. Therefore, the presence of selected PFAAs in meals served weekly at lunch time

  1. ATLAS Christmas lunch

    CERN Document Server

    Francois Butin; Markus Nordberg

    The end of the year ATLAS pit lunch is now a well established tradition: the 4th edition took place in the most prestigious place at CERN; the "Globe de l'innovation", or simply "the Globe". This end-of-year event is the opportunity to thank all those working so hard at Point 1. The first event took place in December 2003. At that time, there was no Globe yet, and the party took place in SX1 building, at the top of the shafts leading to the ATLAS cavern, with some 100 guests. In December 2004, we had the privilege to be the first to organize a lunch in the Globe with some 200 guests. Since then, many have followed our example! Well, almost: we were requested to refrain from serving "Tartiflette" again in there (a Savoyard specialty, using vast amounts of Reblochon, a smelly cheese...). It was said to have left a poignant odour for following events throughout 2004... Long queues formed for this special event. In December 2005, we were authorized to party in the Globe again (once we promised we would b...

  2. Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…

  3. Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    chantal Taylor

    Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jodi Renee Abbott

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this descriptive research study was to compare charter and traditional public schools on the academic knowledge of fifth grade students as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) in a suburb of a large southwestern city. This analysis also compared charter and traditional public schools on AYP status. It was…

  5. SMART lunch box intervention to improve the food and nutrient content of children's packed lunches: UK wide cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C E L; Greenwood, D C; Thomas, J D; Cleghorn, C L; Kitchen, M S; Cade, J E

    2010-11-01

    Government standards are now in place for children's school meals but not for lunches prepared at home. The aim of this trial is to improve the content of children's packed lunches. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 89 primary schools across the UK involving 1291 children, age 8-9 years at baseline. Follow-up was 12 months after baseline. A "SMART" lunch box intervention programme consisted of food boxes, bag and supporting materials. The main outcome measures were weights of foods and proportion of children provided with sandwiches, fruit, vegetables, dairy food, savoury snacks and confectionery in each packed lunch. Levels of nutrients provided including energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, non-milk extrinsic sugar, sodium, calcium, iron, folate, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C. Moderately higher weights of fruit, vegetables, dairy and starchy food and lower weights of savoury snacks were provided to children in the intervention group. Children in the intervention group were provided with slightly higher levels of vitamin A and folate. 11% more children were provided with vegetables/salad in their packed lunch, and 13% fewer children were provided with savoury snacks (crisps). Children in the intervention group were more likely to be provided with packed lunches meeting the government school meal standards. The SMART lunch box intervention, targeting parents and children, led to small improvements in the food and nutrient content of children's packed lunches. Further interventions are required to bring packed lunches in line with the new government standards for school meals. Current controlled trials ISRCTN77710993.

  6. Lunch frequency among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    frequency was most common among students who were boys, 13- and 15-year-olds, from medium and low family social class, descendants of immigrants, living in a single-parent family and in a reconstructed family. School-level analyses suggested that having access to a canteen at school was associated with low...

  7. Lunch is ready… but not healthy: An analysis of lunches served in childcare centres in two Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stephanie; Bélanger, Mathieu; Donovan, Denise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Leis, Anne; Carrier, Natalie

    2017-11-09

    Childcare centres (CCs) typically offer one meal and snacks daily. This study compared what is served in CCs with what the nutritional recommendations are; described and compared the nutritional composition of lunches served in CCs in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan; and examined differences between French and English, and urban and rural centres. The study involved 61 randomly selected CCs in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, Canada. Lunch content was measured on two consecutive days by weighing each food item served to children and by visually documenting the food items using digital photography. Food items were categorized into food groups according to Health Canada's Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, and nutrients were analyzed using a nutritional analysis software. One-sample t tests compared lunch content with nutritional recommendations. Independent t tests compared the nutrient and food group content of lunches in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, French and English, and urban and rural CCs. On average, CCs did not meet provincial recommendations. Lunches in both provinces were low in calories (<517 kcal) and fibre (<7 g). Overall, Saskatchewan centres served greater amounts of food than New Brunswick centres (p < 0.05). French-speaking centres provided less fat (p = 0.047), less saturated fat (p = 0.01), and fewer servings of meat and alternatives (p = 0.02), and more trans fat (p = 0.03) than English-speaking centres. There were no differences between rural and urban centres. Few CC lunches met nutritional recommendations. Interventions are required to improve the quality of foods offered in CCs. Reviewing or developing comprehensive nutrition guidelines is warranted.

  8. School nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; Kiely, D; Mulvihill, M; Winters, A; Bollard, C; Hamilton, A; Corrigan, C; Moore, E

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  9. What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

  10. The dietary effect of serving school meals based on the new Nordic diet – A randomised controlled trial in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The OPUS study is a school-based intervention study testing selected health effects of New Nordic Diet (NND). Children are served lunch and snacks based on NND. The hypothesis is that Danish school children eat a healthier diet when receiving NND school meals as compared...... with packed lunch brought from home. To investigate the effects on intake of selected macronutrients in Danish school children when served school meals based on NND compared with packed lunch. Methods: In a cluster-randomized controlled unblinded cross-over study children received school meals based on NND...... for 3 months and their usual packed lunch for 3 months. The daily intake of food and beverages was recorded 3 times during 7 consecutive days using a validated self-administered web-based dietary assessment software tool for children. Statistical analysis was performed by hierarchical mixed models...

  11. Amuse Restaurant Lunch Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Amuse Restaurant

    2017-01-01

    Since opening, Amuse Restaurant has garnered rave reviews from the Country’s most trusted and renowned food critics. Praise has flowed for Conor’s individual style of cooking, which brings Asian flavours, namely Japanese, to modern French cuisine. The menu focuses mainly on tasting menus as it is the best way to experience this kind of food, however there is a three course set menu available Tuesday to Thursday for mid week dining. The lunch menu is a three course affair with the option of a ...

  12. Amuse Restaurant Set Lunch 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Amuse Restaurant

    2017-01-01

    Since opening, Amuse Restaurant has garnered rave reviews from the Country’s most trusted and renowned food critics. Praise has flowed for Conor’s individual style of cooking, which brings Asian flavours, namely Japanese, to modern French cuisine. The menu focuses mainly on tasting menus as it is the best way to experience this kind of food, however there is a three course set menu available Tuesday to Thursday for mid week dining. The lunch menu is a three course affair with the option of a ...

  13. Plant-Based Lunch at Work: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Environmental Impact and Tastiness—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the environmental impact, nutrient intake, appreciation and tastiness of three buffet-style lunches served at the workplace, consisting of (1 animal-based foods; (2 plant-based foods; and (3 both animal-based and plant-based foods. Employees of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands participated in the study. Participants scored the lunch for appreciation and tastiness (scores from 1 to 10. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and land use associated with foods consumed were calculated using life cycle assessments. Nutrient intake was calculated using food composition data. The results show that both the plant-based and the combination lunch received higher scores for tastiness than the animal-based lunch. GHG emissions and land use were lowest for the plant-based lunch and highest for the animal-based lunch. The combination lunch was associated with increased fiber and decreased saturated fat intake compared to the animal-based lunch, but also lead to increased energy intake. The plant-based lunch did not increase energy intake, while increasing fiber intake and decreasing sodium (salt and saturated fat intakes. These initial results show that plant-based lunches have the potential to improve nutrient intake and tastiness while reducing environmental impact. Additional research in this field is worthwhile.

  14. The Use of Point-of-Sale Machines in School Cafeterias as a Method of Parental Influence over Child Lunch Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrepont, Emmy; Cullen, Karen W.; Taylor, Wendell C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child's school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (e.g., chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study examines the use of parental…

  15. The use of point-of-sale machines in school cafeterias as a method of parental influence over child lunch food choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child’s school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (eg, chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study...

  16. Children's Selection of Fruit and Vegetables in a "Dream versus Healthy" Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Parker, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, it is well established that the behaviour, performance, and achievement of schoolchildren is directly linked to the nutritional status of overall diet -- including the contents of their school lunch-boxes. In a previous survey study by the lead authors, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was…

  17. The relative price of healthy and less healthy foods available in Australian school canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billich, Natassja; Adderley, Marijke; Ford, Laura; Keeton, Isabel; Palermo, Claire; Peeters, Anna; Woods, Julie; Backholer, Kathryn

    2018-04-12

    School canteens have an important role in modelling a healthy food environment. Price is a strong predictor of food and beverage choice. This study compared the relative price of healthy and less healthy lunch and snack items sold within Australian school canteens. A convenience sample of online canteen menus from five Australian states were selected (100 primary and 100 secondary schools). State-specific canteen guidelines were used to classify menu items into 'green' (eat most), 'amber' (select carefully) and 'red' (not recommended in schools). The price of the cheapest 'healthy' lunch (vegetable-based 'green') and snack ('green' fruit) item was compared to the cheapest 'less healthy' ('amber/red') lunch and snack item, respectively, using an un-paired t-test. The relative price of the 'healthy' items and the 'less healthy' items was calculated to determine the proportion of schools that sold the 'less healthy' item cheaper. The mean cost of the 'healthy' lunch items was greater than the 'less healthy' lunch items for both primary (AUD $0.70 greater) and secondary schools ($0.50 greater; p snack was cheaper than the 'healthy' snack. These proportions were greatest for primary schools located in more, compared to less, disadvantaged areas. The relative price of foods sold within Australian school canteens appears to favour less healthy foods. School canteen healthy food policies should consider the price of foods sold.

  18. The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Elise F; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Mayer, Eva V; Verhoef, Hans; Demir, Ayşe Y; Ferguson, Elaine L; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

    2018-02-01

    Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional food-based recommendations (FBR) on vitamin A and overall nutrient adequacy using Optifood (linear programming tool). Cross-sectional study to assess dietary intakes (24 h recall) and derive model parameters (list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, food and food (sub)group frequency distributions, food cost). Three scenarios were modelled, namely daily diet including: (i) no school lunch; (ii) standard 5d school lunch with maize/beans; and (iii) 5d school lunch with yellow cassava. Each scenario and scenario 3 with additional FBR were assessed on overall nutrient adequacy using recommended nutrient intakes (RNI). Eastern Kenya. Primary-school children (n 150) aged 7-9 years. Best food pattern of yellow cassava-based lunch scenario achieved 100 % RNI for six nutrients compared with no lunch (three nutrients) or standard lunch (five nutrients) scenario. FBR with yellow cassava and including small dried fish improved nutrient adequacy, but could not ensure adequate intake of fat (52 % of average requirement), riboflavin (50 % RNI), folate (59 % RNI) and vitamin A (49 % RNI). Introduction of yellow cassava-based school lunch complemented with FBR potentially improved vitamin A adequacy, but alternative interventions are needed to ensure dietary adequacy. Optifood is useful to assess potential contribution of a biofortified crop to nutrient adequacy and to develop additional FBR to address remaining nutrient gaps.

  19. RELIGIOUS DRESS AT SCHOOL: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajm

    2011-03-11

    Mar 11, 2011 ... to an individual's personal sense of self-worth but also to the public's estimation of the worth or ..... wanting the school to conduct corporal punishment as part of its school disciplinary measures. 91 Chapter 2 SA .... self-esteem.

  20. Formação para merendeiras: uma proposta metodológica aplicada em escolas estaduais atendidas pelo programa nacional de alimentação escolar, em Salvador, Bahia Professional training for school lunch cooks: a methodological experiment done in state schools supported by the National School Feeding Program in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Lima Leite

    2011-04-01

    directed at school lunch cooks in state schools supported by the National School Feeding Program. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out among school lunch cooks from 97 state schools, in Salvador (Bahia , Brazil. Definition and implementation of the professional training consisted of three stages: a preliminary survey among the cooks in search of contents and methodology, professional training activities and the subjects' assessment of such activities. RESULTS: The preliminary survey pointed to both those contents of major interest among the cooks and the methodology. Professional training activities were designed as a 20-hour event for groups of about 35 people, taking place in school units. The activity program carried a number of different contents, including the National School Feeding Program, the school lunch cooks in the school feeding system, feeding and nutrition principles, and Good Manufacturing Practices. Methodological resources comprised dramatization, dialogued presentations, workshops, group contests, practical activities, interactive games, form completion, guided group activities and a printed brochure with all presentations. At the end of the event, an assessment was requested from the subjects as to the following features: content presentation, resources employed, pace of activities, question answering, content learning, positive and negative aspects as well as suggestions. CONCLUSION: The experiment showed the feasibility of building a new professional training model by using and valuing the contributions from the target subjects, thus allowing the reframing of traditional professional training practices and increasing the chances of success, since the subjects' specific demands were taken into account.

  1. User Democracy in Schools? Comparing Norwegian Schools with Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traetteberg, Håkon

    2018-01-01

    Democratic user control is a hallmark of Scandinavian schools, but also of other services of the Scandinavian welfare states. This article studies variations in parental control and influences in public and non-public schools. In addition, how the use of different governance tools inspired by markets affects user control is analyzed. The empirical…

  2. Merenda no dia alimentar de crianças matriculadas em Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar School-lunch as part of the eating habits of children enrolled in Pre-school Education and Feeding Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nilda Mazzilli

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o papel da merenda no comportamento alimentar de 346 pré-escolares (PE matriculados em Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar (CEAPEs de seis municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em entrevista domiciliar com a mãe ou responsável pela alimentação do PE, obteve-se o número e a quantidade dos alimentos ingeridos pela criança antes e após sua participação no CEAPE. Verificou-se que essa refeição escolar interfere tanto na quantidade dos alimentos consumidos quanto no número das refeições diárias feitas no lar. Os resultados mostraram que 178 (51,4% PE reduziram a ingestão alimentar de casa, mediante exclusão de refeições e/ou diminuição da quantidade de alimentos habitualmente ingerida, após receberem a merenda no CEAPE. Destas, 115 (64,6% apresentaram dieta insuficiente em energia; 48 (13,9% aumentaram a quantidade dos alimentos habituais e/ou incluíram refeições. Ainda assim, 23 (47,9% apresentaram consumo energético deficiente. Entre os 120 (34,7% que não tiveram nenhuma modificação em seu dia alimentar, 61 (51,7% mostraram ingestão calórica inadequada. Concluiu-se ser necessário orientar a família sobre o papel da merenda como suplemento alimentar e não como substituto de refeições no lar.It was studied the role of the school lunch in the dietary behaviour of the three hundred and forty-six preschool children drawn from the Preschool Education and Feeding Centre (CEAPE, in six towns of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil. In home entreviews, the mothers or persons responsible for the preschool children's diet gave the number of meals and the quantity of their food intake before and after their participation in the Program. It was noted that the school lunch as interfered in the dietary intake of children insofar as quantity of food and number of meals usually eaten at home is concerned. The results showed that one hundred and seventy-eight (51.4% preschool children decrease their

  3. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparative Study on the Influence of Formal (School) Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study on the Influence of Formal (School) Career Guidance and Non-Formal (Parents) Career Guidance on Secondary School Students' ... These participants were purposively selected from a population of four research sites in Harare; (Ministry of education, Ministry of health, Business office and industry).

  5. Improvements in middle school student dietary intake after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded amount and source of foods and beverages they consumed. Analysis of variance and covariance and nonparametric tests were used to compare intake after the policy change with intake during the 2 previous years. After implementation of the nutrition policy, student lunch consumption of vegetables, milk, and several nutrients increased (protein, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and sodium), and consumption of less desirable items (sweetened beverages, snack chips) decreased, as did percentage of energy from fat. Most of the desired nutrients and foods (vegetables and milk) were obtained from the National School Lunch Program meal. Fewer sweetened beverages, candy, chips, and dessert foods were purchased and consumed, but more of these items were brought from home and purchased from the snack bar. Overall, state school nutrition policies can improve the healthfulness of foods consumed by students at lunch.

  6. Certification Systems of Green Schools: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Kocabas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is an approach that should not merely be limited to the design of buildings, but be a lifestyle adopted by posterity. Individuals ought to have the consciousness to protect and preserve the natural resources of future generations. After all, this is what will probably make studies on sustainability reach their targets. School buildings are critically important in achieving this goal in that they can enable future generations to be raised with an awareness of sustainability. This explains the reason why, in this study, the following leading green school certification systems and their criteria have been compared and examined: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design; Collaborative for High Performance Schools; and, Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method. Five schools with these certificates were taken as examples, evaluated and compared. This study, in which descriptive survey model was employed, made it clear that the standards set for green schools serve similar purposes no matter when a green school certification system originated or which countries have adopted it. However, the following variables play an important role in the success of the green school approach: attitudes of administrators; training pattern; location of the school; materials selection; and the responsibilities of educators and learners. School buildings in Turkey should further be discussed in detail with these points in mind.

  7. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Trine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913 selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70. No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and

  8. Menu Planning Guide for School Food Service. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEgmont-Pannell, Dorothy; And Others

    This menu planning guide for school lunches and breakfasts contains: (1) lunch requirements, recommendations, and policies; (2) the basics of menu planning; (3) how to vary portions for various age/grade groups; (4) planning breakfasts; (5) merchandising school lunches and breakfasts; and (6) nutrition education and menu planning; Appendixes…

  9. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high à la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

    2011-06-01

    Reducing à la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high à la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). χ² and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to à la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low à la carte sales. In rural districts with low à la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and à la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high à la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low à la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high à la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low à la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of à la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing the Leadership Styles of Two Heads of Department at Carnelian School: Comparative Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandalo, Marthese

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to compare and contrast the Leadership Styles of two Heads of Department who work at Carnelian Secondary School (anonymized). It augments a previous paper (Parascandalo 2011) which examined the role of the middle leader in secondary schools in educational literature. The investigation by means of two…

  12. A comparative study of three different kinds of school furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jens; Storr-Paulsen, Annette

    1995-05-01

    Several studies indicate that the ISO standards for school furniture seem to be inappropriate, and there is increasing evidence that the inclination of the seat should be forward and that it should be possible to adjust the table-top to a certain non-horizontal angle. However, these studies have predominantly used objective measurement methods on adult subjects for short-term experiments in rather artificial surroundings. By means of structured interviews registering the school children's perception of ergonomic comfort, the present study has compared three types of school furniture-the original ISO-standard type, and two different new types characterized by forward slanting seats and tiltable desk-tops, the main difference between the two being approximately 15 cm in the height of the chair as well as the table. The study showed that the highest of the two tilting types was perceived to be significantly better than the two others in terms of table height, chair height, reading position, back-rest, and global assessment. Likewise, the feature of a tiltable table-top was considered overwhelmingly positive independently of the height of the furniture. It is recommended that school authorities, producers of school furniture, and relevant medical personnel consider these results for alternative designs of school furniture. It should be kept in mind, however, that school furniture is only one among many factors in the multifactorial field of the back health of school children.

  13. School nutrition survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, M

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p < 0.01). Food eaten at school reflects approximately one third of a child\\'s daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  14. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  15. Religious and Cultural Dress at School: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Waal,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US, as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionally entrenched right to all of the different religions and cultures. The crisis of values in education arises from the disparity between the value system espoused by the school and the community, and that expressed in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which guarantees learners' fundamental rights, including those of freedom of religion, culture, expression and human dignity. On the one hand, the South African Schools Act requires of School Governing Bodies to develop and implement a Code of Conduct for learners, and on the other, that they strictly adhere to the Constitution of the country when drawing up their dress codes. The right of a religious group to practise its religion or of a cultural group to respect and sustain its culture must be consistent with the provisions of the Bill of Rights (which is entrenched in the Constitution and this implies that other rights may not infringe on the right to freedom of religion and culture. In the US, although there is no legislation that protects learners' freedom of religion and culture at schools, their First Amendment guides the way. Their Supreme Court respects the religious values of all citizens provided that they are manifested off public school premises. While we acknowledge the existence of religious and cultural diversity at South African schools, this paper focuses on the tension among and on the existence of different approaches towards the human rights of learners from different

  16. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report No. CN-10-PRED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoset, Lisa; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes work using nationally representative 2005 data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment-III (SNDA-III) study to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes in policies or practices related to school meals and school food environments. The model focuses on three domains of outcomes: (1) the…

  17. In-Service Education within Schools: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahawy, Bayoumi M.

    This paper prepared in the United States by a visiting faculty member of the Suez Canal University in Egypt, presents a comparative study that finds that school-based in-service training sessions, in which teachers learn within their own teaching environments, do much to encourage more teachers to adopt a more positive attitude to the…

  18. SELF CONCEPT, SELF ESTEEM AND SCHOOL SYSTEM: THE STUDY OF COMPARATION BETWEEN FULLDAY SCHOOL AND HALFDAY SCHOOL IN PURWOREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsna Iftayani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Self concept and self esteem are two psychological aspects that need to be attention in learning at school because a high of self concept and self esteem can influence students success in their learning. The objective of this research is to know about the differences about  self concept and self esteem among elementary students with full day school and half day school system. The method used in this observation is comparison by comparing self concept and self esteem of elementary students with full day and half day system. The population of this research is 3 fullday Islamic elementary schools and 6 halfday Islamic elementary schools. The sample of this research is SD Islam Al-Madina as fullday school and SD Muhammadiyah Purworejo as halfday school. The data is gotten by the scale, observation, interviews and documentation. The result shows that there are no significant differences between self concept (t=0,096 with df :47  and self esteem (t=0,396 with df :47 among student who study in full day school and half day (regular school system so it means that school system doesn’t influence the quality of self concept and self esteem. Keywords: self concept, self esteem, full day school, half day school.

  19. Comparison of lunch consumed by corporate workers and artisans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily food intake and lunch choices were assessed using 24-hour recall and quantitative food frequency questionnaire, respectively. The 24-hour dietary recall was done for 2 consecutive days. Statistical Package for Social Sciences vs 20.0 was used to analyse the data. Choice of lunch consumed in a week was reported ...

  20. GEMS: A Graduate-level Community Nutrition Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1985-01-01

    Describes a project which: (1) compared cost and nutritive value of six student lunches (type A school lunch, a-la-carte school lunch, lunch at home, vended lunch, fast-food lunch, and brown bag lunch); (2) used findings to make recommendations for improving student lunches; and (3) developed graduate student assessment/research skills. (JN)

  1. Longitudinal behavioral effects of a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica A; Franko, Debra L; Thompson, Douglas R; Power, Thomas J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of a school-based program on kindergarten and first grade children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. The program included lunchroom, classroom, school-wide, and family components. The primary dependent variable, F&V consumed at lunch, was assessed using weighed plate waste. Hierarchical linear models were used to analyze the differences between intervention and control groups and to account for repeated measurements. Children in the experimental group consumed more F&V (F = 29 g; V = 6 g; 0.43 portions/lunch; 0.28 servings/lunch) at the end of Year 1 compared with children in the control group. At the end of Year 2, children in the experimental group consumed more fruit (21 g; 0.23 portions/lunch; 0.15 servings/lunch), but not more vegetables compared with children in the control group. The intervention resulted in increased F&V consumption, with more pronounced and enduring effects for fruits than vegetables.

  2. Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC, iron, vitamin A (VitA, folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12. Results: On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA. The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA, VitA (66% RDA, and folate (44% RDA, but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA and iron (20% RDA. Conclusions: Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens.

  3. Comparing Practice Management Courses in Canadian Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonwetter, Dieter J; Schwartz, Barry

    2018-05-01

    Practice management has become an increasingly important aspect of dental education over the years in order to better prepare students for the reality of practice. The aim of this study was to quantify and describe practice management courses taught at the ten Canadian dental schools in order to identify common approaches, compare hours, determine types of instructors, and assess the relationship between courses' learning objectives and the Association of Canadian Faculties of Dentistry (ACFD) competencies and Bloom's cognitive levels. The academic deans at these ten schools were surveyed in 2016; all ten schools responded for a 100% response rate. The authors also gathered syllabi and descriptions of the courses and analyzed them for themes. The results showed a total of 22 practice management courses in the ten Canadian dental schools. The courses provided 27 to 109 hours of teaching and were mostly taught in the third and fourth years and by dentists on three main topics: ethics, human resource management, and running a private practice. The courses were correlated to the ACFD competencies related to ethics, professionalism, application of basic principles of business practices, and effective interpersonal communication. Most of the courses' learning objectives addressed comprehension and knowledge in Bloom's cognitive levels of learning. These results can help to guide discussions on how practice management courses can be developed, improved, and refined to meet the challenges of preparing students for dental practice.

  4. Off to School: A Comparative Study of Schools in the U. S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftyhia Theodoropoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the physical structure of two schools of differingsocioeconomic backgrounds: one is a private day school servicing thechildren of some of the most affluent families in one of the biggest urban cities in the southwest; the other is a technical or vocational high school with the majority of the students living in »economically disadvantaged « homes. The research has been carried out with traditional qualitative methods, as well as with the aid of hotography. The juxtaposition of photographs of the built environment of the two schools creates a concrete visual manifestation of the differences in the daily experience of the students who attend the schools. The visible differences lead to the emergence of research questions such as whether the experiences are different for the students in the two locations and, if so, in what way, as well as the question as to why both of the locations are termed »schools« when they are evidently so vastly different. The photographs give the viewer the impression that the educational experiences of the studentsattending the vocational school are detrimental to their development of autonomy and a sense of identity and self, while the private day school provides an environment much more conducive to the fostering and development of both autonomy and a sense of identity and self. The research is important because it indicates how the educational experience of the students might have implications for future mobility within the existing hierarchical social structure, thus making an important contribution to social pedagogy.

  5. Reducing the use of sugar in public schools: a randomized cluster trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-08-01

    To test the efficacy of nutritional guidelines for school lunch cooks aiming to reduce added sugar in school meals and their own sugar intake. A controlled randomized cluster trial was carried out in twenty public schools in the municipality of Niteroi in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. A nutrition educational program was implemented in the schools in question through messages, activities and printed educational materials encouraging reduced levels of added sugar in school meals and in the school lunch cooks' own intake. The reduced availability of added sugar in schools was evaluated using spreadsheets including data on the monthly use of food item supplies. The cooks' individual food intake was evaluated by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standardized techniques and variation in weight was measured throughout the duration of the study. There was a more marked reduction in the intervention schools compared to the control schools (-6.0 kg versus 0.34 kg), but no statistically significant difference (p = 0.21), although the study power was low. Both groups of school lunch cooks showed a reduction in the consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages, but the difference in sugar intake was not statistically significant. Weight loss and a reduction in total energy consumption occurred in both groups, but the difference between them was not statistically significant, and there was no alteration in the percentages of adequacy of macronutrients in relation to energy consumption. The strategy of reducing the use and consumption of sugar by school lunch cooks from public schools could not be proved to be effective.

  6. Comparative Study Of Private And Public Schools Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student perceptions of school engagement (i.e., sense of connection to school, teachers and peers), motivation to learn, self-esteem, and student safety are part of a range of public accountability indicators. This study examined differences between two groups of Senior Secondary three (SS III) students from public school ...

  7. Living alone but eating together: Exploring lunch clubs as a dining out experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nadine; Emond, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    Dining out is most often associated with pleasure and gratification, principally since it presents opportunities for sociability. However, access to dining out experiences is influenced by multiple factors, including age. Little is known about the dining out habits of older people. In particular, the food practices of those living alone in the community is under-researched compared to those in hospital or residential care. This study explores the perceptions and preferences of ten older people towards domestic and communal meals in South East Scotland. Qualitative data were generated from 5-day food diaries and in-depth interviews with individuals who lived alone and attended a community-based senior citizen's lunch club. Data were coded and thematically analysed using a symbolic interactionist perspective. A number of key themes were identified, including the meaning of mealtimes. It was found that most participants ate the majority of their meals at home alone. Despite this, dining alone was not necessarily experienced as 'lonely'. Participants reported that dining out at the lunch club was a pleasurable experience given the social interaction and the separation of consumption from food work. Moreover, due to restricted mobility and limited access to transport, the lunch club was viewed by participants as one of the few places that they could go to dine out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Lunch quality and sociodemographic conditions between Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Mendes Gorgulho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of lunch consumed by adults in Brazil and its sociodemographic determinants in each Brazilian region. A cross-sectional study was carried out and a representative sample of regional populations was used. The sample comprised of 16,096 adults from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, part of the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (POF. The lunch quality was evaluated by applying the main meal quality index (MMQI, comprised of 10 items of equal weights that resulted in a score that ranged from zero to 100 points. Linear regression models measured the association between lunch quality and sociodemographic factors. The average energy consumption at lunch was 704kcal (SD = 300, and the meal quality score mean was 57 points (SE = 0.30. The North Region had the worst MMQI score (56 points, SE = 0.07, while the Central had the best MMQI adjusted score (59 points, SE = 0.05. The MMQI final score was positively associated with male gender and ages between 20-39 years, and was inversely associated with having eight years or more of education, per capita income of at least three minimum wages, and with the consumption of meals prepared away from home. Despite differences among sociodemographic factors, all Brazilian regions had a lunch composed of foods rich in sugars and fats, with insufficient portions of fruits and vegetables, resulting in a low meal quality.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the Integration of Faith and Learning between ACSI and ACCS Accredited Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Daniel Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to analyze and compare the integration of faith and learning occurring in Christian schools accredited by the Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) and classical Christian schools accredited by the Association of Classical and Christian Schools (ACCS). ACSI represents the…

  10. Removed from the List: A Comparative Longitudinal Case Study of a Reconstitution-Eligible School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Ruby, Allen; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal case study of reform efforts centering on the Talent Development Middle School model at low-performing, high-poverty middle school in Philadelphia. Finds that student gains in mathematics, science, and reading achievement at subject school exceeded that of students in comparable school. (Contains 19 references.) (PKP)

  11. School Food Environment of Charter Schools in St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenmeyer, Whitney; Kelly, Patrick; Jenkins, Steve; Mattfeldt-Berman, Mildred

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the school food environment of charter schools in Saint Louis, Missouri. The objectives were to: (1) describe the participation of charter schools in the National School Lunch Program and (2) describe the prevalence of competitive foods in charter schools. Methods: School administrators…

  12. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  13. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  14. Student Achievement in Ohio Charter Schools: A Comparative and Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Ruth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fifth-grade student achievement in Ohio public charter schools as compared to student achievement in traditional public schools, and to determine whether the performance of charter schools changed over time. Research questions asked 1) how does student achievement in Ohio's public charters compare to…

  15. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  16. Comparing Effects of School Inspections in Sweden and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemethofer, David; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Altrichter, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, school inspections have been newly introduced or adapted to the evidence-based governance logic in many European countries. So far, empirical research on the impact of school inspections has produced inconclusive results. Methodologically, it has mainly focussed on analysis of a national inspection model and used cross-sectional…

  17. Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents, A Comparative Study Between Government and Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Lipilekha; Pattanaik, Sumitra; Sahu, Trilochan; Rao, E Venkata

    2015-09-01

    To compare prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent school children of government and private schools. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 1800 children aged 10-16 years. Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference (WC), Hip circumference (HC), and Neck circumference (NC) were measured using standard guidelines. The prevalence of overweight obesity was 27.8% (private schools 45.2%, government schools 10.5%). BMI, WC, NC, and Waist-hip ratio were significantly higher among private school students. A differential strategic plan may be needed to prevent and control obesity among adolescent school children.

  18. Developing a Comparative Measure of the Learning Climate in Professional Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Donald D.; Kilmann, Ralph H.

    1975-01-01

    The Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ) compares the objective properties of schools with measures of overall student satisfaction. The validity of the instrument suggests its use for substantive research investigations into the organizational dynamics of professional schools. (Author/JR)

  19. Comparing the Math Anxiety of Secondary School Female Students in Groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…

  20. Diversifying Schools and Leveraging School Improvement: A Comparative Analysis of the English Radical, and Singapore Conservative, Specialist Schools' Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of fierce global economic competition, school diversification and specialist schools have been seen by governments as cornerstones of education policy to engineer school improvement in both England and Singapore for more than a decade. In both systems, the policy has manifested in different school types, school names and…

  1. Comparing market orientation culture of businesses and schools of business: an extension and refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Robert L; Hammond, Kevin L; Harmon, Harry A

    2005-04-01

    This study extends previous work concerning the market orientation culture within specialty businesses and schools of business. Specifically, member schools of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International are separated into public and private universities. Data were collected via a mailed survey to business schools holding membership. 106 public school deans and 35 private school deans responded, for a 23% response rate. Input from the deans was sought on their perceptions of the market orientation culture within the schools. Respondents' perceptions, rated on a 7-point scale, measured four dimensions of market orientation: customer orientation, competitor orientation, organizational coordination, and overall market orientation. Data for specialty businesses were drawn from a previous study. Comparison testing between the public and private business schools' deans and business managers was conducted. Analysis indicated perceived market orientation was significantly higher for deans of private business schools than public business schools. Compared with business managers, private school deans were statistically different on only one of the four dimensions, whereas public business school deans' scores were significantly different from those of business managers on all four. Compared with each other, business school deans were statistically different on three dimensions, with private school deans reporting greater market orientation.

  2. Certain Characteristics of iSchools Compared to Other LIS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgeworth, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation compares 17 iSchools and 36 other LIS schools that offer the ALA-accredited Master's degree program according to certain characteristics. The study compiles quantitative and qualitative data on 32 variables and sub-variables drawn from the schools' web sites, ALISE 2010 Statistical Report, and Elsevier's SCOPUS…

  3. The Integration of Counseling and Nursing Services into Schools: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Erin; Troup, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative review was to examine the legislative evolution of school guidance and school nursing over the past century, in hopes of identifying reasons why guidance counselors have been more successful in compliance to recommended ratios than school nurses. A literature review was conducted including CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC and…

  4. Challenges for Teachers of Religious Education in Catholic and State Schools in Poland: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makosa, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims at presenting and comparing challenges faced by religion teachers in Catholic and state schools in Poland. For that purpose, 10 religion teachers from Catholic and 10 from state high schools were interviewed. First of all, the concept of teaching religion was discussed, followed by an analysis of the Catholic schools'…

  5. Educating Adolescents in the Context of Section 504 Policy: a Comparative Study of Two Middle Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Martha Asterilla

    2002-01-01

    EDUCATING ADOLESCENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF SECTION 504 POLICY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO MIDDLE SCHOOLS By Martha Asterilla Taylor Jean B. Crockett, Ph.D. Chairperson Educational Leadership and Policy Studies (ABSTRACT) Section 504 "prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities by school districts receiving federal financial assistance" (First & Curcio, 1993, p.33). In public schools, eligible students receive an Individualized Accommodation Plan (IA...

  6. Comparing the Performance of Faith-Based and Government Schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Backiny-Yetna, Prospere; Wodon, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative assessment of the market share, reach to the poor, and performance of faith-based and public schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo using data from the 2004-2005 "123" survey. More than two thirds of primary school students attend faith-based government-assisted schools. Both types of school cater to a similar population that is overwhelmingly poor. Faith-based schools perform slightly better at least in some dimensions than government schools, but the ...

  7. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: relationships between absolute and relative intake of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight

    OpenAIRE

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, LA; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-01-01

    Children’s appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5y olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satie...

  8. What role does taste play in school meal studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    that interventions around improving school lunch mainly focus on increasing intake of target foods or food groups, and few studies exist that examine other outcomes such as food enjoyment or well-being. Future interventions could explore the impact of increasing student engagement around school lunch and opening...

  9. Strategies used to counteract bullying in schools : a comparative study / Wendy Batterbee

    OpenAIRE

    Batterbee, Wendy Ann

    2007-01-01

    This is an in-depth comparative study of the strategies used to counteract bullying at schools. It provides an international perspective on such strategies: Studies in South African schools are used to provide an African perspective: Australian research is used to provide an Oceanian perspective: Japanese research to provide an Asian perspective; and research conducted in England is used to provide an European perspective on bullying at schools. The extent and nature of bullying in schools...

  10. A Comparative Case Study on School Management Practices in Two Schools in the United States and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, Fatos; Simsek, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing administrative processes in two schools, one in the United States and one in Turkey, in light of the two distinct administrative paradigms: the Anglo-Saxon and Napoleonic traditions. The study showed that in the Turkish school, which is thought to be an example of the Napoleonic administrative tradition, school…

  11. School Counselors' Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Preschool and Primary-School Counselors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas (Dalçiçek), Esref; Sak, Ramazan; Sahin Sak, Ikbal Tuba

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods research compared job satisfaction among counselors working in pre-schools and primary-schools. Its quantitative phase included 223 counselors, 70 of whom also participated in the qualitative phase. A demographic information form, job-satisfaction scale and a semi-structured interview protocol were used to collect data.…

  12. Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Would large-scale, free-market reforms improve educational outcomes for American children? This question cannot be reliably answered by looking exclusively at domestic evidence, much less by looking exclusively at existing "school choice" programs. Though many such programs have been implemented around the United States, none has created…

  13. Comparative analyses of compulsory school curricula in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    Tuborgvej 164 2400 København NV Denmark jera@dpu.dk The curriculum for the compulsory school is normally seen as a suitable steering and control instrument for handling the national responsibility for the content of education and also as a means to reduction of content complexity. Within the latest years...

  14. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  15. Mechanisms of change in Dutch inspected schools: comparing schools in different inspection treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha; Shackleton, Nichola

    2015-01-01

    In many countries the need for education systems and schools to improve and innovate has become central to the education policy of governments. School inspections are expected to play an important role in promoting such continuous improvement and to help schools and education systems more generally

  16. Lunch habits of German children and adolescents: composition and dietary quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, U; Freese, J; Kersting, M; Clausen, K

    2013-01-01

    Data from the ongoing, open-cohort Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe warm family lunch meals and the association of the lunch composition with total diet quality. 2,095 three-day weighed dietary records, collected between 2004 and 2009, from a 4- to 18-year-old DONALD study subgroup were used. Warm lunch (eating occasions between 11.30 a.m. and 2.29 p.m. including at least one course that is typically consumed warm) was eaten on 68.8% of all record days. Meat lunch (>50%) was predominant, followed by vegetarian (25%), fish (13%) and sweet lunch meals (3%). The prevalence of desserts at lunch was high and beverages were drunk at 80% of lunch meals. A meat lunch was associated with a higher protein (+1.4% energy intake, %E) and fat intake (+1.7%E) than a sweet lunch; also densities of vitamin A, folate and iron were higher. A dessert at lunch decreased protein intake slightly (-0.2%E), but increased carbohydrate (+0.7%E) and added sugar intake (+1.4%E) as well as density of calcium (+18 mg/MJ). Our study proves the impact of lunch on daily dietary quality and yields valuable insights on the development of food and meal-based dietary guidelines. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Socio-Political Influences on EFL Motivation and Attitudes: Comparative Surveys of Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates Korean high school students' English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students'…

  18. Development of school energy policy and energy education plans: A comparative case study in three Wisconsin school communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Jennie F.; Floress, Kristin; Rickert, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Through a qualitative comparative case study, this investigation examined the process by which three school districts in Wisconsin, U.S.A., developed a school energy policy and complementary energy education plan. To guide the process, the researchers created an outline of recommended steps for the districts to follow. Although there were variations in the sequence and perceived ease of the steps, the Energy Task Force members involved in the process found the outline to be a supportive guide. Further analysis of the cases involved interviewing members of the Energy Task Forces to identify facilitating and obstructing factors. The study concluded that factors such as level of environmental literacy, along with aspects of the school culture and leadership, interacted to influence the successful drafting of school energy policies and education plans. In addition to introducing an outline of recommended steps that can be used by other school policy development teams interested in promoting energy efficiency, this study adds insights into the analysis of energy policy work within the context of a school setting. - Highlights: • School energy policy and complementary energy education plans can be successfully developed with guidelines for policy team membership. • Teacher agency, including environmental literacy, helps overcome barriers in developing school policy and energy education plans. • Administrative support of energy conservation is a key to the development of school energy policies and complementary energy education plans

  19. Is There a Fiscal Free Lunch in a Liquidity Trap?

    OpenAIRE

    Jesper Linde; Christopher J. Erceg

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a DSGE model to examine the effects of an expansion in government spending in a liquidity trap. If the liquidity trap is very prolonged, the spending multiplier can be much larger than in normal circumstances, and the budgetary costs minimal. But given this "fiscal free lunch," it is unclear why policymakers would want to limit the size of fiscal expansion. Our paper addresses this question in a model environment in which the duration of the liquidity trap is determined endoge...

  20. David Cronenberg, author of naked lunch: Intersemiotic translation as transcreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Fachel de Medeiros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the intersemiotic translation process performed by filmmaker David Cronenberg of William Burroughs' novel Naked Lunch, and the intertextual bifurcations involved in this process. Investigating the similarities and differences between the creative worlds of both artists and how they reframe each other. For this, are used as the theoretical the idea of transcreation proposed by Haroldo de Campos, and the notion of the translator as a reader proposed by Jorge Luis Borges.

  1. Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

    2007-07-01

    A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered private schools were noted, including age, fee levels charged, teacher salaries and class size. A range of inputs, such as teacher activity, availability of desks, chairs, libraries, toilets and drinking water, were used to compare inputs to government, unregistered and registered private schools. Some conclusions are explored about the potential role for the private sector in helping meet "education for all" targets.

  2. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  3. Comparative Study of Pupils' Academic Performance between Private and Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Sunday B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares pupils' academic performance between the private and public primary schools. The sample, made up of 240 pupils were randomly selected from the private and public primary schools in Ilesa East and West Local Government Council Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used. A structured questionnaire and Pupils'…

  4. Nutritional status of in-school children and its associated factors in Denkyembour District, eastern region, Ghana: comparing schools with feeding and non-school feeding policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwabla, Mavis Pearl; Gyan, Charlotte; Zotor, Francis

    2018-01-12

    Childhood malnutrition still remains a major public health problem impacting negatively on the academic aptitude of school-aged children (SAC) particularly in limited resource countries. The Government of Ghana in collaboration with the Dutch Government introduced the school feeding programme (SFP) to boost the nutritional status of SAC in the country. This study sought to compare the nutritional status of SAC enrolled in schools with the SFP and SAC enrolled in schools without the SFP in place for the purpose of identifying which group has the higher rate of malnutrition. A multi-stage sampling was used to select 359 SAC between 5 and 12 years who are enrolled in primary one to six. Twelve public schools were selected, of which 6 schools benefit from the SFP and the other six do not. Anthropometric measurements were conducted for the subjects and SPSS version 20.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Chi square test was carried out to determine the difference between the two groups of schools. Of the total of 359 subjects, 55.1% were from schools that do not implement the SFP and 44.9% were from schools that implement the SFP. The prevalence of stunting among children in schools on the SFP was 16.2% compared with 17.2% among children in schools that do not implement the SFP. The prevalence of thinness was two times higher (9.3%) among children in schools on the SFP than in children in schools that do not implement the SFP (4.6%) (p = 0.028). The prevalence of overweight among children in schools on the SFP was 1.9% and 0.0% for children in schools that do not implement the SFP. Sub district, sex, age of pupil, area of residence and community type were significantly associated with stunting (p = 0.002), (p = 0.008), (p = 0.008), (p schools on SFP than in children in schools without SFP. An evaluation of the implementation of the school feeding programme is recommended for future studies.

  5. Accuracy of food photographs for quantifying food servings in a lunch meal setting among Danish children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltoft-Jensen, A; Holmgaard Nielsen, T; Hess Ygil, K; Christensen, T; Fagt, S

    2018-02-01

    Visual aids, such as food photographs, are widely used in estimating food quantities in dietary surveys. The present study aimed to assess how accurately Danish adults and children can estimate food portion sizes using 37 series of photographs illustrating four to six different portion sizes under real-life conditions; determine whether adults were more accurate than children; and estimate the error caused by using portion size photographs to estimate weights of foods consumed in macronutrient calculation. Six hundred and twenty-two adults and 109 children were recruited in three workplace canteens and in two schools, respectively, to estimate their lunchtime portions based on photographs. Participants were instructed to keep the foods separated on their plate when taking lunch. Participants thereafter estimated their own portions by looking at the relevant series of photographs. The actual food portions were then weighed. The proportion of correct estimations was 42% overall (range 19-77%). The mean difference (%) between estimated and actual weight was 17% (range 1-111%). Small portion size photographs were more often used correctly compared to larger portion photographs. Children had as many correct estimations as adults, although they overestimated portions more. Participants using fractions of (or more than) one photograph to estimate the portion of a food had significantly larger errors. When calculating the macronutrient content of a weekly menu using the estimated portion sizes, protein had the largest error (29%). When used in a real-life situation, the portion size photographs validated in the present study showed a certain inaccuracy compared to the actual weights. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7. Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<.001. Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program.

  7. Comparatives of Expressive Activities of Junior High School Students with Different Types of Representative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geydebrekht N.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data from a study of drawings of children of primary school age to identify the сcomparative diagnostic parameters that allow to define the leading representative system in the child. 164 drawings of 51 persons under test of the two grades of primary school were analyzed. The observation and modified in relation to primary school age version of the method «Representational systems bias test» (Lewis A., Puselik R., 2012 were used as elements of the diagnostic unit. Based on these results it is concluded that the drawings of children of primary school age with different types of representative systems have differences, sufficient to justify their diagnostic informative value. The results of the study make comparative profiles of children of primary school age with different types of representational systems to facilitate the diagnostic part of the work with children's drawings.

  8. A comparative study on resilience level between WHO health promoting schools and other schools among a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lee, Albert; Sun, Jing; Stewart, Donald; Cheng, Frances F K; Kan, Wing; Ho, Mandy

    2009-06-01

    The WHO health promoting school (HPS) approach covers key areas including school-based programmes improving students' psychological health, but there have been few studies evaluating the resilience performance of these schools. This study compared the resilience scores between schools within the healthy school award (HSA) scheme (HPS group) and those not (non-HPS group). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of grade-one students (aged 12), all teachers and parents of mainstream secondary schools recruited by stratified random sampling in one large Territory of Hong Kong using validated resilience questionnaires during November-December 2005. Four non-HPS and four HPS secondary schools were recruited, respectively, involving 1408 students, 891 parents and 91 teachers, with similar baseline characteristics. The HPS students were found to have better scores than non-HPS students (average age 12.4 year-old in both groups) in all dimensions with significantly higher scores in 'Peer Support' (p = 0.013), 'Making a Difference' (p = 0.011), 'About Me' (p = 0.027) and 'Generally Happy' (p = 0.011). There was no difference in the scores between non-HPS and HPS parents. The HPS teachers reported significantly higher scores in 'Health Policies' (p = 0.023), 'Social Environment' (p = 0.049), 'School Community Relations' (p = 0.048), 'Personal Skills Building' (p = 0.008) and 'Partnership & Health Services' (p = 0.047). The secondary HPS students and teachers reported significantly higher resilience scores than those of non-HPS. This study shows that the HSA scheme under WHO has the potential to exert positive changes in students and teachers and the concept of HPS is effective in building resilience among major school stakeholders.

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P Khodnapur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  10. School autonomy – a cross-national perspective. Can we compare the opinion of school principals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Węziak-Białowolska, Dorota; Isac, Maria Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Perception of school autonomy was measured by the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009, allowing potential cross-national comparison. The possibility of a common, general scale for all countries participating in the study was investigated. Using multi-group confirmatory

  11. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  12. Injectable neurotoxins and fillers: there is no free lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Injection of neurotoxins and filling agents for the treatment of facial aesthetics has increased dramatically during the past few decades due to an increased interest in noninvasive aesthetic improvements. An aging but still youth-oriented population expects effective treatments with minimal recovery time and limited risk of complications. Injectable neurotoxins and soft tissue stimulators and fillers have filled this niche of "lunch-time" procedures. As demand for these procedures has increased, supply has followed with more noncore cosmetic specialty physicians, as well as unsupervised ancillary staff, becoming providers and advertising them as easy fixes. Despite an excellent record of safety and efficacy demonstrated in scores of published studies, injectable agents do carry risks of complications. These procedures require a physician with in-depth knowledge of facial anatomy and injection techniques to ensure patient safety and satisfaction. In general, adverse events are preventable and technique-dependent. Although most adverse events are minor and temporary, more serious complications can occur. The recognition, management, and treatment of poor outcomes are as important as obtaining the best aesthetic results. This review addresses important considerations regarding the complications of injectable neurotoxins and fillers used for "lunch-time" injectable procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk and protective factors associated with being bullied on school property compared with cyberbullied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We identified bullying victimization (bullied on school property versus cyberbullied by selected demographic, personal characteristic, and behavior variables. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on adolescents (n = 13,583 completing the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS in grades 9 through 12. Results Being bullied on school property in the past 12 months was significantly more common in females than males, in earlier school grades, and in Whites and other racial groups compared with Blacks and Hispanics. Being bullied on school property generally decreased with later school grades, but cyberbullying in the past 12 months remained constant. Being bullied on school property or cyberbullied was significantly positively associated with mental health problems, substance use, being overweight, playing video games for 3 or more hours per day, and having asthma. The association was greatest with having mental health problems. Cyberbullying was generally more strongly associated with these conditions and behaviors. Protective behaviors against bullying victimization included eating breakfast every day, being physically active, and playing on sports teams. Those experiencing victimization on school property and cyberbullying were significantly more likely to experience mental health problems compared with just one of these types of bullying or neither. Conclusions Cyberbullying victimization is generally more strongly associated with mental health problems, substance use, being overweight, playing video games for 3 or more hours per day, and having asthma than bullying victimization on school property. However, because bullying on school property is more common in grades 9–11, this form of bullying has a greater burden on these conditions and behaviors in these school grades.

  14. Risk and protective factors associated with being bullied on school property compared with cyberbullied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Hanson, Carl L

    2016-02-12

    We identified bullying victimization (bullied on school property versus cyberbullied) by selected demographic, personal characteristic, and behavior variables. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on adolescents (n = 13,583) completing the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) in grades 9 through 12. Being bullied on school property in the past 12 months was significantly more common in females than males, in earlier school grades, and in Whites and other racial groups compared with Blacks and Hispanics. Being bullied on school property generally decreased with later school grades, but cyberbullying in the past 12 months remained constant. Being bullied on school property or cyberbullied was significantly positively associated with mental health problems, substance use, being overweight, playing video games for 3 or more hours per day, and having asthma. The association was greatest with having mental health problems. Cyberbullying was generally more strongly associated with these conditions and behaviors. Protective behaviors against bullying victimization included eating breakfast every day, being physically active, and playing on sports teams. Those experiencing victimization on school property and cyberbullying were significantly more likely to experience mental health problems compared with just one of these types of bullying or neither. Cyberbullying victimization is generally more strongly associated with mental health problems, substance use, being overweight, playing video games for 3 or more hours per day, and having asthma than bullying victimization on school property. However, because bullying on school property is more common in grades 9-11, this form of bullying has a greater burden on these conditions and behaviors in these school grades.

  15. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Ygil, Karin H; Thorsen, Anne V; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-14

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·47)), legumes (22 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·40)), herbs (175 (95 % CI 2·36, 3·20)), fresh berries (48 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·94)), nuts and seeds (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·38)), lean fish and fish products (47 (95 % CI 1·31, 1·66)), fat fish and fish products (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·37)) and potatoes (129 (95 % CI 2·05, 2·56)). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles.

  16. Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg

    2018-03-01

    Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What role does taste play in school meal interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    dialogue around taste on factors such as physical and psychological well-being, empowerment, school enjoyment, and academic outcomes. By taking steps to accurately evaluate and improve the taste of school food and by creating avenues for students to express their opinions and develop a meaningful sense......School lunch plays an important role in the well-being of students. However, studies have given evidence that school lunch may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence shows that taste plays an influential role in students’ food decisions and eating experiences. This narrative review finds...... that interventions around improving school lunch mainly focus on increasing intake of target foods or food groups, and few studies exist that examine other outcomes such as food enjoyment or well-being. Future interventions could explore the impact of increasing student engagement around school lunch and opening...

  18. School meals in children’s social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye

    This dissertation explores the role of different school meal arrangements in children’s social life from a child’s perspective. The dissertation utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011-12 to compare the same group of children in different school meal arrangements, thereby...... overcoming typical challenges of comparison across school meal arrangements, such as differences across children, schools or countries. The dissertation builds on data from a four month field work in 4th grade, 26 semi-structured interviews with children, chefs, and teachers, and 834 children’s self...... in children’s evaluation of new food initiatives in school; that children meet conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context; and that the social powers of sharing and exchanging individual lunch packs could outweigh some of the benefits of a collective meal system. Overall...

  19. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  20. A Comparative Study of the Academic Stress and Depression among High School Girl and Boy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the difference between boy and girl high school students of 1st grade to 3rd grade in academic stress and depression. Using a random stratified sampling 120 girl and boy students (60 girls and 60 boys) were selected from 1st grade (n = 40), 2nd grade (n = 40) and 3rd grade (n = 40) high school students. In this study gender and…

  1. Perceptions of Teachers Regarding Technology Integration in Classrooms: A Comparative Analysis of Elite and Mediocre Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehra, Rida; Bilwani, Anam

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose and objective of this study was to examine and compare the perceptions of teachers in elite and mediocre schools in Karachi. The secondary objectives included comparing the use of technology in classrooms by teachers and the challenges and barriers that they face in the integration of technology. This study was designed as a…

  2. Does Family Structure Matter? Comparing the Life Goals and Aspirations of Learners in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Eugene Lee; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the goals and aspirations of learners from single- and two-parent families. The study used a quantitative methodology with a cross-sectional comparative group design. The sample consisted of 853 Grade 11 learners from secondary schools in the Northern, Southern and Metro Central education districts in the…

  3. Understanding Comprehensive School Reforms: Insights from Comparative-Historical Sociology and Power Resources Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The historical origins and development of comprehensive schooling have seldom been analyzed systematically and comparatively. However, there is a rich comparative and historically grounded literature on the development of welfare states, which focuses on many relevant policies, but ignores the education system. In particular, the power resources…

  4. Mental Health Service Use in Schools and Non-School-Based Outpatient Settings: Comparing Predictors of Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, David A; Wood, Jeffrey J; Wood, Patricia A; Garland, Ann F; Landsverk, John; Hough, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Researchers have consistently documented a gap between the large number of US youth meeting criteria for a mental health disorder with significant associated impairment, and the comparatively few youth receiving services. School-based mental health care may address the need-services gap by offering services more equitably to youth in need, irrespective of family economic resources, availability of transportation, and other factors that can impede access to community clinics. However, diagnoses alone do not fully capture the severity of an individual's mental health status and need for services. Studying service use only in relation to diagnoses may restrict our understanding of the degree to which service use is reflective of service need, and inhibit our ability to compare school and non-school-based outpatient settings on their responsiveness to service need. The present study evaluated predictors of mental health service use in school- and community-based settings for youth who had had an active case in one of two public sectors of care, comparing empirically-derived dimensional measurements of youth mental health service need and impairment ratings against non-need variables (e.g., ethnicity, income). Three dimensions of youth mental health service need were identified. Mental health service need and non-need variables each played a significant predictive role. Parent-rated impairment was the strongest need-based predictor of service use across settings. The impact of non-need variables varied by service setting, with parental income having a particularly noticeable effect on school-based services. Across time, preceding service use and impairment each significantly predicted future service use.

  5. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity schools. 250.57 Section 250.57 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.57 Commodity schools. (a) Categorization of commodity schools. Commodity...

  6. Does Europe Matter? A Comparative Study of Young People's Identifications with Europe at a State School and a European School in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvides, Nicola; Faas, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which young people in predominantly middle-class environments identify with Europe and considers the influence of European education policy, school ethos and curricula. We compare data drawn from individual and focus group interviews with students aged 15-17 at a state school and a European School in England.…

  7. Nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus at child care centers in South Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sooyoun; Yeoh, Yoonjae; Abe, Satoko

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus provided by child care centers in South Korea and Japan. The weekly lunch menus from Monday to Saturday that child care centers provided in November 2014 in South Korea and Japan were analyzed. For Korea, a total of 72 meals provided by 12 centers in Seoul were analyzed by referring to the homepage of the Center for Children's Foodservice Management, which serviced menus for child care centers. For Japan, a total of 30 meals provided by 5 child care centers in Tokyo were analyzed. Nutrient content and pattern in lunch menus were evaluated. The lunch menus in Korea and Japan provided 359.5 kcal (25.7% of the estimated energy requirement) and 376.3 kcal (29.5% of the estimated energy requirement), respectively. 'Rice + Soup + Main dish + Side dish I + Side dish II' were provided in 66.7% of meals in Korea, while various patterns with rice and soup as their bases were provided in Japan. The lunch menus of child care centers in Korea and Japan provide similar amounts of energy, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A, calcium, and other nutrients. However, there were significant differences in the lunch menu patterns in Korea and Japan. This study provides information about the nutritional content and pattern of lunch menus at child care centers in Asian countries with rice as a staple food.

  8. Comparing varieties of in-service English Language Training for primary school teachers in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Coburn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available International trends show the formal teaching of English beginning at an increasingly early age. This presents challenges for national education systems and in particular, for primary schools and for primary school teachers who are not necessarily trained as English teachers. This paper looks at two different responses to the situation in Norway, through research into two different ways of organising, designing and implementing in-service English Training (INSET for primary school teachers. One is a nationally organised program, the other is a local initiative. The contexts for the two different kinds of courses are outlined and the designs of the courses presented through document analysis interspersed with extracts from interviews with teacher trainers. Strengths and weaknesses of the two different kinds of courses are compared. The study concludes that if English teaching in primary schools in Norway is to improve towards 2030, there is a need for the introduction of new programs and structures for the development of teacher trainers with primary school teaching experience, and for the systematic development of networks of primary school English teachers with the aim of nurturing and sustaining their professional development

  9. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anke M; Kremer, Stefanie; van Stipriaan, Willeke L; Noort, Martijn W J; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2015-10-01

    Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consuming reduced-sodium lunches on 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. A single-blind randomized controlled pretest-posttest design with two parallel treatment groups was used. Participants chose foods in an experimental real-life canteen setting at the Restaurant of the Future in Wageningen, the Netherlands, from May 16 until July 1, 2011. After a run-in period with regular foods for both groups, the intervention group (n=36) consumed foods with 29% to 61% sodium reduction (some were partially flavor compensated). The control group (n=38) continued consuming regular foods. Outcomes for assessment of acceptance were the amount of foods consumed, energy and sodium intake, remembered food liking, and intensity of sensory aspects. Influence on daily dietary sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Between and within-subject comparisons were assessed by analysis of covariance. Energy intake and amount consumed of each food category per lunch remained similar for both groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group's sodium intake per lunch was significantly reduced by -1,093 mg (adjusted difference) (95% CI -1,285 to -901), equivalent to 43 mmol sodium. Remembered food liking, taste intensity, and saltiness were scored similarly for almost all of the reduced-sodium foods compared with the regular foods. After consuming reduced-sodium lunches, compared with the control group, intervention participants' 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower by -40 mEq (adjusted difference) (95% CI -63 to -16) than after consuming regular lunches, and this reflects a decreased daily sodium intake of 1 g. Comparing the two treatment groups, consumption of reduced

  10. Investigating the Development of Professional Learning Communities: Compare Schools in Shanghai and Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated and compared the development of professional learning communities in schools located in two Chinese cities, namely, Shanghai and Mianyang. The two cities have significant differences in terms of educational, economic, social, and cultural development. While Shanghai is a directly controlled municipality in East…

  11. Institutional Contexts and International Performances in Schooling : comparing patterns and trends over time in international surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Roelande H.; Gray, John M.; Hofman, Roelande

    15 European countries were classified into four types in an international comparative study. The country profiles are based on indicators of the key concepts' funding, governance and choice. This research attempts to answer the question of how the quality of schooling of these types of education

  12. Organizational Culture at High Schools in TRNC: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, Fatos; Ozmatyatli, Icim Ozenli; Birol, Cem; Caglar, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the organizational culture in two TRNC schools by using influencing factors of metaphors, physical environment, values, norms, rituals, language, legends and reward systems. To obtain data, a triangulation of participant interviews, observations and written sources were used. Results appear to display that the…

  13. Commentary on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…

  14. A Comparative Study of Geometry in Elementary School Mathematics Textbooks from Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Der-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the differences in the use of geometry in elementary school mathematics textbooks among Finland, Mainland China, Singapore, Taiwan, and the USA and to investigate the relationships between the design of the textbooks and students' performance on large-scale tests such as TIMSS-4 geometry, TIMSS-8…

  15. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  16. Evaluating the Evaluators: Comparative Study of High School Newspaper Critique Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy

    High school publication staffs depend on national critique services as a major means of evaluation and recognition, but most have no measure of how one critique service compares to the others, because they can afford the entry fee for only one evaluation. Thus, a study was conducted to test the validity of three major national critique…

  17. Comparative Attitudes of University Students and School Teachers on the Use and Legalization of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Madanjit K.

    1977-01-01

    Explored use of marijuana and attitudes toward its legalization among university students and school teachers in Alberta. Students had more permissive attitudes toward marijuana use and its legalization as compared to teachers. Significant relationships were found between drug use and age and legalization of marijuana and sex and religiosity.…

  18. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  19. A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development resources, we seek to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention, while others do not. Methods Based on in-depth qualitative data from 16 case schools in Meherpur, Bangladesh, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions, or combinations of conditions (referred to as pathways), that lead to either well-managed or poorly managed school sanitation. We include posited sustainability determinants from the literature and factors that emerged from the cases themselves in the analysis. Results We identified three distinct pathways sufficient to support well-managed services, providing multiple options for how well-managed school sanitation could be encouraged. Two of these are applicable to both government and non-government schools: (1) quality construction, financial community support and a champion; and (2) quality construction, financial government support, a maintenance plan and school management committee involvement. On-going financial support for operations and maintenance was identified as a necessary condition for continued service management, which was absent from many schools with poorly managed services. However, financial support was insufficient alone and other conditions are needed in conjunction, including quality construction and incentivizing conditions, such as school management committee involvement in sanitation specifically, a sanitation champion, and/or one teacher clearly responsible for toilet maintenance. Surprisingly, the number of students per toilet (ranging from 18–95 students) and toilet age (ranging from 8–32

  20. The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Elise F.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Mayer, Eva V.; Verhoef, Hans; Demir, Ayşe Y.; Ferguson, Elaine L.; Kok, Frans J.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional

  1. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise B.; Dyssegaard, Camilla B.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2015-01-01

    . The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794......It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children...... than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention...

  2. Impact of School Uniforms on Student Discipline and the Learning Climate: A Comparative Case Study of Two Middle Schools with Uniform Dress Codes and Two Middle Schools without Uniform Dress Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, Charles Dewitt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of uniform dress codes on a school's climate for student behavior and learning in four middle schools in North Carolina. The research will compare the perceptions of parents, teachers, and administrators in schools with uniform dress codes against schools without uniform dress codes. This…

  3. Welcome to the School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nelle

    2012-01-01

    Too often, lost and lonely students seem to find their way to the school library. School librarians are blessed with the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of these young people. In this article, the author describes how she developed a program called the "Lunch Bunch" to help lost and lonely students who were seeking a place of refuge.…

  4. Dietary Quality of Preschoolers’ Sack Lunches as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J.; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Briley, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers’ sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child’s lunch. Design This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. Participants A total of 607 parent–child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Main outcome measures Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children’s consumption. Statistical analysis Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m2). Results Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Conclusions Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. PMID

  5. Dietary Quality of Preschoolers' Sack Lunches as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E

    2015-11-01

    Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers' sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child's lunch. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. A total of 607 parent-child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children's consumption. Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)). Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Established Independent School Collaborates with Social Service Agency to Launch New School: Community Partnership School, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Community Partnership School (CPS) serves 90 to 95 students annually in preK-5th grade. Of these, 100 percent are African American or multiracial, and all qualify for free or reduced-price lunch. Community Partnership School began as a collaboration between Germantown Academy, which had trouble recruiting low-income students to its suburban…

  7. Accuracy of food photographs for quantifying food servings in a lunch meal setting among Danish children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Nielsen, Trine Holmgaard; Ygil, Karin Hess

    2018-01-01

    Visual aids, such as food photographs, are widely used in estimating food quantities in dietary surveys. The present study aimed to assess how accurately Danish adults and children can estimate food portion sizes using 37 series of photographs illustrating four to six different portion sizes under...... real-life conditions; determine whether adults were more accurate than children; and estimate the error caused by using portion size photographs to estimate weights of foods consumed in macronutrient calculation. Six hundred and twenty-two adults and 109 children were recruited in three workplace...... canteens and in two schools, respectively, to estimate their lunchtime portions based on photographs. Participants were instructed to keep the foods separated on their plate when taking lunch. Participants thereafter estimated their own portions by looking at the relevant series of photographs. The actual...

  8. Environmental protection through energy conservation: A free lunch at last?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    A cautious analysis of demand-side management programs is presented. Utility demand-side management (DSM) programs deserve to be given full and careful consideration as a potential way to give consumers better end-use energy services for their money, utilities an edge in an increasingly competitive market, and society a way to reduce the environmental costs of energy production. But in each of these areas, DSM programs offer no free lunches and have no inherent advantages over supply-side programs. If energy conservation makes sense on economic and business grounds, it can meet the standard economic and business tests applied to most of the rest of the economy; it neither requires nor deserves to be exempt from market concepts and disciplines. If utility DSM programs make sense on environmental grounds, they should be able to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness relative to other, primarily supply-side measures society is willing to undertake in order to control environmental effects. Subsidizing DSM measures in the hope that something good will happen far upstream can waste much money and cause disappointment and frustration

  9. The Three C's of School Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thelma L.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines (1) the changes that have occurred in school food service since the National School Lunch Act of 1946, (2) the choices in foods served and in new markets, and (3) an action plan for the challenges facing school food service professionals. (MLF)

  10. Does family structure matter? Comparing the life goals and aspirations of learners in secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lee Davids

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the goals and aspirations of learners from single- and two-parent families. The study used a quantitative methodology with a cross-sectional comparative group design. The sample consisted of 853 Grade 11 learners from secondary schools in the Northern, Southern and Metro Central education districts in the Western Cape. The data were collected using the Aspirations Index and a short biographical questionnaire. The results suggest that there was a significant main effect of family structure on certain goals and aspirations of learners in secondary schools. These goals and aspirations included wealth, image, personal growth, relationships, and health. Furthermore, learners in single-parent families placed more emphasis on intrinsic goals.

  11. Sociotechnical Narratives in Rural, High-Poverty Elementary Schools: Comparative Findings from East Texas and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    The article's purpose is to compare case studies of computer technology use at two rural elementary schools across two international settings. This study uses the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory to guide this comparative investigation of how elementary school teachers and students in East Texas and South India construct meaning for…

  12. A comparative study of school based violence and strategies for control in public and private secondary schools in Osun State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omisore, A G; Omisore, B; Adelekan, B; Afolabi, O T; Olajide, F O; Arije, O O; Agunbiade, O I

    2012-01-01

    Violence is universal; it occurs in schools (both public and private). The study aim was to assess the rates of violence as well as existing violence prevention strategies in public and private schools in Osun state. A cross sectional study was conducted among 800 secondary school students (599 in public and 201 in private schools) selected by multistage sampling technique using quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. The mean age for all the respondents was 14.26 years +/- 2.001 Males make up about 51% of the respondents in both public and private schools. Respondents from public schools assaulted other students and staff with a weapon more than their colleagues in private schools (24.7% and 9.7% against 12.9% and 6.5% respectively). The commonest violence 'prevention' strategy in both schools was punishment for violent acts (>90%). Respondents in public schools perpetrated and experienced virtually all forms of school-related violence more than those in private, schools. There were mild differences in existing violence prevention strategies in both schools. School connectedness seems to be a major factor in the differential rates of violence between both groups of schools.

  13. Impact of a school-based intervention to promote fruit intake: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, R; Araújo, A; Padrão, P; Lopes, O; Moreira, A; Abreu, S; Vale, S; Pereira, B; Moreira, P

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence that fruit consumption among school children is below the recommended levels. This study aims to examine the effects of a dietary education intervention program me, held by teachers previously trained in nutrition, on the consumption of fruit as a dessert at lunch and dinner, among children 6-12 years old. This is a randomized trial with the schools as the unit of randomisation. A total of 464 children (239 female, 6-12years) from seven elementary schools participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Three schools were allocated to the intervention and four to the control group. For the intervention schools, we delivered professional development training to school teachers (12 sessions of 3 h each). The training provided information about nutrition, healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop classroom activities focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic was assessed at baseline and anthropometric, dietary intake and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Dietary intake was evaluated by a 24-h dietary recall and fruit consumption as a dessert was gathered at lunch and dinner. Intervened children reported a significant higher intake in the consumption of fruit compared to the controlled children at lunch (P = 0.001) and at dinner (P = 0.012), after adjusting for confounders. Our study provides further support for the success of intervention programmes aimed at improving the consumption of fruit as a dessert in children. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating carbohydrate mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner within a covert hypocaloric diet influences morning glucose homeostasis in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Raquel Duarte Moreira; de Oliveira, Fernanda Cristina Esteves; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men. Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (-10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile. In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMAIR. After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups. Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.

  15. Pilot study comparing market orientation culture of businesses and schools of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Harry A; Webster, Robert L; Hammond, Kevin L

    2003-08-01

    A market orientation culture has been described as one that blends an organization's commitment to customer value with a process of continuously creating superior value for customers. Developing such a culture is further described as (1) obtaining information about customers, competitors, and markets, (2) examining the gathered information from a total organizational perspective, (3) deciding how to deliver superior customer value, and (4) implementing actions to provide value to customers. A market orientation culture focuses on the customer, identifies issues in the competitive environment, and coordinates all functional areas to achieve organizational objectives. Research has found businesses with higher market orientation are more successful in achieving organizational objectives. The measurement of market orientation within businesses has been empirically tested and validated. However, empirical research on market orientation in nonprofit organizations such as universities has not been examined. This study investigated market orientation within the university setting, specifically Schools of Business Administration, and compared these data with previously published data within the business sector. Data for comparative purposes were collected via a national survey. Hypothesis testing was conducted. Results indicated significantly lower market orientation culture within the schools of business as reported by AACSB Business School Deans vis-à-vis managers of business enterprises.

  16. Pre-Eminent Curriculum in Islamic Basic School Integrated Comparative Studies in Islamic Basic School Integrated Al-Izzah Serang and Al-Hanif Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauz, Anis; Hasbullah

    2016-01-01

    Compare to General SD (Primary school), the superiority of SD Islam Terpadu (Integrated Islamic Primary School) lies on the development of the curriculum and learning that is more emphasize on integrated curriculum and integrated learning. Curriculum model applied in Sekolah Dasar Islam Terpadu (SDIT) is integrated curriculum. This curriculum is…

  17. Comparing Efficacy of Instructional Approaches to Develop Environmental Awareness Among School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris D’Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare efficacy of self-learning, audiovisual, and fun activity instructional approaches among school students of Patna, the capital city of Bihar state of India, to develop environmental awareness. The study participants include 144 randomly selected students (72 girls and 72 boys from eight different schools of Patna. During a weeklong environmental awareness program, students were instructed using above three approaches of instruction. Data have been analyzed by using linear regression. Regression was carried out to eliminate the effect of general mental ability (GMA scores. The results suggest about overall superiority of fun activity approach over other approaches tested in the present study. However, awareness gain has been significant among the students with high GMA when instructed through audiovisual approach.

  18. Slow progress in changing the school food environment: nationally representative results from public and private elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    Children spend much of their day in school, and authorities have called for improvements in the school food environment. However, it is not known whether changes have occurred since the federal wellness policy mandate took effect in 2006-2007. We examined whether the school food environment in public and private elementary schools changed over time and examined variations by school type and geographic division. Survey data were gathered from respondents at nationally representative samples of elementary schools during the 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 school years (respectively, 578 and 680 public schools, and 259 and 313 private schools). Topics assessed included competitive foods, school meals, and other food-related practices (eg, school gardens and nutrition education). A 16-item food environment summary score was computed, with possible scores ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 100 (healthiest). Multivariate regression models were used to examine changes over time in the total school food environment score and component items, and variations by US census division. Many practices improved, such as participation in school gardens or farm-to-school programs, and availability of whole grains and only lower-fat milks in lunches. Although the school food environment score increased significantly, the magnitude of change was small; as of 2009-2010 the average score was 53.5 for public schools (vs 50.1 in 2006-2007) and 42.2 for private schools (vs 37.2 in 2006-2007). Scores were higher in public schools than in private schools (Pschool size. For public schools, scores were higher in the Pacific and West South Central divisions compared with the national average. Changes in the school food environment have been minimal, with much room remaining for improvement. Additional policy changes may be needed to speed the pace of improvement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inequity of Education Financial Resources: A Case Study of First Nations School Funding Compared to Provincial School Funding in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Stewart, Sheila; Marshall, Jim; Steeves, Larry

    2011-01-01

    In a review of First Nations band-managed school policies, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (2002) noted what had been devolved was "the specific operation of the school. What was not devolved was an [education] system which would support the school" (p. 5) delivery of quality educational programming for First…

  20. School-Church/Synagogue Partnerships: A Comparative Case Study of Religious Capital Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplowitz, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The context for this study is the increased focus on school-community partnerships in the United States. With limited research having been conducted on high-achieving schools, this is a case study of one of America's top 100 high schools, a Jewish day school; this article reports on its school-synagogue partnership. Like most research on…

  1. Comparing parent and teacher assessments of mental health in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Fiffi; Stafström, Martin; Lundin, Nils; Moghadassi, Mahnaz; Törnhage, Carl-Johan; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-03-01

    Screening instruments are often used for detecting mental health problems in children and adolescents. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one instrument for screening children's mental health. The SDQ can be used for assessment by different informants, i.e. parents, teachers and by 11-16 year olds for self-reporting. The aim was to compare the precision and validity of parental and teacher SDQ assessments in elementary school children, and to analyze whether assessments were affected by the child's sex and by socio-demographic factors. A total of 512 primary school students were included in a cross-sectional study. Exploratory factor analysis, sensitivity/specificity analysis, Cronbach's alphas, and logistic regression were applied. Parents rated 10.9% and teachers 8.8% of the children as high-risk individuals, but the overlap was low (32.1%). Cronbach's alphas were 0.73 and 0.71 for parents and teachers, respectively. However, factor analysis showed that the five-factor solution could be confirmed only for teacher ratings. Moreover, only the parents' ratings were affected by maternal educational level and parental country of birth when rating the same children as the teachers. Construct validity was only confirmed for teacher assessments. However, parental assessments might capture a dimension of a child's mental health that seems to be sensitive to socioeconomic factors, which could be important when addressing equity issues, and for the dialogue between parents and school. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. A Comparative Study of Iranian EFL Teachers’ versus Learners’ Perceptions of High School English Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aghazadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks play a very crucial role in the process of language teaching and learning. They affect the whole language learning/teaching process. The purpose of this study was to carry out an evaluation of English textbooks currently in use at high schools in Iran from teachers’ and learners’ points of view in a comparative way. To this end, the study employed a mixed methods design. The data were collected through questionnaires with 43 close-ended items consisting of nine different sections. The results showed that both the teachers and the learners believed that the high school English textbooks are highly ineffective in terms of actual activities, language functions section, pronunciation practice, physical make-up, reading texts, speaking and writing sections and are effective only in terms of vocabulary section, and grammatical points. It can be concluded that the English textbooks used in Iranian high schools cannot meet the Iranian learners’ and teachers’ needs and wants since they are grammar-based. The findings of this study can be used by the textbook designers in order to take account of the teachers’ and learners’ preferences and perceptions while designing new editions of the textbooks.

  3. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Smit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bullying conjures up visions of the traditional schoolyard bully and the subordinate victim. However, bullying is no longer limited to in-person encounter, having come to include cyberbullying, which takes place indirectly over electronic media. In this electronic age, cyber platforms proliferate at an astonishing rate, all attracting the youth in large number, and posing the risk that they may become subject to cyberbullying. Far from being limited to those individual learners being cyberbullied, the effects of this phenomenon extend to the learner collective, the school climate, and also the entire school system, management and education, thus requiring an urgent response. This article first provides a general overview of cyberbullying and its impact on learners, schools and education. This is done through a comparative lens, studying the extent of the phenomenon in both the United States and South Africa. The focus then shifts to the existing legislative frameworks within which the phenomenon is tackled in these respective jurisdictions, particularly the tricky balancing act required between learners' constitutional right to free speech and expression, and the protection of vulnerable learners' right to equality, dignity and privacy. The article concludes by proposing certain possible solutions to the problem.

  4. How do children at special schools and their parents perceive their HRQoL compared to children at open schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramma Lebogang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been some debate in the past as to who should determine values for different health states for economic evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL in children attending open schools (OS and children with disabilities attending a special school (SS and their parents in Cape Town South Africa. Methods The EQ-5D-Y and a proxy version were administered to the children and their parents were requested to fill in the EQ-5D-Y proxy version without consultation with their children on the same day. Results A response rate of over 20% resulted in 567 sets of child/adult responses from OS children and 61 responses from SS children. Children with special needs reported more problems in the "Mobility" and "Looking after myself" domains but their scores with regard to "Doing usual activities", "Pain or discomfort" and "Worried, sad or unhappy" were similar to their typically developing counterparts. The mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score of SS children was (88.4, SD18.3, range 40-100 which was not different to the mean score of the OS respondents (87.9, SD16.5, range 5-100. The association between adult and child scores was fair to moderate in the domains. The correlations in VAS scores between Open Schools children and female care-givers' scores significant but low (r = .33, p Discussion It would appear that children with disabilities do not perceive their HRQoL to be worse than their able bodied counterparts, although they do recognise their limitations in the domains of "Mobility" and "Doing usual activities". Conclusions This finding lends weight to the argument that valuation of health states by children affected by these health states should not be included for the purpose of economic analysis as the child's resilience might result in better values for health states and possibly a correspondingly smaller resource allocation. Conversely, if HRQoL is to be used as a clinical

  5. 78 FR 65890 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Eliminating Applications Through...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... the relationship between the Federal Government and Indian Tribes, or on the distribution of power and... meals and helping children develop healthful eating habits early in life. USDA will respond in a timely...

  6. 76 FR 2493 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C. These are key nutrients that promote growth and... now major health concerns affecting children and adolescents. Studies indicate that excess food... concern for children: Calcium, fiber, potassium, magnesium and vitamin E. [[Page 2496

  7. 78 FR 39067 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ..., potassium, vitamin D or dietary fiber). Effective July 1, 2016, this criterion is obsolete and may not be..., although it is not possible to quantify those benefits on overall diets or student health. Excess body... consequences for affected adults, and recent research has also demonstrated that excess body weight has...

  8. 78 FR 47274 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... following correction: On page 45181, the Table titled ``AFTERSCHOOL SNACKS SERVED IN AFTERSCHOOL CARE PROGRAMS'' is corrected to read as set forth below: Afterschool Snacks Served in Afterschool Care Programs CONTIGUOUS STATES: PAID 0.07 REDUCED PRICE 0.40 FREE 0.80 ALASKA: PAID 0.11 REDUCED PRICE 0.65 FREE 1.30...

  9. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Elfu Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples’ t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8% of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  10. Who's buying lunch: are gifts to surgeons from industry bad for patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, David C; Iserson, Kenneth V

    2005-11-01

    Why does gifting exist in the medical marketplace? It provides a sales advantage in a competitive marketplace by establishing crucial relationships with the patients' fiduciary: the physician and surgeon. Do gifts to physicians from industry harm patients? One can cite mountains of indirect evidence that they do, and maybe in the case of recalled devices and drugs there are actual corpses, but these examples are retrospective and it is impossible to prove that removing detailing eliminates the harm. Banning gifts to surgeons would not completely fix the ethical problem of pharmaceutical and device marketing. Gifts are important because they buy access and foster relationships, but inherent bias in research and the medical literature makes it very difficult to remain objective. It is a race, and education has not kept pace with advertising; only 10% of 575 internal medicine physicians thought they had had sufficient training during medical school and residency regarding professional interaction with sales representatives. Would banning gifts help at all? Would enforcing an unpopular ethical code protect patients? There might be a small improvement, but not as significant as eliminating representatives and product samples altogether. This is not likely to happen without an enormous fight against the wealthiest industry in America. The solution is education. To borrow industry's argument, physicians and surgeons are ethical creatures with capacity for judgment and integrity. They need to understand and believe the magnitude of the problem. Detailing exists because there is a market for it, empowering surgeons with ethical training reduces the demand for goodies, and at some point the popular choice will be to buy their own lunch. Business ethics are not medical ethics. Industry is behaving exactly as it must to maximize profits. Although it is painful for some surgeons, surgical residencies, and professional organizations to envision a future with diminished corporate

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Usage and Academic Performance in Public and Private Senior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingle, Jeffrey; Adams, Musah; Adjei, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The study comparatively analyzed social media usage and academic performance in public and private senior high schools. The issue of social media and academic performance has been a very debatable topic with regard to its effect. This study further explores the relation between private and public schools in relation to social media use and…

  12. Curriculum-Making in Pre-Vocational Education in the Lower Secondary School: A Regional Comparative Analysis within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Susanne; Canning, Roy; Dolan, Michael; Kurek, Slawomir; Pilz, Matthias; Rachwal, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot comparative research project on pre-vocational education in lower secondary schools (ISCED level 2) within regions in three European countries. The primary aim of the study was to better understand how the pre-vocational education curriculum is constructed and taught within schools. A case study methodology was selected…

  13. Business School Accreditation in the Changing Global Marketplace: A Comparative Study of the Agencies and Their Competitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ferran, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine current trends in business accreditation by describing and comparing the major international business accreditation agencies (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, European Quality Improvement System, Association of MBAs, Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs and International…

  14. Foods in schools: Children with diabetes can make wise meal choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students, parents, and school staff often believe there are no healthful foods available in schools for children with diabetes. This paper explains modern school food environments and how children with diabetes can eat school foods. National School Lunch Program meals usually consist of an entree, t...

  15. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than adolescents from...... high family social class (breakfast: odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, lunch: OR = 1.56, evening meal: OR = 1.80). For all three meal types the odds of low frequency increased gradually by decreasing social class. There were no significant interactions with gender. Conclusion: The results indicate social...

  16. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  17. English Language Arts and Science Courses in a Virtual School: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Rachel Sarah

    Virtual K-12 schools have rapidly become a popular choice for parents and students in the last decade. However, little research has been done on the instructional practices used in virtual courses. As reflected in the central research question, the purpose of this study was to explore how teachers provided instruction for Grade 7-10 students in both English language arts and science courses in a virtual school in a southern state. The conceptual framework was based on Piaget's theory of cognitive development and Garrison, Anderson, and Siemens' research on instructional design. The units of analysis in this qualitative, comparative case study were four virtual courses; the data were collected from teacher and student questionnaires, threaded student discussions, student work samples, and archival records. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorization using the constant comparative method, and the second level involved examining the data for patterns, themes, and relationships to determine key findings. Results indicated that a standardized virtual course design supported teacher use of direct instruction and summative assessments and some individualized instruction to deliver course content, including adjusting the course pace, conducting individual telephone conferences, and providing small group instruction using Blackboard Elluminate. Opportunities for student interaction and inquiry learning were limited. This study is expected to contribute to positive social change by providing educators and policymakers with an awareness of the critical need for further study of research-based instructional practices in K-12 virtual courses that would improve student learning.

  18. Reacting to Poverty: A Comparative Analysis of Schools in Brazilian Deprived Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Bonal, Xavier; Valiente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Schools in the most deprived areas in Brazil are marked by extreme poverty, a situation that has obvious consequences for the everyday life in schools and for efforts to develop a supportive culture of schooling. Nevertheless, schools' responses to poverty are far from uniform. Although the context of poverty generally determines what is possible…

  19. Comparative analysis of the first permanent molars caries prevalence in younger and older school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Branislava B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The data on the health-condition of the first permanent molars among children in our region is scarce. Therefore, the need for more thorough analysis of the state of health of these teeth in the children from our region imposes itself, along with the need to determine the most critical period in which a significant increase in caries prevalence of these teeth takes place. Aim. The aim of the research was to perform a comparative analysis of the prevalence, average rate and structure of decay, missed and filled first permanent molars in the children of the younger school age in relation to those of the older school age. Material and methods. The research included 1.119 examinees, aged from 7 to 14 years. Examinees were divided into two groups according to their age: examinees of the younger school age and older school age. Dental check-up of the students was performed by means of a dental probe and mirror and the health condition of the examined teeth was registered by means of Klein-Palmer's DMF system. Results. The research determined high values of the examined parameters of the first permanent molars caries prevalence which increases with the age of the examinees. In the examinees of the age of 8, 9, and 10, statistically more significant values of the examined teeth caries prevalence parameters were registered, in relation to the examinees of seven years of age. In the examinees of the older school age, statistically significantly higher values were registered only for TCI and ACI and only in the examinees aged 14 in relation to the examinees aged 11. With the age, the percent of decay is decreases, while the percent of filled and extracted first permanent molars increases. Conclusion. Results show that the period between 7 and 10 years of age is the most critical and the most important period for the implementation of preventive-prophylactic measures aimed to preserve the health of the first permanent molars.

  20. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

  1. Accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods in a school meal intervention study: comparison between control and intervention period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising......Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish...... the NND. Children, assisted by parents, self-reported their diet in a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children during the intervention and control (packed lunch) periods. The reported fish intake by children was compared with their ranking according to fasting whole-blood EPA and DHA...

  2. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Effects of park walks and relaxation exercises during lunch breaks on recovery from job stress : Two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Sianoja, Marjaana; Korpela, Kalevi; Tuomisto, Martti; Lilja, Ansa; Geurts, Sabine; Kinnunen, Ulla

    Lunch breaks constitute the longest within-workday rest period, but it is unclear how they affect recovery from job stress. We conducted two randomized controlled trials with 153 Finnish knowledge workers who engaged for 15 min daily in prescribed lunch break activities for ten consecutive working

  4. The influence of herbs, spices, and regular sausage and chicken consumption on liking of reduced fat breakfast and lunch items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Sarit; Beck, Jimikaye; Stark, Rebecca A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Hill, James O; Peters, John C

    2014-10-01

    Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste 3 different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of French toast, sausage and the overall meal, or chicken, vegetables, pasta, and the overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Overall liking of the RF breakfast and lunch meals were lower than the FF and RFS versions (breakfast: 6.50 RF compared with 6.84 FF, P = 0.0061; 6.50 RF compared with 6.82 RFS, P = 0.0030; lunch: 6.35 RF compared with 6.94 FF, P spices may be useful for improving the liking of lower fat foods and helping Americans maintain a diet consistent with the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Americans consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This study shows that you can take foods like French toast, chicken, or a vegetable side and cut the fat and calories by up to 50% while restoring flavor with herbs and spices. People typically use butter, cheese, or fatty meat to enhance the flavor of their food. We found that even when we reduced the fat in our meals by using lower fat dairy and meat products but then added herbs and spices, we were able to deliver the flavor people desire for a fraction of the calories. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Job Burnout among Iranian Elementary School Teachers of Students with Autism: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zarafshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs.Methods: Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results.Results: Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010, emotional exhaustion (p=0.005 and depersonalization (p<0.001; however considering other variables no significant differences were observed. Comparison between groups showed that the average scores of teachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children.Conclusions: Female teachers’ of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to

  6. Job Burnout among Iranian Elementary School Teachers of Students with Autism: a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Arsalani, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Objective Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs. Methods Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire) were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation) from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results. Results Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010), emotional exhaustion (p=0.005) and depersonalization (pteachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children. Conclusions Female teachers’ of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to teachers of children with other disabilities requiring special education. PMID:23682248

  7. Comparative Study of Mental Health of High School Teachers and Educational Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Shakiba

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teachers have an important effect on mental health and development of students. Teaching and counseling may be stressful jobs. The objective of this study was to compare psychological status of high school teachers and educational counselors measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI.Materials and Method: In a cross-sectional study 60 teachers (20 male and 40 female and 60 educational counselors (20 male and 40 female from high schools of Zahedan city were recruited randomly and asked to complete Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Iranian short form of MMPI. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t test.Results: The results showed significant differences between teachers and educational counselors in 6 clinical scales of MMPI so that the teachers had higher scores than educational counselors in D (depression, Pd (psychopathy, Pa (paranoid, Pt (Psychastenia, Sc (schizophrenia and Ma (hypomania scales of MMPI. Mean scores of Male counselors in hysteria and psychopathy were higher than female's scores and also female teachers had higher mean scores in hypochondria, hysteria, paranoid, psychastenia and schizophrenia than male teachers.Conclusion: Although the profiles of both teachers and educational counselors were normal but teachers had higher mean scores than counselors, thus, efforts need to be made to explore possible factors associated to those differences

  8. Comparing the self-assessed and examiner-assessed driving skills of Japanese driving school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nakai

    2012-03-01

    A sample of Japanese driving test candidates (n=2021 completed a self-assessment using a 5-point scale applied to 19 items. The candidates completed the assessment shortly after passing their practical driving test conducted at a driving school. Their performance was also assessed by an examiner who used the same scale. The comparison between self-assessment and examiner-assessment revealed that around 40% of Japanese driving school students made a realistic assessment of their skills. With regard to the gender differences, although males displayed higher levels of overconfidence than females did, the differences were not as large as earlier studies with questionnaires had suggested. Furthermore, the effect of age on the accuracy of novice drivers' skill assessment was found to be relatively small. Our findings, which are based on a comparison of subjective assessments of driving skills between examiners and novices, instead of a questionable method which relies on a comparison with a hypothetical average driver, suggest that the majority of candidates in fact do not overrate their own skills. These results were discussed from the viewpoint of the driver education system and compared to other European research using the same framework.

  9. Comparing Health Literacy in High School Female Students and Their Mothers Regarding Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Saeedi Koupai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods: the present study is descriptive-analytical with comparative type and the statistical population included 200 secondary female school students and their mothers who were randomly selected. The tool to collect data was a two-part researcher-made questionnaire the first part whereof involved demographic information and the second part includes 41 questions of health literacy about women’s health in 5 aspects of menstruation hygiene, nutrition, breast self-examination, body activity, iron deficiency anemia. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were confirmed and the data were analyzed via SPSS22 software. Results: there was not observed any significant difference in three aspects of menstruation hygiene, nutrition and breast self-examination between mean scores of two female groups and their mothers according to Mann-Whitney instability test (p>0.05; however, there was a significant difference in the aspects of body activities and iron deficiency anomia (p<0.05. Conclusion: taking the results of the study, high school female students under study and their mothers have average healthy literacy level regarding women’s health. Therefore, considering the fact that the girls receive greatest education in the field of women’s hygiene from their mothers in the adolescence, the necessity of diagnosing limiters of health literacy in the society and specific attention to the mothers’ teaching and including curriculum of health literacy for female students are advised to promote health. Paper Type: Research Article.

  10. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

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    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  11. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  12. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral health status of Tibetan and local school children of Kushalnagar, Mysore district, India: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Havaldar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of migrants culturally different from inhabitants of the host country is now a widespread phenomenon. It is known that dietary habits and oral hygiene practices vary from country to country, which in turn has a profound effect on oral health. Objectives: To assess and compare the oral health status of Tibetan school children and local school children of Kushalnagar (Bylakuppe. Study design: A survey was conducted at Kushalnagar (Bylakuppe, in Mysore district, India to assess the oral health status of Tibetan school children (n = 300 and local school children (n = 300 and compared using World Health Organization oral health proforma (1997. Results: The proportional values are compared using chi-square test and the mean values are compared using Student′s t-test. Statistically significant results were obtained for soft tissue lesions, dental caries, malocclusion, and treatment needs. However, results were not significant when gingivitis was compared in the two populations. Conclusions: Tibetan school children showed higher prevalence of Angular cheilitis, gingival bleeding, dental caries experience, malocclusion, and treatment needs in comparison with non-Tibetans. Among the Tibetan school children, the requirement for two or more surface filling was more.

  14. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-02-01

    Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval -54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; Pfasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (Pfasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (Pfasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone-acylated ghrelin during the afternoon relative to lunch consumed after breakfast.

  15. High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses High School Harvest (HSH), an Extension educator-led project in five Vermont schools to provide students with job training and food system education and to provide lightly processed produce to school lunch programs. One hundred and twenty-one students participated, logging 8,752 hours growing, harvesting, and processing…

  16. The Market for Food in the Nation's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesberg, Martin

    This report is based on a study made during the school year 1962-63. Comparison with a benchmark survey conducted five years earlier shows that during the intervening period the number of public school districts decreased by one-third, while pupil enrollment increased by about 10 percent. The number of lunches served in the National School Lunch…

  17. School Nutrition Programs and the Incidence of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…

  18. Teacher Performance Trajectories in High- and Lower-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeyu; Özek, Umut; Hansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether teacher performance trajectory over time differs by school-poverty settings. Focusing on elementary school mathematics teachers in North Carolina and Florida, we find no systematic relationship between school student poverty rates and teacher performance trajectories. In both high- (=60% free/reduced-price lunch [FRPL])…

  19. Barriers to health education in adolescents: health care providers' perspectives compared to high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedian, Kobra; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2015-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by profound and dynamic changes, it is virtually neglected by health care providers, by society, and even by most parents, teachers, and health professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to health education in adolescents from health care providers' views compared to teens. The study population consisted of 72 health care providers and 402 high school female students in Northern Iran in 2012. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about their views on barriers to adolescents' health education. It is revealed that the major barrier to adolescents' health education from a health care providers' perspective is "Lack of private room for adolescents' health education", while "Lack of adolescents' interest to content of educational programs" is a significantly greater barrier to health education among adolescents. The results suggest that for adolescent health education, specific strategies should be used in adolescent health promotion programs.

  20. Comparing health promotion behaviors of male and female high school students in Southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Nasibeh; Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Abazari, Faroukh

    2017-11-23

    Background Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods of human life. Many healthy or risky behaviors may be formed during this period and continue to the end of life. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the health promotion behaviors of male and female students in high schools. Methods In this descriptive-comparative study, 609 high school students were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. Data were collected using demographic and health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLPII) questionnaires. Results The mean of health promotion behaviors was moderate in female (2.43 ± 0.46) and male (2.61 ± 0.45) students. The highest and lowest means in the male students were respectively the dimensions of spiritual growth and health responsibility. Also, the highest and lowest means in the female students were dimensions of interpersonal relationships as well as physical activity and exercise. The status of male health promotion behaviors was significantly more favorable than that of the female (p = 0.001, t = -4.71). The male students had a better situation than female in terms of all the six dimensions of HPLPII, so there was a significant difference between them in the four dimensions of spiritual growth, stress management, physical activity and health responsibility. There was also a significant relationship between the history of physical and mental illness in the past year and the students' health promotion behaviors (p importance of promoting self-care and educational interventions in the aspects such as physical activity and health responsibility of young people in order to improve the health of the community.

  1. A Comparative Study of Hawaii Middle School Science Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew Cain, Peggy

    The problem was middle-grade students with specific learning disabilities (SWDs) in reading comprehension perform less well than their peers on standardized assessments. The purpose of this quantitative comparative study was to examine the effect of electronic concept maps on reading comprehension of eighth grade students with SWD reading comprehension in a Hawaii middle school Grade 8 science class on the island of Oahu. The target population consisted of Grade 8 science students for school year 2015-2016. The sampling method was a purposeful sampling with a final sample size of 338 grade 8 science students. De-identified archival records of grade 8 Hawaii standardized science test scores were analyzed using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS. The finding for hypothesis 1 indicated a significant difference in student achievement between SWDs and SWODs as measured by Hawaii State Assessment (HSA) in science scores (p reading comprehension. Recommendations for practice were for educational leadership and noted: (a) teachers should practice using concept maps with SWDs as a specific reading strategy to support reading comprehension in science classes, (b) involve a strong focus on vocabulary building and concept building during concept map construction because the construction of concept maps sometimes requires frontloading of vocabulary, and (c) model for teachers how concept maps are created and to explain their educational purpose as a tool for learning. Recommendations for future research were to conduct (a) a quantitative comparative study between groups for academic achievement of subtests mean scores of SWDs and SWODs in physical science, earth science, and space science, and (b) a quantitative correlation study to examine relationships and predictive values for academic achievement of SWDs and concept map integration on standardized science assessments.

  2. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Hattiesburg Public School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    The Hattiesburg Public School District (HPSD) is a small urban school system located in southern Mississippi. Of the almost 4,500 students enrolled in its nine schools, 92 percent are African American and 90 percent receive free or reduced lunch. Currently, HPSD employs 34 administrators, 375 teachers, and 11 technology specialists. When the 21st…

  3. Reacting to poverty: A comparative analysis of schools in Brazilian deprived areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarabini, A.; Bonal, X.; Valiente, O.

    2014-01-01

    Schools in the most deprived areas in Brazil are marked by extreme poverty, a situation that has obvious consequences for the everyday life in schools and for efforts to develop a supportive culture of schooling. Nevertheless, schools’ responses to poverty are far from uniform. Although the context

  4. Secondary Geography and the Australian Curriculum--Directions in School Implementation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    At first glance, the introduction of a national curriculum for Australian schools suggested a new era of revival for school geography. Since the late 1980s, the development and introduction of more integrated conceptions of curriculum design and implementation has seen the decline of Geography as a distinct subject in Australian schools, with…

  5. Caloric compensation for lunches varying in fat and carbohydrate content by humans in a residential laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Moran, T H; Rolls, B J; Kelly, T H

    1990-12-01

    Two groups of three subjects participated in a residential study that assessed the effects of varying the macronutrient and caloric content of a required lunch meal on subsequent food choice and intake. Lunches contained 431 or 844 kcal, with the caloric differential created by manipulating the calories derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each lunch condition (high-fat, high-CHO, low-fat, and low-CHO) was examined for 3 consecutive days. Subjects controlled their own patterns of food intake and could consume any item or number of items at any time during the day or night. There were no significant differences in total daily caloric intake across conditions, indicating that subjects compensated for the caloric content of the lunch regardless of the macronutrient content. Total daily caloric intake under the high-fat and high-CHO conditions was 2824 +/- 151 (mean +/- SEM) and 2988 +/- 187 kcal, respectively, whereas intake under the low-fat and low-CHO conditions was 2700 +/- 131 and 2890 +/- 247 kcal, respectively.

  6. The "take a nurse to lunch" program. A unique focus group improves and promotes food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Dan Booth is the director of hospitality services for MaineGeneral Health. For this 450-bed health care organization, he directs six departments, which include environmental services, food and nutrition, security, laundry services, telecommunications, and transportation. In this article he describes how his Take a Nurse to Lunch program operates, what its benefits are, and how it was implemented.

  7. Analysis of school catering

    OpenAIRE

    Martinásková, Marie

    2008-01-01

    School catering is one form of public catering. People who work in sphere of school catering have to observe very strict rules of sanitary code and to follow conventions of rational nutrition. Nutritious food is important for young people and their growth. The experience with the school dining should be very useful for the child. He should learn how to intercommon and how to follow healthy lifestyle. In the last five years, fewer children eat school lunches in Czech Republic. This fact is cau...

  8. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing.The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar, and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed

  9. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  10. Energy density at a buffet-style lunch differs for adolescents born at high and low risk of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Kabay, April; Faith, Myles S

    2009-12-01

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of foods, when manipulated in the laboratory, affects short-term energy intake. The aim of this study was to examine if, when given a choice, dietary ED (foods only) and energy intake (expressed as a percentage of subjects' estimated daily energy requirement; EER) at a self-selected, single meal differ for teens born with a different familial predisposition to obesity and as a function of their sex. Subjects (13 males, 17 females) were 12years of age and born at high risk (HR; n=15) or low risk (LR; n=15) for obesity based on maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). The buffet meal, served for lunch and consumed ad libitum, consisted of a variety of foods and beverages with a range in ED. HR subjects consumed a more energy-dense meal (foods only) than LR subjects (1.84 vs. 1.42kcal/g; P=0.02) and males consumed a more energy-dense meal than females (1.83 vs. 1.43kcal/g; P=0.03). Total energy intake, when expressed as a percentage of subjects' daily EER, did not differ between HR and LR subjects (42% vs. 33%; P=0.16). Males, compared to females, consumed ~59% more energy from foods and beverages during the meal (46 vs. 29%; P=0.008). During a single multi-item lunch meal, teens with a familial predisposition to obesity and males, independent of their obesity risk status, self-selected a more energy-dense meal. Familial risk for obesity, through either genetic or environmental pathways, may facilitate a more energy-dense diet.

  11. Population education in the school curriculum: a comparative analysis of the American and Asian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okobiah, O S

    1981-02-01

    The content, strategies, and objectives of population education curriculum materials developed for use in school systems in a developed country (US) and in a developing country (Thailand) were compared. It was assumed that the objectives and strategies of population education developed in a specific country would reflect the way in which population matters were viewed by that country's policy makers and planners. In developed countries, population education is primarily an outgrowth of environmental concerns. In less developed countries population education is pursued mainly because of concerns about rapid population growth. The specific curriculum materials which were analyzed were the Population, Environmental-Ecological Education Project developed by the Missouri State Department of Education and the Population and Family Education Project developed in Bangkok. A conceptual framework for analyzing the content of the materials was developed. The framework included 5 major parameters. These parameters were 1) a description of the human population, 2) basic population concepts and processes, 3) population dynamics, 4) the causes and consequences of population change, and 5) population issues. Content analysis of the materials revealed that the content focus was similar for both of the curriculum materials. 74% of the Asian curricula and 73% of the US curricula focused on population issues and on the causes and consequences of population growth; however, the US materials emphasized environmental consequences and policies while the Asian materials emphasized family planning policies and the effects of population growth on family, community, sociocultural, and personal factors. Marked differences were revealed when the instructional strategies and course objectives of the materials were judged in reference to established educational standards of objectivity. All of the sampled instructional strategies in the US materials were judged as suitable for use in the formal

  12. [Professional burnout among university and high school teachers--comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietochowski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Professional burnout is a set of negative emotional and behavioral symptoms, observed in workers of widely understood human service occupations, including teachers. In spite of the considerable number of studies of burnout in teachers, a few of them concern university teachers. The aim of the article was to estimate the degree of burning threat in this professional group and to analyze individual determinants and dynamics of burning out in academic teachers. Gender, age, personality traits and temperament traits were given the status of main factors in the study. The role of the perceived social support was also analyzed. 97 academic workers of three state universities (University, Medical University and Technical University) in Łódź took part in the study; 100 teachers of high schools formed a comparative group. MBI General Survey was applied to measure dependent variables (burnout and its three components: Emotional Exhaustion, Cinicism and Professional Efficacy). The level of factors was measured with standard psychological tests: NEO-FFI and FCZ-KT. The Scale of Perceived Social Support was also applied. The results show considerably lower threat of the burning out syndrome in university than in high school teachers. Among individual factors only two temperament traits (emotional reactivity and perseveration) and one personality trait (extroversion) seem to be important determinants of professional burnout. The perceived social support does not prevent the progress of burnout syndrome. Based on the obtained results several practical conclusions were formulated. They refer mainly to preventive training for beginners in teaching and changes in the organization of academic teachers' work.

  13. Treating Anxiety Disorders in Inner City Schools: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing CBT and Usual Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in inner city schools, when delivered by novice CBT clinicians, and compared to usual care (UC), is unknown. Objective: This pilot study addressed this issue by comparing a modular CBT for anxiety disorders to UC in a sample of 32 volunteer youth (mean age 10.28 years, 63%…

  14. Ethnic identity, school connectedness, and achievement in standardized tests among Mexican-origin youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Collins, Mary Ann

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between school connectedness and performance in standardized test scores and whether this association was moderated by ethnic private regard. The study combines self-report data with school district reported data on standardized test scores in reading and math and free and reduced lunch status. Participants included 436 Mexican-origin youth attending a middle school in a southwestern U.S. state. Participants were on average 12.34 years of age (SD = .95) and 51.8% female and 48.2% male. After controlling for age, gender, free and reduced lunch status, and generational status, school connectedness and ethnic private regard were both positive predictors of standardized test scores in reading and math. Results also revealed a significant interaction between school connectedness and ethnic private regard in predicting standardized test scores in reading, such that participants who were low on ethnic private regard and low on school connectedness reported lower levels of achievement compared to participants who were low on ethnic private regard but high on school connectedness. At high levels of ethnic private regard, high or low levels of school connectedness were not associated with higher or lower standardized test scores in reading. The findings in this study provide support for the protective role that ethnic private regard plays in the educational experiences of Mexican-origin youth and highlights how the local school context may play a role in shaping this finding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. THE PECULIARITIES OF WORK OF THE EUROPEAN NETWORK OF HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOLS (COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Iermakova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze the main peculiarities of European Network of Health Promoting Schools functioning in European Union and Ukraine. Results. Students are a big group of population that demand introduction of health education in modern rhythm of life. A great example of such education is schools of Members States of European Union. Address to experience of forming of students’ health culture in the Health Promoting Schools in countries of European Union, experience of that can become an example for the countries of post-soviet space and Ukraine in particular. In the article is shown main peculiarities and structure of the work of such school network. Single out the main principles and approached of network activity. Conclusions. The ENHPS is intended above all to be of practical help to schools and those working with schools on becoming more effective in health promotion and therefore ultimately more effective in meeting their educational goals.

  16. Contribution of Beverage Selection to the Dietary Quality of the Packed Lunches Eaten by Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-02-16

    Sweet drinks early in life could predispose to lifelong consumption, and the beverage industry does not clearly define fruit drinks as part of the sweet drink category. To ascertain the relationship between beverage selection and dietary quality of the lunches packed for preschool-aged children evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Foods packed by parents (n=607) were observed at 30 early care and education centers on two nonconsecutive days. Three-level regression models were used to examine the dietary quality of lunches by beverage selection and the dietary quality of the lunch controlling for the nutrient composition of the beverage by removing it from the analysis. Fruit drinks were included in 25% of parent-packed lunches, followed by 100% fruit juice (14%), milk (14%), and flavored milk (3.7%). Lunches with plain milk had the highest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (59.3) followed by lunches with 100% fruit juice (56.9) and flavored milk (53.2). Lunches with fruit drinks had the lowest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores at 48.6. After excluding the nutrient content of the beverage, the significant difference between lunches containing milk and flavored milk persisted (+5.5), whereas the difference between fruit drinks and 100% fruit juice did not. Dietary quality is associated with the type of beverage packed and these differences hold when the lunch is analyzed without the nutrient content of the beverage included. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE PECULIARITIES OF WORK OF THE EUROPEAN NETWORK OF HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOLS (COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Iermakova

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – to analyze the main peculiarities of European Network of Health Promoting Schools functioning in European Union and Ukraine. Results. Students are a big group of population that demand introduction of health education in modern rhythm of life. A great example of such education is schools of Members States of European Union. Address to experience of forming of students’ health culture in the Health Promoting Schools in countries of European Union, experience of that can become an exa...

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN TIRUPUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    A. Buvanambal; Ranjithamani

    2017-01-01

    Education is the potential cause for change in any society. If the education system fails to respond adequately to the emerging challenges of a developing society, the stagnation and wastage will be increased and ultimately the growth of the nation will hindered. The main objective is to find out the Emotional Maturity among secondary school students and to find out the impact of personal variables like Medium of Instruction, Gender, Location of the School, Type of the School, Educational qu...

  19. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sociodemographic correlates of food habits among school adolescents (12–15 year in north Gaza Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zumin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about meal patterns and food consumption of adolescents in Palestine. The objective of this study was to describe the association between sociodemographic factors and food intake, and meal patterns among Palestinian school adolescents (12–15 year in North Gaza Strip. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 comprising 944 subjects in 10 schools in Gaza city, Jabalia village and Jabalia refugee camp. Self-administered questionnaires were filled in by students and parents to obtain data on frequency of meals, food intake and sociodemographic characteristics. Results High household socioeconomic status (SES was associated with the increased number of meals and the increased intakes of many nutritious foods such as; animal food items, fruits and vegetables and dairy foods. The percentage of adolescents having breakfast daily of high and low SES was 74.5% vs 55% in boys and 65.6% vs 45% in girls. The percentage of girls with refugee status who had lunch was higher (90.2% compared to the local citizen girls (83.9%, (p = 0.03. Girls were less likely to skip daily lunch (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.36–0.87, p = 0.01 compared to boys. Risk of skipping lunch was three times higher among adolescents living in the village compared to Gaza well-off area (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.72–6.31, p Conclusion Meal skipping is common, particularly among those of low SES and the intakes of many nutritious foods such as animal food items, fruits and vegetables and dairy foods seem to be low among adolescents of low SES. The results of this study could be used as an important base-line for future monitoring of the nutritional situation of adolescents.

  1. Comparing Views of Primary School Mathematics Teachers and Prospective Mathematics Teachers about Instructional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Baki

    2009-11-01

    them were mathematics teachers chosen from 3 different schools of different social stratification among primary schools in Artvin city center in the spring term of 2008-2009 educational year, another 3 of them were mathematics teachers from 3 different schools of different social stratification among primary schools in Trabzon city. Prospective mathematics teachers at their last year were randomly chosen from the elementary mathematics teacher training program of Fatih Faculty of Education in Karadeniz Technical University.The chosen 6 teachers and 6 candidate teachers were interviewed with 9-item semi-structured interviews in duration of 25 to 40 minutes. The opinions of the teachers and candidate teachers were compared and interpreted in a multidimensional point of view by the researchers. Concerning the research inquiries, the obtained data were classified under the titles as; definition of the instructional technology concept, instructional technologies used by the participants, benefits of this usage, competences related to usage of these technologies, suggestions for using these technologies. Based on the data these results were drawn; while the teachers take the instructional technologies concept as technological tool specifically, the candidate teachers, on the other hand, perceive the concept from a broader point of view. The teachers are more acquainted with mainstream technological products like computer and internet however the candidate teachers are also aware of books, magazines and concrete materials. Complying with some previous studies (Baki, 2000; YeĢilyurt, 2006; Lin, Hsiech and Pierson, 2004; Ayvacı et al., 2007, both teachers and candidate teachers agree on that using instructional technologies matters in a positive way. However, since the teachers are actively in-service, they mentioned on application problems, on the contrary the candidate teachers are unaware of the prospective problems. The reason of this situation may be the problems faced

  2. Comparative values of medical school assessments in the prediction of internship performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming; Vermillion, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    Multiple undergraduate achievements have been used for graduate admission consideration. Their relative values in the prediction of residency performance are not clear. This study compared the contributions of major undergraduate assessments to the prediction of internship performance. Internship performance ratings of the graduates of a medical school were collected from 2012 to 2015. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine the predictive values of undergraduate measures assessing basic and clinical sciences knowledge and clinical performances, after controlling for differences in the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). Four hundred eighty (75%) graduates' archived data were used in the study. Analyses revealed that clinical competencies, assessed by the USMLE Step 2 CK, NBME medicine exam, and an eight-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), were strong predictors of internship performance. Neither the USMLE Step 1 nor the inpatient internal medicine clerkship evaluation predicted internship performance. The undergraduate assessments as a whole showed a significant collective relationship with internship performance (ΔR 2  = 0.12, p < 0.001). The study supports the use of clinical competency assessments, instead of pre-clinical measures, in graduate admission consideration. It also provides validity evidence for OSCE scores in the prediction of workplace performance.

  3. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: Relationships between absolute and relative intakes of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-08-01

    Children's appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5year olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from 0.78 to 0.91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child's choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  4. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: relationships between absolute and relative intake of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, LA; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-01-01

    Children’s appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5y olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from .78 to .91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child’s choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  5. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  6. Examining the Legitimacy of Unrecognised Low-Fee Private Schools in India: Comparing Different Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Studies to date show how low-fee private (LFP) schools, including unrecognised ones, have gained practical legitimacy and continue to increase in number. However, little explanation is offered regarding the legal legitimacy of such unrecognised LFP schools. This paper intends to fill this gap by examining the legal legitimacy of unrecognised…

  7. Instructional Comparative Advantages May Exist Despite the "Comprehensive Uniformity" of Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, John

    2012-01-01

    A special tabulation of individual student scores from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test allowed a ranking of Texas schools according to test score changes ("value added"). The rankings varied greatly by student subpopulation. That is, the vast majority of schools are much more effective with some kinds of students than…

  8. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  9. Social functions of high school athletics in the United States: a historical and comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States competitive sport is part of the extra-curricular program of high schools. In the Netherlands, on the other hand, competitive sport is practiced in private clubs which are completely independent of the high schools. The consolidation and continuity of this difference can be

  10. The Integration of New Media in Schools: Comparing Policy with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nurzali

    2015-01-01

    Beyond policy, this paper investigates the actual practice related to the integration of new media in schools. Despite continuous government effort to integrate new media in schools, the use of digital technologies for teaching and learning in the classroom remains limited. This study suggests that, apart from the issue related to the state of…

  11. Comparing Student Perceptions of Coping Strategies and School Interventions in Managing Bullying and Cyberbullying Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying…

  12. Does Charter Status Determine Preferences? Comparing the Hiring Preferences of Charter and Traditional Public School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Marisa; Engel, Mimi

    2012-01-01

    The academic success of any school depends on its teachers. However, relatively little research exists on the qualities principals value in teacher hiring, and we know almost nothing about charter school principals' preferences. This article addresses this gap in the literature using survey results for a matched sample of charter and traditional…

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH IN STUDENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL DEPENDING ON THEIR MODE OF LIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mirskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 405 students of secondary school in Moscow, Kaliningrad and Murmansk took part in the testing. The correlation between poor health in students and mode of their living was shown. It's recommended to create unified standard of students education in the field of hygiene, breeding and healthy life style.Key words: secondary school students, health, life style.

  14. Afternoon nap and bright light exposure improve cognitive flexibility post lunch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Slama

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15, or bright light versus placebo (n=10. Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions. The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes. In the bright light/placebo condition, participants watched a documentary under either bright blue light or dim orange light (placebo for 30 minutes. The switch cost estimates cognitive flexibility and measures task-switching efficiency. Increased switch cost scores indicate higher difficulties to switch between tasks. In both control conditions (wake or placebo, accuracy switch-cost score increased post lunch. Both interventions (nap or bright light elicited a decrease in accuracy switch-cost score post lunch, which was associated with diminished fatigue and decreased variability in vigilance. Additionally, there was a trend for a post-lunch benefit of bright light with a decreased latency switch-cost score. In the nap group, improvements in accuracy switch-cost score were associated with more NREM sleep stage N1. Thus, exposure to bright light during the post-lunch dip, a countermeasure easily applicable in daily life, results in similar

  15. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  16. A comparative study of indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapdan, E.; Altinsoy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of radon concentrations between dwellings and the schools located in the same regions and to obtain related indoor average radon concentration dwelling–school correction factor for similar locations. The research has been carried out by determining indoor radon concentrations at schools and dwellings located at the same districts in the selected two separate research fields called The Former Adapazari region and The New Adapazari region in the city of Adapazari using a total of 81 Cr-39 passive radon detectors for 75 days. The average radon concentrations have been determined for the dwellings and the schools in 15 districts of the Former Adapazari region as 59.9 Bq m −3 and 57.1 Bq m −3 , respectively. The results in 4 districts of the New Adapazari region were 63.5 Bq m −3 for the dwellings and 61.0 Bq m −3 for the schools. Moreover, the annual effective doses were calculated as 1.33 mSv/y and 1.41 mSv/y for the dwellings of Former Adapazari and New Adapazari, respectively. It was seen that the doses received in the dwellings are about four times the doses received in the schools. The indoor radon concentration dwelling–school correction factor was found to be 1.04±0.01 for the research area.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN AREA OF JHANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to find out the nutritional status including anthropometric assessment. A cross -sectional study was conducted in primary section of two governments and Iwo convent schools of Jhansi city during the study period of march 1999 to feb2000.Selected school children (n=840 aged 5-11 years, 453 children from municipal school and 387 children from convent school comprised the study material. Following results were observed -out of total children surveyed, 52.98% were male and rests 4 7.02% were females. Hindu formed majority (70.90% of children in both types of schools. Mean height and weight of boys and girls were higher than ICMR standards in both type of school. The mean mid arm circumference of all girls and boys from both type of schools had higher value than the ICMR standards but did not come up to WOLANSKI standard. Statistical analysis-percentage, mean, chi-square test.

  18. Comparative description of migrant farmworkers versus other students attending South Texas schools: demographic, academic, and health characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon P; Weller, Nancy F; Fox, Erin E; Cooper, Sara R; Shipp, Eva M

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about academic performance, health, and social functioning of youth from migrant farmworker families. This study was designed to compare demographic, academic, health, and social data between migrant and nonmigrant youth residing in South Texas. Anonymous cross-sectional survey data were collected from 6954 middle and 3565 high school students. About 5% of South Texas middle and high school students reported belonging to a migrant family. Compared with nonmigrant students, migrant youth were more likely to miss and arrive late to school, sleep in class, and study fewer hours weekly. Migrant students reported fewer hours of nightly sleep, fewer hours spent with their friends, and more minor illnesses than nonmigrant youth. These results demonstrate the need for interventions specifically targeted to this vulnerable adolescent population.

  19. Tracing temperature patterns of cut leafy greens during service in North Carolina school food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen M; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Phister, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    Contaminated fresh produce has been increasingly identified as a cause of foodborne illnesses. Because of concerns about pathogen growth on these food items at retail, the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code established that cut leafy greens (lettuce, spinach, spring mix, cabbage, arugula, and kale) must have time and temperature controls for safety and hence should be kept at refrigerated temperatures (5°C or lower). The purpose of this study was to determine the temperature profiles of cut leafy greens in single-serving clamshell containers provided as part of the North Carolina School Lunch Program and to compare the two policies that North Carolina has in place to control the temperature of these products (the 3-day rule and time in lieu of temperature). Temperatures were recorded with data loggers in 24 schools during a 3-day period. In all cases, substantial temperature variability was found for these products, including temperatures above 5°C for at least 1 h on each of the 3 days. In some cases, temperatures reached above 5°C for more than 3 h throughout the serving time. The results demonstrate the importance of developing a protocol for continuous temperature monitoring of leafy greens served in school lunch programs.

  20. Health Promotion at the Construction Work Site: The Lunch Truck Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Moore, Kevin J; Clarke, Tainya C; Davila, Evelyn P; Clark, John D; Lee, David J; Fleming, Lora E

    2018-04-01

    The transient nature of construction work makes it difficult to conduct longitudinal worksite-based health promotion activities. As part of a workplace health assessment pilot study, we worked with a commercial lunch truck company to disseminate four types of health education materials including cancer screening, workplace injury prevention, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking cessation to construction workers purchasing food items from the truck during their job breaks. Two weeks following the worksite assessment, we followed up with these workers to ascertain their use of the health promotion materials. Of the 54 workers surveyed, 83% reported reviewing and sharing the cancer screening materials with their families, whereas 44% discussed the cancer screening materials with coworkers. Similar proportions of workers reviewed, shared, and discussed the other health promotion materials with their family. Lunch trucks may be an effective strategy and delivery method for educating construction workers on healthy behaviors and injury prevention practices.

  1. It's not just lunch: extra-pair commensality can trigger sexual jealousy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Kniffin

    Full Text Available Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1--or their best friend (Study 2--would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find--across both men and women--that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not "just lunch."

  2. It's not just lunch: extra-pair commensality can trigger sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1)--or their best friend (Study 2)--would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find--across both men and women--that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not "just lunch."

  3. It’s Not Just Lunch: Extra-Pair Commensality Can Trigger Sexual Jealousy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M.; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1) – or their best friend (Study 2) – would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find – across both men and women – that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not “just lunch.” PMID:22792327

  4. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...

  5. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of Effective Teaching: A Comparative Study of Elementary School Teachers from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingqi; Muñoz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This international study investigated Chinese and American elementary school teachers' perceptions of effective teaching. The sample comprised Chinese (n = 108) and US (n = 110) participating teachers. The Effective Teaching Quality Survey (ETQS) was adopted for this comparative education research, an instrument that operationalized Stronge's…

  7. Characterizing Design Cognition of High School Students: Initial Analyses Comparing Those with and without Pre-Engineering Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John; Lammi, Matthew; Gero, John; Grubbs, Michael E.; Paretti, Marie; Williams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Reported in this article are initial results from of a longitudinal study to characterize the design cognition and cognitive design styles of high school students with and without pre-engineering course experience over a 2-year period, and to compare them with undergraduate engineering students. The research followed a verbal protocol analysis…

  8. Methodology of Comparative Analysis of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana

    2015-01-01

    In the article the methodology of comparative analysis of public school teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  9. An Australian Study Comparing the Use of Multiple-Choice Questionnaires with Assignments as Interim, Summative Law School Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    To the author's knowledge, this is the first Australian study to empirically compare the use of a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) with the use of a written assignment for interim, summative law school assessment. This study also surveyed the same student sample as to what types of assessments are preferred and why. In total, 182 undergraduate…

  10. Examining Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Comparative Study of Turkish Private and Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels and principals'…

  11. Conventional Gymnasium vs. Geodesic Field House. A Comparative Study of High School Physical Education and Assembly Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A description is presented of the design features of a high school's geodesic dome field house. Following consideration of various design features and criteria for the physical education facility, a comprehensive analysis is given of comparative costs of a geodesic dome field house and conventional gymnasium. On the basis of the study it would…

  12. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  13. Maintaining the Integrity of Public Education: A Comparative Analysis of School Autonomy in the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a critical comparative approach to examining autonomous schooling in the United States and Australia. Amid the market imperatives currently driving education priorities, its focus is on how autonomy can be mobilized in ways that preserve the integrity of public education. Through reference to key debates and research about…

  14. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects....

  15. Perhaps Not a Free Lunch But At Least a Free Appetizer

    OpenAIRE

    Droste, Stefan; Jansen, Thomas; Wegener, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    It is often claimed that Evolutionary Algorithms are superior to other optimization techniques, in particular, in situations where not much is known about the objective function to be optimized. In contrast to that Wolpert and Macready (1997) proved that all optimization techniques have the same behavior - on average over all f : X -> Y where X and Y are finite sets. This result is called No Free Lunch Theorem. Here different scenarios of optimization are presented. It is argued why the scena...

  16. Hostages, free lunches and institutional gaps : the case of the European Currency Union

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the strong member states of the European Currency Union are hostages of a financially distressed member state so that they are compelled to provide financial support. Moreover, due to the dynamics of the interaction game, a debt relief is a free lunch for the distressed country. This fosters moral hazard of distressed countries. In the absence of capital market control, European politics do not effectively monitor fiscal politics of member states. The lack of a long ter...

  17. The effects of single-sex compared with coeducational schooling on students' performance and attitudes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Allison, Carlie M

    2014-07-01

    Proponents of single-sex (SS) education believe that separating boys and girls, by classrooms or schools, increases students' achievement and academic interest. In this article, we use meta-analysis to analyze studies that have tested the effects on students of SS compared with coeducational (CE) schooling. We meta-analyzed data from 184 studies, representing the testing of 1.6 million students in Grades K-12 from 21 nations, for multiple outcomes (e.g., mathematics performance, mathematics attitudes, science performance, educational aspirations, self-concept, gender stereotyping). To address concerns about the quality of research designs, we categorized studies as uncontrolled (no controls for selection effects, no random assignment) or controlled (random assignment or controls for selection effects). Based on mixed-effects analyses, uncontrolled studies showed some modest advantages for single-sex schooling, for both girls and boys, for outcomes such as mathematics performance but not for science performance. Controlled studies, however, showed only trivial differences between students in SS versus CE, for mathematics performance (g = 0.10 for girls, 0.06 for boys) and science performance (g = 0.06 for girls, 0.04 for boys), and in some cases showed small differences favoring CE schooling (e.g., for girls' educational aspirations, g = -0.26). Separate analyses of U.S. studies yielded similar findings (e.g., for mathematics performance g = 0.14 for girls and 0.14 for boys). Results from the highest quality studies, then, do not support the view that SS schooling provides benefits compared with CE schooling. Claims that SS schooling is particularly effective for U.S. ethnic minority boys could not be tested due to the lack of controlled studies on this question. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The suitability of the food consumed by children in primary schools for satisfying their needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim İşgüzar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: This study evaluates the suitability of the food consumed by children in primary schools including the role of the lunch menus in satisfying the children’s needs. Methods: 852 first-grade students were chosen from 14 randomly selected primary schools in Gaziantep to participate in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. Demographic and personal data of the students and their parents, their anthropometric measurements, food consumption habits and the lunch menus served in schools were studied. The Body Mass Index (BMI of students was evaluated according to World Health Organization (WHO’s percentile tables. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software, using the chi-square test for analyses. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: 51.4% of students were male, 48.6% were female (mean age, 7.05±0.24 years. According to the BMI results, 26.6% of the students were thin and 25.9% were overweight/obese. 73.5% and 85.8% of the children were having breakfast or lunch regularly, respectively. Maternal education levels and employment status did not affect the child’s having breakfast on a daily basis (p>0.05. 27.7 % of children who ate lunch regularly, 15.7% of children who did not eat lunch regularly were overweight/obese (p<0.05. The most consumed food on a regular basis was bread (92.6 %, followed by milk and dairy products (76.5%. When lunch was served in schools (for 24.9% of the students, regular lunch consumption increased among children (p<0.05. The food group the most consumed by the students having lunch at school was fats-sugars-cereals. Only 43.3% of the lunch menus served at schools were found adequate. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that there is a need to improve lunch menus served in primary schools in order to satisfy energy and nutritional needs of children.Keywords: Nutrition, school health, primary school 

  19. Regulating strain states by using the recovery potential of lunch breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Jarek; Wieland, Rainer; Sauerland, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the worksite study is to elucidate the strain reducing impact of different forms of spending lunch breaks. With the help of the so-called silent room cabin concept, it was possible to induce a lunch-break relaxation opportunity that provided visual and territorial privacy. To evaluate the proposed effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either 20 min progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) or small-talk (ST) break groups. We analyzed the data in a controlled trial for a period of 6 months (every 2 months four measurements a day at 12:00, 13:00, 16:00, 20:00) using independent observer and self-report ratings of emotional, mental, motivational, and physical strain. Results indicated that only the PMR break reduced postlunchtime and afternoon strain. Although further intervention research is required, our results suggest that PMR lunch break may sustainable reduce strain states in real worksite settings. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The traditional lunch pattern is inversely correlated with body mass index in a population-based study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Oliveira Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of obesity and dietary patterns has been well documented in scientific literature; however, information on the impact of meal patterns on obesity is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of adherence to lunch patterns and body mass index (BMI in a representative sample of individuals aged 20 years or older in Sao Paulo. Methods Data for 933 participants were retrieved from the Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008, a cross-sectional population-based survey. The usual dietary intake of individuals with at least one 24-h recall was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. The definition of lunch was self-reported by the participant. Five lunch patterns were derived from twenty-two food groups by exploratory factor analysis: Traditional, Western, Sweetened juice, Salad, and Meats. To estimate the effect of lunch patterns on BMI, we used a generalized linear model with link identity and inverse Gaussian distribution. Analyses were adjusted by age, gender, household income per capita, physical activity levels, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, and misreporting status. Results The greater adherence to the traditional pattern at the lunch meal was associated with lower BMI, only in insufficiently active individuals (ß = −0.78; 95% CI -1.57; −0.02. Conclusions The traditional Brazilian lunch pattern might protect the insufficiently active individuals against obesity.

  1. Exploring Quality Teaching of Information and Communication Technology in New South Wales and Yenbai High Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Manh Thang

    This study compares ICT policy and curriculum and assessment practices between Australian and Vietnamese secondary schools, and investigates differences between these two school systems. Document analyses and case studies were used to examine the key differences in ICT curriculum and policy and assessment practices between Australian and Vietnamese secondary schools. The document analyses focused on the intended ICT policy and curriculum and assessment, as presented in official documents in both countries. Using a case study approach for in-depth examination, two secondary schools were selected (one from Yenbai province, Vietnam and one from Sydney, New South Wales, Australia). Two principals and three teachers were interviewed. Classroom teaching and assessment practices were observed, and principals and teachers' views were obtained through semi-structured interviews and extensive discussions. Findings from the two case studies were compared with the findings from the document analysis. This study explored and analysed differences in ICT teaching, learning, assessment, and achievement between Vietnamese and Australian secondary students. It was found that that Australian ICT school curricula and assessment differed markedly from the Vietnamese system. Student ICT achievement in these Australian and Vietnamese schools could not only be attributed to higher standards of intended ICT curricula and assessment, or teacher knowledge or classroom practices. These differences are better explained by economic and cultural factors, ICT policies and their degrees of implementation, and extra ICT curricula. In order to bridge the gap and implement adequate ICT curricula and policies, rigorous professional training in teaching and assessment is essential for both Australian and Vietnamese teachers. In order to improve Australian students' ICT achievement, achievement motivation must be addressed. Many challenging aspects were found in ICT policies and classrooms in the

  2. The Role of School Counselors in the Childhood Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrier, Yvonne I.; Bakerson, Michelle A.; Linton, Jeremy M.; Walker, Lynne R.; Woolford, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Since 1960, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States increased dramatically from 5% to 16.9%. To date many interventions to address obesity in schools have focused on healthy changes to the content of vending machines, school lunches, and the addition of after school…

  3. [Smoking among adolescents: population study on parental and school influences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, A M; López, R; Serra-Batlles, J; Roger, N; Arnau, A; Roura, P

    2006-01-01

    Smoking represents a public health problem, one which begins during adolescence. The main objective of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and parental and school factors. The study sample consisted of the students from the 20 secondary schools in the region of Osona, Barcelona, Spain. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on the following variables: smoking habit, age of initiation, frequency, type of school (state school or private-subsidized), sex, age, persons living in the home, town, whether the student had lunch at school, whether the student often had lunch or dinner alone at home. A total of 2280 students participated in the study (91%). Mean age was 15.5 years. Of the participants, 20% said they were smokers; 5%, ex-smokers; 34% had tried smoking at least once, and 41% had never smoked. Factors significantly associated with smoking in the multivariate analysis were age, rural town, state school, single parent family, eating alone, and not lunching at school. Smoking prevalence is high among adolescents in our society and there is no gender difference. Our results show that family structure and dynamics can influence smoking in adolescents. Smoking is less prevalent among adolescents who have lunch at school.

  4. Simians in the Shape School: A comparative study of executive attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kristin; Beran, Michael J; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Washburn, David A

    2018-01-08

    Executive functions (EF) have been studied extensively in children and adults. However, EF tasks for young children can be difficult to administer and interpret. Espy (1997, Developmental Neuropsychology, 13, 495-499) designed the Shape School task to measure inhibition and switching in preschool-aged children. Shape School presents cartoon-like characters that children must flexibly name by their color, their shape, or both, depending on cues that indicate the appropriate rule. Shape School has been found to be age sensitive as well as predictive of performance on other EF tasks. We presented a computerized analogue of Shape School to seven rhesus macaques. Monkeys were trained to categorize characters by color or shape, or to inhibit this response, depending on whether the characters had eyes open, eyes closed, or wore hats. Monkeys performed above chance on the inhibition and switching components of the task. Long runs of a single classification rule and long runs of noninhibition trials had no significant impact on performance when the rule changed or inhibition was required. This nonverbal adaptation of Shape School can measure EF in nonhuman animals and could be used in conjunction with other EF tasks to provide a clearer picture of both human and nonhuman executive functions.

  5. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  6. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  7. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  8. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  9. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  10. Determinants and Outcomes of Teachers' Professional Identity and Organizational Identification: A Comparative Analysis in Charter and Regular Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogrek, Muhammed Fatih

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study compared the organizational identification and professional identity of teachers in charter and regular public schools. The purpose of study was three-fold; the first was to investigate whether charter school teachers differ from their regular public school peers in the study variables (i.e. self-efficacy, perceived…

  11. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellums, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  12. The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming

    OpenAIRE

    Talsma, Elise F.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Mayer, Eva V.; Verhoef, Hans; Demir, Ayşe Y.; Ferguson, Elaine L.; Kok, Frans J.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional food-based recommendations (FBR) on vitamin A and overall nutrient adequacy using Optifood (linear programming tool). Design: Cross-sectional study to assess dietary intakes (24 h recall) and derive model par...

  13. Level of Differentiation of Vocational Interests Profiles: Comparative Study by Age and Schooling in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocational interests can be defined as standards of preference, aversion or indifference to professional activities, but little is known about the factors involved in their development. From this perspective, this study attempted to clarify which variable, age or schooling, better fit comparisons of profile differentiation index. To this end, we analyzed the Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (Professional Counseling Scale responses of 6,824 Brazilian students between 14 and 50 years old with various levels of education. Differentiation of the interest profile was observed by subtraction between dimensions with lower and higher scores. Normality of the distributions was verified and then Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted in relation to groups of age and schooling. The results suggest that schooling is a more appropriate variable to compare the differentiation of interests. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are given.

  14. [Comparing students in inclusive education to those in special schools: the view of parents of children with learning disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klicpera, Christian; Klicpera, Barbara Gasteiger

    2004-12-01

    The paper presents the results of a survey of 755 parents of learning disabled children with certified special needs who either attended classes within regular education or special schools. All parents were involved in the decision on the school placement of their children. The experiences of 547 parents of learning disabled students in inclusive classes were contrasted with those of 207 parents of children in special schools. Besides a rather high satisfaction with previous school experiences of their children a number of differences between the two groups of parents could be observed. Parents of students in special schools viewed their children as rather little challenged by their educational requirements whereas those in inclusive education found their children to be overtaxed. The social development of the students in inclusive education was judged as more positive and, generally, a higher rate of parents of learning disabled students in inclusive classes were satisfied with their choice of the educational setting. Although the requirements for parental support concerning studying were higher in inclusive classes this cannot solely explain the differences of experiences with school. In a second step, satisfied parents were compared to dissatisfied parents. It could be found that the group of dissatisfied parents had to make their choice on the educational setting of their children under less favourable conditions and many could not accept that their child had been classified as having special needs. This applied to parents of students in inclusive education as well as to parents of children in special schools. Additionally, parents of students with German as a second language reported to be discontented more frequently. No significant discrepancies could be found between different grades or federal states with different quotas of inclusive education.

  15. Is scratch-cooking a cost-effective way to prepare healthy school meals with US Department of Agriculture foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kiesel, Kristin; Lewis Miller, Markell; Boyle, Maria; Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Crawford, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    Despite the resurgence of interest in scratch-cooking as a way to increase the quality and appeal of school meals, many school districts are concerned about the cost implications of switching to scratch-cooking. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foods are the single largest source of ingredients for school meals, and about half of USDA Foods are diverted for processing before being sent to the school district. We aimed to determine whether school lunch entrées made in a district from basic or raw USDA Foods ingredients can be healthier and less expensive to prepare than those sent to external processors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between the extent of scratch-cooking and the nutritional content and cost to prepare entrées. Information was gathered by interview with school foodservice personnel and from school foodservice records from a convenience sample of 10 school districts in California that employed varying degrees of scratch-cooking and is diverse in terms of geographic location and the sociodemographics of the student body. The sample included all elementary school lunch entrées that contain USDA Foods offered during October 2010 for a total sample of 146 entrées. Ordinary least squares regressions were used to test for statistically significant differences in cost and nutrient content of entrées according to the level of scratch-cooking. There was no significant relationship between total costs and level of scratch-cooking. Entrées with the highest scratch-cooking scores had significantly lower food costs, higher labor costs, and not significantly different total costs compared with entrées with no scratch-cooking. Nutrient content was not consistently associated with scratch-cooking, but scratch-cooked entrées did include a larger variety of non-fast-food-type entrées. The findings suggest that scratch-cooking can be a cost-effective way to expand the variety of healthy school lunches prepared with USDA Foods

  16. Tackling World Hunger in an Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnan, Caroline S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program, developed in a small Vermont elementary school, that centered on world hunger and global awareness by involving students in helping stop food waste during lunch. Community members and businesses pledged money as an incentive for stopping waste, and the money raised went to UNICEF. (MD)

  17. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    programme consisting of a morning snack and a hot lunch based on fixed seasonal menu plans and with 75 per cent organic content is 37 per cent more expensive in terms of ingredient costs than corresponding packed school meals. This cost differential can be almost halved by introducing more flexible...

  18. Secrets to Success in School Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Students need more than just "any" lunch or breakfast to do well in school--the "quality" of these meals counts also. Studies have demonstrated the role healthy diets can play in students' academic achievement. That's why President Obama signed into law the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act in December 2010. This historic legislation provides free…

  19. Methods Document for the CDC and Bridging the Gap Local School Wellness Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 and, more recently, the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 required all school districts participating in the federal Child Nutrition Programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, Special Milk Program, Afterschool Snack Program) to adopt and implement a local…

  20. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  1. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  2. Childhood Obesity and Schools: Evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Hooker, Neal H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related diseases has received increasing attention. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we explore relationships between childhood obesity and school type, National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) eligibility,…

  3. Here's Why Junk Food Still Is on Sale at Some Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, M. Chester

    1984-01-01

    A 1983 federal appeals court decision says the Secretary of Agriculture cannot establish time and place restrictions on the sale of snack items in schools. If snack items are to be banned from schools, the School Lunch Act must be reworded. (MD)

  4. Nutrition of Children and the School Function: Report of a Community Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Claudio; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Clinically examined and interviewed 847 elementary students (ages six to 19 years) to determine their nutritional status and acceptance of school food. Findings indicated high prevalence of protein energy malnutrition and high rates of students coming to school with no food, nonacceptance of the school lunch, and strong preference for salty food.…

  5. Barriers and Possible Facilitators to Participation in Farm to School Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Alicia S.; Lingsch, Kelsey J.; Weiss, Caitlin; Connell, Carol L.; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate child nutrition directors' (CNDs) Farm to School (F2S) Week participation. This cross-sectional, census survey was completed by CNDs working in Mississippi public school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data and the…

  6. Smarter lunchrooms can address new school lunchroom guidelines and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2013-04-01

    New US Department of Agriculture regulations have altered what foods schools offer for lunch, but schools cannot require students to eat specific foods. An intervention using the behavioral science principle known as "libertarian paternalism" led junior-senior high school students to eat more fruits and vegetables by making these foods more convenient, attractive, and normative. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Mythology of Schooling: The Historiography of American and European Education in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew Gardner

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the historiography of American and European education, considering how educational historians communicate powerful messages about the purposes and promises of schooling through their writing. I divide the historiography of American education into four interpretive traditions: traditionalism, radical revisionism, progressive…

  8. Combining Identity and Integration: Comparative Analysis of Schools for Two Minority Groups in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyk, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses school systems for two of Ukraine's minorities, the Hungarians and the Crimean Tatars with the aim of assessing their success in promoting ethnocultural identity and social integration of the minority youth. I demonstrate that the exclusive instruction in Hungarian ensures the reproduction of group language knowledge and…

  9. Towards a Comparative and International History of School Testing and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Sherman; Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The speed and extent of modern school accountability have obscured the history of testing and accountability. This brief introduction identifies central themes of historical research into educational accountability and recurring traits associated with accountability practices. We hope our colleagues and this special issue will also help to…

  10. An Exploratory Comparative Study of Staff Stress in English and German Comprehensive Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jack

    1980-01-01

    West German and English teachers completed questionnaires and interviews about stress situations and responses. English teachers identified more stress situations than German staff, who felt more certain of their roles and more involved in school decision-making. Both reported poor staff communications and disruptive pupil behavior as their major…

  11. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  12. Customer and Market Orientation within AACSB Member Business Schools: Comparative Views from Three Levels of Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.; Rothwell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a stream of research dealing with customer and market orientation within higher education, specifically within business schools holding membership in AACSB-International. A market orientation strategy leading to a customer and market-oriented organizational culture is based upon the acceptance and adoption of the marketing…

  13. Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

  14. The Influence of School Tracking Systems on Educational Expectations: A Comparative Study of Austria and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bommi

    2014-01-01

    School tracking is usually criticised as a mechanism for social and cultural reproduction. Evidence from the literature shows a significant effect of early tracking on social inequality. Some studies also show that early tracking has a negative effect on the probability of completing higher education. This study uses PISA 2009 data and the…

  15. Comparing Management Models of Secondary Schools in Tamaulipas, Mexico: An Exploration with a Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Leal, Marco Aurelio; Garcia, Concepcion Nino; Saldivar, Luisa Caballero

    2012-01-01

    For a preliminary exploration of management models between two secondary schools, a Delphi method was used in order to identify and focus relevant topics for a larger research. A first approximation with this method proved to be a heuristic tool to focus and define some categories and guidelines of enquiry. It was found that in both of the schools…

  16. Comparative assessment of pest management practices in potato production at farmer field schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer field schools (FFS) and other participatory approaches are useful methods for rapid delivery of agricultural technologies in resource-constrained agro-ecosystems. Cultivar selection, weekly fungicide applications and integrated disease management (IDM) based on a disease monitoring strategy w...

  17. Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federkeil Gero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based Learning (PBL has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Methods Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke and conventional curricula. Results Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p Conclusion Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  18. Learning about Our Community: From the Underground Railroad to School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Bonnie; Montequin, Leah; Hicks, Jason

    2000-01-01

    Forms part of a themed issue describing "Parent-Kid-Teacher Investigators," a program in which parents, children, and teachers gather regularly to use language and literacy for action research projects. Offers a portrait of the weekly meetings. Summarizes what three particular groups learned about their topics: the underground railroad;…

  19. 77 FR 25024 - Certification of Compliance With Meal Requirements for the National School Lunch Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... family income is above 185 percent of the Federal poverty guidelines. The lower cash assistance level... income at or below 130 percent of the Federal poverty level are eligible for free meals, while those from... considering that the provision reinforces the concept that the performance reimbursement is only applied to...

  20. 3 CFR 8436 - Proclamation 8436 of October 9, 2009. National School Lunch Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... week. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth.BARACK OBAMA ...

  1. 78 FR 12221 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... that the rule does a good job implementing statutory requirements and provides a sensible approach to... some States, under pressure to meet the benchmarks, may purposely relax their matching criteria in... a State uses district- or local-level matching, it might choose to use this same method for its non...

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PARENTS` ATTUTUTES FROM NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THEIR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A research has been done in pre-school institutions of Montenegro and Serb Republic whose aim was to get directions for improvement of physical education in pre-school institutions as well as for taking measures in order to educate parents of the children attending those institutions in the sense of improving knowledge on importance of physical activity for growth and development of pre-school children through monitoring and insight into attitudes of parents on physical activity of their children. Problem of this research is consisted of an attempt to use the parents` attitudes to estimate how active their children are within the time period when there are not on the pre-school institutions. Methods: The research was done by the poll method of anonymous questionnaire, with was filled by parents of the children attending pre-school institutions in Montenegro and Serb Republic. Sample of the examinees from Montenegro was made of 1356 of parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions from all three Montenegrin regions. Sample of the examinees from the Serb Republic was made of 386 parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions. Aim of the research was consisted of estimation of the parents` attitudes on volume and features of the physical activity of their children and of attempt to use the given data to take certain measures on the base of which their physical activities would be optimized. For this poll, a specially structured questionnaire for this purpose was used, in which the questions were set into groups with the aim of estimating features of physical activity of the pre-school children. Results: For the statistics processing methods of descriptive statistics were used, which were used for numerical and percent presentation of frequency of some answers of the examinees, and the answers were presented comparatively in tables for both samples. Results of this research indicate to trend

  3. How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton-Aiken Amy E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article investigated (1 parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI, sex, and race, and (2 the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses. Methods Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys. Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35 and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10 and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days or "not usually" ( Results Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast and inversely for lunch. Conclusions Parental response accuracy of children's school-meal participation was moderately high; however, disparate effects for children's age and race warrant caution when relying on parental responses. The BMI results, which showed a relationship between school-meal participation (based on parental responses and childhood obesity, conflict with results from a recent article that used data from the same four studies and found no significant

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Competency Frameworks for Youth Workers in the Out-of-School Time Field

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, Femi

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that the quality of out-of-school time (OST) programs is related to positive youth outcomes and skilled staff are a critical component of high quality programming. This descriptive case study of competency frameworks for youth workers in the OST field demonstrates how experts and practitioners characterize a skilled youth worker. A comparative analysis of 11 competency frameworks is conducted to identify a set of common core competencies. A set of 12 competency areas that ar...

  5. School-level factors associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption among students in California middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. This cross-sectional study included 5439 seventh- and ninth-grade students from 31 schools in California in 2010. Multilevel regression models estimated whether the odds of consuming fruits or vegetables at school among students eating the school lunch were associated with the length of the lunch period, quality/variety of produce options, or other factors. A longer lunch period was associated with increased odds of a student eating fruits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40) and vegetables (OR = 1.54) at school. Better fruit quality increased the odds of a student consuming fruit (OR = 1.44). Including a salad bar and involving students in food service decisions increased a student's odds of consuming vegetables (OR = 1.48 and OR = 1.34, respectively). This study suggests that institutional factors in schools are positively associated with middle and high school students' consumption of produce items at school. Additional efforts to structure school meal environments to enhance students' consumption of produce items can benefit students' nutrition and health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  6. Problems Faced by Beginning Teachers in Private Elementary Schools: A Comparative Study between Spain and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Yolanda Cantú Tijerina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the problems faced by beginning teachers in private elementary schools in the Spanish city of Madrid and in the Mexican city of Monterrey, questionnaires were applied to private school teachers just starting out in both cities. The results indicate that in both contexts, as beginners, teachers face problems of an academic, organizational, social, and material and technological nature. However, it stresses the fact that Mexican teachers perceive more problems in all the categories than do their Spanish colleagues. Similarity in the results was found in the category of social problems, which was the one mentioned least by the teachers in both cities. This suggests that the cultural nature of these two countries may be a factor to be considered in connection with fostering beginning teachers’ adaptation process.

  7. Towards a Comparative and International History of School Testing and Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Sherman; Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    treated here are identified as a post- colonial perspective, differences and similarities between public and private sector accountability measures, the “engines” promoting the rise, proliferation and implementation of accountability measures, and finally the exploration of the travelling and movement......Abstract: The speed and extent of modern school accountability have obscured the history of testing and accountability. This brief introduction identifies central themes of historical research into educational accountability and recurring traits associated with accountability practices. We hope our...... colleagues and this special issue will also help to identify future research paths in this field. Some of the central themes found in the historical research on educational accountability contained in this special issue are the connections between accountability and the purposes of schooling in a specific...

  8. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian

    2013-02-07

    The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students' lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students' self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1-2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3-4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1-2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3-4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near

  9. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seliske Laura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971 who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11, 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82 and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09 were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95, 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13 and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02. Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346. Conclusions There

  10. The relationship between breakfast, lunch and dinner eating pattern and hemodialysis sessions, quality of life, depression and appetite in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between eating pattern (regular breakfast, lunch and dinner) and dialysis sessions, laboratory and sociodemographic characteristics in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study eating patterns, sociodemographic, laboratory and clinical parameters, depressive symptoms, quality of life, cognitive function and appetite status were assessed. Eighty-two HD patients on morning session and 60 patients on midday HD session schedules were included. Ten patients had only breakfast, 17 patients had only lunch, 26 patients had only dinner, 5 patients had breakfast and lunch but not dinner, 28 patients had breakfast and dinner but not lunch, 29 patients had lunch and dinner but not breakfast, and 19 patients had neither breakfast, nor lunch, nor dinner. In the whole group, only 8 patients reported that they had regularly eaten breakfast, lunch or dinner in all days of the week. Midday HD session, better appetite, and higher income were independently associated with having breakfast. Morning HD session, better appetite score, and higher income were independently associated with having lunch. Morning session versus midday session, nPNA, presence of hypertension, and the Mental Component Summary Score of SF-36 were independently associated with having dinner. The majority of HD patients eat one or two meals per day. Having breakfast (or lunch) is associated with midday dialysis session (or morning dialysis session, respectively), better appetite, and satisfactory income. Eating dinner was associated with morning dialysis session, hypertension, higher protein intake and higher SF-36 mental component summary score.

  11. Comparing Solution Approaches for a Complete Model of High School Timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Matias; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    of these formulations are NP-hard. A heuristic based on Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search is also applied. Using 100 real-life datasets, comprehensive computational results are provided which show that the ALNS heuristic outperforms the IP approaches. The ALNS heuristic has been incorporated in Lectio......, and is currently available to almost 200 dierent high schools in Denmark. Furthermore, a conversion of the datasets into the XHSTT format is described, and some datasets are made publicly available....

  12. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  13. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  14. A Comparative Study of the Use of Collocation in Iranian High School Textbooks and American English File Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahrokhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent to which lexical and grammatical collocations are used in Iranian high school English textbooks, compared with the American English File books. To achieve the purposes of this study, this study had to be carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the content of the instructional textbooks, that is, American English File book series, Book 2 and Iranian high school English Book 3, were analyzed to find the frequencies and proportions of the collocations used in the textbooks. Since the instructional textbooks used in the two teaching environments (i.e., Iranian high schools and language institutes were not equal with regard to the density of texts, from each textbook just the first 6000 words, content words as well as function words, were considered. Then, the frequencies of the collocations among the first 6000 words in high school English Book 3 and American English File Book 2 were determined.The results of the statistical analyses revealed that the two text book series differ marginally in terms of frequency and type of collocations. Major difference existed between them when it came to lexical collocations in American English File book 2.

  15. Comparing Self-Regulatory and Early Academic Skills as Predictors of Later Math, Reading, and Science Elementary School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, William M., III

    The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.

  16. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronvold Nina T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies.

  17. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldstadli, Kari; Tyssen, Reidar; Finset, Arnstein; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Gronvold, Nina T; Ekeberg, Oivind; Vaglum, Per

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies. PMID:16984638

  18. Towards Comparative Educational Administration: Building the Case for a Cross-Cultural School-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    1998-01-01

    Advocates a stronger comparative emphasis in the study of educational administration and management while acknowledging comparative educational administration's weak knowledge base. Clarifies the potential import of a comparative, cross-cultural perspective embracing five societal/cultural dimensions: individualism versus collectivism, power…

  19. [Comparative analysis of the efficacy of a playful-narrative program to teach mathematics at pre-school level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Llario, M D; Vicent Catalá, Consuelo

    2009-02-01

    Comparative analysis of the efficacy of a playful-narrative program to teach mathematics at pre-school level. In this paper, the effectiveness of a programme comprising several components that are meant to consolidate mathematical concepts and abilities at the pre-school level is analyzed. The instructional methodology of this programme is compared to other methodologies. One-hundred 5-6 year-old children made up the sample that was distributed in the following conditions: (1) traditional methodology; (2) methodology with perceptual and manipulative components, and (3) methodology with language and playful components. Mathematical competence was assessed with the Mathematical Criterial Pre-school Test and the subtest of quantitative-numeric concepts of BADyG. Participants were evaluated before and after the academic course during which they followed one of these methodologies. The results show that the programme with language and playful components is more effective than the traditional methodology (p<.000) and also more effective than the perceptual and manipulative methodology (p<.000). Implications of the results for instructional practices are analyzed.

  20. Morbidity at elementary school entry differs by sex and level of residence urbanization: a comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Kuan-Chia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health is vital to a child's learning in school and success in life. Therefore, early physical examination, and follow-up if necessary, would bring parents' attention to their child's health and would likely improve outcomes. The purposes of this study are twofold: to assess the health status of first-graders and to examine the health status differences between sexes, levels of residence urbanization, and quantity of available medical resources. Methods This is a comparative descriptive study. Data from the 2002 Student Entry Physical Examination (SEPE and Student Medical History Inventory (SMHI were obtained from 203 public and private elementary schools in northern Taiwan where a population of 53,053 students was included. Frequencies, independent sample t test, one-way ANOVA along with Scheff's post hoc test, and Pearson's correlation were conducted using SPSS. Results This study showed that 13.7% of students had at least one diagnosed disease from the SMHI reported by parents. Moreover, the SEPE indicated that 79.5% students had at least one health concern. Dental caries, myopia, and obesity were the most prevalent health problems among the first-graders (69.6%, 27.1%, and 9.5%, respectively. Research results show that there were significant differences in the prevalence of dental caries, myopia, and obesity between different sexes and among levels of urbanization. However, the quantity of available medical resources made no significant difference. Conclusion Elementary school entry physical examination is an important way to detect students' health problems. It is suggested that school health interventions consider students' health profiles along with their sex and level of urbanization in planning. More research is needed to find the risk factors of the health problems. Additionally, the creation of a school health committee is suggested to implement and evaluate the entry health examination program.

  1. Comparing millennial and generation X medical students at one medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J; Manuel, R Stephen; Elam, Carol L; Jones, Bonnie J

    2006-06-01

    Two main generational cohorts comprising students enrolled in medical schools today are Generation Xers (born 1965-1980) and Millennial students (born 1981-1999). A subset is Cuspars (born 1975-1980), who share traits with both generations. Population theorists ascribe different personal characteristics, attitudes, and preferences to each group. The authors examined whether selected characteristics describing Generation X and Millennial students were quantifiable using a personality measure. Differences among Generation X, Millennial, and Cuspar medical students were investigated. Eight hundred and nine medical students (399 females and 410 males) who matriculated between 1989-94 and 2001-04 at the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine completed the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Differences in responses to the 16PF among the three generations were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Analyses showed significant differences for Generation X versus Millennial students on 10 of the 16 personality factors. Millennial students scored significantly higher than Generation X students on factors including Rule-Consciousness, Emotional Stability, and Perfectionism; Generation X students scored higher than Millennials on Self-Reliance. Millennials also were significantly different from Generation Xers on several other factors. Significant differences were noted among Cuspars, Generation Xers, and Millennials. The 16PF is a useful tool to examine differences among these groups and to help understand the factors that constitute their personalities. Given differences among the generational groups, the authors forecast possible educational implications for medical school academic affairs and student services, and suggest areas for future research.

  2. Gender stereotypes and education: A comparative content analysis of Malaysian, Indonesian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi school textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kazi Md Mukitul; Asadullah, M Niaz

    2018-01-01

    Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education. In total, 21 categories of exclusion and quality of representation were used to study gender stereotypes. Our analysis confirms a pro-male bias in textbooks: the aggregate female share is 40.4% in textual and pictorial indicators combined. Female occupations are mostly traditional and less prestigious while the characters are predominantly introverted and passive in terms of personality traits. Women are also shown to be mostly involved in domestic and in-door activities while men have a higher presence in professional roles. Systematic underrepresentation of females is evident regardless of whether we look at the text or pictures. A cross-country analysis shows that the female share in picture content is only 35.2% in Malaysia and Bangladesh. Overall, the proportion of female to male characters (text and pictures combined) is balanced in Malaysia and Indonesia (44.4% and 44.1% respectively) while this share is only 24.4% and 37.3% in Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks respectively. The finding of underrepresentation of women in Pakistani textbooks, in terms of quality and quantity, is robust to the selection of province-, grade- and subject-specific textbooks, as well as the range and type of categories used.

  3. Gender stereotypes and education: A comparative content analysis of Malaysian, Indonesian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi school textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kazi Md. Mukitul

    2018-01-01

    Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education. In total, 21 categories of exclusion and quality of representation were used to study gender stereotypes. Our analysis confirms a pro-male bias in textbooks: the aggregate female share is 40.4% in textual and pictorial indicators combined. Female occupations are mostly traditional and less prestigious while the characters are predominantly introverted and passive in terms of personality traits. Women are also shown to be mostly involved in domestic and in-door activities while men have a higher presence in professional roles. Systematic underrepresentation of females is evident regardless of whether we look at the text or pictures. A cross-country analysis shows that the female share in picture content is only 35.2% in Malaysia and Bangladesh. Overall, the proportion of female to male characters (text and pictures combined) is balanced in Malaysia and Indonesia (44.4% and 44.1% respectively) while this share is only 24.4% and 37.3% in Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks respectively. The finding of underrepresentation of women in Pakistani textbooks, in terms of quality and quantity, is robust to the selection of province-, grade- and subject-specific textbooks, as well as the range and type of categories used. PMID:29351305

  4. Comparing student and staff perceptions of the "Educational Climate" in Spanish Dental Schools using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, I; Aneiros, A; Casares-de-Cal, M A; Quintas, V; Prada-López, I; Balsa-Castro, C; Ceballos, L; Gómez-Moreno, G; Llena, C; López-Jornet, P; Machuca, M C; Palés, J

    2018-02-01

    To compare the perceptions of students and teachers of the "Educational Climate" (EC) in Spanish public dental schools. A group of 1064 students and 354 teachers from six Spanish public dental schools responded to the DREEM questionnaire. This has 50 items grouped into five subscales: perception of learning (Learning); perception of teachers (Teachers); academic self-perceptions (Academic); perception of the atmosphere in the faculty (Atmosphere); and social self-perceptions (Social). The DREEM scale provides results for each item, each subscale and the overall EC. The EC scores were 123.2 (61.6%) for the students and 134.1 (67.0%) for the teachers (Peducational aspects. Both groups agreed on the need to: improve support systems for students who suffer from stress and reduce teaching based on "factual learning." © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparative Study of Features of Social Intelligence and Speech Behavior of Children of Primary School Age with Impaired Mental Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of social intelligence and its characteristics in children of primary school age with impaired mental functions. The concept and main features, including speech, are discussed, delays of mental development, the importance of detained development for social intelligence and speech behavior are also considered. Also, the concept of speech behavior is analyzed, the author defines the phenomenon, describes its specific features, which are distinguish its structure, and consist of six components: verbal, emotional, motivational, ethical (moral, prognostic, semantic (cognitive. Particular attention is paid to the position of social intelligence in the structure of speech behavior of children of primary school age with a impaired mental functions. Indicators of social intelligence were analyzed from the point of view of speech behavior of children with different rates of mental development and compared with its components at a qualitative level. The study used both author's and well-known techniques.

  6. Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010: An Opportunity for School Nurses to Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jessica L.; Galon, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 will provide an opportunity for school nurses to intervene in the serious childhood obesity problem in the United States. Major changes in the management of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) will likely challenge schools yet may provide the impetus for a collaborative effort by the…

  7. Beneficial effect of high energy intake at lunch rather than dinner on weight loss in healthy obese women in a weight-loss program: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-10-01

    The association between the time of nutrient intake and health has been described in a few studies. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the relation between high energy intakes at lunch compared with at dinner on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. We compared the effect of high energy intake at lunch with that at dinner on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in women during a weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 80; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 27-35; age: 18-45 y] were asked to eat either a main meal at lunch (LM) or a main meal at dinner (DM) for 12 wk while in a weight-loss program. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to one of 2 intervention groups. Sixty-nine subjects (86%) completed the trial (34 subjects in the DM group, and 35 subjects in the LM group). Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups. A significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 12 wk in both groups. Compared with the DM group, the LM group had greater mean ± SD reductions in weight (LM: -5.85 ± 1.96 kg; DM: -4.35 ± 1.98 kg; P = 0.003), BMI (LM: 2.27± 0.76; DM: 1.68 ± 0.76; P = 0.003), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (LM: -0.66 ± 0.33; DM: -0.46 ± 0.24; P = 0.001), and fasting insulin (LM: -2.01 ± 1.10 mIU/mL; DM: -1.16 ± 0.72 mIU/mL; P dinner may result in favorable changes in weight loss in overweight and obese women after a weight-loss program of 12 wk. The consumption may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02399280. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlett, Christopher L; Doll, Hinnerk; Dahmen, Janosch; Polacsek, Ole; Federkeil, Gero; Fischer, Martin R; Bamberg, Fabian; Butzlaff, Martin

    2010-01-14

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke) and conventional curricula. Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female) and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female) were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p learning/working" (Delta + 0.57), "Psycho-social competence" (Delta + 0.56), "Teamwork" (Delta + 0.39) and "Problem-solving skills" (Delta + 0.36), whereas "Research competence" (Delta--1.23) and "Business competence" (Delta--1.44) in the PBL-based curriculum needed improvement. Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  9. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul; Björck, Inger M E

    2005-07-01

    Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under the curve (AUC)] after whey ingestion. Postprandial GIP responses were higher after whey ingestion, whereas no differences were found in GLP-1 between the reference and test meals. It can be concluded that the addition of whey to meals with rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates stimulates insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  10. The Prevalence of Mathematical Anxiety in a Business School: A Comparative Study across Subject Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Howard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical anxiety is a phenomenon linked to poor attainment in mathematics and restricted development of mathematical skills among those who are afflicted by it. Unfortunately most undergraduate courses in business related areas require the further study of mathematics to enable effective business decision making and students who suffer from mathematical anxiety are placed at risk of underperformance or failure in such quantitative modules. This paper summarizes the results of a survey (n = 330 of students joining a university business school with a view to ascertaining the degree of mathematical anxiety exhibited by incoming students. Results of the survey show no significant differences in anxiety attributable to age or gender but significant differences attributable to level of study and subject area. Implications of the findings for a redesigned teaching approach are discussed drawing on suggestions from the literature surrounding mathematical anxiety.

  11. Comparative analysis of idiom selection and sequencing 5 in Estonian basic school EFL coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Anita Forssten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the selection and sequencing of the idioms encountered in two locally-produced and international coursebook series currently employed in Estonian basic schools. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive correlation between idioms’ difficulty and coursebooks’ language proficiency level. The hypothesis is tested through a statistical analysis of the idioms found which are categorized in terms of their analysability into three categories where category 1 includes analysable semi-literal idioms, category 2 comprises analysable semi-transparent idioms, and category 3 encompasses non-analysable opaque idioms, and then analysed through an online language corpus (British National Corpus. The results of the study reveal that the coursebook authors under discussion have disregarded idioms’ frequency as a criterion for selection or sequencing, whereas the factor utilized to some extent is the degree of analysability.

  12. Comparative study of anthropometric values between brazilian and portuguese school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sobral

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a comparison of anthropometric values (weight, height and percentage of fat from Brazilian school children with those from Portuguese school children of similar socioeconomic status. 1,010 children of both sexes were enrolled on this study. Measurements were made of weight, height and skinfold (triceps and subescapular. The equation proposed by Slaughter et al. (1988 was applied. The minimum level of signifi cance was set at p RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo fazer uma comparação nos valores antropométricos (peso, estatura e percentual de gordura, entre escolares brasileiros e portugueses de nível sócio-econômico semelhantes. Foram avaliados 1010 colegiais dos 7 aos 16 anos de ambos os sexos. Foram realizadas medidas de peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas das regiões triciptal e subescapular. Foi utilizada a equação proposta por Slaughter et al. (1988. O nível de significância mínimo estabelecido foi de p< 0.05. Foi possível verificar que não ocorreram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas variáveis peso e percentual de gordura. Já na estatura ocorreram diferenças estatisticamente significativas ora a favor dos sujeitos brasileiros, ora a favor dos sujeitos portugueses. Quando realizada a comparação entre o sexo masculino com o feminino, no percentual de gordura, foi possível verificar diferenças estatisticamente significativas a favor do sexo feminino.

  13. Job requirements compared to dental school education: impact of a case-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeve, Philip L; Gerhards, Ute; Arnold, Wolfgang A; Zimmer, Stefan; Zöllner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve dental education. The purpose of this study was to assess graduates from a patient-oriented, case-based learning (CBL)-based curriculum as regards to key competencies required at their professional activity. 407 graduates from a patient-oriented, case-based learning (CBL) dental curriculum who graduated between 1990 and 2006 were eligible for this study. 404 graduates were contacted between 2007 and 2008 to self-assess nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in dental school on a 6-point Likert scale. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables. To determine whether dental education sufficiently covers the job requirements of physicians, we calculated the mean difference ∆ between the ratings of competencies as required in day-to-day work and as taught in medical school by subtracting those from each other (negative mean difference ∆ indicates deficit; positive mean difference ∆ indicates surplus). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to reveal statistical significance (statistical significance plearning/working" (∆+0.08), whereas "Problem-solving skills" (∆-0.07), "Psycho-social competence" (∆-0.66) and "Business competence" (∆-2.86) needed improvement in the CBL-based curriculum. CBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of dentists. Psycho-social and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  14. Sustainable Reduction of Sleepiness through Salutogenic Self-Care Procedure in Lunch Breaks: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schnieder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to elucidate the immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory sleepiness reducing effects of a salutogenic self-care procedure called progressive muscle relaxation (PMR, during lunch breaks. The second exploratory aim deals with determining the onset and long-term time course of sleepiness changes. In order to evaluate the intraday range and interday change of the proposed relaxation effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either a daily 20-minute self-administered PMR or a small talk (ST group during a period of seven months. Participants’ levels of sleepiness were analyzed in a controlled trial using anticipatory, postlunchtime, and afternoon changes of sleepiness as indicated by continuously determined objective reaction time measures (16,464 measurements and self-reports administered five times per day, once per month (490 measurements. Results indicate that, in comparison to ST, the PMR break (a induces immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory reductions in sleepiness; (b these significant effects remarkably show up after one month, and sleepiness continues to decrease for at least another five months. Although further research is required referring to the specific responsible mediating variables, our results suggest that relaxation based lunch breaks are both accepted by employees and provide a sustainable impact on sleepiness.

  15. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING SCHOOL NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    V.R. Kuchma; Zh.Yu. Gorelova

    2008-01-01

    The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age ph...

  16. The Healthy Primary School of the Future: study protocol of a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeboordse, M; Jansen, M W; van den Heijkant, S N; Simons, A; Winkens, B; de Groot, R H M; Bartelink, N; Kremers, S P; van Assema, P; Savelberg, H H; de Neubourg, E; Borghans, L; Schils, T; Coppens, K M; Dietvorst, R; Ten Hoopen, R; Coomans, F; Klosse, S; Conjaerts, M H J; Oosterhoff, M; Joore, M A; Ferreira, I; Muris, P; Bosma, H; Toppenberg, H L; van Schayck, C P

    2016-07-26

    Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children's body mass index (BMI). In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200) in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200) in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named 'The Healthy Primary School of the Future', is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called 'The Physical Activity School', is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted nature and sound scientific foundation, these integrated programmes

  17. Charter Schools and Student Compositions of Traditional Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevbahar Ertas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most contentious urban education policy issues in the United States today is the expansion of charter schools and its repercussions. Does the expansion of charter schools affect the racial and socioeconomic composition of traditional public schools in the United States? This study provides empirical evidence on this question by relying on a panel design that uses school-level data from two states that have experimented with charter schools for more than 15 years: Ohio and Texas. Using county-level, spatial, and enrollment-based measures of charter exposure, the changes from pre- to post-charter-legislation stages in the student compositions of public schools that do and do not face competition from charters are examined. The results suggest that charter school presence contributes to aggregate-level changes in the share of non-Hispanic White and free-lunch-eligible students in traditional public schools in both states in different ways.

  18. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (Pschool year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (Pperformance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials.

  19. Assessment of Color Vision Among School Children: A Comparative Study Between The Ishihara Test and The Farnsworth D-15 Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kishor Shrestha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Color vision is one of the important attribute of visual perception. The study was conducted at different schools of Kathmandu to compare the  ndings of the Ishihara Pseudoisochromatic test and the Farnsworth D-15 test.  Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2120 students of four schools of Kathmandu. Assessment included visual acuity measurement, slit lamp examination of anterior segment and fundus examination with direct ophthalmoscopy. Each student was assessed with the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic test and the Farnsworth D-15 test. The Chi-square test was performed to analyse color vision defect detected by the Ishihara test and the Farnsworth D-15 test. Results: A total of 2120 students comprising of 1114 males (52.5% and 1006 females (47.5% were recruited in the study with mean age of 12.2 years (SD 2.3 years. The prevalence of color vision defect as indicated by the Ishihara was 2.6 and as indicated by the D-15 test was 2.15 in males.  Conclusion: For school color vision screening, the Ishihara color test and the Farnsworth D-15 test have equal capacity to detect congenital color vision defect and they complement each other.  Keywords: color vision; children; defect; Farnsworth D-15; Ishihara.

  20. A comparative analysis of Science-Technology-Society standards in elementary, middle and high school state science curriculum frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Karen Marie

    An analysis of curriculum frameworks from the fifty states to ascertain the compliance with the National Science Education Standards for integrating Science-Technology-Society (STS) themes is reported within this dissertation. Science standards for all fifty states were analyzed to determine if the STS criteria were integrated at the elementary, middle, and high school levels of education. The analysis determined the compliance level for each state, then compared each educational level to see if the compliance was similar across the levels. Compliance is important because research shows that using STS themes in the science classroom increases the student's understanding of the concepts, increases the student's problem solving skills, increases the student's self-efficacy with respect to science, and students instructed using STS themes score well on science high stakes tests. The two hypotheses for this study are: (1) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school levels. (2) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school level when examined individually. The Analysis of Variance F ratio was used to determine the variance between and within the three educational levels. This analysis addressed hypothesis one. The Analysis of Variance results refused to reject the null hypothesis, meaning there is significant difference in the compliance to STS themes between the elementary, middle and high school educational levels. The Chi-Square test was the statistical analysis used to compare the educational levels for each individual criterion. This analysis addressed hypothesis two. The Chi-Squared results showed that none of the states were equally compliant with each

  1. Public secondary school teachers' attitude to family life education in two geopolitical zones of Nigeria: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusanya, B O; Isabu, P A

    2010-03-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to assess and compare the attitude of teachers in two geopolitical zones of Nigeria to family life education. Multi stage sample selection was used to pick 6 public secondary schools (3 junior, 3 senior) in each zone. All teachers (221) in the selected schools were surveyed. Pre-tested questionnaires were self administered, responses analyzed and results presented using descriptive frequencies. Where appropriate statistical evaluation was done with Yates corrected Chi square at 95% confidence interval. Katsina respondents were mostly Muslims (92.4%), married (64.8%) and had the National Certificate of Education (62.9%). Ekpoma teachers were mostly Christians (97.4%), married (93.1%) and 67.2% had a University degree. Attendance at a seminar on family life education was by 19% and 25.9% of respondents from Katsina and Ekpoma respectively. Teachers' knowledge of family life education was very good and most teachers in both regions considered it useful but there were geographical disparities in perception and attitude. While teachers in Katsina discussed HIV/AIDS twice more with their students than sexuality (54.3% vs 28%) those in Ekpoma discussed sexuality more than HIV/AIDS (80.2% vs 72.4%). Respondents in Katsina reported three times (60% vs 19.8%) more that parents would object to FLE in schools than those in Ekpoma and also that its introduction would encourage promiscuity amongst the students (53.3% vs 21.6%). While being married positively influenced respondents' perception, their attitude was influenced positively by having university degree and teaching at the senior secondary school. Christians significantly discussed sexuality (Chi square 58.60; RR: 3.03) and HIV/AIDS (Chi square 15.01; RR: 1.50) with students than Muslims. Policy makers need to be aware of the regional differences in teachers' attitude to family life education as this may hinder the implementation of curriculum.

  2. A Comparative Study of the Influence of Head Teachers Management Styles on Pupils Performance in KCPE in Public and Private Primary Schools in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibo, Margaret Nekesa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of management styles of head teacher's on pupils' performance in private and public primary schools in Nakuru municipality at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education level. The population comprised of teachers and head teachers in public primary schools. The study adopted the ex post facto…

  3. Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…

  4. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  5. The Healthy Primary School of the Future: study protocol of a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Willeboordse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children’s body mass index (BMI. In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. Methods In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200 in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200 in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named ‘The Healthy Primary School of the Future’, is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called ‘The Physical Activity School’, is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. Discussion A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted

  6. Measures of School Integration: Comparing Coleman's Index to Measures of Species Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercil, Steven Bray; Williams, John Delane

    This study used species diversity indices developed in ecology as a measure of socioethnic diversity, and compared them to Coleman's Index of Segregation. The twelve indices were Simpson's Concentration Index ("ell"), Simpson's Index of Diversity, Hurlbert's Probability of Interspecific Encounter (PIE), Simpson's Probability of…

  7. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2014-01-01

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during...

  8. As Food Prices Rise, Setting Menus Is Cause of Heartburn for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    With food and fuel prices increasing sharply, food and nutrition directors in school districts around the country are finding themselves facing some uncomfortable choices. In some districts, school lunch menus are being pared down to fewer selections, instead of the array of healthy options districts would like to offer. In other areas, canned and…

  9. Comparative characteristics of the development of psychomotor sphere deaf primary school children and their peers with hearing preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Іvahnenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify indicators of development of psychomotor function deaf children aged 7-10 years and find out the characteristic features of their manifestation. Material : the study involved 242 children aged 7-10 years, 128 of them deaf. Results : psychomotor development indicators defined functions deaf children aged 7-10 years. A comparative analysis with indicators of their peers with hearing preservation. Lagging indicators revealed psychomotor function deaf children ( ability to regulate spatio-temporal parameters and dynamic movements, orientation in space, coordination movements, the ability to preserve static and dynamic balance, motor memory, a sense of rhythm, the ability to arbitrarily relax muscles, hands and coordination micromovements fingers capable of simultaneously performing movements coordination ballistic movements averaging 14.6 % to 60.6 %. Conclusions : It was found that deaf children of primary school age the development of psychomotor function occurs more slowly compared with hearing children their age.

  10. A Comparative Study of Primary School Teachers’ Views about Dyslexia in the UK and Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kostopoulou, Rodopi

    2013-01-01

    The present study is a comparative research on primary teachers’ understanding of dyslexia in the UK and Greece. More specifically, aim of the research was to investigate primary teachers’ knowledge about dyslexia, their attitudes towards students with dyslexia, the procedures they follow for the identification of dyslexic students and the way teachers respond to their learning and emotional needs, in both countries. The sample consisted of six primary teachers (three English and three Greek)...

  11. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers.

  12. Using a smaller dining plate does not suppress food intake from a buffet lunch meal in overweight, unrestrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wilson; Wiessing, Katy R; Budgett, Stephanie; Poppitt, Sally D

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether plate size affects ad libitum energy intake (EI) at a buffet-style lunch in overweight, yet unrestrained women. Twenty overweight/obese (BMI=25-40 kg/m(2)) women attended two study visits, and were randomly assigned to small (19.5 cm) or large (26.5 cm) diameter plate size at a free choice lunch meal. At 9 am participants were given a small (0.5 MJ) breakfast, followed at 12 noon by the lunch meal from which they ate ad lib until comfortably full. Mean (SEM) EI at lunch was 3975 (239)kJ and 3901 (249) kJ respectively for small and large plate size. There was no detectable difference in EI between the two plate sizes (P>0.05). When in a raised state of hunger and offered a palatable buffet meal, altering the diameter of the dining plate onto which food was self-served did not significantly alter ad lib EI. We conclude there was no evidence that a smaller plate suppressed EI in a group of unrestrained, overweight women encouraged to eat to appetite from a wide choice of items. Whether plate size is a useful cue for portion size, and hence control of EI, in individuals actively restricting intake however remains possible, and requires investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children? A cluster-randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, R P; Lauritzen, L; Ritz, C; Dyssegaard, C B; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F; Damsgaard, C T

    2015-05-01

    A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified. The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales. The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent-reported occurrence or duration of asthma and allergies or self-reported well-being. The most common symptoms of illness were stomach pain (24%), headache (28%) and cold (24%). A slightly higher number of children experienced headaches in the school meal (27%) compared with the control period (22%) (P=0.02). However, subgroup analyses showed that this effect was only seen in children eating school meals in the classroom (P=0.007), and not in common dining areas (P=0.2). No effect was found on other symptoms of illness. Provision of nutritionally balanced school meals did not affect school attendance, asthma, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.

  14. A comparative review of the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes in hospitals, schools and homes in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; Tornberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the UK, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has designated a number of Affected Areas where 1% or more of the homes are above the Action Level of 200 Bqm -3 , including Northamptonshire, with 6.3% of houses above the Action Level. Since 1993, a radon remediation programme in National Health Service properties in Northamptonshire has been undertaken (1). Radon levels both before and after remediation were studied, together with the number of occupants of affected rooms, and their pattern of occupation. The total costs were recorded, including the initial survey to find the affected rooms, and the work done to reduce radon levels, to estimate the total cost per annual dose saved. This method has been extended to domestic properties (2), and schools (3) in Northamptonshire. The results showed that the programmes could be justified when compared to the NRPB initiative to reduce patient dose from dental X-Rays. This paper reviews this work, and provides an updated comparison of the three studies. The domestic series now extends to 65 remediated homes with 156 occupants, and the analysis of the programme now includes the cost of UK Value Added Tax (VAT) at 17.5%, which is payable by the householder on the remediation work. Further, a local survey concluded that the public in county town of Northampton spent on average 72% of their time in their own home, rather than the 50% assumed previously. The remediation costs in all series were reviewed, and individual corrections made for inflation. While the NHS properties and Schools programmes were comprehensive, only 10% householders who discovered raised radon levels have so far proceeded to remediation, despite much local publicity. The collective dose saved annually in Northamptonshire was estimated to be 0.533 man-sieverts in NHS Properties, 4.0 man-sieverts in Schools, and has reached 18 man-sieverts in domestic properties. The domestic programme has the potential to save 690 man-sieverts if all houses

  15. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  16. Barriers and Advantages to Student Participation in the School Breakfast Program Based on the Social Ecological Model: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Neyman, Stephanie M.; Warren, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in school meals is a preventive measure against childhood hunger. Participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) continues to lag behind that of the National School Lunch Program. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the barriers and advantages to student participation in the SBP. Using the adaptable…

  17. The struggle for Sunday lunch: gastropolitics in the life of Nelson Mandela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapido, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the political, economic, and social life of Nelson Mandela through his food choices from 1918 to the present. A description of the minutiae of one particular 1950s Sunday lunch is used to examine the broader role of first colonial and later apartheid legislation in determining the dietary choices and options of South Africans past and present. How such policies shaped attitudes and access to Nelson Mandela’s ancestral Xhosa cuisine is assessed. The long-term cultural, economic, and political impact of a lack of access to core indigenous African ingredients is evaluated. Most of all this paper offers a snapshot portrayal of two families (one white, one black) trying to sustain a normal friendship within a grossly abnormal society.

  18. "All in the Day's Work": Cold War Doctoring and Its Discontents in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self. Through policing the health of citizens, the doctors are some of the novel's most overt "Senders," or agents of capital-C Control, commodifying and exploiting the individual's humanity (mind and body) as a raw material in the generation of a knowledge that functions only in the legitimation and reinforcement of itself as authoritative.

  19. Lunch energy density and the metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegotto, Giovana; Moraes Silva, Flávia; de Azevedo, Mirela Jobim; de Almeida, Jussara Carnevale

    2013-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between dietary energy density (ED) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present case-control study, the dietary ED of 125 patients with type 2 diabetes (seventy-eight with (cases) the MetS and forty-seven without (controls) the MetS; mean age 62·0 (SD 9·4) years, mean diabetes duration 12·5 (SD 8·4) years and mean glycated Hb 7·2 (SD 1·3) %) was assessed by weighed diet records. The MetS was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement and ED by the amount of energy (kJ) in a given weight of food. Data are expressed as means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile ranges). Patients with the MetS reported lower intakes of total energy and fibre, and a higher total food amount than the controls; the total ED did not differ, but the cases had a higher ED at lunch (mean 6·3 (SD 1·3) v. 5·9 (SD 0·8) kJ/g; P= 0·017). In this meal, patients with the MetS had lower intakes of beans (median 0·7 (interquartile range 0·4-1·1) v. 1·1 (interquartile range 0·6-1·6) g/kg; P= 0·020), vegetables (median 1·2 (interquartile range 0·6-1·7) v. 1·4 (interquartile range 1·0-2·0) g/kg; P= 0·046) and total meat (median 1·3 (interquartile range 1·0-1·6) v. 1·4 (interquartile range 1·2-1·8) g/kg; P= 0·034) than patients without the MetS. The associations between lunch ED (kJ/g) and food groups (g/kg) were confirmed for vegetables (r - 0·584; P< 0·001), fruits (r - 0·233; P= 0·070), beans (r - 0·189; P= 0·037) and oils (r 0·323; P< 0·001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, a high lunch ED was associated with the MetS (OR 6·89, 95 % CI 1·35, 35·15; P =0·020) after adjusting for confounders. In conclusion, a high ED at lunch increased the odds of the presence of the MetS in patients with type 2 diabetes. Beans and vegetables may be the major contributors to this association and their consumption might be

  20. Children with autism spectrum disorder and social skills groups at school: a randomized trial comparing intervention approach and peer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.