WorldWideScience

Sample records for comparing repository types

  1. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations

  2. Virtual patient repositories--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küfner, Julia; Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Hege, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Patients (VPs) are an important component of medical education. One way to reduce the costs for creating VPs is sharing through repositories. We conducted a literature review to identify existing repositories and analyzed the 17 included repositories in regards to the search functions and metadata they provide. Most repositories provided some metadata such as title or description, whereas other data, such as educational objectives, were less frequent. Future research could, in cooperation with the repository provider, investigate user expectations and usage patterns.

  3. Traits and types of health data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D

    2014-01-01

    We review traits of reusable clinical data and offer a typology of clinical repositories with a range of known examples. Sources of clinical data suitable for research can be classified into types reflecting the data's institutional origin, original purpose, level of integration and governance. Primary data nearly always come from research studies and electronic medical records. Registries collect data on focused populations primarily to track outcomes, often using observational research methods. Warehouses are institutional information utilities repackaging clinical care data. Collections organize data from more organizations than a data warehouse, and more original data sources than a registry. Therefore even if they are heavily curated, their level of internal integration, and thus ease of use, can be less than other types. Federations are like collections except that physical control over data is distributed among donor organizations. Federations sometimes federate, giving a second level of organization. While the size, in number of patients, varies widely within each type of data source, populations over 10 K are relatively numerous, and much larger populations can be seen in warehouses and federations. One imagined ideal structure for research progress has been called an "Information Commons". It would have longitudinal, multi-leveled (environmental through molecular) data on a large population of identified, consenting individuals. These are qualities whose achievement would require long term commitment on the part of many data donors, including a willingness to make their data public.

  4. Thermo-mechanical effects from a KBS-3 type repository. Performance of pillars between repository tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, E.; Olofsson, Stig-Olof

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate how the rock mass, in the near field of a KBS-3 type repository, will be affected by the excavation of tunnels and deposition holes and the thermal load from the deposited waste. The three-dimensional finite difference program FLAC 3D was used to perform numerical simulation of the rock mass behaviour. The rock mass was modelled as a homogeneous and isotropic continuum. The initial area heat intensity of the repository was assumed to be 10 W/m 2 in all models. The results show that in the middle of the pillar between the repository tunnels the temperature reaches a maximum of about 70 deg C after 55 years of deposition. The extent of areas where the rock is predicted to yield depends on the assumed quality of the rock mass and the initial in-situ stress field. The volume of yielded rock reaches a maximum after about 200 years after deposition. For a rock mass with internal friction angle of 45 deg and cohesion of 5 MPa (using a Mohr-Coulomb material model), the extent of yielded rock is limited to about 1.5 m behind the excavation periphery. The largest rock displacements are found in the tunnel floor at the upper part of the deposition holes. Tension and shear failure in the periphery of the excavations is predicted to occur during the rock excavation, with a depth extension depending on the magnitude and orientation of the in-situ stresses, as well as on the rock mass quality. Both the excavation effects and the then-no-mechanical effects are smallest when the major principal stress is oriented parallel with the deposition tunnels. The maximum convergence between tunnel walls was calculated to occur after 200 years and be about 9 mm, in the model assuming a rock mass with 5 MPa cohesion, 45 deg internal friction angle and maximum horizontal stress perpendicular to the tunnel. In this study confining effects from the buffer and backfill material was neglected. The effective stress concept was used in most of the models

  5. Thermal analyses of KBS-3H type repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2003-12-01

    This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3H type nuclear fuel repository, where the fuel canisters are disposed at horizontal position in the horizontal tunnels according to the preliminary SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) and Posiva plan. The maximum temperature on the canister surface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by adjusting the space between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the distance between separate panels of the repository and the pre-cooling time affecting power of the canisters. With reasonable canister and tunnel spacing the maximum temperature 90 deg C is achieved with an initial canister power of 1700 W. It became apparent that the temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by superposing analytic line heat source models much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first verified and calibrated by numerical analysis. This was done by comparing the surface temperatures of the central canister in a single infinite canister queue calculated numerically and analytically. In addition, the results from SKB analysis were used for comparison and for confirming the calculation procedure. For the Olkiluoto repository a reference case of one panel having 1500 canisters was analysed. The canisters are disposed in a rectangular geometry in a certain order. The calculation was performed separately for both Olkiluoto BWR canisters and Loviisa PWR canisters. The result was the minimum allowable spacing between canisters. (orig.)

  6. PRINCIPLE ROCK TYPES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Borojević Šostarić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground geological storage of high- and intermediate/low radioactive waste is aimed to represent a barrier between the surface environment and potentially hazardous radioactive elements. Permeability, behavior against external stresses, chemical reacatibility and absorption are the key geological parameters for the geological storage of radioactive waste. Three principal rock types were discussed and applied to the Dinarides: (1 evaporites in general, (2 shale, and (3 crystalline basement rocks. (1 Within the Dinarides, evaporite formations are located within the central part of a Carbonate platform and are inappropriate for storage. Offshore evaporites are located within diapiric structures of the central and southern part of the Adriatic Sea and are covered by thick Mesozoic to Cenozoic clastic sediment. Under very specific circumstances they can be considered as potential site locations for further investigation for the storage of low/intermediate level radioactive wast e. (2 Thick flysch type formation of shale to phyllite rocks are exposed at the basement units of the Petrova and Trgovska gora regions whereas (3 crystalline magmatic to metamorphic basement is exposed at the Moslavačka Gora and Slavonian Mts. regions. For high-level radioactive waste, basement phyllites and granites may represent the only realistic potential option in the NW Dinarides.

  7. An evaluation of repository-induced disturbances for a KBS-3 type repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.; McLeod, R.; McEwen, T. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    1998-03-01

    This report considers the potential physical and chemical perturbations caused by the excavation, operation and backfilling and sealing of a KBS-3 type repository for spent fuel in Sweden. Parts of the underground excavations are likely to remain open to the atmosphere for up to several decades. Time-dependent changes to the chemical environment and the properties of the geological formation will be occurring as well as the initial disturbance of construction and subsequent changes after backfilling. In addition, this report also discusses issues that arise from the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level waste. The processes which are likely to act during each stage of a repository from construction through to backfilling and sealing have been reviewed and the degree to which these processes are understood and represented within the performance assessment is discussed. The areas of particular interest are: The coupling of thermal, hydrogeological and mechanical processes with particular reference to the development of the near-field; Understanding the transient process of re-saturation with particular reference to the buffer material surrounding the waste canisters, including chemical changes to the material; The impact of accidental events during the construction and operational phases of work and their possible consequence on the long term performance of the repository; Chemical issues relating to the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level wastes within a single facility. When consideration of transient processes and coupling is discussed, it is apparent that numerical tools and a complete understanding to provide quantitative information is lacking. The importance of the engineered barrier system within the performance assessment for spent fuel disposal is recognised and the emphasis is placed on the understanding of the coupled processes in the evolution in the near-field of the geosphere 45 refs, 4 fig, 2 tabs

  8. An evaluation of repository-induced disturbances for a KBS-3 type repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.; McLeod, R.; McEwen, T.

    1998-03-01

    This report considers the potential physical and chemical perturbations caused by the excavation, operation and backfilling and sealing of a KBS-3 type repository for spent fuel in Sweden. Parts of the underground excavations are likely to remain open to the atmosphere for up to several decades. Time-dependent changes to the chemical environment and the properties of the geological formation will be occurring as well as the initial disturbance of construction and subsequent changes after backfilling. In addition, this report also discusses issues that arise from the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level waste. The processes which are likely to act during each stage of a repository from construction through to backfilling and sealing have been reviewed and the degree to which these processes are understood and represented within the performance assessment is discussed. The areas of particular interest are: The coupling of thermal, hydrogeological and mechanical processes with particular reference to the development of the near-field; Understanding the transient process of re-saturation with particular reference to the buffer material surrounding the waste canisters, including chemical changes to the material; The impact of accidental events during the construction and operational phases of work and their possible consequence on the long term performance of the repository; Chemical issues relating to the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level wastes within a single facility. When consideration of transient processes and coupling is discussed, it is apparent that numerical tools and a complete understanding to provide quantitative information is lacking. The importance of the engineered barrier system within the performance assessment for spent fuel disposal is recognised and the emphasis is placed on the understanding of the coupled processes in the evolution in the near-field of the geosphere

  9. Types of safety assessments of near surface repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to presents the classification of different types safety assessments of near surface repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste substantiated with results of safety assessments generated in Bulgaria. The different approach of safety assessments applied for old existing repository as well as for site selection for construction new repository is outlined. The regulatory requirements in Bulgaria define three main types of assessments: Safety assessment; Technical substation of repository safety; Assessment of repository influence on environment that is in form of report prepared from the Ministry of environment and waters on the base of results obtained in two first types of assessments. Additionally first type is subdivided in three categories - preliminary safety assessment, safety assessment and post closure safety assessment, which are generated using deterministic approach. The technical substation of repository safety is generated using probabilistic approach. Safety assessment results that are presented here are based on evaluation of existing old repository type 'Radon' in Novi Han and real site selection procedure for new near surface repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power station in Kozloduy. The important role of safety assessment for improvement the repository safety as well as for repository licensing, correct site selection and right choice of engineer barriers and repository design is discussed using generated results. (author)

  10. Upgrading of radon's type near surface repository in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1959, the Soviet government decided to construct the near surface radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' near the Baldone city. It was put in operation in 1962. The changes in the development of the repository were induced by the necessarily to upgrade it for disposal of radioactive wastes from the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The safety assessment of repository was performed during 2000-2001 under the PHARE project for necessary upgrades of repository. The outline design for new vaults and interim storage for long lived radioactive wastes was elaborated during 2003-2004 years. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for upgrade of Baldone repository was performed during 2004-2005 years. It was found, that additional efforts must be devoted for solution of social aspects o for successful operation and upgrade of repository. It was shown by EIA, that the local population has a negative opinion against the upgrade of repository in Latvia. The main recommendations for upgrades were connected with increasing the safety of repository, increasing of PR activities for education of society and developing of compensation mechanism for local municipality. (author)

  11. The conceptual design of waste repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Naro

    2002-02-01

    Advisory Committee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy reported the basic approach to the RI and Institute etc. wastes on March 2002. According to it, radioactive waste form medical, industrial and research facilities should be classified by their radioactivity properties and physical and chemical properties, and should be disposed in the appropriate types of repository with that classification. For the radioactive waste containing comparatively high radioactivity generated from reactors, NSC has established the Concentration limit for disposal. NSC is now discussing about the limit for the radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) preliminary studied about the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities and discussed about the problems for design on H12. This study was started to consider those problems, and to develop the conceptual design of the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities. Safety assessment for that repository is also performed. The result of this study showed that radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities of high activity should be disposed in the repository that has higher performance of barrier system comparing with the vault type near surface facility. If the conditions of the natural barrier and the engineering barrier are clearer, optimization of the design will be possible. (author)

  12. Surface-type repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Zarkovic, V.; Subasic, D.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level intermediate-level (LL/IL) radioactive waste repository siting and construction project is one of the activities related to establishing the rad waste management system in the Republic of Croatia. The repository project design is one in an array of project activities which also include the site selection procedure and public attitude issues. The prepared design documentation gives technical, safety and financial background relevant for making a final decision on the waste disposal type, and it includes the technological, mechanical, civil and financial documentation on the preliminary/basic design level. During the last few years, the preliminary design has been prepared and safety assessment conducted for the tunnel-type LL/IL rad waste repository. As the surface-type repository is one of alternatives for final disposal the design documentation for that repository type was prepared during 1994. (author)

  13. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool

  14. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool.

  15. Global thermo-mechanical effects from a KBS-3 type repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, E.; Olofsson, Stig-Olof

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to identify the global thermo-mechanical effects in the bedrock hosting a nuclear waste repository. Numerical thermo-mechanical modeling using distinct element models was performed. The number of fracture zones, the heat intensity of the waste, the material properties of the rock mass and the boundary conditions of the models were varied. Different models for multi-level repositories were also analyzed and compared to the main single-level case. Further, the global influence from the excavation of repository tunnels and deposition holes was examined by introducing weaker rock mass material properties in the repository region of one model. The maximum compression stress obtained for the main model is 44 MPa and occurs at the repository level after about 100 years of deposition. Due to thermal expansion, the rock mass displaces upward, and the maximum heave at the ground surface after 1000 years is calculated to be 16 cm. In the area close to the ground surface the horizontal stresses reduce, causing the rock to yield in tension down to a depth of about 80 meters. The fracture zones show opening displacements at shallow depths and closing and shearing at the repository level. The maximum displacements are 0.3-2.5 cm for closing, 0.0-0.8 cm for opening and 0.2-2.2 cm for shearing. The resultant stresses and displacements depend in large part on the assumptions made concerning the heat intensity of the waste. In the main model, an initial heat intensity of 10 W/m 2 is assumed, which gives larger effects than the case with 6 W/m 2 . Another important input parameter for the analysis is the Young's modulus of the rock mass. In the main model, a value of 30 GPa is assumed. Higher values of Young's modulus give larger thermo-mechanical effects. All multi-level repository layouts give rise to higher temperatures than the single-level layout, causing the compressive stresses to increase more at the repository level. The multi

  16. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Different types of radioactive waste repositories, each suited for a given type of radioactive waste - 59293

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinis, Sylvie; Boissier, Fabrice; Griffault, Lise; Maillard, Jean Louis; Dutzer, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The aim of this article is to present how Andra implements a dedicated solution per waste category. It relies on response to a series of questions concerning the appropriate waste disposal system such as: What type of radiological inventory is involved? What are the half-lives of the radionuclides and the associated timescales concerned for achieving the fundamental protection objective? In that respect, Andra has developed and has implemented methods for all disposal facilities in order to reach common objectives: The immediate and long term protections of human beings and the environment constitute the fundamental objectives of all radioactive-waste disposal facilities. In order to achieve those protections, disposal facilities must be safe. Thus, Andra safety encompasses all design, implementation and operational measures for preventing risks of all kind internal, external during operation and after closure in consistency with defense in depth principles taken into account the peculiarity of waste disposal facilities: (i) balancing operational safety and post-closure safety, (ii) management of nuclear risks in underground repository for some of them, (iii) management of scientific understanding and related uncertainties, and (iv) management of long or very long- timescales. The presentation will illustrate Andra's approach that has or will be conducted and will focus on communalities or peculiarities according to the type of waste and related disposal options regarding the following iterative steps: regulatory safety rules, input data, scenarios, safety assessments. (authors)

  18. Distribution coefficients of different soil types at Olkiluoto repository site and its surroundings, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, FI-00420 Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, the Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for the spent nuclear fuel. Due to shallow sea areas around the island, the post-glacial crustal rebound (around 6 mm/y) is changing the landscape significantly; during the next thousands of years new soil types are emerging, the present bays will narrow and form future lakes and mires assumedly similar to those farther inland at present. The effects of terrain development are important in long-term safety assessments for the repository, especially in the biosphere assessments addressing radiation exposure of people and biota in scenarios of radionuclide releases. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of radionuclides of concern from nuclear waste. These radionuclides have very long half-lives and long interaction times with soils, ranging from centuries to millennia. By measuring the desorption K{sub d} values of the indigenous stable elements (Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr) from field moist samples are a valid description of slow retention processes. The 'in situ' K{sub d} desorption values are calculated for humus, peat and different mineral soil samples taken from the Olkiluoto Island and the Reference Area used as an analogue of the future terrain. The solids are extracted alternatively by HNO{sub 3}-HF and NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). The K{sub d} values are highly dependent on environmental factors, including but not limited to pH, soil type, soil horizon, soil body, texture, element chemical form, organic matter, carbon content and biological activity. This is discussed in the contribution; e.g., for several elements pH and K{sub d} values correlate - the finer the soil or sediment, the higher the K{sub d} values - and humus and peat samples have a clear correlation with the organic matter and carbon contents. The contribution also compares the 'in situ' K{sub d} values to

  19. Project Guarantee 1985. Radioactive wastes: Properties and allocation to final repository types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of waste-specific data, as input into constructional engineering studies and safety analyses of Project Guarantee, is presented which describes the activity inventory of the radioactive waste to be disposed of, classified according to origin, the quantitative spezifications of the waste, the concept of classifying waste into appropriate categories, grouping into major categories and distribution of these between the different repository types, and finally, control measures which ensure observance of the specifications of the waste to be disposed of. It is expedient, for conceptional considerations and for the operational phase of the repository, to split the waste up into several suitably specified waste categories according to the practical aspects of origin and conditioning. This can be done in such a way that the waste within a specific category is sufficiently homogeneous with regard to its radiological properties and chemical composition for the requirements of safety analysis. The present volume contains base-data for around 30 waste types. Two waste types are documented with more detailed data as an example of the practicability of the comprehensive waste characterisation contained in reference report NTB 84-47. It is shown that waste-specific data which go into safety analysis and constructional engineering project studies are available in an appropriate degree of detail. The method of distributing the waste between repositories with differing degrees of protection and procedures for controlling adherence to admission specifications are developed and documented. It can be ensured that no waste with an impermissibly high radiotoxicity level will later be emplaced in a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste

  20. Repositories; Repositorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: cbf@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br

    2007-11-15

    The use of the nuclear energy is increasing in all areas. Then the radioactive waste management is in continuous development to comply the national and international established requirements. The final objective is to assure that it will not have any contamination of the public or the environmental, and that the exposition doses will be lower than the radiological protection limits. The multi barrier concept for the repository is internationally recognized. Among the repository types, the most used are: near surface, geological formations and of deposition in rock cavities. This article explains the concept and the types of repository and gives some examples of them. (author)

  1. PSU/WES interlaboratory comparative methodology study of an experimental cementitious repository seal material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Mather, K.

    1980-09-01

    A study is underway in two separate laboratories to investigate possible use of portland cement grout as repository sealing material for underground isolation of nuclear waste. The labs involved are the Materials Research Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and the Structures Laboratory (SL) of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The same cementitious (grout) mixture was prepared in each laboratory in September 1980, and tests were started. Testing included characterization of cement and fly ash by chemical, physical, and petrographic procedures. Tests of hardened specimens included restrained expansion, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, density, permeability, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Each laboratory made many of the same tests and some that were not directly comparable. This document (Report 1) contains largely 3- and 7-day results and none beyond 28-day ages

  2. Evaluation of Radionuclides Migration from RADON-Type Radioactive Waste Repository in Geosphere and Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigaliuniene, D.; Poskas, P.

    2001-01-01

    Migration of radionuclides from hypothetical ISAM RADON-Type repository is analysed there. This is the first comprehensive analysis for such type repository. Generated four different system evolution and radionuclides migration scenarios cover a wide range of possible system states. Off-site scenarios as well as on-site scenarios consider radionuclide release from disposal facility and migration in geosphere and biosphere. Calculations are performed using computer code AMBER. According to the results, the highest dose is from two on-site scenarios (SCE1 erosion scenario and SCE3). The most important radionuclides in this case are 226 Ra with its decay products, 228 Ra, and 239 Pu. The doses from short-lived and mobile radionuclides arc insignificant for all on-site scenarios. The doses for the off-site scenarios are less than 0,1 mSv/y. Radon gases may cause the dose of about 1 mSv/y. The comparison of the results from this study and IAEA report for similar scenarios shows that the differences in most cases are less than one order of magnitude. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the thermal effect in a KBS-3 type repository. A literary survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goblet, P.; Marsily, Ghislain de

    2000-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the existing thermal studies in high-level nuclear waste disposal, based on the available literature assembled during this survey. Although the emphasis is on a granitic repository, some results obtained by experiments or numerical analyses of other rock types are also given. Excessive heat loading can generate mechanical failure of the rock, chemical degradation and transformation of the buffer and rock, water vaporisation and condensation. If the repository is backfilled and resaturated, the heat load can generate convective movement of the water and therefore, transport of dissolved elements away from the repository. The maximum temperature at the repository level is generally reached after a few hundred years, but even if the temperature starts to decrease, the total heat loading of the rock formation continues to increase, until the temperature front reaches the upper boundary of the system and releases the heat into the atmosphere. The total heat load of the host rock typically starts to decrease only after about 10,000 years. The mechanical effects can therefore peak long after the maximum temperature has been reached. The surface deformation of the rock by expansion (on the order of 1 m above a repository) is often reached at such large time-intervals. The maximum heat loading in a repository is an important design parameter when the extent of a repository is determined, given the amount of waste and the age at which this waste must be disposed. To determine this heat loading, it is necessary to define either the maximum acceptable temperature at the buffer-rock contact, and/or at the outer boundary of the canister. Design options include the nature and dimension of the buffer zone, its water saturation (in the case of clay) and the distance between canisters. The temperature distribution in the host rock, in the buffer and inside the waste package can be determined by thermal calculations, if the density of waste in the

  4. Evaluation of the thermal effect in a KBS-3 type repository. A literary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblet, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France). Centre d' Informatique Geologique; Marsily, Ghislain de [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Geologie Appliquee

    2000-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the existing thermal studies in high-level nuclear waste disposal, based on the available literature assembled during this survey. Although the emphasis is on a granitic repository, some results obtained by experiments or numerical analyses of other rock types are also given. Excessive heat loading can generate mechanical failure of the rock, chemical degradation and transformation of the buffer and rock, water vaporisation and condensation. If the repository is backfilled and resaturated, the heat load can generate convective movement of the water and therefore, transport of dissolved elements away from the repository. The maximum temperature at the repository level is generally reached after a few hundred years, but even if the temperature starts to decrease, the total heat loading of the rock formation continues to increase, until the temperature front reaches the upper boundary of the system and releases the heat into the atmosphere. The total heat load of the host rock typically starts to decrease only after about 10,000 years. The mechanical effects can therefore peak long after the maximum temperature has been reached. The surface deformation of the rock by expansion (on the order of 1 m above a repository) is often reached at such large time-intervals. The maximum heat loading in a repository is an important design parameter when the extent of a repository is determined, given the amount of waste and the age at which this waste must be disposed. To determine this heat loading, it is necessary to define either the maximum acceptable temperature at the buffer-rock contact, and/or at the outer boundary of the canister. Design options include the nature and dimension of the buffer zone, its water saturation (in the case of clay) and the distance between canisters. The temperature distribution in the host rock, in the buffer and inside the waste package can be determined by thermal calculations, if the density of waste in the

  5. SR 97: Post-closure safety for a KBS 3 type deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.; Kautsky, U.

    2000-03-01

    Prior to coming site investigations for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SKB has carried out the long-term safety assessment SR 97, requested by the Swedish Government. The repository is of the KBS-3 type, where the fuel is placed in isolating copper canisters with a high-strength cast iron insert. The canisters are surrounded by bentonite clay in individual deposition holes at a depth of 500 m in granitic bedrock. The future evolution of the repository system is analysed in the form of five scenarios. The first is a base scenario where the repository is postulated to be built entirely according to specifications and where present-day conditions in the surroundings, including climate, persist. The four other scenarios show the evolution if the repository contains a few initially defective canisters, in the event of climate change, in the event of earthquakes, and in the event of future inadvertent human intrusion. The principal conclusion of the assessment is that the prospects of building a safe deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in Swedish granitic bedrock are very good. (author)

  6. Dose calculation for accident situations at WWR-S type spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, S.; Florescu, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository at IFIN-HH Bucharest (SNFR IFIN-HH) consists in four pools, repository hall, radiological monitoring system, ventilation system and auxiliary systems. At the moment the remaining activity in the repository is about 3500 Ci. Despite of the small activity, for emergency preparedness purposes, several accident scenarios, with a non zero probability of occurrence during the repository lifetime, have been postulated. Evaluations of radiological consequences to personnel, general public and environment, for each accident scenario have been performed. The radioactive inventory was evaluated with ORIGEN code from SCALE computer code system and radiological consequences were evaluated with COSYMA computer code. Assumptions for the source term determination, meteorological conditions and release, are presented. The calculated values of doses and risk are also presented. The impact of these accident scenarios on population and environment is also discussed. (authors)

  7. Siting of large diameter well type repositories for the central region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, A.S.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Prozorov, L.B.; Guskov, A.V.; Korneva, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    To date only 14 from 16 RADON facilities are in operation. Most of them have not more than about 10% of their repositories free and available for new upcoming radioactive waste. Construction of new repositories and selection of new perspective sites is very actual problem for RAW management in Russia now. Near surface repositories are considered to be acceptable for storage of wastes with low and intermediate activity levels (LILW), which decay to safe levels in some hundreds of years. However, the experience with LILW isolation in the near surface facilities in Russia has shown that a lot of operational and natural factors impact on the engineered barriers and may cause failure of the isolation. In addition, the exploitation of the old repositories and construction of new ones require more area. Significant increase in LILW isolation reliability and area saving may be achieved by wastes disposal/storage in Large Diameter Wells (LDW), drilled in homogeneous sediments with low permeable properties. It could be considered as an intermediate between near-surface and geological repositories, and its specific features should be taken into account when choosing new sites for RAW disposal or long-term storage. (author)

  8. Comparative simulation study of coupled THM processes near back-filled and open-drift nuclear waste repositories in Task D of the International DECOVALEX Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Oda, Y.; Wang, Wenqing; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was also achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level

  9. Managing and Evaluating Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccala, Alesia; Oppenheim, Charles; Dhiensa, Rajveen

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: We examine the role of the digital repository manager, discuss the future of repository management and evaluation and suggest that library and information science schools develop new repository management curricula. Method: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with managers of five different types of repositories and a Web-based…

  10. Global thermo-mechanical effects from a KBS-3 type repository. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, E.; Olofsson, Stig-Olof; Hakami, H.; Israelsson, Jan

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study has been to identify the global thermomechanical effects in the bedrock hosting a nuclear waste repository - i.e. the effects at large distances from the repository. Numerical thermomechanical modeling was performed in several steps, beginning with elastic continuum models and followed by distinct element models (3DEC), in which fracture zones are explicitly simulated. The number of fracture zones, the heat intensity of the waste, the material properties of the rock mass and the boundary conditions of the models were varied in different simulations. The results from the numerical modeling show that the principal stresses increase near the repository. The maximum stress obtained for the main model is 44 MPa and occurs at the repository level after about 100 years of deposition. Due to thermal expansion, the rock mass displaces upward, and the maximum heave at the ground surface after 1000 years is calculated to be 16 cm. In the area close to the ground surface, above the center of the repository, the horizontal stresses reduce, causing the rock to yield in tension down to a depth of about 80 m. In correspondence with the stress changes, the fracture zones show opening normal displacements at shallow depths and closing normal displacements and shearing at the repository level. The maximum displacements of the different fracture zones are 0.3-2.5 cm for closing, 0.0-0.8 cm for opening and 0.2-2.2 cm for shearing. Another important input parameter for the analysis is the Young's modulus of the rock mass. In the main model, a value of 30 GPa is assumed. Higher values of Young's modulus give larger thermo-mechanical effects. Other changes of the properties considered give minor changes of the rock mass behavior. All multi-level repository layouts give rise to higher temperatures than the single-level layout, causing the compressive stresses to increase more at the repository level. Fracture zone displacements caused by different layouts are

  11. Comparing the hierarchy of author given tags and repository given tags in a large document archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-10-01

    Folksonomies - large databases arising from collaborative tagging of items by independent users - are becoming an increasingly important way of categorizing information. In these systems users can tag items with free words, resulting in a tripartite item-tag-user network. Although there are no prescribed relations between tags, the way users think about the different categories presumably has some built in hierarchy, in which more special concepts are descendants of some more general categories. Several applications would benefit from the knowledge of this hierarchy. Here we apply a recent method to check the differences and similarities of hierarchies resulting from tags given by independent individuals and from tags given by a centrally managed repository system. The results from our method showed substantial differences between the lower part of the hierarchies, and in contrast, a relatively high similarity at the top of the hierarchies.

  12. A comparative between CRISP-DM and SEMMA through the construction of a MODIS repository for studies of land use and cover change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Jair Gómez Palacios

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the most popular methodologies for development of data mining projects are CRISP-DM and SEMMA, This research paper explains the reason why it was decided to compare them from a specific case study. Therefore, this document describes in detail each phase, task and activity proposed by each methodology, applying it in the construction of a MODIS repository for studies of land use and cover change. In addition to the obvious differences between the methodologies, there were found other differences in the activities proposed by each model that are crucial in non-typical studies of data mining. At the same time, this research determines safely the advantages and disadvantages of each model for this type of case studies. When the MODIS product repository construction process was completed, it was found that the additional time used by CRISP-DM in the first phase was composed in the following phases, since the planning, definition of mining goals, and generation of contingency plans, allow developing the proposed phases without inconvenience. It was also demonstrated that CRISP-DM is presented as a true methodology in comparison with SEMMA, because it describes in detail each phase and task through its official documentation and concrete examples of its application.

  13. Analytical methods of heat transfer compared with numerical methods as related to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Gasca, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical methods were applied to the prediction of the far-field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the transformation of coordinates and the Kirchhoff transformation were used to solve one-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Calculations for the HLW and TRU nuclear waste with initial areal thermal loadings of 12 kW/acre and 0.7 kW/acre, respectively, are carried out for various models. Also, finite difference and finite element methods are applied. The last method is used to solve two-dimensional linear and nonlinear heat conduction problems. Results of the analysis are temperature distributions and temperature histories. Explicit analytical expressions of the maximum temperature rise as a function of the system parameters are presented. The theoretical approaches predict maximum temperature increases in the overburden with an error of 10%. When the finite solid one-dimensional NWR thermal problem is solved with generic salt and HLW thermal load as parameters, the maximum temperature rises predicted by the finite difference and finite element methods had maximum errors of 2.6 and 6.7%, respectively. In all the other cases the finite difference method also gave a smaller error than the finite element method

  14. ETD Management and Publishing in the ProQuest System and the University Repository: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail P. Clement

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION This study compares the two most popular ETD management and publishing systems used in the American higher education community today: the commercial ProQuest Dissertation Publishing system and the university repository. METHODS Characteristics of these systems are identified and categorized in order to determine the features, functions, and policies common to both, and those that uniquely characterize one or the other system. Performing such a head-to-head comparison provides valuable information and insights to decision makers responsible for managing or overhauling their university’s ETD program. RESULTS Comparison of characteristics shows the ProQuest system and the university repository both provide functional solutions for submitting, storing, disseminating, and archive ETDs using digital technology. Yet each system also has unique characteristics that distinguish it from the other. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION The authors conclude that there is no single ‘best’ system for ETD management overall. Rather, it is up to decision makers at each institution to choose an approach that best fits their university’s values, goals and needs. Finally, the authors point out the need for a single portal for ETDs that allows for search and discovery of these unique works of scholarship wherever the full text resides. Future investigation into possible solutions for such an ETD portal would be a boon not only to universities and ETD authors, but to the broader community of researchers, students, professionals and interested citizenry who could benefit from easier access to this this growing corpus of knowledge.

  15. Safety case approach for a KBS-3 type repository in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastina, Barbara; Lehikoinen, Jarmo; Puigdomenech, Ignasi

    2012-01-01

    Barbara Pastina of Saanio and Riekkola described the approach to considering cementitious materials in a safety case for a KBS-3 repository in Finland. In this concept, cements will be used predominantly as tunnel plugs and seals. Part of the Finnish approach has involved identifying the cement-related FEPs. For example, FEPs representing the effects of cement on spent fuel, on the canister and on radionuclide transport include: - Fuel matrix dissolution at high pH. - Copper corrosion at high pH. - Radionuclide speciation and solubility at high pH. - Radionuclide sorption and diffusion at high pH. - Radionuclide transport due to organic materials (e.g. super-plasticisers). - Colloid formation at a high pH plume front. FEPs representing the effects of cement on bentonite in the buffer and backfill include: - Potential changes in swelling pressure due to mass loss, decrease in clay density, and precipitation of secondary minerals. - Potential cracking and increase of hydraulic conductivity due to cementation. - Increase of the cation exchange capacity due to the loss of silica from the montmorillonite structure. Amongst the cement-related FEPs, the main concerns are related to effects on the performance of the bentonite buffer. Cement-bentonite interactions are complex, there are few experimental data, and there are significant modelling uncertainties (e.g. limited knowledge about the reactions that may occur and their rates, and the effects of temperature). Accepting the existence of various uncertainties, preliminary modelling studies performed using the TOUGHREACT code illustrate the potential for porosity reduction and clogging of porosity in bentonite affected by cementitious pore waters. The modelling also suggests that that the high pH of the pore waters moving from the cementitious materials into the bentonite may be rapidly lowered as a result of reactions with the bentonite close to the cement-bentonite interface. Taking account of the various research and

  16. A comparative Study between GoldSim and AMBER Based Biosphere Assessment Models for an HLW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of a repository, the dose exposure rate to human being due to long-term nuclide releases from a high-level waste repository (HLW) should be evaluated and the results compared to the dose limit presented by the regulatory bodies. To evaluate such a dose rate to an individual, biosphere assessment models have been developed and implemented for a practical calculation with the aid of such commercial tools as AMBER and GoldSim, both of which are capable of probabilistic and deterministic calculation. AMBER is a general purpose compartment modeling tool and GoldSim is another multipurpose simulation tool for dynamically modeling complex systems, supporting a higher graphical user interface than AMBER and a postprocessing feature. And also unlike AMBER, any kind of compartment scheme can be rather simply constructed with an appropriate transition rate between compartments, GoldSim is designed to facilitate the object-oriented modules to address any specialized programs, similar to solving jig saw puzzles. During the last couple of years a compartment modeling approach for a biosphere has been mainly carried out with AMBER in KAERI in order to conservatively or rather roughly provide dose conversion factors to get the final exposure rate due to a nuclide flux into biosphere over various geosphere-biosphere interfaces (GBIs) calculated through nuclide transport modules. This caused a necessity for a newly devised biosphere model that could be coupled to a nuclide transport model with less conservatism in the frame of the development of a total system performance assessment modeling tool, which could be successfully done with the aid of GoldSim. Therefore, through the current study, some comparison results of the AMBER and the GoldSim approaches for the same case of a biosphere modeling without any consideration of geosphere transport are introduced by extending a previous study

  17. New Roles, New Responsibilities: Examining Training Needs of Repository Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Simons

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories play a critical role in the research lifecycle. Funding agencies are increasingly seeking an improved return on their investment in research. Repositories facilitate this process by providing storage of, and access to, institutional research outputs and, more recently, research data. While repositories are generally managed within the academic library, repository staff require different skills and knowledge compared with traditional library roles. This study reports on a survey of Australasian institutional repository staff to identify skills and knowledge sets. METHODS Institutional repository staff working at universities in Australia and New Zealand were invited to participate in an online survey which incorporated both open and closed-ended question types. RESULTS The survey found significant gaps in the current provision of formal training and coursework related to institutional repositories, which echoed findings in the United Kingdom, Italy, and the United States. DISCUSSION There is clearly a need for more and varied training opportunities for repository professionals. Repository work requires a specific set of skills that can be difficult to find and institutions will benefit from investing in training and ongoing development opportunities for repository staff. CONCLUSION The data from this study could be used to facilitate staff recruitment, development, training, and retention strategies.

  18. Southern Nevada residents' views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    Two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans' views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada

  19. Personality over Policy: A Comparative History of the Founding and Early Development of Four Significant American Manuscript Repositories of Business, Industry, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Erik C.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation compares and contrasts the founding and early manuscript collecting activities of four publicly accessible American archival repositories known for their extensive holdings in business, industrial, and technological history: the Baker Library at Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts; the Hagley Library and Museum in…

  20. Analysis of the coverage of the Data Citation Index – Thomson Reuters: disciplines, document types and repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salinas, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, the movement of data sharing has been enjoying great popularity. Within this context, Thomson Reuters launched at the end of 2012 a new product inside the Web of Knowledge family: the Data Citation Index. The aim of this new database is to enable discovery and access, from a single place, to data from a variety of data repositories from different subject areas and from around the world. In short note we present some results from the analysis of the Data Citation Index. Specifically, we address the following issues: discipline coverage, data types present in the database and repositories that were included at the time of the study.En los últimos años, el movimiento conocido como “data sharing”, es decir compartir lo datos de investigación, está cobrando una gran popularidad. Dentro de este contexto Thomson Reuters lanzó a finales de 2012 un nuevo producto dentro de su plataforma Web of Knowledge: el Data Citation Index. El objetivo de esta nueva base de datos es facilitar el acceso desde un único punto a los datos indexados en diferentes repositorios de datos de todo el mundo. En esta nota se presentan los resultados del análisis del Data Citation Index y más concretamente se analiza la cobertura de este producto atendiendo a las disciplinas, las tipologías documentales indexadas y los repositorios que se encuentran disponibles en el momento de la realización del estudio.

  1. Gas generation in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.; McGahan, D.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    The nature and quantities of gases likely to be produced by various processes in repositories for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes are examined in this preliminary study. Many simplifying assumptions are made where published or experimental data is unavailable. The corrosion of the canisters and metallic components in wastes is likely to be the major gas production process in both types of repository. A significant contribution from microbiological activity is expected to occur in low level repositories, predominantly where no cement grouting of the cans has been carried out. A number of areas for further research, required before a more comprehensive study could be carried out, have been identified. (author)

  2. The Danish inventory of radioactive waste and the required repository type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerhard [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Div. on Nuclear Engineering and Facility Safety

    2014-11-15

    Denmark has a relatively small inventory of radioactive wastes. As Denmark never built and operated nuclear power plants, the wastes resulted only from various research activities. In order to manage those wastes, the Danish Government has ordered to describe those wastes and the available management options. Based on vague criteria, most of the waste types were termed as ''short-lived'' and as suitable for a surface-near disposal facility. The Government then ordered the Geological survey organization of Denmark, GEUS, to scan Denmark for suitable locations. ''Suitable'' depth was defined as 0 to 100 m below ground. Neither were isolation properties or other requirements for geological layers defined nor were those criteria agreed in a broader sense (with experts, with the public). GEUS identified a number of potentially suitable locations and selected six of those as the most promising. In this paper the basic decision of preferring surface-near disposal for most of the waste types is analysed. As a central criterion for the suitability of the waste types for surface-near disposal is defined that those waste types decay within 300 years to below today's clearance levels. The results show, that none of the Danish types of waste meets this simple requirement. All are above that criterion, most of them by several orders of magnitude and over very much longer times such as 100.000 years or even longer. The basic assumption of the performed site selection procedure, to search for near-surface locations for short-lived wastes, so proves to be invalid. The whole process should be re-done on the basis that the long-term isolation of those wastes in impermeable layers has to be guaranteed. The suitability criteria should focus on the long-term isolation of all wastes and should be agreed in advance.

  3. Radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.; Barinov, A.; Prozorov, L.

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose to construct a radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety and reliable containment, MosNPO 'Radon' specialists have developed an advanced type repository - large diameter well (LBD) one. A project is started for the development of a technology for LDW repository construction and pilot operation of the new repository for 25-30 years. The 2 LDW repositories constructed at the 'Radon' site and the developed monitoring system are described

  4. Enhancing Comparative Effectiveness Research With Automated Pediatric Pneumonia Detection in a Multi-Institutional Clinical Repository: A PHIS+ Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephane; Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Tieder, Joel; Simmons, Jeffrey; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir

    2017-05-15

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity. Administrative data are often used to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) with sufficient sample sizes to enhance detection of important outcomes. However, such studies are prone to misclassification errors because of the variable accuracy of discharge diagnosis codes. The aim of this study was to develop an automated, scalable, and accurate method to determine the presence or absence of pneumonia in children using chest imaging reports. The multi-institutional PHIS+ clinical repository was developed to support pediatric CER by expanding an administrative database of children's hospitals with detailed clinical data. To develop a scalable approach to find patients with bacterial pneumonia more accurately, we developed a Natural Language Processing (NLP) application to extract relevant information from chest diagnostic imaging reports. Domain experts established a reference standard by manually annotating 282 reports to train and then test the NLP application. Findings of pleural effusion, pulmonary infiltrate, and pneumonia were automatically extracted from the reports and then used to automatically classify whether a report was consistent with bacterial pneumonia. Compared with the annotated diagnostic imaging reports reference standard, the most accurate implementation of machine learning algorithms in our NLP application allowed extracting relevant findings with a sensitivity of .939 and a positive predictive value of .925. It allowed classifying reports with a sensitivity of .71, a positive predictive value of .86, and a specificity of .962. When compared with each of the domain experts manually annotating these reports, the NLP application allowed for significantly higher sensitivity (.71 vs .527) and similar positive predictive value and specificity . NLP-based pneumonia information extraction of pediatric diagnostic imaging reports performed better than domain experts in this

  5. National Radwaste Repository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce (Repository) is described. The Mochovce National Radioactive Waste Repository is a surface multi-barrier type storage facility for solid and treated solidified radioactive wastes generated from the Slovak Republic nuclear power plants operation and decommissioning, research institutes, laboratories and hospitals. The Repository comprises a system of single- and double-row storage boxes. The first double-row is enclosed by a steel-structure building. The 18 x 6 x 5.5 m storage boxes are made of reinforced concrete. The wall thickness is 600 mm. Two-double-rows, i.e. 80 storage boxes were built as part of Stage I (1 row = 20 storage boxes). Each storage box has a storage capacity of 90 fibre concrete containers of 3.1 m 3 volume. The total storage capacity is 7200 containers with the overall storage volume of 22320 m 3

  6. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  7. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  8. Data Curation Network: How Do We Compare? A Snapshot of Six Academic Library Institutions’ Data Repository and Curation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Johnston

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many academic and research institutions are exploring opportunities to better support researchers in sharing their data. As partners in the Data Curation Network project, our six institutions developed a comparison of the current levels of support provided for researchers to meet their data sharing goals through library-based data repository and curation services. Methods: Each institutional lead provided a written summary of their services based on a previously developed structure, followed by group discussion and refinement of descriptions. Service areas assessed include the repository services for data, technologies used, policies, and staffing in place. Conclusions: Through this process we aim to better define the current levels of support offered by our institutions as a first step toward meeting our project's overarching goal to develop a shared staffing model for data curation across multiple institutions.

  9. Socioeconomic impacts of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Federal and state decision makers, community leaders, and residents must know how communities will be changed by the impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This chapter identifies the factors affecting an assessment of socioeconomic impacts and the types of impacts (economic, demographic, fiscal, community service, and social) likely to occur as a result of repository development. Each of these types can be divided into standard (those which typically results from any large-scale development) and special impact categories (those which result from the fact that radioactive materials will be handled). 3 tables

  10. Gabbro as a host rock for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.; Smellie, J.; Liedholm, M.

    1992-09-01

    As an alternative to granitic rocks, gabbro and other basic rock types have been investigated with respect to their suitability to host a nuclear waste repository. The present report summarizes and examines existing geoscientific knowledge of relevance in assessing the potential merits of gabbro as a repository host rock. Implications in terms of site selection, repository construction and post-closure repository performance are also discussed. The objective of the study is to provide a basis for decisions as regards future consideration of the gabbro alternative. It is found that there are rather few gabbro bodies in Sweden, that are potentially of sufficient size to host a repository. Thus, gabbro offers little latitude as regards site selection. In comparison to siting a repository in granitic rocks, this is a major disadvantage, and it may in fact remove gabbro from further consideration. The potential advantages of gabbro refer to repository performance, and include low hydraulic conductivity and a chemical environment promoting efficient radionuclide retardation. However, results from field investigations show that groundwater flow in gabbro bodies is largely controlled by intersecting heterogeneities, in particular granitic dykes, that are significantly more conductive to water than the gabbro. In the far-field scale significant to repository performance, this may reduce or eliminate the potential effects of favourable hydraulic and chemical characteristics of the gabbro itself. In conclusion, there are apparent difficulties associated with siting a repository in gabbro, due to lack of sufficiently large gabbro bodies. On the basis of the present state of knowledge, no decisive differences can be demonstrated when comparing gabbro with granitic rocks, neither with respects to repository construction, nor as regards repository performance. (au)

  11. Repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C M

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues of radioactive waste design are addressed in this paper. Two approaches to repository design considered herein are: (1) design to minimize the disturbance of the hot rock; and (2) designs that intentionally modify the hot rock to insure better containment of the wastes. The latter designs range from construction of a highly impermeable barrier around a spherical cavern to creating a matrix of tunnels and boreholes to form a cage within which the hydraulic pressure is nearly constant. Examples of these design alternatives are described in some detail. It is concluded that proposed designs for repositories illustrate that performance criteria considered acceptable for such facilities can be met by appropriate site selection and repository engineering. With these technically feasible design concepts, it is also felt that socioeconomic and institutional issues can be better resolved. (BLM)

  12. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  13. Performance assessment of Mochovce repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrskova, A; Hanusik, V [Dept. of Accident Management and Risk Assessment, Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2000-07-01

    The near-surface disposal site at Mochovce is designed for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is a vault-type concrete structure housing the reinforced concrete containers as the final waste packages. This paper shortly presents the long-term safety analysis methods applied for the post-closure phase of the repository. The main aim of paper is description of the philosophy of analysis, development of the scenarios, their modeling and comparing of the results of normal evolution scenario, alternative scenario and intruders scenario for some radionuclides. (author)

  14. Performance assessment of Mochovce repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrskova, A.; Hanusik, V.

    2000-01-01

    The near-surface disposal site at Mochovce is designed for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste. It is a vault-type concrete structure housing the reinforced concrete containers as the final waste packages. This paper shortly presents the long-term safety analysis methods applied for the post-closure phase of the repository. The main aim of paper is description of the philosophy of analysis, development of the scenarios, their modeling and comparing of the results of normal evolution scenario, alternative scenario and intruders scenario for some radionuclides. (author)

  15. Industrial complementarities between interim storage and reversible geological repository - 59237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The French Act voted in 2006 made the choice of deep geological disposal as the reference option for the long term management of high level (HLW) and intermediate level long-lived waste. The CIGEO repository project aims at avoiding or limiting burden to future generations, which could not be achieved by the extension in time of interim storage. The reversibility as provided by the Act will maintain a liberty of choice for waste management on a duration which is comparable to new storage facility. Interim storage is required to accommodate waste as long as the repository is not available. The commissioning of the repository in 2025 will not suppress needs for interim storage. The paper describes the complementarities between existing and future interim storage facilities and the repository project: repository operational issues and planning, HLW thermal decay, support for the reversibility, etc. It shows opportunities to prepare a global optimization of waste management including the utilization at best of storage capacities and the planning of waste emplacement in the repository in such a way to facilitate operational conditions and to limit cost. Preliminary simulations of storage-disposal scenarios are presented. Thanks to an optimal use of the waste management system, provision can be made for a progressive increase of waste emplacement flow during the first operation phase of the repository. It is then possible to stabilize the industrial activity level of the repository site. An optimal utilization of interim storage can also limit the diversity of waste packages emplaced simultaneously, which facilitates the operation of the repository. 60 years minimum interim storage duration is generally required with respect to HLW thermal output. Extending this interim storage period may reduce the underground footprint of the repository. Regarding reversibility, the capability to manage waste packages potentially retrieved from the repository should be analyzed. The

  16. Evaluation of heat propagation from a KBS-3 type deep repository for Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg in SKB's SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goblet, Patrick; Marsily, Ghislain de

    2000-01-01

    The following conclusions and remarks may be drawn from this review work: The phenomenology of heat propagation in the complex system of a repository is generally well understood, and permits a reliable prediction of temperature evolution. Some simplifications such as the representation of incomplete saturation of the buffer are justified at the present stage of knowledge, and do not seem to impair the reliability of the results. These simplification may become unnecessary in the future as experimental work presently going on leads to a better predicting capacity of these mechanisms. Important parameters (thermal conductivity and heat capacity) are known through a large number of measurements, and furthermore do not span a wide range. The main uncertainty seems to lie in the near field parameters (description of the contact between container and buffer, thermal conductivity of unsaturated bentonite). Generally speaking, the weak point of thermal modelling is generally not in the representation of a particular component, but in the heat transfer between different components. Although no systematic sensitivity analysis was performed in this study, the various situations modelled do give an idea on the effect of varying parameters such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity, initial heat output. The modelling work presented is consistent with the phenomenology described. A powerful computing capacity allows a detailed description of mechanisms at two different scales. However, the transition from one scale (unit cell) to the other (global scale) would deserve a more rigorous analysis. From a reviewers' viewpoint, the description of calculation cases is generally not sufficiently detailed to judge precisely the results, or to try and duplicate them, should this be needed. While this situation is acceptable in a generic exercise such as SR 97, a more detailed description would be required in a real site assessment. Apart from thermal parameters and repository location

  17. Design aspects of the alpha repository. II. Conceptual layouts of underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Five conceptual repository layouts are presented: linear repository, 1 panel; bow tie repository, 2 panels; maltese cross repository, 4 panels; snowflake repository; 5 panels, and sash window repository, 8 panels. The layouts are compared with respect to excavation requirements, haulage distances, ventilation flow path designs, and safety features

  18. Rock support for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, L.W.; Schmidt, B.

    1984-01-01

    The design of rock support for underground nuclear waste repositories requires consideration of special construction and operation requirements, and of the adverse environmental conditions in which some of the support is placed. While repository layouts resemble mines, design, construction and operation are subject to quality assurance and public scrutiny similar to what is experienced for nuclear power plants. Exploration, design, construction and operation go through phases of review and licensing by government agencies as repositories evolve. This paper discusses (1) the various stages of repository development; (2) the environment that supports must be designed for; (3) the environmental effects on support materials; and (4) alternative types of repository rock support

  19. Long-term safety assessment of trench-type surface repository at Chernobyl, Ukraine - computer model and comparison with results from simplified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, B.; Krone, J.; Shybetskyi, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, the surface repository for solid low and intermediate level waste (LILW) is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Long-existing plans for increasing the capacity of the facility shall be implemented in the framework of the European Commission INSC Programme (Instrument for Nuclear Safety Co-operation). Within the first phase of this project, DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) for a future extended facility based on the planned enlargement. In addition to a detailed mathematical model, also simplified models have been developed to verify results of the former one and enhance confidence in the results. Comparison of the results show that - depending on the boundary conditions - simplifications like modeling the multi trench repository as one generic trench might have very limited influence on the overall results compared to the general uncertainties associated with respective long-term calculations. In addition to their value in regard to verification of more complex models which is important to increase confidence in the overall results, such simplified models can also offer the possibility to carry out time consuming calculations like probabilistic calculations or detailed sensitivity analysis in an economic manner. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of the Overall Costs for the Croatian Repository: Varying Site, Design and Financial Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lebegner, J.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary preparations for the construction of a LILW repository in Croatia included a number of activities and projects related to the siting process, safety assessment, disposal technology and repository design, and public acceptance issues. Costs evaluations have always been a part of the developing project documentation. However, only the estimates of the facility construction and equipment acquisition costs had been included, while other costs associated with the project development and management have not been considered up to now. For the first time the infrastructure status at the potential sites has been evaluated, and the costs of the repository operations as well as the post-closure management has been estimated. Cost parameters have been considered from both technical and fiscal points of view, comparing their relative influence on the overall repository costs. Assessment of the total project costs in eight cases for the four preferential sites and two repository designs gave a clearer picture of the development and management costs differences for the considered options. Without considerations of the operational and post-operational repository management expenses, the total project costs appear to have been heavily underestimated. Also, while the construction costs for the tunnel and the surface type repositories are significantly different, this influence of the repository type on the total project costs becomes far less important when the later phases management expenses are added. Finally, the role of fiscal parameters may further diminish the site and technology impacts on the overall costs. (author)

  1. Comparing types of local public health agencies in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Milissa; Moore, Jill; Foster, Johanna H; Berner, Maureen; Matthews, Gene; Wall, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Some states are considering restructuring local public health agencies (LPHAs) in hopes of achieving long-term efficiencies. North Carolina's experience operating different types of LPHAs, such as county health departments, district health departments, public health authorities, and consolidated human services agencies, can provide valuable information to policy makers in other states who are examining how best to organize their local public health system. To identify stakeholders' perceptions of the benefits and challenges associated with different types of LPHAs in North Carolina and to compare LPHA types on selected financial, workforce, and service delivery measures. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted to identify stakeholders' perceptions of different LPHA types. To compare LPHA types on finance, workforce, and service delivery measures, descriptive statistical analyses were performed on publicly available quantitative data. North Carolina. Current and former state and local public health practitioners, county commissioners, county managers, assistant managers, state legislators, and others. In addition to identifying stakeholders' perceptions of LPHA types, proportion of total expenditures by funding source, expenditures per capita by funding source, full-time equivalents per 1000 population, and percentage of 127 tracked services offered were calculated. Stakeholders reported benefits and challenges of all LPHA types. LPHA types differ with regard to source of funding, with county health departments and consolidated human services agencies receiving a greater percentage of their funding from county appropriations than districts and authorities, which receive a comparatively larger percentage from other revenues. Types of LPHAs are not entirely distinct from one another, and LPHAs of the same type can vary greatly from one another. However, stakeholders noted differences between LPHA types-particularly with regard to district health

  2. A comparative study of the pore structures and surfaces of hardened cement pastes of potential use in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.M.; Donaldson, L.; White, S.

    1988-02-01

    Measurements of water vapour adsorption at 20 0 C and mercury intrusion have been used to compare the surfaces and pore structures of hardened cement pastes made from ordinary portland cement (OPC) and the additives blast furnace slag (BFS) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA). The results suggest that each additive, after taking part in the hydration reaction with OPC, produces a paste whose gel pore structure is similar to that derived from OPC alone. The BET adsorption surface area of the cement pastes, in the form of half inch diameter coupons was ca. 55 m 2 g -1 and was not influenced by the presence of the additives. However the pastes containing the additives have a larger and better interconnected meso and macropore structure than OPC which may account for larger diffusion coefficients reported elsewhere for caesium ions passing through concrete containing BFS in comparison with a concrete containing OPC alone. (author)

  3. National radioactive wasterRepository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the scheme of the Mochovce National radioactive waste repository for the Slovak Republic is presented. The National radioactive waste repository in Mochovce is a surface type storage facility. It is intended for final disposal of solid and solidified low and intermediate radioactive waste produced during the operation of nuclear power plants and institutions located within the territory of the Slovak Republic. The Repository site is situated about 2 km northwest to the Mochovce NPP

  4. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear energy production gives rise to different types of radioactive waste. The use of nuclear isotopes within the research, industry and medical sectors also generates radioactive waste. To protect man and the environment from radiation the waste is isolated and contained by deposition in repositories. These repositories may have various designs regarding location, barriers etc depending on the potential danger of the waste. In Sweden, low- and intermediate level waste (LILW) is disposed of in the SFR repository in Forsmark. The repository is located 60 metres down into the bedrock under the bottom of the sea and covered by 6 metres of water. It is planned to extend SFR to accommodate decommissioning waste from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power facilities and also for the additional operation waste caused by the planned prolonged operation time. When planning the extension consultations will be carried out with the host municipality, authorities, organisations and general public. In planning the extension, SKB has performed a worldwide compilation of how other countries have, or plan to, handle the final disposal of similar wastes. The aim of this report is to give a brief description of LILW repositories worldwide; including general brief descriptions of many facilities, descriptions of the waste and the barriers as well as safety assessments for a few chosen repositories which represent different designs. The latter is performed, where possible, to compare certain features against the Swedish SFR. To provide a background and context to this study, international organisations and conventions are also presented along with internationally accepted principles regarding the management of radioactive waste. Similar to SFR, suitable locations for the repositories have, in many countries, been found at sites that already have, or used to have nuclear activities, such as reactor sites. Abandoned and disused mines, such as the salt mines in Germany, also

  5. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva (SKB International AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear energy production gives rise to different types of radioactive waste. The use of nuclear isotopes within the research, industry and medical sectors also generates radioactive waste. To protect man and the environment from radiation the waste is isolated and contained by deposition in repositories. These repositories may have various designs regarding location, barriers etc depending on the potential danger of the waste. In Sweden, low- and intermediate level waste (LILW) is disposed of in the SFR repository in Forsmark. The repository is located 60 metres down into the bedrock under the bottom of the sea and covered by 6 metres of water. It is planned to extend SFR to accommodate decommissioning waste from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power facilities and also for the additional operation waste caused by the planned prolonged operation time. When planning the extension consultations will be carried out with the host municipality, authorities, organisations and general public. In planning the extension, SKB has performed a worldwide compilation of how other countries have, or plan to, handle the final disposal of similar wastes. The aim of this report is to give a brief description of LILW repositories worldwide; including general brief descriptions of many facilities, descriptions of the waste and the barriers as well as safety assessments for a few chosen repositories which represent different designs. The latter is performed, where possible, to compare certain features against the Swedish SFR. To provide a background and context to this study, international organisations and conventions are also presented along with internationally accepted principles regarding the management of radioactive waste. Similar to SFR, suitable locations for the repositories have, in many countries, been found at sites that already have, or used to have nuclear activities, such as reactor sites. Abandoned and disused mines, such as the salt mines in Germany, also

  6. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Larsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese......, and control subjects, were performed. A fasting blood sample was obtained and plasma insulin and glucose determined. A muscle biopsy was obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis, and fiber-type ceramide content was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity estimated by Quicki...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...

  7. Telemedicine compared with standard care in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, O. W.; Lauszus, Finn F; Loekke, M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Good metabolic control is important in type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve quality of life, work ability and life expectancy, and the use of telemedicine has proved efficient as an add-on to the usual treatment. However, few studies in type 2 diabetes patients have directly compared...... telemedicine with conventional outpatient treatment, and we wanted to evaluate whether telemedicine, compared with standard care, provides equivalent clinical outcomes. Methods Forty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus allocated from October 2011-July 2012 were randomized to either treatment at home...... by video conferences only or standard outpatient treatment. Primary outcomes were HbA1c and blood glucose levels and secondary outcomes were 24-hour blood pressure, cholesterol levels and albuminuria. The video-telephone was a broadband solution installed and serviced by the Danish Telephone Company (TDC...

  8. Design of TIME2 code: time dependent effects on Land 2 type repositories for Department of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Design details for the proposed TIME2 computer code are presented for the purposes of information, planning and to serve as a guideline during code development. The TIME2 code will describe the long-term evolution of the environments of Land 2 type radioactive waste disposal sites (also known as 'time dependent effects'). Outlines are presented of code purpose and utilisation, specification and structure, input and output design, verification and validation, quality assurance and documentation. (author)

  9. Extension of the service life and improvement of safety of near surface repositories of the type 'Radon'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalouvskaya, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the application and implementation of the new international principles and approaches for the radioactive waste management in the existing 'Radon' type storage facilities. The characteristics of the 'Radon' facilities, their licensing, the inspection program as well as the technical assessment of the facility Puspokszilagy (Hungary) are presented. Other aspects of the safety of the facilities such as measures for modernisation implemented in some countries (Latvia, Belarus, Bulgaria and other), intervention criteria, and long term safety are also discussed

  10. Process mining software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poncin, W.; Serebrenik, A.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Software developers' activities are in general recorded in software repositories such as version control systems, bug trackers and mail archives. While abundant information is usually present in such repositories, successful information extraction is often challenged by the necessity to

  11. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  12. Comparative analysis of type 1 and type 2 cassava peeling machines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of type 1 and type 2 cassava peeling machines with nail lengths of 26mm and 20mm were investigated in order to improve peeling techniques of cassava tubers. The machines were evaluated at four (4) different speeds; (80rev/min, 90rev/min, 100rev/min, and 110rev/min), with 750HP petrol engine.

  13. Comparing the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, B.; Zaidman, A.E.; Van Deursen, A.; Demeyer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents an extension to our previous work: Mining software repositories to study coevolution of production & test code. Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation (ICST), IEEE Computer Society, 2008; doi:10.1109/ICST.2008.47

  14. Description of the transport mechanisms and pathways in the far field of a KBS-3 type repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Neretnieks, I.

    1992-04-01

    The main purpose of this document is to serve as a reference document for the far field radionuclide transport description within SKB 91. A conceptual description of far field transport in crystalline rock is given together with a discussion of the application of the stream tube concept. In this concept the transport in a complex tree-dimensional flow field is divided into a number of imaginary tubes which are modelled independently. The stream tube concept is used as the basis for the radionuclide calculations in SKB 91. Different mathematical models for calculating the transport of radionuclides in fractured rock are compared: advection dispersion models, channeling models and network models. In the SKB 91 project a dual-porosity continuum model based on the one dimensional advection-dispersion equation taking into account matrix diffusion, sorption in the rock matrix and radioactive chain decay. Furthermore, the data needed for the transport models is discussed and recommended ranges and central values are given. (42 refs.) (au)

  15. Activities in dementia care: A comparative assessment of activity types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokon, Elizabeth; Sauer, Philip E; Li, Yue

    2016-12-05

    This exploratory study compares the impact of five activity types on the well-being of institutionalized people with dementia: the intergenerational art program Opening Minds through Art, art and music therapies, creative activities, non-creative activities, and no activities at all. We validated the Scripps Modified Greater Cincinnati Chapter Well-Being Observational Tool, and used that instrument to systematically observe N = 67 people with dementia as they participated in different activity types. People with dementia showed the highest well-being scores during Opening Minds through Art compared to all other activities. No significant well-being differences were found between creative activities led by licensed art/music therapist versus regular activity staff. Furthermore, no significant well-being differences were found between creative and non-creative activities that were both led by regular activity staff. Overall, people with dementia benefit from participating in activities, regardless of the type (creative or non-creative), or who conducts them (licensed therapists or activity staff). However, in order for people with dementia to reach significantly high levels of overall well-being, we recommend that activities are specifically designed for people with dementia and incorporate a 1:1 ratio between people with dementia and well-trained volunteers/staff members. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Telemedicine compared with standard care in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, O. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: For patients with T2DM does telemedicine, compared with standard care, provide equivalent clinical outcomes? Methods: Forty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus allocated from October 2011 until July 2012 randomized to either treatment at home by video conferences only or the standard...... outpatient treatment. Primary outcomes were HbA1c and blood glucose levels and secondary outcomes were 24-h blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and albuminuria. The videotelephone was installed and serviced by the telephone company, TDC, Denmark, as a broadband solution. Results: The improvements in the two...

  17. Open DOAR the Directory of Open Access Repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The last year has seen wide-spread growth in the idea of using open access repositories as a part of a research institution's accepted infrastructure. Policy development from institutions and funding bodies has also supported the growth of the repository network. The next stage of expansion will be in the provision of services and cross-repository facilities and resources. Of course, it is hoped that these will then establish a feed-back loop to encourage repository population and further repository establishment, as the potential of open access to research materials is realised. The growth of repositories has been organic, with a variety of different repositories based in departments, institutions, funding agencies or subject communities, with a range of content, both in type and subject. Existing repositories are expanding their holdings, from eprints to associated research data-sets, or with learning objects and multimedia material. This presentation will look at the development of the Directory of Open Ac...

  18. Repository Rodeo Redux

    CERN Document Server

    Anez, Melissa; Donohue, Tim; Fyson, Will; Simko, Tibor; Wilcox, David

    2017-01-01

    You’ve got more repository questions and we’ve got more answers! Last year’s Repository Rodeo panel was a huge success, so we’re taking the show on the road to Brisbane for OR2017. Join representatives from the DSpace, Eprints, Fedora, Hydra, and Islandora communities as we (briefly) explain what each of our repositories actually does. We'll also talk about the directions of our respective technical and community developments, and related to the conference theme of Open: Innovation Knowledge Repositories, offer brief observations about the latest, most promising and/or most surprising innovations in our space. This panel will be a great opportunity for newcomers to Open Repositories to get a crash course on the major repository options and meet representatives from each of their communities. After a brief presentation from each representative, we'll open the session up for questions from the audience.

  19. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  20. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  1. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  2. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  3. Comparing Collision Avoidance Systems of Different Type of Transportation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan ÖZDEMİR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Different modes of transportation are often used in our daily lives. Therefore, how safe these modes are commonly researched by researchers. Many models and methods are developed to avoid collision with the development of technology. This development is aimed to improving the safety of life and property. The technological developments also aim to reduce the minimum level of the human error. Technological devices developed to prevent collision are applied in systematic way according to type of transportation mode. When comparatively examined, it is similar to each other technology used in different modes. In this respect, proposed model and methods are similar in general. These approaches are generally based on position of vehicles relative to each other and also rules have been developed taking into consideration the possibilities that may occur. Real-time sensors used to avoid collision in vehicles reduce risk of collision and provide significant achievements on behalf of avoiding collision. Besides this, it has been considered important a communication network between vehicles. As a result, the importance of the technological devices developed to ensure collision avoidance is increasing in our life. Thus, the study aims to explain and compare the methods, models and techniques used in the different transportation modes so as to avoid collision.

  4. Coupled processes in repository sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.; Kelsall, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The significance of coupled processes in repository sealing is evaluated. In most repository designs, shaft seals will be located in areas of relatively low temperature perturbation, in which case the coupling of temperature with stress and permeability may be less significant than the coupling between stress and permeability that occurs during excavation. Constitutive relationships between stress and permeability are reviewed for crystalline rock and rocksalt. These provide a basis for predicting the development of disturbed zones near excavations. Field case histories of the degree of disturbance are presented for two contrasting rock types - Stripa granite and Southeastern New Mexico rocksalt. The results of field investigations in both rock types confirm that hydraulic conductivity or permeability is stress dependent, and that shaft seal performance may be related to the degree that stresses are perturbed and restored near the seal

  5. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  6. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  7. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1986-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10 -14 m 2 s -1 for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10 -10 m 2 s - include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO 4 - , iodide, I - , and selenite, SO 3 -2 . Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10 -12 m 2 s -1 . The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere

  8. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid-plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10/sup -14/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/ for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10/sup -10/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/ include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO/sub 4//sup -/, iodide, I/sup -/, and selenite, SeO/sub 3//sup -2/. Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10/sup -12/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/. The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid-plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10 -14 m 2 s -1 for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10 -10 m 2 s -1 include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO 4 - , iodide, I - , and selenite, SeO 3 -2 . Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10 -12 m 2 s -1 . The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Comparing wildlife habitat and biodiversity across green roof type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffman, R.R. [Oklahoma Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2007-07-01

    Green roofs represent restorative practices within human dominated ecosystems. They create habitat, increase local biodiversity, and restore ecosystem function. Cities are now promoting this technology as a part of mitigation for the loss of local habitat, making the green roof necessary in sustainable development. While most green roofs create some form of habitat for local and migratory fauna, some systems are designed to provide specific habitat for species of concern. Despite this, little is actually known about the wildlife communities inhabiting green roofs. Only a few studies have provided broad taxa descriptions across a range of green roof habitats, and none have attempted to measure the biodiversity across green roof class. Therefore, this study examined two different vegetated roof systems representative of North America. They were constructed under alternative priorities such as energy, stormwater and aesthetics. The wildlife community appears to be a result of the green roof's physical composition. Wildlife community composition and biodiversity is expected be different yet comparable between the two general types of green roofs, known as extensive and intensive. This study recorded the community composition found in the two classes of ecoroofs and assessed biodiversity and similarity at the community and group taxa levels of insects, spiders and birds. Renyi family of diversity indices were used to compare the communities. They were further described through indices and ratios such as Shannon's, Simpson's, Sorenson and Morsita's. In general, community biodiversity was found to be slightly higher in the intensive green roof than the extensive green roof. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Transfer systems in an underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Ehrlich, D.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to logistic problem definitions taking into account the waste types of the wastes to be disposed of and the mining conditions, transport and handling of radioactive wastes in a repository, particularly require the keeping of safety technological marginal conditions mainly resulting from the accident analyses carried out. The realization of these safety technological aspects is described taking the planned Konrad repository as an example. (author)

  12. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  13. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  14. Thermal dimensioning of spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2009-09-01

    This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3V type nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto for the BWR, VVER and EPR fuel canisters, which are disposed at vertical position in the horizontal tunnels in a rectangular geometry according to the preliminary Posiva plan. This report concerns only the temperature dimensioning of the repository and does not take into account the possible restrictions caused by the stresses induced in the rock. The maximum temperature on the canister-bentonite interface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity or in predicted decay power) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by adjusting the space between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the pre-cooling time affecting on power of the canisters. The temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by superposing analytic line heat source models much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first calibrated by numerical analysis (by control volume method). This was done by comparing the surface temperatures of a single canister calculated numerically and analytically. For the Olkiluoto repository of one panel having 900 canisters of BWR, VVER and EPR spent fuel was analyzed. The analyses were performed with an initial canister power of 1 700 W, 1 370 W and 1 830 W, respectively. These decay heats are obtained when the pre-cooling times of the fuels are 32.9, 29.6 and 50.3 years (the burn-up values 40, 40 and 50 MWd/kgU, respectively). The analyses gave as a result the canister spacing (6.0-10.8 m), when the tunnel spacing was 25 m, 30 m or 40 m. On the edge areas of the panel with constant canister spacing the temperatures of the canisters are lower than in the middle area of the repository. Thus it is possible to pack

  15. Comparing different types of source memory attributes in dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2012-04-01

    Source monitoring (SM) refers to our ability to discriminate between memories from different sources. Twenty healthy high-cognitive functioning older adults, 20 healthy low-cognitive functioning older adults, and 20 older adults with dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) were asked to perform a series of SM tasks that varied in terms of the to-be-remembered source attribute (perceptual, spatial, temporal, semantic, social, and affective details). Results indicated that older DAT adults had greater difficulty in SM compared to the healthy control groups, especially with spatial and semantic details. Data are discussed in terms of the SM framework and suggest that poor memory for some types of source information may be considered as an important indicator of clinical memory function when assessing for the presence and severity of dementia.

  16. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  17. Impact of retrievability of repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Gaag, J. v.d.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the retrievability on the design of the repository will be handled. Retrievability of radioactive waste from a repository in geological formations has received increasing attention during recent years. It is obvious that this retrievability will have consequences in terms of mining engineering, safety and cost. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate cost consequences by comparing two extreme options for retrievable storage. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Biospecimen repositories and cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Savitri

    2015-03-01

    Biospecimen repositories are important for the advancement of biomedical research. Literature on the potential for biobanking of fine-needle aspiration, gynecologic, and nongynecologic cytology specimens is very limited. The potential for biobanking of these specimens as valuable additional resources to surgically excised tissues appears to be excellent. The cervicovaginal specimens that can be used for biobanking include Papanicolaou-stained monolayer preparations and residual material from liquid-based cytology preparations. Different types of specimen preparations of fine-needle aspiration and nongynecologic specimens, including Papanicolaou-stained and Diff-Quik-stained smears, cell blocks. and dedicated passes/residual material from fine-needle aspiration stored frozen in a variety of solutions, can be used for biobanking. Because of several gaps in knowledge regarding the standard of operative procedures for the procurement, storage, and quality assessment of cytology specimens, further studies as well as national conferences and workshops are needed not only to create awareness but also to facilitate the use of cytopathology specimens for biobanking. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  20. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  1. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  2. Repository simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The repository simulation experiments described in this paper are designed to assess the performance of SRP waste glass under the most realistic repository conditions that can be obtained in the laboratory. These tests simulate the repository environment as closely as possible and introduce systematically the variability of the geology, groundwater chemistry, and waste package components during the leaching of the waste glass. The tests evaluate waste form performance under site-specific conditions, which differ for each of the geologic repositories under consideration. Data from these experiments will aid in the development of a realistic source term that can describe the release of radionuclides from SRP waste glass as a component of proposed waste packages. Hence, this information can be useful to optimize waste package design for SRP waste glass and to provide data for predicting long-term performance and subsequent conformance to regulations. The repository simulation tests also help to bridge the gap in interpreting results derived from tests performed under the control of the laboratory to the uncertainity and variability of field tests. In these experiments, site-specific repository components and conditions are emphasized and only the site specific materials contact the waste forms. An important feature of these tests is that both actual and simulated waste glasses are tested identically. 7 figures, 2 tables

  3. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  4. Repository development status in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, Alvaro; Zuloaga, Pablo [ENRESA (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes the status of repository development for the different waste categories. Low and Intermediate Waste Disposal facility of El Cabril was commissioned in 1992 and is in normal operation. The major modifications and activities during the last years are the adaptation to waste streams not initially foreseen such as some decommissioning waste or waste from steel industry, and the improvement of its performance assessment, supported by a R and D and refined models. As part of this facility, a new disposal facility specifically intended for very low activity waste has been constructed and commissioned in July 2008. Its design is based on the European Directive for hazardous waste disposal. National policy for Nuclear Spent Fuel and High-Level waste is focused on the development of a centralized storage facility of the vault type, whose site location would be selected through a volunteering process. Meanwhile, with the aim of solving specific problems, three individual storage facilities are in different status at reactor sites. Research on final solution, including some repository aspects as well as separation and transmutation are being carried out in accordance to ENRESA's R and D program. ENRESA has developed conceptual designs for non site specific repositories, both in granite and clay, and has carried out their corresponding performance assessment exercises. (authors)

  5. Coupling fuel cycles with repositories: how repository institutional choices may impact fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; Miller, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The historical repository siting strategy in the United States has been a top-down approach driven by federal government decision making but it has been a failure. This policy has led to dispatching fuel cycle facilities in different states. The U.S. government is now considering an alternative repository siting strategy based on voluntary agreements with state governments. If that occurs, state governments become key decision makers. They have different priorities. Those priorities may change the characteristics of the repository and the fuel cycle. State government priorities, when considering hosting a repository, are safety, financial incentives and jobs. It follows that states will demand that a repository be the center of the back end of the fuel cycle as a condition of hosting it. For example, states will push for collocation of transportation services, safeguards training, and navy/private SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inspection at the repository site. Such activities would more than double local employment relative to what was planned for the Yucca Mountain-type repository. States may demand (1) the right to take future title of the SNF so if recycle became economic the reprocessing plant would be built at the repository site and (2) the right of a certain fraction of the repository capacity for foreign SNF. That would open the future option of leasing of fuel to foreign utilities with disposal of the SNF in the repository but with the state-government condition that the front-end fuel-cycle enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities be located in that state

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Types of Cervical Laminoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, John G.; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical ...

  7. Comparative assessment of the treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokic, S.; Radman, M.; Capkum, V.; Dovzak-Kokic, D.; Tesanovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the most successful way of treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 87 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for a three-month study. The patients were divided into three groups comprising 29 patients in each group, based upon the treatment regimen. Group 1 (BMI 32.3+-3.6 kg/m2) was treated with glimepiride and metformin; group 2 (BMI 27.9+-3.9) was treated with daily doses of insulin mixture 30/70 and bed-time NPH insulin; and group 3 (BMI 30.02+-4.8) was treated with a combination of three daily doses of lispo and metformin.The groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex and age. Initially, there were significant statistical differences in HbA1c (P=0.035) between the three groups (9, 21%+-1.72%; 9.21%+-1.54%; and 10, 0%+-1.73% respectively). After three months there were no statistically differences in HbA1c (P=0.66) between the groups (8.52+-1.7%; 8.03%+-1.05%; and 8.0%+-0.63%, respectively. Decreases in HbA1c were significant in all groups, but most pronounced in patients treated with lispro and metaformin (17% on average). The study results suggest the need for establishing guidelines on how to treat type 2 diabetics. (author)

  8. Memory provisions for the Manche Surface Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Jean-Noel; Espiet-Subert, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The French La Manche repository site received its last radioactive waste package in 1994. In 2003, the official surveillance phase of the closed repository started under the supervision of Andra (the national industrial operator), the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and society (e.g. the local municipalities). Florence Espiet explained that information on the existence of the repository, its content, how it was operated and how it works needs to be preserved. It also is planned to review the information periodically for a minimum of 300 years. She described the creation of two documents on memory (a detailed and a summary one), both on permanent paper, and the preservation of the land registration. The latter constitutes 'passive' provisions for preserving memory. In addition, a number of 'active' provisions are and will be put in place: guided visits, exhibitions, partnerships with organisations dealing with memory preservation, and the creation of a think tank. The latter consists of local citizens and politicians, retired employees from Andra and artists that meet several times a year and reflect on memory preservation from the perspective of, for instance, local history, education, arts and rituals. Finally, two types of markers will be used to preserve the repository's memory: i) three herbaria cataloguing the plants growing on the site of the repository, including a very short description of the repository, will be stored at different sites in France; ii) a stele indicating the main characteristics of the repository, potentially linked to an art work, will be erected at the repository

  9. Site investigation requirements for a deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, I.W.

    1992-03-01

    Techniques currently available for measuring geotechnical parameters needed in the design, construction and assessment of a deep underground repository have been critically examined. These techniques have been considered under four main areas: definition of the rock discontinuity structure, definition of the in-situ stress distribution in the rock mass, estimation of the geomechanical characteristics of the rock mass, and estimation of flow and transport characteristics of the rock mass. The review concludes that generally rocks and rock masses are not well characterised by tests from cores or from boreholes and gives reason to support this view. The only parameters which can be measured accurately are laboratory index properties which are useful only in a comparative assessment of different rock types. Finally the review concludes that the only way to obtain useful data on rock behaviour is through large pilot scale tests with appropriate and controlled boundary conditions conducted preferably in the potential host strata. (author)

  10. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, Andr? J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 yea...

  11. Comparative effectiveness of different types of cervical laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, John G; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Riew, K Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical laminoplasty? KQ2: In adults with cervical myelopathy from OPLL or spondylosis, are postoperative complications, including pain and infection, different for the use of miniplates versus the use of no plates following laminoplasty? KQ3: Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Materials and Methods A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and March 11, 2013. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating (1) open door cervical laminoplasty and French door cervical laminoplasty and (2) the use of miniplates or no plates in cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers (A.L.R., J.R.D.) assessed the level of evidence quality using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results We identified three studies (one of class of evidence [CoE] II and two of CoE III) meeting our inclusion criteria comparing open door cervical laminoplasty with French door laminoplasty and two studies (one CoE II and one CoE III) comparing the use of miniplates with no plates. Data from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two retrospective cohort

  12. Trust in Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ISO 16363:2012, Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (ISO TRAC, outlines actions a repository can take to be considered trustworthy, but research examining whether the repository’s designated community of users associates such actions with trustworthiness has been limited. Drawing from this ISO document and the management and information systems literatures, this paper discusses findings from interviews with 66 archaeologists and quantitative social scientists. We found similarities and differences across the disciplines and among the social scientists. Both disciplinary communities associated trust with a repository’s transparency. However, archaeologists mentioned guarantees of preservation and sustainability more frequently than the social scientists, who talked about institutional reputation. Repository processes were also linked to trust, with archaeologists more frequently citing metadata issues and social scientists discussing data selection and cleaning processes. Among the social scientists, novices mentioned the influence of colleagues on their trust in repositories almost twice as much as the experts. We discuss the implications our findings have for identifying trustworthy repositories and how they extend the models presented in the management and information systems literatures.

  13. Sellafield repository design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997, UK Nirex Ltd carried out a programme of investigations to evaluate the potential of a site adjacent to the BNFL Sellafield works to host a deep repository for the United Kingdom's intermediate-level and certain low-level radioactive waste. The programme of investigations was wound down following the decision in March 1997 to uphold the rejection of the Company's planning application for the Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF), an underground laboratory which would have allowed further investigations to confirm whether or not the site would be suitable. Since that time, the Company's efforts in relation to the Sellafield site have been directed towards documenting and publishing the work carried out. The design concept for a repository at Sellafield was developed in parallel with the site investigations through an iterative process as knowledge of the site and understanding of the repository system performance increased. This report documents the Sellafield repository design concept as it had been developed, from initial design considerations in 1991 up to the point when the RCF planning application was rejected. It shows, from the context of a project at that particular site, how much information and experience has been gained that will be applicable to the development of a deep waste repository at other potential sites

  14. STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ADVERTISING TEXTS OF INFORMATIVE AND COMPARATIVE TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubskaya, O.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this article is related to the fact that nowadays advertising has a very strong impact both on the consumer market, political and cultural life of society, and on the language and its development as a system. Advertising has given rise to the development of a special set of stylistic features of a text, formed under the influence of reviving advertising traditions in the Russian language and under the active impact of energetic and pushy European advertising. The purpose of this study is to explore stylistic features of informative and comparative advertising texts. The object of research is Russian-language advertising in printed media and on television. In the end of the article we made conclusions about groups of language means used for different stylistic devices in informative and comparative advertising texts. Analysis of stylistic features of modern informative and comparative advertising texts can be of great interest to specialists in the field of theoretical studies of modern advertising.

  15. Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-12-01

    Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful

  16. Type D patients report poorer health status prior to and after cardiac rehabilitation compared to non-type D patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pelle, Aline; Erdman, Ruud; Domburg, Ron; Spiering, Marquita; Kazemier, Marten; Pedersen, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves outcomes, but little is known about the effects of CR on Type D patients. Purpose: We examined (1) variability in Type D caseness following CR, (2) Type D as a determinant of health status, and (3) the clinical relevance of Type D as a determinant of health status compared to cardiac history. Methods: CAD patients (n = 368) participating in CR completed ...

  17. New content in digital repositories the changing research landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Research institutions are under pressure to make their outputs more accessible in order to meet funding requirements and policy guidelines. Libraries have traditionally played an important role by exposing research output through a predominantly institution-based digital repository, with an emphasis on storing published works. New publishing paradigms are emerging that include research data, huge volumes of which are being generated globally. Repositories are the natural home for managing, storing and describing institutional research content. New Content in Digital Repositories explores the diversity of content types being stored in digital repositories with a focus on research data, creative works, and the interesting challenges they pose.

  18. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  19. Comparing two types of navigational interfaces for Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís; Vilar, Elisângela; Duarte, Emília; Rebelo, Francisco; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest significant differences between navigating virtual environments in a life-like walking manner (i.e., using treadmills or walk-in-place techniques) and virtual navigation (i.e., flying while really standing). The latter option, which usually involves hand-centric devices (e.g., joysticks), is the most common in Virtual Reality-based studies, mostly due to low costs, less space and technology demands. However, recently, new interaction devices, originally conceived for videogames have become available offering interesting potentialities for research. This study aimed to explore the potentialities of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board as a navigation interface in a Virtual Environment presented in an immersive Virtual Reality system. Comparing participants' performance while engaged in a simulated emergency egress allows determining the adequacy of such alternative navigation interface on the basis of empirical results. Forty university students participated in this study. Results show that participants were more efficient when performing navigation tasks using the Joystick than with the Balance Board. However there were no significantly differences in the behavioral compliance with exit signs. Therefore, this study suggests that, at least for tasks similar to the studied, the Balance Board have good potentiality to be used as a navigation interface for Virtual Reality systems.

  20. [Comparative study on the erect and fallen types of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) DC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Tang, X; Li, Z; Xiao, P

    1997-03-01

    Based on botanica characters, phenophase, yield and content of active constituents, the erect and fallen types of platycodon grandiflorum were compared. The results show that the comprehensive characters of erect type are better than those of fallen type and the erect type is therefore good for popularization. Some specific characters of the fallen type are better than those of the erect type, and the fallen type is therefore to be preserved as one of the germ plasm resources.

  1. [A comparative study of three types of IUD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K R; Chen, Q B

    1991-11-01

    In Zhejiang Province, China, there are 2.7 million IUD users. 90% of them use stainless steel single ring. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the IUDs, the Provincial Family Planning Commission organized a prospective comparative study on 3 kinds of IUDs: the single ring made in Wuxi, the metal ring with plastic core made in Beijing, and the copper TCU 220c made in Tianjin. Between October 1985 and March 1986 1199 healthy women aged 20-39 who had 2 or fewer normal deliveries and without previous history of ectopic pregnancy were screened and recruited to the study. They were randomly assigned to be inserted with the IUDs. 400 women had single ring, 402 women had metal with plastic core, and 397 had TCu 220c. 8 postinsertion follow-up visits were conducted up to 3 years, and menstruations were recorded every month. During the study, 4 cases were lost to follow-up. In the single-ring group, the cumulative continuation rates at 12, 24, and 36 months were 73.4, 66.7, and 65.7% respectively. For the metal-plastic ring group, it was 80.9, 72.3, and 69.3% and for the TCu 220c group, it was 94.5, 88.4, and 83.1%, respectively. The expulsion rates among the 3 kinds of IUDs were statistically significant at 12, 24, and 36 months. The highest expulsion rates were the single ring and TCu 220c were the lowest. The pregnancy rates were highest among metal-plastic ring users and lowest among TCu 220c users. The differences were not statistically significant between single ring and metal-plastic ring users. Discontinuation due to excessive menstrual bleeding were similar among the 3 methods probably due to treatment of the users who experienced excessive bleeding. Younger women and women who experienced fewer pregnancies were found to have higher expulsion and pregnancy rates. But the occurrence of side effects such as prolonged menstrual periods, spotting, and back pain were highest among TCu 220c users. It was recommended that the more effective TCu 220c should be

  2. A Deterministic Safety Assessment of a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    A GoldSim template program for a safety assessment of a hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS', in which two kinds of pyro-processed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyro-processing of PWR nuclear spent fuels are disposed of, has been developed. This program is ready both for a deterministic and probabilistic total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios. The A-KRS has been deterministically assessed with 5 various normal and abnormal scenarios associated with nuclide release and transport in and around the repository. Dose exposure rates to the farming exposure group have been evaluated in accordance with all the scenarios and then compared among other.

  3. Process model repositories and PNML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Post, R.D.J.; Somers, L.J.A.M.; Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Kindler, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bringing system and process models together in repositories facilitates the interchange of model information between modelling tools, and allows the combination and interlinking of complementary models. Petriweb is a web application for managing such repositories. It supports hierarchical process

  4. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  5. CRIS and Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asserson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CRIS (Current Research Information Systems provide researchers, research managers, innovators, and others with a view over the research activity of a domain. IRs (institutional repositories provide a mechanism for an organisation to showcase through OA (open access its intellectual property. Increasingly, organizations are mandating that their employed researchers deposit peer-reviewed published material in the IR. Research funders are increasingly mandating that publications be deposited in an open access repository: some mandate a central (or subject-based repository, some an IR. In parallel, publishers are offering OA but replacing subscription-based access with author (or author institution payment for publishing. However, many OA repositories have metadata based on DC (Dublin Core which is inadequate; a CERIF (Common-European Research Information Format CRIS provides metadata describing publications with formal syntax and declared semantics thus facilitating interoperation or homogeneous access over heterogeneous sources. The formality is essential for research output metrics, which are increasingly being used to determine future funding for research organizations.

  6. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  7. Repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.; Pentz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of candidate repository sites has a number of programmatic objectives. Principal among these is the acquisition of data: a) to determine the suitability of a site relative to the DOE repository siting guidelines, b) to support model development and calculations to determine the suitability of a site relative to the post closure criteria of the NRC and EPA, c) to support the design of a disposal system, including the waste package and the engineered barrier system, as well as the shafts and underground openings of the repository. In meeting the gaols of site characterization, the authors have an obligation to conduct their investigations within an appropriate budget and schedule. This mandates that a well-constructed and systematic plan for field investigations be developed. Such a plan must fully account for the mechanisms which will control the radiologic performance in the repository. The plan must also flexibly and dynamically respond to the results of each step of field investigation, responding to the spatial variability of earth as well as to enhanced understandings of the performance of the disposal system. Such a plan must ensure that sufficient data are available to support the necessary probabilistic calculations of performance. This paper explores the planning for field data acquisition with specific reference to requirements for demonstrations of the acceptable performance for disposal systems

  8. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  9. Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David

    , different abstraction levels and enables users to analyze their own results, and allows to share data with collaborators. The approach of the Computational Materials Repository (CMR) is to convert data to an internal format that maintains the original variable names without insisting on any semantics...

  10. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  11. Effects of repository conditions on environmental impact reduction by recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts (EI) of high-level wastes (HLW) disposed of in a water-saturated repository (WSR) and in the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) for various fuel cycle cases have been evaluated and compared to observe the difference in the recycling effects for differing repository conditions. With the impacts of direct spent fuel disposal in each repository as the reference level, separation of actinides by Urex+ and borosilicate vitrification clearly reduces the environmental impacts of YMR, while separation by Purex and borosilicate vitrification would not necessarily reduce the environmental impact of WSR. (authors)

  12. Consortial routes to effective repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Moyle, M.; Proudfoot, R.

    2009-01-01

    A consortial approach to the establishment of repository services can help a group of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to share costs, share technology and share expertise. Consortial repository work can tap into existing structures, or it can involve new groupings of institutions with a common interest in exploring repository development. This Briefing Paper outlines some of the potential benefits of collaborative repository activity, and highlights some of the technical and organisation...

  13. Comparative study T-type and I-type layout of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Rudi Iswanto and Siti Alimah

    2010-01-01

    Determining plant layout is one of the five major stages during the life time of a nuclear power plant. Some important factors that affect in the selecting of plant layout are availability of infrastructure, economic aspects, social aspects, public and environment safety, and also easy to do. Another factor to be considered is requirements as seismic design, which refers to the principles of good security workers, communities and the environment of radiological risks. There are many layout types of nuclear power plant, two of them are T-type layout and I-type layout. Each type of the plant layout has advantage and disadvantage, therefore this study is to understand them. Good layout is able to provide a high level of security against earthquakes. In term of earthquake design, I-type layout has a higher security level than T-type layout. Therefore, I-type layout can be a good choice for PWR nuclear power plants 1000 MWe that will be built in Indonesia. (author)

  14. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  15. Pregnancy outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients as compared with type 1 diabetic patients and nondiabetic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kristin M; Thornburg, Loralei L; Pressman, Eva K

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the neonatal and maternal outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients as compared with type 1 diabetic patients and nondiabetic controls. We performed a retrospective cohort study reviewing perinatal outcomes of type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic controls from July 2000 to August 2006. Analysis of variance, t testing and chi2 analysis were used to compare groups. Post hoc power analysis indicated 80% power was necessary to detect a 15% difference in composite poor neonatal outcomes. A total of 64 type 2 and 64 type 1 diabetic patients were compared with 256 controls. Type 1 diabetic patients had higher incidences of composite poor neonatal outcome and congenital anomalies than did type 2 diabetic and control patients. Both diabetic groups had similarly higher incidences of cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, polyhydramnios and macrosomia than did controls. Type 2 diabetic patients have a decreased incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes when compared with that of type 1 diabetic patients. No difference was observed between the diabetic groups in the incidence of a majority of the adverse maternal outcomes examined, however both diabetic groups had overall worse outcomes that did nondiabetic controls.

  16. Institutional Repository Sebagai Sarana Komunikasi Ilmiah Yang Sustainable Dan Reliable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizuddin Harliansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract; Institutional repositories development has drawn the attention of many scholars throughout the world. Using the keywords ‘institutional repositories’, there are over 300 peer-reviewed articles related on the topic has been indexed in Library, Information Science, & Technology Abstracts (LISTA and SCOPUS. There are also hundreds of theses, dissertations, and websites dedicated on this blooming trends. These are proofs that the importance of IR in higher education has been acknowledged by many professionals in the field. This paper aims at clarifying the role of repositories in strengthening scholarly communication in higher education and research institution and explaining some basic repositories concepts (types of repositories and their characteristics, as well as exploring its relations with open access movement, the development ideas, and resources that could be kept in repositories and deposit policies. Abstrak; Pengembangan institutional repositories telah banyak menyita perhatian dari kalangan ilmiah di seluruh dunia. Melalui kata kunci ‘institutional repositories’, ada lebih dari 300 artikel terulas mitra bestari yang berhubungan dengan topik ini, yang telah terindeks di Library, Information Science, & Technology Abstracts (LISTA, dan SCOPUS. Terdapat juga ratusan tesis, disertasi, dan website yang mengulas trend ini. Inilah bukti bahwa pentingnya institutional repositories (IR telah dipahami oleh para profesional di bidangnya. Tulisan ini akan menjelaskan aturan-aturan repository dalam memperkuat komunikasi ilmiah di perguruan tinggi dan lembaga riset, menjelaskan konsep-konsep dasar repositories, termasuk tipe-tipe repository dan karakteristiknya. Tulisan ini juga akan memperdalam konsep repositories dalam hubungannya dengan gerakan open access, pengembangan ide-ide, sumber-sumber ilmiah yang dapat disimpan di repositories, serta kebijakan penyimpanan di dalamnya.

  17. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  18. Uranium, thorium and trace elements in geologic occurrences as analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Brookins, D.G.; Cohen, L.H.; Flexser, S.; Abashian, M.; Murphy, M.; Williams, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Contact zones between intrusive rocks and tuff, basalt, salt and granitic rock were investigated as possible analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions. Results of detailed studies of contacts between quartz monzonite of Laramide age, intrusive into Precambrian gneiss, and a Tertiary monzonite-tuff contact zone indicate that uranium, thorium and other trace elements have not migrated significantly from the more radioactive instrusives into the country rock. Similar observations resulted from preliminary investigations of a rhyodacite dike cutting basalt of the Columbia River plateau and a kimberlitic dike cutting bedded salt of the Salina basin. This lack of radionuclide migration occurred in hydrologic and thermal conditions comparable to, or more severe than those expected in nuclear waste repository environments and over time periods of the order of concern for waste repositories. Attention is now directed to investigation of active hydrothermal systems in candidate repository rock types, and in this regard a preliminary set of samples has been obtained from a core hole intersecting basalt underlying the Newberry caldera, Oregon, where temperatures presently range from 100 to 265 0 C. Results of mineralogical and geochemical investigations of this core should indicate the alteration mineralogy and behavior of radioelements in conditions analogous to those in the near field of a repository in basalt

  19. Shear-induced Fracture Slip and Permeability Change. Implications for Long-term Performance of a Deep Geological Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ki-Bok; Stephansson, Ove

    2009-03-01

    Opening of fractures induced by shear dilation or normal deformation can be a significant source of fracture permeability change in jointed rock, which is important for the performance assessment of geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel. As the repository generates heat and later cools the fluid-carrying ability of the rocks becomes a dynamic variable during the lifespan of the repository. Heating causes expansion of the rock close to the repository and, at the same time, contraction close to the surface. During the cooling phase of the repository, the opposite takes place. Heating and cooling together with the virgin stress can induce shear dilation of fractures and deformation zones and change the flow field around the repository. The objectives of this project are to examine the contribution of thermal stress to the shear slip of fracture in mid- and far-field around a KBS-3 type of repository and to investigate the effect of evolution of stress on the rock mass permeability. The first part of the study is about the evolution of thermal stresses in the rock during the lifetime of the repository. Critical sections of heat generated stresses around the repository are selected and classified. Fracture data from Forsmark is used to establish fracture network models (DFN) and the models are subjected to the sum of virgin stress and thermal stresses and the shear slip and related permeability change are studied. In the first part of this study, zones of fracture shear slip were examined by conducting a three-dimensional, thermo-mechanical analysis of a spent fuel repository model. Stress evolutions of importance for fracture shear slip are: (1) comparatively high horizontal compressive thermal stress at the repository level, (2) generation of vertical tensile thermal stress right above the repository, (3) horizontal tensile stress near the surface, which can induce tensile failure, and generation of shear stresses at the corners of the repository. In the

  20. Shear-induced Fracture Slip and Permeability Change. Implications for Long-term Performance of a Deep Geological Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Ki-Bok (School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, Univ. of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia)); Stephansson, Ove (Steph Rock Consulting AB, Berlin (Germany))

    2009-03-15

    Opening of fractures induced by shear dilation or normal deformation can be a significant source of fracture permeability change in jointed rock, which is important for the performance assessment of geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel. As the repository generates heat and later cools the fluid-carrying ability of the rocks becomes a dynamic variable during the lifespan of the repository. Heating causes expansion of the rock close to the repository and, at the same time, contraction close to the surface. During the cooling phase of the repository, the opposite takes place. Heating and cooling together with the virgin stress can induce shear dilation of fractures and deformation zones and change the flow field around the repository. The objectives of this project are to examine the contribution of thermal stress to the shear slip of fracture in mid- and far-field around a KBS-3 type of repository and to investigate the effect of evolution of stress on the rock mass permeability. The first part of the study is about the evolution of thermal stresses in the rock during the lifetime of the repository. Critical sections of heat generated stresses around the repository are selected and classified. Fracture data from Forsmark is used to establish fracture network models (DFN) and the models are subjected to the sum of virgin stress and thermal stresses and the shear slip and related permeability change are studied. In the first part of this study, zones of fracture shear slip were examined by conducting a three-dimensional, thermo-mechanical analysis of a spent fuel repository model. Stress evolutions of importance for fracture shear slip are: (1) comparatively high horizontal compressive thermal stress at the repository level, (2) generation of vertical tensile thermal stress right above the repository, (3) horizontal tensile stress near the surface, which can induce tensile failure, and generation of shear stresses at the corners of the repository. In the

  1. Pulsatile stress in middle-aged patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes compared to nondiabetic controls.

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André

    2010-01-01

    AbstractBackground: Arterial pulse pressure (PP) is considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared PP during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes, and corresponding nondiabetic controls. Methods: 40 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, BMI 23.0 kg/m(2)) were compared to 40 non hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, 29.7 kg/m(2)). Pati...

  2. Desiderata for healthcare integrated data repositories based on architectural comparison of three public repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2013-01-01

    Integrated data repositories (IDRs) are indispensable tools for numerous biomedical research studies. We compare three large IDRs (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2), HMO Research Network's Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) repository) in order to identify common architectural features that enable efficient storage and organization of large amounts of clinical data. We define three high-level classes of underlying data storage models and we analyze each repository using this classification. We look at how a set of sample facts is represented in each repository and conclude with a list of desiderata for IDRs that deal with the information storage model, terminology model, data integration and value-sets management.

  3. comparative analysis of type 3 and type 4 cassava peeling machines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOME

    the chute. Both the peeling shaft and the conveyor shaft were driven by a 5HP electric motor. A belt and pulley mechanism was used to transfer the motion from the ... The design and development of type 4 cassava peeling machine is similar to ...

  4. Publishers and repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The impact of self-archiving on journals and publishers is an important topic for all those involved in scholarly communication. There is some evidence that the physics arXiv has had no impact on physics journals, while 'economic common sense' suggests that some impact is inevitable. I shall review recent studies of librarian attitudes towards repositories and journals, and place this in the context of IOP Publishing's experiences with arXiv. I shall offer some possible reasons for the mis-match between these perspectives and then discuss how IOP has linked with arXiv and experimented with OA publishing. As well as launching OA journals we have co-operated with Cornell and the arXiv on Eprintweb.org, a platform that offers new features to repository users. View Andrew Wray's biography

  5. Distributed Web Service Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Nawrocki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability and popularity of computer systems has resulted in a demand for new, language- and platform-independent ways of data exchange. That demand has in turn led to a significant growth in the importance of systems based on Web services. Alongside the growing number of systems accessible via Web services came the need for specialized data repositories that could offer effective means of searching of available services. The development of mobile systems and wireless data transmission technologies has allowed the use of distributed devices and computer systems on a greater scale. The accelerating growth of distributed systems might be a good reason to consider the development of distributed Web service repositories with built-in mechanisms for data migration and synchronization.

  6. Shared Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, Rui; Bastião, Luís; Costa, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a solution for the integration of ownership concept and access control over medical imaging resources, making possible the centralization of multiple instances of repositories. The proposed architecture allows the association of permissions to repository resources and delegation of rights to third entities. It includes a programmatic interface for management of proposed services, made available through web services, with the ability to create, read, update and remove all components resulting from the architecture. The resulting work is a role-based access control mechanism that was integrated with Dicoogle Open-Source Project. The solution has several application scenarios like, for instance, collaborative platforms for research and tele-radiology services deployed at Cloud.

  7. Czech Republic. Dukovany repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The repository at the Dukovany site is a structure located above the land surface. It consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults. Each double-row has dimensions 38x160x6 meters and contains 2x28 vaults. The internal dimensions of each vault are 18x6x5.4 meters. The repository serves for reactor wastes from the Dukovany and Temelin nuclear power plants (NPPs). Its capacity is 55,000 m 3 or 130,000 drums. The repository is a fully engineered facility with multiple barriers. The first engineered barrier is the waste form (in the case of waste from the Dukovany NPP, the waste form is mainly bitumen, but concrete and glass are also considered as suitable solidification products). The second barrier is the container (a 200 litre steel drum or a HIC container), whereas the third consists of cut-off reinforced concrete walls with asphalt-based hydro-insulation. The fourth barrier is a cap which should protect the vaults against infiltration of rainwater and should serve also as an intrusion and erosion barrier. The fifth barrier is a drainage system around the repository which is composed of layers of gravel and sand. The void space in drums around the waste is filled with specially composed grout. Such waste packages are emplaced into the disposal vault, which is covered by pre-fabricated panels. Thereafter, joints between the panels are sealed and a provisional coverage added; the final cover, however, will be constructed only over the whole row of 28 vaults, until all vaults are filled with waste. The final cover will encompass the following components: reinforced concrete pre-fabricated panels (500 mm); cement overcoat (30 mm); insulation foil; concrete layer for cap levelling (5-150 mm); layer of asphalto-propylene concrete (150 mm); soil (450 mm); geotextile foil with topsoil (top surface vegetation). (author)

  8. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  9. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1986-12-01

    This document is the third joint annual report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that are in progress at the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This Government supported mine serves as an underground test facility for research and development (R and D)-work in the field of nuclear waste repository research and simulation experiments. The tests are designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. This document covers the following sections: Issues and test objectives: This section presents issues that are investigated by the Brine Migration Test, and the test objectives derived from these issues; test site: This section describes the test site location and geology in the Asse mine; test description: A description of the test configuration, procedures, equipment, and instrumentation is given in this section; actual test chronology: The actual history of the test, in terms of the dates at which major activities occured, is presented in this section. Test results: This section presents the test results observed to data and the planned future work that is needed to complete the test; conclusions and recommendations: This section summarizes the conclusions derived to date regarding the Brine Migration Test. Additional work that would be useful to resolve the issues is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of repository safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  11. Evaluation of repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S.

    2002-01-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  12. Repository performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the

  13. Repository simulation model: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report documents the application of computer simulation for the design analysis of the nuclear waste repository's waste handling and packaging operations. The Salt Repository Simulation Model was used to evaluate design alternatives during the conceptual design phase of the Salt Repository Project. Code development and verification was performed by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWL). The focus of this report is to relate the experience gained during the development and application of the Salt Repository Simulation Model to future repository design phases. Design of the repository's waste handling and packaging systems will require sophisticated analysis tools to evaluate complex operational and logistical design alternatives. Selection of these design alternatives in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) and License Application Design (LAD) phases must be supported by analysis to demonstrate that the repository design will cost effectively meet DOE's mandated emplacement schedule and that uncertainties in the performance of the repository's systems have been objectively evaluated. Computer simulation of repository operations will provide future repository designers with data and insights that no other analytical form of analysis can provide. 6 refs., 10 figs

  14. Decreased α-cell mass and early structural alterations of the exocrine pancreas in patients with type 1 diabetes: An analysis based on the nPOD repository.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidéline Bonnet-Serrano

    Full Text Available Abnormal glucagon secretion and functional alterations of the exocrine pancreas have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D, but their respective anatomical substrata have seldom been investigated. Our aim was to develop an automated morphometric analysis process to characterize the anatomy of α-cell and exocrine pancreas in patients with T1D, using the publicly available slides of the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors (nPOD.The ratio of β- and α-cell area to total tissue area were quantified in 75 patients with T1D (thereafter patients and 66 control subjects (thereafter controls, on 2 insulin-stained and 4 glucagon-stained slides from both the head and the tail of the pancreas. The β- and α-cell masses were calculated in the 66 patients and the 50 controls for which the pancreas weight was available. Non-exocrine-non-endocrine tissue area (i.e. non-acinar, non-insular tissue to total tissue area ratio was evaluated on both insulin- and glucagon-stained slides. Results were expressed as mean ±SD.An automated quantification method was set up using the R software and was validated by quantification of β-cell mass, a well characterized parameter. β-cell mass was 29.6±112 mg in patients and 628 ±717 mg in controls (p<0.0001. α-cell mass was 181±176 mg in patients and 349 ±241mg in controls (p<0.0001. Non-exocrine-non-endocrine area to total tissue area ratio was 39±9% in patients and 29± 10% in controls (p<0.0001 and increased with age in both groups, with no correlation with diabetes duration in patients.The absolute α-cell mass was lower in patients compared to controls, in proportion to the decrease in pancreas weight observed in patients. Non-exocrine-non-endocrine area to total tissue area ratio increased with age in both groups but was higher in patients at all ages.

  15. Same, same but different. A comparative perspective on participation and acceptance in siting procedures for HLW repositories in France, Sweden and Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Environmental Policy Research Centre

    2015-07-01

    This paper compares national approaches in Finland, Sweden, and France. These three EURATOM Member States are in an advanced stage of siting deep geological disposal (DGD) facilities. The procedures in these countries are largely based on voluntarism, but differ in their approach to public consultation as they were based on the so-called staged volunteer process leading to working partnership arrangements between the operator and the hosting communities and veto rights (Sweden), decisions with strong local community support and veto rights for municipalities until the final decision (Finland), and final top-down decision making after consultative processes (debat public) with the affected communities without veto rights (France). This presentation focuses on participation and acceptance issues; it analyses the different modes of governance with diverse conditions regarding transparency, trust, communication, and participation that have been at work. Moving beyond the fact that variance exists with regard to the relevant national institutional, legal, cultural, industrial, and energy frameworks, the authors take evidence from national case studies and look for common patterns.

  16. Same, same but different. A comparative perspective on participation and acceptance in siting procedures for HLW repositories in France, Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares national approaches in Finland, Sweden, and France. These three EURATOM Member States are in an advanced stage of siting deep geological disposal (DGD) facilities. The procedures in these countries are largely based on voluntarism, but differ in their approach to public consultation as they were based on the so-called staged volunteer process leading to working partnership arrangements between the operator and the hosting communities and veto rights (Sweden), decisions with strong local community support and veto rights for municipalities until the final decision (Finland), and final top-down decision making after consultative processes (debat public) with the affected communities without veto rights (France). This presentation focuses on participation and acceptance issues; it analyses the different modes of governance with diverse conditions regarding transparency, trust, communication, and participation that have been at work. Moving beyond the fact that variance exists with regard to the relevant national institutional, legal, cultural, industrial, and energy frameworks, the authors take evidence from national case studies and look for common patterns.

  17. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants.

  18. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  19. [The subject repositories of strategy of the Open Access initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Guimarães, M C; da Silva, C H; Horsth Noronha, I

    2012-11-01

    The subject repositories are defined as a set of digital objects resulting from the research related to a specific disciplinary field and occupy a still restricted space in the discussion agenda of the Free Access Movement when compared to amplitude reached in the discussion of Institutional Repositories. Although the Subject Repository comes to prominence in the field, especially for the success of initiatives such as the arXiv, PubMed and E-prints, the literature on the subject is recognized as very limited. Despite its roots in the Library and Information Science, and focus on the management of disciplinary collections (subject area literature), there is little information available about the development and management of subject repositories. The following text seeks to make a brief summary on the topic as a way to present the potential to develop subject repositories in order to strengthen the initiative of open access.

  20. INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY: EMPLOYMENT IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of «institutional repository» and determined the aspects of institutional repositories in higher education. Institutional Repositories are information systems that allow preserving, storing and disseminating scientific knowledge produced in higher education and scientific research institutions. This study presented the main aspects using institutional repositories in educational process (such as storage of scientific and educational information, means of organization activity of students, object of studying. This article produced the structure of communities and collections of the institutional. It is described the experience of implementing of DSpace in the learning process.

  1. Design of repository sealing systems - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, R.D.; Shukla, D.K.; Kelsall, P.C.; D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers, Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Isolating nuclear waste in geologic repositories will require the sealing of penetrations such as access shafts and tunnels, disposal rooms, and exploration boreholes. This paper discusses seal designs developed for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. Designs are based on a multiple component concept whereby individual components are designed for a specific function and location. For a repository in salt the major function of the seals is to exclude groundwater inflow. Two main types of component are included for this purpose: (1) bulk-heads are dense concrete structures keyed into the walls of the penetration and are intended to reduce flow at the interface between the seal and the salt; (2) backfills are granular materials compacted in place in the penetration. In the repository the major backfill material is crushed salt, which is expected to consolidate and recrystallize as the rooms close in response to salt creep. Densely compacted clays will be used as backfill in the shafts closer to potential sources of water inflow. 22 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  2. Comparative behaviour of lab.-cultured and wild-type Dacus oleae flies in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopy, R.J.; Haniotakis, G.E.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    Under field conditions, the authors compared the responses of lab.-type (ca. 85 generations under artificial conditions) and wild-type Dacus oleae flies to host plant colour and odour, host fruit colour and shape, small rectangles of different colours and shades, and McPhail-type traps of different colours baited with different odours. Except for the lab.-type flies being relatively more attracted toward red fruit models and small red rectangles and relatively less attracted toward yellow fruit models and small yellow rectangles than the wild type, the qualitative nature of the responses of the two fly types toward the various experimental treatments was essentially the same. Quantitatively, however, consistently smaller percentages of the released lab.-type than the released wild-type flies were recaptured, suggesting that the mobility, flight pattern, or vigour of the two types of flies may be different. (author)

  3. Natural Elemental Concentrations and Fluxes: Their Use as Indicators of Repository Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Bill; Lind, Andy; Savage, Dave; Maul, Philip; Robinson, Peter

    2002-03-01

    individual processes, such as groundwater discharge, river flow and erosion at specific locations. The approach can also be of value at the generic level of repository development, before site characterisation programmes have been undertaken. They could be used, for example, as a component in comparative evaluations of alternative generic disposal concepts. The objective at the generic level would be to define typical or average natural elemental concentrations and fluxes in geological systems representative of the environments which might host a repository, and to compare these with the outputs from the associated generic PAs. To facilitate the use of the natural safety indicators methodology at the generic level, this study has undertaken to bring together and to compile much of the required information. This information has been used to quantify average elemental mass fluxes at the global scale for a range of processes, including groundwater discharge, erosion and sediment transport. The point of these calculations is that they provide a baseline against which site or geological environment specific natural fluxes, from anywhere in the world, can be compared on an equal basis to evaluate if they are higher or lower than the global average and, thus, are useful for providing a broad natural context for predicted repository releases. In separate calculations, elemental mass fluxes were quantified for a number of reference environments which are chosen to be representative of the types of sites and geological systems which may host a deep repository. The reference environments were an inland pluton, basement under sedimentary cover and a sedimentary basin. The fluxes for these environments were calculated for systems with spatial scales of a few hundred square kilometres and, as such, approximate closely to the repository systems modelled in PAs because a reference environment represents the same system, with the same rock, groundwater and surface conditions as those

  4. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  5. A Summary of Properties Used to Evaluate INEEL Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities

  6. Benchmark problems for repository siting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.; Thomas, S.D.; Lester, B.H.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes benchmark problems to test computer codes used in siting nuclear waste repositories. Analytical solutions, field problems, and hypothetical problems are included. Problems are included for the following types of codes: ground-water flow in saturated porous media, heat transport in saturated media, ground-water flow in saturated fractured media, heat and solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated fractured media, and solute transport in unsaturated porous media

  7. Towards a Swedish repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.-E.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power is producing electricity for the benefit of society but is also leaving radioactive residues behind. It is our responsibility to handle these residues in a safe and proper manner. The development of a system for handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants has proceeded in steps. The same is true for the actual construction of facilities and will continue to be the case for the final repository for spent fuel and other types of long-lived wastes. The primary objective in constructing the repository will be to isolate and contain the radioactive waste. In case the isolation fails for some reason the multibarrier system should retain and retard the radionuclides that might come into contact with the groundwater. A repository is now planned to be built in two steps where the first step will include deposition of about 400 canisters with spent fuel. This first step should be finished in about 20 years from now and be followed by an extensive evaluation of the results from not only this particular step but also from the development of alternative routes before deciding on how to proceed. A special facility to encapsulate the spent fuel is also required. Such an encapsulation plant is proposed to be constructed as an extension of the existing interim storage CLAB. Finding a site for the repository is a critical issue in the implementation of any repository. The siting process started a few years ago and made some progress but is by no means yet completed. It will go on at least into the early part of the next decade. When the present nuclear power plants begin to be due for retirement there should also be some facilities in place to take permanent care of the long-lived radioactive residues. Progress in siting will be a prerequisite for success in our responsibility to make progress towards a safe permanent solution of the waste issue. (orig.)

  8. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Bellodi, G; Benedetto, E; Dorda, U; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, G; Schmidt, F; Todesco, E; Zotter, Bruno W; Payet, J; Bartolini, R; Farvacque, L; Sen, T; Chin, Y H; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Furman, M; Qiang, J; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A; Vay, J L; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Cousineau, S M; Danilov, V; Holmes, J A; Shishlo, A; Kim, E S; Cai, Y; Pivi, M; Kaltchev, D I; Abell, D T; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Franchetti, G; Hofmann, I; Machida, S; Wei, J

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic acceleratorphysics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  9. Safety analysis in subsurface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The development of mathematical models to represent the repository-geosphere-biosphere system, and the development of a structure for data acquisition, processing, and use to analyse the safety of subsurface repositories, are presented. To study the behavior of radionuclides in geosphere a laboratory to determine the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient was constructed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Granite-repository - geochemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Some geochemical data of importance for a radioactive waste repository in hard rock are reviewed. The ground water composition at depth is assessed. The ground water chemistry in the vicinity of uranium ores is discussed. The redox system in Swedish bedrock is described. Influences of extreme climatic changes and of repository mining and construction are also evaluated

  11. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  12. Technology overview of mined repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, R.; Thirumalai, K.

    1982-01-01

    Mined repositories present an environmentally viable option for permanent disposal of nuclear waste. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art mining technologies and identifies technological issues and developments necessary to mine a repository in basalt. The thermal loading, isolation, and retrieval requirements of a repository present unique technological challenges unknown to conventional mining practice. The technology issues and developments required in the areas of excavation, roof and ground support, equipment development, instrumentation development, and sealing are presented. Performance assessment methods must be developed to evaluate the adequacies of technologies developed to design, construct, operate, and decommission a repository. A stepwise test-and-development approach is used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to develop cost-effective technologies for a repository

  13. Influence analysis of Github repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Bai, Xiaomei; Yu, Shuo; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    With the support of cloud computing techniques, social coding platforms have changed the style of software development. Github is now the most popular social coding platform and project hosting service. Software developers of various levels keep entering Github, and use Github to save their public and private software projects. The large amounts of software developers and software repositories on Github are posing new challenges to the world of software engineering. This paper tries to tackle one of the important problems: analyzing the importance and influence of Github repositories. We proposed a HITS based influence analysis on graphs that represent the star relationship between Github users and repositories. A weighted version of HITS is applied to the overall star graph, and generates a different set of top influential repositories other than the results from standard version of HITS algorithm. We also conduct the influential analysis on per-month star graph, and study the monthly influence ranking of top repositories.

  14. Modeling and experimental study of a corrugated wick type solar still: Comparative study with a simple basin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrawy, K.K.; Alosaimy, A.S.; Mahrous, A.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of corrugated wick type solar still is compared with simple type. • Corrugated porous surface contributes by about 75% of the total productivity. • Productivity of corrugated solar still was 34% more than that for simple type. - Abstract: In the present work, the productivity of a solar still is modified by forming the evaporative surface as a corrugated shape as well as by decreasing the heat capacity with the use of a porous material. This target has been achieved by using black clothes in a corrugated shape that are immersed in water where the clothes absorbs water and get saturated by capillary effect. Along with the proposed corrugated wick type solar still, a simple basin still type was fabricated and tested to compare the enhancement accomplished by the developed solar still. Inclined reflectors were used to augment the solar radiation incident on the plane of the developed solar stills. The energy balance in the developed mathematical models takes into consideration the glass covers, the porous material, along with the portion of water exposed to the transmitted solar radiation as well as the portion of water shaded by the corrugated surface. The developed mathematical model was validated by fabricating and testing two models for the proposed and simple basin solar stills under the same conditions. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results has been detected. It has been found that an improvement of about 34% in the productivity for the proposed wick type solar still is gained as compared to the simple basin case. Also, the best tilt angle for the inclined reflector has been found to be about 30° with respect to the vertical direction of the setup under consideration.

  15. Modelling of near-field radionuclide transport phenomena in a KBS-3V type of repository for nuclear waste with Goldsim Code - and verification against previous methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.

    2010-03-01

    Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)

  16. Durability of cemented waste in repository and under simulated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Nicu, M.; Lungu, L.; Turcanu, C.; Rotarescu, Gh.

    2000-01-01

    simulated disposal conditions for reference samples; - emplacement of reference samples in Baita Bihor Repository for real disposal characterization. All samples were positioned in five locations of Baita-Bihor repository where they will be kept for 1, 3, 5 and 10 years before mechanical and structural characterization. These locations have different humidity values, decreasing from location 1 to 5. The results will be compared with those obtained for the same type of samples kept in laboratory conditions. The mechanical performances of the matrix with cement-mineral additives are not influenced if bentonite or volcanic tuff concentration is is lower than 10%. The very good mechanical behaviour of the samples, drives at the conclusion that the additive cement-mineral mixture could be used in the disposal procedure, with good results, if the future structure characterization would prove the role as engineered barrier. Complexing reagents reduce drastically the mechanical performances. The chemical nature of the complexing agent plays an important role, the damaging effect being more pregnant for tartaric and citric acid than for oxalic acid. In any case there is a maximum limit of concentration which is acceptable from mechanical point of view. The mechanical resistance observed in all samples, after one year disposal, are within the accepted limits for the matrix durability. Thus, disposal conditions has not influence the mechanical properties of the cement matrix after one year disposal. The presented results, showed that bentonite seems to have a positive influence on the quality of the examined matrices . These results are preliminary. The data obtained so far will be completed with those to be obtained after three year disposal. XRD initial investigation of waste samples showed complex changes in the structure and components. To understand the systems, series of different compositions need to be characterized. In the next years the durability of samples kept for times

  17. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities

  18. Post-closure resaturation of a deep radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, I.C.S.; Rodwell, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    The post-closure resaturation of a deep radioactive waste repository has been modelled for a number of generic disposal concepts. A combination of numerical ground water flow simulations and analytical calculations has been used to investigate the variation of repository fluid pressure and degree of water saturation with time, and to determine the factors influencing resaturation times. The host rock permeability was found to be the most important determining factor. For geological environments regarded as likely for a waste repository, resaturation is predicted to be a short term process compared with gas generation and contaminant migration timescales. (author)

  19. Accelerator assisted repositories, technical issue identification and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, T.; Favale, A.; Berwald, D. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An investigation (technical and economic) is presented to quantify the impact of accelerator assisted repository (AAR) system on the US national nuclear repository strategy. An overview of US spent fuel policy is presented which provides a means to comparatively assess competing spent fuel disposition technologies under investigation. The advantages of an AAR system are highlighted and discussed. A companion economic analysis is presented. The results indicate that although a US geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of selected actinides, and long-lived fission products, can result in substantial benefits. (author) 18 refs.

  20. Comparative measurements of exodeviations in the three types of intermittent exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the results of 4 methods for measuring angle of exodeviation in the three types of intermittent exotropia, including when looking at indoor distance target of 6m, looking at indoor distance target of 30m, looking at outdoor far distance target, after 1h diagnostic occlusion test. METHODS: Prospective case series study. Sixty-five patients with intermittent exotropia between June 2013 and June 2014 were enrolled in the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital to Qingdao University, included 37 males and 28 females with average age(12.5±6.2years. All the patients were measured when looking at indoor distance target of 6m, looking at indoor distance target of 30m, looking at outdoor far distance target, after 1h diagnostic occlusion test. Intermittent exotropia was divided into basic type, convergence insufficiency type and divergence excess type, which was based on the different result of between the distance and near measurements. The One-way test was applied to analyze the four methods of measuring angle of exodeviation in the three types of intermittent exotropia. LSD-t test was applied to compare the differences between each two methods in each type.RESULTS: The distance exodeviations tested with looking at indoor distance target of 6m, looking at indoor distance target of 30m, looking at outdoor far distance target, after 1h diagnostic occlusion test were basic type(45.4±21.0, 55.0±15.0, 64.68±17.7, 68.75±16.6PD, convergence insufficiency type(33.3±14.0, 44.9±12.9, 43.6±11.8, 54.6±11.2PD, divergence excess type(55.6±17.4, 66.3±18.8, 76.9±16.4, 78.1±15.6PD. There were obviously differences between each two methods in each type(basic type F=9.649, P=0.00; convergence insufficiency type F=6.886, P=0.001; divergence excess type F=7.989, P=0.00. Compared with looking at indoor distance target of 30m, looking at outdoor far distance target(basic type P=0.044, divergence excess type P=0.048and after 1h diagnostic

  1. Project Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Analysis of performance and long-term safety of repository concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Widen, H.

    1992-09-01

    This study is part of the Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS, with the overall aim to perform a technical/economical ranking of alternative repository concepts and canisters for the final storage of spent nuclear fuel. The comparison should in the first stage separately assess technology in construction and operation, long-term performance and safety, and costs. Three of the repository concepts are assumed to be located at a depth of approximately 500 m in the host rock, KBS-3, Very Long Holes (VLH) and Medium Long Holes (MLH). In the KBS-3 concept the canisters are deposited in vertical deposition holes in a system of parallel storage tunnels. In the VLH concept larger canisters are deposited in long horizontal tunnels. The MLH concept, is an evolution of the two other concepts, with KBS-3 type canisters deposited in horizontal tunnels. Smaller canisters are to be deposited in deep bore holes at a depth between 2000 to 4000 m in the Very Deep Holes (VDH) concept. In all concepts the canisters will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer. The aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the performance and long-term safety of the repository concepts. Only a qualitative comparison of the concepts is made as no calculations of radionuclide releases or dose to man have been performed. The ranking of the repository concepts was carried out by comparing the VDH, VLH and MLH concept with the KBS-3 concept. The performance and long-term safety of the repositories located at 500 m level will be based on a multiple barrier system and the predictions for the concepts will involve similar uncertainties. (54 refs.)

  2. Study of nuclear waste storage capacity at Yucca mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Apted, M.; Kessler, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository is applying license for storing 70000 MTHM nuclear waste including commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The 70000 MTHM is a legal not the technical limit. To study the technical limit, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) carried out a systematic study to explore the potential impact if the repository will accept more waste. This paper describes the model and results for evaluating the spent-fuel disposal capacity for a repository at Yucca Mountain from the thermal and hydrological point of view. Two proposed alternative repository designs are analyzed, both of which would fit into the currently well-characterized site and, therefore, not necessitating any additional site characterization at Yucca Mountain. The two- and three-dimensional models for coupled thermo-hydrological analysis extends from the surface to the water table, covering all the major and subgroup rock layers of the planned repository, as well as formations above and below the repository horizon. A dual-porosity and dual-permeability approach is used to model coupled heat and mass transfer through fracture formations. The waste package heating and ventilation are all assumed to follow those of the current design. The results show that the repository is able to accommodate three times the amount of spent fuel compared to the current design, without extra spatial expansion or exceeding current thermal and hydrological constraints. (authors)

  3. Monitoring of geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high level radioactive waste are designed to provide isolation of the waste from human environment for many thousands of years. This report discusses the possible purposes for monitoring geological repositories at the different stages of a repository programme, the use that may be made of the information obtained and the techniques that might be applied. This report focuses on the different objectives that monitoring might have at various stages of a programme, from the initiation of work on a candidate site, to the period after repository closure. Each objective may require somewhat different types of information, or may use the same information in different ways. Having evaluated monitoring requirements, the report concludes with a brief evaluation of available monitoring techniques

  4. Classifying decommissioning wastes for allocation to appropriate final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, J.C.; Tunaboylu, K.

    1982-01-01

    For the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in different repositories, it is of advantage to classify them in well-defined conditioned categories, appropriate for final disposal. These categories, the so-called waste sorts are characterized by similar radionuclide distribution, similar nuclide-specific activity concentrations and similar waste matrix. A methodology is presented for classifying decommissioning wastes and is applied to the decommissioning wastes arising from a Swiss program of 6 GWe. The amounts and nuclide-specific activity inventories of the decommissioning waste sorts have been estimated. A first allocation into two different repository types has been performed. Such a classification enables one to define the source parameters for repository safety analysis and allows one to allocate the different waste categories into appropriate final repositories. This work presents a first iteration to determine which waste sorts belong to which repository type. The characteristics of waste sorts have to be better defined and the protective strength of the repository barriers has to be optimized. 7 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  5. Waste inventory, waste characteristics and waste repositories in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, K.

    1997-01-01

    There are two types of repositories for the low level radioactive wastes in Japan. One is a trench type repository only for concrete debris generated from the dismantling of the research reactor. According to the safety assurance system, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has disposed of the concrete debris arose from the dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The other type is the concreted pit with engineered barriers. Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center has this type of repository mainly for the power plant wastes. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (JNFL) established by electric power companies is the operator of the LLW disposal project. JNFL began the storage operation in 1992 and buried approximately 60,000 drums there. Two hundred thousand drums of uniformly solidified, waste may be buried ultimately. 4 refs, 3 tabs

  6. Thermal analyses of spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2003-06-01

    This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3V type 1- or 2-panel repository based on the rock properties measured from the Olkiluoto investigations. The report describes first the development of a calculation methodology for the thermal analysis of a repository for nuclear fuel. The disposed canisters produce residual heat due to decay (or disintegration) of radioactive products. The decay heat is conducted to surrounding rock mass. The methods were applied to determine the effect of different parameters on the highest canister temperature and to support the planning, dimensioning and operation of the repository. The thermal diffusivity of the rock is low and the heat released from the canisters is spread into the surrounding rock volume quite slowly causing thermal gradient in the rock close to canisters and the canister temperature is increased remarkably. The maximum temperature on the canister surface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by the spacing between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the distance between separate panels of the repository and the pre-cooling time affecting power of the canisters. Because of the fact that the disposal operation takes several decades, the moment of disposal of an individual canister in addition to the location has an influence on the maximum temperature in the canister. Also, a second disposal panel in the repository has a thermal interaction with the other panel. This interaction is expressed after a few decades at the strongest. It became apparent that the temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by analytic line heat source model much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first verified and

  7. Repository for fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    A repository for holding and storing fissile or other hazardous materials either under or above the ground is provided by enclosing one or more inner containers, such as standard steel drums, in a larger, corrosion-resistant outer shell, with a layer of foamed polyurethane occupying the space therebetween. The polyurethane foam is free of voids at its interfaces with the inner container and outer shell, and adheres to and reinforces same to provide a stress skin structure. Protection is afforded by the chemical and physical characteristics of the polyurethane foam against destructive influences such as water vapor intrusion, package leakage and damaging effects of the environment, such as freezing, electrolysis, chemical and bacterial action. The outer shell is shaped to conform generally to the shape of the inner container and is made of a tube of bituminized fiber material with endcaps of exterior grade plywood treated with wood preservative. A quantity of fluorescein dye is positioned within the inner container for monitoring each package for leakage

  8. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  9. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  10. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  11. Salt Repository emplacement mode evaluation and selection: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the decision analysis performed to evaluate and compare the emplacement mode for the Salt Repository. The study was commissioned to recommend one emplacement mode to the Salt Repository Project Office using multi-attribute decision analysis. The nature of the decision required analysis of uncertain outcomes and conflicting attributes and offers a high degree of objectivity for these types of decisions since the decision model is structured to allow only the facts to enter into the final decision. The analysis requires an explicit definition of the attributes used to evaluate the alternative (e.g., cost, safety, environmental impact), the definition of a utility function over the attributes which incorporated both risk attitudes and trade-offs between attributes, and the probability distribution over the outcomes that would result from the selection of one alternative over the other. The decision process is described and results are given. A simulation model was developed to evaluate the probability distributions over the attributes. This report documents logic, inputs and results of this model. Final ranking of alternatives is given. Extensive technical backup documentation is included in the appendices to provide the quantitative basis for this decision. 5 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Conceptual design of repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Engelmann, H.J.; Souquet, G.; Mayence, M.; Hamstra, J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the European Economic Communities programme of research into underground disposal of radioactive wastes repository design studies have been carried out for application in salt deposits, argillaceous formations and crystalline rocks. In this paper the design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual designs are presented in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Emphasis has been placed on the disposal of vitrified high level radioactive wastes although consideration has been given to other categories of radioactive waste

  13. Tools for Managing Repository Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Banker, Rajiv D.; Isakowitz, Tomas; Kauffman, Robert J.; Kumar, Rachna; Zweig, Dani

    1993-01-01

    working Paper Series: STERN IS-93-46 The past few years have seen the introduction of repository-based computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools which may finally enable us to develop software which is reliable and affordable. With the new tools come new challenges for management: Repository-based CASE changes software development to such an extent that traditional approaches to estimation, performance, and productivity assessment may no longer suffice - if they ever...

  14. Business models for digital repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Bjørnshauge, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Those setting up, or planning to set up, a digital repository may be interested to know more about what has gone before them. What is involved, what is the cost, how many people are needed, how have others made the case to their institution, and how do you get anything into it once it is built? I have recently undertaken a study of European repository business models for the DRIVER project and will present an overview of the findings.

  15. IAEA safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In September. 1988, the IAEA held its first formal meeting on the safeguards requirements for the final disposal of spent fuel and nuclear material-bearing waste. The consensus recommendation of the 43 participants from 18 countries at this Advisory Group Meeting was that safeguards should not terminate of spent fuel even after emplacement in, and closure of, a geologic repository.' As a result of this recommendation, the IAEA initiated a series of consultants' meetings and the SAGOR Programme (Programme for the Development of Safeguards for the Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geologic Repositories) to develop an approach that would permit IAEA safeguards to verify the non-diversion of spent fuel from a geologic repository. At the end of this process, in December 1997, a second Advisory Group Meeting, endorsed the generic safeguards approach developed by the SAGOR Programme. Using the SAGOR Programme results and consultants' meeting recommendations, the IAEA Department of Safeguards issued a safeguards policy paper stating the requirements for IAEA safeguards at geologic repositories. Following approval of the safeguards policy and the generic safeguards approach, the Geologic Repository Safeguards Experts Group was established to make recommendations on implementing the safeguards approach. This experts' group is currently making recommendations to the IAEA regarding the safeguards activities to be conducted with respect to Finland's repository programme. (author)

  16. Comparative study on the performance of Pod type waterjet by experiment and computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Chan Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between a computation and an experiment has been conducted to predict the performance of a Pod type waterjet for an amphibious wheeled vehicle. The Pod type waterjet has been chosen on the basis of the required specific speed of more than 2500. As the Pod type waterjet is an extreme type of axial flow type waterjet, theoretical as well as experimental works about Pod type waterjets are very rare. The main purpose of the present study is to validate and compare to the experimental results of the Pod type waterjet with the developed CFD in-house code based on the RANS equations. The developed code has been validated by comparing with the experimental results of the well-known turbine problem. The validation also extended to the flush type waterjet where the pressures along the duct surface and also velocities at nozzle area have been compared with experimental results. The Pod type waterjet has been designed and the performance of the designed waterjet system including duct, impeller and stator was analyzed by the previously mentioned in-house CFD Code. The pressure distributions and limiting streamlines on the blade surfaces were computed to confirm the performance of the designed waterjets. In addition, the torque and momentum were computed to find the entire efficiency and these were compared with the model test results. Measurements were taken of the flow rate at the nozzle exit, static pressure at the various sections along the duct and also the nozzle, revolution of the impeller, torque, thrust and towing forces at various advance speeds for the prediction of performance as well as for comparison with the computations. Based on these measurements, the performance was analyzed according to the ITTC96 standard analysis method. The full-scale effective and the delivered power of the wheeled vehicle were estimated for the prediction of the service speed. This paper emphasizes the confirmation of the ITTC96 analysis method and

  17. Demystifying the institutional repository for success

    CERN Document Server

    Buehler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Institutional repositories remain key to data storage on campus, fulfilling the academic needs of various stakeholders. Demystifying the Institutional Repository for Success is a practical guide to creating and sustaining an institutional repository through marketing, partnering, and understanding the academic needs of all stakeholders on campus. This title is divided into seven chapters, covering: traditional scholarly communication and open access publishing; the academic shift towards open access; what the successful institutional repository looks like; institutional repository collaboratio

  18. Stabilities of nuclear waste forms and their geochemical interactions in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The stabilities of high-level nuclear waste forms in a repository environment are briefly discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such waste forms as borosilicate glass, supercalcine ceramics, and synthetic minerals are presented in context with the different rock types which have been proposed as possible host rocks for repositories. It is concluded that the growing geochemical evidence favors the use of a silicate rock repository because of the effectiveness of aluminosilicate rocks as chemical barriers for most radionuclides

  19. Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety of radioactive waste repositories operation is associated with a multibarrier system designed and constructed to isolate and contain the waste from the biosphere. Each of radioactive waste repositories is equipped with system of barriers, which reduces the possibility of release of radionuclides from the storage site. Safety systems may differ from each other depending on the type of repository. They consist of the natural geological barrier provided by host rocks of the repository and its surroundings, and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The EBS may itself comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as waste forms, canisters, buffers, backfills, seals and plugs. The EBS plays a major role in providing the required disposal system performance. It is assumed that the metal canisters and system of barriers adequately isolate waste from the biosphere. The evaluation of the multibarrier system is carried out after detailed tests to determine its parameters, and after analysis including mathematical modeling of migration of contaminants. To provide an assurance of safety of radioactive waste repository multibarrier system, detailed long term safety assessments are developed. Usually they comprise modeling of EBS stability, corrosion rate and radionuclide migration in near field in geosphere and biosphere. The principal goal of radionuclide migration modeling is assessment of the radionuclides release paths and rate from the repository, radionuclides concentration in geosphere in time and human exposure to ionizing radiation

  20. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  1. A Method to Compare the Descriptive Power of Different Types of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the descriptive power of different types of Petri nets can be compared, without the use of Petri net languages. Moreover the paper proposes an extension of condition/event-nets and it is shown that this extension has the same descriptive power as condition/event-nets....

  2. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

  3. Marriage Type and Reproductive Decisions: A Comparative Study in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1998-01-01

    The effect of marriage type (polygamy vs. monogamy) on reproductive decisions is investigated using comparative data from the 1988, 1989, and 1993 Demographic and Health Surveys of Ghana and Kenya. Multivariate analysis is used. Inconclusive results are discussed with a focus on future research directions. (Author/EMK)

  4. Natural Elemental Concentrations and Fluxes: Their Use as Indicators of Repository Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bill; Lind, Andy; Savage, Dave; Maul, Philip; Robinson, Peter [EnvirosQuantisci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-01

    individual processes, such as groundwater discharge, river flow and erosion at specific locations. The approach can also be of value at the generic level of repository development, before site characterisation programmes have been undertaken. They could be used, for example, as a component in comparative evaluations of alternative generic disposal concepts. The objective at the generic level would be to define typical or average natural elemental concentrations and fluxes in geological systems representative of the environments which might host a repository, and to compare these with the outputs from the associated generic PAs. To facilitate the use of the natural safety indicators methodology at the generic level, this study has undertaken to bring together and to compile much of the required information. This information has been used to quantify average elemental mass fluxes at the global scale for a range of processes, including groundwater discharge, erosion and sediment transport. The point of these calculations is that they provide a baseline against which site or geological environment specific natural fluxes, from anywhere in the world, can be compared on an equal basis to evaluate if they are higher or lower than the global average and, thus, are useful for providing a broad natural context for predicted repository releases. In separate calculations, elemental mass fluxes were quantified for a number of reference environments which are chosen to be representative of the types of sites and geological systems which may host a deep repository. The reference environments were an inland pluton, basement under sedimentary cover and a sedimentary basin. The fluxes for these environments were calculated for systems with spatial scales of a few hundred square kilometres and, as such, approximate closely to the repository systems modelled in PAs because a reference environment represents the same system, with the same rock, groundwater and surface conditions as those

  5. Validation of geotechnical software for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeGore, T.; Hoover, J.D.; Khaleel, R.; Thornton, E.C.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lanigan, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    An important step in the characterization of a high level nuclear waste repository is to demonstrate that geotechnical software, used in performance assessment, correctly models validation. There is another type of validation, called software validation. It is based on meeting the requirements of specifications documents (e.g. IEEE specifications) and does not directly address the correctness of the specifications. The process of comparing physical experimental results with the predicted results should incorporate an objective measure of the level of confidence regarding correctness. This paper reports on a methodology developed that allows the experimental uncertainties to be explicitly included in the comparison process. The methodology also allows objective confidence levels to be associated with the software. In the event of a poor comparison, the method also lays the foundation for improving the software

  6. Hydrothermal evolution of repository groundwaters in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters in the near field of a radioactive waste repository in basalt will change their chemical composition in response to reactions with the basalt. These reactions will be promoted by the heat generated by the decaying waste. It is important to predict both the rate and the extent of these reactions, and the secondary minerals produced, because the alteration process controls the chemical environment affecting the corrosion of the canister, the solubility and complexation of migrating radionuclides, the reactivity of the alteration products to radionuclides sorption, and the porosity and permeability of the host rock. A comprehensive review of the literature leads to the preliminary finding that hydrothermally altering basalts in geothermal regions such as Iceland lead to a secondary mineralogy and groundwater composition similar to that expected to surround a repository. Furthermore, laboratory experiments replicating the alteration conditions approximate those observed in the field and expected in a repository. Preliminary estimates were made of the rate of hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass and the zero-order dissolution rate of basaltic materials. The rates were compared with those for rhyolitic glasses and silicate minerals. Preliminary calculations made of mixed process alteration kinetics, involving pore diffusion and surface reaction suggest that at temperatures greater than 150 0 C, alteration proceeds so rapidly as to become pervasive in normally fractured basalt exposed to higher temperatures in the field. 70 references

  7. Proposals of geological sites for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Geological background. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    /ILW repository, for which the time period considered for long-term safety is 100,000 years, there are no large-scale geotectonic units that, as a whole, would be unsuitable from the viewpoint of long-term geological stability and would have to be excluded. Regionally and locally, however, critical zones will have to be avoided when locating the disposal chambers in order to ensure long-term stability. The space required for the L/ILW repository is comparatively small and there is considerable flexibility in arranging the individual disposal chambers. This means that none of the large-scale units need to be deferred because of spatial conditions, although there are significant differences among the units with respect to tectonic dissection and the resulting spatial situation. For the HLW repository, with a time period of 1 million years being considered for long-term safety, the Alps have to be excluded if long-term stability (including uplift and erosion during the period being considered) is to be assured. There are also reservations regarding the long-term geological stability of the Folded Jura, the western Tabular Jura and the western sub-Jurassic zone. Because of strong tectonic dissection and the resulting insufficient spatial conditions, these three units are excluded for a HLW repository; D) The fourth step involves selecting the preferred host rock formations within the large geotectonic units still under consideration. Proposed for the L/ILW repository are the Opalinus Clay with its confining units, the clay stone sequence 'Brauner Dogger' with its confining units, the Effingen Beds and the marl formations of the Helveticum. For the HLW repository, the Opalinus Clay with its confining units is the preferred host formation. Although the crystalline bedrock and the clay-rich formations of the Lower and Upper Freshwater Molasse fulfil the minimum requirements for a host rock, test options have been deferred because of the large variability of rock properties and the

  8. Far-field thermomechanical response of argillaceous rock to emplacement of a nuclear-waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1980-08-01

    Before heat-producing wastes can be emplaced safely in any argillaceous rock, it will be necessary to understand the far-field thermal and thermomechanical response of this rock to waste emplacement. This report presents the results of a first series of calculations aimed at estimating the far-field response of argillite to waste emplacement. Because the thermal and mechanical properties of argillite are affected by its content of expandable clay, its behavior is briefly compared and contrasted with that of a shale having the same matrix thermal properties, but containing no expandable clay. Under this assumption, modeled temperatures are the same for the two rock types at equivalent power densities and reflect the large dependence of in-situ temperatures on both initial power density and waste type. Thermomechanical calculations indicate that inclusion of contraction behavior of expandable clays in the assumed argillite thermal expansion behavior results, in some cases, in generation of a large zone in and near the repository that has undergone volumetric contraction but is surrounded by uniformly compressive stresses. Information available to date indicates that this contraction would likely result in locally increased fluid permeability and decreased in-situ thermal conductivity, but might well be advantageous as regards radionuclide retention, because of the increased surface area within the contracted zone. Assumption of continuous and positive expansion behavior for the shale eliminates the near-repository contraction and tensional zones, but results in near-surface tensional zones directly above the repository

  9. Coupled Multi-physical Simulations for the Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repository Concepts: Modeling, Software Development and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, J.; Nagel, T.; Bilke, L.; Böttcher, N.; Heusermann, S.; Fischer, T.; Kumar, V.; Schäfers, A.; Shao, H.; Vogel, P.; Wang, W.; Watanabe, N.; Ziefle, G.; Kolditz, O.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the German site selection process for a high-level nuclear waste repository, different repository concepts in the geological candidate formations rock salt, clay stone and crystalline rock are being discussed. An open assessment of these concepts using numerical simulations requires physical models capturing the individual particularities of each rock type and associated geotechnical barrier concept to a comparable level of sophistication. In a joint work group of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) and the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), scientists of the UFZ are developing and implementing multiphysical process models while BGR scientists apply them to large scale analyses. The advances in simulation methods for waste repositories are incorporated into the open-source code OpenGeoSys. Here, recent application-driven progress in this context is highlighted. A robust implementation of visco-plasticity with temperature-dependent properties into a framework for the thermo-mechanical analysis of rock salt will be shown. The model enables the simulation of heat transport along with its consequences on the elastic response as well as on primary and secondary creep or the occurrence of dilatancy in the repository near field. Transverse isotropy, non-isothermal hydraulic processes and their coupling to mechanical stresses are taken into account for the analysis of repositories in clay stone. These processes are also considered in the near field analyses of engineered barrier systems, including the swelling/shrinkage of the bentonite material. The temperature-dependent saturation evolution around the heat-emitting waste container is described by different multiphase flow formulations. For all mentioned applications, we illustrate the workflow from model development and implementation, over verification and validation, to repository-scale application simulations using methods of high performance computing.

  10. Biological Web Service Repositories Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdidiales-Nieto, David; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2017-05-01

    Web services play a key role in bioinformatics enabling the integration of database access and analysis of algorithms. However, Web service repositories do not usually publish information on the changes made to their registered Web services. Dynamism is directly related to the changes in the repositories (services registered or unregistered) and at service level (annotation changes). Thus, users, software clients or workflow based approaches lack enough relevant information to decide when they should review or re-execute a Web service or workflow to get updated or improved results. The dynamism of the repository could be a measure for workflow developers to re-check service availability and annotation changes in the services of interest to them. This paper presents a review on the most well-known Web service repositories in the life sciences including an analysis of their dynamism. Freshness is introduced in this paper, and has been used as the measure for the dynamism of these repositories. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  12. Comparative performance of five Mexican plancha-type cookstoves using water boiling tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Medina

    Full Text Available While plancha-type cookstoves are very popular and widely disseminated in Latin America, few peer review articles exist documenting their detailed technical performance. In this paper we use the standard Water Boiling Tests (WBT to assess the energy and emission performance of five plancha-type cookstoves disseminated in about 450 thousand Mexican rural homes compared to the traditional 3-stone fire (TSF. In the high-power phase, average modified combustion efficiencies (MCE for plancha-type stoves were 97±1% which was higher than TSF 93±4%, and reductions in CO and PM2.5 total emissions were on average 44%. Time to boil and specific fuel consumption, however, were increased in plancha-type stoves compared to the open fire as a result of the reduced overall thermal efficiency of the plancha during WBT. In the simmering phase, plancha-type stoves showed much more consistent performance reductions compared to the TSF. MCE for plancha stoves were on average 98±1% and 95±3% for the TSF, while reductions in CO and PM2.5 total emissions were on average 55%. In this phase 27% average savings in fuel use are achieved by plancha-type stoves. Removal of the plancha rings resulted in savings of specific fuel consumption (SFC, thermal efficiency (TE, and time to boil; however, CO and PM2.5 emissions increased significantly as flue air is drawn through the comal surface rather than through the combustion zone, resulting in suboptimal combustion conditions.International Workshop Agreement (IWA energy performance Tiers for plancha-type stoves ranged from 0 to 1. However, these results contrast sharply with the well documented reductions in fuel consumption during daily cooking activities achieved by these stoves. IWA indoor emissions Tiers are 4 for both PM2.5 and CO using locally measured values for fugitive emissions. Optimization of combustion chamber design on these stoves in Mexico is desirable to further reduce indoor emissions and to reduce the

  13. The Ec prototype repository project: implications of assessments for refining repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svemar, C.

    2004-01-01

    The most important issue in the evaluation of the repository performance is the long term safety of the repository. Analyses for this issue focuses on the 'steady state' conditions which start at the time when the repository has been saturated and the groundwater table returned to its normal level. The bentonite buffer around the canisters is saturated and homogeneous, and the canister is located exactly in the centre of the buffer. The backfill in the tunnel has been saturated as well and fills the earlier open spaces in the tunnel completely. The task of the activities taking places prior to the start of the 'steady state' conditions, like excavation, deposition, backfilling and sealing, with due consideration to the processes a consequences they may cause in the long run, is to provide for these 'ideal' conditions, as close as possible. While studying these activities in detail it has become obvious that development of methods and techniques needs to be carefully addressed before the decision is made on how to apply them in the repository. One general finding is that the situation in engineering of details is not that much different from the situation in geological characterisation of a site in detail; one more detail of engineering and the consequences it brings often complicates the situation rather than supports the solution prioritized so far. Many of the practical issues have been studied in the Prototype Repository project in the AEspoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Pusch et al., 2000). The Prototype Repository consists of two sections with four respectively two deposition holes with bentonite buffer and canister, the latter holding electrical heaters. The sections are separated by a concrete plug, and the whole test is to be separated from the rest of the laboratory by an outer plug. The project has two objectives: 1. To demonstrate the integrated function of tile deep repository components under realistic conditions and to compare results with models and

  14. The main demands and criteria for building site choice for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, R.; Sandul, G.A.; Sen'ko, T.Ya.

    2002-01-01

    There are considered the main demands of building site choice for RAW repositories. At this the accent is placed on geological repositories (underground repositories of geological type) and near surface repositories assigned to disposal of low- and intermediate-level short- and mediate-lived radionuclides. These demands are conditionally separated into two blocks: account of social development of the adjoining territories; account of natural factors characterizing building site. Further there are discussed the questions of anthropogenous influence on a safety functioning of RAW repositories and of urgency of stable development of the adjoining territories. In context of the Ukrainian and other states nuclear laws there is also considered the lawful aspect defining the building site choice for RAW repositories

  15. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  17. Comparatives of Expressive Activities of Junior High School Students with Different Types of Representative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geydebrekht N.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data from a study of drawings of children of primary school age to identify the сcomparative diagnostic parameters that allow to define the leading representative system in the child. 164 drawings of 51 persons under test of the two grades of primary school were analyzed. The observation and modified in relation to primary school age version of the method «Representational systems bias test» (Lewis A., Puselik R., 2012 were used as elements of the diagnostic unit. Based on these results it is concluded that the drawings of children of primary school age with different types of representative systems have differences, sufficient to justify their diagnostic informative value. The results of the study make comparative profiles of children of primary school age with different types of representational systems to facilitate the diagnostic part of the work with children's drawings.

  18. Type D patients report poorer health status prior to and after cardiac rehabilitation compared to non-type D patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Pelle (Aline); R.A.M. Erdman (Ruud); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); M. Spiering (Marquita); M. Kazemier (Marten); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves outcomes, but little is known about the effects of CR on Type D patients. Purpose: We examined (1) variability in Type D caseness following CR, (2) Type D as a

  19. Type D patients report poorer health status prior to and after cardiac rehabilitation compared to non-type D patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Erdman, Ruud A M; van Domburg, Ron T

    2008-01-01

    Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves outcomes, but little is known about the effects of CR on Type D patients.......Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves outcomes, but little is known about the effects of CR on Type D patients....

  20. Studies on an advanced repository system with enhanced engineered barriers (a framework)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Tashiro, S.; Ikari, S.; Suzuki, A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to propose advanced designs of repositories with enhanced engineered barriers of relatively high radioactive wastes such as burnable poisons, channel boxes, control rods and highly irradiated metals, studies started in 1987 and completed the first phase in 1992. This paper presents the framework and brief results of the first phase. The studies set preliminary design concepts of the repositories with various combinations with engineered barriers and natural barriers for different models and locations such as a silo type in shallow land or a tunnel type in intermediate depth. Through the designs, four component technics were picked up and studied for (1) construction of the components in repository; (2) performance evaluation to realize repository design; (3) improvement of circumstances inside or around repository; and (4) surveillance of repository performance to realize the repository designs. Finally, some repository systems were provided using obtained results, and then the applicability and the economy were evaluated. The studies will continue to the second phase focusing on the long-term performance of the repositories

  1. Comparing the demographic factors of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Daliri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the hair follicle. Clinically, patients with alopecia areata may have patchy or confluent hair loss on the scalp or body so we conduct a study to compare the demographic aspects of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata.Materials and Method: We conducted a descriptive-analyzing study in which 306 patient were chosen. The patients were divided into two groups of diffuse and limited Alopecia. Demographic factors including age, gender, disease onset were compared in two groups. Results: Out of 306 patients, 58.8 % were male and 41.2 % were female. 247 patients (80.7% suffered from limited type and 59 patients (19.2% suffered from diffuse type. The mean age of the onset of involvement in limited group was 21.9±12 yr and 15.8±12 yr in diffuse group. The mean duration of involvement in limited group was 18.7 months and 71 months in diffuse group. Conclusion: Diffuse type alopecia areata starts at lower age and has longer duration. Our study results were similar to the others. Like other studies, thyroid disorders and atopic dermatitis are positively correlative to the severity of disease

  2. Performance-based contracts for road projects comparative analysis of different types

    CERN Document Server

    Gajurel, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the aspects of contracting contracts, basically related to road construction and management contracts. The book presents an analytical study of Performance-Based Road Management and Maintenance (PMMR), Funktionsbauvertrag (FBV) (Function-Based Construction Contract) and Public Private Partnerships (PPP). A separate chapter is also included about the comparative study of these contract types. The book provides useful material for university libraries, construction companies and government departments of construction.

  3. National radioactive waste repository site selection study. Phase 2. A report on public comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Agreement was reached in principle between State/Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia Governments that a suitable site for a radioactive wastes repository must be found. The discussion papers resulting from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the site selection study were released for public comment. The national repository will be for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes streaming from the medical, research and industrial use of radioisotopes in Australia. The purpose of this report is to summarise and respond in general terms to comment received on the discussion paper -Phase 2 of the study. Forty five submissions were received. Of these: 18 supported the Phase 2 study approach and the concept of a national repository; 13 did not state a clear position but either requested more information or provided constructive comment on the siting process; 7 supported the site selection approach and the repository concept but suggested that the repository should not be sited in a particular area; 3 opposed the siting of the repository in their vicinity but not necessarily the repository concept and site selection approach; 4 opposed the concept of a national repository. This compares with 124 submissions on Phase 1 of the study, of which 57 opposed the national repository concept (52 of these were from letters elicited by Greenpeace) and 48 supported the establishment of a national repository and the site selection approach proposed. 3 figs

  4. Overly Honest Data Repository Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Fallaw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After a year of development, the library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has launched a repository, called the Illinois Data Bank (https://databank.illinois.edu/, to provide Illinois researchers with a free, self-serve publishing platform that centralizes, preserves, and provides persistent and reliable access to Illinois research data. This article presents a holistic view of development by discussing our overarching technical, policy, and interface strategies. By openly presenting our design decisions, the rationales behind those decisions, and associated challenges this paper aims to contribute to the library community's work to develop repository services that meet growing data preservation and sharing needs.

  5. A prospective randomised trial comparing mesh types and fixation in totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaudo, Adam; Nayak, Arun; Martin, Sarah; Adib, Reza; Martin, Ian

    2015-05-01

    The totally extraperitoneal (TEP) approach for surgical repair of inguinal hernias has emerged as a popular technique. We conducted a prospective randomised trial to compare patient comfort scores using different mesh types and fixation using this technique. Over a 14 month period, 146 patients underwent 232 TEP inguinal hernia repairs. We compared the comfort scores of patients who underwent these procedures using different types of mesh and fixation. A non-absorbable 15 × 10 cm anatomical mesh fixed with absorbable tacks (Control group) was compared with either a non-absorbable 15 × 10 cm folding slit mesh with absorbable tacks (Group 2), a partially-absorbable 15 × 10 cm mesh with absorbable tacks (Group 3) or a non-absorbable 15 × 10 cm anatomical mesh fixed with 2 ml fibrin sealant (Group 4). Outcomes were compared at 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks using the Carolina Comfort Scale (CCS) scores. At 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks, the median global CCS scores were low for all treatment groups. Statistically significant differences were seen only for median CCS scores and subscores with the use of partially-absorbable mesh with absorbable tacks (Group 3) at weeks 2 and 4. However, these were no longer significant at week 12. In this study, the TEP inguinal hernia repair with minimal fixation results in low CCS scores. There were no statistical differences in CCS scores when comparing types of mesh, configuration of the mesh or fixation methods. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Data Stewardship: Environmental Data Curation and a Web-of-Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Baker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researchers today frequently package measurements and associated metadata as digital datasets in anticipation of storage in data repositories. Through the lens of environmental data stewardship, we consider the data repository as an organizational element central to data curation. One aspect of non-commercial repositories, their distance-from-origin of the data, is explored in terms of near and remote categories. Three idealized repository types are distinguished – local, center, and archive - paralleling research, resource, and reference collection categories respectively. Repository type characteristics such as scope, structure, and goals are discussed. Repository similarities in terms of roles, activities and responsibilities are also examined. Data stewardship is related to care of research data and responsible scientific communication supported by an infrastructure that coordinates curation activities; data curation is defined as a set of repeated and repeatable activities focusing on tending data and creating data products within a particular arena. The concept of “sphere-of-context” is introduced as an aid to distinguishing repository types. Conceptualizing a “web-of-repositories” accommodates a variety of repository types and represents an ecologically inclusive approach to data curation.

  7. Repository Collection Policies: Is a Liberal and Inclusive Policy Helpful or Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankier, Jean-Gabriel; Smith, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Institutional repositories have been established by most university libraries but their level of success has varied. Determining what belongs in such repositories has been the subject of some discussion but research would suggest that a broader rather than narrower compass is a positive approach to adopt. By seeking out a variety of content types,…

  8. A University Library Creates a Digital Repository for Documenting and Disseminating Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William A.; Billings, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Digital repositories are new tools for documenting the accumulated scholarly work produced at academic institutions and disseminating that material broadly via the internet. Digital repositories support all file types and can be adapted to meet the custom design specifications of individual institutions. A section for community engagement…

  9. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, A.

    2009-09-01

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes

  10. Application of GIS in siting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao

    2010-01-01

    High level radioactive waste geo-disposal is directly related to environment protection and Sustainable Utilization of nuclear energy. To ensure both success and long-term safe disposal of the high level-radioactive waste, finding suitable sites is an important step in the research. Meanwhile, siting and evaluation the geo-disposal repository for high level-radioactive waste need a wide range of relevant information, including geology and geophysical surveys data, geochemistry data and other geoscience data in the field. At the same time, some of the data has its spatial property. Geographic information system (GIS) have a role to play in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of the siting disposal repository. GIS has greatly enhanced our ability to store, analyze and communicate accounts of the information. This study was conducted to compare the more suitable sites for the repository using GIS -based on the data which belongs to the preselected area in BeiShan, Gansu Province, China. First, the data of the pre-selected site is captured by GIS and stored in the geoscience database. Then, according to the relevant guide line in the field, the analysis models based on GIS are build. There are some thematic layers of the sites character grouped into two basic type, namely social factors(town, traffic and nuclear plant) and natural factors (water, land and animals and plants).In the paper, a series of GIS models was developed to compare the pre-selected areas in order to make optimal decision. This study shows that with appropriate and enough information GIS used in modeling is a powerful tool for site selection for disposal repository. (authors)

  11. Comparing transfusion reaction rates for various plasma types: a systematic review and meta-analysis/regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Schipperus, Martin R; le Cessie, Saskia; Middelburg, Rutger A; Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2017-09-01

    We estimated rates for common plasma-associated transfusion reactions and compared reported rates for various plasma types. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles that reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Random-effects pooled rates were calculated and compared between plasma types. Meta-regression was used to compare various plasma types with regard to their reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Forty-eight studies reported transfusion reaction rates for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; mixed-sex and male-only), amotosalen INTERCEPT FFP, methylene blue-treated FFP, and solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma. Random-effects pooled average rates for FFP were: allergic reactions, 92/10 5 units transfused (95% confidence interval [CI], 46-184/10 5 units transfused); febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), 12/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 7-22/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), 6/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1-30/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), 1.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1.2-2.7/10 5 units transfused); and anaphylactic reactions, 0.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 0-45.7/10 5 units transfused). Risk differences between plasma types were not significant for allergic reactions, TACO, or anaphylactic reactions. Methylene blue-treated FFP led to fewer FNHTRs than FFP (risk difference = -15.3 FNHTRs/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -24.7 to -7.1 reactions/10 5 units transfused); and male-only FFP led to fewer cases of TRALI than mixed-sex FFP (risk difference = -0.74 TRALI/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -2.42 to -0.42 injuries/10 5 units transfused). Meta-regression demonstrates that the rate of FNHTRs is lower for methylene blue-treated compared with FFP, and the rate of TRALI is lower for male-only than for mixed-sex FFP; whereas no significant differences are observed between plasma types for allergic reactions, TACO

  12. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future. PMID:24227998

  13. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  14. Foreign materials in the repository. Update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2011-06-01

    A variety of materials are used during the construction process and the operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository with the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and both introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after the closure in the repository are estimated here based on the most recent information. This work is intended to update the previous estimations, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility called ONKALO at Olkiluoto. The implemented quantities as well as designs and preliminary designs have been used in calculating the quantities of the foreign materials. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository. In some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2010 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As all of these plans are not final some quantities may change in the future. As the repository layout may still go through some changes this report also provides the foreign materials for a hundred meters of different deposition tunnels designed for the OL and LO type canisters1. The results have also been calculated for a space demanded by a deposition tunnel end plug and the tunnel lengths before and after one. The most significant foreign materials are certain accessory minerals of the clay materials followed by organic materials (including the organic carbon from the clay materials), cement, steel and silica. (orig.)

  15. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  16. Comparative analysis of core genome MLST and SNP typing within a European Salmonella serovar Enteritidis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Madison E; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Dallman, Timothy J; Zhou, Zhemin; Grant, Kathie; Maiden, Martin C J

    2018-06-02

    Multi-country outbreaks of foodborne bacterial disease present challenges in their detection, tracking, and notification. As food is increasingly distributed across borders, such outbreaks are becoming more common. This increases the need for high-resolution, accessible, and replicable isolate typing schemes. Here we evaluate a core genome multilocus typing (cgMLST) scheme for the high-resolution reproducible typing of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) isolates, by its application to a large European outbreak of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This outbreak had been extensively characterised using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based approaches. The cgMLST analysis was congruent with the original SNP-based analysis, the epidemiological data, and whole genome MLST (wgMLST) analysis. Combination of the cgMLST and epidemiological data confirmed that the genetic diversity among the isolates predated the outbreak, and was likely present at the infection source. There was consequently no link between country of isolation and genetic diversity, but the cgMLST clusters were congruent with date of isolation. Furthermore, comparison with publicly available Enteritidis isolate data demonstrated that the cgMLST scheme presented is highly scalable, enabling outbreaks to be contextualised within the Salmonella genus. The cgMLST scheme is therefore shown to be a standardised and scalable typing method, which allows Salmonella outbreaks to be analysed and compared across laboratories and jurisdictions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The use of uranium fluxes as safety indicators of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Natural analogues based on uranium deposits are commonly used to represent the long-term behaviour of radioactive waste repositories or the processes that influence their radioactive contents. The geochemical dispersion of naturally occurring uranium can also be used to model natural radioactivity fluxes in the vicinity of a planned repository. These fluxes can be estimated for erosional and groundwater discharge processes and compared with calculated future fluxes of radioactivity that would be released from a repository. The methodology is outlined and the benefits of the approach for supporting the derivation of a safety case for a repository are indicated. (author)

  18. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste

  19. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, H.; Blink, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of

  20. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  1. Data Storing Proposal from Heterogeneous Systems into a Specialized Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václavová Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze and to propose an appropriate system for processing and simultaneously storing a vast volume of structured and unstructured data. The paper consists of three parts. The first part addresses the issue of structured and unstructured data. The second part provides the detailed analysis of data repositories and subsequent evaluation indicating which system would be for the given type and volume of data optimal. The third part focuses on the use of gathered information to transfer data to the proposed repository.

  2. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  3. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  4. Comparative effectiveness of liraglutide in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigato M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Rigato, Gian Paolo Fadini Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a progressive decline in beta cell function, with consequent worsening of glycemic control. The ideal antihyperglycemic treatment should achieve good and sustained glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia and no weight gain. This paper reviews the efficacy and tolerability of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Once-daily injection of liraglutide (at doses of 1.2 mg and 1.8 mg, as monotherapy or in combination with one or two oral antihyperglycemic agents, was associated with greater improvements in glycemic control compared with active comparators or placebo in several controlled, randomized Phase III trials, including the six trials of the LEAD (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes program. Liraglutide also improved beta cell function, body weight, systolic blood pressure, and lipid profile, thereby achieving many of the goals of ideal antihyperglycemic therapy. Liraglutide was generally well tolerated in the Phase III trials. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, usually of mild to moderate intensity. The observed rate of pancreatitis was low and comparable with that of the general diabetic population. In conclusion, although most trials were relatively short and focused on surrogate endpoints, liraglutide emerges as an effective and well tolerated treatment for type 2 diabetes, carrying a low risk of hypoglycemia, weight loss, and possible reduction of cardiovascular risk. Keywords: body weight, hypoglycemia, cardiovascular, incretin

  5. SKB's safety case for a final repository license application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan; Andersson, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The safety assessment SR-Site is a main component in SKB's license application, submitted in March 2011, to construct and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, Sweden. Its role in the application is to demonstrate long-term safety for a repository at Forsmark. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. The principal regulatory acceptance criterion, issued by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), requires that the annual risk of harmful effects after closure not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. SSM's regulations also imply that the assessment time for a repository of this type is one million years after closure. The licence applied for is one in a stepwise series of permits, each requiring a safety report. The next step concerns a permit to start excavation of the repository and requires a preliminary safety assessment report (PSAR) covering both operational and post-closure safety. Later steps include permission to commence trial operation, to commence regular operation and to close the final repository. (authors)

  6. Review of durability of cementitious engineered barriers in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, L.J.; Lawrence, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report is concerned with the durability of cementitious engineered barriers in a repository for low and intermediate level nuclear waste. Following the introduction the second section of the review identifies the environmental conditions associated with a deep, hard rock repository for ILW and LLW that are relevant to the durability of cementitious barriers. Section three examines the microstructure and macrostructure of cementitious materials and considers the physical and chemical processes of radionuclide immobilization. Potential repository applications and compositions of cementitious materials are reviewed in Section four. The main analysis of durability is dealt with in Section five. The different types of cementitious barrier are considered separately and their most probable modes of degradation are analysed. Concluding remarks that highlight critical technical matters are given in Section six. (author)

  7. Terminology development towards harmonizing multiple clinical neuroimaging research repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Pasquerello, Danielle; Turner, Matthew D; Keator, David B; Alpert, Kathryn; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Tallis, Marcelo; Ambite, Jose Luis; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Data sharing and mediation across disparate neuroimaging repositories requires extensive effort to ensure that the different domains of data types are referred to by commonly agreed upon terms. Within the SchizConnect project, which enables querying across decentralized databases of neuroimaging, clinical, and cognitive data from various studies of schizophrenia, we developed a model for each data domain, identified common usable terms that could be agreed upon across the repositories, and linked them to standard ontological terms where possible. We had the goal of facilitating both the current user experience in querying and future automated computations and reasoning regarding the data. We found that existing terminologies are incomplete for these purposes, even with the history of neuroimaging data sharing in the field; and we provide a model for efforts focused on querying multiple clinical neuroimaging repositories.

  8. From the repository to the deep geological repository - and back to the Terrain surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodynsky, R.

    2011-01-01

    How deep is 'safe'? How long is long-term? How and for how long will something be isolated? Which rock, which formation and which location are suitable? A repository constructed for the safekeeping of radioactive or highly toxic wastes can be erected either on the surface, near the surface or underground. Radioactive waste is currently often stored at near-surface locations. The storage usually takes place nearby of a nuclear power plant in pits or concrete tombs (vaults). However, repositories can also be found in restricted areas, e.g. near nuclear weapon production or reprocessing plants (WAA) or nuclear weapons test sites (including Tomsk, Russia, Hanford and Nevada desert, USA), or in extremely low rainfall regions (South Africa). In addition there are disused mines which are now used as underground repositories. Low-level and medium-active (SMA) but also high-level waste (HAA) are stored at these types of sites (NPP, WAA, test areas, former mines). In Russia (Tomsk, Siberia) liquid radioactive waste has been injected into deep geological formations for some time (Minatom, 2001). However, all these locations are not the result of a systematic, scientific search or a holistic process for finding a location, but the result of political decisions, sometimes ignoring scientific findings. Why underground storage is given preference over high-security landfill sites (HSD) often has economic reasons. While a low safety standard can significantly reduce the cost of an above-ground high-security landfill as a waste disposal depot, spending remains high, especially due to the need for capital formation to cover operating expenses after filling the HSD. In the case of underground storage, on the other hand, no additional expenses are required for the period after backfilling. The assumption of lower costs for a deep repository runs through the past decades and coincides with the assumption that the desired ideal underground conditions actually exist and will

  9. Comparative analysis between different font types and letter styles using a nonlinear invariant digital correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2010-01-01

    We present, in this paper, a comparative analysis of the letters in Times New Roman (TNR), Courier New (CN) and Arial (Ar) font types in plain and italic style and the effects of five foreground/background color combinations using an invariant digital correlation system with a nonlinear filter with k = 0.3. The evaluation of the output plane with this filter is given by the peak-to-correlation energy (PCE) metric. The results show that the letters in TNR font have a better mean PCE value when compared with the CN and Ar fonts. This result is in agreement with some studies on text legibility and for readability where the reaction time (RT) of some participant individuals reading a text is measured. We conclude that the PCE metric is proportional to 1/RT.

  10. Comparing two types of augmentative and alternative communication systems for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hyun; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2006-01-01

    This study compared acquisition and preference for two types of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems in three pre-schoolers with autism. Acquisition of requesting behaviour using a picture-exchange system vs a voice-output communication aide (VOCA) was compared in an alternating treatments design. Following acquisition, both ACC systems were simultaneously available and the child could select which one of the two systems to use. There was little difference between picture-exchange and VOCA in terms of acquisition rates. Two children demonstrated a consistent preference for picture-exchange and the third showed a preference for the VOCA. Both speed of acquisition and system preference should be considered when designing AAC interventions for children with autism and related developmental disabilities.

  11. The effect of organoclay type on morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene films: comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, D.B.; Calado, J.F.; Duarte, I.S.; Silva, S.M.L.; Andrade, D.L.A.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the effect of the type of organoclay on morphological and mechanical properties of polypropylene films. Thus, were employed two organobentonite synthesized by NanoPol/UFCG (APOC and APOCF) and a organo montmorillonite Cloisite 20A (C20A) from Southern Clay Products (Texas/USA). The PP films and the PP/organoclay hybrids were prepared in a ChillRoll extruder - 16 AX Plastics and characterized by X-ray diffraction and mechanical properties. The results indicate that the incorporation of organobentonite (APOC and APOCF) and organo montmorillonite (C20A) resulted in the formation of PP nanocomposites with predominantly intercalated morphologies. Also indicate that the mechanical behavior of the films obtained with the three clays (APOC APOCF and C20A) was similar suggesting that the organobentonite, modified with national technology, raw material of low cost when compared to commercial organo montmorillonite, can be a viable alternative in the preparation of PP films. (author)

  12. Classification of Clinical Research Study Eligibility Criteria to Support Multi-Stage Cohort Identification Using Clinical Data Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J; Lancaster, William J; Wyatt, Mathew C

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges to using electronic health record (EHR) repositories for research is the difficulty mapping study subject eligibility criteria to the query capabilities of the repository. We sought to characterize criteria as "easy" (searchable in a typical repository), "hard" (requiring manual review of the record data), and "impossible" (not typically available in EHR repositories). We obtained 292 criteria from 20 studies available from Clinical Trials.gov and rated them according to our three types, plus a fourth "mixed" type. We had good agreement among three independent reviewers and chose 274 criteria that were characterized by single types for further analysis. The resulting analysis showed typical features of criteria that do and don't map to repositories. We propose that these features be used to guide researchers in specifying eligibility criteria to improve development of enrollment workflow, including the definition of EHR repository queries for self-service or analyst-mediated retrievals.

  13. Bioleaching of two different genetic types of chalcopyrite and their comparative mineralogical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sha; Gu, Guohua; Ji, Jing; Xu, Baoke

    2018-02-01

    The bioleaching of two different genetic types of chalcopyrite by the moderate thermophile Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was investigated by leaching behaviors elucidation and their comparative mineralogical assessment. The leaching experiment showed that the skarn-type chalcopyrite (STC) revealed a much faster leaching rate with 33.34% copper extracted finally, while only 23.53% copper was bioleached for the porphyry-type chalcopyrite (PTC). The mineralogical properties were analyzed by XRD, SEM, XPS, and Fermi energy calculation. XRD indicated that the unit cell volume of STC was a little larger than that of PTC. SEM indicated that the surface of STC had more steps and ridges. XPS spectra showed that Cu(I) was the dominant species of copper on the surfaces of the two chalcopyrite samples, and STC had much more copper with lower Cu 2p 3/2 binding energy. Additionally, the Fermi energy of STC was much higher than that of PTC. These mineralogical differences were in good agreement with the bioleaching behaviors of chalcopyrite. This study will provide some new information for evaluating the oxidation kinetics of chalcopyrite.

  14. Higher mortality of patients on haemodialysis with pancreatic diabetes compared to type 2-diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodlaj Gert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In rare cases (1-8% diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD suffer from diabetic nephropathy (dNP due to pancreatic diabetes mellitus (PDM. Aim of this study was to investigate differences in the outcome of patients with PDM and those with type 2 diabetes. In a retrospective study we evaluated 96 diabetic patients, who started hemodialysis (HD in our dialysis centre (1997-2005. In 12 patients PMD was diagnosed, and 84 patients had type 2 diabetes. In both groups we compared vascular risk factors and prevalence of vascular diseases at the start of dialysis. We also evaluated incidence of malnutrition, and 5-year survival in both patient groups. The vascular risk factors were similar in both patient groups, also the prevalence of vascular diseases at the initiation of HD was similar in both groups. In the patients with PDM the mean BMI (kg/m2 was lower (22 + 3 versus 25 + 3, and also their serum albumin was lower (2.7 + 0.3 versus 3.4 + 0.3 g/dl, p Conclusions in HD-treated patients with type 2 diabetes or PDM the prevalence of vascular diseases was not significantly different. The lower survival of PDM patients can be related to poor nutrition status.

  15. Health behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to a representative reference population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kummer

    Full Text Available We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status.Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629 were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813.Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56, short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week, and high daily computer use (OR 2.51. They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29, and high daily television time (OR 0.68. The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c.Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use.

  16. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genelhu, Marisa CLS; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Gobbi, Helenice; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2007-01-01

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  17. Comparative study between manual therapy and TENS Burst in patients with tension-type cephalalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Vasconcelos Fernandes

    Full Text Available Introduction Cephalgia or cephalalgia is one of the most common symptoms in the general population. Objective To compare the efficacy of physical therapy modalities, through manual therapy and the effect of Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation (TENS for tension-type cephalalgia. Materials and methods The study was compounded by 60 subjects, but only 40 of them completed it, due to the exclusion criteria. These were divided into control group and intervention group. The control group received treatment — manual therapy. The intervention group received TENS Burst. Patients underwent ten sessions of treatment, made at every two days on a week, lasting 30 minutes each session. Results The characteristics related to lifestyle, postural issues and range of motion are responsible for the main causes of tension-type cephalalgia. Discussion treatments showed effective results in all cases in relation to pain intensity, but the use of manual therapy techniques give the patient a better quality of life compared to the use of TENS. Final considerations The treatment of this condition deserves analysis and studies; however, there are only a few studying physical therapy techniques, especially regarding to the use of TENS.

  18. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Adriano; Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Marjanovic, Olivera; Nomura, Daniel K; Riley, Lee W

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis disrupted in a 13-gene operon (mce1) accumulates free mycolic acids (FM) in its cell wall and causes accelerated death in mice. Here, to more comprehensively analyze differences in their cell wall lipid composition, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to compare the lipid profiles of wild-type and mce1 operon mutant strains. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified >400 distinct lipids significantly altered in the mce1 mutant compared to wild type. These lipids included decreased levels of saccharolipids and glycerophospholipids, and increased levels of alpha-, methoxy- and keto mycolic acids (MA), and hydroxyphthioceranic acid. The mutant showed reduced expression of mmpL8, mmpL10, stf0, pks2 and papA2 genes involved in transport and metabolism of lipids recognized to induce proinflammatory response; these lipids were found to be decreased in the mutant. In contrast, the transcripts of mmpL3, fasI, kasA, kasB, acpM and RV3451 involved in MA transport and metabolism increased; MA inhibits inflammatory response in macrophages. Since the mce1 operon is known to be regulated in intracellular M. tuberculosis, we speculate that the differences we observed in cell wall lipid metabolism and composition may affect host response to M. tuberculosis infection and determine the clinical outcome of such an infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A comparative study of charcoal gasification in two types of spouted bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Salam, P.; Bhattacharya, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Gasification is considered to be a favourable method for converting a solid fuel into a more versatile gaseous fuel. Performance of a gasifier depends on the design of the gasifier, type of fuel used and air flow rate, etc. The applications of spouted bed for a variety of processes such as drying, coating, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion have been reported. Gasification of solid fuels in a spouted bed, which has certain potential advantages over other fluid bed configurations, appears to be an under-exploited technique so far. Central jet distributors are the most commonly used in the experimental studies that has been reported in the literature. Circular slit distributor is a new concept. This paper presents results of a comparative experimental study on air gasification of charcoal in central jet and circular slit inert sand spouted beds. The experiments were carried for an equivalence ratio of 0.25. The effect of spouting velocity and type of the distributor on the gasification performance were discussed. The steady state dense bed temperature varied between 979 and 1183 deg C for central jet spouted bed and between 964 and 1235 deg C for circular slit spouted bed. At higher spouting velocities, the gasification efficiency of the circular slit spouted bed was slightly more compared with that of central jet spouted bed

  20. Comparing immediate-type food allergy in humans and companion animals-revealing unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pali-Schöll, I; De Lucia, M; Jackson, H; Janda, J; Mueller, R S; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2017-11-01

    Adverse food reactions occur in human as well as veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in both. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on immediate-type food allergy vs other food adverse reactions in companion animals, and compare this to the human situation. While the prevalence of food allergy in humans has been well studied for some allergens, this remains to be investigated for animal patients, where owner-reported as well as veterinarian-diagnosed food adverse reactions are on the increase. The characteristics of the disease in humans vs dogs, cats, and horses are most often caused by similar, but sometimes species-dependent different pathophysiological mechanisms, prompting the specific clinical symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. Furthermore, little is known about the allergen molecules causative for type I food allergy in animals, which, like in human patients, could represent predictive biomarkers for risk evaluation. The definite diagnosis of food allergy relies-as in humans-on elimination diet and provocation tests. Besides allergen avoidance in daily practice, novel treatment options and tolerization strategies are underway. Taken together, numerous knowledge gaps were identified in veterinary food allergy, which need to be filled by systematic comparative studies. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparative analysis of the intestinal flora in type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miura, Takamasa; Hirakata, Satomi; Hosoyama, Akira; Sugino, Sakiko; Umeno, Aya; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Koike, Taisuke

    2017-10-30

    A relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and intestinal flora has been suggested since development of analysis technology for intestinal flora. An animal model of T2DM is important for investigation of T2DM. Although there are some animal models of T2DM, a comparison of the intestinal flora of healthy animals with that of T2DM animals has not yet been reported. The intestinal flora of Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice was compared with that of Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity (TSNO) mice in the present study. The TSOD mice showed typical type 2 diabetes symptoms, which were high-fat diet-independent. The TSOD and the TSNO mouse models were derived from the same strain, ddY. In this study, we compared the intestinal flora of TSOD mice with that if TSNO mice at 5 and 12 weeks of age. We determined that that the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly higher in the cecum of TSOD mice than in that of TSNO mice. The intestinal flora of the cecum and that of the feces were similar between the TSNO and the TSOD strains. The dominant bacteria in the cecum and feces were of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, the content of some bacterial species varied between the two strains. The percentage of Lactobacillus spp. within the general intestinal flora was higher in TSOD mice than in TSNO mice. In contrast, the percentages of order Bacteroidales and family Lachnospiraceae were higher in TSNO mice than in TSOD mice. Some species were observed only in TSOD mice, such as genera Turicibacter and SMB53 (family Clostridiaceae), the percentage of which were 3.8% and 2.0%, respectively. Although further analysis of the metabolism of the individual bacteria in the intestinal flora is essential, genera Turicibacter and SMB53 may be important for the abnormal metabolism of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Cesium and strontium fractionation from HLW for thermal-stress reduction in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.

    1983-02-01

    Results are described for a study to assess the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic repository thermal stresses. System costs are developed for a broad range of conditions comparing the Cs/Sr fractionation concept with disposal of 10-year old vitrified HLW and vitrified HLW aged to achieve (through decay) the same heat output as the fractionated high-level waste (FHLW). All comparisons are based on a 50,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The FHLW and the Cs/Sr waste are both disposed of a vitrified waste but emplaced in separate areas of a basalt repository. The FHLW is emplaced in high-integrity packages at relatively high waste loading but low heat loading, while the Cs/Sr waste is emplaced in minimum integrity packages at relatively high heat loading. System cost comparisons are based on minimum cost combinations of canister diameter, waste concentration, and canister spacing in a basalt repository for each waste type. The effects on both long- and near-term safety considerations are also addressed. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers, potentially, a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However, there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or loser costs

  3. Comparative symbiotic plasmid analysis indicates that symbiosis gene ancestor type affects plasmid genetic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Zhao, L; Zhang, L; Wu, Y; Chou, M; Wei, G

    2018-07-01

    Rhizobial symbiotic plasmids play vital roles in mutualistic symbiosis with legume plants by executing the functions of nodulation and nitrogen fixation. To explore the gene composition and genetic constitution of rhizobial symbiotic plasmids, comparison analyses of 24 rhizobial symbiotic plasmids derived from four rhizobial genera was carried out. Results illustrated that rhizobial symbiotic plasmids had higher proportion of functional genes participating in amino acid transport and metabolism, replication; recombination and repair; carbohydrate transport and metabolism; energy production and conversion and transcription. Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 symbiotic plasmid - pM0123d had similar gene composition with pR899b and pSNGR234a. All symbiotic plasmids shared 13 orthologous genes, including five nod and eight nif/fix genes which participate in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis process. These plasmids contained nod genes from four ancestors and fix genes from six ancestors. The ancestral type of pM0123d nod genes was similar with that of Rhizobium etli plasmids, while the ancestral type of pM0123d fix genes was same as that of pM7653Rb. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on nodCIJ and fixABC displayed different topological structures mainly due to nodCIJ and fixABC ancestral type discordance. The study presents valuable insights into mosaic structures and the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic plasmids. This study compared 24 rhizobial symbiotic plasmids that included four genera and 11 species, illuminating the functional gene composition and symbiosis gene ancestor types of symbiotic plasmids from higher taxonomy. It provides valuable insights into mosaic structures and the evolution of symbiotic plasmids. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Hydrothermal modeling for the efficient design of thermal loading in a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jin; Kim, Jin-Seop; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydrothermal modeling for HLW repository is performed. • The model reduces the peak temperature in the repository by about 10 °C. • Decreasing the tunnel distance is more efficient to improve the disposal density. • The EDZ surrounding the deposition hole increases the peak temperature. • The peak temperature for the double-layer repository remains below the limit. - Abstract: The thermal analysis of a geological repository for nuclear waste using the three-dimensional hydrothermal model is performed. The hydrothermal model reduces the maximum peak temperature in the repository by about 10 °C compared to the heat conduction model with constant thermal conductivities. Decreasing the tunnel distance is more efficient than decreasing the deposition hole spacing to improve the disposal density for a given thermal load. The annular excavation damaged zone surrounding the deposition hole has a considerable effect on the peak temperature. The possibility of double-layer repository is analyzed from the viewpoint of the thermal constraints of the repository. The maximum peak temperature for the double-layer repository is slightly higher than that for the single-layer repository, but remains below the temperature limit

  5. Caregiver burden in Alzheimer-type dementia and psychosis: A comparative study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, P; Desai, N G; Prakash, O; Kushwaha, S; Tripathi, C B

    2017-04-01

    Caregiver burden in dementia is an important area of research. Providing care for a relative can be a potent source of chronic stress and can have deleterious consequences for both the physical and emotional health of caregivers. This study aims to evaluate the burden of care in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer-type dementia and compare it with elderly psychosis; and to also study the factors that influence burden of care in Alzheimer's dementia. Thirty-two caregiver-patient dyads of Alzheimer-type dementia were compared with thirty-two caregiver-patient dyads of psychosis. Cognitive assessment, abilities to perform activities of daily living and severity of dementia was assessed in the patients. Zarit Burden Interview was used to study the caregiver burden in both groups. The mean burden score in dementia caregivers was high at 47.7, whereas the mean burden score for elderly psychosis caregivers was lesser at 33.6, and this difference in mean burden scores was found to be statistically significant. Spouses had the highest mean burden scores of 53.48. Caregiver burden in dementia was positively correlated with cognitive impairment and inability to carry out ADLs. Presence of psychological distress in caregivers was also an indicator for greater caregiver burden in dementia. The study revealed that dementia carries a greater caregiver burden when compared with elderly patients with psychosis. Innovative interventions are needed to remove burden from caregiving, making it a meaningful practice integral to the Indian society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term environmental impacts of geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1983-05-01

    This paper summarizes a study of the long-term environmental impacts of geologic repositories for radioactive wastes. Conceptual repositories in basalt, granite, salt, and tuff were considered. Site-specific hydrological and geochemical parameters were used wherever possible, supplemented with generic parameters when necessary. Radiation doses to future maximally exposed individuals who use the contaminated groundwater and surface water were calculated and compared with a performance criterion of 10 -4 Sv/yr for radiation exposures from probable events. The major contributors to geologic isolation are the absence of groundwater if the repository is in natural salt, the slow dissolution of key radioelements as limited by solubility and by diffusion and convection in groundwater, long water travel times from the waste to the environment, and sorption retardation in the media surrounding the repository. In addition, dilution by surface water can considerably reduce the radiation exposures that result from the small fraction of the waste radioactivity that may ultimately reach the environment. Estimates of environmental impacts are made both for unreprocessed spent fuel and for reprocessing wastes. Accelerated dissolution of waste exposed to groundwater during the period of repository heating is also considered. This study of environmental impacts is a portion of a more comprehensive study of geologic waste disposal carried out by the Waste Isolation System Panel of the US National Research Council

  7. Compliance with NRC subsystem requirements in the repository licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minwalla, H.

    1994-01-01

    Section 121 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Commission) to issue technical requirements and criteria, for the use of a system of multiple barriers in the design of the repository, that are not inconsistent with any comparable standard promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of the EPA is required to promulgate generally applicable standards for protection of the general environment from offsite releases from radioactive material in repositories. The Commission's regulations pertaining to geologic repositories are provided in 10 CFR part 60. The Commission has provided in 10 CFR 60.112 the overall post-closure system performance objective which is used to demonstrate compliance with the EPA high-level waste (HLW) disposal standard. In addition, the Commission has provided, in 10 CFR 60.113, subsystem performance requirements for substantially complete containment, fractional release rate, and groundwater travel time; however, none of these subsystem performance requirements have a causal technical nexus with the EPA HLW disposal standard. This paper examines the issue of compliance with the conflicting dual regulatory role of subsystem performance requirements in the repository licensing process and recommends several approaches that would appropriately define the role of subsystem performance requirements in the repository licensing process

  8. Criticality issues with highly enriched fuels in a repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Sanchez, L.C.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary analysis of a volcanic tuff repository containing a combination of low enrichment commercial spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and DOE-owned SNF packages. These SNFs were analyzed with respect to their criticality risks. Disposal of SNF packages containing significant fissile mass within a geologic repository must comply with current regulations relative to criticality safety during transportation and handling within operational facilities. However, once the repository is closed, the double contingency credits for criticality safety are subject to unremediable degradation, (e.g., water intrusion, continued presence of neutron absorbers in proximity to fissile material, and fissile material reconfiguration). The work presented in this paper focused on two attributes of criticality in a volcanic tuff repository for near-field and far-field scenarios: (1) scenario conditions necessary to have a criticality, and (2) consequences of a nuclear excursion that are components of risk. All criticality consequences are dependent upon eventual water intrusion into the repository and subsequent breach of the disposal package. Key criticality parameters necessary for a critical assembly are: (1) adequate thermal fissile mass, (2) adequate concentration of fissile material, (3) separation of neutron poison from fissile materials, and (4) sufficient neutron moderation (expressed in units of moderator to fissile atom ratios). Key results from this study indicated that the total energies released during a single excursion are minimal (comparable to those released in previous solution accidents), and the maximum frequency of occurrence is bounded by the saturation and temperature recycle times, thus resulting in small criticality risks

  9. University digital repositories and authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Keefer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Access movement offers two strategies for making scientific information available without economic, technical or legal obstacles: the publication of articles in OA journals and the deposit by authors of their Works in stable institutional or discipline-based repositories. This article explores the implementation of the second “route” on the part of authors, because it is the strategy that offers the greatest possibility of attaining OA in the short term. However, it does require repositories to exert great effort in informing the authors of the advantages of self-archiving and of the procedures for depositing their work and, even helping them to do so – through services and promotional activities.

  10. Thermo-mechanical analysis for multi-level HLW repository concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the influence of design parameters for the underground high-level nuclear waste repository with multi-level concept. B. Necessity o In order to construct an HLW repository in deep underground, it is required to select a site, which is far from major discontinuities. To dispose the whole spent fuels generated from the Korean nuclear power plants in a repository, the underground area of about 4km 2 is required. This would be a constraints for selecting an adequate repository site. It is recommended to dispose the two different spent fuels, PWR and CANDU, in different areas at the operation efficiency point of view. It is necessary to investigate the influence of parameters, which can affect the stability of multi-level repository. It is also needed to consider the influence of heat generated from the HLW and the high in situ stress in deep location. Therefore, thermo-mechanical coupling analysis should be carried out and the results should be compared with the results from single-level repository concept. Three-dimensional analysis is required to model the disposal tunnel and deposition hole. It is recommended to use the Korean geological condition and actually measured rock properties in Korea in order to achieve reliable modeling results. A FISH routine developed for effective modeling of Thermal-Mechanical coupling was implemented in the modeling using FLAC3D, which is a commercial three-dimensional FDM code. The thermal and mechanical properties of rock and rock mass achieved from Yusung drilling site, were used for the computer modeling. Different parameters such as level distance, waste type disposed on different levels, and time interval between the operation on different levels, were considered in the three-dimensional analysis. From the analysis, it was possible to derive adequate multi-level repository concept. Results and recommendations for application From the thermal-mechanical analysis for the multi-level repository

  11. Comparative study of telmisartan with pioglitazone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Qayyum, A.; Khan, B.T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of telmisartan and pioglitazone on peripheral insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Study Design: Randomized control trail. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Health, Islamabad and pharmacology dept, Army Medical College, from 17th March to 17th June 2014. Material and Methods: Twenty four BALB/c mice, both male and female, of 35 to 40 grams were used for this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups. Two were taken as control groups, one was normal control and the other was diabetic control. Two were taken as interventional groups and received either pioglitazone or telmisartan for four weeks after induction of diabetes. Results: After treatment, pioglitazone reduced all the biochemical parameters significantly when compared with diabetic control. Negative correlation between glucose and insulin was changed into positive correlation (r-value, 0.92) with significant p-value (0.015) in pioglitazone treated group, while telmisartan only managed to convert a negative correlation between insulin and glucose into statistically non-significant positive. Conclusion: Telmisartan although reduces glucose levels and improves beta cell mass but the effect is statistically non-significant as compared to pioglitazone. In hypertensive type 2 diabetics a combination of these two drugs may help in reducing the dose of pioglitazone and consequently the cardiovascular adverse effects of pioglitazone. (author)

  12. Periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai, India: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is referred to as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to tooth loss, thereby compromising a patient's ability to maintain a proper diet and affecting the quality of life. Aim: To assess the periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among diabetics and nondiabetic population attending a government hospital in Chennai city. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997 was used to assess the periodontal status. The final sample size of the study was 1000 which included 500 diabetics and 500 nondiabetics. Results: This study showed a significant association between the diabetic status and periodontal disease. The severity of periodontal disease was high among diabetics when compared to nondiabetics. The mean number of sextants with shallow pockets was 0.76 ± 1.20 among diabetics and 0.49 ± 0.86 among nondiabetics (P < 0.0001. The mean number of sextants with Loss of Attachment score of 1 (4–5 mm was 0.67 ± 1.05 among diabetics and 0.32 ± 0.70 among nondiabetics. Conclusion: Periodontal disease was more frequent and severe in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetics although there are a number of questions need to be answered in future research.

  13. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts

  14. Coefficient of Friction at the Fingertips in Type II Diabetics Compared to Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Beatriz H; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2017-07-01

    Clinical observations suggest that type II diabetes patients are more susceptible to skin changes, which may be associated with reduced coefficient of friction at the fingertips. Reduced coefficient of friction may explain recent reports of fine motor dysfunction in diabetic patients. Coefficient of friction was evaluated using slip force evaluation in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Covariates of tactile sensation, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin, and clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were also assessed. A significant decrease in fingertip coefficient of friction in the diabetic group was found as compared to controls. Health state covariates did not alter the strength of between-group differences in statistical analyses. This finding of between-group differences for fingertip frictional properties suggests that causative factors of reported manual motor dysfunction lie in both the distal and proximal portions of the nervous system.

  15. Comparing various artificial neural network types for water temperature prediction in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Maciej J.; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw J.; Osuch, Marzena

    2015-10-01

    A number of methods have been proposed for the prediction of streamwater temperature based on various meteorological and hydrological variables. The present study shows a comparison of few types of data-driven neural networks (multi-layer perceptron, product-units, adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems and wavelet neural networks) and nearest neighbour approach for short time streamwater temperature predictions in two natural catchments (mountainous and lowland) located in temperate climate zone, with snowy winters and hot summers. To allow wide applicability of such models, autoregressive inputs are not used and only easily available measurements are considered. Each neural network type is calibrated independently 100 times and the mean, median and standard deviation of the results are used for the comparison. Finally, the ensemble aggregation approach is tested. The results show that simple and popular multi-layer perceptron neural networks are in most cases not outperformed by more complex and advanced models. The choice of neural network is dependent on the way the models are compared. This may be a warning for anyone who wish to promote own models, that their superiority should be verified in different ways. The best results are obtained when mean, maximum and minimum daily air temperatures from the previous days are used as inputs, together with the current runoff and declination of the Sun from two recent days. The ensemble aggregation approach allows reducing the mean square error up to several percent, depending on the case, and noticeably diminishes differences in modelling performance obtained by various neural network types.

  16. Comparative study on effects of two different types of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Costa, Carla; Sharma, Vyom; Kiliç, Gözde; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Dhawan, Alok; Laffon, Blanca

    2013-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) are among most frequently used nanoparticles (NPs). They are present in a variety of consumer products, including food industry in which they are employed as an additive. The potential toxic effects of these NPs on mammal cells have been extensively studied. However, studies regarding neurotoxicity and specific effects on neuronal systems are very scarce and, to our knowledge, no studies on human neuronal cells have been reported so far. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of two types of TiO₂ NPs, with different crystalline structure, on human SHSY5Y neuronal cells. After NPs characterization, a battery of assays was performed to evaluate the viability, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative damage in TiO₂ NP-exposed SHSY5Y cells. Results obtained showed that the behaviour of both types of NPs resulted quite comparable. They did not reduce the viability of neuronal cells but were effectively internalized by the cells and induced dose-dependent cell cycle alterations, apoptosis by intrinsic pathway, and genotoxicity not related with double strand break production. Furthermore, all these effects were not associated with oxidative damage production and, consequently, further investigations on the specific mechanisms underlying the effects observed in this study are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Control Strategy for VSI and CSI Active Filters and Comparing These Two Types of Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Arab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently to eliminate the harmonics and improve the power factor of the power networks, much attention has been attracted to active filters. The advantages of these filters are lower volume and their better compensating characteristics than the passive filters. In conventional sliding mode controllers, the source current waveform is fluctuated in near to zero values. In this paper, using a new sliding technique, lower Total Harmonic Distortion (THD in source current is obtained and the current waveform is improved. As well as, two novel control strategies for two types of active filters, VSI and CSI is proposed and then these two types of filters are compared to reduce THD value of source current.The proposed controlled strategies are simulated by MATLAB/Simulink. The Simulation results confirm that the proposed strategies reduce the THD of source current more than other strategies, and active filter based on CSI has a better performance than active filter based on VSI with a dead time area (for avoiding short circuit of the source in high powers.

  18. Comparative study on the physico-mechanical characteristics for five types of wood flooring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CĂLĂTAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1600-1700, the first works with parquet elements at Versailles Palace were performed, but the high cost has made that the wooden floor to be an exclusivist product for a long time. Currently, in the last 30 years, the most innovations in flooring industry were aimed to improve the technological process, the easing of work, to reduce the losses of raw materials and to reduce the production costs. The experimental research conducted worldwide has shown that the wood processing technology, up to the flooring finite element, plays an important role in achieving a superior quality and durability and that the finishing systems have to be applied depending on the conditions of the area of use. This paper is a comparative study regarding the physico-mechanical characteristics for five types of wood flooring manufactured and marketed in Romania. In the experimental research, there were analyzed: the behavior of the floor assemblies under linearly distributed and concentrated loads, the thermal insulation characteristics and the slip resistance. The experimental results have shown that these characteristics are influenced by the wood species, the type of product (massive one or subjected to stratification technological processing, the thickness of lamellar flooring elements, and the chosen finishing method (varnishing, oiling.

  19. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  20. Comparison of potential radiological consequences from a spent-fuel repository and natural uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, O.J.; Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-09-01

    A general criterion has been suggested for deep geological repositories containing spent fuel - the repositories should impose no greater radiological risk than due to naturally occurring uranium deposits. The following analysis investigates the rationale of that suggestion and determines whether current expectations of spent-fuel repository performance are consistent with such a criterion. In this study, reference spent-fuel repositories were compared to natural uranium-ore deposits. Comparisons were based on intrinsic characteristics, such as radionuclide inventory, depth, proximity to aquifers, and regional distribution, and actual and potential radiological consequences that are now occurring from some ore deposits and that may eventually occur from repositories and other ore deposits. The comparison results show that the repositories are quite comparable to the natural ore deposits and, in some cases, present less radiological hazard than their natural counterparts. On the basis of the first comparison, placing spent fuel in a deep geologic repository apparently reduces the hazard from natural radioactive materials occurring in the earth's crust by locating the waste in impermeable strata without access to oxidizing conditions. On the basis of the second comparison, a repository constructed within reasonable constraints presents no greater hazard than a large ore deposit. It is recommended that if the naturally radioactive environment is to be used as a basis for a criterion regarding repositories, then this criterion should be carefully constructed. The criterion should be based on the radiological quality of the waters in the immediate region of a specific repository, and it should be in terms of an acceptable potential increase in the radiological content of those waters due to the existence of the repository

  1. Validation of MCNP4A for repository scattered radiation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, M.N.; Su, S.

    1998-02-01

    Comparison is made between experimentally determined albedo (scattered) radiation and MCNP4A predictions in order to provide independent validation for repository shielding analysis. Both neutron and gamma scattered radiation fields from concrete ducts are compared in this paper. Satisfactory agreement is found between actual and calculated results with conservative values calculated by the MCNP4A code for all conditions

  2. Hydrochemical stability of groundwaters surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository in a 100,000 year perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdomeneck, I. (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    This report is focussed on the effects of climate changes on the chemical composition of deep groundwaters. The aim of the work has been to assess the hydrochemical stability at nuclear repository sites in Finland and Sweden. Sites investigated by SKB and POSIVA have been compared. The corresponding features are important in judging how sensitive a site might be to climatic changes. Evidence for climate effects in the past on groundwater compositions has been reviewed, including isotopic and mineralogical data. There is for example evidence that glacial meltwaters are currently present at repository depths in the Fennoscandian Shield. No evidence has been found however that oxidising conditions have ever prevailed at depth, even if glacial meltwaters presumably had a substantial amount of dissolved O{sub 2}. The depth distribution of different calcite types (and other fracture minerals) indicates stability in large-scale groundwater circulation over time. Information on past (and future) groundwater salinities has been sought after in the results of hydrological numerical models for Aespoe in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. It is expected that groundwater salinities will change due to future climatic variations. The main effects will be from shoreline movements, permafrost and continental ice-sheets. In most sites the present reducing redox conditions will remain undisturbed during glacial cycles. The modelling indicated that most of the SKB suitability criteria will be met during the life-span of the repository and the groundwater composition will vary within what is observed in the samples collected today at various depths. The expected changes are therefore not judged to threaten the integrity and functioning of the repository. The major conclusion is that despite long-term hydrodynamic changes hydrochemical stability is expected to dominate at repository depth.

  3. Hydrochemical stability of groundwaters surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository in a 100,000 year perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomeneck, I.

    2001-09-01

    This report is focussed on the effects of climate changes on the chemical composition of deep groundwaters. The aim of the work has been to assess the hydrochemical stability at nuclear repository sites in Finland and Sweden. Sites investigated by SKB and POSIVA have been compared. The corresponding features are important in judging how sensitive a site might be to climatic changes. Evidence for climate effects in the past on groundwater compositions has been reviewed, including isotopic and mineralogical data. There is for example evidence that glacial meltwaters are currently present at repository depths in the Fennoscandian Shield. No evidence has been found however that oxidising conditions have ever prevailed at depth, even if glacial meltwaters presumably had a substantial amount of dissolved O 2 . The depth distribution of different calcite types (and other fracture minerals) indicates stability in large-scale groundwater circulation over time. Information on past (and future) groundwater salinities has been sought after in the results of hydrological numerical models for Aespoe in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. It is expected that groundwater salinities will change due to future climatic variations. The main effects will be from shoreline movements, permafrost and continental ice-sheets. In most sites the present reducing redox conditions will remain undisturbed during glacial cycles. The modelling indicated that most of the SKB suitability criteria will be met during the life-span of the repository and the groundwater composition will vary within what is observed in the samples collected today at various depths. The expected changes are therefore not judged to threaten the integrity and functioning of the repository. The major conclusion is that despite long-term hydrodynamic changes hydrochemical stability is expected to dominate at repository depth

  4. Hydrochemical stability of groundwaters surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository in a 100,000 year perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdomenech, I. (ed.); Gurban, I.; Laaksoharju, M. [and others

    2001-12-01

    This report is focused on the effects of climate changes on the chemical composition of deep groundwaters. The aim of the work has been to assess the hydrochemical stability at nuclear repository sites in Finland and Sweden. Sites investigated by SKB and POSIVA have been compared. The corresponding features are important in judging how sensitive a site might be to climatic changes. Evidence for climate effects in the past on groundwater compositions has been reviewed, including isotopic and mineralogical data. There is for example evidence that glacial meltwaters are currently present at repository depths in the Fennoscandian Shield. No evidence has been found however that oxidising conditions have ever prevailed at depth, even if glacial meltwaters presumably had a substantial amount of dissolved 0{sub 2}. The depth distribution of different calcite types (and other fracture minerals) indicates stability in large-scale groundwater circulation over time. Information on past (and future) groundwater salinities has been sought after in the results of hydrological numerical models for Aespoe in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. It is expected that groundwater salinities will change due to future climatic variations. The main effects will be from shoreline movements, permafrost and continental ice-sheets. In most sites the present reducing redox conditions will remain undisturbed during glacial cycles. The modelling indicated that most of the SKB suitability criteria will be met during the life-span of the repository and the groundwater composition will vary within what is observed in the samples collected today at various depths. The expected changes are therefore not judged to threaten the integrity and functioning of the repository. The major conclusion is that despite long-term hydrodynamic changes hydrochemical stability is expected to dominate at repository depth. (orig.)

  5. Review of Y/OWI/TM-36: repository design performance in salt, granite, shale or basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, R.; Nair, O.B.

    1979-09-01

    As part of the ongoing work by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to evaluate repository design performance, this memorandum presents a review of the preconceptual repository design described in Y/OWI/TM-36, Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, April 1978. The purpose of this review is: to assess the adequacy of the design procedures and assumptions; to identify inappropriate or unsubstantiated design issues; to identify areas where additional numerical analyses may be required; and to develop data for inclusion in a reference repository design. The preconceptual repository design is presented in the form of 23 volumes of data base, analyses, and design layouts for four rock types: bedded salt, shale, granite and basalt. This memorandum reviews all four repository designs

  6. Classifying Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria to Facilitate Phased Cohort Identification Using Clinical Data Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Amy Y; Lancaster, William J; Wyatt, Matthew C; Rasmussen, Luke V; Fort, Daniel G; Cimino, James J

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge in using electronic health record repositories for research is the difficulty matching subject eligibility criteria to query capabilities of the repositories. We propose categories for study criteria corresponding to the effort needed for querying those criteria: "easy" (supporting automated queries), mixed (initial automated querying with manual review), "hard" (fully manual record review), and "impossible" or "point of enrollment" (not typically in health repositories). We obtained a sample of 292 criteria from 20 studies from ClinicalTrials.gov. Six independent reviewers, three each from two academic research institutions, rated criteria according to our four types. We observed high interrater reliability both within and between institutions. The analysis demonstrated typical features of criteria that map with varying levels of difficulty to repositories. We propose using these features to improve enrollment workflow through more standardized study criteria, self-service repository queries, and analyst-mediated retrievals.

  7. Comparing WTP values of different types of QALY gain elicited from the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Mark; Baker, Rachel; Brouwer, Werner; Mason, Helen; Hansen, Dorte Gyrd; Robinson, Angela; Donaldson, Cam

    2015-03-01

    The appropriate thresholds for decisions on the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions remain controversial, especially in 'end-of-life' situations. Evidence of the values placed on different types of health gain by the general public is limited. Across nine European countries, 17,657 people were presented with different hypothetical health scenarios each involving a gain of one quality adjusted life year (QALY) and asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for that gain. The questions included quality of life (QoL) enhancing and life extending health gains, and a scenario where respondents faced imminent, premature death. The mean WTP values for a one-QALY gain composed of QoL improvements were modest (PPP$11,000). When comparing QALY gains obtained in the near future, the valuation of life extension exceeded the valuation of QoL enhancing gains (mean WTP PPP$19,000 for a scenario in which a coma is avoided). The mean WTP values were higher still when respondents faced imminent, premature death (PPP$29,000). Evidence from the largest survey on the value of health gains by the general public indicated a higher value for life extending gains compared with QoL enhancing gains. A further modest premium may be indicated for life extension when facing imminent, premature death. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of guidelines for the management of hyperlipidemia and hypertension for type 2 diabetes patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay D Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several guidelines to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes patients exist in North America, Europe, and Australia. Their ability to achieve this goal efficiently is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Decision analysis was used to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of international contemporary guidelines for the management of hypertension and hyperlipidemia for patients aged 40-80 with type 2 diabetes. Measures of comparative effectiveness included the expected probability of a coronary or stroke event, incremental medication costs per event, and number-needed-to-treat (NNT to prevent an event. All guidelines are equally effective, but they differ significantly in their medication costs. The range of NNT to prevent an event was small across guidelines (6.5-7.6 for males and 6.5-7.5 for females; a larger range of differences were observed for expected cost per event avoided (ranges, $117,269-$157,186 for males and $115,999-$163,775 for females. Australian and U.S. guidelines result in the highest and lowest expected costs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: International guidelines based on the same evidence and seeking the same goal are similar in their effectiveness; however, there are large differences in expected medication costs.

  9. A comparative technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET study in different types of dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habert, M O; Piketty, M L; Askienazy, S [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire; Spampinato, U; Mas, J L; Recondo, J de; Rondot, P [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Neurologie; Bourdel, M C [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Psychiatrie

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) as a tracer, in 13 control subjects and 44 age-matched patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT, n=19) presumed Pick's disease (n=5), idiopathic Parkinson's disease with dementia (DPD, n=15) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n=5), HMPAO uptake was measured in the superior frontal, inferior frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and the perfusion values were expressed as cortical/cerebellar activity ratios. As compared with controls, tracer uptake ratios in the DAT group were signficantly reduced over all cortical regions, with the largest defects in the parieto-temporal and superior frontal cortices. A marked hypoperfusion affecting the superior and inferior frontal cortices was found in Pick's diesease, whereas a mild but significant hypoperfusion was observed only in the superior frontal cortex of patients with PSP. In the DPD group, HMPAO uptake was significantly reduced in the parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, but not in the frontal cortex. These results show that DAT and DPD share the opposite anteroposterior HMPAO uptake defect as compared with the Pick's and PSP groups. (orig.).

  10. Comparing the quality of life in insulin recipient and refusal patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mitra; Sabouhi, Fakhri; Abazari, Parvaneh; Aminorroaya, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Better control of blood sugar and reduction of diabetes complications through insulin therapy could convince people to choose this method. However, patients might refuse insulin therapy due to its painful injection, limitations in daily activities, and hypoglycemia. Thus, insulin therapy could have both positive and negative effects on patients' quality of life (QOL). Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the QOL of insulin recipient and insulin refusal patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was a descriptive and comparative research conducted on 126 patients; 63 were insulin recipients and 63 had refused insulin therapy. Participants were under the care of the Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center of Isfahan, Iran. Data were gathered using the Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire. In this tool, higher scores indicated lower QOL in patients. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, analysis of covariance, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Pearson and Spearman's correlation. There was a significant difference (P refusal patients (mean = 1.74, SD = 0.41) in terms of mean QOL score. In addition, men and participants with higher educational levels reported a better QOL (P refusal patients had a better QOL. It seems that QOL is associated with the acceptance or refusal of insulin therapy. Therefore, enhancement of QOL could be related to all aspects of the disease, especially its treatment method and solving the therapeutic problems.

  11. A comparative technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET study in different types of dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habert, M.O.; Piketty, M.L.; Askienazy, S. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire); Spampinato, U.; Mas, J.L.; Recondo, J. de; Rondot, P. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Neurologie); Bourdel, M.C. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Psychiatrie)

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) as a tracer, in 13 control subjects and 44 age-matched patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT, n=19) presumed Pick's disease (n=5), idiopathic Parkinson's disease with dementia (DPD, n=15) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n=5), HMPAO uptake was measured in the superior frontal, inferior frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and the perfusion values were expressed as cortical/cerebellar activity ratios. As compared with controls, tracer uptake ratios in the DAT group were signficantly reduced over all cortical regions, with the largest defects in the parieto-temporal and superior frontal cortices. A marked hypoperfusion affecting the superior and inferior frontal cortices was found in Pick's diesease, whereas a mild but significant hypoperfusion was observed only in the superior frontal cortex of patients with PSP. In the DPD group, HMPAO uptake was significantly reduced in the parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, but not in the frontal cortex. These results show that DAT and DPD share the opposite anteroposterior HMPAO uptake defect as compared with the Pick's and PSP groups. (orig.).

  12. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  13. A comparative study of three types of grid connected photovoltaic systems based on actual performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya’acob, M. Effendy; Hizam, Hashim; Khatib, Tamer; Radzi, M. Amran M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present and analyze actual performance of three types of PV systems in the tropics. • We present conclusion and recommendations for sun tracking systems and CPV. • We present worthwhile experiment results for those who are interested in PV system. - Abstract: In this study, three photovoltaic (PV) systems are evaluated based on actual performance. The energy generation of three types of PV systems namely concentrating PV system (6 units × 1 kWp), PV system with sun tracking flat (2 units × 1 kWp) and fixed flat PV system (2 units × 1 kWp) is analyzed in this research. Data analysis for ten consecutive months consisting of 12,190 samples of 15 min interval is done. The performance evaluation is done using energy yield, yield factor, capacity factor, power efficiency and PV array efficiency. Based on the experiment data, it is concluded that tracking flat PV system is the most suitable system for Malaysia in normal operation mode with average daily generation of 4.7 kW h (141 kW h as a monthly average), system efficiency of 11%, power efficiency of 85%, average daily yield factor of 2.3 kW h/kWp and capacity factor of 32%. This study also highlights the PV energy (E PV ) models for each PV generators with respect to the environmental factors. The advantage of employing a tracking flat system as compared to the fixed flat system is considered based on the effectiveness of the dual-axis tracking mechanism tracking the sun for maximum power output

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-yan; Dong, Shu; He, Nan-nan; Jiang, Chun-jie; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administration was investigated. As compared to normal rats, Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of oral arctigenin in diabetic rats increased by 356.8% and 223.4%, respectively. In contrast, after intravenous injection, the Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of arctigenin showed no significant difference between diabetic and normal rats. In order to explore how the bioavailability of oral arctigenin increased under diabetic condition, the absorption behavior of arctigenin was evaluated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). The results indicated that arctigenin was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The absorption difference of arctigenin in the normal and diabetic rats could be eliminated by the pretreatment of classic P-gp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that P-gp might be the key factor causing the absorption enhancement of arctigenin in diabetic rats. Further studies revealed that the uptake of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in diabetic rats was significantly higher, indicating that diabetes mellitus might impair P-gp function. Consistently, a lower mRNA level of P-gp in the intestine of diabetic rats was found. In conclusion, the absorption of arctigenin after oral administration was promoted in diabetic rats, which might be partially attribute to the decreased expression and impaired function of P-gp in intestines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing black carbon types in sequestering polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Fang; Gan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely found in sediments, especially congeners from the penta-BDE formula. Due to their strong affinity for black carbon (BC), bioavailability of PBDEs may be decreased in BC-amended sediments. In this study, we used a matrix-SPME method to measure the freely dissolved concentration (C free ) of PBDEs as a parameter of their potential bioavailability and evaluated the differences among biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon. Activated carbon displayed a substantially greater sequestration capacity than biochar or charcoal. At 1% amendment rate in sediment with low organic carbon (OC) content (0.12%), C free of six PBDEs was reduced by 47.5–78.0%, 47.3–77.5%, and 94.1–98.3% with biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon, respectively, while the sequestration was more limited in sediment with high OC content (0.87%). Therefore, it is important to consider the type and properties of the BC and the sediment in BC-based remediation or mitigation. -- Highlights: • A matrix-SPME method was developed for measuring C free of PBDEs in sediment porewater. • Different black carbon types differed greatly in their ability to decrease C free of PBDEs in sediments. • Activated carbon was much more efficient in sequestering PBDEs than biochar or charcoal. • The effect of black carbon was more pronounced in sediment with lower indigenous OC content. -- Biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon have been compared for their efficacy in sequestering PBDEs in sediments by using a matrix-SPME method

  16. Variation of inflammatory parameters after sibutramine treatment compared to placebo in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, G; Maffioli, P; Ferrari, I; Palumbo, I; Randazzo, S; D'Angelo, A; Cicero, A F G

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of sibutramine has been demonstrated in randomized trials in obese/overweight patients including those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 1-year treatment with sibutramine compared to placebo on body weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile, and inflammatory parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. Two hundred and forty-six patients with uncontrolled T2DM [glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c) ) > 8·0%] in therapy with different oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin were randomized to take 10 mg of sibutramine or placebo for 12 months. We evaluated at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months these parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI), HbA(1c) , fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (Tg), leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), adiponectin (ADN), vaspin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP). We observed a decrease of body weight after 9 and 12 months in the group treated with sibutramine, but not in the control group. Regarding glycaemic and lipid profile, although there are differences seen over time within each of the groups, we did not obtain any significant differences between the two groups. Both placebo and sibutramine gave a similar improvement of HOMA-IR, leptin, TNF-α, ADN, and Hs-CRP. No vaspin variations were observed in either group. Sibutramine resulted in a decrease in body weight at 9 months and at 12 months that was not observed with placebo. Although there were differences seen over time within each of the groups, there were no significant differences between groups for any other parameter that we measured. © 2010 The Authors. JCPT © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy: a comparative study of heating for different particle types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattani, Varun P; Tunnell, James W

    2012-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) absorbing plasmonic nanoparticles enhance photothermal therapy of tumors. In this procedure, systemically delivered gold nanoparticles preferentially accumulate at the tumor site and when irradiated using laser light, produce localized heat sufficient to damage tumor cells. Gold nanoshells and nanorods have been widely studied for this purpose, and while both exhibit strong NIR absorption, their overall absorption and scattering properties differ widely due to their geometry. In this paper, we compared the photothermal response of both nanoparticle types including the heat generation and photothermal efficiency. Tissue simulating phantoms, with varying concentrations of gold nanoparticles, were irradiated with a near-infrared diode laser while concurrently monitoring the surface temperature with an infrared camera. We calculated nanoshell and nanorod optical properties using the Mie solution and the discrete dipole approximation, respectively. In addition, we measured the heat generation of nanoshells and nanorods at the same optical density to determine the photothermal transduction efficiency for both nanoparticle types. We found that the gold nanoshells produced more heat than gold nanorods at equivalent number densities (# of nanoparticles/ml), whereas the nanorods generated more heat than nanoshells at equivalent extinction values at the irradiance wavelength. To reach an equivalent heat generation, we found that it was necessary to have ∼36× more nanorods than nanoshells. However, the gold nanorods were found to have two times the photothermal transduction efficiency than the gold nanoshells. For the nanoparticles tested, the nanoshells generated more heat, per nanoparticle, than nanorods, primarily due to their overall larger geometric cross-section. Conversely, we found that the gold nanorods had a higher photothermal efficiency than the gold nanoshells. In conclusion, the ideal choice of plasmonic nanoparticle requires not only per

  18. Reduction on high level radioactive waste volume and geological repository footprint with high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Yuji, E-mail: fukaya.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate the number of canisters and its footprint for HTGR. • We proposed new waste loading method for direct disposal of HTGR. • HTGR can significantly reduce HLW volume compared with LWR. - Abstract: Reduction on volume of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) and footprint in a geological repository due to high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been investigated. A helium-cooled and graphite-moderated commercial HTGR was designed as a Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300), and that has particular features such as significantly high burn-up of approximately 120 GWd/t, high thermal efficiency around 50%, and pin-in-block type fuel. The pin-in-block type fuel was employed to reduce processed graphite volume in reprocessing. By applying the feature, effective waste loading method for direct disposal is proposed in this study. By taking into account these feature, the number of HLW canister generations and its repository footprint are evaluated by burn-up fuel composition, thermal calculation and criticality calculation in repository. As a result, it is found that the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 60% compared with Light Water Reactor (LWR) representative case for direct disposal because of the higher burn-up, higher thermal efficiency, less TRU generation, and effective waste loading proposed in this study for HTGR. But, the reduced ratios change to 20% and 50% if the long term durability of LWR canister is guaranteed. For disposal with reprocessing, the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 30% compared with LWR because of the 30% higher thermal efficiency of HTGR.

  19. Hydrothermal conditions around a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1981-12-01

    Numerical solutions for the hydrothermal conditions around a hard rock repository for nuclear fuel waste are presented. The objective of the present investigation is to illustrate in principle the effect of heat released from a hypothetical radioactive waste repository with regard to anisotropy in the rock permeability. Permeability and porosity are assumed to be constant or to decrease exponentially with depth. The hypothetical repository is situated below a horizontal ground surface or below the crest of a hill, and it is assumed that the water table follows the topography. Major interest in the analysis is directed towards the influence of anisotropy in the permeability on the flow patterns and travel times for water particles, being traced from the repository to the ground surface. The presented results show that anisotropy in the permeability may have a significant influence on the flow conditions around the repository and subsequently also on the travel times from the repository. (Authors)

  20. People's perception of LILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Polic, Marko

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Social acceptability of the radioactive waste repository presents a great problem in every country with such a waste. Even if people agree with the need for its construction, the chosen location should be far from their homes (NIMBY). The reasons for such attitudes were attributed to different causes: uneducated public, differences in understanding of radioactivity and risk by experts and lay public, risk communication problems, lack of credibility and social trust, etc. While in earlier days public was blamed for its irrationality, and need for education and information was emphasized, today it is realized that public trust is extremely important if effective risk communication is to be achieved. It is also recognized that it is not so much the content of the risk message itself, as the lack of trust to those responsible for provision of information that is behind this opposition. Perhaps we could apply here Petty and Caciopo's elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, with credibility as a factor in peripheral route of persuasion. Nevertheless also general lowering of social trust should explain social non-agreement. This lack of trust in experts and political institutions is perhaps caused by outwitting public in earlier years, its bad experiences with responsible officials, dangerous accidents (e.g. TMI, Chernobyl), increased influence that professions have over people's welfare, a greater value placed on equality and better educated public, etc. In 1996 the ARAO re-initiated the search for a LILW repository location with a new, so-called combined approach to the site selection, where the technical, geologically led process is combined with participation of local community. In order to get information on people's perception of the LILW repository construction, their willingness to accept it and factors that influence the acceptability, several surveys have been conducted. Groups of experts and lay persons answered the questionnaires. The results of

  1. Groundwater movements around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    1977-10-01

    Based on regional models of groundwater flow, the regional hydraulic gradient at depth is equal to the regional topographic gradient. As a result, the equipotentials are near vertical. The permeability distribution with depth influences the groundwater flow patterns. A zone of sluggish flows, the quiescent zone is developed when the permeability decreases with depth. This feature is accentuated when horizontal anisotropy, with the horizontal permeability higher then the vertical permeability, is included. The presence of an inactive zone will be a prerequesite for a satisfactory repository site. The effect of an inclined discontinuity representing a singular geological feature such as a fault plane or shear zone has been modelled. The quiescent zone does not appear to be unduly disturbed by such a feature. However, meaningful quantitative predictions related to the flows in a typical singular feature cannot be made without more specific data on their hydraulic properties. Two dimensional analysis has been made for a site specific section of a candidate repository site at Forsmark, Sweden. The lateral extent of the model was defined by major tectonic features, assumed vertical. Potential gradients and pore velocities have been computed for a range of boundary conditions and assumed material properties. The potential gradients for the model with anisotropic permeability approach the average potential gradient between the boundaries. The result of this study of the initial groundwater conditions will be used as input data for the analyses of the thermomechanical perturbations of the groundwater regime. In the long term, the groundwater flow will return to the initial conditions. The residual effects of the repository on the flow will be discussed in part 2 of this report. (author)

  2. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  3. Comparative economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Belarus and Uzbekistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hib vaccine has gradually been introduced into more and more countries during the past two decades, partly due to GAVI Alliance support to low-income countries. However, since Hib disease burden is difficult to establish in settings with limited diagnostic capacities and since the vaccine continues to be relatively expensive, some Governments remain doubtful about its value leading to concerns about financial sustainability. Similarly, several middle-income countries have not introduced the vaccine. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccination in a country relying on self-financing (Belarus and a country eligible for GAVI Alliance support (Uzbekistan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate morbidity and mortality from Hib meningitis, Hib pneumonia and other types of Hib disease with and without the vaccine. Treatment costs were attached to each disease event. Data on disease incidence, case fatality ratios and costs were primarily determined from national sources. For the Belarus 2009 birth cohort, Hib vaccine is estimated to prevent 467 invasive disease cases, 4 cases of meningitis sequelae, and 3 deaths, while in Uzbekistan 3,069 invasive cases, 34 sequelae cases and 341 deaths are prevented. Estimated costs per discounted DALY averted are US$ 9,323 in Belarus and US$ 267 in Uzbekistan. CONCLUSION: The primary reason why the cost-effectiveness values are more favourable in Uzbekistan than in Belarus is that relatively more deaths are averted in Uzbekistan due to higher baseline mortality burden. Two other explanations are that the vaccine price is lower in Uzbekistan and that Uzbekistan uses a three dose schedule compared to four doses in Belarus. However, when seen in the context of the relative ability to pay for public health, the vaccine can be considered cost-effective in both countries.

  4. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  5. New tools for comparing microscopy images: quantitative analysis of cell types in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-02-15

    Fluorescence microscopy is a method commonly used to examine individual differences between bacterial cells, yet many studies still lack a quantitative analysis of fluorescence microscopy data. Here we introduce some simple tools that microbiologists can use to analyze and compare their microscopy images. We show how image data can be converted to distribution data. These data can be subjected to a cluster analysis that makes it possible to objectively compare microscopy images. The distribution data can further be analyzed using distribution fitting. We illustrate our methods by scrutinizing two independently acquired data sets, each containing microscopy images of a doubly labeled Bacillus subtilis strain. For the first data set, we examined the expression of srfA and tapA, two genes which are expressed in surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells, respectively. For the second data set, we examined the expression of eps and tapA; these genes are expressed in matrix-producing cells. We show that srfA is expressed by all cells in the population, a finding which contrasts with a previously reported bimodal distribution of srfA expression. In addition, we show that eps and tapA do not always have the same expression profiles, despite being expressed in the same cell type: both operons are expressed in cell chains, while single cells mainly express eps. These findings exemplify that the quantification and comparison of microscopy data can yield insights that otherwise would go unnoticed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Comparative techno-economic analysis of hybrid micro-grid systems utilizing different battery types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparative analysis of 3 battery chemistries in microgrid storage application. • At discount rates >1%, diesel-only generation still cheapest electricity option. • Optimal battery chemistry highly dependent on discount rate. • For discount rates <4%, lead acid is the cheapest storage options. • High energy density li-ion the cheapest storage option for discount rates >4%. - Abstract: A systems-level lifetime cost-of-use optimization model was applied to a hypothetical hybrid off-grid power system to compare the impacts of different battery technologies. Specifically, a time-step battery degradation model was used to account for unit degradation over a 20-year system lifetime for three different batteries. Variables examined included: battery type, allowed state of charge swing during cycling, number of battery replacements, fractional renewable energy requirements, and applied discount rate. Our analyses show that storage packs with high energy, low cost lithium-ion cells have the potential to compete with a non-renewable solution in some cases. The discount rate also proves to be significant in determining the cost competitiveness of the hybrid systems: at low discount rates, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is only slightly higher than diesel generation, with costs diverging as the discount rate increases. The discount rate also determines which battery technology delivers the lowest cost of electricity: lead acid batteries are favorable at low rates, while high-energy lithium-ion batteries deliver lower cost electricity at higher rates. Similarly, market forces, like fuel or battery price changes, feed-in tariffs, or carbon taxes, required to trigger a switch to a hybrid system vary substantially with the discount rate.

  7. Energy performance of building fabric - Comparing two types of vernacular residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, Vanya Y.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    Notwithstanding apparent differences, Japanese and Bulgarian traditional residential houses share a lot of common features - building materials, building techniques, even layout design. Despite the similarities, these two types of houses have not been compared so far. The study initiates such comparison. The focus is on houses in areas with similar climate in both countries. Current legislation requirements are compared, as well as the criteria for thermal comfort of people. Achieving high energy performance results from a dynamic system of 4 main key factors - thermal comfort range, heating/cooling source, building envelope and climatic conditions. A change in any single one of them can affect the final energy performance. However, it can be expected that a combination of changes in more than one factor usually occurs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the thermal performance of building envelope designed under current regulations and a traditional one, having in mind the different thermal comfort range in the two countries. A sample building model is calculated in Scenario 1 - Japanese traditional building fabric, Scenario 2 - Bulgarian traditional building fabric and Scenario 3 - meeting the requirements of the more demanding current regulations. The energy modelling is conducted using EnergyPlus through OpenStudio cross-platform of software tools. The 3D geometry for the simulation is created using OpenStudio SketchUp Plug-in. Equal number of inhabitants, electricity consumption and natural ventilation is assumed. The results show that overall low energy consumption can be achieved using traditional building fabric as well, when paired with a wider thermal comfort range. Under these conditions traditional building design is still viable today. This knowledge can reestablish the use of traditional building fabric in contemporary design, stimulate preservation of local culture, building traditions and community identity.

  8. Office of Geologic Repositories quality assurance plan for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This document sets forth geologic repository program-wide quality assurance program requirements and defines management's quality assurance responsibilities for the Office of Geologic Repositories and its projects. (LM)

  9. The European Repository Landscape 2008 Inventory of Digital Repositories for Research Output

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Graaf, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a common knowledge base for European research is necessary. Research repositories are an important innovation to the scientific information infrastructure. In 2006, digital repositories in the 27 countries of the European we

  10. Comparing Two Types of Diagnostic Items to Evaluate Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate an efficient method to assess year 8 (age 13-14) students' conceptual understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Two different types of instruments were used in this study: Type 1, consisting of multiple-choice items with open-ended justifications; and Type 2, consisting of two-tier…

  11. Comparative genomics of human and non-human Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 121 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rychli

    Full Text Available The food-borne pathogen Listeria (L. monocytogenes is able to survive for months and even years in food production environments. Strains belonging to sequence type (ST121 are particularly found to be abundant and to persist in food and food production environments. To elucidate genetic determinants characteristic for L. monocytogenes ST121, we sequenced the genomes of 14 ST121 strains and compared them with currently available L. monocytogenes ST121 genomes. In total, we analyzed 70 ST121 genomes deriving from 16 different countries, different years of isolation, and different origins-including food, animal and human ST121 isolates. All ST121 genomes show a high degree of conservation sharing at least 99.7% average nucleotide identity. The main differences between the strains were found in prophage content and prophage conservation. We also detected distinct highly conserved subtypes of prophages inserted at the same genomic locus. While some of the prophages showed more than 99.9% similarity between strains from different sources and years, other prophages showed a higher level of diversity. 81.4% of the strains harbored virtually identical plasmids. 97.1% of the ST121 strains contain a truncated internalin A (inlA gene. Only one of the seven human ST121 isolates encodes a full-length inlA gene, illustrating the need of better understanding their survival and virulence mechanisms.

  12. Typing and comparative genome analysis of Brucella melitensis isolated from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Zaki, Natalia; Salloum, Tamara; Osman, Marwan; Rafei, Rayane; Hamze, Monzer; Tokajian, Sima

    2017-10-16

    Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis. This study aimed at typing and characterizing genetic variation in 33 Brucella isolates recovered from patients in Lebanon. Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP of omp31, omp2a and omp2b were performed. Sixteen representative isolates were chosen for draft-genome sequencing and analyzed to determine variations in virulence, resistance, genomic islands, prophages and insertion sequences. Comparative whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism analysis was also performed. The isolates were confirmed to be B. melitensis. Genome analysis revealed multiple virulence determinants and efflux pumps. Genome comparisons and single nucleotide polymorphisms divided the isolates based on geographical distribution but revealed high levels of similarity between the strains. Sequence divergence in B. melitensis was mainly due to lateral gene transfer of mobile elements. This is the first report of an in-depth genomic characterization of B. melitensis in Lebanon. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Comparative study of different types of granular activated carbon in removing medium level radon from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.; Maghrawy, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) has proven its effectiveness in removing radon from water supplies. Laboratory and pilot plant studies were carried out using three different types of activated carbons (F-300, F-400, and HD-4000) to remove radon from water supply. From the experimental kinetic study, the data indicated that at least 6 h are needed to attain equilibrium between radon activity adsorbed onto carbon and its concentration in the aqueous phase. Also, it showed that HD-4000 has higher capacity for removing radon than the other two investigated carbons F-300 and F-400. The adsorption isotherms were satisfactorily explained by Freundlich equation. In the pilot plant study, the performance of the three activated carbons in removing radon at medium concentration (∼111 Bq dm -3 ) was evaluated over 60 days of continuous water flow. Four empty-bed contact times (EBCTs) corresponding to four bed depths were continuously monitored and the corresponding steady state adsorption-decay constant values were calculated and the efficiency of each carbon was used to provide a facet for comparison. The γ-radiation exposure rate distribution throughout each GAC bed was measured and compared. This study, despite paucity of literature in this field, is useful for designing a GAC adsorption system for the removal of medium level radon concentration from water supplies. (author)

  14. Comparative evaluation of corrosion behaviour of type K thin film thermocouple and its bulk counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Barhai, P.K.; Srikanth, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Anodic vacuum arc deposited chromel and alumel films are more 'noble' in 5% NaCl solution than their respective wires. → Chromel undergoes localised corrosion while alumel shows uniform corrosion. → Virgin samples of chromel-alumel TFTCs exhibit good thermoelectric response. → Their thermoelectric outputs remain largely unaffected when shelved under normal atmospheric conditions. → After 288 h of exposure in salt spray environment, their thermoelectric outputs show noticeable change due to size effects. - Abstract: This paper investigates the corrosion behaviour of type K thermoelements and their thin films, and compares the performance of chromel-alumel thin film thermocouple with its wire counterpart before and after exposure to 5% NaCl medium. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests reveal that chromel and alumel films are more 'noble' than their respective wires. Alumel corrodes faster when coupled with chromel in films than as wires. Secondary electron micrographs and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that chromel shows localised corrosion while alumel undergoes uniform corrosion. Corrosion adversely affects the thermocouple output and introduces an uncertainty in the measurement.

  15. A Comparative analysis for control rod drop accident in WH and CE type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang-Keun; Kim, Yo-Han; Ha, Jun-Sang

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, the nuclear industries such as fuel manufacturer, the architect engineer and the utility, have been using the methodologies and codes of vendors, such as Westinghouse(WH), Combustion Engineering, for the safety analyses of nuclear power plants. Consequently the industries have kept up the many organizations to operate the methodologies and to maintain the codes for each vendor. It may occur difficulty to improve the safety analyses efficiency and technology related. So, the necessity another of methodologies and code systems applicable to Non- LOCA, beyond design basis accident and performance analyses for all types of pressurized water reactor(PWR) has been raised. Due to the above reason, the Korea Electric Power Research Institute(KEPRI) had decided to develop the new safety analysis code system for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. As the first requirement, the best-estimate codes were required for applicable wider application area and realistic behavior prediction of power plants with various and sophisticated functions. After the investigation for few candidates, RETRAN-3D has been chosen as a system analysis code. As a part of the feasibility estimation for the methodology and code system, CRD(Control Rod Drop) accident which an event of Non-LOCA accidents for Uljin units 3 and 4 and Yonggwang 1 and 2 was selected to verify the feasibility of the methodology using the RETRAN-3D. And the results were compared with those mentioned in the final safety analysis reports (FSARs) of the plants

  16. Comparative study of biological activity of four botulinum toxin type A preparations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung Eun; Song, Dae Heon; Park, Joo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Units of available botulinum toxin preparations are not interchangeable, and the dose-conversion ratios between such preparations remain controversial. To compare the efficacy and safety of four botulinum toxin type A preparations. Murine gastrocnemius compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded before and after injecting the four botulinum toxin preparations (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, new botulinum toxin, and incobotulinumtoxinA). In all preparations, CMAP amplitudes decreased until 4 days after receiving the injection and then gradually recovered. On postinjection day 84, the amplitudes returned to baseline in all groups except the high-dose groups. CMAP amplitude in the contralateral limb also decreased up to postinjection days 4 to 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by postinjection day 28. The dose-conversion ratio between onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA was determined to be 1:2.6; previous reports of 1:3 were considered too high. A dose-conversion ratio between onabotulinumtoxinA and new botulinum toxin of 1:1 was deemed appropriate. OnabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA demonstrated a dose-conversion ratio of 1:1.07. The efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA was slightly lower than that of onabotulinumtoxinA. These dose-conversion ratios are applicable solely from an efficacy standpoint and not for safety. This study was conducted in mice, so it may not translate perfectly to human applications. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report makes an evaluation of the long-term behaviour of the wastes placed in a hard rock repository. Impacts were analyzed for the seven reference fuel cycles of WG 7. The reference repository for this study is for granitic rock or gneiss as the host rock. The descriptions of waste packages and repository facilities used in this study represent only one of many possible designs based on the multiple barriers concept. The repository's size is based on a nuclear economy producing 100 gigawatts of electricity per year for 1 year. The objective of the modeling efforts presented in this study is to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere and thus determine an estimate of the potential dose to humans so that the release consequence impacts of the various fuel cycles can be compared. Currently available hydrologic, leach, transport, and dose models were used in this study

  18. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.

    2016-11-08

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later, thousands of universities and other institutions have answered this call, but many more have not due to gaps in budgets, awareness and, most of all, practical guidance on creating an institutional repository. This workshop provides you with an essential primer on what it takes to establish a fully-functioning institutional repository. Every aspect of the process will be covered, including policies, procedures, staffing guidelines, workflows and repository technologies.

  19. Center for Leadership Development (CLD) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Center for Leadership Development Repository stores various data including policies, procedures, governance, guidance, security, and financial documents of the...

  20. Nuclear waste repository design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlke, B.M.; Monsees, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive underground excavation will be required for construction of a mined geologic repository for nuclear waste. Hundreds of thousands of feet of drift will be required based on the conceptual layout design for each candidate nuclear waste repository. Comparison of boring and blasting excavation methods are discussed, as are special design and construction requirements (e.g., quality assurance procedures and performance assessment) for the nuclear waste repository. Comparisons are made between boring and blasting construction methods for the repository designs proposed for salt, volcanic tuff, and basalt

  1. Twenty years' experience with shallow ground repositories in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Mohan, A.L.; Narayan, P.K.; Godse, V.B.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    With the setting up of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Trombay, the first nuclear research centre in India, more than two decades ago, the need arose for disposal of the country's low-level radioactive solid wastes. Since then, nuclear power stations and other nuclear installations have been set up in different locations and the major mode of disposal for low-level solid wastes has been in engineered facilities in shallow land. The paper presents an overview of the Indian experience, with shallow land repositories for low-active solid wastes, from the point of view of design, operation and surveillance, at a number of sites. The influence of site characteristics on the design of the repository and the underground disposal modules is discussed. Details of the pre-operational investigations performed at different sites and the scheme for monitoring and surveillance of operating repositories are also included. The paper also presents briefly the type of safety analysis being carried out to evaluate possible environmental impact due to the operation of the shallow land repositories. (author)

  2. Audit and Certification Process for Science Data Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Giaretta, D.; Ambacher, B.; Ashley, K.; Conrad, M.; Downs, R. R.; Garrett, J.; Guercio, M.; Lambert, S.; Longstreth, T.; Sawyer, D. M.; Sierman, B.; Tibbo, H.; Waltz, M.

    2011-12-01

    Science data digital repositories are entrusted to ensure that a science community's data are available and useful to users both today and in the future. Part of the challenge in meeting this responsibility is identifying the standards, policies and procedures required to accomplish effective data preservation. Subsequently a repository should be evaluated on whether or not they are effective in their data preservation efforts. This poster will outline the process by which digital repositories are being formally evaluated in terms of their ability to preserve the digitally encoded information with which they have been entrusted. The ISO standards on which this is based will be identified and the relationship of these standards to the Open Archive Information System (OAIS) reference model will be shown. Six test audits have been conducted with three repositories in Europe and three in the USA. Some of the major lessons learned from these test audits will be briefly described. An assessment of the possible impact of this type of audit and certification on the practice of preserving digital information will also be provided.

  3. [Self-archiving of biomedical papers in open access repositories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-García, M Francisca; Melero, Remedios; Abadal, Ernest; González-Teruel, Aurora

    2010-04-01

    Open-access literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Self-archiving or deposit of scholarly outputs in institutional repositories (open-access green route) is increasingly present in the activities of the scientific community. Besides the benefits of open access for visibility and dissemination of science, it is increasingly more often required by funding agencies to deposit papers and any other type of documents in repositories. In the biomedical environment this is even more relevant by the impact scientific literature can have on public health. However, to make self-archiving feasible, authors should be aware of its meaning and the terms in which they are allowed to archive their works. In that sense, there are some tools like Sherpa/RoMEO or DULCINEA (both directories of copyright licences of scientific journals at different levels) to find out what rights are retained by authors when they publish a paper and if they allow to implement self-archiving. PubMed Central and its British and Canadian counterparts are the main thematic repositories for biomedical fields. In our country there is none of similar nature, but most of the universities and CSIC, have already created their own institutional repositories. The increase in visibility of research results and their impact on a greater and earlier citation is one of the most frequently advance of open access, but removal of economic barriers to access to information is also a benefit to break borders between groups.

  4. Foreign materials in the repository - update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, A.

    2007-03-01

    In a repository for spent nuclear fuel, a variety of materials are used during the construction process and during the operation of the repository. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository through the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles, as waste produced by the staff etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and their quantities - both the introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after closure - in the repository constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland are estimated here based on new information. This work is intended to update the estimations that have been made previously, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto. During this construction process, the quantities of the different construction materials introduced into the underground openings have been monitored and they form a basis for estimating the quantities to be used in the future. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository and to the Olkiluoto site, although in some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in the ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2006 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As these plans are generally not final yet, several different alternative plans are assumed when necessary. Also two different strategies for the backfilling of the tunnels are considered. The most significant differences with respect to the results of an earlier estimation are related to the materials used in grouting, shotcreting and in support bolts. In the cases where a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock is the used backfill alternative, gypsum and cement are the materials with the largest quantities remaining in the

  5. Repository design sensitivity study: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary sensitivity study of the salt repository design has been performed to identify critical site and design parameters to help guide future site characterization and design optimization activities. The study considered the SCP-conceptual design at the Deaf Smith County site in Texas with the horizontal waste package emplacement mode as the base case. Relative to this base case, parameter variations were compared. Limited studies were performed which considered the vertical emplacement mode geometry. The report presents the reference data base and design parameters on which the study was based (including the range of parameters that might be expected). Detailed descriptions of the numerical modeling methods and assumptions are included for the thermal, thermomechanical and hydrogeological analyses. The impacts of parameter variations on the sensitivity of the rock mass response are discussed. Recommendations are provided to help guide site characterization activities and advanced conceptual design optimization activities. 47 refs., 119 refs., 22 tabs

  6. Environmental impact of Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2005-01-01

    Environmental impact of the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) has been quantitatively evaluated in terms of the radiotoxicity of transuranic (TRU) and fission-product radionuclides existing in the environment after released from failed packages. Inventory abstraction has been made based on the data published in Final Environmental Impact Statement published by US DOE. Mathematical model and computation code have been developed based on analytical solutions. Environmental impact from the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) packages is about 90% of the total impact including the contribution from defense waste (DW) packages. Impacts due to isotopes of Cm, Am, Pu and Np, and their decay daughters are dominant, compared with those from fission-product nuclides. Numerical results show that reduction of the TRU nuclides by a factor of 100 makes the impact from CSNF smaller than that from DW. (author)

  7. New Comparative Experiments of Different Soil Types for Farmland Water Conservation in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiben Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated farmland is the main food source of desert areas, and moisture is the main limiting factor of desert farmland crop productivity. Study on the influence of irrigation on desert farmland soil moisture can guide the agricultural water resource utilization and agricultural production in those regions. At present, the efficiency of irrigation water usage in Northwest China is as low as approximately 40% of the irrigated water. To understand the response of farmland soil moisture in different soil types on irrigation in the Ulan Buh Desert of Inner Mongolia of China, this experimental study takes advantage of different infiltration characteristics and hydraulic conductivities of sand, clay, and loam to determine an optimized soil combination scheme with the purpose of establishing a hydraulic barrier that reduces infiltration. This study includes three comparative experiments with each consisting of a 100 cm thick of filled sand, or clay, or loam soil underneath a 50 cm plough soil, with a total thickness of 150 cm soil profile. A new type of lysimeter is installed below the above-mentioned 150 cm soil profile to continuously measure deep soil recharge (DSR, and the ECH2O-5 soil moisture sensors are installed at different depths over the 150 cm soil profile to simultaneously monitor the soil moisture above the lysimeter. The study analyzes the characteristics of soil moisture dynamics, the irrigation-related recharge on soil moisture, and the DSR characteristics before and after irrigation, during the early sowing period from 2 April to 2 May 2017. Research results show that: (1 Irrigation significantly influences the soil moisture of 0–150 cm depths. The soil moisture increase after the irrigation follows the order from high to low when it is in the order of loam, sand, and clay. (2 Irrigation-induced soil moisture recharge occurs on all three soil combinations at 0–150 cm layers, and the order of soil moisture recharge from high to low

  8. Potential host media for a high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustrulid, W

    1982-01-01

    Earlier studies of burial of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories had concentrated on salt formations for well-publicized reasons. However, under the Carter administration, significant changes were made in the US nuclear waste management program. Changes which were made were: (1) expansion of the number of rock types under consideration; (2) adoption of the multiple-barrier approach to waste containment; (3) additional requirements for waste retrieval; and (4) new criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the isolation of high-level waste in geologic repositories. Results of the studies of different types of rocks as repository sites are summarized herein. It is concluded that each generic rock type has certain advantages and disadvantages when considered from various aspects of the waste disposal problem and that characteristics of rocks are so varied that a most favorable or least favorable rock type cannot be easily identified. This lack of definitive characteristics of rocks makes site selection and good engineering barriers very important for containment of the wastes. (BLM)

  9. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  10. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  11. INIS: Nuclear Grey Literature Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2016-01-01

    As one of the world's largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, INIS represents an extraordinary example of world cooperation. Currently, as INIS members, 130 countries and 24 international organizations share and allow access to their valuable nuclear information resources, preserving them for future generations and offering a freely available nuclear knowledge repository. Since its creation in 1970, INIS has collected and provided access to more than 3.8 million bibliographic references to publications, documents, technical reports, non-copyrighted documentation, and other grey literature, as well as over a million full texts. Public interest throughout the years in accessing the INIS Collection has been remarkable. This paper deals with the challenges faced by INIS in its endeavour to increase the use, accessibility, usability and expandability of its on-line repository. It also describes document collection, the features and characteristics of implementing a new search engine, as well as the lessons learned. (author)

  12. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ''The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  13. Revision history aware repositories of computational models of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew K; Yu, Tommy; Britten, Randall; Cooling, Mike T; Lawson, James; Cowan, Dougal; Garny, Alan; Halstead, Matt D B; Hunter, Peter J; Nickerson, David P; Nunns, Geo; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Nielsen, Poul M F

    2011-01-14

    Building repositories of computational models of biological systems ensures that published models are available for both education and further research, and can provide a source of smaller, previously verified models to integrate into a larger model. One problem with earlier repositories has been the limitations in facilities to record the revision history of models. Often, these facilities are limited to a linear series of versions which were deposited in the repository. This is problematic for several reasons. Firstly, there are many instances in the history of biological systems modelling where an 'ancestral' model is modified by different groups to create many different models. With a linear series of versions, if the changes made to one model are merged into another model, the merge appears as a single item in the history. This hides useful revision history information, and also makes further merges much more difficult, as there is no record of which changes have or have not already been merged. In addition, a long series of individual changes made outside of the repository are also all merged into a single revision when they are put back into the repository, making it difficult to separate out individual changes. Furthermore, many earlier repositories only retain the revision history of individual files, rather than of a group of files. This is an important limitation to overcome, because some types of models, such as CellML 1.1 models, can be developed as a collection of modules, each in a separate file. The need for revision history is widely recognised for computer software, and a lot of work has gone into developing version control systems and distributed version control systems (DVCSs) for tracking the revision history. However, to date, there has been no published research on how DVCSs can be applied to repositories of computational models of biological systems. We have extended the Physiome Model Repository software to be fully revision history aware

  14. Revision history aware repositories of computational models of biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickerson David P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building repositories of computational models of biological systems ensures that published models are available for both education and further research, and can provide a source of smaller, previously verified models to integrate into a larger model. One problem with earlier repositories has been the limitations in facilities to record the revision history of models. Often, these facilities are limited to a linear series of versions which were deposited in the repository. This is problematic for several reasons. Firstly, there are many instances in the history of biological systems modelling where an 'ancestral' model is modified by different groups to create many different models. With a linear series of versions, if the changes made to one model are merged into another model, the merge appears as a single item in the history. This hides useful revision history information, and also makes further merges much more difficult, as there is no record of which changes have or have not already been merged. In addition, a long series of individual changes made outside of the repository are also all merged into a single revision when they are put back into the repository, making it difficult to separate out individual changes. Furthermore, many earlier repositories only retain the revision history of individual files, rather than of a group of files. This is an important limitation to overcome, because some types of models, such as CellML 1.1 models, can be developed as a collection of modules, each in a separate file. The need for revision history is widely recognised for computer software, and a lot of work has gone into developing version control systems and distributed version control systems (DVCSs for tracking the revision history. However, to date, there has been no published research on how DVCSs can be applied to repositories of computational models of biological systems. Results We have extended the Physiome Model

  15. The PBase Scientific Workflow Provenance Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Cuevas-Vicenttín

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific workflows and their supporting systems are becoming increasingly popular for compute-intensive and data-intensive scientific experiments. The advantages scientific workflows offer include rapid and easy workflow design, software and data reuse, scalable execution, sharing and collaboration, and other advantages that altogether facilitate “reproducible science”. In this context, provenance – information about the origin, context, derivation, ownership, or history of some artifact – plays a key role, since scientists are interested in examining and auditing the results of scientific experiments. However, in order to perform such analyses on scientific results as part of extended research collaborations, an adequate environment and tools are required. Concretely, the need arises for a repository that will facilitate the sharing of scientific workflows and their associated execution traces in an interoperable manner, also enabling querying and visualization. Furthermore, such functionality should be supported while taking performance and scalability into account. With this purpose in mind, we introduce PBase: a scientific workflow provenance repository implementing the ProvONE proposed standard, which extends the emerging W3C PROV standard for provenance data with workflow specific concepts. PBase is built on the Neo4j graph database, thus offering capabilities such as declarative and efficient querying. Our experiences demonstrate the power gained by supporting various types of queries for provenance data. In addition, PBase is equipped with a user friendly interface tailored for the visualization of scientific workflow provenance data, making the specification of queries and the interpretation of their results easier and more effective.

  16. Mortality associated with extremity injuries compared with other types of trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanches JEA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available José Eduardo Arantes Sanches1, José Maria Pereira de Godoy3, André Luciano Baitello2, Alceu Gomes Chueire11Departments of Orthopedic and Traumatology, 2Trauma, 3Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, São Jose do Rio Preto, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate one-month hospital mortality in victims with injuries of the extremities.Methods: All accident victims admitted to the Hospital de Base in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, during the period from July 2004 to June 2005, were evaluated in an observational study. Patients were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS. Patients with severe injuries of the extremities (AIS 3–4 were compared with those without injuries or with minor extremity injuries (AIS 0–2.Results: A total of 3489 accident victims were evaluated; 3244 (92.98% did not suffer injuries or had minor injuries of the extremities (AIS 0–2 and 245 (7.02% had severe injuries (AIS 3–4. Of the 245 patients with AIS 3–4 extremity injuries, 13 (5.31% patients died, and of those without severe injuries to the extremities, 34 (1.05% died (Fisher’s Exact test P = 0.0000, relative risk 5.063, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.707–9.467.Conclusion: Patients with injuries of the extremities are at greater risk of death than accident victims with other types of trauma.Keywords: trauma, extremities, mortality, Brazil

  17. Comparative study of the concentration of salivary and blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina U; Soares, Maria Sueli M; Almeida, Paulo C; Soares, Teresa C

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the concentrations of blood and salivary glucose as well as salivary flow and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean salivary glucose level in diabetic patients was 14.03 +/-16.76 mg/dl and 6.35 +/- 6.02 mg/dl (P = 0.036) in the control group. The mean capillary blood glucose level in diabetic patients was 213 +/- 88 mg/dl, while that in non-diabetic patients was 99 +/- 14 mg/dl (P = 0.000). The mean value for resting salivary flow was 0.21 +/- 0.16 ml/min in diabetic patients and 0.33 +/- 0.20 ml/min in the control group (P = 0.002). The stimulated salivary flow was lower in the group of diabetic patients, with a mean of 0.63 +/- 0.43 ml/min, whereas the control group showed a mean of 1.20 +/- 0.70 ml/min (P = 0.000). Of the diabetic patients, 45% exhibited hyposalivation, in contrast to 2.5% of the non-diabetic patients (P = 0.000). Xerostomia was reported in 12.5% of diabetic patients and 5% of non-diabetic patients (P = 0.23). We can conclude that salivary glucose concentration was significantly higher in the experimental group and that there was no correlation between salivary and blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. The total salivary flow was significantly reduced in diabetic patients and there was no significant difference as to the presence of xerostomia in both groups.

  18. A Comparative Study of International Student Engagement and Success Based on Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Institutional Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gareth Carlington

    2013-01-01

    The study examined international students' engagement and success using NSSE 2007 data. The sample consisted of 1996 first years and 2,158 seniors. These students were compared by race/ethnicity, gender, and institutional type. The study found that students' engagement differed by race/ethnicity as well as type of institution. The null hypotheses…

  19. Comparative analysis of chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes in vitro by various types of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Certain problems of comparative analyses of radiation-induced dicentrics in human lymphocytes following various types of ionizing radiations are considered as follows: 1. Equations best fitting for dose-response kinetics; 2. Use of dicentrics for analysing the RBE of various types of radiations; 3. The relationship between RBE and LET as seen by the analysis of dicentrics. (author)

  20. Barriers to migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.

    1999-01-01

    Natural inorganic sorbents are known as effective barriers that reduce the migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories and contaminated sites. They could be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in the repository and their presence in the host rock and the surrounding geological formations increases the retention properties of the strata. Natural occurring minerals from local origin are used in the study - zeolites (clinoptilolite and mordenite), celadonite and loess. Sorption of wide range of radionuclides is studies. Batch capacity is determined. Sorption of radionuclides from simulated natural solution is studied. Distribution coefficients are calculated from sorption isotherms. Desorption in presence of different natural solutions is studied. Sorption properties are compared. It is shown that clinoptilolite acts as effective barrier against migration of radionuclides from repositories. The presence of celadonite in the clinoptilolite rock increases the retention of polyvalent ions. The retention of radionuclides on loess samples fulfils the requirements for host media for repository for low and intermediate level waste. A method for construction of additional barrier to the existing in the country disposal vault for spent sealed sources is proposed

  1. Panel report on coupled thermo-mechanical-hydro-chemical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Mangold, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    Four basic physical processes, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical, are likely to occur in 11 different types of coupling during the service life of an underground nuclear waste repository. A great number of coupled processes with various degrees of importance for geological repositories were identified and arranged into these 11 types. A qualitative description of these processes and a tentative evaluation of their significance and the degree of uncertainty in prediction is given. Suggestions for methods of investigation generally include, besides theoretical work, laboratory and large scale field testing. Great efforts of a multidisciplinary nature are needed to elucidate details of several coupled processes under different temperature conditions in different geological formations. It was suggested that by limiting the maximum temperature to 100 0 C in the backfill and in the host rock during the whole service life of the repository the uncertainties in prediction of long-term repository behavior might be considerably reduced

  2. Panel report on coupled thermo-mechanical-hydro-chemical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.F.; Mangold, D.C. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Four basic physical processes, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical, are likely to occur in 11 different types of coupling during the service life of an underground nuclear waste repository. A great number of coupled processes with various degrees of importance for geological repositories were identified and arranged into these 11 types. A qualitative description of these processes and a tentative evaluation of their significance and the degree of uncertainty in prediction is given. Suggestions for methods of investigation generally include, besides theoretical work, laboratory and large scale field testing. Great efforts of a multidisciplinary nature are needed to elucidate details of several coupled processes under different temperature conditions in different geological formations. It was suggested that by limiting the maximum temperature to 100{sup 0}C in the backfill and in the host rock during the whole service life of the repository the uncertainties in prediction of long-term repository behavior might be considerably reduced.

  3. Integrated management system for radioactive waste repositories (SGI3R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabio; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2009-01-01

    The implantation of a repository for radioactive wastes is a multidisciplinary project that needs specialists of different areas of knowledge, interaction with public and private institutions, data and information related to radioactive wastes, geology, technology etc. All the activities must be in accordance with norms, requirements and procedures, including national and international legislation. The maintenance of the waste inventory records is an important regulatory requirement and must be available even after the closure of the repository. CDTN - Center of Nuclear Technology Development - is coordinating the Project for the construction of the national repository to dispose the low -and intermediate-level wastes. In order to consolidate all information that will come from this Project, it is being developed and implanted in CDTN a manager system of database, called Integrated Management System for Radioactive Waste Repositories (SGI3R), which will also manage all data from previous work carried out in Brazil and around the world about this subject. The proposal is to build a structure of modules, having as base eight modules: inventory, site selection, types of repository, technology, partners, legislation, communication and documents. The SGI3R running comprises the data processing (inclusion, update and exclusion), integration, standardization, and consistency among the processes. The SGI3R will give support to the stages of this Project, which will allow the preservation of all the available information, preventing duplication of efforts and additional costs, improving, in this way, the Project planning and execution. Additionally the SGI3R will make possible the information access to all stakeholders. (author)

  4. [Tissue repositories for research at Sheba Medical Center(SMC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yehudit; Barshack, Iris; Onn, Amir

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death in both genders. Breakthroughs in the understanding of cancer biology, the identification of prognostic factors, and the development of new treatments are increasingly dependent on access to human cancer tissues with linked clinicopathological data. Access to human tumor samples and a large investment in translational research are needed to advance this research. The SMC tissue repositories provide researchers with biological materials, which are essential tools for cancer research. SMC tissue repositories for research aim to collect, document and preserve human biospecimens from patients with cancerous diseases. This is in order to provide the highest quality and well annotated biological biospecimens, used as essential tools to achieve the growing demands of scientific research needs. Such repositories are partners in acceLerating biomedical research and medical product development through clinical resources, in order to apply best options to the patients. Following Institutional Review Board approval and signing an Informed Consent Form, the tumor and tumor-free specimens are coLLected by a designated pathologist at the operating room only when there is a sufficient amount of the tumor, in excess of the routine needs. Blood samples are collected prior to the procedure. Other types of specimens collected include ascites fluid, pleural effusion, tissues for Optimal Cutting Temperature [OCT] and primary culture etc. Demographic, clinical, pathologicaL, and follow-up data are collected in a designated database. SMC has already established several organ or disease-specific tissue repositories within different departments. The foundation of tissue repositories requires the concentrated effort of a multidisciplinary team composed of paramedical, medical and scientific professionals. Research projects using these specimens facilitate the development of 'targeted therapy', accelerate basic research aimed at clarifying molecular

  5. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  6. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  7. Analisis Konten dan Kebijakan Akses Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2016-07-01

    Abstract; Institutional repository has become a major concern of higher education in Indonesia. The number of institutional respository was increased, one of the reason is the ranking web of repositories has been conducted by the Cybermetrics Lab in 2008. At that time, many institutions started to build institutional repository in order to manage the scientific work and also trying to reach the better ranks. Meanwhile, it is an achievement of institution performance which can be promote and increase visibility for the institution. University of Surabaya has also developed the institutional repository and managed by the library. The aims of this study is to analyze the content availability and access policies defined by the University of Surabaya repository  providing services to the academic community and external users. The method used in this study by using observations of the institutional repository University of Surabaya with a literature review to clarify the analysis of the content and access policies. The results of this study indicate that the library's role is has the authority to manage the scientific work of academic community can be done through the institutional repository. However there is still need for library to be proactive to communicate regulations on mandatory deposit of scientific work and create intensive promotion of the institutional repository.

  8. Electronic Repository of Russian Historical Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhonov, Vyacheslav; Kessler, Gijs; Markevich, Andrei; de Vries, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Repository for Russian Historical Statistics brings together data extracted from various published and unpublished sources in one place. Its principal focus is Russian economic and social history of the last three centuries (18th-21st). The repository caters to the needs of the

  9. Decompression of magma into repository tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Woods, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is nontrivial to find and design safe repository sites for nuclear waste. It appears common sense to drill tunnels as repository sites in a mountain in remote and relatively dry regions. However, erosion of the waste canisters by naturally abundant chemicals in the mountains water cycle remains a

  10. Numerical modeling of magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno

    2001-01-01

    This report explains the numerical programs behind a comprehensive modeling effort of magma-repository interactions. Magma-repository interactions occur when a magma dike with high-volatile content magma ascends through surrounding rock and encounters a tunnel or drift filled with either a magmatic

  11. Asset Reuse of Images from a Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    According to Markus's theory of reuse, when digital repositories are deployed to collect and distribute organizational assets, they supposedly help ensure accountability, extend information exchange, and improve productivity. Such repositories require a large investment due to the continuing costs of hardware, software, user licenses, training,…

  12. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  13. Towards Content Development For Institutional Digital Repository ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth in Information and Communication Technology has lead to the emergence of Institutional Digital Repository, a digital archive for the preservation and dissemination of institutional research outputs. Institutional Digital Repositories make possible global dissemination of research outputs through the use of the ...

  14. Assessment of cement durability in repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.A.; Vicente, R.; Isiko, V.L.K.; Miyamoto, H.; Marumo, J.T.; Gobbo, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed at investigating the durability of cement paste under nuclear waste repository conditions using accelerated tests. Cement paste samples are examined after being exposed to the environmental conditions that are expected to prevail in the repository environment and the results are compared with those obtained with unexposed specimens or specimens exposed to reference conditions. The following exposure conditions were selected: a) Immersion in salt solution, distilled water, or kept in dry storage; b) Room temperature (20 C. degrees) or high temperature (60 C. degrees); c) Immersion time of 30 days or 60 days (not for dry storage); d) Irradiation to a dose of (400 kGy) or background radiation (0 kGy). After exposure to the stressing conditions, the effects of each factor on the cement paste samples were observed by changes in their characteristics. Compressive strength tests were performed on all samples and some of them were investigated in terms of changes in mineralogy by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). With the results obtained so far it was possible to point out the following conclusions. First, after a period of immersion in water, cement paste samples further hydrated and presented higher mechanical resistance, as expected. Secondly, dry storage did not allow a complete hydration as a consequence of pore water evaporation. High temperatures intensified this process and led to the ettringite decomposition to meta-ettringite. Thirdly, higher temperature accelerated hydration kinetics and promoted higher mechanical resistance in samples kept under immersion. Fourthly, the irradiation dose applied was unable to change the mineralogy of cement paste samples and fifthly, no statistically significant differences were observed between 30 or 60 days exposure time, for the test conditions

  15. EEI/UWASTE oversight of the DOE Repository Program by the Repository Information Exchange Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, C.J.; Supko, E.M.; Schwartz, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Utility Nuclear Waste and Transportation Program of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI/UWASTE) has conducted reviews of the US DOE's repository program through its Repository Information Exchange Team (RIET or Team). Eight such reviews have been conducted since 1985 covering topics that include repository program management and control; repository schedule; repository budget; quality assurance; site characterization; repository licensing; environmental issues; and institutional and public information activities. The utility industry has used these repository program reviews as a forum for providing DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with comments on the direction of the repository program, advice for future actions regarding quality assurance activities and repository licensing, and suggestions for management and control of the Repository Program. The most significant recommendations made by the utility industry through the RIET are discussed along with any subsequent action by OCRWM in response to or subsequent to utility industry recommendations. The process used by the RIET to develop its recommendations to OCRWM regarding the repository program is also discussed

  16. Multimodal compared to pharmacologic treatments for chronic tension-type headache in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Peter; Przekop, Allison; Haviland, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in children and adolescents is a serious medical condition, with considerable morbidity and few effective, evidence-based treatments. We performed a chart review of 83 adolescents (age range = 13-18 years; 67 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with CTTH. Two treatment protocols were compared: multimodal (osteopathic manipulative treatments, mindfulness, and qi gong) and pharmacologic (amitriptyline or gabapentin). Four outcomes (headache frequency, pain intensity, general health, and health interference) were assessed at three time points (baseline, 3 months, and 6 months). A fifth outcome, number of bilateral tender points, was recorded at baseline and 6 months. All five were evaluated statistically with a linear mixed model. Although both multimodal and pharmacologic treatments were effective for CTTH (time effects for all measures were significant at p treatment (the five group by time interaction effects were significant at or below the p Headache frequency in the pharmacologic group, for example, reduced from a monthly average (95% Confidence Interval shown in parentheses) of 23.9 (21.8, 26.0) to 16.4 (14.3, 18.6) and in the multimodal group from 22.3 (20.1, 24.5) to 4.9 (2.6, 7.2) (a substantial group difference). Pain intensity (worst in the last 24 hours, 0-10 scale) was reduced in the pharmacologic group from 6.2 (5.6, 6.9) to 3.4 (2.7, 4.1) and from 6.1 (5.4, 6.8) to 2.0 (1.2, 2.7) in the multimodal group (a less substantial difference). Across the other three assessments, group differences were larger for general health and number of tender points and less so for pain restriction. Multimodal treatment for adolescent CTTH appears to be effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these promising results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complications and Adverse Events of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing 3 Graft Types for ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Nicholas; Barber, Rhamona; Chan, Denise; Paolucci, Elizabeth Oddone

    2016-05-01

    Complications/adverse events of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery are underreported, despite pooled level 1 data in systematic reviews. All adverse events/complications occurring within a 2-year postoperative period after primary ACL reconstruction, as part of a large randomized clinical trial (RCT), were identified and described. Prospective, double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients and the independent trained examiner were blinded to treatment allocation. University-based orthopedic referral practice. Three hundred thirty patients (14-50 years; 183 males) with isolated ACL deficiency were intraoperatively randomized to ACL reconstruction with 1 autograft type. Graft harvest and arthroscopic portal incisions were identical. Patients were equally distributed to patellar tendon (PT), quadruple-stranded hamstring tendon (HT), and double-bundle (DB) hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. Adverse events/complications were patient reported, documented, and diagnoses confirmed. Two major complications occurred: pulmonary embolism and septic arthritis. Twenty-four patients (7.3%) required repeat surgery, including 25 separate operations: PT = 7 (6.4%), HT = 9 (8.2%), and DB = 8 (7.3%). Repeat surgery was performed for meniscal tears (3.6%; n = 12), intra-articular scarring (2.7%; n = 9), chondral pathology (0.6%; n = 2), and wound dehiscence (0.3%; n = 1). Other complications included wound problems, sensory nerve damage, muscle tendon injury, tibial periostitis, and suspected meniscal tears and chondral lesions. Overall, more complications occurred in the HT/DB groups (PT = 24; HT = 31; DB = 45), but more PT patients complained of moderate or severe kneeling pain (PT = 17; HT = 9; DB = 4) at 2 years. Overall, ACL reconstructive surgery is safe. Major complications were uncommon. Secondary surgery was necessary 7.3% of the time for complications/adverse events (excluding graft reinjury or revisions) within the first 2 years. Level 1 (therapeutic studies

  18. EconStor: a subject-based repository for economics and business studies

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, T; Weiland, JB

    2009-01-01

    Since the migration to DSpace, an internationally widely used digital repository software, at the beginning of 2009, the "German National Library for Economics" (ZBW) presents its repository with a new website and a new name: EconStor. In addition to the considerable number of working and discussion papers - predominately edited from economics faculties and research institutes in Germany and collected via its predecessor application OPUS - ZBW intends to acquire further document types, ...

  19. Geological status of NWTS repository siting activities in the paradox basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, N.A.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Emplacement of waste packages in mined geological repositories is one method being evaluated for isolating high-level nuclear wastes. Granite, dome salt, tuff, basalt and bedded salt are among the rock types being investigated. Described in this paper is the status of geological activities in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado, one region being explored as a part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program to site a geological repository in bedded salt

  20. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 ''Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work

  1. A global nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wunan

    As a concerned scientist, I think that having a global nuclear waste repository is a reachable goal for human beings. Maybe through this common goal, mankind can begin to treat each other as brothers and sisters. So far, most human activities are framed by national boundaries, which are purely arbitrary. Breaking through these national boundaries will be very beneficial to human beings.Formation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program in 1986 indicates a growing awareness on the part of scientists regarding Earth as a system. The Apollo missions gave us a chance to look back at Earth from space. That perspective emphasized that our Earth is just one system: our only home. It is in deed a lonely boat in the high sea of dark space. We must take good care of our “boat.”

  2. Hydrologic issues in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remson, I.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Extrapolation of Darcy's law to the transport of water an solutes in unfractured poorly permeable rocks being studied for nuclear waste disposal is questioned. The hydrologic literature includes numerous references to both non-Darcian flow in dense materials devoid of macrofractures and microfractures and to threshold gradients below which no flow occurs. For such situations to occur, the pore-size range must be small enough so that all pore water is sufficiently close to mineral surfaces to be affected by the surficial forces. Then the flow will be non-Newtonian and non-Darcian, and solute transport will be by molecular diffusion. If fluid transport in very dense unfractured rocks is non-Darcian, useful methods of testing candidate host rocks become apparent. In situ nondestructive pressure testing of canister waste emplacement boreholes in a mined repository can verify the absence of both fracture flow and Darcian flow. 18 references

  3. Comparative studies of types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus infection of cultured normal keratinocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Su, S J; Wu, H H; Lin, Y H; Lin, H Y

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the differences in biological properties, multiplication patterns, and cytopathic effects between type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV) through the replication of HSV in cultured normal human keratinocytes. METHODS--Keratinocytes were obtained from surgical specimens of normal gingiva, cervix, trunk skin, and newborn foreskin. They were cultured in serum free, chemically defined, culture medium and infected with a pool of HSV collected from clinical specimens. RESU...

  4. Low- and intermediate-level waste repository-induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth, Dorset (United Kingdom); Senger, R. [Intera Inc., Ennetbaden (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects arising principally from the heat generated by the waste and the setting of cement. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement caverns and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock. Deep geological repositories are designed to avoid or mitigate the impact of potentially detrimental repository-induced effects on long-term safety. For the repository under consideration in the present report, an assessment of those repository-induced effects that remain shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are minimal and gas effects can be mitigated by appropriate design measures to reduce gas production and provide pathways for gas transport that limit gas pressure build-up (engineered gas transport system, or EGTS). Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The disposal system described in this report provides a system of passive barriers with multiple safety functions. The disposal

  5. Low- and intermediate-level waste repository-induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J.; Smith, P.; Savage, D.; Senger, R.

    2016-10-01

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects arising principally from the heat generated by the waste and the setting of cement. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement caverns and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock. Deep geological repositories are designed to avoid or mitigate the impact of potentially detrimental repository-induced effects on long-term safety. For the repository under consideration in the present report, an assessment of those repository-induced effects that remain shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are minimal and gas effects can be mitigated by appropriate design measures to reduce gas production and provide pathways for gas transport that limit gas pressure build-up (engineered gas transport system, or EGTS). Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The disposal system described in this report provides a system of passive barriers with multiple safety functions. The disposal

  6. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities.

  7. Comparing Types of Financial Incentives to Promote Walking: An Experimental Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2018-04-19

    Offering people financial incentives to increase their physical activity is an increasingly prevalent intervention strategy. However, little is known about the relative effectiveness of different types of incentives. This study tested whether incentives based on specified reinforcement types and schedules differentially affected the likelihood of meeting a walking goal and explored if observed behavioural changes may have been attributable to the perceived value of the incentive. A 2 (reinforcement type: cash reward, deposit contract) × 2 (schedule: fixed, variable) between-subjects experiment with a hanging control condition was conducted over 8 weeks (n = 153). Although walking was greater in the incentive conditions relative to the control condition, walking did not differ across incentive conditions. Exploratory analyses indicated that the perceived value of the incentive was associated with the likelihood of meeting the walking goal, but was not affected by reinforcement type or schedule. The reinforcement type and schedule manipulations tested in this study did not differentially affect walking. Given that walking behaviour was associated with perceived value, designing incentive strategies that optimise the perceived value of the incentive may be a promising avenue for future research. © 2018 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  8. Technical conservatism in the design and analysis of a nuclear-waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage Program has adopted a policy of technical conservatism to guide the design and analysis of geologic disposal systems for commercial high-level radioactive waste. Technical conservatism serves as the programmatic philosophy for managing uncertainty in the performance of the disposal system. The implementation of technical conservatism as applied to a nuclear waste repository in basalt is discussed. Preliminary assessments of the performance of the waste package, repository, and site subsystems are compared to key proposed regulatory criteria. The comparison shows that there are substantial safety margins in the predicted performance of the nuclear waste repository in basalt

  9. Comparative study on the effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on structural changes and hormonal output of the adrenal cortex in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahi-Moghaddam Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin function, or both. Causing dysfunction in the body general metabolism, diabetes-induced chronic hyperglycemia leads to alterations in those endocrine glands involved in regulating the body metabolism. In this line, the present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the structural changes and hormonal output of the adrenal cortex in male Wistar rat. Methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups including control, experimental type 1 diabetes (subcutaneous injection of 135 mg/kg alloxan and experimental type 2 diabetes (8 weeks treatment with drinking water containing 10% fructose. Two months after the induction of both types of diabetes, the level of blood biochemical factors (glucose, insulin, cortisol, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were measured. Structural changes of the adrenal cortex were then evaluated, using stereological techniques. Results Serum biochemical analysis showed significant difference in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, insulin and cortisol in experimental groups, compared to the control. The results of structural alterations were also indicative of increase in adrenal cortex volume in both types of diabetes. Conclusion Probably through increasing HPA axis activity, type1 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia leads to adrenal hypertrophy and increase the hormonal output of adrenal gland.

  10. Uncertainty management in radioactive waste repository site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.f.; Martin, T.P.; Tocatlidou

    1994-01-01

    The problem of performance assessment of a site to serve as a repository for the final disposal of radioactive waste involves different types of uncertainties. Their main sources include the large temporal and spatial considerations over which safety of the system has to be ensured, our inability to completely understand and describe a very complex structure such as the repository system, lack of precision in the measured information etc. These issues underlie most of the problems faced when rigid probabilistic approaches are used. Nevertheless a framework is needed, that would allow for an optimal aggregation of the available knowledge and an efficient management of the various types of uncertainty involved. In this work a knowledge-based modelling of the repository selection process is proposed that through a consequence analysis, evaluates the potential impact that hypothetical scenarios will have on a candidate site. The model is organised around a hierarchical structure, relating the scenarios with the possible events and processes that characterise them, and the site parameters. The scheme provides for both crisp and fuzzy parameter values and uses fuzzy semantic unification and evidential support logic reference mechanisms. It is implemented using the artificial intelligence language FRIL and the interaction with the user is performed through a windows interface

  11. How many geologic repositories will be needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.J.; Halstead, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    DOE's postponement of site-specific work on the second repository program had rekindled debate over the number of geologic repositories needed for disposal of high level radioactive waste. The multiple repository approach grew out of the March, 1979 IRG report, which recommended co-disposal of civilian and defense HLW in a system of regional repositories. The multiple repository approach was adopted by DOE, and incorporated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act passed by Congress in December, 1982. Since the late 1970's, the slower than anticipated growth of the nuclear power industry has substantially reduced earlier estimates of the amount of civilian spent fuel which will require geologic disposal. Reactors currently in operation (78.5 GWe) and reactors in the construction pipeline (28 GWe) are expected to discharge about 103,200 MTU of spent fuel by the year 2036, assuming no increase in fuel burnup rate. By the year 2020, defense high level radioactive wastes equivalent to as much as 27,000 MTU could require geologic disposal. Small amounts of high level waste from other sources will also require geologic disposal. Total disposal requirements appear to be less than 140,000 MTU. The five sites nominated for the first repository, as well as hypothetical sites in granite, the host rock under primary consideration for the second repository, all appear capable of accommodating up to 140,000 MTU

  12. Comparative study of five different DNA fingerprint techniques for molecular typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); M. Sluijter (Marcel); T. Hoogenboezem (Theo); H. Heersma; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); R. de Groot (Ronald)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of five DNA fingerprint methods for epidemiological typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We investigated the usefulness of (i) ribotyping, (ii) BOX fingerprinting with the BOX repetitive sequence of S.

  13. Typing Compared with Handwriting for Essay Examinations at University: Letting the Students Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogey, Nora; Paterson, Jessie; Burk, John; Purcell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Students at the University of Edinburgh do almost all their work on computers, but at the end of the semester they are examined by handwritten essays. Intuitively it would be appealing to allow students the choice of handwriting or typing, but this raises a concern that perhaps this might not be "fair"--that the choice a student makes,…

  14. Comparative evaluation of different types of biogas suitable for tropical country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.N.; Gbagbo, J.K.N.; Aneke, F.U.

    1997-04-01

    The biogas technology - anaerobic digestion - is described together with different types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Cost-benefit analysis of establishing biogas plants, financial support options, and the benefits of using biogas as an energy source in rural areas are presented. (LN)

  15. Development, characteristics and comparative structural analysis of tensegrity type cable domes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadović Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensegrity type cable domes are three-dimensional structural configurations, prestressed inside the perimeter compression ring, in which the continuous tension throughout the roof structure is made by continuous tension cables and discontinuous compression struts. These kinds of structures can be formed like spatially triangulated networks or like networks nontriangulated in space. This paper examines some effects of network geometry on the behaviour and structural efficiency of tensegrity type cable domes. In this paper the roof cover is considered non-interactive with the supporting structure, unlike rigidly clad tensegrity type cable domes. Since the main bearing elements of tensegrity type cable domes are prestressed cables, they show non-linear load deformation and rely upon geometric stiffness. A geometrically non-linear analysis of non-triangulated and triangulated structures for different load conditions was conducted employing a computer program based on the perturbation theory. The incrementally-iterative procedure, with an approximation of the stiffness matrix by combining the elastic and geometric stiffness matrix, allows detection of structural instabilities.

  16. Construction and Operation of a Deep Geological Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden; Some Regulatory Aspects and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a deep geological spent fuel disposal concept in Sweden poses challenges on both implementer and regulator in many aspects. One such challenge is the application of the regulatory framework in a different situation compared to conventional process type nuclear facilities. A specific challenge in this regard is how to understand and address constraints from post-closure safety related to the construction and operation of the repository. The maybe most challenging aspect, however, is the unusually long time frame, i.e. many generations, for realization of the project. This paper addresses some of these challenges from a regulatory perspective. (authors)

  17. Design aspects of the Alpha Repository. V. Suite selection and cost analysis of excavation/hauling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, T.J.; Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The various types of haulage and excavation equipment that may be suitable for use in the development and excavation of the Alpha repository are described with discussion of the advantages, disadvantages, expected costs, availability, and special features of each. The various equipment suites are delineated, and the costs of mining and transportation of the salt are presented and discussed. Individual manufacturers contacted and equipment considered are listed. Most of the equipment is ''off-the-shelf''; however, some manufactuers were contacted that do custom work because of their expertise in salt mining equipment. The costs of custom equipment are comparable to those for standard equipment

  18. A scoping review of online repositories of quality improvement projects, interventions and initiatives in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytautas, Jessica P; Gheihman, Galina; Dobrow, Mark J

    2017-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is becoming an important focal point for health systems. There is increasing interest among health system stakeholders to learn from and share experiences on the use of QI methods and approaches in their work. Yet there are few easily accessible, online repositories dedicated to documenting QI activity. We conducted a scoping review of publicly available, web-based QI repositories to (i) identify current approaches to sharing information on QI practices; (ii) categorise these approaches based on hosting, scope and size, content acquisition and eligibility, content format and search, and evaluation and engagement characteristics; and (iii) review evaluations of the design, usefulness and impact of their online QI practice repositories. The search strategy consisted of traditional database and grey literature searches, as well as expert consultation, with the ultimate aim of identifying and describing QI repositories of practices undertaken in a healthcare context. We identified 13 QI repositories and found substantial variation across the five categories. The QI repositories used different terminology (eg, practices vs case studies) and approaches to content acquisition, and varied in terms of primary areas of focus. All provided some means for organising content according to categories or themes and most provided at least rudimentary keyword search functionality. Notably, none of the QI repositories included evaluations of their impact. With growing interest in sharing and spreading best practices and increasing reliance on QI as a key contributor to health system performance, the role of QI repositories is likely to expand. Designing future QI repositories based on knowledge of the range and type of features available is an important starting point for improving their usefulness and impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  20. On risk analysis for repositories in northern Switzerland: extent and probability of geological processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buergisser, H.M.; Herrnberger, V.

    1981-01-01

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km 2 -area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 10 6 years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 10 4 to 10 5 years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with associated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a reponse to an uplift could reach similar values after 10 5 to 10 6 years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed. (Auth.)

  1. Risk analysis for repositories in north Switzerland. Extent and probability of geologic processes and events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buergisser, H M; Herrnberger, V

    1981-07-01

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km/sup 2/-area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 10/sup 6/ years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 5/ years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with asociated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a response to an uplift could reach similar values after 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed.

  2. Geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria and site selection for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Tacheva, E.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of the complex structure of the Bulgarian lands and the engineering geological criteria for site selection of national repositories for high level radwastes is made. A detailed description of the following geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria's territory is given: genetic, lithological and engineering-geological types of rocks; physico-mechanical parameters of the most widespread rocky and semi-rocky engineering geological types; fissuring of the rocks; rock massifs; geodynamic processes. The number of promising variants for repositories have been classified according to the structure of the rock massif and the engineering-geological properties of the layers which are promising for the purpose. The following sites are investigated: 1) sites in one-type homogeneous rock massifs of high strength and elasticity; 2) sites of various type massifs with a promising layer of rocks with medium strength and elasticity; 3) sites in various type massifs with a promising layer of plastic rocks of low strength. It is concluded that the complexity of the geotechnical and other conditions in the territory of Bulgaria would predetermine the deficiency of the list of the properties required for the selected sites. The building up of engineering defence will be needed to offset that deficiency and their problems will be resolved after the specific site have been chosen. Geotechnical elements should be likewise envisaged within the general pattern of the monitoring needed. The designing, installing and putting into operation of the monitoring systems should be accomplished as early as the stage of the detailed investigation of the site selected. 19 refs., 2 suppls. (author)

  3. Licensing process characteristics of Small Modular Reactors and spent nuclear fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Söderholm, Kristiina, E-mail: kristiina.soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power (Finland); Tuunanen, Jari, E-mail: jari.tuunanen@fortum.com [Fortum Power (Finland); Amaba, Ben, E-mail: baamaba@us.ibm.com [IBM Complex Systems (United States); Bergqvist, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.bergqvist@se.ibm.com [IBM Rational Software (Sweden); Lusardi, Paul, E-mail: plusardi@nuscalepower.com [NuScale Power (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We examine the licensing process challenges of modular nuclear facilities. • We compare the features of Small Modular Reactors and spent nuclear fuel repository. • We present the need of nuclear licensing simplification. • Part of the licensing is proposed to be internationally applicable. • Systems engineering and requirements engineering benefits are presented. - Abstract: This paper aims to increase the understanding of the licensing processes characteristics of Small Modular Reactors (SMR) compared with licensing of spent nuclear fuel repository. The basis of the SMR licensing process development lies in licensing processes used in Finland, France, the UK, Canada and the USA. These countries have been selected for this study because of their various licensing processes and recent actions in the new NPP construction. Certain aspects of the aviation industry licensing process have also been studied and selected practices have been investigated as possibly suitable for use in nuclear licensing. Suitable features for SMR licensing are emphasized and suggested. The licensing features of the spent nuclear fuel deep repository along with similar features of SMR licensing are discussed. Since there are similar types of challenges of lengthy licensing time frames, as well as modular features to be taken into account in licensing, these two different nuclear industry fields can be compared. The main SMR features to take into account in licensing are: • Standardization of the design. • Modularity. • Mass production. • Serial construction. Modularity can be divided into two different categories: the first category is simply a single power plant unit constructed of independently engineered modules (e.g. construction process for Westinghouse AP-1000 NPP) and the second one a power plant composed of many reactor modules, which are manufactured in factories and installed as needed (e.g. NuScale Power SMR design). The deep underground repository

  4. Development of the design and reliability analysis of a seabed repository system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This study examines the seabed repository scheme proposed in 1979 for the long term disposal of heat generating radio-active waste and develops it to a standard sufficient to compare its reliability with the drilled emplacement and penetrator schemes. The reinforced concrete repositories contain 324 waste canisters and weigh 982 tonnes fully loaded in water. The repositories are transported up to 6000 km to the disposal area by a special purpose ship and lowered 5.5 km to the seabed on six braided nylon ropes by traction winches. Reliability of the seabed repository system, measured in terms of accidents per year involving loss of one or more canisters, was comparable with the other systems. (author)

  5. Comparative performance of twenty-three types of flat plate solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    Report compares efficiencies of 23 solar collectors for four different purposes: operating a Rankine-cycle engine, heating or absorption air conditioning, heating hot water, and heating a swimming pool.

  6. Learning frameworks as an alternative to repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of ‘learning frameworks’. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and question collections of digital learning objects in large repositories and to argue for large learning frameworks which organise a number of thematically related digital learning materials. Whereas...... a learning object repository contains all kinds of materials, a learning framework consists of an organisation of materials related to a common theme. Further, a repository consists of single, self-contained objects, whereas a learning framework is an open-ended environment which presents a number...

  7. A comparative thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance study of synthetic carbonated A-type hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.; Rossi, A.M.; Baffa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity of the 150 °C thermoluminescence peak of beta-irradiated carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite is approximately 12 times higher than that of the noncarbonated material. Deconvolution of the glow curve showed that this peak is a result of a trap distribution. An attempt was made to relate this thermoluminescence peak enhanced by carbonation with the ESR signal of the CO 2 − radical in natural or synthetic hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: ► Synthetic hydroxyapatite was carbonated with CO 2 . ► TL enhanced by 12 times in carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite. ► EPR and TL were performed to find out a relation between CO 2 − center and the TL. ► No direct relation was found between the CO 2 − center and TL enhancement.

  8. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and tr...

  9. A Comparative Study of the Adoption of Three Types of Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celle-ci portait sur le taux d'adoption de nouvelles variétés du maïs et du manioc, l'adoption de nouvelles cultures dont le niébé et le soja, et enfin l'adoption des cultures en couloirs qui est une nouvelle technologie de gestion des champs. On est parti de l'idée que les trois types d'innovation technologique possèdent ...

  10. Climate Considerations in Long-Term Safety Assessments for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Claesson Liljedahl, Lillemor [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: jens-ove.naslund@skb.se

    2013-05-15

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  11. Instrument reliability for high-level nuclear-waste-repository applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogue, F.; Binnall, E.P.; Armantrout, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation will be needed to evaluate the characteristics of proposed high-level nuclear-wasted-repository sites and to monitor the performance of selected sites during the operational period and into repository closure. A study has been done to assess the reliability of instruments used in Department of Energy (DOE) waste repository related experiments and in other similar geological applications. The study included experiences with geotechnical, hydrological, geochemical, environmental, and radiological instrumentation and associated data acquisition equipment. Though this paper includes some findings on the reliability of instruments in each of these categories, the emphasis is on experiences with geotechnical instrumentation in hostile repository-type environments. We review the failure modes, rates, and mechanisms, along with manufacturers modifications and design changes to enhance and improve instrument performance; and include recommendations on areas where further improvements are needed

  12. Digital Repositories of Learning Material as a Support Tool for Knowledge Management and Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: For some years, digital repositories are emerging as a de facto standard service for storing, preserving and disseminate knowledge: academic, scientific information and, more recently, primary research data of institutions. Some of the digital repositories host also collections of material classified as learning objects; some others are created to manage only learning objects (LO), as the Learning Objects Digital Repositories, or were built to function as learning objects aggregators. The term “learning object” itself is involving different types of structures, organization and complexity. This paper will show how digital repositories, metadata standards and semantic web technologies can be valuable tools for managing educational content, which can contribute to build a learning and knowledge driven organization. (author

  13. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  14. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  15. Metoprolol compared to carvedilol deteriorates insulin-stimulated endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes - a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Britt; Hermann, Thomas S; Major-Pedersen, Atheline

    2010-01-01

    Studies of beta blockade in patients with type 2 diabetes have shown inferiority of metoprolol treatment compared to carvedilol on indices of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of metoprolol versus carvedilol on endothelial function and insulin-stimulated endothel......Studies of beta blockade in patients with type 2 diabetes have shown inferiority of metoprolol treatment compared to carvedilol on indices of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of metoprolol versus carvedilol on endothelial function and insulin...

  16. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (−/−) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5–6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82–95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 μM) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20–23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: ► C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. ► Wild type and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout littermates

  17. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  18. Region-to-area screening methodology for the crystalline repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The ''Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982'' (NWPA), enacted January 7, 1983 as Public Law 97-425, confirmed the responsibility of the US Department of Energy (DOE) for management of high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA directed the DOE to provide safe facilities for isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the environment in federally owned and federally licensed repositories. To achieve the goals of providing licensed repositories for high-level radioactive waste, a technical program has been developed by the DOE to meet all relevant radiological protection criteria and other requirements. By March 1987, the NWPA requires the DOE to recommend to the President a single site, chosen from five nominated sites for construction of the first repository. Rock types being considered as potential hosts for the first repository include salt, basalt, and tuff. The NWPA also requires the DOE to select three candidate sites, chosen from five nominated sites to be recommended to the President by July 1989, as possible locations for the second repository. Potential host rock types for the second federal repository will include crystalline rock. This document outlines the methodology for region-to-area screening of exposed crystalline rock bodies for suitability as sites for further study. 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Risk analysis of radioactive waste repository based on the time dependent hazard rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.H.; Cho, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the probabilistic risk analysis of the radioactive high level waste repository, the simplified method based on the time dependent hazard rate is proposed. The obtained results are compared with those from the time independent hazard rate. The estimation of the failure probability of the waste repository through this method gives more conservative results, especially when the half-life of nuclide is larger and retardation factors of nuclide is smaller. (Auth.)

  20. Type 1 diabetes, quality of life, occupational status and education level - A comparative population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Helena B; Ovesen, Louise L; Mortensen, Laust H; Lau, Cathrine J; Joensen, Lene E

    2016-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes requires extensive self-management to avoid complications and may have negative effects on the everyday life of people with the disease. The aim of this study was to compare adults with type 1 diabetes to the general population in terms of health-related quality of life, occupational status (level of employment, working hours and sick leave) and education level. 2415 adults (aged 18-98years) with type 1 diabetes were compared to 48,511 adults (aged 18-103years) from the general population. Data were obtained from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 of adults living or treated in the Capital Region in Denmark. Differences between adults with type 1 diabetes and the general population were standardised for age and sex and analyzed using linear probability models and negative binomial regression. Differences were further analyzed in subgroups. Compared to the general population, adults with type 1 diabetes experienced lower health-related quality of life, were more frequently unemployed, had more sick leave per year and were slightly better educated. Differences in health-related quality of life and employment increased with age and were larger among women, as compared to men. No significant differences were found with regard to working hours. Our findings suggest that type 1 diabetes is associated with lower health-related quality of life, higher unemployment and additional sick leave. The negative association with type 1 diabetes is more pronounced in women and older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. National radioactive waste repository draft EIS. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    -north South Australia, approximately 400 km north of Adelaide, between the townships of Woomera and Roxby Downs. The sites are located in stony desert country with sparse saltbush. The extensive site selection process described in the report identified the preferred and alternative sites. A national repository represents the safest and most effective option for Australia to manage this type of waste, particularly as the ongoing generation of waste is expected to be relatively small, and therefore technically and economically does not justify the establishment of separate facilities on a stateby- state basis

  2. Draft environmental assessment: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the reference repository location at the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The reference repository location at Hanford is located in the Columbia Plateau, one of five distinct geohydrologic settings that are being considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the reference repository location at Hanford is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the reference repository location at Hanford as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Furthermore, having performed a comparative evaluation of the five sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the reference repository location at Hanford is one of three sites preferred for site characterization

  3. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-11-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 m g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great as those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  4. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-07-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 ml g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great at those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland Cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  5. Andra's geologic repository monitoring strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschaert, S.; Lesoille, S.; Bertrand, J.; Landais, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After having concluded a feasibility study of deep geological disposal for high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in 2005, Andra was charged by the Planning Act no. 2006-739 to design and create an industrial site for geological disposal called Cigeo which must be reversible for at least a century-long period. The French Safety Guide recommends that Andra develop a monitoring program to be implemented at repository construction and conducted until closure, and possibly after closure, with the aim to confirming prior expectations and enhancing knowledge of relevant processes. This abstract focuses on underground structure monitoring. The monitoring system is based on a combination of in-situ instrumentation and nondestructive methods to obtain the required level of reliable performance. To optimize the device distribution, we take into account both the repetitive design of disposal cells and the homogeneity of the rock properties. This resulted in distinguishing pilot disposal cells that are highly instrumented and standard disposal cells where the instrumentation density could be reduced; monitoring will rely mostly on robotic nondestructive evaluations. If monitoring technologies do not comply with all monitoring objectives, real withdrawal tests of high level wastes in some pilot disposal cells are also planned to provide the possibility of carrying out visual inspection, destructive analyses and samplings on construction materials. Such cells are planned to be dismantled because of the potential disturbance of their component performances from the testing process. Based on this overall strategy, Andra has analyzed the technical requirements that must be met by its monitoring equipment. First, these must be able to provide information on key THMCR (Thermal- Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical and Radiological) processes, to provide a three-dimensional image of a disposal component's behavior and thus to understand

  6. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-01-01

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data

  7. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-09-12

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data.

  8. Economics of mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Dippold, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    During 1982, Congress considered legislation to provide for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The result of this legislative effort was the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), PL 97-425, signed into law January 7, 1983. An important part of the NWPA was the establishment of special funds in the US Treasury for Waste Disposal and Interim Storage to be financed by user fees to pay for all costs of the program. An initial fee of 1.0 mill per kilowatt-hour was specified. The Secretary was asked to annually review the amount of the fees established... to evaluate whether collection of the fee will provide sufficient revenues to offset the costs... In the event of a prospective fee cost mismatch, the Secretary was asked to propose an adjustment to the fee to insure full cost recovery. A series of studies were sponsored by DOE in 1982 to estimate program costs, to calculate the necessary fees to assure cost recovery, and to address uncertainties that could affect future program costs and consequent fee schedules. A brief summary of the 1982 cost estimates is presented. Sources of key cost uncertainties are discussed and the bases for the cost recovery fee calculations are summarized. 17 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  9. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  10. Building the repositories to serve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The project to design and build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory also includes the exciting opportunity to implement client/server information systems. Lab technologists were eager to take advantage of the cost savings inherent in the open systems and a distributed, client server environment and, at the same time, conscious of the need to provide secure repositories for sensitive data as well as a schedule sensitive acquisition strategy for mission critical software. During the first year of project activity, micro-based project management and business support systems were acquired and implemented to support a small study project of less than 400 people allocating contracts of less than $1 million. The transition to modern business systems capable of supporting more than 10,000 participants (world wide) who would be researching and developing the new technologies that would support the world's largest scientific instrument, a 42 Tevatron, superconducting, super collider became a mission critical event. This paper will present the SSC Laboratory's strategy to balance its commitment to open systems, structured query language (SQL) standards and its success with acquiring commercial off the shelf software to support immediate goals. Included will be an outline of the vital roles played by other labs (Livermore, CERN, Brookhaven, Fermi and others) and a discussion of future collaboration potentials to leverage the information activities of all Department of Energy funded labs

  11. Building the repositories to serve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersch, D.

    1993-04-01

    The project to design and build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory also includes the exciting opportunity to implement client/server information systems. Lab technologists were eager to take advantage of the cost savings inherent in the open systems and a distributed, client server environment and, at the same time, conscious of the need to provide secure repositories for sensitive data as well as a schedule sensitive acquisition strategy for mission critical software. During the first year of project activity, micro-based project management and business support systems were acquired and implemented to support a small study project of less than 400 people allocating contracts of less than $1 million. The transition to modern business systems capable of supporting more than 10,000 participants (world wide) who would be researching and developing the new technologies that would support the world's largest scientific instrument, a 42 Tevatron, superconducting, super collider became a mission critical event. This paper will present the SSC Laboratory's strategy to balance our commitment to open systems, structured query language (SQL) standards and our success with acquiring commercial off the shelf software (COTS) to support our immediate goals. Included will be an outline of the vital roles played by other labs (Livermore, CERN, Brookhaven, Fermi and others) and a discussion of future collaboration potentials to leverage the information activities of all Department of Energy (DOE) funded labs

  12. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2011-01-01

    The dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors are a new class of antihyperglycaemic agents which were developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by rational drug design, based on an understanding of the underlying mechanism of action and knowledge of the structure of the target enzyme. Although...... they differ in terms of their chemistry, they are all small molecules which are orally available. There are some differences between them in terms of their absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination, as well as in their potency and duration of action, but their efficacy, both in terms of inhibiting...

  13. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  14. New tools for comparing microscopy images : Quantitative analysis of cell types in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a method commonly used to examine individual differences between bacterial cells, yet many studies still lack a quantitative analysis of fluorescence microscopy data. Here we introduce some simple tools that microbiologists can use to analyze and compare their microscopy

  15. Factors Influencing Student Preference When Comparing Handwriting and Typing for Essay Style Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogey, Nora; Fluck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    It seems anachronistic that we expect students to handwrite essay examinations when almost all their other work is mediated by computer. Two universities, one in the UK and one in Australia, are exploring the use of computers in free text response examinations. This paper compares both the attitudes and the behaviours of their students concerning…

  16. Data sharing, small science and institutional repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragin, Melissa H; Palmer, Carole L; Carlson, Jacob R; Witt, Michael

    2010-09-13

    Results are presented from the Data Curation Profiles project research, on who is willing to share what data with whom and when. Emerging from scientists' discussions on sharing are several dimensions suggestive of the variation in both what it means 'to share' and how these processes are carried out. This research indicates that data curation services will need to accommodate a wide range of subdisciplinary data characteristics and sharing practices. As part of a larger set of strategies emerging across academic institutions, institutional repositories (IRs) will contribute to the stewardship and mobilization of scientific research data for e-Research and learning. There will be particular types of data that can be managed well in an IR context when characteristics and practices are well understood. Findings from this study elucidate scientists' views on 'sharable' forms of data-the particular representation that they view as most valued for reuse by others within their own research areas-and the anticipated duration for such reuse. Reported sharing incidents that provide insights into barriers to sharing and related concerns on data misuse are included.

  17. Treatment satisfaction in type 2 diabetes patients taking empagliflozin compared with patients taking glimepiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirila, Costel; Zheng, Qingyao; Davenport, Eric; Kaschinski, Dagmar; Pfarr, Egon; Hach, Thomas; Palencia, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    This exploratory analysis assessed and compared patients' treatment satisfaction with empagliflozin plus metformin versus glimepiride plus metformin, using data obtained from the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire, status version (DTSQs) collected in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial. Observed values for DTSQs scale score and each of its eight items were summarized by visit and treatment arm. Changes from baseline in these scores were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. The baseline scale score and item scores were comparable between empagliflozin plus metformin (n = 765) and glimepiride plus metformin (n = 780). Compared with baseline, patients reported significant treatment satisfaction increases and significant decreases in perceived hyperglycemia with both treatments at all visits. Also, compared with baseline, a significant increase in perceived frequency of hypoglycemia was observed in the glimepiride treatment group at all visits. No statistically significant treatment difference was observed in DTSQs scale score and its items at week 104. The difference between the treatment groups was significant and in favor of empagliflozin from week 28 onward for perceived frequency of hyperglycemia (P ≤ 0.006) and perceived frequency of hypoglycemia (P ≤ 0.011). Despite positive trends in favor of empagliflozin, there was no significant difference in DTSQs scale score between empagliflozin and glimepiride at 104 weeks. However, when compared with glimepiride, empagliflozin demonstrated significantly lower perceived frequency of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia at all visits from week 28 onward. This finding is consistent with the clinical results reported for the EMPA-REG H2H-SU trial.

  18. Shaft placement in a bedded salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasi, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    Preferred shaft pillar sizes and shaft locations were determined with respect to the induced thermal stresses in a generic bedded salt repository at a depth of 610 m with a gross thermal loading of 14.8 W/m 2 . The model assumes isotropic material properties, plane strain and linear elastic behavior. Various shaft locations were analyzed over a 25 year period. The thermal results show that for this time span, the stratigraphy is unimportant except for the region immediately adjacent to the repository. The thermomechanical results show that for the given repository depth of 610 m, a minimum central shaft pillar radius of 244 m is required to equal the material strength in the barrier pillar. An assumed constant stress and constant temperature distribution creep model of the central shaft region adjacent to the repository conservatively overestimates a creep closure of 310 mm in a 6.1 m diameter centrally-located shaft

  19. Preliminary design of the repository, stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  20. Decision theory applied to radioactive repository construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present, through the presentation of an example, the applicability of the decision theory on the selection and construction of a repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. (author)

  1. Preliminary design of the repository. Stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-04-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  2. Biospecimen Repository Access and Data Sharing (BRADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BRADS is a repository for data and biospecimens from population health research initiatives and clinical or interventional trials designed and implemented by NICHD’s...

  3. NIMH Repository and Genomics Resources (RGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIMH Repository and Genomics Resource (RGR) stores biosamples, genetic, pedigree and clinical data collected in designated NIMH-funded human subject studies. The...

  4. Evaluasi Website Repositori Institusi Universitas Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The  development  of  institutional  repositories  (IRs  in Indonesia within the broader framework of open access has significant impact on preserving intellectual capital and scholarly communication. Institutional  repositories  play  a  fundamental  role  in  centralizing, preserving,  and  making  accessible  institution’s  intellectual  capital. Evaluation of the system is to determine the functionality the system to meet the users need. Using a descriptive analysis this study wants to evaluate institutional repositories of University of Surabaya. The result is usefull for institution to develop the repository systems.

  5. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.; Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later

  6. MMS induction of different types of genetic damage in Aspergillus nidulans: a comparative analysis in mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, G; Bellincampi, D; Puppo, S

    1979-09-01

    Methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) was used to test the induction of gene mutation, somatic crossing-over and mitotic non-disjunction in A. nidulans. Gene mutation was tested by inducing mutants resistant to 8-azaguanine and revertants of methG1 in a haploid strain. Somatic crossing-over was tested in heterozygous diploids, both with a selective method, i.e. inducing homozygosis to FPA resistance in a heterozygous fpa A1/+ strain, and with a non-selective method, i.e. identifying the frequencies of colour sectors. This latter method was also used to estimate the induction of non-disjunction because additional markers were present which permitted us to distinguish the two types of colour segregant. Generally, 3 different experimental procedures were used, namely the "plate test", i.e. plating of conidia in agar media containing MMS, and two types of "liquid test", i.e. brief treatment of quiescent or pre-germinated conidia in MMS solution before they were plated on agar media. Point mutations were induced with about equal efficiency with each method, whereas crossing-over was induced preferentially when germinating conidia were exposed to MMS. On the other hand, non-disjunction was induced in germinating and quiescent spores with equal efficiency, but such segregants were not recovered with the selective (fpa) method. The results are discussed for both their practical use in the mutagenic testing procedure and their theoretical implication.

  7. Eliciting mixed emotions: a meta-analysis comparing models, types, and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model—dimensional or discrete—as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = 0.77), which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects) resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought. PMID:25926805

  8. Eliciting mixed emotions: A meta-analysis comparing models, types and measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eBerrios

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model – dimensional or discrete – as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative. The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = .77, which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought.

  9. The Comparative Observational Study of Timescale of Feedback by Bar Structure in Late-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woong-bae Woong-bae Zee, Galaxy; Yoon, Suk-jin

    2018-01-01

    We investigate star formation activities of ~400 barred and ~1400 unbarred faced-on late-type galaxies from the SDSS DR13. We find that gas-poor and barred galaxies are considerably show enhanced high central star formation activities, while there is no difference among gas-rich barred and unbarred galaxies regardless of their HI gas content. This seems counter-intuitive given that gas contents simply represent the total star formation rate of galaxies and suggests that there is a time delation between the central gas migration/consumption through bar structures and the enhancement of star formation activity at the centre. We analysed the distribution of the stellar population of specific galaxies with MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) IFU survey among the total samples. The gas-poor and barred galaxies show the flatter gradient in metallicity and age with respect to the stellar mass than other types of galaxies, in that their centre is more metal-rich and younger. There is an age difference, about 5-6 Gyrs, between centrally star-forming gas-poor barred galaxies and gas-rich galaxies and this value is a plausible candidate of the longevity of bar feedback. The results indicate that the gas migration/mixing driven by bar structure plays a significant role in the evolution of galaxies in a specific of timescale.

  10. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  11. The Effect of Culture Type on the Length of Persian Proverbs Compared to their English Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammadian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The interrelation of culture and language is to the extent that many classifications of culture are based on linguistic factors. In this article, high and low context cultures division is assessed on English and Persian as they belong to different cultural types. Forty Persian proverbs are contrasted with their equivalents in English to investigate whether there is a difference in the number of word forms used in each. In order to avoid linguistic differences which are effective in enumerating word forms, the second lines in linguistic glosses provided for Persian proverbs including a one to one correspondence of each word in English are used to count word forms. Results show that 70 percent of the Persian proverbs in the data are longer than their English counterparts. This shows that relative length of proverbs can be a distinguishing factor reflecting cultural types. The results not only confirm the applicability of this cultural division in the field of proverbs, but also a matter of tendency rather than a dichotomy in belonging to a high or low context culture is proposed. At the end, there are suggestions for further relevant investigations.

  12. Neutronics comparative analysis of plate-type research reactor using deterministic and stochastic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Wang, Guanbo; Wu, Gaochen; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DRAGON and DONJON are applied and verified in calculations of research reactors. • Continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations by RMC are chosen as the references. • “ECCO” option of DRAGON is suitable for the calculations of research reactors. • Manual modifications of cross-sections are not necessary with DRAGON and DONJON. • DRAGON and DONJON agree well with RMC if appropriate treatments are applied. - Abstract: Simulation of the behavior of the plate-type research reactors such as JRR-3M and CARR poses a challenge for traditional neutronics calculation tools and schemes for power reactors, due to the characteristics of complex geometry, highly heterogeneity and large leakage of the research reactors. Two different theoretical approaches, the deterministic and the stochastic methods, are used for the neutronics analysis of the JRR-3M plate-type research reactor in this paper. For the deterministic method the neutronics codes DRAGON and DONJON are used, while the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code RMC (Reactor Monte Carlo code) is employed for the stochastic approach. The goal of this research is to examine the capability of the deterministic code system DRAGON and DONJON to reliably simulate the research reactors. The results indicate that the DRAGON and DONJON code system agrees well with the continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation on both k eff and flux distributions if the appropriate treatments (such as the ECCO option) are applied

  13. Making proteomics data accessible and reusable: current state of proteomics databases and repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Alpi, Emanuele; Wang, Rui; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Compared to other data-intensive disciplines such as genomics, public deposition and storage of MS-based proteomics, data are still less developed due to, among other reasons, the inherent complexity of the data and the variety of data types and experimental workflows. In order to address this need, several public repositories for MS proteomics experiments have been developed, each with different purposes in mind. The most established resources are the Global Proteome Machine Database (GPMDB), PeptideAtlas, and the PRIDE database. Additionally, there are other useful (in many cases recently developed) resources such as ProteomicsDB, Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment (MassIVE), Chorus, MaxQB, PeptideAtlas SRM Experiment Library (PASSEL), Model Organism Protein Expression Database (MOPED), and the Human Proteinpedia. In addition, the ProteomeXchange consortium has been recently developed to enable better integration of public repositories and the coordinated sharing of proteomics information, maximizing its benefit to the scientific community. Here, we will review each of the major proteomics resources independently and some tools that enable the integration, mining and reuse of the data. We will also discuss some of the major challenges and current pitfalls in the integration and sharing of the data. © 2014 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 48 CFR 227.7108 - Contractor data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repositories. 227.7108 Section 227.7108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Technical Data 227.7108 Contractor data repositories. (a) Contractor data repositories may be established when permitted by agency procedures. The contractual instrument establishing the data repository must...

  15. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  16. Stochastic cost estimating in repository life-cycle cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzemos, S.; Dippold, D.

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual development, the design, and the final construction and operation of a nuclear repository span many decades. Given this lengthy time frame, it is quite challenging to obtain a good approximation of the repository life-cycle cost. One can deal with this challenge by using an analytic method, the method of moments, to explicitly assess the uncertainty of the estimate. A series expansion is used to approximate the uncertainty distribution of the cost estimate. In this paper, the moment methodology is derived and is illustrated through a numerical example. The range of validity of the approximation is discussed. The method of moments is compared to the traditional stochastic cost estimating methods and found to provide more and better information on cost uncertainty. The tow methods converge to identical results as the number of convolved variables increases and approaches the range where the central limit theorem is valid

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TREATMENT OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH TYPES B AND C PYLON FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Khominets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to develop and implement improved approaches to the diagnosis and tactics of surgical treatment in patients with fractures of the distal tibia metaepiphysis.Material and methods. The study included 126 patients with fractures of distal tibia metaepiphysis of «B» and «C» types who underwent internal fixation with plates in 2005–2012. The authors analyzed surgical treatment outcomes within the period from 2.5 to 9 years (average of 5.7–2.3 years of postoperative follow up. Average age of patients was 23.4±2.1 years. Patients were divided into the main group (64 patients and the comparison group (62 patients. In the comparison group, traditional approaches to diagnosis and surgical treatment were used, including standard clinical examination and X-rays of the affected ankle in two views and the median access to the distal tibia metaepiphysis. In the main group, a specially elaborated algorithm for selection of optimal surgical tactics was utilized basing on the improved diagnostics program. Clinical and functional data were assessed by Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS and SF-36 Health Survey. Roentgenological assessment was done by X-rays and CT scans. Statistical significance of the differences was evaluated by Wald-Wolfowitz and Fisher tests.Results. Improved approaches to the tactics of surgical treatment in patients with pylon fractures of «B» and «C» types allowed to reduce the incidence of unsatisfactory anatomical and functional outcomes from 43.5% to 28.1%. The number of satisfactory and good outcomes increased by 4.7% and 10.7% respectively after application of improved therapeutic and diagnostic approaches.Conclusion. Proposed improved approaches to verification of severe intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia metabiphysis allowed to increase the informative value of the diagnostic procedures and to avoid discrepancies between preand intraoperative assessment of fracture type by classifications of M

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nutrition therapy compared with dietary advice in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith; Andersen, Henning Keinke; Snorgaard, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite recommendations, many patients with type 2 diabetes receive dietary advice from nurses or doctors instead of individualized nutrition therapy (INT) that is provided by a dietitian. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of INT that is provided...... diabetes, but further randomized studies are warranted....

  19. A randomized trial comparing perinatal outcomes using insulin detemir or neutral protamine Hagedorn in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hod, Moshe; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Jovanovič, Lois

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir (IDet) with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH), both with insulin aspart, in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. The perinatal and obstetric pregnancy outcomes are presented. METHODS: Subjects w...

  20. Behind the Final Grade in Hybrid v. Traditional Courses: Comparing Student Performance by Assessment Type, Core Competency, and Course Objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lisa Z.

    2012-01-01

    There are many different delivery methods used by institutions of higher education. These include traditional, hybrid, and online course offerings. The comparisons of these typically use final grade as the measure of student performance. This research study looks behind the final grade and compares student performance by assessment type, core…

  1. Comparative Analysis of Different Types of Analgesia in Patients after Surgical Correction of Scoliotic Spinal Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Georgiyants

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of epidural analgesia and anesthesia using opiates after surgical interventions for spinal scoliosis in children has beem carried out. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In the first one postoperative analgesia was carried out by intramuscular injection of promedol, in second one epidural analgesia was used with the constant introduction of ropivacaine. The authors studied the effect of these techniques on hemodynamics, the analysis of the subjective perception of pain by patients.

  2. Construction Time of Three Wall Types Made of Locally Sourced Materials: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Drozd; Agnieszka Leśniak; Sebastian Zaworski

    2018-01-01

    Similarly to any other industry, the construction sector puts emphasis on innovativeness, unconventional thinking, and alternative ideas. At present, when sustainable development, ecology, and awareness of people’s impact on the environment grow in importance, low impact buildings can become an innovative alternative construction technology for the highly industrialized construction sector. The paper presents a comparative study of three walls made of available materials used locally, which c...

  3. The effect of charging time on the comparative environmental performance of different vehicle types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossin, Enda; Doherty, Peter J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental performance of a PHEV and equivalent ICE were analysed using LCA. • Charging behaviour and electricity profiles of Australia’s NEM grid were included. • A methodology to model the marginal electricity supply mix was developed. • PHEVs charged from the NEM present greenhouse gas benefits. • Burden shifts towards other environmental indicators may occur, but are uncertain. - Abstract: This study combines electricity supply mix profiles and observed charging behaviour to compare the environmental performance of a petrol-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a class-equivalent internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle over the full life cycle. Environmental performance is compared using a suite of indicators across the life cycle, accounting for both marginal and average electricity supply mixes for Australia’s National Energy Market (NEM) grid. The use of average emission factors for the NEM grid can serve as a good proxy for accounting charging behaviour, provided that there is a strong correlation between the time of charging and total electricity demand. Compared with an equivalent ICE, PHEVs charged from Australia’s NEM can reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the life cycle. Potential burden shifts towards acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity impacts may occur, but these impacts are uncertain due to modelling limitations. This study has the potential to inform both short and long term forecasts of the environmental impacts associated with EV deployment in Australia and provides a better understanding the temporal variations in emissions associated with electricity use in the short term.

  4. INTERNET USE ADOPTION AMONG ACADEMICIANS: Comparing Innovative Adopters and Other Adopter Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbayah BTE MOHD SUKI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping represents an innovation to be adopted or rejected by online consumersglobally. Previous experiences and knowledge of innovation are the main factors affectingpeople’s willingness to adopt a new innovation. We explore how Internet use differsbetween academicians who are innovative adopters and other types of adopters.Academicians who are innovative adopters are hypothesized to: have more years of experience on online shopping, have greater frequency of purchase, and pay a higher price for items purchased online.Data were collected from 301 respondents. Results provide new perspective on innovativeadopters among Malaysian academicians; they have less experience than other adopters inshopping for products online, make fewer purchases online and pay small amount ofmoney in shopping for products online than other adopters. Directions for future research are also discussed.

  5. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofuji, A.; Takiguchi, K.; Nakamura, K.; Kuramochi, A.; Tsuchida, T.; Arai, E.; Shimizu, M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back) showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology

  6. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  7. Comparative analysis of morphogeometric parameters of forward cranial pole depending on type of a skull basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshkina О.Yu.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is comparison of parameters of a forward cranial pole depending on type of a skull basis. The research material contained 100 adult skulls divided into three craniotypes. The method of craniotopometry was used for measuring the parameters and further calculation of average value and their comparison among themselves. Results. The research helped to reveal that length of a forward cranial pole, length of a lateral part on the right and at the left, a corner f.c.-s-n prevail at flexibasilar craniotype. Conclusions. The width of a forward cranial pole, width of a lateral part on the right and at the left, a corner f.c.-n-g are more at platibasilar craniotype

  8. The comparative morphology of the muscle tissues and changes in constituents in the pig types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, G; Fazekas, S; Sándor, I; Kollár, N

    1990-09-01

    The authors have revealed the main value characteristics of pork production by testing in five different types of pig the volume of contractile and collagen proteins, that of proteoglycans, the constituents of blood and the enzymes of the blood plasma. The contractile proteins of the muscle tissues basically determine the quality of pork. The same applies to the water retention capacity, colloidal characteristics and glycogen content of meat. The amount of contractile proteins has decreased in the best meat producing types of pig. Parallel with the decrease of white meat, and with the increase in the volume of ham, chop and chuck the contractile protein content of muscles decreased. The scientific fact according to which there is a certain correlation among the changes in the volume of contractile proteins, blood sugar level, blood serum CPK and the intensity of activity of the LDH enzymes promotes the qualifying of live animals and the work of the geneticists aiming at the increasing of the contractile protein content of the muscle tissues of pigs by selection. According to tests carried out by us the primary cause of PSE changes is a decreased volume of contractile proteins. Increased stress sensitivity and all the other factors have but a secondary importance and are all consequential. The decrease in the quantity of contractile proteins or--it is better to put it this way--the lack of the proper amount of such proteins characterizing a fully developed pig's organism is caused by the nowadays usual breeding technologies and can be well explained by those selection activities which aim at a one-sided kind of pork production.

  9. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  10. The development of safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research and development on geological repositories for High Level Waste (HLW) focuses on the short- and long-term safety aspects of the repository. If the repository will also be used for the disposal of spent fuel, safeguards aspects have to be taken into account. Safety and safeguards requirements may be contradictory; the safety of a geological repository is based on the non-intrusion of the geological containment, while safeguards require regular inspections of position and amount of the spent fuel. Examples to reconcile these contradictory requirements are the use of information required for the safety assessment of the geological repository for safeguards purposes and the adaptation of the safeguards approach to use non-intrusive inspection techniques. The principles of an inspection approach for a geological repository are now generally accepted within the IAEA. The practical applicability of the envisaged inspection techniques is still subject to investigation. It is specifically important for the Belgian situation that an inspection technique can be used in clay, the geological medium in which Belgium intends to dispose its HLW and spent fuel. The work reported in this chapter is the result of an international cooperation in the framework of the IAEA, in which SCK-CEN participates

  11. National Geoscience Data Repository System: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed Phase 2 of a project to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS). The project`s primary objectives are to preserve geoscience data in jeopardy of being destroyed and to make that data available to those who have a need to use it in future investigations. These data are available for donation to the public as a result of the downsizing that has occurred in the major petroleum and mining companies in the US for the past decade. In recent years, these companies have consolidated domestic operations, sold many of their domestic properties and relinquished many of their leases. The scientific data associated with those properties are no longer considered to be useful assets and are consequently in danger of being lost forever. The national repository project will make many of these data available to the geoscience community for the first time. Phase 2 encompasses the establishment of standards for indexing and cataloging of geoscience data and determination of the costs of transferring data from the private sector to public-sector data repositories. Pilot projects evaluated the feasibility of the project for transfer of different data types and creation of a Web-based metadata supercatalog and browser. Also as part of the project, a national directory of geoscience data repositories was compiled to assess what data are currently available in existing facilities. The next step, Phase 3, will focus on the initiation of transfer of geoscience data from the private sector to the public domain and development of the web-based Geotrek metadata supercatalog.

  12. Decision Tree Repository and Rule Set Based Mingjiang River Estuarine Wetlands Classifaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Li, X.; Xiao, W.

    2018-05-01

    The increasing urbanization and industrialization have led to wetland losses in estuarine area of Mingjiang River over past three decades. There has been increasing attention given to produce wetland inventories using remote sensing and GIS technology. Due to inconsistency training site and training sample, traditionally pixel-based image classification methods can't achieve a comparable result within different organizations. Meanwhile, object-oriented image classification technique shows grate potential to solve this problem and Landsat moderate resolution remote sensing images are widely used to fulfill this requirement. Firstly, the standardized atmospheric correct, spectrally high fidelity texture feature enhancement was conducted before implementing the object-oriented wetland classification method in eCognition. Secondly, we performed the multi-scale segmentation procedure, taking the scale, hue, shape, compactness and smoothness of the image into account to get the appropriate parameters, using the top and down region merge algorithm from single pixel level, the optimal texture segmentation scale for different types of features is confirmed. Then, the segmented object is used as the classification unit to calculate the spectral information such as Mean value, Maximum value, Minimum value, Brightness value and the Normalized value. The Area, length, Tightness and the Shape rule of the image object Spatial features and texture features such as Mean, Variance and Entropy of image objects are used as classification features of training samples. Based on the reference images and the sampling points of on-the-spot investigation, typical training samples are selected uniformly and randomly for each type of ground objects. The spectral, texture and spatial characteristics of each type of feature in each feature layer corresponding to the range of values are used to create the decision tree repository. Finally, with the help of high resolution reference images, the

  13. Review of Quality Assurance in SKB's Repository Research Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    SKB is preparing licence applications for a spent nuclear fuel encapsulation plant and repository which will be supported by the SR-Site safety report. A separate safety report, SR-Can, has been produced by SKB in preparation for the SR-Site report. SKI is in the process of reviewing the SR-Can safety report. In preparation for this review, and with a view to building confidence in SKB's research activities and understanding SKB's handling of data and other information, SKI has examined SKB's application of QA measures in the management and conduct of repository research and development projects that support the SR-Can safety assessment. These preliminary investigations will serve to support the preparation of more detailed quality and technical audits of SKB's repository safety assessment after the submission of a licence application. SKI's approach to this QA review is based on the consideration of quality-affecting aspects of a selection of SKB's research and development activities. As part of this review, SKI identified the need to examine quality-related aspects of some of the many experiments and investigations that form part of SKB's repository research programme. This report presents the findings of such a review, focusing on experiments concerned with the properties and performance of the engineered barrier system. First, in order to establish a broad understanding of QA requirements for repository scientific investigations, QA procedures implemented in the management of research and development activities for the low-level radioactive waste repository near Drigg in the UK and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Yucca Mountain repository projects in the US were studied. The QA procedures for experiments and tests undertaken in these projects were compared with those implemented by SKB. Key findings are: QA programmes have been implemented for each repository development programme in response to regulatory requirements. The need for regular audits of the

  14. A comparative study of lung toxicity in rats induced by three types of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiqing; Ma, Li; X, Zhu-ge; Zhang, Huashan; Lin, Bencheng

    2013-12-01

    The public is increasingly exposed to various engineered nanomaterials because of their mass production and wide application. Even when the biological effects of nanomaterials have been assessed, the underlying mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. The present study was designed to seek a simple, effective, and oxidative stress-based biomarker system used for screening toxicity of nanomaterials. Nano-ferroso-ferric oxide (nano-Fe3O4), nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in corn oil and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rats were exposed to the three nanomaterials by intratracheal instillation once every 2 days for 5 weeks. We investigated their lung oxidative and inflammatory damage by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) detection and comparative proteomics by lung tissue. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of proteins isolated from the lung tissue, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was performed. In the present study, we chose to detect lactate dehydrogenase, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde as the biomarker system for screening the oxidative stress of nanomaterials and IL-6 as the inflammatory biomarker in BALF. Proteomics analysis revealed 17 differentially expressed proteins compared with the control group: nine were upregulated and eight were downregulated. Our results indicated that exposure by intratracheal instillation to any of the three typical nanomaterials may cause lung damage through oxidative damage and/or an inflammatory reaction.

  15. A comparative study of gold UCLA-type and CAD/CAM titanium implant abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Man; Lee, Jai-Bong; Heo, Seong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the interface accuracy of computer-assisted designed and manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium abutments and implant fixture compared to gold-cast UCLA abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS An external connection implant system (Mark III, n=10) and an internal connection implant system (Replace Select, n=10) were used, 5 of each group were connected to milled titanium abutment and the rest were connected to the gold-cast UCLA abutments. The implant fixture and abutment were tightened to torque of 35 Ncm using a digital torque gauge, and initial detorque values were measured 10 minutes after tightening. To mimic the mastication, a cyclic loading was applied at 14 Hz for one million cycles, with the stress amplitude range being within 0 N to 100 N. After the cyclic loading, detorque values were measured again. The fixture-abutment gaps were measured under a microscope and recorded with an accuracy of ±0.1 µm at 50 points. RESULTS Initial detorque values of milled abutment were significantly higher than those of cast abutment (P.05). After cyclic loading, detorque values of cast abutment increased, but those of milled abutment decreased (Pabutment group and the cast abutment group after cyclic loading. CONCLUSION In conclusion, CAD/CAM milled titanium abutment can be fabricated with sufficient accuracy to permit screw joint stability between abutment and fixture comparable to that of the traditional gold cast UCLA abutment. PMID:24605206

  16. Do ancient types of wheat have health benefits compared with modern bread wheat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested that ancient wheats have health benefits compared with modern bread wheat. However, the mechanisms are unclear and limited numbers of genotypes have been studied, with a particular focus on Kamut ® (Khorasan wheat). This is important because published analyses have shown wide variation in composition between genotypes, with further effects of growth conditions. The present article therefore critically reviews published comparisons of the health benefits of ancient and modern wheats, in relation to the selection and growth of the lines, including dietary interventions and comparisons of adverse effects (allergy, intolerance, sensitivity). It is concluded that further studies are urgently required, particularly from a wider range of research groups, but also on a wider range of genotypes of ancient and modern wheat species. Furthermore, although most published studies have made efforts to ensure the comparability of material in terms of growth conditions and processing, it is essential that these are standardised in future studies and this should perhaps be a condition of publication.

  17. The Comparative Power of Type/Token and Hapax legomena/Type Ratios: A Corpus-based Study of Authorial Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Muhsin Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to verify the comparative power of two statistical features: Type/Token, and Hapax legomena/Token ratios (henceforth TTR and HTR. A corpus of ten novels is compiled. Then sixteen samples (each is 5,000 tokens in length are taken randomly out of these novels as representative blocks. The researchers observe the way TTR and HTR behave in discriminating four novelists: Joyce, Woolf, Faulkner and Hemingway. When compared to the traditional statistical features (e.g. word length average, Sentence length average, etc., TTR and HTR are by far more competent in comparing the distinctive quantitative behavior of each novelist. It turns out that TTR and HTR contribute more or less in creating a sort of statistical identity which can be used in giving a vivid comparison and discrimination of the four novelists involved in this paper. Nevertheless, HTR sounds more viable in achieving the discriminating task than TTR.

  18. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  19. Comparative study of solid waste management system based on building types in Palembang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmyanto, Hendrik; Dahlan, Hatta; Zahri, Imron

    2017-11-01

    Most of the solid waste generation sources come from housing activities. The types of house buildings located in the Palembang is a traditional building which made from wood construction and a permanent house which made from concrete construction. The aim of this study is to calculate the amount of waste generation and to study the community behavior in waste management. The research used an observation and questionnaires that took place in 3 location of the traditional housing and 3 location of the permanent housing with 20 respondents for each location. The results showed that the waste generation in the traditional housing was 1.51 liters/person/day and the permanent housing was 1.63 liters/person/day. The collecting system in traditional housing was taken by the garbage cart every 1 days, while in permanent housing was taken by motorcycle, pick-up car, or dump truck every 1 or 2 days. The questionnaire results showed that 96,67% of the traditional housing and 91,67% of the permanent housing disposed of the waste in a mix condition. Amount of 6,67 % from the traditional housing and 0% of permanent housing managed their waste into compost. Amount of 15 % from traditional housing and 3,33% of permanent housing sold their waste. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the permanent housing has the largest number of waste generation and the people in traditional housing had a tendency to manage the waste better than the permanent housing.

  20. Comparative clinical characteristics of depression in bipolar affective disorders types I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.

  1. Comparative analyses of ber (zizyphus) honey with other types of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, F.; Mehmood, R.

    2007-01-01

    Eight different honey samples were collected from different ecological areas of Pakistan and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The aim was to evaluate the quality, difference in the composition and comparison of Ber/Sidder (Zizyphus spp.) honey with other types of honey. The two samples of Ber honey and six other floral honey i.e., Citrus, mixed (citrus + Justicia), Acacia modesta, multi-flora and mixed (zizyphus + sesamum) were collected from Apis mellifera colonies. The colonies of Apis mellifera foraged on the above-mentioned flora in different ecological areas i.e. ber honey from Bannu and Karak, Citrus and mixed (citrus + Justicia) honey from Mandi Bahauddin, Acacia honey from Peshawar + Islamabad and multi-flora from Lahore. Nine legal parameters of honey quality control were followed. All honey samples were well within the limits of Codex Alimentarius Commission except ber and citrus. The ber honey showed high pH (6.85) and low reducing sugars (67.66%), sucrose (1.0%), free acidity (6.09 meq/kg) and total acidity (7.68 meq/kg). Mixed honey (zizyphus + sesamum) exhibited highest pH (6.88), lowest free acidity (2.80 meq/kg) and total acidity (5.50 meq/kg). Citrus honey was also found high in Hydroxy-methyl-furfural (HMF, 22.75 meql kg). (author)

  2. Specific strength training compared with interdisciplinary counseling for girls with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2016-01-01

    an increase in [Formula: see text] >5%. For the counseling group, this was the case for 29%. A 24-month follow-up on HRQOL for the pooled sample revealed statistically significant improvements. Fifty-five percent of the girls reported little to none disability. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that both....... METHODS: Forty-nine girls aged 9-18 years with TTH were randomized to patient education programs with 10 weeks of strength training and compared with those who were counseled by a nurse and physical therapist. Primary outcomes were headache frequency, intensity, and duration; secondary outcomes were neck......-shoulder muscle strength, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness, measured at baseline, after 10 weeks intervention, and at 12 weeks follow-up. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires were assessed at baseline and after 24 months. RESULTS: For both groups, headache frequency decreased...

  3. Comparative study of the craniofacial growth depending on the type of lactation received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molins, M; Grau Carbó, J; Lischeid Gaig, C; Ustrell Torrent, J M

    2010-06-01

    Several organizations consider mother's milk the optimal nutrition source for newborns [AAP, 1998; Gartner et al., 1997; Mohrbacher and Stock, 2002; WHO, 1989]. However, there is little scientific evidence supporting the idea that breastfeeding has a positive influence on the development of the orofacial structures. The study of cases and controls (observational, analytical and retrospective) and lateral teleradiographs of the cranium of 197 patients (106 breast-fed and 91 bottle-fed) were compared. Ricketts, Steiner and McNamara values were used for the cephalometric analysis. Differences between the two groups were analysed by applying the T-test and ANOVA. Statistical significance levels were set at pbreastfeeding also helps correct orofacial development (not only for the incisors position, but also for the vertical and sagittal relations of the mandible with upper maxillary and cranial basis).

  4. A comparative financial analysis of multi-institutional organizations by ownership type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, J S

    1985-01-01

    Concern about future directions in healthcare exists, with corporate consolidation seen as likely and necessary. To understand this transformation, the author examines the financial growth trends among the nation's leading corporate providers. Investor-owned (IO) and not-for-profit (NFP) firms are compared using audited data on four financial accounts (assets, debt, equity and income) and three financial ratios (liquidity, leverage, and profitability). The author analyzes financial trends from 1978 to 1982 and looks beyond the significant differences in the balance sheet and income statement accounts to a significant similarity in ratio trends between the NFP and the IO firms' financial conditions. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of future forms of corporate providers.

  5. Comparing two botulinum toxin type A formulations using manufacturers' product summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, R; Jones, D; Borrego, J A

    2007-08-01

    Because of the unique pharmacology and clinical versatility of botulinum toxin (BoNT), particularly BoNT serotype A (BoNTA), a need exists for discussion of the current data on similarities and differences between two BoNTA products, BOTOX and Dysport. We compared the physiochemical and pharmacological properties of BOTOX and Dysport using information from the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) documents from a number of countries around the world. Our analysis based on the SmPC documents demonstrated distinct differences in physical characteristics, breadth of approved indications, dosing and administration, and the incidence and severity of adverse events. BOTOX and Dysport are not bioequivalent. Many of the differences between BOTOX and Dysport discussed within are probably related to the differences in their physical characteristics.

  6. The Belgian repository of fundamental atomic data and stellar spectra (BRASS). I. Cross-matching atomic databases of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, M.; Lobel, A.; Merle, T.; Royer, P.; Martayan, C.; David, M.; Hensberge, H.; Thienpont, E.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Fundamental atomic parameters, such as oscillator strengths, play a key role in modelling and understanding the chemical composition of stars in the Universe. Despite the significant work underway to produce these parameters for many astrophysically important ions, uncertainties in these parameters remain large and can propagate throughout the entire field of astronomy. Aims: The Belgian repository of fundamental atomic data and stellar spectra (BRASS) aims to provide the largest systematic and homogeneous quality assessment of atomic data to date in terms of wavelength, atomic and stellar parameter coverage. To prepare for it, we first compiled multiple literature occurrences of many individual atomic transitions, from several atomic databases of astrophysical interest, and assessed their agreement. In a second step synthetic spectra will be compared against extremely high-quality observed spectra, for a large number of BAFGK spectral type stars, in order to critically evaluate the atomic data of a large number of important stellar lines. Methods: Several atomic repositories were searched and their data retrieved and formatted in a consistent manner. Data entries from all repositories were cross-matched against our initial BRASS atomic line list to find multiple occurrences of the same transition. Where possible we used a new non-parametric cross-match depending only on electronic configurations and total angular momentum values. We also checked for duplicate entries of the same physical transition, within each retrieved repository, using the non-parametric cross-match. Results: We report on the number of cross-matched transitions for each repository and compare their fundamental atomic parameters. We find differences in log(gf) values of up to 2 dex or more. We also find and report that 2% of our line list and Vienna atomic line database retrievals are composed of duplicate transitions. Finally we provide a number of examples of atomic spectral lines

  7. [Comparative study of 3 types of lancets for performing prick tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, A; Martín, S; Mesa, A; Cortés, C; Rodríguez, M; Laso, M T

    1996-01-01

    Skin Prick Test is considered the cutaneous test of choice in rutinary clinical practice as well as in research. In the last 15 years a large number of lancets for puncture test have been developed looking for a higher level of standardisation and reproducibility. We have compared three lancets, two of them, NeoAbelló (NA) and Dome/Hollister Stier (DHS), used in puncture test and a third one, Blood Lancet (BL), in the modified prick test. Twenty-two patients sensitised to Phleum pratense were tested with the three lancets at three extract concentrations and histamine 10 mg/mL in duplicate. We compared their wheal sizes by means of parallel line assay, their reproducibility, frequency of bleeding wheals, the disturbance for the patient and the correlation between specific IgE and skin response. Wheal size was similar for puncture tests (DHS and NA lancets) and significatively lower than BL, being necessary to increase 1.9 times the extract concentration when using DHS and NA lancets to achieve the same wheal size than when using BL lancets (p < 0.01). Reproducibility with histamine was similar with the three lancets while with the extract was somehow better with puncture tests but without statistical significance. Bleeding was significantly more frequent with BL although this did not influence the results. Less pain was obtained with BL. Finally, correlation with specific IgE was slightly significant for NA and very similar for the other two. With these results in mind we think that any of the three lancets is valid for the diagnostic of the allergic patient. Nevertheless, puncture tests are probably the most suitable at a research level.

  8. Mass transfer and transport in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    Salt is a unique rock isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and nearly impermeable. In this paper we summarize some mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. First we analyses brine migration. Heating by high-level waste can cause brine in grain boundaries to move due to pressure-gradients. We analyze brine migration treating salt as a thermoelastic solid and found that brine migration is transient and localized. We use previously developed techniques to estimate release rates from waste packages by diffusion. Interbeds exist in salt and may be conduits for radionuclide migration. We analyze steady-state migration due to brine flow in the interbed, as a function of the Peclet number. Then we analyze transient mass transfer, both into the interbed and directly to salt, due only to diffusion. Finally we compare mass transfer rates of a waste cylinder in granite facing a fracture and in salt facing an interbed. In all cases, numerical illustrations of the analytic solution are given. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses.

  10. Comparative genetics: synergizing human and NOD mouse studies for identifying genetic causation of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, John P; Chen, Yi-Guang; Mathews, Clayton E

    2012-01-01

    Although once widely anticipated to unlock how human type 1 diabetes (T1D) develops, extensive study of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse has failed to yield effective treatments for patients with the disease. This has led many to question the usefulness of this animal model. While criticism about the differences between NOD and human T1D is legitimate, in many cases disease in both species results from perturbations modulated by the same genes or different genes that function within the same biological pathways. Like in humans, unusual polymorphisms within an MHC class II molecule contributes the most T1D risk in NOD mice. This insight supports the validity of this model and suggests the NOD has been improperly utilized to study how to cure or prevent disease in patients. Indeed, clinical trials are far from administering T1D therapeutics to humans at the same concentration ranges and pathological states that inhibit disease in NOD mice. Until these obstacles are overcome it is premature to label the NOD mouse a poor surrogate to test agents that cure or prevent T1D. An additional criticism of the NOD mouse is the past difficulty in identifying genes underlying T1D using conventional mapping studies. However, most of the few diabetogenic alleles identified to date appear relevant to the human disorder. This suggests that rather than abandoning genetic studies in NOD mice, future efforts should focus on improving the efficiency with which diabetes susceptibility genes are detected. The current review highlights why the NOD mouse remains a relevant and valuable tool to understand the genes and their interactions that promote autoimmune diabetes and therapeutics that inhibit this disease. It also describes a new range of technologies that will likely transform how the NOD mouse is used to uncover the genetic causes of T1D for years to come.

  11. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Jane Barkla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples was used to identify 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR. Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na and Cl ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggest large alterations in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  12. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples identified 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR). Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggests large alterations in M. crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  13. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples identified 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR). Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na+ and Cl− ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggests large alterations in M. crystallinum epidermal bladder cells. PMID:26113856

  14. Radionuclide transport in the repository near-field and far-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Smith, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a background report of the TURVA-2012 safety case report 'Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System'. This report gives a comprehensive account of the modelling of radionuclide release from a defective canister and the subsequent migration to the surface groundwater system. The focus of this report is in the radionuclide migration both in the repository near-field and in the repository far-field. Radionuclide releases from the canister and migration through the repository near-field and far-field have also been analysed in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. Those simulations are discussed in a separate report by Cormenzana. Calculation cases are derived from three different types of scenarios: (i) The base scenario that assumes a single initially defective canister located in a cautiously selected canister position, i.e. selecting the failed canister location such that radionuclide release and transport properties are conservative compared to the statistics over all canister locations. Migration processes and parameter values follow the most likely lines of evolution. Repository safety functions are assumed to perform according to the design basis. Calculation cases defined in the Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios report are also supplemented by additional calculation cases that are aimed to study variability between different DFN realisations (additional BS-ALL cases), longitudinal dispersion (BS-RC-ld cases) and alternative realisations of the transport classes along the release paths (BS-RC-tc cases), (ii) Variant scenarios that study declined performance of the repository safety functions. These include enhanced corrosion failure and degradation of the buffer under variant geochemical conditions (iii) Disturbance scenarios that analyse influences of unlikely events on the radionuclide release and migration. Analysis of the variant and disturbance scenarios

  15. A transport logistic and cost model for use in repository design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.S.; Manville, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd (Nirex) is responsible for developing a deep repository for the disposal of the United Kingdom's intermediate level waste and some low level waste. It also needs to be able to predict the total cost of the transport operations, and to compute the costs attributable to different combinations of sites and types of waste packages. This paper draws on work carried out as part of the assessment of Sellafield as a potential repository site, but will also show that many aspects of the transport system are independent of the actual repository location. To analyze the effects of all these possible scenarios and proposed operating practices on the costs and logistics of radioactive waste transport, Nirex commissioned the development of a flexible computer model from a software developer with the appropriate expertise. This paper describes how the LOGCOST model has been used to provide the information required for the repository design specification, and how it can readily be adapted to different potential repository locations and to changing requirements. In conclusion, it can be said that LOGCOST is a very effective transport and logistics model based on the Excel spread-sheet. The examples given have shown how LOGCOST can provide detailed predictions of radioactive waste transport costs, and how LOGCOST can be readily adapted to a new repository site or any other focal point for a transport network. (O.M.)

  16. Shanoir: Applying the Software as a Service Distribution Model to Manage Brain Imaging Research Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Barillot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two of the major concerns of researchers and clinicians performing neuroimaging experiments are managing the huge quantity and diversity of data and the ability to compare their experiments and the programs they develop with those of their peers. In this context, we introduce Shanoir, which uses a type of cloud computing known as software as a service (SaaS to manage neuroimaging data used in the clinical neurosciences. Thanks to a formal model of medical imaging data (an ontology, Shanoir provides an open source neuroinformatics environment designed to structure, manage, archive, visualize and share neuroimaging data with an emphasis on managing multi-institutional, collaborative research projects. This article covers how images are accessed through the Shanoir Data Management System and describes the data repositories that are hosted and managed by the Shanoir environment in different contexts.

  17. Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croughan, W.S.; Behbehani, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2000 ppm (2000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min

  18. Diet of otters (Lutra lutra in various habitat types in the Pannonian biogeographical region compared to other regions of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Lanszki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the effect of habitat type and region on diet and feeding behaviours of a species facilitates a better understanding of factors impacting populations, which contributes to effective conservation management. Using spraint analysis and relative frequency of occurrence data from the literature, we described the dietary patterns of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra in 23 study sites within the Pannonian biogeographical region in Hungary. Our results indicated that diet composition varied by habitat type and is therefore context dependant. The differences among habitat types were however lower than expected. We noticed a decline in the fish consumption with a concomitant increase in trophic niche breadth and amphibian consumption in rivers, ponds (fish farms, backwaters, marshes and small watercourses. The main differences in diet were not attributed to the consumption of primary and secondary food types (fish and amphibians, but rather to differences in other, less important food types (mammals, birds. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, rivers and ponds could clearly be separated from other habitat types. We found the main fish diet of otters in most of these areas consisted of small (<100 g, eurytopic, littoral and non-native, mostly invasive species. Dietary studies from 91 sites in six European biogeographical regions showed that fish are consumed most frequently in the Atlantic and Boreal, less in the Continental and Pannonian, and least in the Alpine and Mediterranean regions. Comparative analysis indicated that the Mediterranean region (with frequent crayfish consumption and Alpine region (frequent amphibian consumption cluster separate from the other regions.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals altered distribution of hepatic fat in children with type 1 diabetes compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnell, Simon E; Peterson, Pernilla; Trinh, Lena; Broberg, Per; Leander, Peter; Lernmark, Åke; Månsson, Sven; Elding Larsson, Helena

    2015-08-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes have been identified as a risk group for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim was to compare total hepatic fat fraction and fat distribution across Couinaud segments in children with type 1 diabetes and controls and the relation of hepatic fat to plasma and anthropometric parameters. Hepatic fat fraction and fat distribution across Couinaud segments were measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 22 children with type 1 diabetes and 32 controls. Blood tests and anthropometric data were collected. No children had NAFLD. Children with type 1 diabetes had a slightly lower hepatic fat fraction (median 1.3%) than controls (median 1.8%), and their fat had a different segmental distribution. The fat fraction of segment V was the most representative of the liver as a whole. An incidental finding was that diabetes patients treated with multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI) had a fat distribution more similar to controls than patients with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). In children with type 1 diabetes, NAFLD may be less common than recent studies have suggested. Children with type 1 diabetes may have a lower fat fraction and a different fat distribution in the liver than controls. Diabetes treatment with MDI or CSII may affect liver fat, but this needs to be confirmed in a larger sample of patients. The heterogeneity of hepatic fat infiltration may affect results when liver biopsy is used for diagnosing fatty liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Amino Acid Decomposition Analysis of Potent Type I P38α Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ebadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study:p38α is a member of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK considered as a prominent target in development of anti-inflammatory agents. Any abnormality in the phosphorylation process leads to the different human diseases such as cancer, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. Several small molecule p38α inhibitors have been developed up to now. In this regard, structural elucidation of p38 inhibitors needs to be done enabling us in rational lead development strategies.Methods:Various interactions of three potent inhibitors with p38α active site have been evaluated in terms of binding energies and bond lengths via density function theory and MD simulations.Results:Our comparative study showed that both ab initio and MD simulation led to the relatively similar results in pharmacophore discrimination of p38α inhibitors.Conclusion:The results of the present study may find their usefulness in pharmacophore based modification of p38α inhibitors.

  1. Competitiveness of peat briquets compared with other types of solid communal household fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dem' yanov, Ye S; Dayen, Ye I

    1979-01-01

    Approximately 20% solid, boiler furnace fuel, the greater part of which is coal, is presently used in communal-househould sector of the national economy of the country. However, the limited quantity of high grade coal, which leads to deliveries of coal with an increased fines content to the communal and domestic sector, as well as a significant sulfur content in it (3-6%) justified an examination of the conditions in which the portion of the demand for communal and domestic needs can be increased, primarily in the European part of the USSR, in the peat briquets. Both the low content of sulfur in them (approximately 0.3%), as well as the high useful utilization factor of the briquets with burning (approximately 81.7%) speak in favor of an expansion in the use of peat briquets. An important feature in increasing the competitiveness of the peat briquets is a reduction in the cost of their production. So that the peat briquets could compare in realization conditions with, for instance, Donetsk coal, the coast of 1 t of briquets at peat briquet factories must not exceed 11 ruble, 32 kopeks. The Moscow branch of VNIITP is developing an economic and mathematical model of the distribution of solid fuel to communal domestic needs in a region of the country. The model is designed for computer calculation of the optimal variants of providing the population with fuel which makes it possible to reduce expenditures on transport, to reduce the costs of domestic organizations and to increase profits, depending on the optimization criterion used.

  2. Comparing sugar type supplementation for cryopreservation of boar semen in egg yolk based extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Gonzalez, N; Cano, R; de Blas, I; Espinosa, E

    2010-08-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to lower fertility when compared to fresh semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of different sugars (lactose, trehalose and glucose) on boar spermatozoa cryopreserved in an egg yolk based extender. Ejaculates were collected from a boar previously selected and semen samples were processed using the straw freezing procedure. In experiment 1, subsamples of semen were frozen in three different extenders: recommended lactose egg yolk extender (LEY); trehalose egg yolk extender (TEY) and glucose egg yolk extender (GEY). Sperm quality was assessed for motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic swelling test response upon collection, after freezing and thawing and then every hour for 3h. Results showed that total motility at 1 and 3h, progressive motility at 3h, positive hypoosmotic response at 2 and 3h and acrosome integrity at all times were significantly improved when trehalose was added to the extender. In experiment 2, sugar influence was also demonstrated in vitro fertilization. A total of 1691 oocytes were in vitro matured and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm at 2000:1 sperm:oocyte ratio and coincubated for 6h. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in NCSU-23 medium to assess fertilization parameters and embryo development. Both penetration and monospermy rates were significantly higher for trehalose frozen semen. A significant increase was observed in efficiency and blastocyst formation rates from TEY to the other groups. Our results demonstrated that trehalose extender enhances spermatozoa viability and its in vitro fertilization parameters in boar ejaculates with good sperm freezability. Further studies are necessary to assess the impact of sugars on the entire population. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical model for screening potential CO2 repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwen, R.T.; Stewart, M.T.; Cunningham, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing potential repositories for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide using numerical models can be complicated, costly, and time-consuming, especially when faced with the challenge of selecting a repository from a multitude of potential repositories. This paper presents a set of simple analytical equations (model), based on the work of previous researchers, that could be used to evaluate the suitability of candidate repositories for subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide. We considered the injection of carbon dioxide at a constant rate into a confined saline aquifer via a fully perforated vertical injection well. The validity of the analytical model was assessed via comparison with the TOUGH2 numerical model. The metrics used in comparing the two models include (1) spatial variations in formation pressure and (2) vertically integrated brine saturation profile. The analytical model and TOUGH2 show excellent agreement in their results when similar input conditions and assumptions are applied in both. The analytical model neglects capillary pressure and the pressure dependence of fluid properties. However, simulations in TOUGH2 indicate that little error is introduced by these simplifications. Sensitivity studies indicate that the agreement between the analytical model and TOUGH2 depends strongly on (1) the residual brine saturation, (2) the difference in density between carbon dioxide and resident brine (buoyancy), and (3) the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation. The results achieved suggest that the analytical model is valid when the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation is linear or quasi-linear and when the irreducible saturation of brine is zero or very small. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on laboratory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs and calcium channel blockers (CCBs are widely used antihypertensive drugs. Many clinical studies have demonstrated and compared the organ-protection effects and adverse events of these drugs. However, few large-scale studies have focused on the effect of these drugs as monotherapy on laboratory parameters. We evaluated and compared the effects of ARB and CCB monotherapy on clinical laboratory parameters in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011, to identify cohorts of new ARB users (n = 601 and propensity-score matched new CCB users (n = 601, with concomitant mild to moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used a multivariate-adjusted regression model to adjust for differences between ARB and CCB users, and compared laboratory parameters including serum levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, non-fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, sodium, potassium, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC and platelet (PLT counts up to 12 months after the start of ARB or CCB monotherapy. Results We found a significant reduction of serum TC, HbA1c, hemoglobin and hematocrit and RBC count and a significant increase of serum potassium in ARB users, and a reduction of serum TC and hemoglobin in CCB users, from the baseline period to the exposure period. The reductions of RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in ARB users were significantly greater than those in CCB users. The increase of serum potassium in ARB users was significantly greater than that in CCB users. Conclusions Our study suggested that hematological adverse effects and

  5. Household water treatment in developing countries: comparing different intervention types using meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul R

    2009-12-01

    Household water treatment (HWT) is being widely promoted as an appropriate intervention for reducing the burden of waterborne disease in poor communities in developing countries. A recent study has raised concerns about the effectiveness of HWT, in part because of concerns over the lack of blinding and in part because of considerable heterogeneity in the reported effectiveness of randomized controlled trials. This study set out to attempt to investigate the causes of this heterogeneity and so identify factors associated with good health gains. Studies identified in an earlier systematic review and meta-analysis were supplemented with more recently published randomized controlled trials. A total of 28 separate studies of randomized controlled trials of HWT with 39 intervention arms were included in the analysis. Heterogeneity was studied using the "metareg" command in Stata. Initial analyses with single candidate predictors were undertaken and all variables significant at the P Risk and the parameter estimates from the final regression model. The overall effect size of all unblinded studies was relative risk = 0.56 (95% confidence intervals 0.51-0.63), but after adjusting for bias due to lack of blinding the effect size was much lower (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.97). Four main variables were significant predictors of effectiveness of intervention in a multipredictor meta regression model: Log duration of study follow-up (regression coefficient of log effect size = 0.186, standard error (SE) = 0.072), whether or not the study was blinded (coefficient 0.251, SE 0.066) and being conducted in an emergency setting (coefficient -0.351, SE 0.076) were all significant predictors of effect size in the final model. Compared to the ceramic filter all other interventions were much less effective (Biosand 0.247, 0.073; chlorine and safe waste storage 0.295, 0.061; combined coagulant-chlorine 0.2349, 0.067; SODIS 0.302, 0.068). A Monte Carlo model predicted that over 12 months

  6. Metoprolol compared to carvedilol deteriorates insulin-stimulated endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes - a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Britt; Hermann, Thomas S; Major-Pedersen, Atheline

    2010-01-01

    -stimulated endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHOD: 24 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either 200 mg metoprolol succinate or 50 mg carvedilol daily. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by using venous occlusion plethysmography with increasing doses of intra......AIM: Studies of beta blockade in patients with type 2 diabetes have shown inferiority of metoprolol treatment compared to carvedilol on indices of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of metoprolol versus carvedilol on endothelial function and insulin...... with metoprolol, the percentage change in forearm blood-flow was 60.19% +/- 17.89 (at the highest serotonin dosages) before treatment and -33.80% +/- 23.38 after treatment (p = 0.007). Treatment with carvedilol did not change insulin-stimulated endothelial function. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation without...

  7. Performance assessment for Nuclear Power Plant Krsko intermediate and low-level rad-waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelavic, V.; Skanata, D.; Plecjas, I.

    1990-01-01

    Performance safety Assessment for NPP Krsko radwaste repository was performed (LLW/ILW). Shallow land and tunnel type concept were analyzed. Because it was based on two unknown referent sites, one for the shallow land concept and the other for the tunnel type, analysis was generic in nature. Scenario selecting process and consequence analysis were performed by using deterministic approach. Results for both concepts of disposal suggests that proposed NPP Krsko radwaste repository reference site and disposal technology will fully meet radiation limits imposed by the Yugoslav regulations and ICRP guidelines. (author)

  8. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  9. Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease Events in Men Compared to Women by Menopause Type and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Cushman, Mary; Khodneva, Yulia; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Judd, Suzanne; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Howard, Virginia J; Safford, Monika M

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether type of menopause affects sex differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) events and whether the impact is similar in blacks and whites. Methods and Results Participants were enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort between 2003 and 2007 without CHD at baseline (n=23 086). Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard of incident nonfatal CHD (definite or probable myocardial infarction) and acute CHD death, adjusting for age, age at last menstrual period menopause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31, 0.66) and surgical menopause (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.99) had a reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to white men. Black women in natural menopause (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47, 1.03), but not surgical menopause (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.51, 1.29), had a marginally reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to black men. Women had lower risk of acute CHD death than men regardless of their menopause type and race. Conclusions Sex differences in the risk of incident CHD events were larger among whites than blacks and varied by type of menopause. Women consistently had a lower risk of incident CHD death than men, but the magnitude of sex differences was greater in whites than blacks for nonfatal events, regardless of menopause type. PMID:26133958

  10. VerSi. A method for the quantitative comparison of repository systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempfer, T.U.; Ruebel, A.; Resele, G. [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Moenig, J. [GRS Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Decision making and design processes for radioactive waste repositories are guided by safety goals that need to be achieved. In this context, the comparison of different disposal concepts can provide relevant support to better understand the performance of the repository systems. Such a task requires a method for a traceable comparison that is as objective as possible. We present a versatile method that allows for the comparison of different disposal concepts in potentially different host rocks. The condition for the method to work is that the repository systems are defined to a comparable level including designed repository structures, disposal concepts, and engineered and geological barriers which are all based on site-specific safety requirements. The method is primarily based on quantitative analyses and probabilistic model calculations regarding the long-term safety of the repository systems under consideration. The crucial evaluation criteria for the comparison are statistical key figures of indicators that characterize the radiotoxicity flux out of the so called containment-providing rock zone (einschlusswirksamer Gebirgsbereich). The key figures account for existing uncertainties with respect to the actual site properties, the safety relevant processes, and the potential future impact of external processes on the repository system, i.e., they include scenario-, process-, and parameter-uncertainties. The method (1) leads to an evaluation of the retention and containment capacity of the repository systems and its robustness with respect to existing uncertainties as well as to potential external influences; (2) specifies the procedures for the system analyses and the calculation of the statistical key figures as well as for the comparative interpretation of the key figures; and (3) also gives recommendations and sets benchmarks for the comparative assessment of the repository systems under consideration based on the key figures and additional qualitative

  11. Etude comparative de la rentabilité de deux types d'apiculture au nord ouest du Cameroun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsafack Matsop, A.S.; Muluh Achu, G.; Kamajou, F.; Ingram, V.; Vabi Boboh, M.

    2011-01-01

    La présente étude examine la rentabilité financière de l’apiculture au Cameroun. Son objectif global est de comparer la rentabilité des deux types d’apiculture pratiqués au Nord Ouest Cameroun. L’hypothèse globale est qu’il existerait une différence significative en rendement de miel et en bénéfice

  12. Comparability of Results between Point-of-Care and Automated Instruments to Measure B-type Natriuretic Peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kevin; Terracciano, Garrett J.; Jiang, Kevin; Maisel, Alan S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in the U.S. The incorporation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements when triaging patients presenting with shortness of breath has improved the diagnostic and prognostic ability of physicians. Currently, there are no point-of-care systems for quantifying BNP that can be used without sacrificing accuracy. We compared the analytical performance of the Abbott i-STAT analyzer, a handheld point-of-care system for measuring ...

  13. Fons antic i repositoris universitaris a Espanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Morillas, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Es mostra la presència de col·leccions de fons antic en els repositoris de les biblioteques universitàries espanyoles després d'analitzar tots els repositoris. Per a aquesta anàlisi, com a part de la metodologia emprada, s'ha elaborat un model o llista que consta d'onze elements. Del conjunt de les universitats espanyoles, seixanta tenen repositoris, vint-i-vuit dels quals (16,8 % disposen de col·leccions de fons antic. Com que del concepte de repositori institucional no sembla desprendre's que tingui com a finalitat incloure aquest tipus de col·leccions, es reflexiona sobre la peculiaritat que una part dels repositoris universitaris espanyols inclogui col·leccions d'aquestes característiques.Se muestra la presencia de colecciones de fondo antiguo en los repositorios de las bibliotecas universitarias españolas después de analizar todos los repositorios. Para este análisis, como parte de la metodología empleada, se ha elaborado un modelo o lista que consta de once elementos. Del conjunto de las universidades españolas, sesenta cuentan con repositorios y, de estos, veintiocho (16,8 % disponen de colecciones de fondo antiguo. Debido a que del concepto de repositorio institucional no parece desprenderse que tenga como finalidad albergar este tipo de colecciones, se hace una reflexión sobre la peculiaridad de que parte de los repositorios universitarios españoles incluya colecciones de estas características.This paper uses an analysis of the repositories of Spanish universities to identify which institutions contain rare book and manuscript collections. The method used in this analysis involved examining each university on the basis of a list comprising eleven elements. A total of 60 universities were found to have repositories but only 28 (16.8 % of these contained rare book and manuscript collections. In the light of these figures, which suggest that Spanish university repositories do not generally consider the preservation of rare

  14. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  15. Material control and accountability procedures for a waste isolation repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.D.; Allen, E.J.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1978-05-01

    The material control and accountability needs of a waste isolation repository are examined. Three levels of control are discussed: (1) item identification and control, (2) tamper indication, and (3) quantitative material assay. A summary of waste characteristics is presented and, based on these, plus a consideration of the accessibility of the various types of waste, material control by item identification and accountability (where the individual waste container is the basic unit) is recommended. Tamper indicating procedures are also recommended for the intermediate and low level waste categories

  16. Implementing and Sustaining Data Lifecycle best Practices: a Framework for Researchers and Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, S.

    2016-02-01

    Emerging data management mandates in conjunction with cross-domain international interoperability are posing new challenges for researchers and repositories. Domain repositories are serving in this critical, growing role monitoring and leading data management standards and capability within their own repository and working on mappings between repositories internationally. Leading research institutions and companies will also be important as they develop and expand data curation efforts. This landscape poses a number of challenges for developing and ensuring the use of best practices in curating research data, enabling discovery, elevating quality across diverse repositories, and helping researchers collect and organize it through the full data life cycle. This multidimensional challenge will continue to grow in complexity. The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is developing two programs to help researchers and data repositories develop and elevate best practices and address these challenges. The goal is to provide tools for the researchers and repositories, whether domain, institutional, or other, that improve performance throughout the data lifecycle across the Earth and space science community. For scientists and researchers, AGU is developing courses around handling data that can lead toward a certification in geoscience data management. Course materials will cover metadata management and collection, data analysis, integration of data, and data presentation. The course topics are being finalized by the advisory board with the first one planned to be available later this year. AGU is also developing a program aimed at helping data repositories, large and small, domain-specific to general, assess and improve data management practices. AGU has partnered with the CMMI® Institute to adapt their Data Management Maturity (DMM)SM framework within the Earth and space sciences. A data management assessment using the DMMSM involves identifying accomplishments and

  17. Repository Safety Strategy: Strategy for Protecting Public Health and Safety after Closure of a Yucca Mountain Repository, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    1998-01-01

    The updated Strategy to Protect Public Health and Safety explains the roles that the natural and engineered systems are expected to play in achieving the objectives of a potential repository system at Yucca Mountain. These objectives are to contain the radionuclides within the waste packages for thousands of years, and to ensure that annual doses to a person living near the site will be acceptably low. This strategy maintains the key assumption of the Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) strategy that the potential repository level (horizon) will remain unsaturated. Thus, the strategy continues to rely on the natural attributes of the unsaturated zone for primary protection by providing a setting where waste packages assisted by other engineered barriers are expected to contain wastes for thousands of years. As in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) strategy, the natural system from the walls of the underground openings (drifts) to the human environment is expected to provide additional defense by reducing the concentrations of any radionuclides released from the waste packages. The updated Strategy to Protect Public Health and Safety is the framework for the integration of site information, repository design and assessment of postclosure performance to develop a safety case for the viability assessment and a subsequent license application. Current site information and a reference design are used to develop a quantitative assessment of performance to be compared with a performance measure. Four key attributes of an unsaturated repository system that are critical to meeting the objectives: (1) Limited water contacting the waste packages; (2) Long waste package lifetime; (3) Slow rate of release of radionuclides from the waste form; and (4) Concentration reduction during transport through engineered and natural barriers.

  18. A GoldSim Based Biosphere Assessment Model for a HLW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo; Kang, Chul-Hyung

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of a repository, the dose exposure to a human being due to nuclide releases from a repository should be evaluated and the results compared to the dose limit presented by the regulatory bodies. To evaluate a dose rate to an individual due to a long-term release of nuclides from a HLW repository, biosphere assessment models and their implemented codes such as ACBIO1 and ACBIO2 have been developed with the aid of AMBER during the last few years. BIOMASS methodology has been adopted for a HLW repository currently being considered in Korea, which has a similar concept to the Swedish KBS-3 HLW repository. Recently, not just only for verifying the purpose for biosphere assessment models but also for varying the possible alternatives to assess the consequences in a biosphere due to a HLW repository, another version of the assessment modesl has been newly developed in the frame of development programs for a total system performance assessment modeling tool by utilizing GoldSim. Through a current study, GoldSim approach for a biosphere modeling is introduced. Unlike AMBER by which a compartment scheme can be rather simply constructed with an appropriate transition rate between compartments, GoldSim was designed to facilitate the object-oriented modules by which specific models can be addressed in an additional manner, like solving jig saw puzzles

  19. Comparative analysis of the mating-type loci from Neurospora crassa and Sordaria macrospora: identification of novel transcribed ORFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöggeler, S; Kück, U

    2000-03-01

    The mating-type locus controls mating and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes. In the heterothallic ascomycete Neurospora crassa, the genes that confer mating behavior comprise dissimilar DNA sequences (idiomorphs) in the mat a and mat A mating partners. In the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora, sequences corresponding to both idiomorphs are located contiguously in the mating-type locus, which contains one chimeric gene, Smt A-3, that includes sequences which are similar to sequences found at the mat A and mat a mating-type idiomorphs in N. crassa. In this study, we describe the comparative transcriptional analysis of the chimeric mating-type region of S. macrospora and the corresponding region of the N. crassa mat a idiomorph. By means of RT-PCR experiments, we identified novel intervening sequences in the mating-type loci of both ascomycetes and, hence, concluded that an additional ORF, encoding a putative polypeptide of 79 amino acids, is present in the N. crassa mat a idiomorph. Furthermore, our analysis revealed co-transcription of the novel gene with the mat a-1 gene in N. crassa. The same mode of transcription was found in the corresponding mating-type region of S. macrospora, where the chimeric Smt A-3 gene is co-transcribed with the mat a-specific Smt a-1 gene. Analysis of a Smt A-3 cDNA revealed optional splicing of two introns. We believe that this is the first report of co-transcription of protein-encoding nuclear genes in filamentous fungi. Possible functions of the novel ORFs in regulating mating-type gene expression are discussed.

  20. Metabolic Effects of Glucose-Fructose Co-Ingestion Compared to Glucose Alone during Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bally

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU with glucose alone (GLU in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol underwent a 90 min iso-energetic continuous cycling session at 50% VO2max while ingesti